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Sample records for nocturnal leg cramps

  1. Night Leg Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet or thighs might cramp as well. Forcefully stretching the contracted muscle relieves the pain. Most of ... include Drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Stretching your leg muscles or riding a stationary bicycle ...

  2. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    PubMed

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  3. How Can I Relieve My Pregnancy Leg Cramps?

    MedlinePlus

    ... trimesters. Experts aren't sure what causes "charley horses" (the nonclinical name for painful cramps in your ... muscles). Although they can be extremely painful, charley horses are — luckily! — usually brief. What might help: Do ...

  4. [Paraesthesia in the legs].

    PubMed

    Eisensehr, Ilonka

    2007-10-18

    Paraesthesia in the legs can have numerous causes. In addition to the restless legs syndrome, other primary causes include venous insufficiency in the leg, propriospinal myoclonus, nocturnal leg cramps, peripheral polyneuropathy that affects mostly the legs or neuroleptic drug-induced akathisia. Through detailed questioning of the patient, restless legs syndrome can be specifically distinguished from the other named differential diagnoses.

  5. The effect of Vitamin D and calcium plus Vitamin D on leg cramps in pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Ameneh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad Alizadeh; Najafi, Moslem

    2017-01-01

    This study intended to determine the effects of Vitamin D and calcium-Vitamin D in treating leg cramps in pregnant women. This study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial on 126 participants, 18-35-year-old pregnant women with a minimum of two leg cramps per week who were referred to health-care centers in Tabriz-Iran in 2013. The participants were allocated to three 42 member groups using a randomized block design. For 42 days, the intervention groups took a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill or 300 mg calcium carbonate plus a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill, and the control group received a placebo pill every day. The participants were evaluated with regard to the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the week before and during the 3 rd and 6 th week of the intervention. The ANCOVA and repeated measurement test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that controlling for the effects before the intervention, calcium-Vitamin D, and Vitamin D supplements had no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps. The results of this study showed that the calcium-Vitamin D and the Vitamin D supplements have no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the 6 weeks of the study.

  6. Healthcare utilisation of pregnant women who experience sciatica, leg cramps and/or varicose veins: A cross-sectional survey of 1835 pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hall, Helen; Lauche, Romy; Adams, Jon; Steel, Amie; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David

    2016-02-01

    Common discomforts of pregnancy experienced in the lower extremity include sciatica, leg cramps and varicose veins. Whilst research attention has focused on aetiology and outcomes, the health service utilisation of pregnant women suffering from these complaints has been largely overlooked. To examine the health status and health service utilisation profile of pregnant women experiencing sciatica, leg cramps or varicose veins. Linear and logistic regression was applied to a cross-sectional survey of a pregnant women drawn from the 1973 to 1978 cohort (aged 31-36 years in 2009), of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n=1835). Participant's demographics, health status and health service utilisation were compared for all three complaints based upon three subgroups (yes, sought help; yes, did not seek help; no). A number of women experienced sciatica (22.1%), leg cramps (18.2%) or varicose veins (9.4%). Of these, a greater proportion of women with sciatica (79.3%) or varicose veins (71.5%) sought help for their condition compared with women with leg cramps (46.7%). Comparisons between women with the conditions of interest who did seek help and those who did not only found that women with a university degree were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.85) times less likely to seek help for their condition compared to women with a school only education. Further research examining all health seeking behaviour and treatment use of pregnant women who experience lower extremity problems is required in order to facilitate safe, effective and coordinated maternity care to further support these women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe Happen frequently Don't get better with stretching and drinking enough fluids Last a long time ... able to find some relief from cramps by Stretching or gently massaging the muscle Applying heat when ...

  8. Is nocturnal eating in restless legs syndrome linked to a specific psychopathological profile? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Sara; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Rizzo, Giovanni; Antelmi, Elena; Innamorati, Marco; Pompili, Maurizio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Amore, Mario; Provini, Federica

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate psychological comorbidity in drug-naive or drug-free primary restless legs syndrome (p-RLS) patients with nocturnal eating disorder (NED), and to analyze the association of comorbid p-RLS and NED with obsessive-compulsive, mood and anxiety symptoms, and personality. Participants comprised 20 consecutive female outpatients with p-RLS, 10 without NED and 10 with NED, and 10 female controls matched for age. Both patients and controls were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression and the Anxiety Rating Scales, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and the temperament and character inventory-revised. Compared to controls, p-RLS patients without and with NED had higher trait anxiety and current anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. p-RLS patients with NED also had significantly higher doubting compared to p-RLS patients without NED. Furthermore, groups differed for harm avoidance (HA), with p-RLS patients with and without NED having higher scores than controls. Untreated p-RLS patients, particularly those with nocturnal eating, report anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, perceive stressful situations as dangerous and threatening and tend to respond with anxiety to such situations. They have higher tendency to respond intensely to aversive stimuli, inhibiting behavior to avoid punishment, novelty, and frustrative omission of expected rewards. We hypothesize that higher levels of HA, a biologically determined personality trait, might constitute a diathesis predisposing individuals to display obsessive-compulsive symptoms, namely increasingly severe compulsive nocturnal eating.

  9. Writer's Cramp

    MedlinePlus

    ... cramp is a focal dystonia of the fingers, hand, and/or forearm. Symptoms usually appear when a person is trying to do a task that requires fine motor movements such as writing or playing a musical instrument. The symptoms may ...

  10. A Catastrophic Consequence of Cramp.

    PubMed

    Htet, Zay Myo; Karim, Mahzuz

    2018-01-01

    Quinine has long been used for the treatment of conditions such as malaria and leg cramps, and is also present at low levels in some beverages; however, it can cause serious side effects. We describe a patient who developed severe haemolysis, thrombocytopaenia, and acute kidney injury following the ingestion of a single dose of quinine. This case demonstrates the importance of awareness of such potentially life-threatening consequences of exposure to this agent.

  11. Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea)

    MedlinePlus

    ... during periods (menorrhagia) You have irregular menstrual bleeding (metrorrhagia) You have a family history of menstrual cramps ( ... trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  12. Muscle cramps: A comparison of the two-leading hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Giuriato, Gaia; Pedrinolla, Anna; Federico, Schena; Venturelli, Massimo

    2018-05-26

    Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps (EAMC) are a common painful condition of muscle spasms. Despite scientists tried to understand the physiological mechanism that underlies these common phenomena, the etiology is still unclear. From 1900 to nowadays, the scientific world retracted several times the original hypothesis of heat cramps. However, recent literature seems to focus on two potential mechanisms: the dehydration or electrolyte depletion mechanism, and the neuromuscular mechanism. The aim of this review is to examine the recent literature, in terms of physiological mechanisms of EAMC. A comprehensive search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar. The following terminology was applied: muscle cramps, neuromuscular hypothesis (or thesis), dehydration hypothesis, Exercise-Associated muscle cramps, nocturnal cramps, muscle spasm, muscle fatigue. From the initial literature of 424 manuscripts, sixty-nine manuscripts were included, analyzed, compared and summarized. Literature analysis indicates that neuromuscular hypothesis may prevails over the initial hypothesis of the dehydration as the trigger event of muscle cramps. New evidence suggests that the action potentials during a muscle cramp are generated in the motoneuron soma, likely accompanied by an imbalance between the rising excitatory drive from the muscle spindles (Ia) and the decreasing inhibitory drive from the Golgi tendon organs. In conclusion, from the latest investigations there seem to be a spinal involvement rather than a peripheral excitation of the motoneurons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quinine for cramps.

    PubMed

    Pinn, G

    1998-10-01

    The bark of the cinchona tree was used by the Incas of South America to treat tropical fevers. It was brought back to Europe by the Jesuit priests and used in error to treat all types of fever. Because of its cost and lack of availability, apothecaries found an alternative antipyretic in willow bark. Subsequently salicylates were isolated from willow and quinine from cinchona bark. Quinine is used worldwide for the treatment of fever due to malaria, but in the Western environment has long been used for muscle cramps because of its neuro muscular junction blocking action. Quinine is a widely used medication which has been reported to cause thrombocytopenia on occasion. This potentially life threatening complication should be borne in mind when it is prescribed for minor symptoms such as muscle cramps.

  14. Restless legs syndrome: a rarity in the Nigerian pregnant population?

    PubMed

    Fawale, Michael B; Ismaila, Isiaka A; Kullima, Abubakar A; Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Ijarotimi, Omotade A; Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Oluyombo, Rotimi; Adedeji, Tewogbade Adeoye

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of RLS in pregnancy is higher when compared with the general population however it remains unknown among indigenous black Africans. Available data indicate that RLS is uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. We embarked on this study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of RLS in an antenatal clinic sample of Nigerian pregnant women compared with a primary care sample of non-pregnant women. A total of 310 pregnant women and non-pregnant women filled out a questionnaire which incorporated the 2014 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Demographic and clinical data, including sleep duration and samples for blood hemoglobin concentration and urinalysis were obtained. The mean ages of the pregnant and non-pregnant women were 24.9 ± 5.6 years and 23.6 + 5.4 years, respectively (p = 0.003). There was no case of RLS found among pregnant women while five (1.6%) of the non-pregnant women fulfilled the criteria for RLS. Overall, the prevalence report of RLS symptoms was associated with lower mean habitual nocturnal sleep duration (p < 0.05) coffee (p = 0.013) and kola nut (0.023) consumption, report of leg cramps (p < 0.001) and proteinuria (p = 0.047), Report of leg cramps and proteinuria were independently associated with RLS. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome is low among women of child-bearing age in the Nigerian population and may be lower in pregnancy. Report of leg cramps and proteinuria are independently associated with RLS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurosurgical treatment for writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Taira, T; Harashima, S; Hori, T

    2003-01-01

    Writer's cramp is a type of focal dystonia due to dysfunction of the pallido-thalamo-cortical circuit. The symptom is refractory to most conservative treatment, though botulinum toxin injection is generally used for symptomatic relief. As a surgical treatment of dystonia we performed stereotactic nucleus ventrooralis (Vo) thalamotomy for dystonic cramp of the hand. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age 26-40 yrs, mean 32.1 yrs) with medically intractable task-specific focal dystonia of the hand underwent Vo thalamotomy. Stereotactic target was chosen at the junction of the anterior and posterior Vo nuclei. The mean duration of the symptom ranged from 3 to 6 years (mean, 4.0 yrs). All patients had complained of difficulty in writing. Six patients were professional workers, such as comic artist, guitarist, and barber, and, because of the dystonic symptoms at their professional work, they had stopped pursuing their profession. All patients showed immediate postoperative disappearance of dystonic symptoms, and the effect was sustained during the follow up period (3-29 months, mean 13.1 mo) except in one case. One patient showed partial recurrence of the symptom and underwent second thalamotomy 5 months after the initial surgery with satisfactory results. The score of the writer's cramp rating scale significantly (p < 0.001) decreased after Vo thalamotomy. There was no permanent operative complication. There was no mortality or permanent morbidity. Although a longer follow-up is needed, stereotactic Vo thalamotomy is a useful and safe therapeutic option for writer's cramp.

  16. Reciprocal inhibition in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Chen, R S; Tsai, C H; Lu, C S

    1995-09-01

    We studied the inhibition of median H-reflexes by conditioning stimuli on the radial nerve in 13 patients with writer's cramp, eight of the simple type and five of the dystonic type, and in 14 normal volunteers. The patients and controls were right-handed, and their right arms were studied. Asymptomatic left arms were also studied in nine of 13 patients. In the control group we identified three periods of inhibition, with maximum peaks at conditioning-test intervals of 0 ms (41 +/- 17%), 20 ms (40 +/- 13%), and 100 ms (36 +/- 20%). In the patient group, the amplitudes of inhibition of these three periods in both arms were significantly less than those in the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the amplitudes of inhibition of these three periods between symptomatic and asymptomatic arms. There were also no significant differences between simple and dystonic writer's cramps. Our results indicate that the attenuation of reciprocal inhibition was present not only in symptomatic arms but also in asymptomatic arms of patients with writer's cramp. The defect of reciprocal inhibition in the asymptomatic hand has never been documented. We suggest that the preexistent electrophysiological abnormality may provide an explanation for the development of hand cramp after shifted writing.

  17. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  18. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, M.; Moser, M.; Montag, J.; McCourt, M.; Tenner, D.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. Methods: 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). Results: After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). Conclusion: The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus. PMID:26032216

  19. Nocturnal Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by an upper airway obstruction Treatment and Management Treatment of any underlying causes of nocturnal asthma ... trials . Asthma Types Allergic Asthma Nocturnal Asthma Patients & Visitors Giving For Professionals About Us Treatment & Programs Health ...

  20. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  1. Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Writer's Cramp.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul Bum; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Rha, Hyoung Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Writer's cramp is a type of idiopathic focal hand dystonia characterized by muscle cramps that accompany execution of the writing task specifically. There has been renewed interest in neurosurgical procedures for the treatment of dystonia over the past several years. In particular, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has received increasing attention as a therapeutic option for patients with dystonia. However, to date, limited reporters made investigations into DBS in relation to the Writer's cramp. In this case, unilateral Ventro-oralis complex (Vo) DBS resulted in a major improvement in patient's focal dystonic movement disorders. Her post-operative Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating (BFMDR) scale demonstrated 1 compared with pre-operative BFMDR scale 4. We conclude that thalamic Vo complex DBS may be an important neurosurgical therapeutic option for Writer's cramp.

  2. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Chikashi; Katayama, Yoichi; Kano, Toshikazu; Nagaoka, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Kazutaka; Oshima, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    2007-11-01

    Writer's cramp is a type of idiopathic focal hand dystonia characterized by muscle cramps that accompany execution of the writing task specifically. In this report, the authors describe the clinical outcome after thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy in patients with writer's cramp and present an illustrative case with which they compare the effects of pallidal and thalamic stimulation. In addition to these results for the clinical effectiveness, they also examine the best point and pattern for therapeutic stimulation of the motor thalamus, including the nucleus ventrooralis (VO) and the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM), for writer's cramp. The authors applied thalamic DBS in five patients with writer's cramp. The inclusion criteria for the DBS trial in this disorder were a diagnosis of idiopathic writer's cramp and the absence of a positive response to medication. The exclusion criteria included significant cognitive dysfunction, active psychiatric symptoms, and evidence of other central nervous system diseases or other medical disorders. In one of the cases, DBS leads were implanted into both the globus pallidus internus and the VO/VIM, and test stimulation was performed for 1 week. The authors thus had an opportunity to compare the effects of pallidal and thalamic stimulation in this patient. Immediately after the initiation of thalamic stimulation, the neurological deficits associated with writer's cramp were improved in all five cases. Postoperatively all preoperative scale scores indicating the seriousness of the writer's cramp were significantly lower (p < 0.001). In the patient in whom two DBS leads were implanted, the clinical effect of thalamic stimulation was better than that of pallidal stimulation. During the thalamic stimulation, the maximum effect was obtained when stimulation was applied to both the VO and the VIM widely, compared with being applied only within the VO. The authors successfully treated patients with writer's cramp by

  3. [Writer's cramp treated with botulinum injections].

    PubMed

    Koelman, J H; Struys, M A; Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Speelman, J D

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the first clinical experience with local botulinum toxin A (BTA) injections in patients with writer's cramp. Descriptive. Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In May 1993-January 1996 ten patients with writer's cramp were treated with BTA (Dysport). Age of the patients varied from 28 to 68 years, the duration of complaints from 1 to 29 years. Muscles for injections were selected by observation, sometimes combined with electromyography. BTA was administered under electromyographic guidance. The amount of BTA administered per treatment session ranged from 15 to 400 IU. In three patients the BTA-induced weakness necessary to reach a beneficial effect on writing was unacceptable. In seven patients the response was satisfactory or good and lasted 2 to 15 months (mean: 3.5 months). The results confirm the efficacy of BTA in writer's cramp.

  4. Case-Control Study of Writer's Cramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roze, E.; Soumare, A.; Pironneau, I.; Sangla, S.; de Cock, V. Cochen; Teixeira, A.; Astorquiza, A.; Bonnet, C.; Bleton, J. P.; Vidailhet, M.; Elbaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonias are thought to be due to a combination of individual vulnerability and environmental factors. There are no case-control studies of risk factors for writer's cramp. We undertook a case-control study of 104 consecutive patients and matched controls to identify risk factors for the condition. We collected detailed data…

  5. Prophylactic stretching does not reduce cramp susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C; Harsen, James D; Long, Blaine C

    2018-03-01

    Some clinicians advocate stretching to prevent muscle cramps. It is unknown whether static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching increases cramp threshold frequency (TF c ), a quantitative measure of cramp susceptibility. Fifteen individuals completed this randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study. We measured passive hallux range of motion (ROM) and then performed 3 minutes of either static stretching, PNF stretching (hold-relax-with agonist contraction), or no stretching. ROM was reassessed and TF c was measured. PNF stretching increased hallux extension (pre-PNF 81 ± 11°, post-PNF 90 ± 10°; P < 0.05) but not hallux flexion (pre-PNF 40 ± 7°, post-PNF 40 ± 7°; P > 0.05). Static stretching increased hallux extension (pre-static 80 ± 11°, post-static 88 ± 9°; P < 0.05) but not hallux flexion (pre-static 38 ± 9°, post-static 39 ± 8°; P > 0.05). No ROM changes occurred with no stretching (P > 0.05). TF c was unaffected by stretching (no stretching 18 ± 7 Hz, PNF 16 ± 4 Hz, static 16 ± 5 Hz; P = 0.37). Static and PNF stretching increased hallux extension, but neither increased TF c . Acute stretching may not prevent muscle cramping. Muscle Nerve 57: 473-477, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Albert Schweitzer: a patient with writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Tacik, P; Schrader, C; Weber, E; Dressler, D

    2012-06-01

    Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) the world-famous philosopher, theologian, concert organist, musicologist, philanthropist and winner of the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize suffered throughout most of his life from severe and painful muscle cramps in his right upper extremity which were triggered exclusively by handwriting. They led to tonic finger flexion and wrist extension and produced slow and clumsy handwriting of a reduced character size. Other motor functions including Schweitzer's highly skilful and famous organ playing were not affected. Inheritance from his mother is likely. Schweitzer applied several coping strategies including a specific holding pattern for pens, usage of special pens, avoidance of handwriting and slowing of handwriting. With all these features Schweitzer presents as a classical case of action-specific dystonia in the form of a simple tonic writer's cramp. Interestingly, Schweitzer never received a medical diagnosis, although writer's cramp had already been identified and described as a medical condition. Impairment of his handwriting but not his organ playing may give insight into the multifactorial aetiology of writer's cramp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cooling improves the writing performance of patients with writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Christoph; Happe, Jörg; Klockgether, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    Cooling of hand and forearm muscles by immersion in 15 degrees C cold water for 5 minutes improved the writing performance of patients with writer's cramp. Since abnormal processing of muscle spindle afferent discharges contributes to the pathology of writer's cramp, this effect might result from a reduction in muscle spindle activity by lowering muscle temperature. Cooling is a simple, cheap, and safe procedure, providing temporary relief for patients with writer's cramp. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society

  8. Hand orthosis as a writing aid in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Taş, N; Karataş, G K; Sepici, V

    2001-11-01

    Writer's cramp is a focal, task-specific dystonia of the hand and wrist. It primarily affects people who do a significant amount of writing, and causes difficulties in writing. We present five cases with writer's cramp who showed improvement in their writing ability with an applied hand orthosis. Copyright 2001 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Writing Orthotic Device for the Management of Writer's Cramp.

    PubMed

    Singam, Narayanasarma V; Dwivedi, Alok; Espay, Alberto J

    2013-01-01

    Oral therapies and chemodenervation procedures are often unrewarding in the treatment of focal, task-specific hand disorders such as writer's cramp or primary writing tremor (PWT). A portable writing orthotic device (WOD) was evaluated on 15 consecutively recruited writer's cramp and PWT subjects. We measured overall impairment at baseline and after 2 weeks of at-home use with the Writer's Cramp Rating Scale (range = 0-8, higher is worse) and writing quality and comfort with a visual analog scale (range = 0-10). Compared to regular pen, the WOD improved the Writer's Cramp Rating Scale scores at first-test (p = 0.001) and re-test (p = 0.005) as well as writing quality and device comfort in writer's cramp subjects. Benefits were sustained at 2 weeks. PWT subjects demonstrated no improvements. WODs exploiting a muscle-substitution strategy may yield immediate benefits in patients with writer's cramp.

  10. The relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the distribution of body fluid: assessment by bioelectric impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Torimoto, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Akihide; Samma, Shoji; Yoshida, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Increased nocturnal urinary volume is closely associated with nocturia. We investigated the relationship between nocturnal polyuria and the variation of body fluid distribution during the daytime using bioelectric impedance analysis. A total of 34 men older than 60 years were enrolled in this study. A frequency volume chart was recorded. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal urine volume per 24-hour production of greater than 0.35 (the nocturnal polyuria index). Bioelectric impedance analysis was performed 4 times daily at 8 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 9 p.m. using an InBody S20 body composition analyzer (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea). A significant difference was found in mean +/- SEM 24-hour urine production per fat-free mass between the groups with and without nocturnal polyuria (17.8 +/- 1.4 vs 7.7 +/- 0.9 ml/kg). The increase in fluid in the legs compared with the volume at 8 a.m. was significantly larger at 5 p.m., while there was no difference in the arms or trunk. Nocturnal urine volume significantly correlated with the difference in fluid volume in the legs (r = 0.527, p = 0.0019) and extracellular fluid volume (r = 0.3844, p = 0.0248) between the volumes at 8 a.m. and 9 p.m. Overproduction of urine per fat-free mass leads to nocturnal polyuria. Extracellular fluid accumulates as edema in the legs during the day in patients with nocturnal polyuria. The volume of accumulated extracellular fluid correlates with nocturnal urine volume. We suggest that leg edema is the source of nocturnal urine volume and decreasing edema may cure nocturnal polyuria.

  11. Cramp-fasciculation syndrome associated with monofocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Nicolas J; Van Pesch, Vincent; Van Den Bergh, Peter Y K

    2017-10-01

    Cramp-fasciculation syndrome is a peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorder, which could be caused by inflammatory neuropathy. We describe a 51-year-old woman who presented with a 4- to 5-year history of fasciculations and painful cramping of the right thenar eminence. Electrophysiological studies showed motor conduction block in the right median nerve between the axilla and the elbow with fasciculation potentials and cramp discharges on electromyography in the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle. High titers of serum anti-GM1 immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected. Monofocal motor neuropathy of the right median nerve was diagnosed. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment led to significant improvement of symptoms and signs. Although fasciculations and cramps have been reported in multifocal motor neuropathy and are considered supporting criteria for the diagnosis, the occurrence of cramp-fasciculation syndrome as the presenting feature and predominant manifestation in monofocal motor neuropathy, a variant of multifocal motor neuropathy, is unique. Muscle Nerve 56: 828-832, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nocturnal myoclonus: treatment efficacy of clonazepam and temazepam.

    PubMed

    Mitler, M M; Browman, C P; Menn, S J; Gujavarty, K; Timms, R M

    1986-01-01

    Clonazepam (1 mg h.s.) and temazepam (30 mg h.s.) were studied in 10 patients diagnosed as having insomnia with nocturnal myoclonus. Each subject underwent two nocturnal polysomnographic recordings while drug-free, two during treatment with clonazepam, and two during treatment with temazepam. Treatment sessions were 7 days long, and recordings were done on nights 6 and 7 of the treatment sessions. A 14-day washout period separated the treatment sessions. The order of drugs used in the first and second treatment sessions was randomized. Objective and subjective sleep laboratory data showed that both drugs improved the sleep of patients with insomnia in association with nocturnal myoclonus. Neither drug significantly reduced the number of nocturnal myoclonic events. Sleep changes were consistent with those produced by sedative benzodiazepines in general. Thus, the data support clinical reports that clonazepam, a benzodiazepine marketed for the indication of seizure, is useful in improving sleep disturbances associated with nocturnal myoclonus. Temazepam, a benzodiazepine marketed for the indication of insomnia, was found to be a suitable alternative to clonazepam in the treatment of insomnia associated with nocturnal myoclonus. The present data and other studies suggest the need for a model that explains why leg movements and sleep disturbances may wax and wane independently.

  13. Broken Leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices into the broken bone to maintain proper alignment during healing. Other injuries may be treated with ... that extend into the joint and poor bone alignment can cause osteoarthritis years later. If your leg ...

  14. [Medicinal plants useful in the cure of circulatory problems in legs].

    PubMed

    Alonso, Maria José

    2005-03-01

    Once the fundamentals of phyto-therapy in its western use are understood, this article presents concrete a application of medicinal plants: circulatory problems in legs, a problem which affects a growing sector of the population. According to epidemiological studies, close to 80% of adults suffer problems such as tired legs, swellings, edemas, cramps, or varicose veins during their lifetimes; these appear due to an insufficiency when veins can not conveniently transport blood to the heart.

  15. [Nocturnal enuresis in children].

    PubMed

    Hjälmås, K

    1998-01-01

    After allergic disorders, nocturnal enuresis is the most common chronic childhood condition. Recent research has yielded abundant new knowledge about the condition, especially about its aetiology and pathophysiology, and the psychological consequences. A hereditary background has been substantiated by the identification in genetic linkage studies of areas in chromosomes 12 and 13 that are manifestly associated with bedwetting, though genotype expression in the phenotype appears to be complex and heterogeneous. Pathophysiologically, findings in current intensive research suggest three interactive factors to be involved: (i) relative nocturnal polyuria, due to insufficient antidiuretic hormone release during sleep in pre-teenagers, and due to renal tubular dysfunction in adolescents and adults; (ii) reduced nocturnal bladder capacity, especially in the 33 per cent of cases which do not respond to desmopressin treatment; and (iii) the patient's inability to waken in response to signals from a full bladder. Recent findings have also confirmed previous reports that with very few exceptions bedwetting is not caused by psychological factors. On the contrary, the condition causes psychological problems manifested in reduced self-esteem, shame and guilt, though self-esteem is restored by successful treatment. Active treatment should be started as soon as the child is ready to receive it, the main options being an enuresis alarm, desmopressin, or a combination of the two. If reduced bladder capacity is suspected, treatment with a detrusor relaxant should be included.

  16. Extreme Task-Specificity in Writer’s Cramp

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Ejaz A.; Chu, Jason; Scheider, Linda H.; Savitt, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Hallett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Focal hand dystonia may be task-specific as is the case with writer’s cramp (WC). In early stages, the task-specificity can be so specific that it may be mistaken for a psychogenic movement disorder. Methods We describe four patients who showed extreme task specificity in WC. They initially only had problems writing either a single letter or number. Although they were largely thought to be psychogenic, they progressed to typical WC. Conclusions Early recognition of this condition may provide an opportunity for early initiation of treatment. PMID:21714006

  17. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... CT scan makes detailed pictures of the body very quickly. The test may help look for: An abscess ...

  18. Task specific grip force control in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Fürholzer, W; Marquardt, C; Hermsdörfer, J

    2014-04-01

    Writer's cramp is defined as a task specific focal dystonia generating hypertonic muscle co-contractions during handwriting resulting in impaired writing performance and exaggerated finger force. However, little is known about the generalisation of grip force across tasks others than writing. The aim of the study was to directly compare regulation of grip forces during handwriting with force regulation in other fine-motor tasks in patients and control subjects. Handwriting, lifting and cyclic movements of a grasped object were investigated in 21 patients and 14 controls. The applied forces were registered in all three tasks and compared between groups and tasks. In addition, task-specific measures of fine-motor skill were assessed. As expected, patients generated exaggerated forces during handwriting compared to control subjects. However there were no statistically significant group differences during lifting and cyclic movements. The control group revealed a generalisation of grip forces across manual tasks whereas in patients there was no such correlation. We conclude that increased finger forces during handwriting are a task-specific phenomenon that does not necessarily generalise to other fine-motor tasks. Force control of patients with writer's cramp in handwriting and other fine-motor tasks is characterised by individualised control strategies. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral Treatment for Nocturnal Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Jones, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most prevalent and distressing of all childhood problems. The treatment of nocturnal enuresis has shifted in the past few decades from a strictly psychopathological perspective to a biobehavioral perspective. Although the primary clinical features of this disorder are medical/organic, there is currently strong…

  20. Differences in physical characteristics and response to rehabilitation for patients with hand dystonia: musicians' cramp compared to writers' cramp.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Alison L; Goldman, Sarah; Barrango, Cindy; Shrime, Maria; Wong, Tricia; Byl, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Pre-Post, Mixed Factorial Trial. Focal hand dystonia is a challenging movement disorder to rehabilitate in musicians and writers. To compare the neuromusculoskeletal characteristics of those with writers' cramp (WC) and musicians' cramp (MC), and evaluate responsiveness to learning-based sensorimotor training. Twenty-seven individuals (14 musicians, 13 writers) participated in 8 weeks of supervised therapy supplemented with a home program. Between-group differences on measures of musculoskeletal (physical), sensory, and motor performance were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention. Subjects with MC had a higher level of functional independence and better range of motion, but less strength in the affected upper limb than those of subjects with WC. Subjects with MC demonstrated greater accuracy on graphesthesia, kinesthesia, and localization at baseline. No between-group differences in motor performance were noted at baseline or post-intervention. Following individually adapted learning-based sensorimotor training, both groups improved in musculoskeletal (physical) parameters, sensory processing, and motor control; however, improvements on certain subtests differed by group. At follow-up, differences in posture, ROM, strength, graphesthesia, and kinesthesia persisted between the groups. Subjects with WC have different physical and performance risk factors compared with those of subjects with MC. Intervention paradigms are efficacious, but variable responses to rehabilitation occur.

  1. Desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria secondary to increased nocturnal osmotic excretion.

    PubMed

    Dehoorne, Jo L; Raes, Ann M; van Laecke, Erik; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan G

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the role of increased solute excretion in children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. A total of 42 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and significant nocturnal polyuria with high nocturnal urinary osmolality (more than 850 mmol/l) were not responding to desmopressin. A 24-hour urinary concentration profile was obtained with measurement of urine volume, osmolality, osmotic excretion and creatinine. The control group consisted of 100 children without enuresis. Based on osmotic excretion patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1 had 24-hour increased osmotic excretion, most likely secondary to a high renal osmotic load. This was probably diet related since 11 of these 12 patients were obese. Group 2 had increased osmotic excretion in the evening and night, probably due to a high renal osmotic load caused by the diet characteristics of the evening meal. Group 3 had deficient osmotic excretion during the day, secondary to extremely low fluid intake to compensate for small bladder capacity. Nocturnal polyuria with high urinary osmolality in our patients with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is related to abnormal increased osmotic excretion. This may be explained by their fluid and diet habits, eg daytime fluid restriction, and high protein and salt intake.

  2. A selected controlled trial of supplementary vitamin E for treatment of muscle cramps in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Zaib, Salwat

    2010-01-01

    Muscle cramps are not uncommon complications of hemodialysis (HD) treatments and lead to early termination of HD sessions and are therefore a significant cause of under-dialysis. The etiology of cramps in dialysis patients remains a matter of debate. Many reports suggested that vitamin E (vit. E) may be effective for the prevention of HD-associated cramps. We decided to perform a selected controlled trial of supplementary vit. E for treatment of patients on HD who experience frequent attacks during and between HD sessions. The goal was to compare the number of attacks of muscle cramps with the patient's baseline over a specific period of time. In this study, 19 HD patients were randomly selected of different age groups and ethnicity. Patient must have had at least 60 attacks of muscle cramps during and between HD sessions over a 12-week period. All selected patients received vit. E at a dose of 400 international units daily for 12 weeks, and the number of attacks of muscle cramps was recorded. The frequency of muscle cramps decreased significantly during vit. E therapy, and, at the end of the trial, vit. E led to cramp reductions of 68.3%. The reduction in number of attacks of muscle cramps had no significant correlation with age, sex, etiology of end-stage renal disease, serum electrolytes, or HD duration, and it showed a statistically positive correlation (P = 0.0001) with vit. E therapy. No vit. E-related adverse effects were encountered during the trial. Short-term treatment with vit. E is safe and effective in reducing number of attacks of muscle cramps in HD patients, as shown in our study.

  3. Stereotactic neurosurgery for writer's cramp: report of two cases with an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Koh, Masaki; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Writer's cramp is a specific movement disorder with hand muscle cramps in writing, being classified into focal and action-specific dystonia. Stereotactic surgery, such as thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation (DBS), has been reported for writer's cramp; however, the number of reported cases is still scarce and surgical procedures are also controversial. In this study, therefore, we present 2 patients who underwent thalamotomy for writer's cramp and systematically review the literature on stereotactic surgery for writer's cramp. Case reports and literature review are presented. Both patients underwent ventral oral nucleus (Vo) thalamotomy safely. Their symptoms completely disappeared after surgery and did not recur during follow-up periods. In the literature, a total of 31 cases were surgically treated for writer's cramp. Stereotactic surgery included thalamotomy in 25 cases and DBS in 6. The target included the Vo in 17 cases, the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) in 3, and both Vo and Vim in 7. Both procedures markedly improved or resolved the symptoms. Transient neurological deficits were observed in 16.0% of patients after thalamotomy. The Vo may be the most effective target to treat writer's cramp. Both thalamotomy and DBS are feasible and effective, but thalamotomy would be a better option, especially in younger or high-risk patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The effect of reflexology applied on haemodialysis patients with fatigue, pain and cramps.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Gülistan; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Ozlem

    2013-06-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on fatigue, pain and cramps in haemodialysis patients. The sample consisted of 80 patients in total, 40 intervention and 40 control patients, receiving treatment in the haemodialysis units of two institutions. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale and visual analogue scale for measuring the severity of cramp and pain. The intervention group received reflexology treatment for 1 week in three sessions following haemodialysis, each session lasting approximately 30 min. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used in data analysis. It was determined that reflexology reduced the fatigue subscale scores and total scale scores as well as pain and cramp mean scores in the intervention group. The research results revealed that the severity of fatigue, pain and cramp decreased in patients receiving reflexology. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Significant and serious dehydration does not affect skeletal muscle cramp threshold frequency.

    PubMed

    Braulick, Kyle W; Miller, Kevin C; Albrecht, Jay M; Tucker, Jared M; Deal, James E

    2013-07-01

    Many clinicians believe that exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) occur because of dehydration. Experimental research supporting this theory is lacking. Mild hypohydration (3% body mass loss) does not alter threshold frequency (TF), a measure of cramp susceptibility, when fatigue and exercise intensity are controlled. No experimental research has examined TF following significant (3-5% body mass loss) or serious hypohydration (>5% body mass loss). Determine if significant or serious hypohydration, with moderate electrolyte losses, decreases TF. A prepost experimental design was used. Dominant limb flexor hallucis brevis cramp TF, cramp electromyography (EMG) amplitude and cramp intensity were measured in 10 euhydrated, unacclimated men (age=24±4 years, height=184.2±4.8 cm, mass=84.8±11.4 kg). Subjects alternated exercising with their non-dominant limb or upper body on a cycle ergometer every 15 min at a moderate intensity until 5% body mass loss or volitional exhaustion (3.8±0.8 h; 39.1±1.5°C; humidity 18.4±3%). Cramp variables were reassessed posthypohydration. Subjects were well hydrated at the study's onset (urine specific gravity=1.005±0.002). They lost 4.7±0.5% of their body mass (3.9±0.5 litres of fluid), 4.0±1.5 g of Na(+) and 0.6±0.1 g K(+) via exercise-induced sweating. Significant (n=5) or serious hypohydration (n=5) did not alter cramp TF (euhydrated=15±5 Hz, hypohydrated=13±6 Hz; F1,9=3.0, p=0.12), cramp intensity (euhydrated= 94.2±41%, hypohydrated=115.9±73%; F1,9=1.9, p=0.2) or cramp EMG amplitude (euhydrated=0.18±0.06 µV, hypohydrated= 0.18±0.09 µV; F1,9=0.1, p=0.79). Significant and serious hypohydration with moderate electrolyte losses does not alter cramp susceptibility when fatigue and exercise intensity are controlled. Neuromuscular control may be more important in the onset of muscle cramps than dehydration or electrolyte losses.

  6. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  7. Nocturnal bruxism and temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Rugh, J D; Harlan, J

    1988-01-01

    This chapter has discussed the important aspects of nocturnal bruxism and its relation to disorders of the masticatory system and headaches. Bruxism is believed to be a stress-related sleep disorder, occurring in both men and women, in children, and in adults. In most patients, bruxism results only in minor tooth wear; however, it can become extremely severe with damage occurring in essentially every part of the masticatory apparatus. Nocturnal bruxism should not be overlooked as an etiologic factor in muscular headaches. Short-term acute therapy may involve physical therapy, nocturnal electromyographic biofeedback, and medication to relieve anxiety and improve sleep. Long-term management usually includes some form of stress reduction, change in lifestyle, and an occlusal splint or nightguard to protect the teeth and masticatory system.

  8. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  9. Writer's cramp: increased dorsal premotor activity during intended writing.

    PubMed

    Delnooz, Cathérine C S; Helmich, Rick C; Medendorp, W P; Van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Toni, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Simple writer's cramp (WC) is a task-specific form of dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand during writing. It is extremely task-specific, since dystonic symptoms can occur when a patient uses a pencil for writing, but not when it is used for sharpening. Maladaptive plasticity, loss of inhibition, and abnormal sensory processing are important pathophysiological elements of WC. However, it remains unclear how those elements can account for its task-specificity. We used fMRI to isolate cerebral alterations associated with the task-specificity of simple WC. Subjects (13 simple WC patients, 20 matched controls) imagined grasping a pencil to either write with it or sharpen it. On each trial, we manipulated the pencil's position and the number of imagined movements, while monitoring variations in motor output with electromyography. We show that simple WC is characterized by abnormally increased activity in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) when imagined actions are specifically related to writing. This cerebral effect was independent from the known deficits in dystonia in generating focal motor output and in processing somatosensory feedback. This abnormal activity of the PMd suggests that the task-specific element of simple WC is primarily due to alterations at the planning level, in the computations that transform a desired action outcome into the motor commands leading to that action. These findings open the way for testing the therapeutic value of interventions that take into account the computational substrate of task-specificity in simple WC, e.g. modulations of PMd activity during the planning phase of writing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Outflow from a Nocturnal Thunderstorm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    P AD-A093 796 ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY URBANAF/ .2 OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM. (U) NOV a0 R W SCOTT NSF-ATHN78-0a865 UNCLASSIFIED SWS...CR-242 ARO-15529.5-6S N I muuuuuuuuuuuu iDA0937 9 6 State Water Survey Division k istitute of METEOROLOGY SECTION 0 uJD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...SWS Contract Report 242 / F OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM Robert W. Scott Meteorology Section Illinois State Water Survey -- DTIC ELECTE CD

  11. The cathelicidin protein CRAMP is a potential atherosclerosis self-antigen in ApoE(-/-) mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Peter M.; Lio, Wai Man; Yano, Juliana; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhou, Jianchang; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Shah, Prediman K.; Cercek, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Auto-immunity is believed to contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a fragment of the cathelicidin protein precursor hCAP18, was previously identified as an autoantigen in psoriasis. Given the reported link between psoriasis and coronary artery disease, the biological relevance of the autoantigen to atherosclerosis was tested in vitro using a truncated (t) form of the mouse homolog of hCAP18, CRAMP, on splenocytes from athero-prone ApoE(-/-) mice. Stimulation with tCRAMP resulted in increased CD8+ T cells with Central Memory and Effector Memory phenotypes in ApoE(-/-) mice, differentially activated by feeding with normal chow or high fat diet. Immunization of ApoE(-/-) with different doses of the shortened peptide (Cramp) resulted in differential outcomes with a lower dose reducing atherosclerosis whereas a higher dose exacerbating the disease with increased neutrophil infiltration of the atherosclerotic plaques. Low dose Cramp immunization also resulted in increased splenic CD8+ T cell degranulation and reduced CD11b+CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), whereas high dose increased CD11b+CD11c+ cDCs. Our results identified CRAMP, the mouse homolog of hCAP-18, as a potential self-antigen involved in the immune response to atherosclerosis in the ApoE(-/-) mouse model. PMID:29091929

  12. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legs Syndrome Condition Restless Legs Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Treatment5. Questions Overview ... twitch when you try and sleep (also called periodic limb movements of sleep or PLMS). Diagnosis How ...

  13. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  14. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-27

    sweeps the leg during stance, and the third places the foot during flight and controls body attitude during stance. Each of the three methods elucidates...secondary strategy has been to examine systems with springy legs, so that the role of resonant oscillatory leg behavior might be better understood. ’ The ...body attitude : I lopping _leit: ’ The control system rcgulate:; hopping height by manlil)Lulating hopping energy. The leg is springy, so hopping is a

  15. Predicting Improvement in Writer's Cramp Symptoms following Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Mallory; Delrobaei, Mehdi; Rahimi, Fariborz; Atashzar, S Farokh; Shahbazi, Mahya; Patel, Rajni; Jog, Mandar

    2016-01-01

    Writer's cramp is a specific focal hand dystonia causing abnormal posturing and tremor in the upper limb. The most popular medical intervention, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy, is variably effective for 50-70% of patients. BoNT-A non-responders undergo ineffective treatment and may experience significant side effects. Various assessments have been used to determine response prediction to BoNT-A, but not in the same population of patients. A comprehensive assessment was employed to measure various symptom aspects. Clinical scales, full upper-limb kinematic measures, self-report, and task performance measures were assessed for nine writer's cramp patients at baseline. Patients received two BoNT-A injections then were classified as responders or non-responders based on a quantified self-report measure. Baseline scores were compared between groups, across all measures, to determine which scores predicted a positive BoNT-A response. Five of nine patients were responders. No kinematic measures were predictably different between groups. Analyses revealed three features that predicted a favorable response and separated the two groups: higher than average cramp severity and cramp frequency, and below average cramp latency. Non-kinematic measures appear to be superior in making such predictions. Specifically, measures of cramp severity, frequency, and latency during performance of a specific set of writing and drawing tasks were predictive factors. Since kinematic was not used to determine the injection pattern and the injections were visually guided, it may still be possible to use individual patient kinematics for better outcomes.

  16. Visual Navigation in Nocturnal Insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Despite their tiny eyes and brains, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to visually navigate at night. Whereas some use moonlight or the stars as celestial compass cues to maintain a straight-line course, others use visual landmarks to navigate to and from their nest. These impressive abilities rely on highly sensitive compound eyes and specialized visual processing strategies in the brain. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  17. [Nocturnal polyuria, treatment with desmopressin].

    PubMed

    Zachoval, R; Krhut, J; Šottner, O; Hanuš, T; Martan, A; Horčička, L; Feyereisl, J; Halaška, M; Švabík, K; Krofta, L

    2013-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic and especially pharmacologic treatment options are available for nocturnal polyuria. Desmopressin represents the basis of pharmacologic treatment. Desmopressin acetate is a synthetic analogue of arginine vasopressin with high affinity to V2 receptors with antidiuretic effect. It is the only medicament currently registered for antidiuretic treatment. Desmopressin has not any relevant affinity to V1 receptors, and therefore there is no hypertensive effect in contrary to natural vasopressin. Desmopressin use before a bedtime leads to reduced production of urine during a sleep, therefore time between desires to void is prolonged and number of nocturia is reduced. Clinical effect, in a meaning of reduced urine production and increased osmolality of urine, lasts approximately 8-12 hours. In the treatment of nocturnal polyuria desmopressin is used orally one hour before a bedtime. It is essential to titrate an ideal dose, the initial dose is 60 µg of MELT formula (fast melting oral formulation) and it can be increased according to the clinical effect up to the maximal recommended daily dose 240 µg. Patients treated with desmopressin should cut down a fluid intake 1 hour before and 8 hours after the use of desmopressin. Total number of adverse events connected withdesmopressin treatment in clinical studies was higher compared to placebo but the side effects were mostly mild. The most common adverse events were headaches, nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dry mouth and hyponatremia both in the short-term and long-term clinical trials. Hyponatremia was observed mainly in patients over 65 year of age. Therefore treatment with desmopressin should not be commended in patients over 65 year of age without close monitoring of the natrium level in serum and all patients should be informed about the first symptoms of hyponatremia - headache, nausea and insomnia. According to Evidence Based Medicine, the level of evidence for treatment of nocturnal polyuria with

  18. Management of nocturnal enuresis - myths and facts

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajiv; Raut, Sumantra

    2016-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis often causes considerable distress or functional impairment to patient and their parents necessitating a multidisciplinary approach from paediatrician, paediatric nephrologist, urologists and psychiatrist. Mechanisms of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis are mainly nocturnal polyuria, bladder overactivity and failure to awaken from sleep in response to bladder sensations. Goal oriented and etiology wise treatment includes simple behavioral intervention, conditioning alarm regimen and pharmacotherapy with desmopressin, imipramine and anticholinergic drugs. Symptoms often recurs requiring change over or combination of different modes of treatment. PMID:27458562

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow correlates of the severity of writer's cramp symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Alicja; Shill, Holly; Hanakawa, Takashi; Bushara, Khalaf; Goldfine, Andrew; Hallett, Mark

    2004-03-01

    Writer's cramp is a type of idiopathic focal dystonia with incompletely understood pathophysiology. Recent studies provide evidence that one element might be a sensory processing defect. We performed a PET study with O(15) H(2)O to find out in which brain areas activity correlates with the severity of writer's cramp symptoms. We studied 10 patients with writer's cramp and 10 age- and gender-matched control subjects. There were seven conditions, each repeated twice: rest, writing, tapping with index finger for 2, 3, 4, and 5 min. For each scan, we obtained EMG recordings from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor indicis proprius (EIP) muscles, and a subjective score of severity of dystonia. Scans were realigned, normalized, smoothed, and analyzed using SPM99. Analysis included both intra- and intergroup comparisons and a correlation analysis where we used EMG recordings and subjective dystonia score as covariates. Random effect analysis of the writing task showed overactivity of the primary sensory cortex and no significant underactivity. Correlation analysis of dystonia patients showed activation of SI when we used the subjective dystonia score as a covariate, and activation of both the SI and primary motor cortex when the normalized EMG score of FDS was used. While some overactivity of MI is not surprising, overactivity of SI is more dramatic and suggests a primary deficit in processing sensory feedback. Writer's cramp may arise in part as a dysfunction of sensory circuits, which causes defective sensorimotor integration resulting in co-contractions of muscles and overflow phenomena.

  20. Handwriting performance in the absence of visual control in writer's cramp patients: Initial observations

    PubMed Central

    Chakarov, Vihren; Hummel, Sibylla; Losch, Florian; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2006-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed at investigating the writing parameters of writer's cramp patients and control subjects during handwriting of a test sentence in the absence of visual control. Methods Eight right-handed patients with writer's cramp and eight healthy volunteers as age-matched control subjects participated in the study. The experimental task consisted in writing a test sentence repeatedly for fifty times on a pressure-sensitive digital board. The subject did not have visual control on his handwriting. The writing performance was stored on a PC and analyzed off-line. Results During handwriting all patients developed a typical dystonic limb posture and reported an increase in muscular tension along the experimental session. The patients were significantly slower than the controls, with lower mean vertical pressure of the pen tip on the paper and they could not reach the endmost letter of the sentence in the given time window. No other handwriting parameter differences were found between the two groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that during writing in the absence of visual feedback writer's cramp patients are slower and could not reach the endmost letter of the test sentence, but their level of automatization is not impaired and writer's cramp handwriting parameters are similar to those of the controls except for even lower vertical pressure of the pen tip on the paper, which is probably due to a changed strategy in such experimental conditions. PMID:16594993

  1. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    PubMed Central

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. Results : In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Conclusion : Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups. PMID:25352924

  2. Self-reported sleep bruxism and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: relationship to gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups.

  3. Induction of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP in the blood-brain barrier and meninges after meningococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Peter; Johansson, Linda; Wan, Hong; Jones, Allison; Gallo, Richard L; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Hökfelt, Tomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in most living species and constitute important effector molecules of innate immunity. Recently, we and others have detected antimicrobial peptides in the brain. This is an organ that is rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play a role in these barriers. We addressed this hypothesis by infecting mice with the neuropathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy. After infection, we observed induction of CRAMP in endothelial cells of the BBB and in cells of the meninges. To explore the functional role of CRAMP in meningococcal disease, we infected mice deficient of the CRAMP gene. Even though CRAMP did not appear to protect the brain from invasion of meningococci, CRAMP knockout mice were more susceptible to meningococcal infection than wild-type mice and exhibited increased meningococcal growth in blood, liver, and spleen. Moreover, we could demonstrate that carbonate, a compound that accumulates in the circulation during metabolic acidosis, makes meningococci more susceptible to CRAMP.

  4. Induction of the Antimicrobial Peptide CRAMP in the Blood-Brain Barrier and Meninges after Meningococcal Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Peter; Johansson, Linda; Wan, Hong; Jones, Allison; Gallo, Richard L.; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H.; Hökfelt, Tomas; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in most living species and constitute important effector molecules of innate immunity. Recently, we and others have detected antimicrobial peptides in the brain. This is an organ that is rarely infected, which has mainly been ascribed to the protective functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and meninges. Since the bactericidal properties of the BBB and meninges are not known, we hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides could play a role in these barriers. We addressed this hypothesis by infecting mice with the neuropathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Brains were analyzed for expression of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP by immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy. After infection, we observed induction of CRAMP in endothelial cells of the BBB and in cells of the meninges. To explore the functional role of CRAMP in meningococcal disease, we infected mice deficient of the CRAMP gene. Even though CRAMP did not appear to protect the brain from invasion of meningococci, CRAMP knockout mice were more susceptible to meningococcal infection than wild-type mice and exhibited increased meningococcal growth in blood, liver, and spleen. Moreover, we could demonstrate that carbonate, a compound that accumulates in the circulation during metabolic acidosis, makes meningococci more susceptible to CRAMP. PMID:17030578

  5. Randomized placebo-controlled study of baclofen in the treatment of muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Elfert, Asem A; Abo Ali, Lobna; Soliman, Samah; Zakaria, Sherin; Shehab El-Din, Ibrahim; Elkhalawany, Walaa; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief

    2016-11-01

    Muscle cramps adversely influence the quality of life of patients with liver cirrhosis. Indeed, to date, a well-established therapy for this complication is still lacking. This is the first randomized placebo-controlled trial of baclofen in the treatment of muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 100 patients with liver cirrhosis and muscle cramps signed an informed consent to participate in this study. They were recruited from the Department of Tropical Medicine-Tanta University Hospital. They were randomized to receive either baclofen or placebo for 3 months. Patients were followed monthly and 1 month after withdrawal. At each visit, the clinicoepidemiological data were recorded, the muscle cramp questionnaire was filled, and any drug-related side effects were reported. In the baclofen group, the frequency of muscle cramps decreased significantly after 1 and 3 months of treatment (P<0.005), with a significant relapse after withdrawal (P<0.001). Patients receiving baclofen showed a significant decrease in the severity and duration of muscle cramps (P<0.001). After 3 months of baclofen therapy at a dose of 30 mg/day, muscle cramps disappeared completely in 72%, reduced in 20%, and led to no change in 8% of patients. No significant changes in the frequency, severity, and duration of muscle cramps were noted in the placebo group. There were few but nonsignificant side effects in the baclofen group compared with the placebo group. Baclofen was well tolerated, safe, and effective in the treatment of muscle cramps in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  6. Nocturnal light environments and species ecology: implications for nocturnal color vision in forests.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Carrie C; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-12-01

    Although variation in the color of light in terrestrial diurnal and twilight environments has been well documented, relatively little work has examined the color of light in nocturnal habitats. Understanding the range and sources of variation in nocturnal light environments has important implications for nocturnal vision, particularly following recent discoveries of nocturnal color vision. In this study, we measured nocturnal irradiance in a dry forest/woodland and a rainforest in Madagascar over 34 nights. We found that a simple linear model including the additive effects of lunar altitude, lunar phase and canopy openness successfully predicted total irradiance flux measurements across 242 clear sky measurements (r=0.85, P<0.0001). However, the relationship between these variables and spectral irradiance was more complex, as interactions between lunar altitude, lunar phase and canopy openness were also important predictors of spectral variation. Further, in contrast to diurnal conditions, nocturnal forests and woodlands share a yellow-green-dominant light environment with peak flux at 560 nm. To explore how nocturnal light environments influence nocturnal vision, we compared photoreceptor spectral tuning, habitat preference and diet in 32 nocturnal mammals. In many species, long-wavelength-sensitive cone spectral sensitivity matched the peak flux present in nocturnal forests and woodlands, suggesting a possible adaptation to maximize photon absorption at night. Further, controlling for phylogeny, we found that fruit/flower consumption significantly predicted short-wavelength-sensitive cone spectral tuning in nocturnal mammals (P=0.002). These results suggest that variation in nocturnal light environments and species ecology together influence cone spectral tuning and color vision in nocturnal mammals.

  7. Stereotactic ventrooralis thalamotomy for task-specific focal hand dystonia (writer's cramp).

    PubMed

    Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2003-01-01

    Writer's cramp is a type of focal dystonia due to dysfunction of the pallido-thalamo-cortical circuit. The symptom is refractory to most conservative treatment, though botulinum toxin injection is generally used for symptomatic relief. As a surgical treatment of dystonia, we performed stereotactic nucleus ventrooralis (Vo) thalamotomy for dystonic cramp of the hand. Twelve patients (5 men, 3 women; age 26-40 years, mean 32.1 years) with medically intractable task-specific focal dystonia of the hand underwent Vo thalamotomy. The stereotactic target was chosen at the junction of the anterior and posterior Vo nuclei. The mean duration of the symptom ranged from 3 to 6 years (mean 4.5 years.) All patients had complained of difficulty in writing. Seven patients were professionals, such as a comic artist, guitarist and barber, and, because of the dystonic symptoms occurring during their work, they had stopped pursuing their profession. All patients showed immediate postoperative disappearance of dystonic symptoms, and the effect was sustained during the follow-up period (3-33 months, mean 13.1 months), except in one case. Two patients showed partial recurrence of the symptom and underwent second thalamotomy 5 months after the initial surgery with satisfactory results. The score on the writer's cramp rating scale decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after Vo thalamotomy. There were no permanent operative complications. There was no mortality or permanent morbidity. Although a longer follow-up is needed, stereotactic Vo thalamotomy is a useful and safe therapeutic option for writer's cramp. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Significance of finger forces and kinematics during handwriting in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Marquardt, Christian; Schneider, Alexandra S; Fürholzer, Waltraud; Baur, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Muscular hyperactivity during handwriting, irregular and jerky scripts, as well as awkward and slowed pen movements are the cardinal symptoms of writer's cramp. Accordingly, impaired kinematics and increased force have been reported in writer's cramp. However, the relationship between these symptoms has rarely been investigated. In addition, measurements of finger forces have been restricted to the vertical pen pressure. In the present study, the pen of a graphic tablet was equipped with a force sensor matrix to measure also the grip force produced against the pen barrel despite highly variable pen grips of the patients. Kinematics of writing movements, vertical pen pressure, and grip force were compared in 27 patients with writer's cramp and normal control writers during writing of a test sentence. As expected, all measures revealed a significantly worse writing performance in the patients compared to the control subjects. Exaggerated forces were more frequent than abnormal kinematics, and evidenced by prolonged movement times and reduced writing frequencies. Correlations were found neither between kinematics and force measures nor between the two forces. Interestingly, patients relaxed the grip force during short periods of non-writing by the same relative amount as control subjects. The finding of a large heterogeneity of performances patterns in writer's cramp may reflect the variability of dystonic symptoms as well as the highly variable compensatory strategies of individual patients. Measurements of finger force and in particular of the grip force are valuable and important descriptors of individual impairment characteristics that are independent of writing kinematics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sofia B.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Tsai, Willis H.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Klarenbach, Scott W.; Chin, Rick; Clement, Fiona M.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. Methods We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ≥12% of the nocturnal monitoring time. The primary outcome, accelerated loss of kidney function, was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. Results 858 participants were included and followed for a mean study period of 2.1 years. Overall 374 (44%) had nocturnal hypoxia, and 49 (5.7%) had accelerated loss of kidney function. Compared to controls without hypoxia, patients with nocturnal hypoxia had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of accelerated kidney function loss (odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 6.67). Conclusion Nocturnal hypoxia was independently associated with an increased risk of accelerated kidney function loss. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment and correction of nocturnal hypoxia reduces loss of kidney function. PMID:21559506

  10. Botulinum toxin-A injections via electrical motor point stimulation to treat writer's cramp: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lim, E C H; Quek, A M L; Seet, R C S

    2006-06-30

    Writer's cramp describes a task-specific dystonia, in which the act of writing initiates dystonic posturing of the hands. Previous studies have described the efficacy of injections of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) under electromyographic guidance, in which the injected muscle is either voluntarily, or less often, electrically (electrical motor point stimulation, EMPS) activated to ensure that the needle is in the target muscle. We performed an open label, prospective study to assess the efficacy of BTX-A injections, performed with EMPS under electromyographic guidance. Eight patients (seven male and one female) of mean age 44 (range 25-66) were recruited. All had idiopathic writer's cramp. Outcome measures, which included timed writing, objective assessment of dystonia (modified Ashworth scale and a visual analog scale rating) and patient assessment of functional disability, were assessed before injections and at six weeks follow-up. The total dose of BTX-A injected for writer's cramp ranged from 50 to 130 units, which was less than that reported in previous studies using muscle activation techniques (up to 300 units). Improvements were observed in all outcome measures. Patients reported mild (non-disabling) weakness of injected, but not of uninjected muscles. Lower dosages of BTX-A, administered using EMPS, offers the advantages of decreased cost and increased accuracy of targeting, while achieving good outcomes.

  11. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePlus

    ... to match its length. Proper timing of this treatment is important for best results. Certain health conditions can lead to very unequal leg lengths. They include: Poliomyelitis Cerebral palsy Small, weak muscles or short, tight ( ...

  12. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues. Causes PAD is caused by "hardening of the arteries." ... small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores (ischemic ulcers on the lower legs) Tissue death (gangrene) ...

  13. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... anything that contains metal into the scanner room. Considerations Tests that may be done instead of an ... Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg Patient Instructions Femur fracture repair - discharge Hip fracture - discharge ...

  14. Actometry in measuring the symptom severity of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tuisku, K; Holi, M M; Wahlbeck, K; Ahlgren, A J; Lauerma, H

    2005-05-01

    In a previous, controlled study we demonstrated that the general lower limb activity measured by three-channel actometry is a promising objective measure of restless legs syndrome (RLS) severity. In the present study we have further evaluated the method in measuring RLS symptom severity in an open, single-day pramipexole intervention with 15 RLS patients. Both our standardized actometric parameters (nocturnal lower limb activity and controlled rest activity) decreased significantly during the intervention in parallel with the subjectively reported relief of RLS symptoms.

  15. Nocturnal awakenings and pediatric injury risk.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to examine relations between nocturnal awakenings and unintentional injury risk among toddlers. A nationally representative sample of 799 children was followed longitudinally from birth through 36 months. Patterns of nocturnal awakening were assessed by parent-report at ages 6, 15, 24 and 36 months, and injury events were reported at quarterly intervals over the same time period. A range of external covariates, including positive and negative affect and externalizing behavior; maternal stress, maternal depression, and parenting style; and family socioeconomic status were measured. A persistent pattern of very mild nocturnal awakening was related to increased risk of injury during the toddler years, and that relation held after controlling for a range of potential covariates. A pattern of persistent nocturnal awakening appears to be related to unintentional injury risk in toddlers.

  16. Report on the nocturnal raptor monitoring workshop

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey L. Holroyd; Lisa Takats

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss the development of a strategy to determine the status and assess trends of nocturnal raptor species (i.e., nocturnal owls) in Canada and the USA. A strategy for diurnal raptor species was initiated at a workshop in Boise, Idaho in August 1996. The results of these workshops will form the basis for developing the North American...

  17. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  18. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  19. Defective cerebellar control of cortical plasticity in writer’s cramp

    PubMed Central

    Hubsch, Cecile; Roze, Emmanuel; Popa, Traian; Russo, Margherita; Balachandran, Ammu; Pradeep, Salini; Mueller, Florian; Brochard, Vanessa; Quartarone, Angelo; Degos, Bertrand; Vidailhet, Marie; Kishore, Asha

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence points to a role of basal ganglia dysfunction in the pathophysiology of dystonia, but recent studies indicate that cerebellar dysfunction may also be involved. The cerebellum influences sensorimotor adaptation by modulating sensorimotor plasticity of the primary motor cortex. Motor cortex sensorimotor plasticity is maladaptive in patients with writer’s cramp. Here we examined whether putative cerebellar dysfunction in dystonia is linked to these patients’ maladaptive plasticity. To that end we compared the performances of patients and healthy control subjects in a reaching task involving a visuomotor conflict generated by imposing a random deviation (−40° to 40°) on the direction of movement of the mouse/cursor. Such a task is known to involve the cerebellum. We also compared, between patients and healthy control subjects, how the cerebellum modulates the extent and duration of an ongoing sensorimotor plasticity in the motor cortex. The cerebellar cortex was excited or inhibited by means of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation before artificial sensorimotor plasticity was induced in the motor cortex by paired associative stimulation. Patients with writer’s cramp were slower than the healthy control subjects to reach the target and, after having repeatedly adapted their trajectories to the deviations, they were less efficient than the healthy control subjects to perform reaching movement without imposed deviation. It was interpreted as impaired washing-out abilities. In healthy subjects, cerebellar cortex excitation prevented the paired associative stimulation to induce a sensorimotor plasticity in the primary motor cortex, whereas cerebellar cortex inhibition led the paired associative stimulation to be more efficient in inducing the plasticity. In patients with writer’s cramp, cerebellar cortex excitation and inhibition were both ineffective in modulating sensorimotor plasticity. In patients with writer’s cramp, but not

  20. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  1. Effect of indomethacin on desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria and nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Rittig, Søren; Bower, Wendy F; Djurhuus, Jens C

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the acute effect of indomethacin on renal water and solute handling in children with coexisting monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria, and in healthy controls. A total of 23 subjects were recruited, consisting of 12 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria with partial or no response to desmopressin, and 11 age matched controls. Children completed a 48-hour inpatient study protocol consisting of fractional urine collections and blood samples. Sodium and water intake were standardized. During the second night a dose of 50 mg indomethacin was administered orally before bedtime. Diuresis, urine osmolalities, clearances and fractional excretions were calculated for sodium, potassium, urea, osmoles and solute-free water. Renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in plasma. Prostaglandin E(2) was measured in urine. Indomethacin markedly decreased the nocturnal sodium, urea and osmotic excretion in children with enuresis and controls. The overall effect on nocturnal urine output was inconsistent in the group with enuresis. Subjects in whom nocturnal diuresis was decreased following administration of indomethacin remained dry. Prostaglandin inhibition leads to antidiuresis, reducing the amount of sodium, urea and osmotic excretion in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria. The sodium regulating hormones do not seem to mediate these processes. The overall effect in desmopressin nonresponders with nocturnal polyuria is variable. The extent to which indomethacin can be applied in the treatment of enuresis needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... español Dolores menstruales Twelve-year-old Cindy woke up one morning and felt familiar pain in her lower belly. She knew what ...

  3. Muscle cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... you been exercising heavily? Have you been drinking alcohol heavily? Blood tests may be done to check for the following: Calcium, potassium, or magnesium metabolism Kidney function Thyroid function Pain medicines may be ...

  4. Leg lengthening - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as Legg-Perthes disease Previous injuries or bone fractures that may stimulate excessive bone growth Abnormal spinal ... in the bone to be lengthened; usually the lower leg bone (tibia) or upper ... small steps, usually over the course of several months.

  5. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Karl; Ulfberg, J

    2009-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by intense restlessness and unpleasant creeping sensations deep inside the lower legs. Symptoms appear when the legs are at rest and are worst in the evening and at night. They force patients to keep moving their legs, and often to get out of bed and wander about. Periodic limb movements (PLMS) are also common during sleep amongst those suffering from RLS, and sleep efficiency is severely reduced. There are idiopathic as well as symptomatic forms of RLS, the latter being associated with e.g. pregnancy, iron deficiency and chronic renal failure. A family history of RLS is very common and pedigrees in these cases suggest an autosomal-dominant transmission with high penetrance. Genetic investigations have been performed in order to identify genes associated with RLS. Several loci have been found (on chromosomes 12q, 14q, 9p, 2q, 20p and 16p). Pathophysiology of RLS remains incompletely understood. However, advanced brain imaging studies and positive results of dopaminergic treatment suggest that RLS may be generated by dopamine dysfunction locally within the central nervous system. At present, there is a wide range of treatment options including levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs and iron supplements.

  6. Clinical, Electrophysiological, and Serological Evaluation of Patients with Cramp-Fasciculation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    POYRAZ, Mürüvvet; MATUR, Zeliha; AYSAL, Fikret; TÜZÜN, Erdem; HANOĞLU, Lütfü; ÖGE, A. Emre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome. There are only a few reports on clinical and serological profile of a CFS cohort that was followed up by a single outpatient clinic. Methods Clinical, electrophysiological, and serological features of 6 CFS patients (5 men, 1 woman; 27–65 years old) were investigated. Results All patients presented with cramps, fasciculations, muscle pain, and autonomic symptoms, and 2 also reported numbness and burning sensation in limbs, suggestive of neuropathic pain. Antibodies to uncharacterized voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex proteins were found in 2 patients and to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) in 1 patient. None of the patients had a tumor. Most of the patients revealed prolonged after-discharges following tibial nerve stimulation. Nerve conduction studies and R-R interval variability tests were normal, whereas sympathetic skin responses were increased in amplitude in 3 seronegative patients. Five patients showed favorable response to carbamazepine or pregabalin treatment, whereas 1 VGKC-antibody-positive patient was resistant to carbamazepine and immunosuppressant treatment. Conclusion Neuropathic pain and VGKC-complex antibodies may be encountered in CFS patients. Although autonomic symptoms are commonly found in CFS, routine autonomic system tests which are done in electrophysiology laboratories might yield normal results. PMID:28680318

  7. Clinical, Electrophysiological, and Serological Evaluation of Patients with Cramp-Fasciculation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, Mürüvvet; Matur, Zeliha; Aysal, Fikret; Tüzün, Erdem; Hanoğlu, Lütfü; Öge, A Emre

    2017-06-01

    Cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome. There are only a few reports on clinical and serological profile of a CFS cohort that was followed up by a single outpatient clinic. Clinical, electrophysiological, and serological features of 6 CFS patients (5 men, 1 woman; 27-65 years old) were investigated. All patients presented with cramps, fasciculations, muscle pain, and autonomic symptoms, and 2 also reported numbness and burning sensation in limbs, suggestive of neuropathic pain. Antibodies to uncharacterized voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex proteins were found in 2 patients and to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) in 1 patient. None of the patients had a tumor. Most of the patients revealed prolonged after-discharges following tibial nerve stimulation. Nerve conduction studies and R-R interval variability tests were normal, whereas sympathetic skin responses were increased in amplitude in 3 seronegative patients. Five patients showed favorable response to carbamazepine or pregabalin treatment, whereas 1 VGKC-antibody-positive patient was resistant to carbamazepine and immunosuppressant treatment. Neuropathic pain and VGKC-complex antibodies may be encountered in CFS patients. Although autonomic symptoms are commonly found in CFS, routine autonomic system tests which are done in electrophysiology laboratories might yield normal results.

  8. [Overactive muscles: it can be more serious than common myalgia or cramp].

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Joery P F; Snoeck, Marc M J; Voermans, Nicol C; van Engelen, Baziel G M

    2016-01-01

    Positive muscle phenomena are due to muscle overactivity. Examples are cramp, myalgia, and stiffness. These manifestations have mostly acquired causes, e.g. side-effects of medication, metabolic disorders, vitamin deficiency, excessive caffeine intake or neurogenic disorders. We report on three patients with various positive muscle phenomena, to illustrate the clinical signs that indicate an underlying myopathy. Patient A, a 56-year-old man, was diagnosed with muscle cramp in the context of excessive coffee use and previous lumbosacral radiculopathy. Patient B, a 71-year-old man, was shown to have RYR1-related myopathy. Patient C, a 42-year-old man, suffered from Brody myopathy. We propose for clinicians to look out for a number of 'red flags' that can point to an underlying myopathy, and call for referral to neurology if indicated. Red flags include second wind phenomenon, familial occurrence of similar complaints, marked muscle stiffness, myotonia, muscle weakness, muscle hypertrophy, and myoglobinuria. Establishing a correct diagnosis is important for proper treatment. Certain myopathies call for cardiac or respiratory screening.

  9. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Michael V.; Lockridge, Robert S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Eggers, Paul W.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Levin, Nathan W.; Ornt, Daniel B.; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B.; Unruh, Mark L.; Star, Robert A.; Kliger, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/Vurea, a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

  10. Vision and visual navigation in nocturnal insects.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, nocturnal insects have evolved a remarkable capacity to discriminate colors, orient themselves using faint celestial cues, fly unimpeded through a complicated habitat, and navigate to and from a nest using learned visual landmarks. Even though the compound eyes of nocturnal insects are significantly more sensitive to light than those of their closely related diurnal relatives, their photoreceptors absorb photons at very low rates in dim light, even during demanding nocturnal visual tasks. To explain this apparent paradox, it is hypothesized that the necessary bridge between retinal signaling and visual behavior is a neural strategy of spatial and temporal summation at a higher level in the visual system. Exactly where in the visual system this summation takes place, and the nature of the neural circuitry that is involved, is currently unknown but provides a promising avenue for future research.

  11. Association of Short-term Bleeding and Cramping Patterns with Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Method Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Justin T.; Desai, Sanyukta; Zhao, Qiuhong; Secura, Gina; Madden, Tessa; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the short-term (3 and 6-month), self-reported bleeding and cramping patterns with intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the contraceptive implant, and the association of these symptoms with method satisfaction. Study Design We analyzed 3 and 6-month survey data from IUD and implant users in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study. Participants who received a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method (levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), copper IUD, or the etonogestrel implant) and completed their 3- and 6-month surveys were included. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the association of bleeding and cramping patterns with short-term satisfaction. Results Our analytic sample included 5,011 CHOICE participants: 3001 LNG-IUS users, 826 copper IUD users, and 1184 implant users. At 3 months, over 65% of LNG-IUS and implant users reported no change or decreased cramping, while 63% of copper IUD users reported increased menstrual cramping. Lighter bleeding was reported by 67% of LNG-IUS users, 58% of implant users, and 8% of copper IUD users. Satisfaction of all LARC methods was high (≥90%) and significantly higher than non-LARC methods (p<0.001). LARC users with increased menstrual cramping (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 – 0.99), heavier bleeding (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 – 0.96), and increased bleeding frequency (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.89 – 0.96) were less likely to report being very satisfied at 6 months. Conclusion Regardless of the LARC method, satisfaction at 3 and 6 months is very high. Changes in self-reported bleeding and cramping are associated with short-term LARC satisfaction. PMID:25046805

  12. Association of short-term bleeding and cramping patterns with long-acting reversible contraceptive method satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Justin T; Desai, Sanyukta; Zhao, Qiuhong; Secura, Gina; Madden, Tessa; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine the short-term (3- and 6-month), self-reported bleeding and cramping patterns with intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the contraceptive implant, and the association of these symptoms with method satisfaction. We analyzed 3- and 6-month survey data from IUD and implant users in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study. Participants who received a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) method (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system [LNG-IUS], copper IUD, or the etonogestrel implant) and completed their 3- and 6-month surveys were included. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the association of bleeding and cramping patterns with short-term satisfaction. Our analytic sample included 5011 Contraceptive CHOICE Project participants: 3001 LNG-IUS users, 826 copper IUD users, and 1184 implant users. At 3 months, >65% of LNG-IUS and implant users reported no change or decreased cramping, while 63% of copper IUD users reported increased menstrual cramping. Lighter bleeding was reported by 67% of LNG-IUS users, 58% of implant users, and 8% of copper IUD users. Satisfaction of all LARC methods was high (≥90%). LARC users with increased menstrual cramping (relative risk adjusted [RRadj], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.85), heavier bleeding (RRadj, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.92), and increased bleeding frequency (RRadj, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67-0.80) were less likely to report being very satisfied at 6 months. Regardless of the LARC method, satisfaction at 3 and 6 months is very high. Changes in self-reported bleeding and cramping are associated with short-term LARC satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 31. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician . 2013;88( ...

  14. Sleep disorders and the prevalence of asymptomatic nocturnal acid and non-acid reflux.

    PubMed

    Herdman, Christine; Marzio, Dina Halegoua-De; Shah, Paurush; Denuna-Rivera, Susie; Doghramji, Karl; Cohen, Sidney; Dimarino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal acid reflux is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic sleep arousals, leading to fragmented sleep. The frequency and influence of acid reflux in patients with various forms of insomnia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to quantify nocturnal acid and nonacid reflux in patients with primary sleep disorders as previously diagnosed by polysomnography. THIRTY ONE SUBJECTS WERE STUDIED: (A) 9 subjects with a polysomnographically diagnosed sleep disorder (1 with restless legs syndrome, 4 with narcolepsy, 4 with periodic limb movement disorder); (B) 12 subjects with primary insomnia (PI) and unrevealing polysomnography; and (C) 10 controls without disturbed sleep. All subjects underwent a physical examination and 24 h transnasal pH and impedance monitoring to detect acid and non-acid reflux. The 21 subjects with fragmented sleep due to a primary sleep disorder had significantly more recumbent acid exposure (>1.2% of time) as compared with control subjects (33% versus 0%). When fragmented sleep subjects were divided into two groups, 17% of PI subjects and 55% of subjects with a diagnosed sleep disorder had significant recumbent acid exposure (P=0.009). Likewise, the median recumbent nonacid events were increased in the sleep disordered group (P=0.011). This study indicates that patients with primary sleep disorders have prominent nocturnal acid reflux without symptoms of daytime acid reflux. Acid reflux is most prominent in patients with polysomnographic findings of disturbed sleep as compared to patients with PI; while non acid reflux is increased minimally in these patients.

  15. [Prevalence of calf muscle cramps and influencing factors for pregnant women in China during 2010-2012].

    PubMed

    Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Bi, Y; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of calf muscle cramps and possible influencing factors for pregnant women in China. Methods: Using a multi-stage stratified probability proportional to size cluster randomization sampling method during 2010-2012. A total of 3 582 pregnant women were investigated at 150 counties from 31 provinces in China mainland. Information on calf muscle cramps, demographic socio-economic status, pregnancy information, and the physical activities was collected through questionnaires. The semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect food intake of pregnant women. Dynamic cluster analysis was used to assess dietary pattern. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the possible influencing factors for calf muscle cramps. Results: The prevalence of calf muscle cramps was 32.9% (1 180/3 582) in Chinese pregnant women, which was 11.6% (87/748), 28.2% (420/1 492), and 50.2% (673/1 342), respectively, during the first, second and third trimester. There were significant differences between them (χ(2)=349.16, P< 0.001). Dietary patterns of the pregnant women were classified into three groups, which called relatively balanced pattern, high vegetables and fruits pattern, and high dairy pattern. Among the three groups, the prevalence of calf muscle cramps was 32.0% (952/2 971), 37.2% (186/500), and 37.8% (42/111), with significant differences (χ(2)=6.39, P= 0.041). The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the second and third trimester was 2.96 (2.28-3.83), and 8.02 (6.16-10.44), respectively, comparing with the first trimester. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the women taking calcium before pregnant was 1.45 (1.19-1.76), comparing with the one who was not taken. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the women who had been diagnosed by pregnancy-induced hypertension was 5.76 (2.06-16.12), comparing with the one who had not been diagnosed. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf

  16. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  17. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    the laboratory. Harry Asada, Wayne Book, Nancy Cornelius, Sesh Murthy and Ivan Sutherland read various drafts of this report, for which we are...particularly helpful in providing an atmosphere where things could get started. Craig Fields and Clint Kelly deserve special credit for letting the idea of...legged technology capture their imaginations, even before we could show them tangible results. We are especially indebted to Ivan Sutherland for his

  18. Quantitative rest activity in ambulatory monitoring as a physiological marker of restless legs syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tuisku, Katinka; Holi, Matti Mikael; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Ahlgren, Aulikki Johanna; Lauerma, Hannu

    2003-04-01

    An objective marker of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is needed for developing diagnostic tools and monitoring symptoms. Actometric ambulatory monitoring of 15 RLS patients and 15 healthy controls was undertaken in order to differentiate between RLS-related motor symptoms and normal motor activity. Nocturnal lower-limb activity per minute differentiated and discriminated between groups with no overlap, whereas the periodic limb movement index and the controlled rest activity during sitting showed less discriminative power. The naturalistic recording of nocturnal activity by actometry may prove useful for assessing the severity of RLS and for finding an objective marker to support the diagnosis of RLS. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society

  19. Increased Urine Production Due to Leg Fluid Displacement Reduces Hours of Undisturbed Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kiba, Keisuke; Hirayama, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Motokiyo; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2017-07-03

    To investigate whether or not the leg fluid displacement observed when moving from the standing to recumbent position at bedtime reduces the hours of undisturbed sleep (HUS). Men aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized for urological diseases were investigated. Body water evaluation was performed three times with a bioelectric impedance method: (i) 17:00, (ii) 30 min after (short-term), and (iii) waking up (long-term). A frequency volume chart was used to evaluate the status of nocturnal urine production, and the factors affecting HUS were investigated. A total of 50 patients (mean age: 68 years) were enrolled. Short-term changes in extracellular fluid (ECF in the legs showed a significant positive correlation with urine production per unit of time at the first nocturnal voiding (UFN/HUS) (r = 0.45, P = 0.01). In the comparison between patients who had <3 HUS vs. those who had ≥3 HUS, the <3 HUS group showed significantly greater short-term changes in leg fluid volume, night-time water intake (17:00-06:00), and UFN/HUS. Multivariate analysis to assess the risk factors for <3 HUS indicated UFN/HUS as a risk factor in the overall model, and short-term changes in leg ECF and night-time water intake as risk factors in the model that only considered factors before sleep. Nocturnal leg fluid displacement may increase urine production leading up to first voiding after going to bed, and consequently, induce early awakening after falling asleep. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The Behavioral Treatment of Childhood Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that of the treatments attempted for nocturnal enuresis, pharmacotherapy, individual psychotherapy, and behavioral conditioning, the most effective is behavioral conditioning with a urine alarm. Reviews the enuresis literature and provides recommendations for use of the urine alarm approach. (Author/ABB)

  1. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  2. Nocturnal Oviposition Behavior of Forensically Important Diptera in Central England.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kate M; Grace, Karon A; Bulling, Mark T

    2015-11-01

    Timing of oviposition on a corpse is a key factor in entomologically based minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) calculations. However, there is considerable variation in nocturnal oviposition behavior of blow flies reported in the research literature. This study investigated nocturnal oviposition in central England for the first time, over 25 trials from 2011 to 2013. Liver-baited traps were placed in an urban location during control (diurnal), and nocturnal periods and environmental conditions were recorded during each 5-h trial. No nocturnal activity or oviposition was observed during the course of the study indicating that nocturnal oviposition is highly unlikely in central England. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Musician's cramp as manifestation of maladaptive brain plasticity: arguments from instrumental differences.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Baur, Volker; Hofmann, Aurélie; Lim, Vanessa K; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2012-04-01

    Musician's cramp is a task-specific movement disorder that presents itself as muscular incoordination or loss of voluntary motor control of extensively trained movements while a musician is playing the instrument. It is characterized by task specificity and gender bias, affecting significantly more males than females. The etiology is multifaceted: a combination of a genetic predisposition, termed endophenotype, and behavioral triggering factors being the leading features for the manifestation of the disorder. We present epidemiological data from 591 musician patients from our outpatient clinic demonstrating an influence of fine-motor requirements on the manifestation of dystonia. Brass, guitar, and woodwind players were at greater risk than other instrumentalists. High temporospatial precision of movement patterns, synchronous demands on tonic and phasic muscular activation, in combination with fine-motor burdens of using the dominant hand in daily life activities, constitute as triggering factors for the disorder and may explain why different body parts are affected. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Impaired force control in writer's cramp showing a bilateral deficit in sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Bleton, Jean-Pierre; Teremetz, Maxime; Vidailhet, Marie; Mesure, Serge; Maier, Marc A; Lindberg, Påvel G

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal cortical processing of sensory inputs has been found bilaterally in writer's cramp (WC). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with WC have an impaired ability to adjust grip forces according to visual and somatosensory cues in both hands. A unimanual visuomotor force-tracking task and a bimanual sense of effort force-matching task were performed by WC patients and healthy controls. In visuomotor tracking, WC patients showed increased error, greater variability, and longer release duration than controls. In the force-matching task, patients underestimated, whereas controls overestimated, the force applied in the other hand. Visuomotor tracking and force matching were equally impaired in both the symptomatic and nonsymptomatic hand in WC patients. This study provides evidence of bilaterally impaired grip-force control in WC, when using visual or sense of effort cues. This suggests a generalized subclinical deficit in sensorimotor integration in WC. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Somatosensory cortical remodelling after rehabilitation and clinical benefit of in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Bleton, Jean Pierre; Vidailhet, Marie; Bourdain, Frédéric; Ducorps, Antoine; Schwartz, Denis; Delmaire, Christine; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Renault, Bernard; Garnero, Line; Meunier, Sabine

    2011-05-01

    In order to explore the pathophysiological basis of a new rehabilitation therapy in writer's cramp (WC), healthy controls, untreated WC patients and WC patients who recovered a legible handwriting after rehabilitation were explored using magnetoencephalography, and the somatosensory evoked fields of fingers I, II, III and V in the sensory cortex were studied. In the cortex controlling the dystonic limb, the size of the hand representation in the trained patients was similar to that of healthy controls, and significantly different from that of untrained patients. Trained patients exhibited 'super-normal' reorganisation of the finger maps. In the cortex controlling the non-dystonic limb, there was little difference between trained and untrained patients, and the hand representation was enlarged and disorganised. The authors hypothesise that prolonged tailored rehabilitation in WC may induce long-term plasticity phenomena, lateralised to the cortex controlling the dystonic hand.

  6. Abnormalities of Eye-Hand Coordination in Patients with Writer's Cramp: Possible Role of the Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Kotikalapudi, Raviteja; Lenka, Abhishek; Thennarassu, Kandavel; Yadav, Ravi; Saini, Jitender; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Writer's cramp (WC) is one of the commonly observed focal dystonias. The pathophysiology of WC has not been fully understood. The role of the cerebellum has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of dystonia. As the cerebellum is crucial for maintaining accurate eye-hand coordination (EHC), its role in the pathogenesis of WC can be investigated by studying the EHC in patients with WC. Fifteen patients with WC (women:men, 3:12) and 15 age- and gender-matched controls performed oculomotor and EHC tasks. A visually guided stimulus (VGS) task was first performed with eye-only condition (EOC) and then with EHC. A significant interaction between the groups (controls and patients) and tasks (EOC and EHC) with age as a covariate confirmed that the two groups reacted differently to the tasks in saccadic latency (F(1,27) = 4.8; p = 0.039) and average saccade acceleration (F(1,27) = 10.6; p = 0.003). The curvature index of acceleration of the hand was significantly more in patients compared to controls (patients vs. controls, 2.4±0.4 vs. 1.8±0.2, p = 0.01). While performing the EHC task, there was a significant correlation of the Writer's Cramp Rating Score with the average saccadic speed (-0.61, p = 0.016), peak saccadic deceleration (0.59, p = 0.019) and average saccadic acceleration (-0.63, p = 0.012). Saccadic acceleration and latency are abnormal while performing EHC tasks in patients with WC. Our study gives further insights into the possible role of the cerebellum in the pathogenesis of WC.

  7. Effect of muscle activity immediately after botulinum toxin injection for writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Karp, B I; Goldstein, S R; Bara-Jimenez, W; Yaseen, Z; Hallett, M

    1999-03-01

    Animal and human studies have shown that nerve stimulation enhances some effects of botulinum toxin (btx A) injection. Voluntary muscle activity might work similarly and would focus the effect of an injection into the active muscles. We studied the effects of exercise immediately after btx A injection in eight patients with writer's cramp with established response to btx A over two injection cycles with a single-blinded, randomized, crossover design. Immediately after the first study injection, they were randomly assigned to write continuously for 30 min or have their hand and forearm immobilized for 30 min. Following the second injection, they were assigned the alternate condition. Patients were assessed just before each injection, and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months post-injection. Assessment included objective strength testing, self-reported rating of benefit and weakness, and blinded evaluation of videotapes and writing samples of the patients writing a standard passage. Strength testing showed that the maximum weakness occurred at 2 weeks post-injection, but the benefit was maximum at 6 weeks post-injection. The "write" condition resulted in greater reduction in strength than the "rest" condition. Btx A treatment led to improvement in self-reported ratings, writer's cramp rating scale scores by blinded raters, and reduction in writing time, but the differences between the "write" and "rest" conditions were not significant. We conclude that voluntary muscle activity immediately after btx A injection leads to greater reduction in muscle strength. Our findings raise the possibility that voluntary muscle activation may allow reduction of btx A doses and favorably alter the balance of benefit and side effects of btx A injections.

  8. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induced modulations of resting state motor connectivity in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Bharath, R D; Biswal, B B; Bhaskar, M V; Gohel, S; Jhunjhunwala, K; Panda, R; George, L; Gupta, A K; Pal, P K

    2015-05-01

    Writer's cramp (WC) is a focal task-specific dystonia of the hand which is increasingly being accepted as a network disorder. Non-invasive cortical stimulation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has produced therapeutic benefits in some of these patients. This study aimed to visualize the motor network abnormalities in WC and also its rTMS induced modulations using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Nineteen patients with right-sided WC and 20 matched healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively evaluated. All patients underwent a single session of rTMS and rsfMRI was acquired before (R1) and after (R2) rTMS. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis of several regions in the motor network was performed for HCs, R1 and R2 using SPM8 software. Thresholded (P < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected) group level mean correlation maps were used to derive significantly connected region of interest pairs. Writer's cramp showed a significant reduction in resting state functional connectivity in comparison with HCs involving the left cerebellum, thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, bilateral supplementary motor area, right medial prefrontal lobe and right post central gyrus. After rTMS there was a significant increase in the contralateral resting state functional connectivity through the left thalamus-right globus pallidus-right thalamus-right prefrontal lobe network loop. It is concluded that WC is a network disorder with widespread dysfunction much larger than clinically evident and changes induced by rTMS probably act through subcortical and trans-hemispheric unaffected connections. Longitudinal studies with therapeutic rTMS will be required to ascertain whether such information could be used to select patients prior to rTMS therapy. © 2015 EAN.

  9. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  10. The Formylpeptide Receptor 2 (Fpr2) and Its Endogenous Ligand Cathelin-related Antimicrobial Peptide (CRAMP) Promote Dendritic Cell Maturation*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Keqiang; Xiang, Yi; Huang, Jiaqiang; Gong, Wanghua; Yoshimura, Teizo; Jiang, Qun; Tessarollo, Lino; Le, Yingying; Wang, Ji Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mouse formylpeptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) is a homologue of the human G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor FPR2, which interacts with pathogen and host-derived chemotactic agonists. Our previous studies revealed reduced allergic airway inflammation and immune responses in Fpr2-deficient (Fpr2−/−) mice in association with diminished dendritic cell (DC) recruitment into the airway and draining lymph nodes. These defects prompted us to investigate the potential changes in the differentiation and maturation of DCs caused by Fpr2 deficiency. Bone marrow monocytes from Fpr2−/− mouse mice incubated with GM-CSF and IL-4 in vitro showed normal expression of markers of immature DCs. However, upon stimulation with the TLR4 agonist LPS, Fpr2−/− mouse DCs failed to express normal levels of maturation markers with reduced production of IL-12 and diminished chemotaxis in response to the DC homing chemokine CCL21. Fpr2−/− DCs also failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation in vitro, and their recruitment into the T-cell zones of the spleen was reduced after antigen immunization. The capacity of Fpr2 to sustain normal DC maturation was dependent on its interaction with an endogenous ligand CRAMP expressed by DCs, because neutralization of either Fpr2 or CRAMP inhibited DC maturation in response to LPS. We additionally observed that the presence of exogenous CRAMP in culture increased the sensitivity of WT mouse DCs to LPS stimulation. The importance of CRAMP for DC maturation was further demonstrated by the observations that DCs from CRAMP−/− mice expressed lower levels of costimulatory molecules and MHC II and exhibited poor chemotaxis in response to CCL21 after LPS stimulation. Our observations indicate a nonredundant role for Fpr2 and its agonist CRAMP in DC maturation in immune responses. PMID:24808174

  11. Subsidence in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Merrilee A.; Stull, Roland B.

    1986-08-01

    Nights with clear skies and strong radiative cooling that favor the formation of statically stable nocturnal boundary layers (NBL) are also those nights most likely to have subsidence, because of the presence of synoptic high-pressure regions. The divergence associated with subsidence laterally removes some of the chilled nocturnal boundary layer air causing the NBL to not grow as rapidly as would otherwise be expected. An equivalent interpretation is that subsidence-induced heating partially counteracts the radiative and turbulent cooling.A new form of nocturnal integral depth scale, HT, is introduced that incorporates the heating and cooling contributions at night. This scale can be used with a variety of idealized temperature profile shapes, including slab, linear, and exponential. It is shown that observed values of subsidence for two case studies can reduce the NBL growth rate, as measured by HT/t, by 5 to 50% and can cause corresponding errors in the estimation of accumulated cooling unless there is a proper accounting of subsidence.Subsidence plays a very minor role close to the ground, but for the case studies presented here its heating rate increases with height and becomes of comparable magnitude to the cooling rates of turbulence and radiation within the top third of the NBL. Although no adequate measurements of horizontal advective effects were available for the case studies used here, it appears from an energy balance that advection must not be neglected because its magnitude can be as large as turbulence and radiation.

  12. Slow eye movements distribution during nocturnal sleep.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Fabbri, Margherita; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro; Provini, Federica; Ferri, Raffaele; Montagna, Pasquale

    2011-08-01

    To assess the distribution across nocturnal sleep of slow eye movements (SEMs). We evaluated SEMs distribution in the different sleep stages, and across sleep cycles in nocturnal recordings of 10 healthy women. Sleep was scored according to standard criteria, and the percentage of time occupied by the SEMs was automatically detected. SEMs were differently represented during sleep stages with the following order: wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO): 61%, NREM sleep stage 1: 54%, REM sleep: 43%, NREM sleep stage 2: 21%, NREM sleep stage 3: 7%, and NREM sleep stage 4: 3% (p<0.0001). There was no difference between phasic and tonic REM sleep. SEMs progressively decreased across the NREM sleep cycles (38%, 15%, 13% during NREM sleep stage 2 in the first three sleep cycles, p=0.006), whereas no significant difference was found for REM, NREM sleep stage 1, slow-wave sleep and WASO. Our findings confirm that SEMs are a phenomenon typical of the sleep onset period, but are also found in REM sleep. The nocturnal evolution of SEMs during NREM sleep stage 2 parallels the homeostatic process underlying slow-wave sleep. SEMs are a marker of sleepiness and, potentially, of sleep homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  14. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and “subjective” hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). Interventions: None. Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Results: Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 ± 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 ± 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 ± 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 ± 0.015, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. Citation: Pizza F, Vandi S

  15. Nocturnal bees are attracted by widespread floral scents.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Airton Torres; Maia, Artur Campos Dalia; Ojima, Poliana Yumi; dos Santos, Adauto A; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2012-03-01

    Flower localization in darkness is a challenging task for nocturnal pollinators. Floral scents often play a crucial role in guiding them towards their hosts. Using common volatile compounds of floral scents, we trapped female nocturnal Megalopta-bees (Halictidae), thus uncovering olfactory cues involved in their search for floral resources. Applying a new sampling method hereby described, we offer novel perspectives on the investigation of nocturnal bees.

  16. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p <0.05). Furthermore, a positive correlation was seen between nocturnal urine output and nocturnal mean arterial pressure (r = 0.32, p <0.001). Nocturnal urine output was significantly higher during wet nights than dry nights (p <0.001). However, no significant difference was found in mean arterial pressure between wet and dry nights. Nocturnal mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in children with enuresis with polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  17. Nocturnal Polyuria: Excess of Nocturnal Urine Production, Excess of Definitions-Influence on Renal Function Profile.

    PubMed

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Walle, Johan Vande; Bosch, Ruud; Hoebeke, Piet; Everaert, Karel

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to identify important differences in renal function profile, and potential water and sodium diuresis cutoffs among participants with nocturnal polyuria according to nocturnal polyuria definitions. This post hoc analysis was based on a prospective study in which participants completed a bladder diary, collected urine and provided a blood sample. With an age dependent nocturnal polyuria index greater than 20% to 33% as the referent 4 definitions of nocturnal polyuria were compared, including 1) nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33%, 2) nocturnal urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and 3) greater than 10 ml/kg, and 4) nocturia index greater than 1.5. In 112 male and female participants significant differences in baseline characteristics and bladder diary parameters were found according to definition. Diuresis rate, free water clearance and sodium clearance had similar 24-hour courses in the subgroups with and without polyuria by each definition. The range varied more in the subgroup with vs without polyuria, especially at night for diuresis rate and free water clearance. At night the latter decreased in the polyuria subgroup based on each definition (p <0.001 to 0.045). A significant difference vs the no polyuria subgroups was found only for urine production greater than 90 ml per hour and polyuria index greater than 20% to 33%. For each definition sodium clearance remained high in the polyuria subgroup, which differed significantly from the no polyuria subgroups (p <0.001 to 0.030). Free water and sodium clearance cutoffs ranged from -0.65 to -0.85 ml per minute between 12 and 2 a.m., and 0.65 to 0.77 ml per minute between 3 and 5 a.m., respectively, with large sensitivity and specificity differences according to definition. There were important differences when comparing participants with vs without nocturnal polyuria by definition. The renal function profile indicating the pathophysiological mechanism of nocturnal polyuria did not

  18. Patterns and Processes in Nocturnal and Crepuscular Pollination Services.

    PubMed

    Borges, Renee M; Somanathan, Hema; Kelber, Almut

    2016-12-01

    Night, dawn, and dusk have abiotic features that differ from the day. Illumination, wind speeds, turbulence, and temperatures are lower while humidity may be higher at night. Nocturnal pollination occurred in 30% of angiosperm families across 68% of orders, 97% of families with C3, two-thirds of families with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), and 71% dicot families with C4 photosynthesis. Despite its widespread occurence, nocturnal pollination occurs in more families with xerophytic adaptations than helophytes or mesophytes, suggesting that nocturnal flowering is primarily an adaptation to water stress since flowering is a water-intensive process. We propose the arid or water stress hypothesis for nocturnal flowering suggesting that plants facing water stress in a habitat (e.g., deserts) or a habitat stratum (e.g., upper canopy for epiphytes) gain a selective advantage by nocturnal flowering by reducing water loss through evapotranspiration, leading to larger flowers that provide more nectar or other resources, to support pollinators with higher rewards. Contrary to the wide taxonomic occurrence of nocturnal flowering, few animal taxa serve as nocturnal pollinators. We discuss the sensory and physiological abilities that enable pollinator movement, navigation, and detection of flowers within the nocturnal temporal niche and present a unified framework for investigation of nocturnal flowering and pollination.

  19. Writing kinematics and pen forces in writer's cramp: effects of task and clinical subtype.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A S; Baur, B; Fürholzer, W; Jasper, I; Marquardt, C; Hermsdörfer, J

    2010-11-01

    Writer's Cramp (WC) is defined as a task-specific form of focal-hand-dystonia generating hypertonic muscle co-contractions resulting in impaired handwriting. Little is known about kinematic and dynamic characteristics in handwriting in the different subtypes of WC. In this study, kinematic and force analyses were used to compare handwriting capacity of 14 simple, 13 dystonic WC-patients and 14 healthy subjects. The effect of task-complexity was investigated using a simple repetitive writing-task, writing pairs of letters, a sentence and copying a text. In general, patients showed significant deficits in kinematic and force parameters during writing, but no consistent differences between the two subtypes of WC were found. The complexity of writing material modulated writing parameters in all groups, but less complex material did not ameliorate the patients' deficits relative to control subjects. The similarity of deficits in patients with simple and dystonic WC does not support the concept of a unitary progression of deficits causing a switch from simple to dystonic WC. Dystonic WC seems to be characterized by a spread of symptoms independent of severity. Obviously, the deficits concern elementary aspects of writing and are not modulated by more complex aspects. Quantification of writing deficits by simple and short phrases with kinematic and force parameters can substantially improve the characterization of WC. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impairment of a parieto-premotor network specialized for handwriting in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Gallea, Cecile; Horovitz, Silvina G; Najee-Ullah, Muslimah 'Ali; Hallett, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Handwriting with the dominant hand is a highly skilled task singularly acquired in humans. This skill is the isolated deficit in patients with writer's cramp (WC), a form of dystonia with maladaptive plasticity, acquired through intensive and repetitive motor practice. When a skill is highly trained, a motor program is created in the brain to execute the same movement kinematics regardless of the effector used for the task. The task- and effector-specific symptoms in WC suggest that a problem particularly occurs in the brain when the writing motor program is carried out by the dominant hand. In this MRI study involving 12 WC patients (with symptoms only affecting the right dominant hand during writing) and 15 age matched unaffected controls we showed that: (1) the writing program recruited the same network regardless of the effector used to write in both groups; (2) dominant handwriting recruited a segregated parieto-premotor network only in the control group; (3) local structural alteration of the premotor area, the motor component of this network, predicted functional connectivity deficits during dominant handwriting and symptom duration in the patient group. Dysfunctions and structural abnormalities of a segregated parieto-premotor network in WC patients suggest that network specialization in focal brain areas is crucial for well-learned motor skill. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4363-4375, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Impairment of a parieto-premotor network specialized for handwriting in writer's cramp

    PubMed Central

    Najee-ullah, Muslimah 'Ali; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting with the dominant hand is a highly skilled task singularly acquired in humans. This skill is the isolated deficit in patients with writer's cramp (WC), a form of dystonia with maladaptive plasticity, acquired through intensive and repetitive motor practice. When a skill is highly trained, a motor program is created in the brain to execute the same movement kinematics regardless of the effector used for the task. The task- and effector-specific symptoms in WC suggest that a problem particularly occurs in the brain when the writing motor program is carried out by the dominant hand. In the present MRI study involving 12 WC patients (with symptoms only affecting the right dominant hand during writing) and 15 age matched unaffected controls we showed that: (1) the writing program recruited the same network regardless of the effector used to write in both groups; (2) dominant handwriting recruited a segregated parieto-premotor network only in the control group; (3) local structural alteration of the premotor area, the motor component of this network, predicted functional connectivity deficits during dominant handwriting and symptom duration in the patient group. Dysfunctions and structural abnormalities of a segregated parieto-premotor network in WC patients suggest that network specialization in focal brain areas is crucial for well-learned motor skill. PMID:27466043

  2. Cramp-fasciculation syndrome in patients with and without neural autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Liewluck, Teerin; Klein, Christopher J; Jones, Lyell K

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the clinical, electrophysiological and neural autoantibody characteristics in cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS) patients. We reviewed Mayo Clinic records from 2000 to 2011 to identify clinically defined CFS patients who underwent neural autoantibody testing. Stored sera of patients who tested positive for antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex) were analyzed further for leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) or contactin-associated protein-2 immunoglobulin G (CASPR2-IgG) antibodies. Thirty-seven patients were identified. Twelve were seropositive for neural autoantibodies. Clinical manifestations were similar in seropositive and seronegative patients, although central and autonomic neuronal hyperexcitability symptoms were more common in seropositive cases. No patients had a malignancy. Repetitive tibial nerve stimulation at 10 Hz revealed longer afterdischarges in seropositive patients. Two of 7 patients with VGKC-complex autoimmunity demonstrated LGI1 or CASPR2-IgG antibodies. Only 2 of 12 seropositive patients required immunotherapy. VGKC-complex autoimmunity occurs in a minority of CFS patients. Antibody positivity was associated with extramuscular manifestations, typically without malignancy. Target antigens within the VGKC complex remain unknown in most patients. Published 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in primary writing tremor and writer’s cramp: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Hirdesh; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The precise pathophysiology of primary writing tremor (PWT) and writer’s cramp (WC) is not known. The aim of this study is to compare the cerebral activation patterns in patients of PWT, WC and healthy controls, during a task of signing on paper, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Materials and Methods: Six subjects with PWT, three with WC and six healthy volunteers were examined using a 1.5-Tesla scanner. The paradigm consisted of three times repetition of a set of period of rest and activity. Each set consisted of 10 blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions at rest followed by 10 BOLD EPI acquisitions while signing their names on paper using the dominant right hand. Entire brain was covered. SPM99 analysis was done. Results: In comparison to the healthy controls, the following differences in cerebral activation were noted in the patients: (a) primary and supplementary motor areas showed overactivation in patients of PWT and underactivation in patients of WC, (b) the cingulate motor area showed underactivation in patients of PWT and overactivation in patients of WC and (c) the cerebellar activity was reduced in both WC and PWT. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that the cerebral and cerebellar activation patterns in PWT and WC during signing on paper are distinct from each other and from healthy controls. There may be cerebellar dysfunction in addition to motor dysfunctions in the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:21085530

  4. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rebecca M D; Aflaifel, Nasreen; Bamigboye, Anthony A

    2015-10-19

    Pregnancy is presumed to be a major contributory factor in the increased incidence of varicose veins in women, which can in turn lead to venous insufficiency and leg oedema. The most common symptom of varicose veins and oedema is the substantial pain experienced, as well as night cramps, numbness, tingling, the legs may feel heavy, achy, and possibly be unsightly. Treatments for varicose veins are usually divided into three main groups: surgery, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Treatments of leg oedema comprise mostly symptom reduction rather than cure and use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. To assess any form of intervention used to relieve the symptoms associated with varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials of treatments for varicose veins or leg oedema, or both, in pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included seven trials (involving 326 women). The trials were largely unclear for selection bias and high risk for performance and detection bias.Two studies were placebo-controlled trials. The first one compared a phlebotonic (rutoside) with placebo for the reduction in symptoms of varicose veins; the second study evaluated the efficacy of troxerutin in comparison to placebo among 30 pregnant women in their second trimester with symptomatic vulvar varicosities and venous insufficiency in their lower extremities. Data from this study were not in useable format, so were not included in the analysis. Two trials compared either compression stockings with resting in left lateral position or reflexology with rest for 15 minutes for the reduction of leg oedema. One trial compared standing water immersion for 20 minutes with sitting upright in a chair with legs elevated for 20

  5. Desmopressin is an Effective Treatment for Mixed Nocturia with Nocturnal Polyuria and Decreased Nocturnal Bladder Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jeong Gu; Park, Choal Hee; Paick, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Han, Deok Hyun; Park, Won Hee

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4±44.1 to 220.3±90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia. PMID:21165296

  6. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for mixed nocturia with nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jeong Gu; Park, Choal Hee; Paick, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Han, Deok Hyun; Park, Won Hee; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥ 18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥ 2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4 ± 44.1 to 220.3 ± 90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.

  7. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  8. Getting Your Sea Legs.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.

  9. Association between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Fujii, Akihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2003-11-01

    To examine the relationship between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux. Controlled descriptive study and double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' home. Ten patients with bruxism and 10 normal subjects were matched for height, weight, age, and sex. They did not have symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Medication with a proton pump inhibitor (ie, a gastric-acid-inhibiting drug). The bruxism group showed a significantly higher frequency of nocturnal rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes (mean +/- SD: 6.7 +/- 2.2 times per hour) and a higher frequency and percentage of time of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 4.0 and 5.0 (0.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.6 +/- 1.6 times per hour and 1.3% +/- 2.5% and 7.4% +/- 12.6%, respectively) than the control group (RMMA episodes: 2.4 +/- 0.9 times per hour; gastroesophageal reflux episodes: 0.0 +/- 0.0 and 0.1 +/- 0.3 times per hour and 0.0% +/- 0.0% and 0.0% +/- 0.0%, respectively). In the bruxism group, 100% of the gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 3.0 and 4.0 included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst, the duration of which was approximately 0.5 to 1.0 seconds, probably representing swallowing of saliva. The majority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 also included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst in the control and bruxism groups (100% +/- 0.0% vs 70.7% +/- 16.5%), again probably due to swallowing of saliva. The remaining minority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 contained only an electromyographic burst (swallowing of saliva). The frequency of RMMA episodes after the release of the medication from the proton pump inhibitor, which increased the gastric and esophageal pH, was significantly lower than that after administration of the placebo in the control

  10. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Cross-sectional. Sleep laboratory. One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and "subjective" hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). None. Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 ± 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 ± 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 ± 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 ± 0.015, P < 0.0001). Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Ipratropium bromide in patients with nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, I. D.; Hughes, D. T.; McDonnell, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen patients with nocturnal asthma were recruited to a two period crossover trial which compared a run-in period on nightly salbutamol (200 micrograms) with a period on nightly ipratropium bromide (160 micrograms) and a period on nightly salbutamol plus ipratropium at night. Morning dipping, as assessed by the fall in peak flow overnight, was significantly reduced in the periods when ipratropium bromide was taken. Peak flow in the morning and also at night was improved when taking ipratropium bromide. Ipratropium bromide in adequate dosage appears to be effective in reducing morning dipping in asthma. PMID:6236436

  12. Portal vein thrombosis in paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Tomizuka, H; Hatake, K; Kitagawa, S; Yamashita, K; Arai, H; Miura, Y

    1999-01-01

    A 28-year-old man was hospitalized with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and low-grade fever. He had a 6-month history of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), and laboratory data showed anaemia and liver dysfunction. An abdominal ultrasonography showed ascites and portal vein thrombosis. After receiving antithrombotic treatment, the portal vein thrombosis did not extend. Portal vein thrombosis is very rare but should be considered when we encounter liver dysfunction associated with PNH as well as hepatic vein thrombosis. Ultrasonography is very useful in detecting portal vein thrombosis and facilitating early diagnosis. Warfarin is very effective in preventing exacerbation of portal vein thrombosis in PNH.

  13. CT angiography - arms and legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007675.htm CT angiography - arms and legs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection ...

  14. [Replantation at lower leg level].

    PubMed

    Daigeler, A; Fansa, H; Westphal, T; Schneider, W

    2003-11-01

    Replantation in reconstructive surgery is an established procedure due to microsurgical techniques. It can be routinely performed in unilateral lower leg amputation. In some cases of bilateral amputation, in which orthotopic replantation is not possible due to the complex trauma, heterotopic replantation is a therapeutic option. This avoids prosthetic fitting. We report five cases of orthotopic and two of heterotopic lower limb replantations. Functional outcome concerning sensibility, mobility, pain, and aesthetic result were assessed clinically and using a questionnaire. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction were good. The psychological situation of the patients as well as mobility and stability of the replanted limbs were satisfying. Heterotopically replanted patients found the replanted legs superior to the prostheses. We conclude that, in lower leg amputation, attempts should be made to replant the extremity. In bilateral lower leg amputations, at least one limb should be reconstructed, even if "only" a heterotopic replantation can be performed.

  15. The Collaborative Randomised Amnioinfusion for Meconium Project (CRAMP): 1. South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G J; Gülmezoğlu, A M; Buchmann, E; Howarth, G R; Shaw, A; Nikodem, V C; Cronje, H; de Jager, M; Mahomed, K

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate transcervical amnioinfusion for meconium stained amniotic fluid during labout. Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Four urban academic hospitals in South Africa. Obstetric surveillance included the use of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in most cases. Women in labour at term with moderate or thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. Transcervical amnioinfusion of 800 mL saline at 15 mL per minute, followed by a maintenance infusion at 3 mL per minute. The control group received routine care. Blinding of the intervention was not possible. Caesarean section, meconium aspiration syndrome and perinatal mortality. Caesarean section rates were similar (amnioinfusion group 70/167 vs control group 68/159; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.26). The incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome was lower than expected on the basis of previous studies (4/162 vs 6/163; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.19-2.33). There were no perinatal deaths. There were no significant differences between any of the subsidiary outcomes. This study concurred with three previous trials which found no effect of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid on caesarean section rate, though the pooled data from all identified trials to date show a significant reduction. The findings with respect to meconium aspiration syndrome were inconclusive in this study alone because of the small number of babies affected, but the point estimate of the relative risk was consistent with the finding of a significant reduction in previous studies and with the Zimbabwe arm (CRAMP 2) of this study. Pooled data clearly support the use of amnioinfusion for meconium stained amniotic fluid to reduce the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome.

  16. The risks of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Graveling, Alex J; Frier, Brian M

    2017-11-01

    Over half of all episodes of severe hypoglycaemia (requiring external help) occur during sleep, but nocturnal hypoglycaemia is often asymptomatic and unrecognised. The precise incidence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia is difficult to determine with no agreed definition, but continuous glucose monitoring has shown that it occurs frequently in people taking insulin. Attenuation of the counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycaemia during sleep may explain why some episodes are undetected and more prolonged, and modifies cardiovascular responses. The morbidity and mortality associated with nocturnal hypoglycaemia is probably much greater than realised, causing seizures, coma and cardiovascular events and affecting quality of life, mood and work performance the following day. It may induce impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia. Cardiac arrhythmias that occur during nocturnal hypoglycaemia include bradycardia and ectopics that may provoke dangerous arrhythmias. Treatment strategies are discussed that may help to minimise the frequency of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endurance performance and nocturnal HRV indices.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2010-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated. Twenty-four sedentary subjects trained over four weeks two hours per week at an average running intensity of 76+/-4% of their heart rate reserve. The R to R ECG-intervals were recorded and heart rate variability indices including high frequency power (HFP) were calculated for the nights following the training days every week. The subjects were divided into responders and non-responders according to the improvements in the maximal velocity of the incremental treadmill test (v(max)). The responders improved their v(max) by 10.9+/-46 % (p < 0.001) while no changes were observed in the non-responders (1.6+/-3.0%), although there were no differences in any training load variables between the groups. In the responders nocturnal HFP was significantly higher during the fourth training week compared to the first training week (p=0.036). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the change in v(max) and the change in nocturnal HFP (r=0.482, p=0.042). It was concluded that after similar training, an increase in cardiac vagal modulation was related to improved v(max) in the sedentary subjects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  18. Understanding nocturnal enuresis and its treatments.

    PubMed

    Potter, D C; Wogoman, H A; Nietch, P

    1999-09-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a condition that touches the lives of many children around the world. Affected children and their parents may experience feelings of guilt, frustration, and anxiety because of their lack of control over the situation. Nurses can play an important role in providing education to families in regards to the causes and treatment of enuresis. It is important for nurses to understand the problem of bedwetting thoroughly so they can assist the family in making an informed decision about the various options currently available. Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a common disorder that frequently results in frustration and stress on not only the children that experience it, but their parents as well. Scharf, Pravda, Jennings, Kauffman, and Ringel (1987) note that an estimated five to seven million children in America experience enuresis. Enuresis has family and psychosocial aspects, along with financial concerns. Therefore, it is important for nurses to be aware of the causes of enuresis, how it affects the family, and the current treatments that are available.

  19. Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Leg pairs as virtual wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Russel; Duttweiler, Mark; Khanlian, Luke; Setrakian, Mark

    2005-05-01

    We propose the use of virtual wheels as the starting point of a new vehicle design. Each virtual wheel incorporates a pair of simple legs that, by simulating the rotary motion and ground contact of a traditional wheel, combine many of the benefits of legged and wheeled motion. We describe the use of virtual wheels in the design of a robotic mule, presenting an analysis of the mule's mobility the results of our efforts to model and build such a device.

  1. Ocean Drilling Program: Completed Legs

    Science.gov Websites

    . Austin Leg summary Repository Wolfgang Schlager 102 14-Mar-85 25-Apr-85 Miami, Florida 418 Bermuda Rise Lisbon, Portugal 902-906 New Jersey Sea-Level Transect Peter Blum Gregory Mountain Leg summary Repository , Nova Scotia 1071-1073 Continuing the New Jersey Sea-Level Transect Mitchell J. Malone James A. Austin

  2. Rotigotine for nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease: Quantitative analysis of efficacy from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial using an axial inertial sensor.

    PubMed

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Chaiwong, Suchapit; Anan, Chanawat; Penkeaw, Nuntiwat; Leaknok, Amarinee; Boonpang, Kamolwan; Saksornchai, Karn; Rattanachaisit, Watchara; Thanawattano, Chusak; Jagota, Priya

    2017-11-01

    Nocturnal hypokinesia is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD), negatively affecting quality of life of both patients and caregivers. However, evidence-based treatment strategies are limited. To evaluate the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch, using a wearable sensor, in the management of nocturnal immobility. 34 PD subjects with nocturnal immobility were randomized to receive rotigotine transdermal patch (mean ± SD of 10.46 ± 4.63 mg/24 h, n = 17) or placebo patch (n = 17). Treatment was titrated to an optimal dose over 1-8 weeks, then maintained for 4 weeks. Primary endpoints were objective parameters assessing axial rotation measured using an axial inertial sensor (the NIGHT-Recorder) over two nights at the patients' home. Scale-based assessments were also performed. There was a significant difference, in favor of rotigotine, in change from baseline score in the number of turns in bed (ANCOVA, p = 0.001), and degree of axial turn (p = 0.042). These objective improvements were mirrored by significantly greater improvements in clinical scale-based assessments, including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total scores (p = 0.009), UPDRS-motor scores (p < 0.001), UPDRS-axial scores (p = 0.01), the Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (p < 0.001), the Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp Scale (p = 0.003) and the eight-item PD Questionnaire (PDQ-8) scores (p = 0.01) from baseline to end of treatment in patients given rotigotine compared to placebo. We show that the rotigotine patch provides a significant improvement in nocturnal symptoms as assessed using both objective measures and clinical rating scales. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using wearable sensors to record objective outcomes in PD-related clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Revisited by Impedance-pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Tack, Jan; Sifrim, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Impedance-pH monitoring allows detailed characterization of gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal activity associated with reflux. We assessed the characteristics of nocturnal reflux and esophageal activity preceding and following reflux. Methods Impedance-pH tracings from 11 healthy subjects and 76 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease off acid-suppressive therapy were analyzed. Characteristics of nocturnal supine reflux, time distribution and esophageal activity seen on impedance at 2 minute intervals preceding and following reflux were described. Results Patients had more nocturnal reflux events than healthy subjects (8 [4-12] vs 2 [1-5], P = 0.002), with lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux (57% [35-78] vs 80% [60-100], P = 0.044). Nocturnal reflux was mainly liquid (80%) and reached the proximal esophagus more often in patients (6% vs 0%, P = 0.047). Acid reflux predominated in the first 2 hours (66%) and weakly acidic reflux in the last 3 hours (70%) of the night. Most nocturnal reflux was preceded by aboral flows and cleared by short lasting volume clearance. In patients, prolonged chemical clearance was associated with less esophageal activity. Conclusions Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux is as common as acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and predominates later in the night. Impedance-pH can predict prolonged chemical clearance after nocturnal acid reflux. PMID:21602991

  4. Nocturnal Eating: Association with Binge Eating, Obesity, and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071

  5. Pathophysiology of nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms in older patients with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Denys, Marie-Astrid; Decalf, Veerle; Kumps, Candy; Petrovic, Mirko; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-01

    To explore the mismatch between functional bladder capacity and nocturnal urine production, and to study the pathophysiology of an increased nocturnal urine production in older patients with urinary incontinence. The present prospective observational study included adults aged ≥65 years with urinary incontinence. Participants completed questionnaires, frequency volume charts and renal function profiles. The nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index was defined as nocturnal urine output/maximum voided volume; the nocturnal polyuria index as nocturnal/24 h urine output. The median age (n = 95) was 74 years (69-79), 87% were women and 73% had nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms (nocturnal urinary incontinence or nocturia ≥2). Participants with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms had a significantly higher nocturnal urine output (809 mL vs 650 mL; P = 0.001) and no significant difference in maximum voided volume (350 mL vs 437 mL; P = 0.079) compared with participants without nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. Participants (nocturnal polyuria index >33% [n = 56], nocturnal polyuria index >40% [n = 42], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index >1.87 [n = 51]) showed higher night-time diuresis rates, free water and sodium clearance compared with during the daytime. Controls (nocturnal polyuria index ≤33% [n = 26], nocturnal polyuria index ≤40% [n = 40], nocturnal lower urinary tract symptom index ≤1.87 [n = 44]) had no circadian rhythm in their diuresis rate or sodium clearance, but more nocturnal free water clearance compared with during the daytime. The majority of older adults with urinary incontinence present nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms. An increased nocturnal sodium diuresis seems to be the only mechanism differentiating patients with nocturnal lower urinary tract symptoms from controls. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Juste, Javier; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.

    2001-01-01

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this species captures and eats large numbers of migrating passerines, making it the only bat species so far known that regularly preys on birds. The echolocation characteristics and wing morphology of this species strongly suggest that it captures birds in flight. PMID:11493689

  7. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Volzone, Anna; Randazzo, Giovanna; Antoniazzi, Lisa; Rampazzo, Angelica; Scarpa, Maurizio; Nobili, Lino

    2014-10-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is an epileptic syndrome that is primarily characterized by seizures with motor signs occurring almost exclusively during sleep. We describe 2 children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) who were referred for significant sleep disturbance. Long term video-EEG monitoring (LT-VEEGM) demonstrated sleep-related hypermotor seizures consistent with NFLE. No case of sleep-related hypermotor seizures has ever been reported to date in MPS. However, differential diagnosis with parasomnias has been previously discussed. The high frequency of frontal lobe seizures causes sleep fragmentation, which may result in sleep disturbances observed in at least a small percentage of MPS patients. We suggest monitoring individuals with MPS using periodic LT-VEEGM, particularly when sleep disorder is present. Moreover, our cases confirm that NFLE in lysosomal storage diseases may occur, and this finding extends the etiologic spectrum of NFLE. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  9. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1991-04-02

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing. between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair laying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is widemore » and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.« less

  11. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawlmore » through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.« less

  12. Phenytoin-induced improvement in muscle cramping and insulin action in three patients with the syndrome of insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and acral hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Minaker, K L; Flier, J S; Landsberg, L; Young, J B; Moxley, R T; Kingston, W J; Meneilly, G S; Rowe, J W

    1989-09-01

    Phenytoin sodium has been used to treat muscle cramps of diverse causes, and is known to increase insulin sensitivity during long-term use. We have previously described a syndrome of insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and acral hypertrophy with continual muscle cramping. The effect of 300 mg/d of phenytoin (Dilantin) on muscle cramping and carbohydrate economy was studied in three affected patients and four control subjects. Oral glucose tolerance tests, euglycemic insulin infusion studies, and monocyte insulin binding tests were conducted before and after phenytoin administration. All three patients had notable improvement in muscle cramps. In response to phenytoin, metabolic improvements were variable, with improvement characteristically better in patients with less severe baseline metabolic abnormalities. Patient 1, with the mildest degree of glucose intolerance, had decreased fasting insulin and blood glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance, and insulin-mediated glucose disposal, associated with an increase in monocyte insulin receptors. Patient 2 had reduced fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels and improved oral glucose tolerance, suggesting a beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism. Patient 3, with the most severely impaired carbohydrate economy, showed no metabolic improvement despite marked lessening of muscle pain. These clinical characteristics were unaffected in control subjects. We conclude that phenytoin is of value in the therapy of muscle cramps and glucose intolerance in patients with this syndrome.

  13. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    PubMed

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1-5 am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9 pm-5 am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  14. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactormore » (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.« less

  15. Comparative Effects of an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB)/Diuretic vs. ARB/Calcium-Channel Blocker Combination on Uncontrolled Nocturnal Hypertension Evaluated by Information and Communication Technology-Based Nocturnal Home Blood Pressure Monitoring - The NOCTURNE Study.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hajime; Uchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamagiwa, Kayo; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Tetsuro; Kanda, Kiyomi; Hasegawa, Shinji; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2017-06-23

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular events. The NOCTURNE study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT) using our recently developed information and communication technology (ICT) nocturnal home BP monitoring (HBPM) device, was performed to compare the nocturnal HBP-lowering effects of differential ARB-based combination therapies in 411 Japanese patients with nocturnal hypertension (HT).Methods and Results:Patients with nocturnal BP ≥120/70 mmHg at baseline even under ARB therapy (100 mg irbesartan daily) were enrolled. The ARB/CCB combination therapy (irbesartan 100 mg+amlodipine 5 mg) achieved a significantly greater reduction in nocturnal home systolic BP (primary endpoint) than the ARB/diuretic combination (daily irbesartan 100 mg+trichlormethiazide 1 mg) (-14.4 vs. -10.5 mmHg, P<0.0001), independently of urinary sodium excretion and/or nocturnal BP dipping status. However, the change in nocturnal home systolic BP was comparable among the post-hoc subgroups with higher salt sensitivity (diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and elderly patients). This is the first RCT demonstrating the feasibility of clinical assessment of nocturnal BP by ICT-nocturnal HBPM. The ARB/CCB combination was shown to be superior to ARB/diuretic in patients with uncontrolled nocturnal HT independently of sodium intake, despite the similar impact of the 2 combinations in patients with higher salt sensitivity.

  16. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Atypical Initial Presentation of Painful Muscle Cramps in a Patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kuzel, Aaron R; Lodhi, Muhammad Uzair; Syed, Intekhab Askari; Rahim, Mustafa

    2017-11-10

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by progressive muscle weakness that can occur proximally or distally in either the upper or lower extremities. It includes both upper motor neuron signs (spasticity, hyperreflexia, clonus, and Babinski sign) and lower motor neuron signs (atrophy, weakness, and muscle fasciculation). Initial presentation of progressively painful muscle cramps should lead the physician to screen for other signs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We report the case of a 51-year-old male, who presented with dull muscle cramps in the right upper shoulder and arm. After a careful history and physical exam, it was found that patient had both upper and lower motor neuron signs; therefore, a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was made. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis should strongly be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an atypical initial presentation of progressively painful muscle cramps.

  18. Decreased bilateral cortical representation patterns in writer's cramp: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Islam, Tina; Kupsch, Andreas; Bruhn, Harald; Scheurig, Christian; Schmidt, Sein; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus

    2009-06-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to characterize patterns of cortical activation in response to sensory and motor tasks in patients with writer's cramp. 17 patients and 17 healthy subjects were examined during finger-tapping, index finger flexion, and electrical median nerve stimulation of both hands during electromyographic monitoring. SPM2 was used to evaluate Brodmann area (BA) 4, 1, 2, 3, 6, 40. Patients showed decreased activation in the left BA 4 with motor tasks of both hands and the left BA 1-3 with right finger-tapping. With left finger-tapping there was bilateral underactivation of single areas of the somatosensory cortex. Patients exhibited decreased activation in the bilateral BA 6 with left motor tasks and in the right BA 6 with right finger-tapping. Patients had decreased activation in bilateral BA 40 with finger-tapping of both hands. The findings suggest decreased baseline activity or an impaired activation in response to motor tasks in BA 1-4, 6, 40 in patients with writer's cramp for the dystonic and the clinically unaffected hand.

  19. Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Arthur C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assesses overall effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments, relative effectiveness of specific treatments, and moderators of treatment effectiveness for nocturnal enuretic children via quantitative integration of research. Findings confirm that more children benefit from psychological than from pharmacological interventions and…

  20. Temporal Relationships Between Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in Healthy Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Karen P; Hall, Martica H; Lee, Laisze; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Many adolescents do not achieve the recommended 9 hr of sleep per night and report daytime napping, perhaps because it makes up for short nocturnal sleep. This article tests temporal relationships between daytime naps and nighttime sleep as measured by actigraphy and diary among 236 healthy high school students during one school week. Mixed model analyses adjusted for age, race, and gender demonstrated that shorter actigraphy-assessed nocturnal sleep duration predicted longer napping (measured by actigraphy and diary) the next day. Napping (by actigraphy and diary) predicted shorter nocturnal sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency that night measured by actigraphy. Diary-reported napping also predicted poorer self-reported sleep quality that night. Frequent napping may interfere with nocturnal sleep during adolescence.

  1. Do wintering Harlequin Ducks forage nocturnally at high latitudes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, D.J.; Esler, Daniel N.; Roby, D.D.; Jarvis, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attributes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence of nocturnal dive-feeding. Signals from eight radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks never exhibited signal loss due to diving during a total of 780 minutes of nocturnal monitoring. In contrast, the same eight birds exhibited signal loss during 62 ± 7% (SE) of 5-minute diurnal monitoring periods (total of 365 minutes of monitoring). Our results suggest that Harlequin Ducks in south-central Alaska face a stringent time constraint on daytime foraging during midwinter. Harlequin Ducks wintering at high latitudes, therefore, may be particularly sensitive to factors that increase foraging requirements or decrease foraging efficiency.

  2. Nocturnal colonization behavior of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide research into nocturnal colonization by blowflies has produced many contradictory findings, prompting investigation specific to southeastern Australia. Initial experiments showed that blowfly colonization begins shortly after sunrise and continues until sunset; nocturnal colonization never occurred. Colonization peaks occurred at mid-morning, midday, and in the hours preceding sunset. In an additional experiment, wild blowflies were captured and placed in cages with colonization medium supplied nocturnally. Colonization occurred on four of five nights, and Calliphora augur (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the main species colonizing baits nocturnally. Results suggest that colonization is most likely to occur during warm weather and when flies are able to walk or crawl to bait. In particular, blowflies trapped within a confined space (such as a room or car) with warmer-than-ambient temperature may be stimulated to colonize nearby remains. Entomologists should consider these findings when estimating minimum postmortem interval under these environmental conditions. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain are involved in many critical functions, including reasoning, planning, judgment, and problem-solving. It is unclear ... E, Montagna P. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. A clinical and polygraphic overview of 100 consecutive cases. Brain. ...

  4. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  5. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or.... (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented...

  6. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or.... (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented...

  7. 21 CFR 310.546 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of nocturnal leg muscle cramps. (a) Quinine sulfate alone or in combination with vitamin E has been... to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of quinine sulfate, vitamin E, or.... (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented...

  8. Effects of moderate and heavy endurance exercise on nocturnal HRV.

    PubMed

    Hynynen, E; Vesterinen, V; Rusko, H; Nummela, A

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on nocturnal autonomic modulation. Nocturnal R-R intervals were collected after a rest day, after a moderate endurance exercise and after a marathon run in ten healthy, physically active men. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed as a continuous four-hour period starting 30 min after going to bed for sleep. In relation to average nocturnal heart rate after rest day, increases to 109+/-6% and 130+/-11% of baseline were found after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Standard deviation of R-R intervals decreased to 90+/-9% and 64+/-10%, root-mean-square of differences between adjacent R-R intervals to 87+/-10% and 55+/-16%, and high frequency power to 77+/-19% and 34+/-19% of baseline after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Also nocturnal low frequency power decreased to 56+/-26% of baseline after the marathon. Changes in nocturnal heart rate and HRV suggest prolonged dose-response effects on autonomic modulation after exercises, which may give useful information on the extent of exercise-induced nocturnal autonomic modulation and disturbance to the homeostasis.

  9. Nocturnal enuresis in children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Aloni, Michel N; Ekila, Mathilde B; Ekulu, Pépé M; Aloni, Muriel L; Magoga, Kumbundu

    2012-10-01

      To determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in children of Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo.   In all, 506 questionnaires were sent to parents of children aged 6-12 years randomly selected from four primary schools in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The questionnaire was designed to collect information about prevalence and factors associated with nocturnal enuresis.   A total of 415 (82.0%) were correctly completed. In this series, 109 children were identified as nocturnal enuresis in which 50 boys and 56 girls (p > 0.05). Factors associated with nocturnal enuresis were deep sleep, young age and familial history of enuresis (p < 0.05). Only 11% of patients have been consulted by doctors. Twelve children (11.0%) were treated by healers traditional. In the other part, 43 children (39.4%) were frequently punished by their parents. The common self-help strategies were 79 children (72.5%) were submitted to fluid restrictions before going to sleep and 68 (62.4%) were waking the child at night to void.   In Kinshasa, the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was high to those reported in Asian and Western countries. Nocturnal enuresis remains an important clinical problem in children but only a small percentage of parents seek medical help. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Leg Movement Activity During Sleep in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Garbazza, Corrado; Sauter, Cornelia; Paul, Juliane; Kollek, Jenny; Dujardin, Catharine; Hackethal, Sandra; Dorn, Hans; Peter, Anita; Hansen, Marie-Luise; Manconi, Mauro; Ferri, Raffaele; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a first detailed analysis of the pattern of leg movement (LM) activity during sleep in adult subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Fifteen ADHD patients and 18 control subjects underwent an in-lab polysomnographic sleep study. The periodic character of LMs was evaluated with established markers of "periodicity," i.e., the periodicity index, intermovement intervals, and time distribution of LM during sleep, in addition to standard parameters such as the periodic leg movement during sleep index (PLMSI) and the periodic leg movement during sleep arousal index (PLMSAI). Subjective sleep and psychiatric symptoms were assessed using several, self-administered, screening questionnaires. Results: Objective sleep parameters from the baseline night did not significantly differ between ADHD and control subjects, except for a longer sleep latency (SL), a longer duration of the periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) in REM sleep and a higher PLMSI also in REM sleep. Data from the sleep questionnaires showed perception of poor sleep quality in ADHD patients. Conclusions: Leg movements during sleep in ADHD adults are not significantly more frequent than in healthy controls and the nocturnal motor events do not show an increased periodicity in these patients. The non-periodic character of LMs in ADHD has already been shown in children and seems to differentiate ADHD from other pathophysiological related conditions like restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). The reduced subjective sleep quality reported by ADHD adults contrasted with the normal objective polysomnographic parameters, which could suggest a sleep-state misperception in these individuals or more subtle sleep abnormalities not picked up by the traditional sleep staging.

  11. Retinal vein occlusion and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Sorigue, Marc; Juncà, Jordi; Orna, Elisa; Romanic, Nevena; Sarrate, Edurne; Castellvi, Jordi; Soler, Montse; Rodríguez-Hernandez, Ines; Feliu, Evarist; Ruiz, Susana

    2017-07-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare disorder associated with increased risk for thrombosis and reduced life expectancy. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a frequent cause of vision loss but its relationship with PNH has not been studied systematically. Patients followed up for RVO in our ophthalmology department were screened for the presence of a PNH clone in peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. The presence of other well-documented risk factors for RVO was also analyzed. In a series of 110 patients (54 males, median age of 67) we found no evidence of PNH. Most patients (97/110) had cardiovascular risk factors and/or hyperhomocysteinemia (67/110). Inherited thrombophilias were rare (three confirmed cases). Therefore, PNH does not appear to play a role in the development of RVO. However, this finding does not necessarily apply to young patients and/or those with no conventional risk factors for RVO, due to the low number of patients in these subgroups in our population.

  12. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  13. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when the dominant knee was flexed to 135 ° (23.49% MVIC) versus the traditional 90 ° (75.34% MVIC), while gluteal activation remained similarly high (51.01% and 57.81% MVIC in the traditional position, versus 47.35% and 57.23% MVIC in the modified position for the gluteus maximus and medius, respectively). Modifying the traditional single-leg bridge by flexing the

  14. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different…

  15. Nocturnal vision and landmark orientation in a tropical halictid bee.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Gislén, Anna; Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi; Wcislo, William T

    2004-08-10

    Some bees and wasps have evolved nocturnal behavior, presumably to exploit night-flowering plants or avoid predators. Like their day-active relatives, they have apposition compound eyes, a design usually found in diurnal insects. The insensitive optics of apposition eyes are not well suited for nocturnal vision. How well then do nocturnal bees and wasps see? What optical and neural adaptations have they evolved for nocturnal vision? We studied female tropical nocturnal sweat bees (Megalopta genalis) and discovered that they are able to learn landmarks around their nest entrance prior to nocturnal foraging trips and to use them to locate the nest upon return. The morphology and optics of the eye, and the physiological properties of the photoreceptors, have evolved to give Megalopta's eyes almost 30 times greater sensitivity to light than the eyes of diurnal worker honeybees, but this alone does not explain their nocturnal visual behavior. This implies that sensitivity is improved by a strategy of photon summation in time and in space, the latter of which requires the presence of specialized cells that laterally connect ommatidia into groups. First-order interneurons, with significantly wider lateral branching than those found in diurnal bees, have been identified in the first optic ganglion (the lamina ganglionaris) of Megalopta's optic lobe. We believe that these cells have the potential to mediate spatial summation. Despite the scarcity of photons, Megalopta is able to visually orient to landmarks at night in a dark forest understory, an ability permitted by unusually sensitive apposition eyes and neural photon summation.

  16. Extended Duration Nocturnal Hemodialysis and Changes in Plasma Metabolite Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kalim, Sahir; Wald, Ron; Yan, Andrew T; Goldstein, Marc B; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Xu, Dihua; Berg, Anders H; Clish, Clary; Thadhani, Ravi; Rhee, Eugene P; Perl, Jeffrey

    2018-03-07

    In-center, extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis has been associated with variable clinical benefits, but the effect of extended duration hemodialysis on many established uremic solutes and other components of the metabolome is unknown. We determined the magnitude of change in metabolite profiles for patients on extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis. In a 52-week prospective, observational study, we followed 33 patients receiving conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis (7-8 hours per session, three times per week). A separate group of 20 patients who remained on conventional hemodialysis (3-4 hours per session, three times per week) served as a control group. For both groups, we applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling on stored plasma samples collected from all participants at baseline and after 1 year. We examined longitudinal changes in 164 metabolites among those who remained on conventional hemodialysis and those who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis using Wilcoxon rank sum tests adjusted for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate <0.05). On average, the nocturnal group had 9.6 hours more dialysis per week than the conventional group. Among 164 metabolites, none changed significantly from baseline to study end in the conventional group. Twenty-nine metabolites changed in the nocturnal group, 21 of which increased from baseline to study end (including all branched-chain amino acids). Eight metabolites decreased after conversion to nocturnal dialysis, including l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine. By contrast, several established uremic retention solutes, including p -cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and trimethylamine N -oxide, did not change with extended dialysis. Across a wide array of metabolites examined, extended duration hemodialysis was associated with modest changes in the plasma metabolome, with most differences relating to metabolite increases, despite increased

  17. [Electrostimulation and magnetic therapy in the treatment of accommodation cramp and in the prevention of progressive myopia in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Riabtseva, A A; Gerasimenko, M Iu; Savina, M M; Filatova, E V

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure and results of use of electrostimulation, magnetic therapy, and electrophoresis during treatment for accommodation cramp and in the prevention of myopia in children and adolescents. Data that characterize the dynamics and stability of achieved results are given.

  18. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-06-01

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e., exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 yr) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume, and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals, but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 vs 104 ± 9 mm Hg, P < 0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 vs 101 ± 10 mm Hg, P < 0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single leg and the double leg (267 ± 150 vs 214 ± 169 μM·cm, P = 0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (P < 0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3% ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1% ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  19. Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Associated with Nocturnal Compulsive Behaviors: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Palaia, Vincenzo; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Antelmi, Elena; Franceschini, Christian; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Provini, Frederica; Pagotto, Uberto; Montagna, Pasquale; Schenck, Carlos H.; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sleep related-eating disorder (SRED) and nocturnal smoking (NS) in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC). Design: Case-control study. Setting: University hospital. Patients or Participants: 65 consecutive adult NC patients (33 men; mean age 43.9 ± 19.2 years) and 65 age-, sex-, and geographical origin-matched controls. Interventions: Validated questionnaires were used to investigate SRED, NS, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and psychopathological traits (using Eating Disorder Inventory-2 [EDI-2]; Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory [MOCI]; and Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]). Measurements and Results: NC patients showed a higher prevalence of SRED (32% vs 3%, P = 0.00001), NS (21% vs 0%, P = 0.00006), and RLS (18% vs 5%, P = 0.013) than controls. Moreover, NC patients presented more frequently with an eating-related pathological profile on the EDI-2 (80% vs 46%, P = 0.00006) and had a higher prevalence of depressed mood on the BDI (41% vs 18%, P = 0.004). In comparison to patients without SRED, NC patients with SRED were more frequently women (71% vs 39%, P = 0.013), had higher “bulimic” (29% vs 2%, P = 0.004) and “social insecurity” (48% vs 18%, P = 0.013) traits on the EDI-2, had higher obsessive-compulsiveness on the MOCI (29% vs 4%, P = 0.009), and were more depressed on the BDI (67% vs 29%, P = 0.005). NC patients with NS showed more frequent pathological profiles on the EDI-2 (100% vs 75%, P = 0.035), including the “bulimic” (29% vs 6%, P = 0.015), “perfectionism” (43% vs 14%, P = 0.016), and “social insecurity” (50% vs 22, P = 0.035) profiles. Conclusion: Our study shows a strong association of the compulsive nocturnal behaviors SRED and NS with adult NC. Citation: Palaia V; Poli F; Pizza F; Antelmi E; Franceschini C; Moghadam KK; Provini F; Pagotto U; Montagna P; Schenck CH; Mignot E; Plazzi G. Narcolepsy with cataplexy associated with nocturnal compulsive behaviors: a case

  20. Abnormalities of Eye–Hand Coordination in Patients with Writer’s Cramp: Possible Role of the Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Kotikalapudi, Raviteja; Lenka, Abhishek; Thennarassu, Kandavel; Yadav, Ravi; Saini, Jitender; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background Writer’s cramp (WC) is one of the commonly observed focal dystonias. The pathophysiology of WC has not been fully understood. The role of the cerebellum has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of dystonia. As the cerebellum is crucial for maintaining accurate eye–hand coordination (EHC), its role in the pathogenesis of WC can be investigated by studying the EHC in patients with WC. Methods Fifteen patients with WC (women:men, 3:12) and 15 age- and gender-matched controls performed oculomotor and EHC tasks. A visually guided stimulus (VGS) task was first performed with eye-only condition (EOC) and then with EHC. Results A significant interaction between the groups (controls and patients) and tasks (EOC and EHC) with age as a covariate confirmed that the two groups reacted differently to the tasks in saccadic latency (F(1,27) = 4.8; p = 0.039) and average saccade acceleration (F(1,27) = 10.6; p = 0.003). The curvature index of acceleration of the hand was significantly more in patients compared to controls (patients vs. controls, 2.4±0.4 vs. 1.8±0.2, p = 0.01). While performing the EHC task, there was a significant correlation of the Writer’s Cramp Rating Score with the average saccadic speed (–0.61, p = 0.016), peak saccadic deceleration (0.59, p = 0.019) and average saccadic acceleration (–0.63, p = 0.012). Discussion Saccadic acceleration and latency are abnormal while performing EHC tasks in patients with WC. Our study gives further insights into the possible role of the cerebellum in the pathogenesis of WC. PMID:29109905

  1. The New Portable Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Device Was Efficacious in the Control of Primary Dysmenorrhea Cramp Pain.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, Gabriela R; Oliveira, Raquel; Parada, Flavia; Mattos, Anita L

    2015-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an established method for pain relief in dysmenorrhea. A feasible advantage would be the study of a portable device. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new portable TENS device (TANYX®) for menstruation cramps. Forty women were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized fashion, divided into sham and active groups. TENS was applied medially at the suprapubic region, for 30-min duration at eight-hour intervals, up to seven days. The placebo group (PG) received sham device. The TENS group (TG) applied an active 85 Hz frequency TENS. Efficacy measures were pain relief evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS) and diclofenac intake, and quality of life represented by: 1) capacity to get out of the bed, 2) food or drink intake, 3) missing routine daily activities such as work or school, and 4) quality of sleep. The active TENS device induced a prompt onset of pain relief in a strictly segmental manner nearby the dermatomes where the TENS was applied at the skin, and there was a drop in mean pain score from 8 to 2 cm (p < 0.001). Diclofenac consumption was also significantly reduced (p < 0.01), compared with the PG. Quality of life improved significantly in TG when compared with PG (p < 0.05). Three months after the beginning of the study, 14/20 of the women were still using the active device regularly. No adverse effects were observed. The portable, disposable, active TENS device induced a prompt onset of pain relief and improved the quality of life, without adverse effects, in patients with painful cramps associated with dysmenorrhea. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. The Clinical and Serological Effect of a Gluten-Free Diet in Border Terriers with Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lowrie, M; Garden, O A; Hadjivassiliou, M; Harvey, R J; Sanders, D S; Powell, R; Garosi, L

    2015-01-01

    Canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (CECS) is a paroxysmal movement disorder of Border Terriers (BTs). These dogs might respond to a gluten-free diet. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and serological effect of a gluten-free diet in BTs with CECS. Six client-owned BTs with clinically confirmed CECS. Dogs were prospectively recruited that had at least a 6-month history of CECS based on the observed phenomenology (using video) and had exhibited at least 2 separate episodes on different days. Dogs were tested for anti-transglutaminase 2 (TG2 IgA) and anti-gliadin (AGA IgG) antibodies in the serum at presentation, and 3, 6, and 9 months after the introduction of a gluten-free diet. Duodenal biopsies were performed in 1 dog. Serum TG2 IgA titers were increased in 6/6 BTs (P = .006) and AGA IgG titers were increased in 5/6 BTs at presentation compared to those of controls (P = .018). After 9 months, there was clinical and serological improvement in all BTs with CECS strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet (5/5). One dog had persistently increased antibody titers. This dog scavenged horse manure. On the strict introduction of a gluten-free diet this dog also had an improved clinical and serological response. The diet-associated improvement was reversible in 2 dogs on completion of the study, both of which suffered a relapse of CECS on the re-introduction of gluten. Canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in BTs is a gluten-sensitive movement disorder triggered and perpetuated by gluten and thus responsive to a gluten-free diet. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Altered brain activation in a reversal learning task unmasks adaptive changes in cognitive control in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Granert, Oliver; Sablowsky, Simone; Götz, Julia; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Dressler, Dirk; Schneider, Susanne A; Klein, Christine; Deuschl, Günther; van Eimeren, Thilo; Witt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous receptor binding studies suggest dopamine function is altered in the basal ganglia circuitry in task-specific dystonia, a condition characterized by contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles while performing specific tasks. Dopamine plays a role in reward-based learning. Using fMRI, this study compared 31 right-handed writer's cramp patients to 35 controls in reward-based learning of a probabilistic reversal-learning task. All subjects chose between two stimuli and indicated their response with their left or right index finger. One stimulus response was rewarded 80%, the other 20%. After contingencies reversal, the second stimulus response was rewarded in 80%. We further linked the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIa polymorphism, which is associated with 30% reduction of the striatal dopamine receptor density with reward-based learning and assumed impaired reversal learning in A + subjects. Feedback learning in patients was normal. Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in controls increased with negative feedback in the insula, rostral cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus and parietal cortex (pFWE < 0.05). In comparison to controls, patients showed greater increase in BOLD activity following negative feedback in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32). The genetic status was not correlated with the BOLD activity. The Brodmann area 32 (BA32) is part of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) that plays an important role in coordinating and integrating information to guide behavior and in reward-based learning. The dACC is connected with the basal ganglia-thalamo-loop modulated by dopaminergic signaling. This finding suggests disturbed integration of reinforcement history in decision making and implicate that the reward system might contribute to the pathogenesis in writer's cramp.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Mon Père, Nathaniel; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David

    2018-06-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal blood disorder characterized by hemolysis and a high risk of thrombosis, that is due to a deficiency in several cell surface proteins that prevent complement activation. Its origin has been traced to a somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene within hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). However, to date the question of how this mutant clone expands in size to contribute significantly to hematopoiesis remains under debate. One hypothesis posits the existence of a selective advantage of PIG-A mutated cells due to an immune mediated attack on normal HSC, but the evidence supporting this hypothesis is inconclusive. An alternative (and simpler) explanation attributes clonal expansion to neutral drift, in which case selection neither favours nor inhibits expansion of PIG-A mutated HSC. Here we examine the implications of the neutral drift model by numerically evolving a Markov chain for the probabilities of all possible outcomes, and investigate the possible occurrence and evolution, within this framework, of multiple independently arising clones within the HSC pool. Predictions of the model agree well with the known incidence of the disease and average age at diagnosis. Notwithstanding the slight difference in clonal expansion rates between our results and those reported in the literature, our model results lead to a relative stability of clone size when averaging multiple cases, in accord with what has been observed in human trials. The probability of a patient harbouring a second clone in the HSC pool was found to be extremely low ([Formula: see text]). Thus our results suggest that in clinical cases of PNH where two independent clones of mutant cells are observed, only one of those is likely to have originated in the HSC pool.

  5. Nocturnal Video Assessment of Infant Sleep Environments

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Erich K.; Teti, Douglas M.; Schaefer, Eric W.; Neumann, Brooke A.; Meek, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reports describing factors associated with sleep-related infant death rely on caregiver report or postmortem findings. We sought to determine the frequency of environmental risk factors by using nocturnal sleep videos of infants. METHODS: Healthy, term newborns were recruited for a parent study examining the role of parenting in the development of nighttime infant sleep patterns. For 1 night at ages 1, 3, and 6 months, video recordings were conducted within family homes. Videos were coded for sudden infant death syndrome risk factors in post hoc secondary analyses after the parent study was completed. RESULTS: Among 160 one-month-olds, initially 21% were placed to sleep on nonrecommended sleep surfaces and 14% were placed nonsupine; 91% had loose/nonapproved items on their sleep surface, including bedding, bumper pads, pillows, stuffed animals, and sleep positioners. Among 151 three-month-olds, 10% were initially placed on a nonrecommended sleep surface, 18% were placed nonsupine, and 87% had potentially hazardous items on their sleep surface. By 6 months, 12% of the 147 infants initially slept on a nonrecommended surface, 33% were placed to bed nonsupine, and 93% had loose/nonrecommended items on their surface. At 1, 3, and 6 months, 28%, 18%, and 12% changed sleep locations overnight, respectively, with an increased likelihood of bed-sharing and nonsupine position at the second location at each time point. CONCLUSIONS: Most parents, even when aware of being recorded, placed their infants in sleep environments with established risk factors. If infants were moved overnight, the second sleep environment generally had more hazards. PMID:27527797

  6. Diagnosing the pathophysiologic mechanisms of nocturnal polyuria.

    PubMed

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Krott, Louise; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Everaert, Karel

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosis of nocturnal polyuria (NP) is based on a bladder diary. Addition of a renal function profile (RFP) for analysis of concentrating and solute-conserving capacity allows differentiation of NP pathophysiology and could facilitate individualized treatment. To map circadian rhythms of water and solute diuresis by comparing participants with and without NP. This prospective observational study was carried out in Ghent University Hospital between 2011 and 2013. Participants with and without NP completed a 72-h bladder dairy. RFP, free water clearance (FWC), and creatinine, solute, sodium, and urea clearance were measured for all participants. The study participants were divided into those with (n=77) and those without (n=35) NP. The mean age was 57 yr (SD 16 yr) and 41% of the participants were female. Compared to participants without NP, the NP group exhibited a higher diuresis rate throughout the night (p=0.015); higher FWC (p=0.013) and lower osmolality (p=0.030) at the start of the night; and persistently higher sodium clearance during the night (p<0.001). The pathophysiologic mechanism of NP was identified as water diuresis alone in 22%, sodium diuresis alone in 19%, and a combination of water and sodium diuresis in 47% of the NP group. RFP measurement in first-line NP screening to discriminate between water and solute diuresis as pathophysiologic mechanisms complements the bladder diary and could facilitate optimal individualized treatment of patients with NP. We evaluated eight urine samples collected over 24h to detect the underlying problem in NP. We found that NP can be attributed to water or sodium diuresis or a combination of both. This urinalysis can be used to adapt treatment according to the underlying mechanism in patients with bothersome consequences of NP, such as nocturia and urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does menopause influence nocturnal awakening with headache?

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, L M; Hachul, H; Yagihara, F; Santos-Silva, R; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether menopausal status influences the occurrence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the female population of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of this complaint to sociodemographic determinants, hot flushes, sleep quality and parameters, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue according to menopausal status. The female population of the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) (n = 576) was divided according to menopausal status (pre-, peri-, early and late menopause) based on questionnaires and hormonal blood measures. The complaint of waking up because of a headache at least once a week was assessed by the UNIFESP Sleep questionnaire. Additionally, hot flushes, sleep complaints, anxiety and depressive symptoms, somnolence and fatigue were assessed by specific questionnaires. A full-night polysomnography assessed sleep parameters. The prevalence of NAH in women in the Sao Paulo population was 13.3%. Perimenopause was associated with a higher risk of having NAH (odds ratio 13.9; 95% confidence interval 4.3-45.2). More complaints of NAH were observed in obese women. All the groups with NAH showed more hot flushes, worse subjective sleep quality, more complaints of insomnia, anxiety symptoms and fatigue. We observed a constellation of symptoms in women according to menopausal status and NAH that included hot flushes, sleep complaints, more anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Moreover, some of these symptoms were more frequent in perimenopausal women with NAH. Therefore, we concluded that menopausal status influences NAH and the women in perimenopause presented a high risk of having this complaint.

  8. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals.

    PubMed

    Hall, Margaret I; Kamilar, Jason M; Kirk, E Christopher

    2012-12-22

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal 'bottleneck' in the early evolution of crown mammals.

  9. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Margaret I.; Kamilar, Jason M.; Kirk, E. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal ‘bottleneck’ in the early evolution of crown mammals. PMID:23097513

  10. Cyclic nocturnal awakening: a warning sign of a cluster bout.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2015-04-01

    Cluster headache is an excruciating unilateral headache with autonomic symptoms whose periodic nocturnal activity, which interrupts sleep, has been attributed to a hypothalamic generator. We describe a patient with a longstanding episodic cluster headache who experienced, on two occasions, a period of nocturnal awakenings without pain or autonomic symptoms, lasting one week before the onset of a cluster bout. Awakenings occurred twice/night at the same hours of impending cluster attacks and had no apparent trigger, being unusual for this patient who had no previous sleep disturbances. Neurological examination and brain imaging were normal. This case documents two new aspects of cluster headache. It suggests that repeated nocturnal awakenings can be a warning sign of an impending cluster period, a finding that may have therapeutic implications, and also that hypothalamic activation may begin several days before trigemino-autonomic symptoms, thus behaving as a true bout generator. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Nocturnal cough in children with stable cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van der Giessen, Lianne; Loeve, Martine; de Jongste, Johan; Hop, Wim; Tiddens, Harm

    2009-09-01

    To date no studies have been published on nocturnal cough frequency in children with stable CF. Aim of the study was to assess nocturnal cough frequency in children with CF. In addition nocturnal cough frequency was correlated with parameters of disease severity. During two nights cough was recorded with a digital audio recorder in 25 patients (mean age 13 years; range 6-19) with clinically stable CF. In addition oxygen saturation was measured. The day following the recording spirometry was carried out. CT scores were obtained from the most recent routine CT scan. Cough was expressed in cough seconds (csec) and in cough seconds per hour (csec/hr). Data shown are median values and interquartile range (IQR). First night: 8 csec (IQR 3-52); 0.9 csec/hr (IQR 0.3-6.1) Second night: 6 csec (IQR 2-32); 0.6 csec/hr (IQR 0.1-3.4). Csec in the 1st night did not correlate significantly with csec in the 2nd night. Only for the 2nd night a strong correlation was found between csec/hr and the FEV1%pred (r(s) = -0.75, P < 0.001) and FEF(75) %pred (r(s) = -0.71, P < 0.001). Bronchiectasis score correlated borderline with the mean csec/hr of both nights (r(s) = 0.39, P = 0.08). During both nights cough was significantly higher in the first hour of sleep (P < or = 0.04). Frequency of nocturnal coughing in children with CF was higher than that described for normal children. Nocturnal cough tended to be more severe in children with more advanced CF lung disease. Nocturnal cough was more severe in the first hour of sleep and varied from night-to-night. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  13. Micro-arousals during nocturnal sleep.

    PubMed

    Halász, P; Kundra, O; Rajna, P; Pál, I; Vargha, M

    1979-01-01

    In 8 young adult human subjects EEG- and polygraphic characteristics of transient shifts towards arousal (micro-arousal, MA) have been studied during sleep under five different experimental conditions in 40 night sessions. Out of the five applied experimental situations, two (psychostimulant application and sensory stimulation) resulted in a shift of the balance between the systems of sleep and arousal towards an increased activity of the arousal system, while an other condition (rebound following partial sleep deprivation) led to an opposite change to a rise in "sleep pressure". An inverse correlation has been found between the frequency of MA and the depth of sleep, a finding consistently observed in every subject and in every experimental situation. During the process of sleep periodic changes in the dispersity of MA could be seen; the number of MA-s decreased and increased according to the descending and ascending slope of the sleep cycles. During the ascending slope of cycles there was a coupling between the occurence of MA-s and the changes of phases. Increases in the level of activation and in sleep pressure did not influence the occurrence of MA-s. Increasing the tone of the arousal system in chemical way, or by means of enhancing the phasic sensory input resulted in a reduction of the difference between the number of MA on the descending and ascending slopes of cycles. During the phases of sleep, the spontaneous occurrence of MA-s went parallel with the possibility to evoke MA-s by sensory stimuli. These data show that MA is a regular phenomenon of nocturnal sleep; MA manifests itself as a result of phasic functioning of the reticular arousal system and plays a role in the organization of those periods of the sleep cycle, which tend toward arousal. It is suggested that MA-phenomenon is considered a standard measure of sleep and that it could represent an indicator of the function of the arousal system controlled by external or internal mechanisms during

  14. Removal of nutrient limitations by long-term fertilization decreases nocturnal water loss in savanna trees.

    Treesearch

    F.G. Scholz; S.J. Bucci; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; A.C. Franco; F. Miralles-Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Under certain environmental conditions, nocturnal transpiration can be relatively high in temperate and tropical woody species. In nutrient-poor systems such as the Brazilian Cerrado, nocturnal transpiration may enhance delivery of nutrients to roots. We compared nocturnal transpiration of three dominant Cerrado tree species growing in unfertilized plots and plots to...

  15. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Towards a Comparative Measure of Legged Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus” [18]. Notwithstanding the many informative and inspiring studies of legged...specific power (watts per kilogram taken over a gait cycle of leg power output relative to leg muscle mass or body mass) [22, 26–28] but it is not scale...closest to the body mass normalized mea- sure we will introduce below. In contrast, characterizing directional aspects of agility performance seems

  17. Polysomnographic study of nocturnal sleep in idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Poli, Francesca; Vandi, Stefano; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Wild Chimpanzees on the Edge: Nocturnal Activities in Croplands

    PubMed Central

    Krief, Sabrina; Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Jean-Michel; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing landscape highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, the great apes are facing new challenges to coexist with humans. For chimpanzee communities inhabiting encroached territories, not bordered by rival conspecifics but by human agricultural fields, such boundaries are risky areas. To investigate the hypothesis that they use specific strategies for incursions out of the forest into maize fields to prevent the risk of detection by humans guarding their field, we carried out video recordings of chimpanzees at the edge of the forest bordered by a maize plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contrary to our expectations, large parties are engaged in crop-raids, including vulnerable individuals such as females with clinging infants. More surprisingly chimpanzees were crop-raiding during the night. They also stayed longer in the maize field and presented few signs of vigilance and anxiety during these nocturnal crop-raids. While nocturnal activities of chimpanzees have been reported during full moon periods, this is the first record of frequent and repeated nocturnal activities after twilight, in darkness. Habitat destruction may have promoted behavioural adjustments such as nocturnal exploitation of open croplands. PMID:25338066

  19. Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Santana, Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Almeida, Priscila de Carvalho; Machado, Almério de Souza; Araújo-Filho, José Bouzas; Salles, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. RESULTS: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75 ± 6.29 vs. 86.38 ± 8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = −0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = −0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:24473760

  20. Wide-field motion tuning in nocturnal hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, Jamie C.; Warrant, Eric J.; O'Carroll, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Nocturnal hawkmoths are known for impressive visually guided behaviours in dim light, such as hovering while feeding from nectar-bearing flowers. This requires tight visual feedback to estimate and counter relative motion. Discrimination of low velocities, as required for stable hovering flight, is fundamentally limited by spatial resolution, yet in the evolution of eyes for nocturnal vision, maintenance of high spatial acuity compromises absolute sensitivity. To investigate these trade-offs, we compared responses of wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in three species of hawkmoth: Manduca sexta (a crepuscular hoverer), Deilephila elpenor (a fully nocturnal hoverer) and Acherontia atropos (a fully nocturnal hawkmoth that does not hover as it feeds uniquely from honey in bees' nests). We show that despite smaller eyes, the motion pathway of D. elpenor is tuned to higher spatial frequencies and lower temporal frequencies than A. atropos, consistent with D. elpenor's need to detect low velocities for hovering. Acherontia atropos, however, presumably evolved low-light sensitivity without sacrificing temporal acuity. Manduca sexta, active at higher light levels, is tuned to the highest spatial frequencies of the three and temporal frequencies comparable with A. atropos. This yields similar tuning to low velocities as in D. elpenor, but with the advantage of shorter neural delays in processing motion. PMID:19906663

  1. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes--consequences and assessment.

    PubMed

    DeVries, J Hans; Wentholt, Iris M E; Masurel, Nathalie; Mantel, Itske; Poscia, Alessandro; Maran, Alberto; Heine, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is inevitable when striving for low HbA1c values. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia often occurs without symptoms, but results in diminished next day well-being and hypoglycaemia unawareness. Frequency of nocturnal hypoglycaemia was first assessed in research ward settings, but suffered from insufficient glucose sampling frequency. This may have resulted in overestimation of the duration of hypoglycaemic episodes. The advent of the first continuous glucose sensor, the needle-type MedtronicMiniMed Continuous Glucose Measurement System, revolutionized the assessment of glucose values. However, on scrutiny, the first version of this sensor showed a drift into the hypoglycaemic area and delayed recovery from hypoglycaemia. Using the microdialysis-based GlucoDay system, our group reported a lower frequency of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes patients using an insulin pump, than that expected from the existing literature. Today, more than 80 years after the introduction of insulin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the associated frequency of nocturnal hypoglycaemia still awaits its definitive assessment. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An automated technique for monitoring nocturnal avian vocalizations

    Treesearch

    James B. Johnson; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt; Richard N. Conner

    2002-01-01

    We used audio recording dataloggers known as Frogloggers to collect nocturnal bird vocalizations at eight different sites within the Davy Crockett National Forest and the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest in eastern Texas from 9 May 2000 to 31 June 2001. We programmed the dataloggers to record for one-minute intervals at the beginning of each hour starting at 2100...

  3. Spectral sensitivity of the nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...

  4. Numerical simulation of the nocturnal turbulence characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain

    Treesearch

    W.E. Heilman; E.S. Takle

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional second-order turbulence-closure model based on Mellor-Yamada level 3 is used to examine the nocturnal turbulence characteristics over Rattlesnake Mountain in Washington. Simulations of mean horizontal velocities and potential temperatures agree well with data. The equations for the components of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) show that anisotropy...

  5. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  6. Nocturnal motor activity in fibromyalgia patients with poor sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Hyyppä, M T; Kronholm, E

    1995-01-01

    Nocturnal motor activity was examined in long-term rehabilitation patients complaining of poor sleep and having fibromyalgia syndrome (N = 24) or other musculoskeletal disorders (N = 60) and compared with that in 91 healthy controls drawn from a random community sample. Self-reports on sleep complaints and habits were collected. The frequency of nocturnal body movements, the "apnoea" index and ratio of "quiet sleep" to total time in bed were measured using the Static Charge Sensitive Bed (SCSB) (BioMatt). As a group, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome did not differ from patients with other musculoskeletal disorders or from healthy controls in their nocturnal motor activity. The "apnoea" index was a little higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the healthy control group but did not differ from that of the group of other musculoskeletal patients. Further multivariate analyses adjusted for age, BMI, medication and "apnoea" index did not support the assumption that an increased nocturnal motor activity characterizes patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

  7. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  8. Effect of a single oral dose of rabeprazole on nocturnal acid breakthrough and nocturnal alkaline amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jin-Yan; Niu, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xue-Qin; Zhu, You-Ling; Gong, Jun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of rabeprazole (RAB) on nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB) and nocturnal alkaline amplitude (NAKA) and to compare it with omeprazole (OME) and pantoprazole (PAN). METHODS: By an open comparative study, forty patients with active peptic ulcer were randomly assigned to receive one of the three PPIs (proton pump inhibitor) with a single oral dose. They were divided into RAB group (10 mg), OME group (20 mg) and PAN group (40 mg). Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled to the control group (without taking any drug). Intragastric pH monitoring was then performed 1 h before and 24 h after the dose was given. RESULTS: No clinically undesirable signs and symptoms possibly attributed to the administration of RAB or OME and PAN were recognizable throughout the study period. All subjects completed the study according to the protocol. All data were processed by a computer using the Student t test or t’ test followed by an analysis of covariance. P < 0.05 was considered to have statistical significance. The intragastric pH of NAB was significantly higher in RAB group (1.84 ± 0.55) than in either OME group (1.15 ± 0.31) or PAN group (1.10 ± 0.30) (both P < 0.01). RAB produced a longer sustaining time (4.65 ± 1.22 h) on NAKA than OME (3.22 ± 1.89 h) (P < 0.05), PAN (3.15 ± 1.92 h) (P < 0.05), and the sustaining time of NAKA in RAB group was longer than that in the healthy control group (P < 0.01) too. In addition, RAB produced a much higher pH on NAKA (6.41 ± 0.45) in comparison with PAN (6.01 ± 0.92) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A single oral dose of 10 mg RAB may increase the pH of NAB and shorten the sustaining time of NAB, and it may increase the pH of NAKA as well as prolong the sustaining time of NAKA. PMID:14606102

  9. Differences in ocular parameters between diurnal and nocturnal raptors.

    PubMed

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Horowitz, Igal; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Lublin, Avishai; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    To establish and compare normal ocular parameters between and within diurnal and nocturnal raptor groups. Eighty-eight ophthalmically normal raptors of six nocturnal and 11 diurnal species were studied. Tear production was measured using Schirmer tear test (STT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and applanation tonometry was conducted. Ultrasonographic measurements of axial length (AL), mediolateral axis (ML), vitreous body (VB), and pecten length (PL) were recorded, and conjunctival cultures were obtained. A weak correlation (R = 0.312, P = 0.006) was found between PRTT and STT. Tear production was significantly lower in nocturnal species (P < 0.001), but no difference was observed in intraocular pressure (IOP). VB and PL were significantly longer in diurnals (P < 0.001 and P = 0.021, respectively), and no significant difference was observed in AL and ML. When comparing results within these groups, there was a significant difference between most species for all parameters except IOP. Fifty-one percent of the examined raptors were positive for mycology or bacteriology, either on culture or PCR. The most common infectious agent isolated was Staphylococcus spp. Phenol red thread test and STT are both valid methods to measure tear production; however, a separate baseline must be determined for each species using these methods, as the results of one method cannot be extrapolated to the other. Due to significant differences observed within diurnal and nocturnal species, it appears that a more intricate division should be used when comparing these parameters for raptors, and the classification of diurnal or nocturnal holds little significance in the baseline of these data. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  11. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  12. The Benslimane's Artistic Model for Leg Beauty.

    PubMed

    Benslimane, Fahd

    2012-08-01

    In 2000, the author started observing legs considered to be attractive. The goal was to have an ideal aesthetic model and compare the disparity between this model and a patient's reality. This could prove helpful during leg sculpturing to get closer to this ideal. Postoperatively, the result could then be compared to the ideal curves of the model legs and any remaining deviations from the ideal curves could be pointed out and eventually corrected in a second session. The lack of anthropometric studies of legs from the knee to the ankle led the author to select and study attractive legs to find out the common denominators of their beauty. The study consisted in analyzing the features that make legs look attractive. The legs of models in magazines were scanned and inserted into a PowerPoint program. The legs of live models, Barbie dolls, and athletes were photographed. Artistic drawings by Leonardo da Vinci were reviewed and Greek sculptures studied. Sculptures from the National Archaeological Museum of Athens were photographed and included in the PowerPoint program. This study shows that the first criterion for beautiful legs is the straightness of the leg column. Not a single attractive leg was found to deviate from the vertical, and each was in absolute continuity with the thigh. The second criterion is the similarity of curve distribution and progression from knee to ankle. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

  13. The biomechanics of leg ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Chant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Research performed in the late 1960s, using 24Na, suggested that the perfusion of skin and subcutaneous tissues is critically dependent on the relationship between capillary (Pc) and tissue pressures (Pt). Perfusion changes differed significantly between controls and patients with venous disease and the differences could be interpreted as evidence that Pt remained high in venous diseased patients. From this starting point, a biomechanical theory for the aetiology of venous ulceration was developed and tested by measuring skin elasticity, limb cross-sectional area and laser Doppler flux. The results confirm that, modelled as a two-compartment system (vascular and interstitial fluid), forces can be demonstrated sufficient to cause intermittent capillary closure and subsequent reperfusion injury. These forces are maximal in the gaiter area, the site of most leg ulcers. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10364960

  14. Desmopressin (melt) therapy in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria results in improved neuropsychological functioning and sleep.

    PubMed

    Van Herzeele, Charlotte; Dhondt, Karlien; Roels, Sanne P; Raes, Ann; Hoebeke, Piet; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Vande Walle, Johan

    2016-09-01

    There is a high comorbidity between nocturnal enuresis, sleep disorders and psychological problems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a decrease in nocturnal diuresis volume not only improves enuresis but also ameliorates disrupted sleep and (neuro)psychological dysfunction, the major comorbidities of this disorder. In this open-label, prospective phase IV study, 30 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) underwent standardized video-polysomnographic testing and multi-informant (neuro)psychological testing at baseline and 6 months after the start of desmopressin treatment in the University Hospital Ghent, Belgium. Primary endpoints were the effect on sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning. The secondary endpoint was the change in the first undisturbed sleep period or the time to the first void. Thirty children aged between 6 and 16 (mean 10.43, standard deviation 3.08) years completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) and a prolonged first undisturbed sleep period. Additionally, (neuro)psychological functioning was improved on several domains. The study demonstrates that the degree of comorbidity symptoms is at least aggravated by enuresis (and/or high nocturnal diuresis rate) since sleep and (neuro)psychological functioning were significantly ameliorated by treatment of enuresis. These results indicate that enuresis is not such a benign condition as has previously been assumed.

  15. Differences in active range of motion measurements in the upper extremity of patients with writer's cramp compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Shamim, Ejaz A; Diomi, Pierre; Hattori, Takaaki; Pandey, Sanjay; Vorbach, Sherry; Park, Jung E; Wu, Tianxia; Auh, Sungyoung; Hallett, Mark

    Exploratory case-control study. Writer's cramp (WC) is a type of focal hand dystonia. The central nervous system plays a role in its pathophysiology, but abnormalities in the affected musculoskeletal components may also be relevant. We compared the active range of motion (ROM) in patients with WC and healthy volunteers (HVs) and correlated the findings with disease duration and severity. Affected limb joints were measured with goniometers. Patients were assessed at least 3 months after their last botulinum toxin (botulinum neurotoxin) injection, and strength was clinically normal. t tests were used to compare the ROMs of WC with matched HVs. The Spearman correlation coefficient assessed the relationship of active ROMs to the disease duration and handwriting subscore of the Dystonia Disability Scale. ROMs of D1 metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint extension as well as D2 and D5 MCP flexion were significantly smaller in WC, and distal interphalangeal joint extension in D3 and D5 was significantly greater compared with HVs. There were negative correlations between D2 MCP flexion and disease duration and with Dystonia Disability Scale. Abnormalities in ROMs in WC were found. Severity and disease duration correlated with reduced D2 MCP flexion. This may be related to intrinsic biomechanical abnormalities, co-contraction of muscles, or a combination of subclinical weakness and atrophy from repeated botulinum neurotoxin injections. Hand biomechanical properties should not be ignored in the pathophysiology of WC. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  16. [An autopsy case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with prominent muscle cramps, fasciculation, and high titer of anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody].

    PubMed

    Sato, Aki; Sakai, Naoko; Shinbo, Junsuke; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 55-year-old male who had prominent fasciculation and muscle cramps. Muscle weakness and atrophy of the trunk, respiratory system, and extremities gradually progressed. On the basis of these features, we diagnosed this patient as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), however, the upper motor neuron signs were not significant. Following the detection of the anti-voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody at 907.5 pM (normal < 100 pM) and repetitive discharge in a nerve conduction study, immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone (mPSL), double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), ciclosporin, and rituximab was introduced. mPSL and DFPP showed only tentative effectiveness for fasciculation and muscle cramps, respectively. Thereafter, muscle weakness progressed. The patient died of type II respiratory failure at the age of 57 years, about 2 years after the onset of the disease. At autopsy, a histopathological diagnosis of ALS with lower-motor-predominant degeneration was made. Characteristic cellular features, including Bunina bodies in the remaining lower motor neurons and phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43-kDa (pTDP-43)-immunopositive inclusions in both upper and lower motor neuron systems, were evident. At present, an immunological role of the anti-VGKC complex antibody in the development of cramp-fasciculation syndrome has been speculated. In this ALS patient, the antibodies might be associated with pathomechanisms underlying the characteristic symptoms.

  17. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Periodic leg movements during sleep and cerebral hemodynamic changes detected by NIRS.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Biallas, Martin; Wolf, Martin; Valko, Philipp O; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2009-07-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) have been shown to be associated with changes in autonomic and hemispheric activities. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses hemodynamic changes linked to hemispheric/cortical activity. We applied NIRS to test whether cerebral hemodynamic alterations accompany PLMS. Three PLMS patients underwent nocturnal polysomnography coupled with cerebral NIRS. EEG correlates of PLMS were scored and NIRS data were analysed for the identification of correspondent hemodynamic changes. PLMS were constantly associated with cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations that showed greater amplitude when associated to changes in EEG and were present also in absence of any visually detectable arousal or A phase in the EEG. This is the first study documenting cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to PLMS. The clinical relevance of these observations remains to be determined.

  19. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, J J; Gokeler, A; Hof, A L

    2007-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that the landing after a single-leg hop for distance (horizontal hop) might give insight in the differences in kinematics and kinetics between uninjured legs and ACL-reconstructed legs. Before the ACL-reconstructed leg can be compared with the contralateral leg, knowledge of differences between legs of uninjured subjects is needed. Kinematic and kinetic variables of both legs were measured with an optoelectronic system and a force plate and calculated by inverse dynamics. The dominant leg (the leg with biggest horizontal hop distance) and the contralateral leg of nine uninjured subjects were compared. No significant differences were found in most of the kinematic and kinetic variables between dominant leg and contralateral leg of uninjured subjects. Only hop distance and hip extension angles differed significantly. This study suggests that there are no important differences between dominant leg and contralateral leg in healthy subjects. As a consequence, the uninvolved leg of ACL-reconstructed patients can be used as a reference. The observed variables of this study can be used as a reference of normal values and normal differences between legs in healthy subjects.

  20. Analysis of nocturia with 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration: concept for effective treatment modality.

    PubMed

    Udo, Yukihiro; Nakao, Masahiro; Honjo, Hisashi; Ukimura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2011-03-01

    • To determine the relationship between the number of nocturia and 24-h urine volume, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal bladder capacity and length of sleep duration as well as to assess the significance of these factors with respect to eliminating nocturnal voidings in individual patients with nocturia. • Among 532 participants who completed a 3-day bladder diary between April 2005 and December 2006, the diaries of 450 participants without 24-h polyuria were analyzed. • Clinical variables such as the number of daytime and night-time voids, 24-h urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, daytime and night-time maximum voided volumes (MVV), night/day MVV ratio, sleep duration and proportion of night/day urine production rates were obtained from each diary. • Participants were classified into eight groups according to values of three factors: nocturnal MVV, proportion of night/day urine production rates and length of sleep duration. • Each group was divided into three subgroups: non-nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is zero), mild nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is one) and severe nocturics (number of nocturnal voidings is two or more). • The data from non-nocturics with three normal factors were regarded as the normal control and compared with the variables of the other subgroups using Dunnett's method. • Variables that form the basis of classifying participants into eight groups and corresponding to abnormal factors of each group were statistically significant in all the subgroups of each group. • Furthermore, a significantly increased 24-h urine volume was found in severe nocturics of the group with three normal factors. • A significantly decreased 24-h urine volume was found in non-nocturics of groups with nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity and both long sleep duration and nocturnal polyuria. • A significantly increased nocturnal MVV and night/day MVV ratio were shown in non-nocturics and mild nocturics of the groups

  1. The Lindsay Leg Club: supporting the NHS to provide leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Morag

    2013-06-01

    Public health services will need to cope with additional demands due to an ageing society and the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions. Lower-limb ulceration is a long-term, life-changing condition and leg ulcer management can be challenging for nursing staff. The Lindsay Leg Club model is a unique partnership between community nurses, members and the local community, which provides quality of care and empowerment for patients with leg ulcers, while also supporting and educating nursing staff. The Leg Club model works in accord with core themes of Government and NHS policy. Patient feedback on the Leg Club model is positive and the Leg Clubs provide a service to members which is well accepted by patients, yet is more economically efficient than the traditional district nursing practice of home visits. Lindsay Leg Clubs provide a valuable support service to the NHS in delivering improved quality of care while improving efficiency.

  2. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  3. Correlates Among Nocturnal Agitation, Sleep, and Urinary Incontinence in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Karen; Specht, Janet; Forch, Windy

    2016-01-01

    Family caregivers of elders with dementia often face the challenging behaviors of nighttime agitation, sleep disturbances, and urinary incontinence. To date, no study has examined the interrelationships of these behaviors in community-dwelling persons. This single group, descriptive study employs wireless body sensors to objectively collect data on nighttime agitation, sleep, and urinary incontinence in patients with dementia in their homes over a 5- to 7-day period. The aims are to (1) examine the feasibility and acceptability of the use of body sensors in community-dwelling persons with dementia; (2) describe patterns of nocturnal agitation, sleep continuity and duration, and nighttime urinary incontinence; and (3) examine the relationships among nocturnal agitation, sleep continuity and duration, and nighttime urinary incontinence. Data collection is in early stages and is still in progress. Challenges and advantages from preliminary data collection are reported. PMID:24670931

  4. A new method for measuring nocturnal tooth contacts.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, S; Ai, M; Mizutani, H

    1993-09-01

    A new portable system for measuring nocturnal tooth contacts has been devised. This system was suitable for patients to take home and record tooth contacts by themselves. A micro photo sensor using optical fibres was applied to detect tooth contacts. The sensor and the target were accurately fixed to opposed molars, respectively on the same side, with removable metal attachments. Patients were instructed to set the attachment to their tooth each experimental night. In the present study, data was assembled for four or five nights in three subjects who were free of masticatory pain and dysfunction. Each subject showed an individual tooth contact pattern. It is suggested that this new system is useful and convenient for measuring nocturnal tooth contacts.

  5. Anterior urethral valve in an adolescent with nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia Chang; Yang, Stephen Shei Dei; Tsai, Yao Chou

    2007-11-01

    The anterior urethral valve (AUV) is a rare congenital urethral anomaly that can lead to variable urinary tract symptoms. We report on a 13-year-old boy with AUV who was referred from a primary care physician for nocturnal enuresis. AUV was disclosed by videourodynamic study and confirmed by simultaneous retrograde cystourethroscopy and antegrade urethroscopy. The AUV was ablated by neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet contact laser at the 5-o'clock and 7-o'clock directions. A postoperative videourodynamic study depicted a patent urethra, a good maximal flow rate, and improved bladder capacity. His nocturnal enuresis had completely subsided at a follow-up period of longer than 24 months.

  6. Leg stiffness and expertise in men jumping.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Bardy, Benoît G; Durey, Alain

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate: a) the leg spring behavior in the one-leg vertical jump, b) the contribution of impulse parameters to this behavior, and c) the effect of jumping expertise on leg stiffness. Four categories of experts (handball, basketball, volleyball players, and Fosbury athletes), as well as novice subjects performed a run-and-jump test to touch a ball with the head. Five experimental conditions were tested from 55 to 95% of the maximum jump height. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using six cameras and a force plate. The mechanical behavior of the musculoskeleton component of the human body can be modeled as a simple mass-spring system, from which leg stiffness values can be extracted to better understand energy transfer during running or jumping. The results indicate that leg stiffness (mean value of 11.5 kN.m) decreased with jumping height. Leg shortening at takeoff also increased with jumping height, whereas contact time decreased (-18%). No difference was found between experts and novices for leg stiffness. However, a principal components analysis (PCA) indicated the contribution of two main factors to the performance. The first factor emerged out of vertical force, stiffness, and duration of impulse. The second factor included leg shortening and jumping height. Differences between experts and novices were observed in terms of the contribution of leg stiffness to jump height, and more importantly, clear differences existed between experts in jumping parameters. The analysis performed on the sport categories indeed revealed different jumping profiles, characterized by specific, sport-related impulse parameters.

  7. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Andrew; Aelterman, Bart; Alves, Jose A.; Azijn, Kevin; Bernstein, Garrett; Branco, Sérgio; Desmet, Peter; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Horton, Kyle; Kelling, Steve; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Leijnse, Hidde; Rong, Jingjing; Sheldon, Daniel; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Van Den Meersche, Jan Klaas; Van Doren, Benjamin Mark; van Gasteren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals’ life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human–wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological products, and public

  8. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Farnsworth, Andrew; Aelterman, Bart; Alves, Jose A; Azijn, Kevin; Bernstein, Garrett; Branco, Sérgio; Desmet, Peter; Dokter, Adriaan M; Horton, Kyle; Kelling, Steve; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Leijnse, Hidde; Rong, Jingjing; Sheldon, Daniel; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Van Den Meersche, Jan Klaas; Van Doren, Benjamin Mark; van Gasteren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological products, and public

  9. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  10. Geomagnetic disturbance and the orientation of nocturnally migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Moore, F R

    1977-05-06

    Free-flying passerine migrants respond to natural fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field. The variability in flight directions of nocturnal migrants is significantly correlated with increasing geomagnetic disturbance as measured by both the K index and various components of the earth's magnetic field. The results indicate that such disturbances influence the orientation of free-flying migrants, but the evidence is not sufficient to show that geomagnetism is a cue in their orientation system.

  11. Joint Observational Research on Nocturnal Atmospheric Dispersion of Aerosols (JORNADA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    physical processes in NBL . Research Progress: July 2008-January 2009 Objective 1. Analysis of the Stationarity of Mesoscale Turbulence in the...data allows for a more complete understanding of the nocturnal boundary layer ( NBL ). We have analyzed lidar measurements of plume meander and...dispersion and their relationship to the complexities of NBL structure. Plume Dispersion: Vertical plume dispersion parameters (σz) were derived

  12. Targeting nocturnal hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Niklas Blach; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Fleischer, Jesper; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Ebbehøj, Eva; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2014-11-01

    Several studies in different populations have suggested that nighttime blood pressure (BP) is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than daytime BP. Consequently, treatment strategies to target nighttime BP have come into focus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of change of administration time of antihypertensive drugs. We included 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension (nighttime systolic BP >120 mm Hg) in an open-label, crossover study. Patients were randomized to 8 weeks of either morning or bedtime administration of all of the individual's once-daily antihypertensive drugs, followed by 8 weeks of switched dosing regimen. Bedtime administration of antihypertensive drugs resulted in a significant reduction in nighttime (7.5 mm Hg; P<0.001) and 24-hour (3.1 mm Hg; P=0.014) systolic BP, with a nonsignificant reduction in daytime (1.3 mm Hg; P=0.336) systolic BP. We did not find morning BP surge to be different between dosing regimens. Levels of C-reactive protein were significantly lower with bedtime administration, which may indicate an effect on low-grade inflammation. We found no difference in urinary albumin excretion, regardless of albuminuria status. Urinary sodium/creatinine was significantly increased and urinary osmolality significantly reduced with bedtime administration, which can be interpreted as increased nocturnal natriuresis. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nocturnal hypertension, administration of once-daily antihypertensive drugs at bedtime may be favorable. The increased nocturnal natriuresis may reflect increased effect of bedtime-administered thiazides and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, suggesting a potential mechanism of the observed effects on BP with chronotherapeutic intervention. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. [Is nocturnal polyuria more frequent among patients with Parkinson's disease?].

    PubMed

    Romain, J; Torny, F; Dumas, J-P; Gamé, X; Descazeaud, A

    2015-05-01

    Nocturia is a frequent complaint in the population of idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (IPD). The consequences of nocturia in the IPD population are at high importance as these patients have motor problems and therefore a risk of nocturnal fall. The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of nocturia in patients with MPI, by determining the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in this population. A prospective study by bladder diary was conducted on 70 consecutive IPD patients consulting for regular neurological follow-up at a non-severe stage. Nocturia was defined as 1 or more awakenings to urinate. Two definitions of NP were used: nocturnal diuresis 33% or higher of the total diuresis (NUV33), which is the ICS (International Continence Society) definition, and nocturnal diuresis 90 mL/h or higher (NUP90). The mean patient age was 71 years (45-86, sex ratio 33/30). On average, patients were diagnosed for IPD 6.76 years earlier. The prevalence of NP was 64.5% according to NUV33 definition, and 17.7% according to NUP90 definition. Among patients with nocturia, the prevalence of NP was 66% (NUV33) and 21.5% (NUP90). No association was observed between disease duration of the IPD and the prevalence of nocturia and NP. Patients 70 years and older were more likely to have NP as defined by NUV33 than those less than 70 years (72.7% versus 55.17%, P=0.015). Men had more frequently nocturia (33.3% versus 20.7%, P=0.027). The prevalence of NP and nocturia was analyzed in patients with IPD at a non-severe stage. This prevalence was not higher than in the general population of the same age. The mechanism of nocturia in patients with IPD is not unambiguous and therefore requires to be explored by a bladder diary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Quantifying Leg Movement Activity During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany

    2016-12-01

    Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sound imaging of nocturnal animal calls in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Takeshi; Aihara, Ikkyu; Otsuka, Takuma; Takeda, Ryu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Hiroshi G

    2011-09-01

    We present a novel method for imaging acoustic communication between nocturnal animals. Investigating the spatio-temporal calling behavior of nocturnal animals, e.g., frogs and crickets, has been difficult because of the need to distinguish many animals' calls in noisy environments without being able to see them. Our method visualizes the spatial and temporal dynamics using dozens of sound-to-light conversion devices (called "Firefly") and an off-the-shelf video camera. The Firefly, which consists of a microphone and a light emitting diode, emits light when it captures nearby sound. Deploying dozens of Fireflies in a target area, we record calls of multiple individuals through the video camera. We conduct two experiments, one indoors and the other in the field, using Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica). The indoor experiment demonstrates that our method correctly visualizes Japanese tree frogs' calling behavior. It has confirmed the known behavior; two frogs call synchronously or in anti-phase synchronization. The field experiment (in a rice paddy where Japanese tree frogs live) also visualizes the same calling behavior to confirm anti-phase synchronization in the field. Experimental results confirm that our method can visualize the calling behavior of nocturnal animals in their natural habitat.

  17. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-10-21

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans.

  18. Processes driving nocturnal transpiration and implications for estimating land evapotranspiration.

    PubMed

    de Dios, Víctor Resco; Roy, Jacques; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Alday, Josu G; Landais, Damien; Milcu, Alexandru; Gessler, Arthur

    2015-06-15

    Evapotranspiration is a major component of the water cycle, yet only daytime transpiration is currently considered in Earth system and agricultural sciences. This contrasts with physiological studies where 25% or more of water losses have been reported to occur occurring overnight at leaf and plant scales. This gap probably arose from limitations in techniques to measure nocturnal water fluxes at ecosystem scales, a gap we bridge here by using lysimeters under controlled environmental conditions. The magnitude of the nocturnal water losses (12-23% of daytime water losses) in row-crop monocultures of bean (annual herb) and cotton (woody shrub) would be globally an order of magnitude higher than documented responses of global evapotranspiration to climate change (51-98 vs. 7-8 mm yr(-1)). Contrary to daytime responses and to conventional wisdom, nocturnal transpiration was not affected by previous radiation loads or carbon uptake, and showed a temporal pattern independent of vapour pressure deficit or temperature, because of endogenous controls on stomatal conductance via circadian regulation. Our results have important implications from large-scale ecosystem modelling to crop production: homeostatic water losses justify simple empirical predictive functions, and circadian controls show a fine-tune control that minimizes water loss while potentially increasing posterior carbon uptake.

  19. Processes driving nocturnal transpiration and implications for estimating land evapotranspiration

    PubMed Central

    de Dios, Víctor Resco; Roy, Jacques; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Alday, Josu G.; Landais, Damien; Milcu, Alexandru; Gessler, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Evapotranspiration is a major component of the water cycle, yet only daytime transpiration is currently considered in Earth system and agricultural sciences. This contrasts with physiological studies where 25% or more of water losses have been reported to occur occurring overnight at leaf and plant scales. This gap probably arose from limitations in techniques to measure nocturnal water fluxes at ecosystem scales, a gap we bridge here by using lysimeters under controlled environmental conditions. The magnitude of the nocturnal water losses (12–23% of daytime water losses) in row-crop monocultures of bean (annual herb) and cotton (woody shrub) would be globally an order of magnitude higher than documented responses of global evapotranspiration to climate change (51–98 vs. 7–8 mm yr−1). Contrary to daytime responses and to conventional wisdom, nocturnal transpiration was not affected by previous radiation loads or carbon uptake, and showed a temporal pattern independent of vapour pressure deficit or temperature, because of endogenous controls on stomatal conductance via circadian regulation. Our results have important implications from large-scale ecosystem modelling to crop production: homeostatic water losses justify simple empirical predictive functions, and circadian controls show a fine-tune control that minimizes water loss while potentially increasing posterior carbon uptake. PMID:26074373

  20. Mobile Disdrometer Observations of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems During PECAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, D. J.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding microphysical processes in nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is an important objective of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) experiment, which occurred from 1 June - 15 July 2015 in the central Great Plains region of the United States. Observations of MCSs were collected using a large array of mobile and fixed instrumentation, including ground-based radars, soundings, PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs), and aircraft. In addition to these observations, three mobile Parsivel disdrometers were deployed to obtain drop-size distribution (DSD) measurements to further explore microphysical processes in convective and stratiform regions of nocturnal MCSs. Disdrometers were deployed within close range of a multiple frequency network of mobile and fixed dual-polarization radars (5 - 30 km range), and near mobile sounding units and PISAs. Using mobile disdrometer and multiple-wavelength, dual-polarization radar data, microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions of MCSs are investigated. The analysis will also examine coordinated Range-Height Indicator (RHI) scans over the disdrometers to elucidate vertical DSD structure. Analysis of dense observations obtained during PECAN in combination with mobile disdrometer DSD measurements contributes to a greater understanding of the structural characteristics and evolution of nocturnal MCSs.

  1. Social support and nocturnal blood pressure dipping: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fortmann, Addie L; Gallo, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Attenuated nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality than resting BP measurements. Studies have reported associations between social support, variously defined, and BP dipping. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to investigate associations of functional and structural social support with nocturnal BP dipping assessed over a minimum of 24 hours. A total of 297 articles were identified. Of these, 11 met criteria for inclusion; all studies were cross-sectional in design and included adult participants only (mean age = 19 to 72 years). Evidence was most consistent for an association between functional support and BP dipping, such that 5 of 7 studies reported statistically (or marginally) significant positive associations with BP dipping. Statistically significant functional support-BP dipping associations were moderate (standardized effect size (d) = 0.41) to large (d = 2.01) in magnitude. Studies examining structural support were fewer and relatively less consistent; however, preliminary evidence was observed for associations of marital status and social contact frequency with BP dipping. Statistically significant structural support findings were medium (d = 0.53) to large (d = 1.13) in magnitude. Overall, findings suggest a link between higher levels of functional support and greater nocturnal BP dipping; preliminary evidence was also observed for the protective effects of marriage and social contact frequency. Nonetheless, the relatively small number of studies conducted to date and the heterogeneity of findings across meaningful subgroups suggest that additional research is needed to substantiate these conclusions.

  2. [Nocturnal spasmodic cough in the infant. Evolution after antireflux treatment].

    PubMed

    Dordal, M T; Baltazar, M A; Roca, I; Marques, L; Server, M T; Botoy, J

    1994-02-01

    Several studies have shown the relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux, bronchial asthma and chronic nocturnal cough and this should not be neglected, particularly in patients who present an unfavourable development in spite of conventional treatment. For diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux, amongst other investigations, esophageal gammagraphy of swallowing, that detects alterations in the mobility of the oesophagus, secondary to a possible oesophagitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical progress and gammagraphy of a group of children with chronic predominantly nocturnal cough (with or without bronchial asthma) with initially pathological esophageal gammagraphy, after three months of treatment with gastrokinetic drugs (cisapride against domperidone) and postural dietetic limits, in comparison with a reference group who, although having followed the limits in question had not received the pharmacological treatment. From the clinical viewpoint, cough disappeared in 64.5% of cases without significant statistical differences between the two groups. Gammagraphy became normal in 20/55 cases, improved in 10/55 cases and was unchanged in 25/55. Although there was no significant difference, gammagraphy development was better in children who received domperidone. The agreement between clinical progress and gammagraphy was 60% with a large number of false positives in the gammagraphy. We believe that the simple introduction of the postural-dietetic measures may improve the clinical control in the type of patients who present with a chronic nocturnally predominant cough that does not yield to conventional treatment.

  3. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  4. Impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity: the SINERGE study.

    PubMed

    Calleja, José Luis; Bixquert, M; Maldonado, J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the SINERGE study was to assess the impact of nocturnal heartburn on quality of life, sleep, and productivity. Ambulatory patients >/=18 years old and classified as defined cases of nocturnal heartburn (n=337), nonnocturnal heartburn (n=139), uncontrolled hypertension (n=198), and symptomatic depression (n=104) were included in this cross-sectional study. Information on age, gender, body mass index, and comorbidity was collected and the following validated questionnaires were applied: SF-12, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. The prevalence of primary care consultation for heartburn and nocturnal heartburn was 4.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Health-related quality of life, sleep, and productivity were significantly impaired in patients with frequent nocturnal heartburn symptoms as compared with those of the patients without nocturnal symptoms or patients with hypertension. Nocturnal heartburn poses a considerable burden for the sufferer because of the impact on quality of life, sleep, and daily activities.

  5. Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ye; Wang, Yin; Liu, Zhishun

    2008-10-08

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common movement disorder for which patients may seek treatment with acupuncture. However, the benefits of acupuncture in the treatment of RLS are unclear and have not been evaluated in a systematic review until now. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in patients with RLS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2007), EMBASE (January 1980 to 2007 Week 8), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1978 to February 2007), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to February 2007), VIP Database (1989 to February 2007), Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to 2007) and Korean Medical Database (1986 to 2007). Four Chinese journals, relevant academic conference proceedings and reference lists of articles were handsearched. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no intervention, placebo acupuncture, sham acupuncture, pharmacological treatments, or other non-acupuncture interventions for primary RLS were included. Trials comparing acupuncture plus non-acupuncture treatment with the same non-acupuncture treatment were also included. Trials that only compared different forms of acupuncture or different acupoints were excluded. Two authors independently identified potential articles, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Relative risk (RR) was used for binary outcomes and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Results were combined only in the absence of clinical heterogeneity. Fourteen potentially relevant trials were identified initially, but twelve of them did not meet the selection criteria and were excluded. Only two trials with 170 patients met the inclusion criteria. No data could be combined due to clinical heterogeneity between trials. Both trials had methodological and/or reporting shortcomings. No significant difference was detected

  6. Neuropsychological functioning related to specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Van Herzeele, C; Dhondt, K; Roels, S P; Raes, A; Groen, L-A; Hoebeke, P; Walle, J Vande

    2015-08-01

    There is a high comorbidity demonstrated in the literature between nocturnal enuresis and several neuropsychological dysfunctions, with special emphasis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the majority of the psychological studies did not include full non-invasive screening and failed to differentiate between monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and non-MNE patients. The present study primarily aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal enuresis and (neuro)psychological functioning in a selective homogeneous patient group, namely: children with MNE and associated nocturnal polyuria (NP). Secondly, the study investigated the association between specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (maximum voided volume, number of wet nights and number of nights with NP) and ADHD-inattentive symptoms, executive functioning and quality of life. The psychological measurements were multi-informant (parents, children and teachers) and multi-method (questionnaires, clinical interviews and neuropsychological testing). Thirty children aged 6-16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were included. Of them, 80% had at least one psychological, motor or neurological difficulty. The comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, especially the predominantly inattentive presentation, was most common. According to the teachers, a low maximum voided volume (corrected for age) was associated with more attention problems, and a high number of nights with NP was associated with more behaviour-regulation problems. No significant correlations were found between specific characteristics of enuresis and quality of life. Details are demonstrated in Table. The children were recruited from a tertiary referral centre, which resulted in selection bias. Moreover, NP was defined as a urine output exceeding 100% of the expected bladder capacity for age (EBC), and not according to the expert-opinion-based International Children's Continence Society norm of 130% of EBC. The definition

  7. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  8. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  9. Managing leg ulceration in intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    2015-09-01

    Chronic venous leg ulceration is a long-term condition commonly associated with lower-limb injecting and chronic venous hypertension caused by collapsed veins, incompetent valves, deep vein thrombosis and reflux. It is not usually a medical emergency, but intravenous (IV) drug users with leg ulcers can attend emergency departments (EDs) with a different primary complaint such as pain or because they cannot access local primary care or voluntary services. Leg ulceration might then be identified during history taking, so it is important that ED nurses know how to assess and manage these wounds. This article explains how to assess and manage chronic venous leg ulcers in patients with a history of IV drug use, and highlights the importance of referral to specialist services when required, and to local primary care or voluntary services, before discharge to prevent admission and re-attendance.

  10. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  11. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  12. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  13. Circadian Rhythm of Glomerular Filtration and Solute Handling Related to Nocturnal Enuresis.

    PubMed

    Dossche, L; Raes, A; Hoebeke, P; De Bruyne, P; Vande Walle, J

    2016-01-01

    Although nocturnal polyuria in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis can largely be explained by the decreased nocturnal vasopressin secretion hypothesis, other circadian rhythms in the kidney also seem to have a role. We recently documented an absent day/night rhythm in a subgroup of desmopressin refractory cases. We explore the importance of abnormal circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration and tubular (sodium, potassium) parameters in patients with monosymptomatic enuresis. In this retrospective study of a tertiary enuresis population we collected data subsequent to a standardized screening (International Children's Continence Society questionnaire), 14-day diary for nocturnal enuresis and diuresis, and 24-hour concentration profile. The study population consisted of 139 children with nocturnal enuresis who were 5 years or older. Children with nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were used as controls. There was a maintained circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium, osmotic excretion and diuresis rate in children with monosymptomatic and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and there was no difference between the 2 groups. Secondary analysis revealed that in patients with nocturnal polyuria (with monosymptomatic or nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis) circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration, sodium and osmotic excretion, and diuresis rate was diminished in contrast to those without nocturnal polyuria (p <0.001). Circadian rhythm of the kidney does not differ between patients with nonmonosymptomatic and monosymptomatic enuresis. However, the subgroup with enuresis and nocturnal polyuria has a diminished circadian rhythm of nocturnal diuresis, sodium excretion and glomerular filtration in contrast to children without nocturnal polyuria. This observation cannot be explained by the vasopressin theory alone. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the Age of Donor Kidneys Affect Nocturnal Polyuria in Patients With Successful Real Transplantation?

    PubMed

    Mitsui, T; Morita, K; Iwami, D; Kitta, T; Kanno, Y; Moriya, K; Takeda, M; Shinohara, N

    We investigated whether the age of donor kidneys influences the incidence of nocturnal polyuria in patients with successful renal transplantation (RTX). Eighty-five patients (45 men and 40 women) undergoing RTX (median age, 47 years) were included in this study. Twenty-four-hour bladder diaries were kept for 3 days, and nocturnal polyuria was defined as a nocturnal polyuria index (nocturnal urine volume/24-hour urine volume) of >0.33. Risk factors for nocturnal polyuria were analyzed in patients with RTX by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, χ 2 test, and a logistic regression analysis. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) developed from diabetes mellitus in 16 patients (19%). Sixty-five patients (76%) received pre-transplant dialysis, with a median duration of 5 years. The median serum creatinine level and body mass index at the most recent visit were 1.2 mg/dL and 21.2 kg/m 2 , respectively. On the basis of the 24-hour bladder diaries, nocturnal polyuria was identified in 48 patients (56%). A logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus as the original disease for ESRD was the only risk factor for nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio, 8.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-65.3; P = .0028). The age of donor kidneys at examination did not affect the incidence of nocturnal polyuria (P = .9402). Nocturnal polyuria was not uncommon in patients with successful RTX. Diabetes mellitus as the original disease for ESRD was the only risk factor for nocturnal polyuria, whereas the age of donor kidneys at examination did not affect the incidence of nocturnal polyuria. Thus, nocturnal polyuria is caused by recipient factors but not donor factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical advances in flow cytometry-based diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Rodolfo Patussi; Bento, Laiz Cameirão; Bortolucci, Ana Carolina Apelle; Alexandre, Anderson Marega; Vaz, Andressa da Costa; Schimidell, Daniela; Pedro, Eduardo de Carvalho; Perin, Fabricio Simões; Nozawa, Sonia Tsukasa; Mendes, Cláudio Ernesto Albers; Barroso, Rodrigo de Souza; Bacal, Nydia Strachman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection. Conclusion: High-sensitivity flow cytometry allowed more sensitive determination of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone type and size, particularly in samples with small clones. PMID:27759825

  16. The pathophysiology of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with special emphasis on the circadian rhythm of renal physiology.

    PubMed

    Dossche, L; Walle, J Vande; Van Herzeele, C

    2016-06-01

    Nocturnal polyuria in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) has so far mainly been attributed to a disturbed circadian rhythm of renal water handling. Low vasopressin levels overnight correlate with absent maximal concentrating activity, resulting in an increased nocturnal diuresis with low urinary osmolality. Therefore, treatment with desmopressin is a rational choice. Unfortunately, 20 to 60 % of children with monosymptomatic enuresis are desmopressin-resistant. There is increasing evidence that other disturbed circadian rhythms might play a role in nocturnal polyuria. This review focuses on renal aspects in the pathophysiology of nocturnal polyuria in MNE, with special emphasis on circadian rhythms. Articles related to renal circadian rhythms and enuresis were searched through the PubMed library with the goal of providing a concise review. Nocturnal polyuria can only partially be explained by blunted circadian rhythm of vasopressin secretion. Other alterations in the intrinsic renal circadian clock system also seem to be involved, especially in desmopressin-resistant enuresis. • Disturbance in the circadian rhythm of arginine vasopressin secretion is related to nocturnal polyuria in children with enuresis. • Desmopressin is recommended as a treatment for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, working as a vasopressin analogue acting on V2 receptors in the collecting ducts of the kidney. What is New: • Other renal circadian rhythms might play a role in nocturnal polyuria, especially in desmopressin-resistant case.

  17. Nocturnal polyuria is related to absent circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    De Guchtenaere, A; Vande Walle, C; Van Sintjan, P; Raes, A; Donckerwolcke, R; Van Laecke, E; Hoebeke, P; Vande Walle, J

    2007-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with nocturnal polyuria and low urinary osmolality during the night. Initial studies found decreased vasopressin levels associated with low urinary osmolality overnight. Together with the documented desmopressin response, this was suggestive of a primary role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of enuresis in the absence of bladder dysfunction. Recent studies no longer confirm this primary role of vasopressin. Other pathogenetic factors such as disordered renal sodium handling, hypercalciuria, increased prostaglandins and/or osmotic excretion might have a role. So far, little attention has been given to abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and diuresis in children with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. We evaluated 15 children (9 boys) 9 to 14 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria resistant to desmopressin treatment. The control group consisted of 25 children (12 boys) 9 to 16 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Compared to the control population, children with nocturnal polyuria lost their circadian rhythm not only for diuresis and sodium excretion but also for glomerular filtration rate. Patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria lack a normal circadian rhythm for diuresis and sodium excretion, and the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate is absent. This absence of circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and/or sodium handling cannot be explained by a primary role of vasopressin, but rather by a disorder in circadian rhythm of renal glomerular and/or tubular functions.

  18. Nocturnal oxygen saturation in children with stable cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    van der Giessen, Lianne; Bakker, Marije; Joosten, Koen; Hop, Wim; Tiddens, Harm

    2012-11-01

    Hypoxemia during sleep is a common finding in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients with more advanced lung disease. Nocturnal hypoxemia is associated with frequent awakenings and poor sleep quality. For children with CF, data of nocturnal oxygen saturation are sparse. To assess the oxygen saturation profile during sleep in 25 clinically stable children with CF lung disease and to correlate these data with spirometry, cough frequency, sleep quality, and CT-scan scores. During two nights cough was recorded with a digital audio recorder in 25 clinically stable CF patients. In addition oxygen saturation was measured. The day following the recording spirometry was carried out. CT scores were obtained from the most recent routine CT scan. Twenty-two patients were included in the study. Mean age (range) was 13 (6-18) years. Spirometry was FVC% 84 (range 52-114), FEV(1) % 77 (range 43-115), and FEF(75) % 50 (range 12-112). The mean SO(2) was 95.6% for the first and 96.2% for the second night. Mean SO(2) between the two nights correlated strongly (r(s) = 0.84, P < 0.001). Positive correlation was observed between mean SO(2) of the two nights (mean × SO(2)) and FVC, FEV(1) and FEF(75). Correlations were found between mean × SO(2) and the total CT score (r(s) = -0.45, P = 0.05) and the bronchiectasis subscore (r(s) = -0.48, P = 0.03). Nocturnal oxygen saturation in children with stable CF is lower than that in healthy children, and is correlated with lung function parameters and CT scores. Monitoring oxygen saturation during one night is sufficient to get a representative recording. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy modulates nocturnal nonlinear heart rate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Irina; Ekholm, Eeva; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Hiekkanen, Heikki; Huikuri, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of postmenopausal estrogen therapy (ET) on nocturnal nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 71 healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women received either transdermal estradiol or placebo for 3 months. After a washout period of 1 month, the treatments were reversed. Sleep studies were performed after both treatment periods. One steady-state epoch per night of the awake state, stage 2 (light) non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, stage 3-4 (deep) non-REM sleep, also known as slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep was extracted. From the electrocardiogram, nonlinear HRV was analyzed as the fractal scaling exponents alpha1 and alpha2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and the Poincaré plot variability coefficients SD1 and SD2. These were correlated to ET use in both different sleep stages and averaged across all sleep stages. During ET, the nocturnal ApEn decreased from 0.80 +/- 0.01 to 0.74 +/- 0.02 (P < 0.05), the most marked reduction occurring during slow-wave sleep (from 0.77 +/- 0.05 to 0.63 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05). In addition, SD2 decreased in slow-wave sleep and REM sleep during ET (P < 0.05 for both). In light non-REM sleep, alpha1 slightly increased during ET (P < 0.05). ET has a slightly but distinctively attenuating effect on some nocturnal nonlinear measures of HRV, especially on complexity of heart rate dynamics. This implies that ET may have potentially deleterious effects on cardiovascular health during sleep.

  20. Decreased Nocturnal Movements in Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Marca, Giacomo Della; Frusciante, Roberto; Dittoni, Serena; Vollono, Catello; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Colicchio, Salvatore; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Tonali, Pietro A.; Ricci, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Reduced mobility during sleep characterizes a variety of movement disorders and neuromuscular diseases. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common form of muscular dystrophy in the general population, and people with FSHD have poor sleep quality. The aims of the present study were to evaluate nocturnal motor activity in patients with FSHD by means of videopolysomnography and to verify whether activity was associated with modifications in sleep structure. Methods: We enrolled 32 adult patients affected by genetically confirmed FSHD (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.1 ± 13.4 years) and 32 matched control subjects, (18 women and 14 men, mean age 45.5 ± 11.4 years). Major body movements (MBM) were scored in videopolygraphic recordings in accordance with established criteria. An MBM index was calculated (number of MBM per hour of sleep). Results: The FSHD group showed a decrease in the MBM index (FSHD: 1.2 ± 1.1; control subjects: 2.3 ± 1.2, analysis of variance F = 13.672; p = 0.008). The sleep pattern of patients with FSHD, as compared with that of controls, was characterized by longer sleep latencies, shorter sleep durations, an increased percentage of wake during sleep, and a decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep. In the patient group, the MBM index was inversely correlated with severity of disease (Spearman test: r30 = −0.387; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present findings suggest that patients with FSHD have a reduced number of nocturnal movements, which is related to disease severity. Reduced movement in bed may contribute to the sleep modifications observed in these patients. Citation: Marca GD; Frusciante R; Dittoni S; Vollono C; Losurdo A; Testani E; Scarano E; Colicchio S; Iannaccone E; Tonali PA; Ricci E. Decreased nocturnal movements in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(3):276-280. PMID:20572422

  1. The risk of hyponatremia with desmopressin use for nocturnal polyuria.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Park, Joon-Sung; Kim, Yong Tae; Park, Sung Yul; Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Desmopressin is used for treating nocturnal polyuria, but hyponatremia is an associated concern in the elderly due to impaired urinary dilution. This study was undertaken to characterize hyponatremia occurring in adults using desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria. Data from 172 patients who were prescribed desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria at a urology clinic from September 2010 through February 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and laboratory parameters were investigated to examine the risk factors for desmopressin-associated hyponatremia. The average follow-up serum sodium measured 21 ± 22 days after using desmopressin was 138 ± 5 mmol/l. Hyponatremia (<135 mmol/l) was found in 24 patients (14%), and it was severe in 7 (<126 mmol/l). In the hyponatremic patients, serum sodium decreased by 11 ± 6 mmol/l. Patients with hyponatremia were older than those with normonatremia (78 ± 7 vs. 68 ± 9 years, p < 0.0001). The presence of either hyponatremia-predisposing comorbidities or concurrent medications was associated with hyponatremia. Patients with hyponatremia had lower basal hemoglobin (11 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 2 g/dl, p < 0.001) and serum sodium (139 ± 2 vs. 140 ± 2 mmol/l, p < 0.05) than those with normonatremia. Multivariate logistic regression after adjustment for basal serum sodium showed that advanced age (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03-1.27) and lower hemoglobin level (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43-0.94) were independently associated with hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is not infrequently associated with desmopressin use. Those with advanced age (≥65 years) and lower hemoglobin are at risk of desmopressin-associated hyponatremia and need to be carefully monitored. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    PubMed

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  3. Hiatal hernia predisposes to nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Karamanolis, Georgios; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Adamopoulos, Adam; Barbatzas, Charalampos; Vafiadis, Irini; Ladas, Spiros D

    2013-06-01

    Nocturnal reflux has been associated with severe complications of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and a poorer quality of life. Hiatal hernia predisposes to increased oesophageal acid exposure, but the effect on night reflux symptoms has never been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate if hiatal hernia is associated with more frequent and severe night reflux symptoms. A total of 215 consecutive patients (110 male, mean age 52.6 ± 14.7 years) answered a detailed questionnaire on frequency and severity of specific day and night reflux symptoms. Subsequently, all patients underwent upper endoscopy and were categorized in two groups based on the endoscopic presence of hiatal hernia. Patients with hiatal hernia were more likely to have nocturnal symptoms compared to those without hiatal hernia (78.6 vs. 51.8%, p = 0.0001); 59.2% of patients with hiatal hernia reported heartburn and 60.2% regurgitation compared to 43.8 and 39.3% of those without hiatal hernia, respectively (p = 0.033 and p = 0.003). The proportions of patients with day heartburn or regurgitation were not significantly different between the two groups. Night heartburn and regurgitation were graded as significantly more severe by patients with hiatal hernia (4.9 ± 4.2 vs. 3.2 ± 3.7, p = 0.002, and 3.8 ± 4.2 vs. 2.2 ± 3.5, p = 0.001, respectively). Patients with hiatal hernia had more frequent weekly night heartburn and regurgitation compared to those without hiatal hernia (p = 0.004 and p = 0.008, respectively). More patients with hiatal hernia reported nocturnal reflux symptoms compared to those without hiatal hernia. Furthermore, nocturnal reflux symptoms were significantly more frequent and graded as significantly more severe in patients with presence of hiatal hernia rather than in those without hiatal hernia.

  4. Nocturnal acute laryngospasm in children: a possible epileptic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H A; Ashkenazi, A; Barzilai, A; Lahat, E

    2000-03-01

    Respiratory difficulties are not uncommon during epileptic activity in all age groups. Laryngospasm, as an isolated manifestation of epileptic disorder, is a rare phenomenon described previously in only two patients. We report our experience with five children in whom nocturnal laryngospasm was the only clinical manifestation of their epileptic disorder. All children underwent extensive workup and the diagnosis was made by sleep-deprived electroencephalography (two cases) and sleep study (three cases). All patients were treated with carbamezapine with prompt resolution of their laryngospasm.

  5. Prospective Assessment of Nocturnal Awakenings in a Case Series of Treatment-Seeking Chronic Insomnia Patients: A Pilot Study of Subjective and Objective Causes

    PubMed Central

    Krakow, Barry; Romero, Edward; Ulibarri, Victor A.; Kikta, Shara

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cause of nocturnal awakenings in patients with chronic insomnia is rarely researched. This study prospectively assessed the etiology of nocturnal awakenings (subjectively and objectively) among patients with insomnia at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Methods: Twenty adult patients with chronic insomnia enrolled between April 2008 and February 2010 met diagnostic criteria for an insomnia disorder, never previously visited a sleep specialist or underwent sleep testing, and reported no classic sleep disordered breathing symptoms. Patients completed validated scales for insomnia, sleepiness, impairment, anxiety, depression, and quality of life, a qualitative interview to assess subjective reasons for awakenings, and a diagnostic sleep study to objectively assess awakenings and their precipitants. Results: Subjective and objective data showed clinically meaningful insomnia, primarily sleep maintenance insomnia. The most common self-reported reasons for awakenings were: uncertain cause (50%), nightmares (45%), nocturia (35%), bedroom distractions (20%), or pain (15%). No patient identified breathing symptoms as a cause. Objectively, 531 awakenings were observed in the total sample, and 478 (90%) were preceded by sleep breathing events (apnea, hypopnea, or respiratory effort-related event). Fifty-three awakenings were caused by other factors (independent leg jerks [7], spontaneous [14], and sleep that was laboratory-induced [32]). Thirty awakenings ≥ 5 min—a duration sufficient to predispose toward an insomnia episode—were each preceded by a breathing event. Conclusions: Among patients with insomnia with no classic sleep breathing symptoms and therefore low probability of a sleep breathing disorder, most of their awakenings were precipitated by a medical condition (sleep disordered breathing), which contrasted sharply with their perceptions about their awakenings. Citation: Krakow B; Romero E; Ulibarri VA; Kikta S. Prospective

  6. An index for breathlessness and leg fatigue.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Borg, G; Larsson, K; Letzter, M; Sundblad, B-M

    2010-08-01

    The features of perceived symptoms causing discontinuation of strenuous exercise have been scarcely studied. The aim was to characterize the two main symptoms causing the discontinuation of heavy work in healthy persons as well as describe the growth of symptoms during exercise. Breathlessness (b) and leg fatigue (l) were assessed using the Borg CR10 Scale and the Borg CR100 (centiMax) Scale, during a standardized exercise test in 38 healthy subjects (24-71 years). The b/l-relationships were calculated for terminal perceptions (ERI(b/l)), and the growth of symptoms determined by power functions for the whole test, as well as by growth response indexes (GRI). This latter index was constructed as a ratio between power levels corresponding to a very strong and a moderate perception. In the majority (71%) of the test subjects, leg fatigue was the dominant symptom at the conclusion of exercise (P<0.001) and the b/l ratio was 0.77 (CR10) and 0.75 (CR100), respectively. The GRI for breathlessness and leg fatigue was similar, with good correlations between GRI and the power function exponent (P<0.005). In healthy subjects, leg fatigue is the most common cause for discontinuing an incremental exercise test. The growth functions for breathlessness and leg fatigue during work are, however, almost parallel.

  7. [Acute leg compartment syndrome after exertion].

    PubMed

    Misović, Sidor; Kronja, Goran; Ignjatović, Dragan; Tomić, Aleksandar

    2005-03-01

    A case of a 22-year old soldier, with a history of pain in the leg during heavy exercise, which desisted at rest, was presented. One day before admission, the patient had felt an extreme exertion-induced pain in his right leg which had not lessenned at rest. At the same time, the patient noticed persistent severe leg edema. On physical examination, the intracompartmental pressure was 62 mmHg (> 30 mmHg). The patient was urgently operated on, and fasciotomy according to Mubarak was used. At second surgery, the debridement of the muscles of the posterior group of the leg, and the evacuation of hemathoma from the anterior and lateral group of the right leg muscles were perfomed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Fasciotomy wounds were closed within 14 days of the surgery. The complete physical treatment was done. Follow-up examinations 1, 3, and 6 months afterwards were satisfactory. The soldier completed his compulsory military service without any sequelae. Laboratory results were normal. Overlooked, unrecognized or surgically untreated compartment syndrome can cause severe damage, including even the loss of the extremity.

  8. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    PubMed

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. A preliminary investigation of the nocturnal temperature structure above the city of Edmonton, Alberta

    Treesearch

    D. Yap

    1977-01-01

    Information about the nocturnal temperature structure over Edmonton, Alberta. Observations of the temperature fields, including two- and three-dimensional forms of the nocturnal heat island, were obtained from minisonde ascents, an instrumented helicopter, and towers during a 3-week urban air-pollution field study. Results show that urban-induced temperature...

  10. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  11. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  12. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  13. Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d = 0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d = 0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

  14. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.

  15. Mobile nocturnal long-term monitoring of wheezing and cough.

    PubMed

    Gross, Volker; Reinke, Christian; Dette, Frank; Koch, Roland; Vasilescu, Dragos; Penzel, Thomas; Koehler, Ulrich

    2007-02-01

    Changes in normal lung sounds are an important sign of pathophysiological processes in the bronchial system and lung tissue. For the diagnosis of bronchial asthma, coughing and wheezing are important symptoms that indicate the existence of obstruction. In particular, nocturnal long-term acoustic monitoring and assessment make sense for qualitative and quantitative detection and documentation. Previous methods used for lung function diagnosis require active patient cooperation that is not possible during sleep. We developed a mobile device based on the CORSA standard that allows the recording of respiratory sounds throughout the night. To date, we have recorded 133 patients with different diagnoses (80 male, 53 female), of whom 38 were children. In 68 of the patients we could detect cough events and in 87 we detected wheezing. The recording method was tolerated by all participating adults and children. Our mobile system allows non-invasive and cooperation-independent nocturnal monitoring of acoustic symptoms in the domestic environment, especially at night, when most ailments occur.

  16. Nocturnal pituitary hormone and renin profiles during chronic heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Saini, J; Brandenberger, G; Libert, J P; Follenius, M

    1993-07-01

    To establish the principal endocrine systems involved in the initial adaptation to chronic passive heat exposure, responses of the hydromineral and pituitary systems were compared. Nocturnal plasma profiles of growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, and plasma renin activity were determined during a period of prolonged heat exposure designed to simulate a hot climate. Two groups of six male subjects (G1 and G2) were kept for 11 days in a climatically controlled apartment. The G1 group was exposed to 20 degrees C throughout the study, and the G2 group was exposed to 20 degrees C for 5 days and to 35 degrees C for the following 6 days. Blood was collected continuously during the 1st and 10th nights from 2300 to 0700 h and was sampled in 10-min aliquots for hormone analysis. Heat exposure increased the nocturnal mean core temperature (P < 0.02) and stimulated plasma renin activity (P < 0.01) but had little effect on the pituitary hormones except for a small increase in prolactin (P < 0.05). For the G1 group there was no change in hormone profiles. These results demonstrate that the principal initial endocrine system involved in acclimatization to passive heat exposure is the renin-angiotensin system, reflecting counteractive measures against salt and water losses. In contrast, 5 days of continuous heat exposure does not provoke metabolic changes, indicated by the small effect on pituitary hormone profiles.

  17. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  18. Thermal imaging application for behavior study of chosen nocturnal animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Owadowska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Jan

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of the project brought up with aim to verify the hypothesis that small, nocturnal rodents use common paths which form a common, rather stable system for fast movement. This report concentrates on results of merging uniquely good detecting features of modern IR thermal cameras with newly elaborated software. Among the final results offered by this method there are both thermal movies and single synthetic graphic images of paths traced during a few minutes or hours of investigations, as well as detailed numerical data of the ".txt" type about chosen detected events. Although it is to early to say that elaborated method will allow us to answer all ecological questions, it is possible to say that we worked out a new, valuable tool for the next steps of our project. We expect that this method enables us to solve the important ecological problems of nocturnal animals study. Supervised, stably settled area can be enlarged by use of a few thermal imagers or IR thermographic cameras, simultaneously. Presented method can be applied in other uses, even distant from presented e.g. ecological corridors detection.

  19. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  20. Relationship between sleep stages and nocturnal trapezius muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian; Nicoletti, Corinne; Omlin, Sarah; Brink, Mark; Läubli, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Former studies reported a relationship between increased nocturnal low level trapezius muscle activity and neck or shoulder pain but it has not been explored whether trapezius muscle relaxation is related to sleep stages. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity is related to different sleep stages, as measured by polysomnography. Twenty one healthy subjects were measured on four consecutive nights in their homes, whereas the first night served as adaptation night. The measurements included full polysomnography (electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG)), as well as surface EMG of the m. trapezius descendens of the dominant arm. Periods with detectable EMG activity of the trapezius muscle lasted on average 1.5% of the length of the nights and only in four nights it lasted longer than 5% of sleeping time. Neither rest time nor the length of periods with higher activity levels of the trapezius muscle did significantly differ between sleep stages. We found no evidence that nocturnal trapezius muscle activity is markedly moderated by the different sleep stages. Thus the results support that EMG measurements of trapezius muscle activity in healthy subjects can be carried out without concurrent polysomnographic recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, M K; Varghese, Z; Fernando, O N; Moorhead, J F

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of nocturnal polyuria and saluresis in renal allograft recipients was studied by comparing the day to night (D:N) ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion in 15 patients who had undergone transplantation less than one year previously (recent-transplant group) with those in 11 patients who had undergone transplantation at least one year previously. Eleven patients with chronic renal failure and 12 normal subjects served as controls. Patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume and sodium excretion than the patients who had undergone transplantation at least a year before, while the ratios in this last group did not differ significantly from those in the normal subjects. Nocturnal polyuria and saluresis gradually subsided in five patients studied for three months. Chronic renal failure and uraemic autonomic neuropathy were unlikely causes of the nocturia. The patients in the recent-transplant group had significantly lower D:N ratios of urine volume than the controls with chronic renal failure, and the mean Valsalva ratio in eight of them was not significantly different from that in the normal subjects. An undue sensitivity of renal allografts to postural influences was proposed. PMID:6986946

  2. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552

  3. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Gillian L.; Melin, Amanda D.; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels. PMID:25120441

  4. Central Interleukin-1β Suppresses the Nocturnal Secretion of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Król, K.; Krawczyńska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Herman, A.; Romanowicz, K.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, numerous processes occur in a rhythmic manner. The hormonal signal reliably reflecting the environmental light conditions is melatonin. Nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns could be disturbed in pathophysiological states, including inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. All of these states share common elements in their aetiology, including the overexpression of interleukin- (IL-) 1β in the central nervous system. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effect of the central injection of exogenous IL-1β on melatonin release and on the expression of the enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewe. It was found that intracerebroventricular injections of IL-1β (50 µg/animal) suppressed (P < 0.05) nocturnal melatonin secretion in sheep regardless of the photoperiod. This may have resulted from decreased (P < 0.05) synthesis of the melatonin intermediate serotonin, which may have resulted, at least partially, from a reduced expression of tryptophan hydroxylase. IL-1β also inhibited (P < 0.05) the expression of the melatonin rhythm enzyme arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. However, the ability of IL-1β to affect the expression of these enzymes was dependent upon the photoperiod. Our study may shed new light on the role of central IL-1β in the aetiology of disruptions in melatonin secretion. PMID:27212805

  5. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  6. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  7. Pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensive patients: role of fluid retention and nocturnal rostral fluid shift.

    PubMed

    White, L H; Bradley, T D; Logan, A G

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients, particularly those with drug resistance. Evidence from animal experiments, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials strongly suggest a causal link. Mechanistic studies argue for increased sympathetic neural activity and endothelial dysfunction. However, disturbances in fluid volume regulation and distribution may also be involved in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Several studies have shown a high prevalence of OSA in fluid-retaining states including hypertension, a direct relationship between the severity of OSA and the volume of fluid displaced from the legs to the neck during sleep, and a decrease in upper airway cross-sectional area in response to graded lower body positive pressure. Treatments targeting fluid retention and redistribution, including diuretics, mineralocorticoid antagonists, exercise, and possibly renal denervation lower blood pressure and reduce the apnoea-hypopnoea index, a measure of OSA severity. From these observations, it has been postulated that during the daytime, excess fluid collects in the lower extremities due to gravity, and on lying down overnight is redistributed rostrally to the neck, where it may narrow the upper airway and increase its collapsibility, predisposing to OSA when pharyngeal dilator muscle activity decreases during sleep. This article discusses the associations between OSA and hypertension and reviews the evidence for fluid accumulation and its nocturnal rostral redistribution in the pathogenesis of OSA in hypertensive patients.

  8. Integrated system for single leg walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Reid; Krotkov, Eric; Roston, Gerry

    1990-07-01

    The Carnegie Mellon University Planetary Rover project is developing a six-legged walking robot capable of autonomously navigating, exploring, and acquiring samples in rugged, unknown environments. This report describes an integrated software system capable of navigating a single leg of the robot over rugged terrain. The leg, based on an early design of the Ambler Planetary Rover, is suspended below a carriage that slides along rails. To walk, the system creates an elevation map of the terrain from laser scanner images, plans an appropriate foothold based on terrain and geometric constraints, weaves the leg through the terrain to position it above the foothold, contacts the terrain with the foot, and applies force enough to advance the carriage along the rails. Walking both forward and backward, the system has traversed hundreds of meters of rugged terrain including obstacles too tall to step over, trenches too deep to step in, closely spaced obstacles, and sand hills. The implemented system consists of a number of task-specific processes (two for planning, two for perception, one for real-time control) and a central control process that directs the flow of communication between processes.

  9. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  10. Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Chinese, Traditional ( ... HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Active Leg Range of Motion - ...

  11. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Rotigotine's effect on PLM-associated blood pressure elevations in restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cassel, Werner; Benes, Heike; Kesper, Karl; Rye, David; Sica, Domenic; Winkelman, John W.; Bauer, Lars; Grieger, Frank; Joeres, Lars; Moran, Kimberly; Schollmayer, Erwin; Whitesides, John; Carney, Hannah C.; Walters, Arthur S.; Oertel, Wolfgang; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, interventional trial was conducted to investigate the effects of rotigotine patch on periodic limb movement (PLM)–associated nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) elevations. Methods: Patients with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome (RLS) were randomized to rotigotine (optimal dose [1–3 mg/24 h]) or placebo. Continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) assessments were performed during polysomnography at baseline and at the end of 4-week maintenance. Primary outcome was change in number of PLM-associated SBP elevations (defined as slope of linear regression ≥2.5 mm Hg/beat-to-beat interval over 5 consecutive heartbeats [≥10 mm Hg]). Additional outcomes were total SBP elevations, PLM-associated and total diastolic BP (DBP) elevations, periodic limb movements index (PLMI), and PLM in sleep arousal index (PLMSAI). Results: Of 81 randomized patients, 66 (37 rotigotine, 29 placebo) were included in efficacy assessments. PLM-associated SBP elevations were significantly reduced with rotigotine vs placebo (least squares mean treatment difference [95% confidence interval (CI)] −160.34 [−213.23 to −107.45]; p < 0.0001). Rotigotine-treated patients also had greater reduction vs placebo in total SBP elevations (−161.13 [−264.47 to −57.79]; p = 0.0028), PLM-associated elevations (−88.45 [−126.12 to −50.78]; p < 0.0001), and total DBP elevations (−93.81 [−168.45 to −19.16]; p = 0.0146), PLMI (−32.77 [−44.73 to −20.80]; p < 0.0001), and PLMSAI (−7.10 [−11.93 to −2.26]; p = 0.0047). Adverse events included nausea (rotigotine 23%; placebo 8%), headache (18% each), nasopharyngitis (18%; 8%), and fatigue (13%; 15%). Conclusions: Further investigation is required to determine whether reductions in nocturnal BP elevations observed with rotigotine might modify cardiovascular risk. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with moderate to severe

  13. Primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Background and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wille, S

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to investigate background factors and treatment in children with monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. The study material comprised enuretics, former enuretics and controls from the municipal community of Falkenberg on the west coast of Sweden. Whenever possible all investigations were made with the children staying in their own home environment. Different background factors have been suspected as being causative: sleep disturbances, behavioural or psychological disturbances, small bladder capacity, increased night diuresis and an insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone during sleep. These factors have been investigated in these studies. The treatment of enuresis has been dominated by the alarm and antidiuretic treatment with DDAVP. Primary nocturnal monosymptomatic enuresis is a common problem in childhood. In this study the prevalence among 392 seven year old children was 7.3%. A prior history of enuresis was found in 65% of families of the enuretics compared to 25% in controls. The enuretic children showed no statistically significant differences in behavioural or psychological problems compared to non-enuretic children. Enuretic children were described as heavy sleepers by their parents and a wake-up test performed at home showed that they were statistically significantly harder to arouse than the controls. Children with nocturnal enuresis, former enuretics and controls did not differ in social or behavioural traits in an interview study. No signs of symptom substitution was found when enuresis was resolved. Enuretic children had a normal bladder capacity and no statistically significant difference was found compared to controls and former enuretics. The enuretic children showed a normal calcium-creatinine quota in the urine. Former enuretic children showed a significantly enhanced calcium/creatinine quota compared to enuretics and controls. Enuretic children had a statistically significant lower morning

  14. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4–1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii. PMID:27171554

  15. Getting a good night sleep? The importance of recognizing and treating nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2018-05-01

    When Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are asked about the quality of their sleep, their answers are dominated by difficulties associated with impaired mobility in bed, medically referred to as nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal hypokinesia is symptomatic from the mid-stage of the disease, affecting up to 70% of PD patients, and contributes to poor sleep quality, and increased carer burden. Here we explore four areas of nocturnal hypokinesia that are relevant to clinical practice, namely: manifestations and definition; clinical assessment and objective monitoring; etiologies and contributing factors; and evidence-based therapeutic approaches. In addition, we provide an operational definition of what constitutes nocturnal hypokinesia and outline different methods of assessment, ranging from clinical interviews and rating scales to objective night-time monitoring with inertial sensors. Optimal management of nocturnal hypokinesia in PD begins with recognizing its manifestation by inquiring about cardinal symptoms and contributing factors from, not only patients, but also carers, followed by formal assessment, and the application of individualized evidence-based treatment. Night-time dopaminergic treatment is the primary therapy; however, careful clinical judgment is required to balance the benefits with the potential adverse events related to nocturnal dopaminergic stimulation. Future studies are needed to explore the practicality of home-based objective assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia, new therapeutic options not limited to dopaminergic medications, and non-pharmacologic approaches, including training on compensatory strategies and bedroom adaptations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight in desert populations of the Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa).

    PubMed

    McEvoy, J F; Ribot, R F H; Wingfield, J C; Bennett, A T D

    2017-12-14

    Understanding of avian nocturnal flight comes mainly from northern hemisphere species in seasonal temperate ecosystems where nocturnal flight is often precisely timed and entrained by annual photoperiod. Here we investigate patterns of nocturnal flight in waterbirds of Australian desert ecosystems that fly considerable distances to find temporary water bodies formed from rainfall which is highly unpredictable seasonally and spatially, and when there is sufficient water, they then breed. How they perform these feats of navigation and physiology remain poorly known. Using GPS tracking of 38 satellite tagged Pacific black ducks (Anas superciliosa) in two contrasting ecosystems, before and after heavy rainfall we revealed a key role for facultative nocturnal flight in the movement ecology of this species. After large rainfall events, birds rapidly increased nocturnal flight activity in the arid aseasonal ecosystem, but not in the mesic seasonal one. Nocturnal flights occurred throughout the night in both ecosystems. Long range flights (>50 km in 2 hours) occurred almost exclusively at night; at night the distance flown was higher than during the day, birds visited more locations, and the locations were more widely dispersed. Our work reveals that heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight activity in desert populations of waterbirds.

  17. Light pollution modifies the expression of daily rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.

    PubMed

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.

  18. Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate

    PubMed Central

    Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes. PMID:24236115

  19. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  20. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  1. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  2. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  3. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  4. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface influence upon vertical profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1983-05-01

    Near-surface wind profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer, depth h, above relatively flat, tree-covered terrain are described in the context of the analysis of Garratt (1980) for the unstable atmospheric boundary layer. The observations at two sites imply a surface-based transition layer, of depth z *, within which the observed non-dimensional profiles Φ M 0 are a modified form of the inertial sub-layer relation Φ _M ( {{z L}} = ( {{{1 + 5_Z } L}} ) according to Φ _M^{{0}} ˜eq ( {{{1 + 5z} L}} )exp [ { - 0.7( {{{1 - z} z}_ * } )] , where z is height above the zero-plane displacement and L is the Monin-Obukhov length. At both sites the depth z * is significantly smaller than the appropriate neutral value ( z * N ) found from the previous analysis, as might be expected in the presence of a buoyant sink for turbulent kinetic energy.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and nocturnal epilepsy with tonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Nowak, Dariusz

    2009-12-01

    Some ambiguous symptoms may delay or lead to an erroneous diagnosis. We present a case of pure sleep, generalized tonic seizures in a patient with concomitant sleep apnea syndrome. The prolonged apneic periods with tonic muscle contracture lasting minutes and occurring exclusively at night with ensuing confusional state posed diagnostic difficulties because of the negative EEG at the beginning of the workup and the absence of other epilepsy symptoms (i.e. clonic phase, tongue biting, enuresis, seizures while awake). Numerous apneas on polysomnography led to the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. No effect of continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) treatment on frequency of the nocturnal tonic epileptic fits and the repetitive character of the clinical presentation combined with the typical pathologic changes on subsequent EEGs permitted to suggest the epileptic nature of the paroxysmal events. Episodes stopped following administration of clonazepam. However, spontaneous, coincidental remission of seizures cannot be excluded since the patient remained seizure free even after discontinuation of the drug.

  7. Eld's deer translocated to human-inhabited areas become nocturnal.

    PubMed

    Pan, Duo; Teng, Liwei; Cui, Fangjie; Zeng, Zhigao; Bravery, Benjamin D; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Yanling

    2011-02-01

    As human populations expand and nonhuman animals decline, understanding the interactions between people and wildlife is essential. For endangered species, appreciating the effect of human disturbance can be important for their conservation. However, a human disturbance angle is often absent from ecological research, despite growing evidence of the negative impact of nonfatal human interference. Here, we monitored Hainan Eld's deer living within a reserve and translocated animals living amongst villagers. We show that translocated deer deviated from a crepuscular activity pattern and became increas-. ingly nocturnal, and most active when villagers were not. It appears that translocated deer adapted over time to human disturbance and this pattern is similar to that of other species during periods of hunting. People do not pose an actual threat to Eld's deer, but their presence triggered a response akin to predator avoidance and may be interfering with broader aspects of their biology and conservation.

  8. A cutoff value based on analysis of a reference population decreases overestimation of the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria.

    PubMed

    van Haarst, Ernst P; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2012-09-01

    We sought criteria for nocturnal polyuria in asymptomatic, nonurological adults of all ages by reporting reference values of the ratio of daytime and nighttime urine volumes, and finding nocturia predictors. Data from a database of frequency-volume charts from a reference population of 894 nonurological, asymptomatic volunteers of all age groups were analyzed. The nocturnal polyuria index and the nocturia index were calculated and factors influencing these values were determined by multivariate analysis. The nocturnal polyuria index had wide variation but a normal distribution with a mean ± SD of 30% ± 12%. The 95th percentile of the values was 53%. Above this cutoff a patient had nocturnal polyuria. This value contrasts with the International Continence Society definition of 33% but agrees with several other reports. On multivariate regression analysis with the nocturnal polyuria index as the dependent variable sleeping time, maximum voided volume and age were the covariates. However, the increase in the nocturnal polyuria index by age was small. Excluding polyuria and nocturia from analysis did not alter the results in a relevant way. The nocturnal voiding frequency depended on sleeping time and maximum voided volume but most of all on the nocturia index. The prevalence of nocturnal polyuria is overestimated. We suggest a new cutoff value for the nocturnal polyuria index, that is nocturnal polyuria exists when the nocturnal polyuria index exceeds 53%. The nocturia index is the best predictor of nocturia. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Static balance according to hip joint angle of unsupported leg during one-leg standing.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Jang-Joon; Ye, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Seul-Ji; Hong, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximum deviation, and velocity on the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes of center of pressure were measured. [Results] In balance assessment with eyes open, there were significant differences between groups according to hip joint angle, except for maximum deviation on the anteroposterior axis. In balance assessment with eyes closed, there were significant differences between total length measurements at 0° and 30°, 60° and between 30° and 90°. There were significant differences between sway velocity measurements at 0° and 30° and between 30° and 90°. [Conclusion] Thus, there were differences in static balance according to hip joint angle. It is necessary to clearly identify the hip joint angle during one-leg standing testing.

  10. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta—like their day-active relatives—rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. PMID:21307047

  11. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    PubMed

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  12. Nocturnal oxygen saturation profiles of healthy term infants

    PubMed Central

    Terrill, Philip Ian; Dakin, Carolyn; Hughes, Ian; Yuill, Maggie; Parsley, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulse oximetry is used extensively in hospital and home settings to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Interpretation of the trend and range of SpO2 values observed in infants is currently limited by a lack of reference ranges using current devices, and may be augmented by development of cumulative frequency (CF) reference-curves. This study aims to provide reference oxygen saturation values from a prospective longitudinal cohort of healthy infants. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Sleep-laboratory. Patients 34 healthy term infants were enrolled, and studied at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age (N=30, 25, 27, 26, 20, respectively). Interventions Full overnight polysomnography, including 2 s averaging pulse oximetry (Masimo Radical). Main outcome measurements Summary SpO2 statistics (mean, median, 5th and 10th percentiles) and SpO2 CF plots were calculated for each recording. CF reference-curves were then generated for each study age. Analyses were repeated with sleep-state stratifications and inclusion of manual artefact removal. Results Median nocturnal SpO2 values ranged between 98% and 99% over the first 2 years of life and the CF reference-curves shift right by 1% between 2 weeks and 3 months. CF reference-curves did not change with manual artefact removal during sleep and did not vary between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Manual artefact removal did significantly change summary statistics and CF reference-curves during wake. Conclusions SpO2 CF curves provide an intuitive visual tool for evaluating whether an individual's nocturnal SpO2 distribution falls within the range of healthy age-matched infants, thereby complementing summary statistics in the interpretation of extended oximetry recordings in infants. PMID:25063836

  13. Formation of nocturnal low-level jets and structure of the nocturnal boundary layer in the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, P. M.; Bonin, T. A.; Newman, J. F.; Wainwright, C. E.; Blumberg, W. G.; Turner, D. D.; Chilson, P. B.; Wharton, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma in 2012 and 2013. Its main objective was to study turbulent phenomena in the lowest 2-km of the atmosphere using a variety of novel atmospheric profiling techniques including a sodar, multiple Doppler wind lidars (DWL), a Raman lidar and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI). Several instruments from the University of Oklahoma and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were deployed to augment the suite of in-situ and remote sensing instruments at the ARM site. The complementary nature of the deployed instruments with respect to resolution and height coverage provides for a near-complete picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. LABLE can be considered unique in that it was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost, and multi-agency collaboration. Graduate students served as principal investigators who took the lead in designing and conducting experiments aimed at examining boundary-layer processes. This presentation provides an overview of the LABLE experiments and a summary of important results. One focus area will be the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the nocturnal boundary layer and the formation of nocturnal low-level jets. Such low-level jets were frequently observed during both LABLE campaigns and often interacted with mesoscale atmospheric disturbances such as frontal passages. The combination of high-resolution AERI temperature profiles with DWL mean wind and turbulence profiles provided new insights about the structure and evolution of low-level jets.

  14. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  15. [Low back pain vs. leg dominant pain].

    PubMed

    Kovac, Ida

    2011-01-01

    There are two patterns of back pain: 1) back-dominant pain and 2) leg pain dominant, greater than back pain. The causes of back pain are very different and numerous, but mostly are due to vertebral, mechanical etiology, and rarely because of non vertebral, visceral etiology. Leg pain greater than back pain is mostly disease of spinal nerve root, generally presented by radicular pain in a dermatomal distribution. Mechanical compression of spinal roots, caused by disc herniation or by spinal stenosis, results in radicular symptoms. Rarely, in about 1% of patients, there are some other reasons except vertebral mechanical cause, like infection, tumor or fracture. There are several causes of pseudoradicular pain like periferal neuropathy, myifascial syndromes, vascular diseases, osteoarthritis. Spondylarthropathies should be taken in cosideration as well. A complete history and physical examination is important to determine further diagnostic evaluation and to provide eficient therapy.

  16. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  17. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  18. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  19. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve

    2018-05-07

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  20. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  1. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effectmore » upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.« less

  2. Lack of nocturnal blood pressure fall in elderly bedridden hypertensive patients with cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Masato; Ando, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2012-02-01

    To prevent recurrence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), adequate control of blood pressure (BP) is extremely important for the treatment of hypertensive CVD patients. As absence of the nocturnal fall of BP by the expected 10-20% from daytime levels is reported to exaggerate target organ injury, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted, especially to obtain data during nighttime sleep. Forty-eight elderly bedridden chronic phase CVD hypertensive patients (assessed 1-3 mo after CVD accident) participated. As a group, nocturnal BP was higher than diurnal BP, whereas nocturnal pulse rate was lower than diurnal pulse rate. The nocturnal BP fall was blunted in most (∼90%) of the patients. These results suggest that to perform a rational drug treatment, it is essential to do 24-h ABPM before initiation of antihypertensive therapy in elderly bedridden hypertensive CVD patients.

  3. The relative importance of olfaction and vision in a diurnal and a nocturnal hawkmoth.

    PubMed

    Balkenius, Anna; Rosén, Wenqi; Kelber, Almut

    2006-04-01

    Nectar-feeding animals can use vision and olfaction to find rewarding flowers and different species may give different weight to the two sensory modalities. We have studied how a diurnal or nocturnal lifestyle affects the weight given to vision and olfaction. We tested naïve hawkmoths of two species in a wind tunnel, presenting an odour source and a visual stimulus. Although the two species belong to the same subfamily of sphingids, the Macroglossinae, their behaviour was quite different. The nocturnal Deilephila elpenor responded preferably to the odour while the diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum strongly favoured the visual stimulus. Since a nocturnal lifestyle is ancestral for sphingids, the diurnal species, M. stellatarum, has evolved from nocturnal moths that primarily used olfaction. During bright daylight visual cues may have became more important than odour.

  4. A model for nocturnal frost formation on a wing section: Aircraft takeoff performance penalties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietenberger, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The nocturnal frost formation on a wing section, to explain the hazard associated with frost during takeoff was investigated. A model of nocturnal frost formation on a wing section which predicts when the nocturnal frost will form and also its thickness and density as a function of time was developed. The aerodynamic penalities as related to the nocturnal frost formation properties were analyzed to determine how much the takeoff performance would be degraded by a specific frost layer. With an aircraft takeoff assuming equations representing a steady climbing flight, it is determined that a reduction in the maximum gross weight or a partial frost clearance and a reduction in the takeoff angle of attack is needed to neutralize drag and life penalities which are due to frost. Atmospheric conditions which produce the most hazardous frost buildup are determined.

  5. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal heart rate variability and sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Tero; Rusko, Heikki; Syväoja, Heidi; Juuti, Tanja; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    Acute physical exercise may affect cardiac autonomic modulation hours or even days during the recovery phase. Although sleep is an essential recovery period, the information on nocturnal autonomic modulation indicated by heart rate variability (HRV) after different exercises is mostly lacking. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal HR, HRV, HR, and HRV-based relaxation, as well as on actigraphic and subjective sleep quality. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 36 ± 4 years, maximal oxygen uptake 49 ± 4 ml/kg/min) performed five different running exercises on separate occasions starting at 6 p.m. with HR guidance at home. The effect of intensity was studied with 30 min of exercises at intensities corresponding to HR level at 45% (easy), 60% (moderate) and 75% (vigorous) of their maximal oxygen uptake. The effect of duration was studied with 30, 60, and 90 min of moderate exercises. Increased exercise intensity elevated nocturnal HR compared to control day (p < 0.001), but it did not affect nocturnal HRV. Nocturnal HR was greater after the day with 90- than 30- or 60-min exercises (p < 0.01) or control day (p < 0.001). Nocturnal HRV was lower after the 90-min exercise day compared to control day (p < 0.01). Neither exercise intensity nor duration had any impact on actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. The results suggest that increased exercise intensity and/or duration cause delayed recovery of nocturnal cardiac autonomic modulation, although long exercise duration was needed to induce changes in nocturnal HRV. Increased exercise intensity or duration does not seem to disrupt sleep quality.

  6. Most nocturnal asthma symptoms occur outside of exacerbations and associate with morbidity.

    PubMed

    Horner, Caroline C; Mauger, David; Strunk, Robert C; Graber, Nora J; Lemanske, Robert F; Sorkness, Christine A; Szefler, Stanley J; Zeiger, Robert S; Taussig, Lynn M; Bacharier, Leonard B

    2011-11-01

    Although nocturnal awakenings help categorize asthma severity and control, their clinical significance has not been thoroughly studied. We sought to determine the clinical consequences of nocturnal asthma symptoms requiring albuterol (NASRAs) in children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma outside of periods when oral corticosteroids were used for worsening asthma symptoms. Two hundred eighty-five children aged 6 to 14 years with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma were randomized to receive one of 3 controller regimens and completed daily symptom diaries for 48 weeks. Diary responses were analyzed for the frequency and consequences of NASRAs. NASRAs occurred in 72.2% of participants at least once, and in 24.3% of participants, they occurred 13 or more times. The majority (81.3%) of nocturnal symptoms occurred outside of exacerbation periods and were associated the next day with the following events: albuterol use (56.9% of days preceded by nocturnal symptoms vs 18.1% of days not preceded by nocturnal symptoms; relative risk [RR], 2.3; 95% CI, 2.2-2.4), school absence (5.0% vs 0.3%; RR, 10.6; 95% CI, 7.8-14.4), and doctor contact (3.7% vs 0.2%; RR, 8.8; 95% CI, 6.1-12.5). Similar findings were noted during exacerbation periods (RRs of 1.7 for albuterol use, 5.5 for school absence, and 4.9 for doctor contacts). Nocturnal symptoms did not predict the onset of exacerbations. Nocturnal symptoms requiring albuterol in children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma receiving controller therapy occurred predominantly outside of exacerbation periods. Despite being poor predictors of exacerbations, they were associated with increases in albuterol use, school absences, and doctor contacts the day after nocturnal symptom occurrences. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Ji; Yang, Go-Eun; Chueh, Hee Won; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty”) and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”). We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors. Results Early first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08). After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20). Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables. Conclusion There is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early. PMID:28443258

  8. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Children with Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Borch, Luise; Borg, Britt; Rittig, Søren

    2017-09-01

    In a third of all children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis their condition is refractory to first line treatments. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation has been documented to be efficacious in children with daytime incontinence. We investigated the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (3 or more wet nights per week) and no nocturnal polyuria were randomized to treatment with active or sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation involving 1-hour sessions twice daily for 10 weeks in a double-blind design. Of the 52 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis included in the study 47 completed treatment (mean age 9.5 ± 2.1 years, 38 males). None of the children experienced a full response with complete remission of enuresis. Treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation did not lead to significant changes in number of wet nights, nocturnal urine production on wet or dry nights, maximum voided volume with and without first morning voided volume, or voiding frequency when comparing parameters before and after treatment. The present study demonstrates no anti-enuretic effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Nocturnal urine production and bladder capacity remained unchanged during and after treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nocturnal Polyuria in Older Women with Urge Urinary Incontinence: Role of Sleep Quality, Time in Bed and Medications Used.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Shachi; Perera, Subashan; Clarkson, Becky D; Tadic, Stasa D; Resnick, Neil M

    2017-03-01

    Nocturia is common and bothersome in older adults, especially those who are also incontinent. Since nocturnal polyuria is a major contributor, we examined factors associated with nocturnal polyuria in this population to identify those possibly amenable to intervention. We analyzed baseline data from 2 previously completed studies of urge urinary incontinence. The studies involved 284 women (mean age ± SD 72.9 ± 7.9 years) who also completed 3-day voiding diaries. Participants with a nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33% were categorized as having nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal polyuria index = nocturnal urinary volume per 24-hour urine volume). Associations between nocturnal polyuria and various demographic, clinical and sleep related parameters were determined. Overall 55% of the participants had nocturnal polyuria. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that age, body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, time spent in bed and duration of first uninterrupted sleep were independent correlates of nocturnal polyuria. Participants with a larger nocturnal excretion reported a shorter duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void and worse sleep quality despite spending similar time in bed. Body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers, time in bed and duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void are independently associated with nocturnal polyuria in older women with urge urinary incontinence, and are potentially modifiable. These findings also confirm the association between sleep and nocturnal polyuria. Further studies should explore whether interventions to reduce nocturnal polyuria and/or increase the duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void would help to improve sleep quality in this population and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for sedative hypnotics. Copyright © 2017 American Urological

  10. Visual reliability and information rate in the retina of a nocturnal bee.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2008-03-11

    Nocturnal animals relying on vision typically have eyes that are optically and morphologically adapted for both increased sensitivity and greater information capacity in dim light. Here, we investigate whether adaptations for increased sensitivity also are found in their photoreceptors by using closely related and fast-flying nocturnal and diurnal bees as model animals. The nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis is capable of foraging and homing by using visually discriminated landmarks at starlight intensities. Megalopta's near relative, Lasioglossum leucozonium, performs these tasks only in bright sunshine. By recording intracellular responses to Gaussian white-noise stimuli, we show that photoreceptors in Megalopta actually code less information at most light levels than those in Lasioglossum. However, as in several other nocturnal arthropods, Megalopta's photoreceptors possess a much greater gain of transduction, indicating that nocturnal photoreceptors trade information capacity for sensitivity. By sacrificing photoreceptor signal-to-noise ratio and information capacity in dim light for an increased gain and, thus, an increased sensitivity, this strategy can benefit nocturnal insects that use neural summation to improve visual reliability at night.

  11. Low-level nocturnal wind maximum over the Central Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, Steven; Ulanski, Stanley; Garstang, Michael; Houston, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    A low-level nocturnal wind maximum is shown to exist over extensive and nearly undisturbed rainforest near the central Amazon city of Manaus. Meteorological data indicate the presence of this nocturnal wind maximum during both the wet and dry seasons of the Central Amazon Basin. Daytime wind speeds which are characteristically 3-7 m/s between 300 and 1000 m increase to 10-15 m/s shortly after sunset. The wind-speed maximum is reached in the early evening, with wind speeds remaining high until several hours after sunrise. The nocturnal wind maximum is closely linked to a strong low-level inversion formed by radiational cooling of the rainforest canopy. Surface and low-level pressure gradients between the undisturbed forest and the large Amazon river system and the city of Manaus are shown to be responsible for much of the nocturnal wind increase. The pressure gradients are interpreted as a function of the thermal differences between undisturbed forest and the river/city. The importance of both the frictional decoupling and the horizontal pressure gradient suggest that the nocturnal wind maximum does not occur uniformly over all Amazonia. Low-level winds are thought to be pervasive under clear skies and strong surface cooling and that, in many places (i.e., near rivers), local pressure gradients enhance the low-level nocturnal winds.

  12. Superior visual performance in nocturnal insects: neural principles and bio-inspired technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrant, Eric J.

    2016-04-01

    At night, our visual capacities are severely reduced, with a complete loss in our ability to see colour and a dramatic loss in our ability to see fine spatial and temporal details. This is not the case for many nocturnal animals, notably insects. Our recent work, particularly on fast-flying moths and bees and on ball-rolling dung beetles, has shown that nocturnal animals are able to distinguish colours, to detect faint movements, to learn visual landmarks, to orient to the faint pattern of polarised light produced by the moon and to navigate using the stars. These impressive visual abilities are the result of exquisitely adapted eyes and visual systems, the product of millions of years of evolution. Nocturnal animals typically have highly sensitive eye designs and visual neural circuitry that is optimised for extracting reliable information from dim and noisy visual images. Even though we are only at the threshold of understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for reliable nocturnal vision, growing evidence suggests that the neural summation of photons in space and time is critically important: even though vision in dim light becomes necessarily coarser and slower, it also becomes significantly more reliable. We explored the benefits of spatiotemporal summation by creating a computer algorithm that mimicked nocturnal visual processing strategies. This algorithm dramatically increased the reliability of video collected in dim light, including the preservation of colour, strengthening evidence that summation strategies are essential for nocturnal vision.

  13. Nocturnal oxygen saturation profiles of healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Philip Ian; Dakin, Carolyn; Hughes, Ian; Yuill, Maggie; Parsley, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is used extensively in hospital and home settings to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Interpretation of the trend and range of SpO2 values observed in infants is currently limited by a lack of reference ranges using current devices, and may be augmented by development of cumulative frequency (CF) reference-curves. This study aims to provide reference oxygen saturation values from a prospective longitudinal cohort of healthy infants. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Sleep-laboratory. 34 healthy term infants were enrolled, and studied at 2 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age (N=30, 25, 27, 26, 20, respectively). Full overnight polysomnography, including 2 s averaging pulse oximetry (Masimo Radical). Summary SpO2 statistics (mean, median, 5th and 10th percentiles) and SpO2 CF plots were calculated for each recording. CF reference-curves were then generated for each study age. Analyses were repeated with sleep-state stratifications and inclusion of manual artefact removal. Median nocturnal SpO2 values ranged between 98% and 99% over the first 2 years of life and the CF reference-curves shift right by 1% between 2 weeks and 3 months. CF reference-curves did not change with manual artefact removal during sleep and did not vary between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Manual artefact removal did significantly change summary statistics and CF reference-curves during wake. SpO2 CF curves provide an intuitive visual tool for evaluating whether an individual's nocturnal SpO2 distribution falls within the range of healthy age-matched infants, thereby complementing summary statistics in the interpretation of extended oximetry recordings in infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Lower Extremity Limb Salvage with Cross Leg Pedicle Flap, Cross Leg Free Flap, and Cross Leg Vascular Cable Bridge Flap.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Bishop, Sarah N; Ciudad, Pedro; Adabi, Kian; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys; Moran, Steven L; Huang, Tony; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2018-05-16

     Lower extremity salvage following significant soft tissue loss can be complicated by lack of recipient vessel for free tissue transfer. We describe our experience in lower limb salvage for patients with no recipient vessels with the use of pedicle, free and cable bridge flaps.  A retrospective review from 1985 to 2017 of patients undergoing lower limb salvage using a contralateral pedicle cross leg (PCL) flaps, free cross leg (FCL) flaps, or free cable bridge (FCB) flaps was conducted. Demographics, etiology of the reconstruction, type of flap used, donor-site vessels, defect size, operating time, time of pedicle division, length of hospital stay, time to ambulation, and complications were analyzed.  A total of 53 patients (48 males and 5 females) with an average age of 35 years (range, 29-38 years) were identified. The etiology for the reconstruction was trauma in 52 patients and oncological resection in 1 patient. There were 18 PCL, 25 FCL, and 10 FCB completed. The recipient vessels for all flaps were the posterior tibial artery and vein. The average operating room times for PCL, FCL, and FCB flaps were 4, 9, and 10 hours, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5 weeks and average time to ambulation was 4 weeks. The average follow-up time was 7.5 years (range, 3-12 years). Complications encountered were hematoma (six), prolonged pain (six), total flap loss (two), reoperation (five), and infection (four). Limb salvage rates were 96.2%.  When ipsilateral limb vessels are not available, and other reconstructive options have been exhausted, cross leg flaps can be a viable option for limb salvage in the setting of extensive defects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Investigation of nocturnal oviposition by necrophilous flies in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Baldridge, Robert S; Wallace, Susan G; Kirkpatrick, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The need to accurately estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) has prompted research into factors affecting fly oviposition (i.e., oviposition and/or larviposition) on a corpse. Research efforts have focused on whether or not diurnally active flies oviposit during nighttime hours. This study reports that nocturnal oviposition (defined as occurring between 2100-0600 h CDST (Central Daylight Savings Time)) did not occur on freshly killed white rats or mice, on beef (fresh or aged up to 48 h), on freshly thawed pigs, nor, usually, on thawed pigs that were aged for up to 48 h. Limited oviposition did occur between 2100 and 2120 h on one bloated pig at a lighted rural site. Necrophilous flies were present and active at lighted and dark sites (urban and rural) before and immediately after sunset, but fly activity on the bait ceased within 50 min postsunset and did not resume until after 0600 h. These observations support other studies reporting that diurnally active flies do not oviposit during the nighttime.

  16. Marital conflict and nocturnal blood pressure dipping in military couples.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; DeSantis, Amy; Germain, Anne; Buysse, Daniel J; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the association between marital conflict and nocturnal blood pressure dipping (NBP) in Iraq/Afghanistan healthy veterans and their partners and to determine whether sleep disturbances mediate such associations. The sample consisted of 25 heterosexual couples comprised of male veterans and their female civilian spouses/partners. Blood pressure was measured across 48 hr, and NBP was calculated as the ratio of sleep/wake mean arterial pressure (MAP). Marital conflict was assessed by questionnaire. Sleep was assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis was determined via clinician interview and was included as a covariate in all analyses, along with body mass index, age, gender, and deployment characteristics. Higher marital conflict was associated with higher MAP ratios (β = .74, p < .01), with the effect stronger among women (β = -0.68, p < .05, for gender interaction). Among women only, for each SD increase in marital conflict there was a .82 increase in MAP ratio (p < .01). This association was reduced to nonsignificance after adjustment for PSG-assessed sleep efficiency. Consistent with limited prior work in civilian samples, higher marital conflict in military couples was associated with blunted NBP, particularly among women. These findings highlight the importance of considering the health and well-being of both veterans and their partners in the aftermath of war, as well as the importance of considering nighttime physiological pathways that are relevant to cardiovascular disease risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. J.; Raman, S.

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 sq km, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentation at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta's Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.

  18. [Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: An unknown cause of thrombosis?].

    PubMed

    Doutrelon, C; Skopinski, S; Boulon, C; Constans, J; Viallard, J-F; Peffault de Latour, R

    2015-12-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired disorder of hematopoietic stem cells. Somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIG-A), X-linked gene, is responsible for a deficiency in glycosphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-AP). The lack of one of the GPI-AP complement regulatory proteins (CD55, CD59) leads to hemolysis. The disease is diagnosed with hemolytic anemia, marrow failure and thrombosis. Thromboembolic complication occurs in 30% of patient after 10 years of follow-up and is the first event in one out of 10 patients. The two most common sites are hepatic and cerebral veins. These locations are correlated with high risk of death. Currently, these data are balanced with the use of a monoclonal antibody (Eculizumab), which has significantly improved the prognosis with a survival similar to general population after 36 months of follow-up. Anticoagulant treatment is recommended after a thromboembolic event but has no place in primary prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Raman, S.

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 km{sup 2}, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentationmore » at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta`s Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.« less

  20. Structure of the nocturnal boundary layer over a complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Raman, S.

    The complex nature of the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) has been shown extensively in the literature Project STABLE was conducted in 1988 to study NBL turbulence and diffusion over the complex terrain of the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Augusta, Georgia. The third night of the study was particularly interesting because of the unusual phenomena observed in the structure of the NBL. Further analyses of microscale and mesoscale data from this night are presented using data from SRS network of eight 61 m towers over 900 km{sup 2}, from six launches of an instrumented tethersonde, from permanent SRL meteorological instrumentationmore » at seven levels of the 304 m (1,000 ft) WJBF-TV tower near SRS, and additional data collected at 36 m (CC) by North Carolina State University (NCSU) including a one dimensional sonic anemometer, fine wire thermocouple, and a three dimensional propeller anemometer. Also, data from the nearby Plant Vogtle nuclear power plant observation tower and the National Weather Service at Augusta's Bush Field (AGS) are presented. The passage of a mesoscale phenomenon, defined as a microfront (with an explanation of the nomenclature used), and a vertical composite schematic of the NBL which shows dual low level wind maxima, dual inversions, and a persistent, elevated turbulent layer over a complex terrain are described.« less

  1. Nocturnal Air Seiches in the Arizona Meteor Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschinski, A.; Fritts, D. C.; Zhong, S.; Oncley, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona Meteor Crater near Winslow, AZ is 170 m deep, has a diameter of 1.2 km, and it has a nearly circular shape. The motivation of the Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX), conducted in October 2006, was to use the Meteor Crater as a natural laboratory to study atmospheric phenomena that are typical for small basins. Among other observations, high-resolution wind, temperature and pressure measurements were collected with sonics and microbarometers, respectively, during the entire month. The sensors were mounted between 0.5 m and 8.5 m AGL on seven portable towers, five of which were located within the crater and two on the crater rim. Here we report observations of nocturnal air seiches, that is, standing gravity waves associated with the time-harmonic sloshing of the cold-air pool that forms at the bottom of the crater due to radiative cooling at night. We present time series, spectra, and spectrograms of temperature, wind and pressure fluctuations that characterize those air seiches. Typical seiche periods were 15 min. We compare the observations with the time-harmonic solutions of the shallow-water equation and with numerical simulations.

  2. Slow nocturnal home hemodialysis (SNHHD)--one year later.

    PubMed

    Ouwendyk, M; Pierratos, A; Francoeur, R; Wallace, L; Sit, W; Vas, S

    1996-01-01

    High costs and overcrowding of dialysis centres are leading to a global crisis in health care provision. We are developing slow nocturnal home hemodialysis (SNHHD) in which patients dialyze for eight to 10 hours during sleep five to seven nights per week. Vascular access is by means of the Cook silastic jugular catheter. Special precautions are taken to prevent accidental disconnection and air embolism. Dialysis functions are remotely monitored on computer via a modem by trained staff. Five patients have completed five to seven weeks of training and have been successfully performing SNHHD single-handedly (three out of five patients live alone) for 14, 14, 11, 10 and four months respectively. All have discontinued their phosphate binders and increased dietary phosphate intake. Compared with conventional hemodialysis (CHD) results, average pre-dialysis urea and creatinine levels are remarkably reduced to 9.6 mmol/l and 486 umol/l respectively. The average cumulative weekly Kt/V for CHD is 5.0 as compared to 7.7 while on SNHHD. Four out of five patients report sleeping soundly and experience greatly increased energy and stamina. Their days are entirely free. Repeated in-situ re-use of the dialyzer and blood lines will reduce the patient's work and make SNHHD a very inexpensive modality. SNHHD appears to be a widely applicable treatment with many advantages to both the patient and the health care system.

  3. Sensory system plasticity in a visually specialized, nocturnal spider.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Jay A; Michalik, Peter; Hebets, Eileen A

    2017-04-21

    The interplay between an animal's environmental niche and its behavior can influence the evolutionary form and function of its sensory systems. While intraspecific variation in sensory systems has been documented across distant taxa, fewer studies have investigated how changes in behavior might relate to plasticity in sensory systems across developmental time. To investigate the relationships among behavior, peripheral sensory structures, and central processing regions in the brain, we take advantage of a dramatic within-species shift of behavior in a nocturnal, net-casting spider (Deinopis spinosa), where males cease visually-mediated foraging upon maturation. We compared eye diameters and brain region volumes across sex and life stage, the latter through micro-computed X-ray tomography. We show that mature males possess altered peripheral visual morphology when compared to their juvenile counterparts, as well as juvenile and mature females. Matching peripheral sensory structure modifications, we uncovered differences in relative investment in both lower-order and higher-order processing regions in the brain responsible for visual processing. Our study provides evidence for sensory system plasticity when individuals dramatically change behavior across life stages, uncovering new avenues of inquiry focusing on altered reliance of specific sensory information when entering a new behavioral niche.

  4. Compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    PubMed

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and celestial cues to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here, we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas , in which the majority of individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Myrmecia midas foragers with vectors of ≤5   m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions. Foragers with larger home vectors (≥10   m) oriented towards the fictive nest, indicating a possible increase in cue strength with vector length. When the ants were displaced locally to create a conflict between the home direction indicated by the path integrator and terrestrial landmarks, foragers oriented using landmark information exclusively and ignored any accumulated home vector regardless of vector length. When the visual landmarks at the local displacement site were blocked, foragers were unable to orient to the nest direction and their heading directions were randomly distributed. Myrmecia midas ants typically nest at the base of the tree and some individuals forage on the same tree. Foragers collected on the nest tree during evening twilight were unable to orient towards the nest after small lateral displacements away from the nest. This suggests the possibility of high tree fidelity and an inability to extrapolate landmark compass cues from information collected on the tree and at the nest site to close displacement sites. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    PubMed

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  6. Atypical presentation of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria treated by eculizumab

    PubMed Central

    Quinquenel, Anne; Maestraggi, Quentin; Lecoq-Lafon, Carinne; Régis, Peffault de Latour; Delmer, Alain; Servettaz, Amélie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a nonmalignant acquired hematopoietic stem cell disease, which can be revealed by hemolytic anemia, thromboembolism, or bonemarrow failure. Thrombosis can occur at any site, but coronary thrombosis is extremely rare. Controlled trials have demonstrated that eculizimab, an inhibitor of the terminal complement cascade, was able to reduce both hemolysis and thrombosis, but its efficacy in cases of PNH with coronary thrombosis is unknown. Patient concerns and diagnoses: We report herein the unusual case of a 73-year-old patient presenting with recurrent coronary syndromes without associated stenosis, fever, marked inflammatory syndrome, and anemia, leading to a delayed diagnosis of PNH. Intervention and outcomes: Eculizumab allowed the resolution of fever and inflammation, and prevented further thromboembolism. Lessons: This case emphasizes the importance of performing aflow cytometry test for PNH in front of unusual or unexplained recurrent thromboses. Thromboses, as observed in our case, may be associated with fever and marked inflammation. This case also provides useful information on eculizumab ability to prevent further thromboembolism in PNH patients with a medical history of arterial thrombosis. PMID:28328837

  7. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas

    PubMed Central

    Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1−2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts. PMID:28879002

  8. Human hopping on damped surfaces: strategies for adjusting leg mechanics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chet T; Farley, Claire T

    2003-08-22

    Fast-moving legged animals bounce along the ground with spring-like legs and agilely traverse variable terrain. Previous research has shown that hopping and running humans maintain the same bouncing movement of the body's centre of mass on a range of elastic surfaces by adjusting their spring-like legs to exactly offset changes in surface stiffness. This study investigated human hopping on damped surfaces that dissipated up to 72% of the hopper's mechanical energy. On these surfaces, the legs did not act like pure springs. Leg muscles performed up to 24-fold more net work to replace the energy lost by the damped surface. However, considering the leg and surface together, the combination appeared to behave like a constant stiffness spring on all damped surfaces. By conserving the mechanics of the leg-surface combination regardless of surface damping, hoppers also conserved centre-of-mass motions. Thus, the normal bouncing movements of the centre of mass in hopping are not always a direct result of spring-like leg behaviour. Conserving the trajectory of the centre of mass by maintaining spring-like mechanics of the leg-surface combination may be an important control strategy for fast-legged locomotion on variable terrain.

  9. Human hopping on damped surfaces: strategies for adjusting leg mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Chet T; Farley, Claire T

    2003-01-01

    Fast-moving legged animals bounce along the ground with spring-like legs and agilely traverse variable terrain. Previous research has shown that hopping and running humans maintain the same bouncing movement of the body's centre of mass on a range of elastic surfaces by adjusting their spring-like legs to exactly offset changes in surface stiffness. This study investigated human hopping on damped surfaces that dissipated up to 72% of the hopper's mechanical energy. On these surfaces, the legs did not act like pure springs. Leg muscles performed up to 24-fold more net work to replace the energy lost by the damped surface. However, considering the leg and surface together, the combination appeared to behave like a constant stiffness spring on all damped surfaces. By conserving the mechanics of the leg-surface combination regardless of surface damping, hoppers also conserved centre-of-mass motions. Thus, the normal bouncing movements of the centre of mass in hopping are not always a direct result of spring-like leg behaviour. Conserving the trajectory of the centre of mass by maintaining spring-like mechanics of the leg-surface combination may be an important control strategy for fast-legged locomotion on variable terrain. PMID:12965003

  10. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  11. Loading and performance of the support leg in kicking.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    The punt kick is important in many football codes and support leg kinematics and ground reaction forces have been implicated in injury and performance in kicking. To evaluate ground reaction forces and support leg kinematics in the punt kick. Cross sectional study. Seven elite Australian football players performed maximal kicks into a net using both the preferred and non-preferred legs. A force plate measured ground reaction forces and an optical motion capture system (200Hz) collected kinematic data during the stance phase of the kick. Preferred and non-preferred legs were compared and performance was evaluated by correlating parameters with foot speed at ball contact. Vertical forces were larger than running at a similar speed but did not reach levels that might be considered an injury risk. Braking forces were directed solely posteriorly, as for soccer kicks, but lateral force patterns varied with some players experiencing greater forces medially and others laterally. A more extended support leg, larger peak vertical and braking force during the stance phase and a shorter stance contact time was associated with larger kick leg foot speed at ball contact. No difference existed between the preferred and non-preferred legs for ground reaction forces or support leg mechanics. To punt kick longer, a straighter support leg, less time on the ground and stronger braking should be encouraged. Conditioning the support leg to provide stronger braking potential is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  13. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    PubMed

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  14. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline. PMID:24062875

  15. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  16. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  17. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jull, A; Arroll, B; Parag, V; Waters, J

    2007-07-18

    Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. An earlier version of this review included 9 randomised controlled trials, but more research has been since been conducted and an updated review is required. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with placebo, or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this second update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cinahl (date of last search was February 2007), and reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. Details from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one author using a coding sheet. Data extraction was independently verified by one other author. Twelve trials involving 864 participants were included. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment; in seven of these trials patients received compression therapy. In one trial pentoxifylline was compared with defibrotide in patients who also received compression. Combining 11 trials that compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment (with or without compression) demonstrated that pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Significant heterogeneity was associated with differences in sample populations (hard-to-heal samples compared with "normal" healing samples). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the

  18. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jull, Andrew B; Arroll, Bruce; Parag, Varsha; Waters, Jill

    2012-12-12

    Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with a placebo or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this fifth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 20 July 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 2 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 19, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 28); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to July 13 2012). Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. One review author extracted and summarised details from eligible trials using a coding sheet. One other review author independently verified data extraction. No new trials were identified for this update. We included twelve trials involving 864 participants. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment. Pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the absence of compression appears to be more effective than placebo or no treatment (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.39).More adverse effects were reported in people receiving pentoxifylline (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.22). Nearly three-quarters (72%) of the reported adverse effects were gastrointestinal. Pentoxifylline is an effective adjunct to compression

  19. Survival with Three-Times Weekly In-Center Nocturnal Versus Conventional Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianglin; Suri, Rita S.; Nesrallah, Gihad; Lindsay, Robert; Garg, Amit X.; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the duration of hemodialysis treatments improves outcomes remains controversial. Here, we evaluated survival and clinical changes associated with converting from conventional hemodialysis (mean=3.75 h/treatment) to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (mean=7.85 h/treatment). All 959 consecutive patients who initiated nocturnal hemodialysis for the first time in 77 Fresenius Medical Care facilities during 2006 and 2007 were eligible. We used Cox models to compare risk for mortality during 2 years of follow-up in a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of 746 nocturnal and 2062 control patients on conventional hemodialysis. Two-year mortality was 19% among nocturnal hemodialysis patients compared with 27% among conventional patients. Nocturnal hemodialysis associated with a 25% reduction in the risk for death after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dialysis vintage (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval=0.61–0.91, P=0.004). With respect to clinical features, interdialytic weight gain, albumin, hemoglobin, dialysis dose, and calcium increased on nocturnal therapy, whereas postdialysis weight, predialysis systolic blood pressure, ultrafiltration rate, phosphorus, and white blood cell count declined (all P<0.001). In summary, notwithstanding the possibility of residual selection bias, conversion to treatment with nocturnal hemodialysis associates with favorable clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and improved survival compared with propensity score–matched controls. The potential impact of extended treatment time on clinical outcomes while maintaining a three times per week hemodialysis schedule requires evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:22362905

  20. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and telomere length predicts response to immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Narita, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sekiya, Yuko; Okuno, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Nao; Wang, Xinan; Xu, Yinyan; Kawashima, Nozomu; Doisaki, Sayoko; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kudo, Kazuko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease characterized by severe defects in stem cell number resulting in hypocellular marrow and peripheral blood cytopenias. Minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and a short telomere length were identified as predictive biomarkers of immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness in aplastic anemia. We enrolled 113 aplastic anemia patients (63 boys and 50 girls) in this study to evaluate their response to immunosuppressive therapy. The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and telomere length were detected by flow cytometry. Forty-seven patients (42%) carried a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population. The median telomere length of aplastic anemia patients was -0.99 standard deviation (SD) (range -4.01-+3.01 SD). Overall, 60 patients (53%) responded to immunosuppressive therapy after six months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the absence of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a shorter telomere length as independent unfavorable predictors of immunosuppressive therapy response at six months. The cohort was stratified into a group of poor prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria negative and shorter telomere length; 37 patients) and good prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria positive and/or longer telomere length; 76 patients), respectively. The response rates of the poor prognosis and good prognosis groups at six months were 19% and 70%, respectively (P<0.001). The combined absence of a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a short telomere length is an efficient predictor of poor immunosuppressive therapy response, which should be considered while deciding treatment options: immunosuppressive therapy or first-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The trial was registered in www.umin.ac.jp with number UMIN000017972. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  1. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetic patients, assessed with continuous glucose monitoring: frequency, duration and associations.

    PubMed

    Wentholt, I M E; Maran, A; Masurel, N; Heine, R J; Hoekstra, J B L; DeVries, J H

    2007-05-01

    We quantified the occurrence and duration of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple-injection therapy (MIT) using a continuous subcutaneous glucose sensor. A microdialysis sensor was worn at home by 24 patients on CSII (mean HbA(1c) 7.8 +/- 0.9%) and 33 patients on MIT (HbA(1c) 8.7 +/- 1.3%) for 48 h. Occurrence and duration of nocturnal hypoglycaemia were assessed and using multivariate regression analysis, the association between HbA(1c), diabetes duration, treatment type (CSII vs. MIT), fasting and bedtime blood glucose values, total daily insulin dose and mean nocturnal glucose concentrations, and hypoglycaemia occurrence and duration was investigated. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia < or = 3.9 mmol/l occurred in 33.3% of both the CSII- (8/24) and MIT-treated patients (11/33). Mean (+/- sd; median, interquartile range) duration of hypoglycaemia < or = 3.9 mmol/l was 78 (+/- 76; 57, 23-120) min per night for the CSII- and 98 (+/- 80; 81, 32-158) min per night for the MIT-treated group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that bedtime glucose value had the strongest association with the occurrence (P = 0.026) and duration (P = 0.032) of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Microdialysis continuous glucose monitoring has enabled more precise quantification of nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurrence and duration in Type 1 diabetic patients. Occurrence and duration of nocturnal hypoglycaemia were mainly associated with bedtime glucose value.

  2. Do high fasting glucose levels suggest nocturnal hypoglycaemia? The Somogyi effect-more fiction than fact?

    PubMed

    Choudhary, P; Davies, C; Emery, C J; Heller, S R

    2013-08-01

    The Somogyi effect postulates that nocturnal hypoglycaemia causes fasting hyperglycaemia attributable to counter-regulatory hormone release. Although most published evidence has failed to support this hypothesis, this concept remains firmly embedded in clinical practice and often prevents patients and professionals from optimizing overnight insulin. Previous observational data found lower fasting glucose was associated with nocturnal hypoglycaemia, but did not assess the probability of infrequent individual episodes of rebound hypoglycaemia. We analysed continuous glucose monitoring data to explore its prevalence. We analysed data from 89 patients with Type 1 diabetes who participated in the UK Hypoglycaemia study. We compared fasting capillary glucose following nights with and without nocturnal hypoglycaemia (sensor glucose < 3.5 mmol/l). Fasting capillary blood glucose was lower after nights with hypoglycaemia than without [5.5 (3.0) vs. 14.5 (4.5) mmol/l, P < 0.0001], and was lower on nights with more severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia [5.5 (3.0) vs. 8.2 (2.3) mmol/l; P = 0.018 on nights with nadir sensor glucose of < 2.2 mmol/l vs. 3.5 mmol/l]. There were only two instances of fasting capillary blood glucose > 10 mmol/l after nocturnal hypoglycaemia, both after likely treatment of the episode. When fasting capillary blood glucose is < 5 mmol/l, there was evidence of nocturnal hypoglycaemia on 94% of nights. Our data indicate that, in clinical practice, the Somogyi effect is rare. Fasting capillary blood glucose ≤ 5 mmol/l appears an important indicator of preceding silent nocturnal hypoglycaemia. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  3. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and telomere length predicts response to immunosuppressive therapy in pediatric aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sekiya, Yuko; Okuno, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Nao; Wang, Xinan; Xu, Yinyan; Kawashima, Nozomu; Doisaki, Sayoko; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kudo, Kazuko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ito, Etsuro; Yabe, Hiromasa; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease characterized by severe defects in stem cell number resulting in hypocellular marrow and peripheral blood cytopenias. Minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and a short telomere length were identified as predictive biomarkers of immunosuppressive therapy responsiveness in aplastic anemia. We enrolled 113 aplastic anemia patients (63 boys and 50 girls) in this study to evaluate their response to immunosuppressive therapy. The paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria populations and telomere length were detected by flow cytometry. Forty-seven patients (42%) carried a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population. The median telomere length of aplastic anemia patients was −0.99 standard deviation (SD) (range −4.01–+3.01 SD). Overall, 60 patients (53%) responded to immunosuppressive therapy after six months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the absence of a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a shorter telomere length as independent unfavorable predictors of immunosuppressive therapy response at six months. The cohort was stratified into a group of poor prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria negative and shorter telomere length; 37 patients) and good prognosis (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria positive and/or longer telomere length; 76 patients), respectively. The response rates of the poor prognosis and good prognosis groups at six months were 19% and 70%, respectively (P<0.001). The combined absence of a minor paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria population and a short telomere length is an efficient predictor of poor immunosuppressive therapy response, which should be considered while deciding treatment options: immunosuppressive therapy or first-line hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The trial was registered in www.umin.ac.jp with number UMIN000017972. PMID:26315930

  4. Nocturnal Hypoglycemia: Answering the Challenge With Long-acting Insulin Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Nocturnal hypoglycemia may be the most common type of hypoglycemia in individuals with diabetes using insulin and is particularly worrisome because it often goes undetected and may lead to unconsciousness and even death in severe cases. Objectives The prevalence, causes, and consequences of nocturnal hypoglycemia as well as detection and prevention strategies are reviewed, including the use of long-acting insulin analogs, which offer more physiologic and predictable time-action profiles than traditional human basal insulin. Data Sources A total of 307 publications (151 PubMed; 104 Adis; 52 BIOSIS) were reviewed. Review Methods Relevant trials were found by searching for “(detemir OR glargine) AND nocturnal AND (hypoglycemia OR hypoglycaemia) AND diabetes.” To capture trials that may not have specified “nocturnal” in the title or abstract text but still reported nocturnal hypoglycemia data, a supplemental search of PubMed using “(detemir OR glargine) AND (nocturnal OR hypoglycemia OR hypoglycaemia) AND diabetes” was undertaken. Results A review of these trials found that patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have a lower risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia when receiving long-acting insulin analogs (insulin detemir or insulin glargine), provided that glycemic control is comparable to that provided by traditional human basal insulin. Long-acting insulin analogs may be the best option to provide basal insulin coverage in patients who do not choose or require continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Conclusions Randomized clinical trials suggest that the long-acting insulin analogs are associated with a lower risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia than neutral protamine Hagedorn without sacrificing glycemic control. PMID:17955093

  5. Anatomical Specializations for Nocturnality in a Critically Endangered Parrot, the Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)

    PubMed Central

    Corfield, Jeremy R.; Gsell, Anna C.; Brunton, Dianne; Heesy, Christopher P.; Hall, Margaret I.; Acosta, Monica L.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The shift from a diurnal to nocturnal lifestyle in vertebrates is generally associated with either enhanced visual sensitivity or a decreased reliance on vision. Within birds, most studies have focused on differences in the visual system across all birds with respect to nocturnality-diurnality. The critically endangered Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), a parrot endemic to New Zealand, is an example of a species that has evolved a nocturnal lifestyle in an otherwise diurnal lineage, but nothing is known about its' visual system. Here, we provide a detailed morphological analysis of the orbits, brain, eye, and retina of the Kakapo and comparisons with other birds. Morphometric analyses revealed that the Kakapo's orbits are significantly more convergent than other parrots, suggesting an increased binocular overlap in the visual field. The Kakapo exhibits an eye shape that is consistent with other nocturnal birds, including owls and nightjars, but is also within the range of the diurnal parrots. With respect to the brain, the Kakapo has a significantly smaller optic nerve and tectofugal visual pathway. Specifically, the optic tectum, nucleus rotundus and entopallium were significantly reduced in relative size compared to other parrots. There was no apparent reduction to the thalamofugal visual pathway. Finally, the retinal morphology of the Kakapo is similar to that of both diurnal and nocturnal birds, suggesting a retina that is specialised for a crepuscular niche. Overall, this suggests that the Kakapo has enhanced light sensitivity, poor visual acuity and a larger binocular field than other parrots. We conclude that the Kakapo possesses a visual system unlike that of either strictly nocturnal or diurnal birds and therefore does not adhere to the traditional view of the evolution of nocturnality in birds. PMID:21860663

  6. Sleep Apnea and Circadian Extracellular Fluid Change as Independent Factors for Nocturnal Polyuria.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Akishita, Masahiro; Homma, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the relationships among nocturnal polyuria, sleep apnea and body fluid volume to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturia in sleep apnea syndrome. We enrolled 104 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography for suspected sleep apnea syndrome. Self-assessed symptom questionnaires were administered to evaluate sleep disorder and lower urinary tract symptoms, including nocturia. Voiding frequency and voided volume were recorded using a 24-hour frequency-volume chart. Body fluid composition was estimated in the morning and at night using bioelectric impedance analysis. Frequency-volume chart data were analyzed in 22 patients after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Patients with nocturnal polyuria showed a higher apnea-hypopnea index (33.9 vs 24.2, p = 0.03) and a larger circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (0.22 vs -0.19, p = 0.019) than those without nocturnal polyuria. These relations were more evident in patients 65 years old or older than in those 64 years or younger. A multivariate linear regression model showed an independent relationship of nocturnal polyuria with the apnea-hypopnea index and the circadian change in extracellular fluid adjusted to lean body mass (p = 0.0012 and 0.022, respectively). Continuous positive airway pressure therapy significantly improved nocturnal polyuria and nocturia only in patients with nocturnal polyuria. This study identified sleep apnea and the circadian change in extracellular fluid as independent factors for nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nocturnal Polyuria and Hypertension in Patients with Lifestyle Related Diseases and Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu; Homma, Yukio; Takeda, Masayuki; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Akino, Hironobu; Hayashi, Koichi; Yonemoto, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship of nocturnal polyuria in patients with common lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder, with special attention to hypertension. After baseline assessment, patients recorded 24-hour urinary frequency/volume, blood pressure and heart rate for 3 days. They were stratified into 4 groups based on mean blood pressure, including no hypertension, and controllable, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension, respectively. The 2,353 eligible patients, who had urinary urgency once or more per week and 1 or more nocturnal toilet visits, were enrolled from 543 sites in Japan. Of these patients complete data, including the 24-hour frequency volume chart, were collected from 1,271. Multivariable analyses showed a statistically significant association of nocturnal polyuria with increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p <0.001) and gender (women vs men OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96, p = 0.02), and for controllable (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83-1.460), untreated (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.55-4.45) and uncontrolled (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81-1.62) hypertension vs no hypertension (p = 0.005). However, when assessed separately in men and women, hypertension and heart rate were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in women alone (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in men alone (p <0.001). The current study demonstrates that nocturnal polyuria was significantly associated with age, male gender, and untreated hypertension in patients with lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder. The association between hypertension and nocturnal polyuria was significant in women alone. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dar, Saleem; del Coro Arizmendi, Ma; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2006-03-01

    Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico.

  9. Diurnal and Nocturnal Pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DAR, SALEEM; ARIZMENDI, Ma. del CORO; VALIENTE-BANUET, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. • Methods Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. • Key Results Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. • Conclusions Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. PMID:16394025

  10. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  12. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    PubMed

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  13. Agreement and correlation between the straight leg raise and slump tests in subjects with leg pain.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jeremy; Hall, Toby

    2009-01-01

    The straight leg raise (SLR) and slump tests have traditionally been used to identify nerve root compression arising from disk herniation. However, they may be more appropriate as tests of lumbosacral neural tissue mechanosensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine agreement and correlation between the SLR and slump tests in a population presenting with back and leg pain. This was an observational, cross-sectional study design. Forty-five subjects with unilateral leg pain were recruited from an outpatient Back Pain Screening Clinic at a large teaching hospital in Ireland. The SLR and slump tests were performed on each side. In the event of symptom reproduction, the ankle was dorsiflexed. Reproduction of presenting symptoms, which were intensified by ankle dorsiflexion, was interpreted as a positive test. An inclinometer was used to measure range of motion (ROM). There was substantial agreement between SLR and slump test interpretation (kappa = 0.69) with good correlation in ROM between the 2 tests (r = 0.64) on the symptomatic side. In subjects who had positive results, ROM for both tests was significantly reduced compared to ROM on the contralateral side and ROM in subjects who had negative results. When the SLR and slump tests are interpreted as positive in the event of reproduction of presenting leg pain that are intensified by ankle dorsiflexion, these tests show substantial agreement and good correlation in the leg pain population. When interpreted in this way, these tests may be appropriate tests of neural tissue mechanosensitivity, but further criteria must be met before a definitive conclusion in relation to neural tissue mechanosensitivity may be drawn.

  14. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  15. Ocellar adaptations for dim light vision in a nocturnal bee.

    PubMed

    Berry, Richard P; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2011-04-15

    Growing evidence indicates that insect ocelli are strongly adapted to meet the specific functional requirements in the environment in which that insect lives. We investigated how the ocelli of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis are adapted to life in the dim understory of a tropical rainforest. Using a combination of light microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, we found that the retinae contain bar-shaped rhabdoms loosely arranged in a radial pattern around multi-layered lenses, and that both lenses and retinae form complex non-spherical shapes reminiscent of those described in other ocelli. Intracellular electrophysiology revealed that the photoreceptors have high absolute sensitivity, but that the threshold location varied widely between 10(9) and 10(11) photons cm(-2) s(-1). Higher sensitivity and greater visual reliability may be obtained at the expense of temporal resolution: the corner frequencies of dark-adapted ocellar photoreceptors were just 4-11 Hz. Spectral sensitivity profiles consistently peaked at 500 nm. Unlike the ocelli of other flying insects, we did not detect UV-sensitive visual pigments in M. genalis, which may be attributable to a scarcity of UV photons under the rainforest canopy at night. In contrast to earlier predictions based on anatomy, the photoreceptors are not sensitive to the e-vector of polarised light. Megalopta genalis ocellar photoreceptors possess a number of unusual properties, including inherently high response variability and the ability to produce spike-like potentials. These properties bear similarities to photoreceptors in the compound eye of the cockroach, and we suggest that the two insects share physiological characteristics optimised for vision in dim light.

  16. Nocturnal enuresis: A topic review and institution experience

    PubMed Central

    DiBianco, John Michael; Morley, Chad; Al-Omar, Osama

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to provide a review of nocturnal enuresis (NE), including its epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and current management. We also set to provide further insight on the treatment of this condition from the experience derived from patients cared for at our tertiary-care institution. NE affects approximately 15% of all children at 5-year-old, affecting boys more frequently than girls. At our large university tertiary pediatric urology center, NE and incontinence, in general, is one the most common chief complaints prompting urologic care. In this review, we examine the condition in detail, highlighting specific goals of the initial evaluation and treatment. We contrast the commonly implemented treatment recommendations, available from the literature with strategies we have found valuable from our extensive experience in treating patients with this disorder. Using current urologic reference textbooks, book chapters, Medline, journal articles and reviews describing the many aspects of NE were reviewed in order to describe NE and the current practices at our institution. Although, this is not a systematic literature review, it includes relevant available research, institutional experience and urological expert opinion and current practices at a tertiary state health facility. The treatment of NE remains a challenge for many pediatricians and pediatric urologists. This likely stems from the multiple possible etiologies of the disorder. We have established a treatment algorithm at our institution, which we have found successful in the majority of our patients. This consists of starting patients on urotherapy, then offering both the enuresis alarm device and medication therapy as first line treatments, and finally adding anticholingerics for combination therapy. Our hope is with further research the treatment of NE will continue to improve. PMID:25506580

  17. Clinical evaluation of a noninvasive alarm system for nocturnal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Skladnev, Victor N; Ghevondian, Nejhdeh; Tarnavskii, Stanislav; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Jones, Timothy W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a prototype noninvasive alarm system (HypoMon) for the detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia. A prospective cohort study evaluated an alarm system that included a sensor belt, a radio frequency transmitter for chest belt signals, and a receiver. The receiver incorporated integrated "real-time" algorithms designed to recognize hypoglycemia "signatures" in the physiological parameters monitored by the sensor belt. Fifty-two children and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) participated in this blinded, prospective, in-clinic, overnight study. Participants had a mean age of 16 years (standard deviation 2.1, range 12-20 years) and were asked to follow their normal meal and insulin routines for the day of the study. Participants had physiological parameters monitored overnight by a single HypoMon system. Their BG levels were also monitored overnight at regular intervals via an intravenous cannula and read on two independent Yellow Springs Instruments analyzers. Hypoglycemia was not induced by any manipulations of diabetes management, rather the subjects were monitored overnight for "natural" occurrences of hypoglycemia. Performance analyses included comparing HypoMon system alarm times with allowed time windows associated with each hypoglycemic event. The primary recognition algorithm in the prototype alarm system performed at a level consistent with expectations based on prior user surveys. The HypoMon system correctly recognized 8 out of the 11 naturally occurring overnight hypoglycemic events and falsely alarmed on 13 out of the remaining 41 normal nights [sensitivity 73% (8/11), specificity 68% (28/41), positive predictive value 38%,negative predictive value 90%]. The prototype HypoMon shows potential as an adjunct method for noninvasive overnight monitoring for hypoglycemia events in young people with T1DM. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P < 0.04). Pulsatile cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ≤ 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ≤ 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

  19. Probing hydrogen bond networks in half-sandwich Ru(II) building blocks by a combined 1H DQ CRAMPS solid-state NMR, XRPD, and DFT approach.

    PubMed

    Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Nervi, Carlo; Bacchi, Alessia; Pelagatti, Paolo; Colombo, Valentina; Sironi, Angelo

    2014-01-06

    The hydrogen bond network of three polymorphs (1α, 1β, and 1γ) and one solvate form (1·H2O) arising from the hydration-dehydration process of the Ru(II) complex [(p-cymene)Ru(κN-INA)Cl2] (where INA is isonicotinic acid), has been ascertained by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) double quantum (1)H CRAMPS (Combined Rotation and Multiple Pulses Sequences) and (13)C CPMAS solid-state NMR experiments. The resolution improvement provided by homonuclear decoupling pulse sequences, with respect to fast MAS experiments, has been highlighted. The solid-state structure of 1γ has been fully characterized by combining X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), solid-state NMR, and periodic plane-wave first-principles calculations. None of the forms show the expected supramolecular cyclic dimerization of the carboxylic functions of INA, because of the presence of Cl atoms as strong hydrogen bond (HB) acceptors. The hydration-dehydration process of the complex has been discussed in terms of structure and HB rearrangements.

  20. Activity of LL-37, CRAMP and antimicrobial peptide-derived compounds E2, E6 and CP26 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Rivas Santiago, Cesar E; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; León-Contreras, Juan C; Hancock, Robert E W; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio

    2013-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major worldwide health problem in part due to the lack of development of new treatments and the emergence of new strains such as multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant strains that are threatening and impairing the control of this disease. In this study, the efficacy of natural and synthetic cationic antimicrobial (host defence) peptides that have been shown often to possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was tested. The natural antimicrobial peptides human LL-37 and mouse CRAMP as well as synthetic peptides E2, E6 and CP26 were tested for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis both in in vitro and in vivo models. The peptides had moderate antimicrobial activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 2 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL. In a virulent model of M. tuberculosis lung infection, intratracheal therapeutic application of these peptides three times a week at doses of ca. 1mg/kg led to significant 3-10-fold reductions in lung bacilli after 28-30 days of treatment. The treatments worked both against the drug-sensitive H37Rv strain and a MDR strain. These results indicate that antimicrobial peptides might constitute a novel therapy against TB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptive genomic evolution of opsins reveals that early mammals flourished in nocturnal environments.

    PubMed

    Borges, Rui; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Gomes, Cidália; Heesy, Christopher P; Antunes, Agostinho

    2018-02-05

    Based on evolutionary patterns of the vertebrate eye, Walls (1942) hypothesized that early placental mammals evolved primarily in nocturnal habitats. However, not only Eutheria, but all mammals show photic characteristics (i.e. dichromatic vision, rod-dominated retina) suggestive of a scotopic eye design. Here, we used integrative comparative genomic and phylogenetic methodologies employing the photoreceptive opsin gene family in 154 mammals to test the likelihood of a nocturnal period in the emergence of all mammals. We showed that mammals possess genomic patterns concordant with a nocturnal ancestry. The loss of the RH2, VA, PARA, PARIE and OPN4x opsins in all mammals led us to advance a probable and most-parsimonious hypothesis of a global nocturnal bottleneck that explains the loss of these genes in the emerging lineage (> > 215.5 million years ago). In addition, ancestral character reconstruction analyses provided strong evidence that ancestral mammals possessed a nocturnal lifestyle, ultra-violet-sensitive vision, low visual acuity and low orbit convergence (i.e. panoramic vision). Overall, this study provides insight into the evolutionary history of the mammalian eye while discussing important ecological aspects of the photic paleo-environments ancestral mammals have occupied.

  2. Interactive influences of ethnicity, endothelin-1 gene, and everyday discrimination upon nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Gregoski, Mathew J; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Kapuku, Gaston; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong; Davis, Mary; Gonto, Kelsey; Treiber, Frank A

    2013-06-01

    Everyday discrimination scale scores are associated with increased ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and reduced nocturnal dipping, and the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/Lys198Asn polymorphism is associated with increased resting BP and exaggerated BP reactivity among African Americans compared to European Americans. Combined influences of these factors on BP control are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis of a three-way interaction between ethnicity, ET-1 carrier status, and everyday discrimination upon ambulatory BP and nocturnal dipping. Baseline laboratory anthropometrics and the everyday discrimination scale were completed by 352 (175 African American) young adult normotensives, followed by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. For nocturnal dipping, multiple regression models controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index revealed significant three-way ET-1 × everyday discrimination × ethnicity interactions. Specifically, among African American ET-1 T-allele carriers, increases in everyday discrimination led to reduced nocturnal dipping. African Americans that carry the ET-1/Lys198Asn T-allele and report higher everyday discrimination scores may be at particular risk for reduced nocturnal dipping.

  3. Interactive Influences of Ethnicity, Endothelin-1 Gene, and Everyday Discrimination Upon Nocturnal Ambulatory Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gregoski, Mathew J.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Kapuku, Gaston; Dong, Yanbin; Zhu, Haidong; Davis, Mary; Gonto, Kelsey; Treiber, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Everyday discrimination scale scores are associated with increased ambulatory blood pressure (BP), and reduced nocturnal dipping, and the ET-1/Lys198Asn polymorphism is associated with increased resting BP and exaggerated BP reactivity among African Americans compared to European Americans. Combined influences of these factors on BP control are unknown. Purpose This study tested the hypothesis of a three-way interaction between ethnicity, ET-1 carrier status and everyday discrimination upon ambulatory BP and nocturnal dipping. Methods Baseline laboratory anthropometrics and the everyday discrimination scale were completed by 351 (175 African American) young adult normotensives; followed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Results For nocturnal dipping, multiple regression models controlling for age, sex, race, and BMI revealed significant three-way ET-1 x everyday discrimination x ethnicity interactions. Specifically, among African American ET-1 T-allele carriers, increases in everyday discrimination led to reduced nocturnal dipping. Conclusions African Americans that carry the ET1/Lys198Asn T-allele and report higher everyday discrimination scores may be at particular risk for reduced nocturnal dipping. PMID:23436272

  4. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Separating selection by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in Gymnadenia conopsea.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Wimmergren, Carolina; Agren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Most plants attract multiple flower visitors that may vary widely in their effectiveness as pollinators. Floral evolution is expected to reflect interactions with the most important pollinators, but few studies have quantified the contribution of different pollinators to current selection on floral traits. To compare selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the environment by conducting supplemental hand-pollinations and selective pollinator exclusions in two populations in central Norway. In both populations, the exclusion of diurnal pollinators significantly reduced seed production compared to open pollination, whereas the exclusion of nocturnal pollinators did not. There was significant selection on traits expected to influence pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency in both the diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatment. The relative strength of selection among plants exposed to diurnal and nocturnal visitors varied among traits and populations, but the direction of selection was consistent. The results suggest that diurnal pollinators are more important than nocturnal pollinators for seed production in the study populations, but that both categories contribute to selection on floral morphology. The study illustrates how experimental manipulations can link specific categories of pollinators to observed selection on floral traits, and thus improve our understanding of how species interactions shape patterns of selection.

  6. Interrupted breeding in a songbird migrant triggers development of nocturnal locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, Andrey; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Grinkevich, Vitaly

    2018-04-03

    Long-distance avian migrants, e.g. Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), can precisely schedule events of their annual cycle. However, the proximate mechanisms controlling annual cycle and their interplay with environmental factors are poorly understood. We artificially interrupted breeding in reed warblers by bringing them into captivity and recording birds' locomotor activity for 5-7 days. Over this time, most of the captive birds gradually developed nocturnal locomotor activity not observed in breeding birds. When the birds were later released and radio-tracked, the individuals with highly developed caged activity performed nocturnal flights. We also found that reed warblers kept indoors without access to local cues developed a higher level of nocturnal activity compared to the birds kept outdoors with an access to the familiar environment. Also, birds translocated from a distant site (21 km) had a higher motivation to fly at night-time after release compared to the birds captured within 1 km of a study site. Our study suggests that an interrupted breeding triggers development of nocturnal locomotor activity in cages, and the level of activity is correlated with motivation to perform nocturnal flights in the wild, which can be restrained by familiar environment.

  7. Effects of Night-Time Use of Rotigotine on Nocturnal Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vallderiola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Aparicio, Javier; Tarradellas, Jaume; Salazar, Gabriel; Oliver, Josep María; Callén, Antonio; Delgado, Tania; Nobbe, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This open-label study assessed the efficacy and safety of exclusive night-time administration of transdermal rotigotine in patients with nocturnal and early morning PD symptoms. Methods. Patients with PD and nocturnal and early morning symptoms received transdermal rotigotine patches (2–16 mg/24 h) applied in the evening and removed in the morning for 3 months. Sleep disturbance was assessed with modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2). Other outcomes included a pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and short-form Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) for quality of life. Results. 74 patients completed treatment in this study. At the end of treatment, PDSS-2 total score had improved by mean 10.9 points from baseline (p < 0.001). All three PDSS-2 domain scores (sleep disturbances, nocturnal motor symptoms, and nocturnal symptoms) were also significantly improved by 41%, 56%, and 48%, respectively (p < 0.001). VAS-pain score decreased from 3.2 to 2.3 (p < 0.001). PDQ-8 score decreased from 23.8 to 18.1 (p < 0.001). The most frequently reported adverse events included nausea (9%), anxiety (4%), and dizziness (4%). Conclusions. Night-time administration of transdermal rotigotine is an effective and well tolerated treatment for nocturnal symptoms in patients with PD. PMID:26576319

  8. Penicillin to prevent recurrent leg cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kim S; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Foster, Katharine A; Mason, James M; Chalmers, Joanne R; Nasr, Ibrahim S; Brindle, Richard J; English, John; Meredith, Sarah K; Reynolds, Nicholas J; de Berker, David; Mortimer, Peter S; Williams, Hywel C

    2013-05-02

    Cellulitis of the leg is a common bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue. We compared prophylactic low-dose penicillin with placebo for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with two or more episodes of cellulitis of the leg who were recruited in 28 hospitals in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Randomization was performed according to a computer-generated code, and study medications (penicillin [250 mg twice a day] or placebo for 12 months) were dispensed by a central pharmacy. The primary outcome was the time to a first recurrence. Participants were followed for up to 3 years. Because the risk of recurrence was not constant over the 3-year period, the primary hypothesis was tested during prophylaxis only. A total of 274 patients were recruited. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The median time to a first recurrence of cellulitis was 626 days in the penicillin group and 532 days in the placebo group. During the prophylaxis phase, 30 of 136 participants in the penicillin group (22%) had a recurrence, as compared with 51 of 138 participants in the placebo group (37%) (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.86; P=0.01), yielding a number needed to treat to prevent one recurrent cellulitis episode of 5 (95% CI, 4 to 9). During the no-intervention follow-up period, there was no difference between groups in the rate of a first recurrence (27% in both groups). Overall, participants in the penicillin group had fewer repeat episodes than those in the placebo group (119 vs. 164, P=0.02 for trend). There was no significant between-group difference in the number of participants with adverse events (37 in the penicillin group and 48 in the placebo group, P=0.50). In patients with recurrent cellulitis of the leg, penicillin was effective in preventing subsequent attacks during prophylaxis, but the protective effect diminished progressively once

  9. A modular network for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Collins, J. J.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we use symmetry methods to study networks of coupled cells, which are models for central pattern generators (CPGs). In these models the cells obey identical systems of differential equations and the network specifies how cells are coupled. Previously, Collins and Stewart showed that the phase relations of many of the standard gaits of quadrupeds and hexapods can be obtained naturally via Hopf bifurcation in small networks. For example, the networks they used to study quadrupeds all had four cells, with the understanding that each cell determined the phase of the motion of one leg. However, in their work it seemed necessary to employ several different four-oscillator networks to obtain all of the standard quadrupedal gaits. We show that this difficulty with four-oscillator networks is unavoidable, but that the problems can be overcome by using a larger network. Specifically, we show that the standard gaits of a quadruped, including walk, trot and pace, cannot all be realized by a single four-cell network without introducing unwanted conjugacies between trot and pace - conjugacies that imply a dynamic equivalence between these gaits that seems inconsistent with observations. In this sense a single network with four cells cannot model the CPG of a quadruped. We also introduce a single eight-cell network that can model all of the primary gaits of quadrupeds without these unwanted conjugacies. Moreover, this network is modular in that it naturally generalizes to provide models of gaits in hexapods, centipedes, and millipedes. The analysis of models for many-legged animals shows that wave-like motions, similar to those obtained by Kopell and Ermentrout, can be expected. However, our network leads to a prediction that the wavelength of the wave motion will divide twice the length of the animal. Indeed, we reproduce illustrations of wave-like motions in centipedes where the animal is approximately one-and-a-half wavelength long - motions that are consistent

  10. The association between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in clinical and epidemiological studies: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Steffens, Martijn G; Bosch, J L H Ruud; Drake, Marcus J; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Blanker, Marco H

    2014-04-01

    We determined the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. The PubMed® and Embase® databases were searched for studies written in English, German, French or Dutch with original data on adult participants in an investigation of the relationship between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria. A meta-analysis of the difference in mean nocturnal voiding frequencies between patients with and without nocturnal polyuria was conducted. Nocturnal polyuria risk was compared between participants with and without nocturia, and the resulting odds ratio was subsequently converted to relative risk with 95% CIs. From 511 references identified we selected 78 publications of 66 studies, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria for this study. Quality scores of studies were generally high for internal validity but low for external validity. In 7 studies (1,416 participants) we estimated a standardized mean difference of 0.59 (95% CI 0.29-0.89) for nocturnal voids between nocturnal polyuria and nonnocturnal polyuria cases. In 8 other studies (with 2,320 participants) we calculated a pooled OR of 4.99 (3.92-6.37) for nocturnal polyuria in individuals with nocturia. The corresponding RR, based on a nocturnal polyuria risk in the pooled population of 63.8%, was 1.41 (1.37-1.44). The association between nocturia and nocturnal polyuria is apparent and robust. However, the clinical importance of the association appears to be less obvious than previously suggested based on single studies. The observed high prevalence of nocturnal polyuria, as a result of the applied International Continence Society definition, may be responsible for this discrepancy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic leg length asymmetry during gait is not a valid method for estimating mild anatomic leg length discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Leporace, Gustavo; Batista, Luiz Alberto; Serra Cruz, Raphael; Zeitoune, Gabriel; Cavalin, Gabriel Armondi; Metsavaht, Leonardo

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of dynamic leg length discrepancy (DLLD) during gait as a radiation-free screening method for measuring anatomic leg length discrepancy (ALLD). Thirty-three subjects with mild leg length discrepancy walked along a walkway and the dynamic leg length discrepancy (DLLD) was calculated using a motion analysis system. Pearson correlation and paired Student t -tests were applied to calculate the correlation and compare the differences between DLLD and ALLD (α = 0.05). The results of our study showed DLLD is not a valid method to predict ALLD in subjects with mild limb discrepancy.

  12. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.

    2004-09-01

    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  13. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  14. [Pseudo-radicular referred leg pain].

    PubMed

    von Heymann, W

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-radicular leg pain as initially described by Bruegger more than 55 years ago was at that time a genius explanation for so many non-radicular pain syndromes that needed not any kind of surgical intervention but in first line a manual treatment or a treatment by therapeutic local anesthetics. Today we describe this pain as a "referred pain" originating from other anatomic structures that may occur during the development of chronic pain. Nevertheless this pain is found in many patients and it still seems to be a big problem for many physicians and surgeons. Imaging does not help either. The history and the clinical symptoms, the examinations, the chain reactions in the motor system as well as the treatment options from the point of view of manual medicine are described.

  15. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  16. Nocturnal Propagating Thunderstorms May Favor Urban "Hot-Spots": A Model-Based Study over Minneapolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeshan, Manisha; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution WRF model sensitivity experiments are carried out (with and without urban land cover) to study urban impacts on nocturnal propagating thunderstorms over the city of Minneapolis. It is found that the storm spatial characteristics, especially the position of the storm cell, are appreciably altered by the presence of urban land cover. The most robust urban instability during stormy conditions is the enhanced surface convergence due to increased frictional drag. No urban impact is visible on the rainfall intensity simulated by the model. The frictional convergence, aided by the nocturnal Urban Heat Island (UHI), appears to be responsible for attracting propagating storms towards the urban center. Advanced modeling experiments are needed to quantify the mechanical and thermal influence along with similar studies in other cities to further investigate the urban impact on the frequency and trajectory of nocturnal propagating storms.

  17. Oral aspirin for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo; Magolbo, Natiara G; De Aquino, Rebeca F; Weller, Carolina D

    2016-02-18

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) or varicose ulcers are the final stage of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and are the most common type of leg ulcer. The development of VLUs on ankles and lower legs can occur spontaneously or after minor trauma. The ulcers are often painful and exudative, healing is often protracted and recurrence is common. This cycle of healing and recurrence has a considerable impact on the health and quality of life of individuals, and healthcare and socioeconomic costs. VLUs are a common and costly problem worldwide; prevalence is estimated to be between 1.65% to 1.74% in the western world and is more common in adults aged 65 years and older. The main treatment for a VLU is a firm compression bandage. Compression assists by reducing venous hypertension, enhancing venous return and reducing peripheral oedema. However, studies show that it only has moderate effects on healing, with up to 50% of VLUs unhealed after two years of compression. Non-adherence may be the principal cause of these poor results, but presence of inflammation in people with CVI may be another factor, so a treatment that suppresses inflammation (healing ulcers more quickly) and reduces the frequency of ulcer recurrence (thereby prolonging time between recurrent episodes) would be an invaluable intervention to complement compression treatments. Oral aspirin may have a significant impact on VLU clinical practice worldwide. Evidence for the effectiveness of aspirin on ulcer healing and recurrence in high quality RCTs is currently lacking. To assess the benefits and harms of oral aspirin on the healing and recurrence of venous leg ulcers. In May 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. Additional searches were made in trial registers and reference lists of relevant publications for

  18. Laboratory on legs: an architecture for adjustable morphology with legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, G. Clark; Pusey, Jason; Knopf, Ryan; Johnson, Aaron M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2012-06-01

    For mobile robots, the essential units of actuation, computation, and sensing must be designed to fit within the body of the robot. Additional capabilities will largely depend upon a given activity, and should be easily reconfigurable to maximize the diversity of applications and experiments. To address this issue, we introduce a modular architecture originally developed and tested in the design and implementation of the X-RHex hexapod that allows the robot to operate as a mobile laboratory on legs. In the present paper we will introduce the specification, design and very earliest operational data of Canid, an actively driven compliant-spined quadruped whose completely different morphology and intended dynamical operating point are nevertheless built around exactly the same "Lab on Legs" actuation, computation, and sensing infrastructure. We will review as well, more briefly a second RHex variation, the XRL platform, built using the same components.

  19. Adaptation to Life in the High Andes: Nocturnal Oxyhemoglobin Saturation in Early Development.

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine Mary; Baya, Ana; Gavlak, Johanna; Carroll, Annette; Heathcote, Kate; Dimitriou, Dagmara; L'Esperance, Veline; Webster, Rebecca; Holloway, John; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Kirkham, Fenella Jane; Bucks, Romola Starr; Hogan, Alexandra Marie

    2016-05-01

    Physiological adaptation to high altitude hypoxia may be impaired in Andeans with significant European ancestry. The respiratory 'burden' of sleep may challenge adaptation, leading to relative nocturnal hypoxia. Developmental aspects of sleep-related breathing in high-altitude native children have not previously been reported. We aimed to determine the influence of development on diurnal-nocturnal oxyhemoglobin differences in children living at high altitude. This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Seventy-five healthy Bolivian children aged 6 mo to 17 y, native to low altitude (500 m), moderate high altitude (2,500 m), and high altitude (3,700 m) were recruited. Daytime resting pulse oximetry was compared to overnight recordings using Masimo radical oximeters. Genetic ancestry was determined from DNA samples. Children had mixed European/Amerindian ancestry, with no significant differences between altitudes. Sixty-two participants had ≥ 5 h of nocturnal, artifact-free data. As predicted, diurnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation decreased across altitudes (infants and children, both P < 0.001), with lowest diurnal values at high altitude in infants. At high altitude, there was a greater drop in nocturnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation (infants, P < 0.001; children, P = 0.039) and an increase in variability (all P ≤ 0.001) compared to low altitude. Importantly, diurnal to nocturnal altitude differences diminished (P = 0.036), from infancy to childhood, with no further change during adolescence. Physiological adaptation to high-altitude living in native Andeans is unlikely to compensate for the significant differences we observed between diurnal and nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation, most marked in infancy. This vulnerability to sleep-related hypoxia in early childhood has potential lifespan implications. Future studies should characterize the sleep- related respiratory physiology underpinning our observations. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies

  20. Short daily-, nocturnal- and conventional-home hemodialysis have similar patient and treatment survival.

    PubMed

    Tennankore, Karthik K; Na, Yingbo; Wald, Ron; Chan, Christopher T; Perl, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Home hemodialysis (HHD) has many benefits, but less is known about relative outcomes when comparing different home-based hemodialysis modalities. Here, we compare patient and treatment survival for patients receiving short daily HHD (2-3 hours/5 plus sessions per week), nocturnal HHD (6-8 hours/5 plus sessions per week) and conventional HHD (3-6 hours/2-4 sessions per week). A nationally representative cohort of Canadian HHD patients from 1996-2012 was studied. The primary outcome was death or treatment failure (defined as a permanent return to in-center hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) using an intention to treat analysis and death-censored treatment failure as a secondary outcome. The cohort consisted of 600, 508 and 202 patients receiving conventional, nocturnal, and short daily HHD, respectively. Conventional-HHD patients were more likely to use dialysis catheter access (43%) versus nocturnal or short daily HHD (32% and 31%, respectively). Although point estimates were in favor of both therapies, after multivariable adjustment for patient and center factors, there was no statistically significant reduction in the relative hazard for the death/treatment failure composite comparing nocturnal to conventional HHD (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% confidence interval 0.66-1.03]) or short daily to conventional HHD (0.84, 0.63-1.12). Among those with information on vascular access, patients receiving nocturnal HHD had a relative improvement in death-censored treatment survival (0.75, 0.57-0.98). Thus, in this national cohort of HHD patients, those receiving short daily and nocturnal HHD had similar patient/treatment survival compared with patients receiving conventional HHD. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship Between Child Anxiety Related Disorders and Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Bahman; Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Rafeei, Mohammad; Mostajeran, Mahssa

    2016-06-01

    Nocturnal enuresis, often called bedwetting or sleep wetting, is a common problem in children after the age of five and may lead to symptoms such as infection, incontinence and frequent urination. This problem refers to a state in which children after the age of five have no control of their urine for six continuous months and it cannot be attributed to any organic factors or drug use. In this study we aimed to study generalized anxiety disorder as one of the possible causes of primary nocturnal enuresis. In this case-control study 180 children with primary nocturnal enuresis and same number of healthy children with a mean age of 7 - 17 years old with the same demographic characteristics were selected. The study took place at Amir Kabir hospital of Arak, Iran during year 2014. After collecting the information, diagnosis was verified based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) IV-TR criteria. Results were analyzed using the SPSS software (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Frequency of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety, history of anxiety in mother, history of primary nocturnal enuresis in parent's family and body mass index had a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.005). With the results obtained from this study we could say that there was a clear significant difference between the two control and patient groups for all subgroups of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and their relationship with primary nocturnal enuresis. Given the higher prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety and comparison with healthy children, it is recommended for all children with primary nocturnal enuresis to be investigated and treated for generalized anxiety disorder.

  2. Circadian rhythm of a Silene species favours nocturnal pollination and constrains diurnal visitation

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Benítez, Samuel; Dötterl, Stefan; Giménez-Benavides, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Traits related to flower advertisement and reward sometimes vary in a circadian way, reflecting phenotypic specialization. However, specialized flowers are not necessarily restricted to specialized pollinators. This is the case of most Silene species, typically associated with diurnal or nocturnal syndromes of pollination but usually showing complex suites of pollinators. Methods A Silene species with mixed floral features between diurnal and nocturnal syndromes was used to test how petal opening, nectar production, scent emission and pollination success correlate in a circadian rhythm, and whether this is influenced by environmental conditions. The effect of diurnal and nocturnal visitation rates on plant reproductive success is also explored in three populations, including the effect of the pollinating seed predator Hadena sancta. Key Results The result showed that repeated petal opening at dusk was correlated with nectar secretion and higher scent production during the night. However, depending on environmental conditions, petals remain opened for a while in the morning, when nectar and pollen still were available. Pollen deposition was similarly effective at night and in the morning, but less effective in the afternoon. These results were consistent with field studies. Conclusions The circadian rhythm regulating floral attractiveness and reward in S. colorata is predominantly adapted to nocturnal flower visitors. However, favourable environmental conditions lengthen the optimal daily period of flower attraction and pollination towards morning. This allows the complementarity of day and night pollination. Diurnal pollination may help to compensate the plant reproductive success when nocturnal pollinators are scarce and when the net outcome of H. sancta shifts from mutualism to parasitism. These results suggest a functional mechanism explaining why the supposed nocturnal syndrome of many Silene species does not successfully predict their

  3. Classification and Analysis of Four Types of Elevated Nocturnal Convective Initiation During Summer 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, S. A.; Gallus, W. A., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    A large portion of precipitation seen in the Great Plains region of the United States falls from nocturnal convection. Quite often, nocturnally initiated convection may grow upscale into a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) that in turn may cause high impact weather events such as severe wind, flooding, and even tornadoes. Thus, correctly predicting nocturnal convective initiation is an integral part of forecasting for the Great Plains. Unfortunately, it is also one of the most challenging aspects of forecasting for this region. Many forecasters familiar with the Great Plains region have noted that elevated nocturnal convective initiation seems to favor a few distinct and rather diverse modes, which pose varying degrees of forecasting difficulties. This study investigates four of these modes, including initiation caused by the interaction of the low level jet and a frontal feature, initiation at the nose of the low level jet without the presence of a frontal feature, linear features ahead of and perpendicular to a forward propagating MCS, and initiation occurring with no discernible large scale forcing mechanism. Improving elevated nocturnal convective initiation forecasts was one of the primary goals of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign that took place from June 1 to July 15, 2015, which collected a wealth of convective initiation data. To coincide with these data sets, nocturnal convective initiation episodes from the 2015 summer season were classified into each of the aforementioned groups. This allowed for a thorough investigation of the frequency of each type of initiation event, as well as identification of typical characteristics of the atmosphere (forcing mechanisms present, available instability, strength/location of low level jet, etc.) during each event type. Then, using archived model data and the vast data sets collected during the PECAN field campaign, model performance during PECAN for each convective initiation mode was

  4. [Urodynamic changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and nocturnal polyuria].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ke; Tu, Zuo-sheng; Lü, Sheng-qi; Li, Qing-quan; Chen, Xue-qin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the urodynamic changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and nocturnal polyuria. From Sept. 2002 to Jun. 2008, 23 patients with nocturnal polyuria were diagnosed as having OSAHS by polysomnography (PSG). The number and output of nocturia, the osmotic pressure and the excretion of Na(+) were recorded during both the PSG night and CPAP titrating night. Plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP) were also measured at 11PM in the 2 nights and 7AM in the next mornings. Urodynamic studies including urine flow, bladder pressure during filling, pressure-flow study during voiding and urethral pressure were carried out in these patients. Urodynamic studies were performed again after treatment with CPAP for 3 months. PSG showed that the patients with nocturnal polyuria had moderate to severe OSAHS, in which the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) being 48 ± 15 events per hour. The number of nocturnal voiding during the PSG night was more than that during the CPAP titrating night. During the PSG night, the output of nocturia, the nocturia excretion of Na(+), ANP levels (at 7am in the next morning after PSG night) increased and the osmotic pressure of nocturia decreased. CPAP therapy could reverse these abnormalities. The main characteristics of urodynamics in these patients included weak detrusor contraction, hypoesthesia in filling cystometry, and decreased bladder compliance, and detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, both the motility of the detrusor of bladder and the bladder compliance improved. CPAP therapy can effectively reverse the nocturnal polyuria in OSAHS patients. In OSAHS patients, the features of nocturia, including the changes of output, osmotic pressure and the excretion of Na(+), may be related to the secretion of high-level of ANP. During the course of chronic progressively OSAHS pathophysiology, detrusor function of bladder may be damaged

  5. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  6. Children with nocturnal enuresis have posture and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Pavione Rodrigues Pereira, R; Nascimento Fagundes, S; Surry Lebl, A; Azevedo Soster, L; Machado, M G; Koch, V H; Tanaka, C

    2016-08-01

    Integration of the neuromuscular system is required for maintaining balance and adequate voiding function. Children with enuresis have delayed maturation of the motor cortex, with changes in the sensory and motor systems. Along with various alterations, including the genetic, hormonal, behavioral, and sleep disturbances, and neuromotor and sensory deficits associated with nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children and adults, a consistent alteration in the posture of children with NE has been observed in the current practice. Because posture and the balance control system are strongly connected, this study aimed to investigate posture and balance in children and teenagers with NE. A total of 111 children with enuresis were recruited to the enuretic group (EG) and 60 asymptomatic children made up the control group (CG). The participants were divided into two age subgroups: (A) 7-11 years old, N = 77 for EG/A, N = 38 for CG/A; and (B) 12-16 years old, N = 34 for EG/B, N = 22 for CG/B. Balance was assessed using an electronic force plate (100 Hz) to calculate the area of the center of pressure (COP) displacement. The COP is the point that results from the action of vertical forces projected onto the force plate. Sensory integration was analyzed using a 60-s trial with the subject standing under four conditions: (1) eyes open, stable surface; (2) eyes closed, stable surface; (3) eyes open, unstable surface; (4) eyes closed, unstable surface. Posture was assessed by placing reflective anatomical landmarks on the anterior superior iliac spine, the posterior superior iliac spine, the greater trochanter, and lateral malleolus. A photograph was taken while the subject stood quietly. The angles were obtained from landmark connections using software to assess the following posture variables: pelvic ante/retroversion and pelvic ante/retropulsion. The EG showed a greater area of COP displacement compared with the CG under all four sensory conditions and both subgroups, except

  7. Nocturnal cooling in a very shallow cold air pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovec, Jože; Skok, Gregor; Žabkar, Rahela; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2015-04-01

    Cold air pools (CAPs) may develop during nights in very shallow depressions. The depth of the stagnant air within a CAP influences the process of the cooling of nocturnal air and the resulting minimum temperature. A seven-month long field experiment was performed during winter 2013/2014 in an orchard near Kr\\vsko, Slovenia, located inside a very shallow basin only a few meters deep and approximately 500 m wide. Two locations at different elevations inside the basin were selected for measurement. The results showed that the nights (in terms of cooling) can be classified into three main categories; nights with overcast skies and weak cooling, windy nights with clear sky and strong cooling but with no difference in temperatures between locations inside the basin, and calm nights with even stronger cooling and significant temperature differences between locations inside the basin. On calm nights with clear skies, the difference at two measuring sites inside the basin can be up to 5 °C but the presence of even weak winds can cause sufficient turbulent mixing to negate any difference in temperature. To better understand the cooling process on calm, clear nights, we developed a simple 1-D thermodynamic conceptual model focusing on a very shallow CAP. The model has 5-layers (including two air layers representing air inside the CAP), and an analytical solution was obtained for the equilibrium temperatures. Sensitivity analysis of the model was performed. As expected, a larger soil heat conductivity or higher temperature in the ground increases the morning minimum temperatures. An increase in temperature of the atmosphere also increases the simulated minimum temperatures, while the temperature difference between the higher and lower locations remains almost the same. An increase in atmosphere humidity also increases the modelled equilibrium temperatures, while an increase of the humidity of the air inside the CAP results in lower equilibrium temperatures. The humidity of

  8. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008

  9. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present.

  10. Frustrated S = 1/2 Two-Leg Ladder with Different Leg Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, Takashi; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Hikihara, Toshiya; Sakai, Tôru

    2017-04-01

    We explore the ground-state phase diagram of the S = 1/2 two-leg ladder. The isotropic leg interactions J1,a and J1,b between nearest neighbor spins in the legs a and b, respectively, are different from each other. The xy and z components of the uniform rung interactions are denoted by Jr and ΔJr, respectively, where Δ is the XXZ anisotropy parameter. This system has a frustration when J1,aJ1,b < 0 irrespective of the sign of Jr. The phase diagrams on the Δ (0≤Δ<1) versus J1,b plane in the cases of J1,a = - 0.2 and J1,a = 0.2 with Jr = -1 are determined numerically. We employ the physical consideration, the level spectroscopy analysis of the results obtained by the exact diagonalization method and also the density-matrix renormalization-group method. It is found that the non-collinear ferrimagnetic (NCFR) state appears as the ground state in the frustrated region of the parameters. Furthermore, the direct-product triplet-dimer (TD) state in which all rungs form the TD pair is the exact ground state, when J1,a + J1,b = 0 and 0≤ Δ ≲ 0.83. The obtained phase diagrams consist of the TD, XY and Haldane phases as well as the NCFR phase.

  11. Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk Factors with Nocturnal Enuresis in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Patrick; McCool, F. Dennis; Hale, Lauren; Stone, Katie; Eaton, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in women increases significantly after menopause. However, identifying at-risk women in this population is difficult because they tend to underreport symptoms and their complaints may differ from those traditionally associated with OSA. We investigated whether OSA risk factors are associated with the presence of a “non-traditional” complaint such as nocturnal enuresis in postmenopausal women. Methods A cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women ages 50–79, who participated in the Women Health Initiative Observational and Clinical Trial Studies (1993–2005) at 40 Clinical Centers in the United States, was performed. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association of OSA risk factors with nocturnal enuresis. Results A cohort of 2,789 women (1.7%) reported having nocturnal enuresis. Obesity (Odds ratio (OR)=2.29, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.00–2.62), snoring (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.74–2.32), poor sleep quality (OR=1.70, 95% CI 1.52–1.91), sleep fragmentation (OR=2.44, 95% CI 2.14–2.79), daytime sleepiness (OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.33–1.68), and hypertension (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.26) were associated with nocturnal enuresis. Each additional OSA risk factor in a predefined OSA score significantly increased the odds of having nocturnal enuresis in a dose-response fashion (OR=1.38, 2.00, 2.80, 3.87, 5.10, and 7.02 for scores of 1–6, respectively) compared to no risk factors. Conclusion OSA risk factors are associated with nocturnal enuresis in postmenopausal women. Mechanisms relating nocturnal enuresis to OSA may include apnea-associated changes of intra-thoracic pressure leading to increased urine output. Questioning at-risk postmenopausal women presenting with nocturnal enuresis about other OSA risk factors should be considered. PMID:26325085

  12. Rembrandt's 'Beggar with a wooden leg' and other comparable prints.

    PubMed

    ten Kate, J J; Jennekens, F G I; Vos-Niël, J M E

    2009-02-01

    Rembrandt's etching of a beggar with a wooden leg is notable because the two lower limbs of the presumed beggar are present and not deformed. Using the facilities of four specialised Dutch art institutes, we carried out a systematic investigation to find other etchings and engravings of subjects with artificial legs supporting non-amputated limbs, from the period 1500 to 1700 AD. We discovered 28 prints produced by at least 18 artists. Several offered clues to a disorder of a knee, the lower leg or the foot. All individuals were adult males, suggesting the probability of traumatic lesions. We conclude that in this period artificial legs were not only used in the case of absence of part of a lower limb, but also for other reasons, notably disorders of the knee, lower leg or foot. They may also have been used to attract compassion.

  13. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  14. Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running.

    PubMed

    Farley, C T; González, O

    1996-02-01

    When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.

  15. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  16. The Effect of Breathing Exercises on the Nocturnal Enuresis in the Children with the Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Masjedi, Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Background The nocturnal enuresis is one of the most common complaints of childhood. Upper airway obstruction and nocturnal snoring affect the nocturnal enuresis in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of breathing exercises on the nocturnal enuresis in the children with the sleep-disordered breathing. Patients and Methods This study was conducted in year of 2011 by a semi-experimental design with the control group among 40 children, aged 6 - 12 years, who had the nocturnal enuresis. Participants were examined based on the criteria of nocturnal enuresis, oral breathing, and nocturnal snoring. Subsequently, they were randomly assigned to the case and control groups. In the case group, the breathing exercises were performed for 45 minutes, and were pursued for four weeks in the morning following and prior to sleeping, and subsequently the arterial blood gases were measured and the frequency of enuresis and the respiratory rates (RR) were recorded. Results After intervention the means of PaCO2 and RR in the control group were significantly higher than the case group (P < 0.0001). Likewise, O2sat, PaO2 in the case group were higher than the control group (P < 0.0001). The nocturnal enuresis decreased significantly in the case group, compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions This study suggests that the breathing exercises may reduce the frequency of nocturnal enuresis in the patients with the oral breathing and nocturnal snore. The clinical implications of these findings should be verified in the future longitudinal studies. PMID:24719691

  17. Abdominal pain, cramping or discomfort impairs quality of life in women: An internet-based observational pilot study focussing on impact of treatment.

    PubMed

    Enck, Paul; Koehler, Ursula; Weigmann, Harald; Mueller-Lissner, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Background  Abdominal pain, cramping, and discomfort (APCD) are experienced by up to 30 % of adults in Europe. Objective  To assess the impact of APCD on quality of life (QoL) and to investigate the effectiveness, tolerability, and impact on QoL of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB, Buscopan ® ) compared with STW 5 (Iberogast ® ) or analgesics in women with APCD. Methods  An internet-based observational pilot study was conducted in Germany in women who had predominantly used HBB, STW 5, or analgesics (n = 240 per treatment) to treat APCD. This online survey included questions on QoL, effectiveness, and tolerability. Results  A total of 720 completed questionnaires was evaluated. APCD had a major impact on QoL, with 96 % of women reporting that daily activities were disrupted at least sometimes, and 44 % at least often. Other aspects of QoL, such as quality of work, eating habits, and social activities, were also affected in most women. After taking their medication of choice, 91 % of women in the HBB group reported they could "very often" or "often" continue with their daily activities, compared with 84 % and 85 % in the STW 5 and analgesic groups, respectively (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). HBB was perceived to be the "best solution" to overcome APCD symptoms "very often" or "often" by more women (86 %) than STW 5 (75 %) and analgesics (74 %) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusion  Women with APCD have impaired QoL. All treatments were considered effective by the majority of participants. Compared with STW 5 or analgesics, HBB was reported to facilitate return to daily activities more frequently. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A Single Session of rTMS Enhances Small-Worldness in Writer's Cramp: Evidence from Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Multi-Modal Brain Graph.

    PubMed

    Bharath, Rose D; Panda, Rajanikant; Reddam, Venkateswara Reddy; Bhaskar, M V; Gohel, Suril; Bhardwaj, Sujas; Prajapati, Arvind; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose : Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces widespread changes in brain connectivity. As the network topology differences induced by a single session of rTMS are less known we undertook this study to ascertain whether the network alterations had a small-world morphology using multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Method : Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was acquired in duplicate before (R1) and after (R2) a single session of rTMS in 14 patients with Writer's Cramp (WC). Whole brain neuronal and hemodynamic network connectivity were explored using the graph theory measures and clustering coefficient, path length and small-world index were calculated for EEG and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI). Multi-modal graph theory analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of EEG and fMRI clustering coefficients. Result : A single session of rTMS was found to increase the clustering coefficient and small-worldness significantly in both EEG and fMRI ( p < 0.05). Multi-modal graph theory analysis revealed significant modulations in the fronto-parietal regions immediately after rTMS. The rsfMRI revealed additional modulations in several deep brain regions including cerebellum, insula and medial frontal lobe. Conclusion : Multi-modal graph theory analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI can supplement motor physiology methods in understanding the neurobiology of rTMS in vivo . Coinciding evidence from EEG and rsfMRI reports small-world morphology for the acute phase network hyper-connectivity indicating changes ensuing low-frequency rTMS is probably not "noise".

  19. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  20. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  2. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  3. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  4. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  5. Compliant leg behaviour explains basic dynamics of walking and running

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut; Seyfarth, Andre; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    The basic mechanics of human locomotion are associated with vaulting over stiff legs in walking and rebounding on compliant legs in running. However, while rebounding legs well explain the stance dynamics of running, stiff legs cannot reproduce that of walking. With a simple bipedal spring–mass model, we show that not stiff but compliant legs are essential to obtain the basic walking mechanics; incorporating the double support as an essential part of the walking motion, the model reproduces the characteristic stance dynamics that result in the observed small vertical oscillation of the body and the observed out-of-phase changes in forward kinetic and gravitational potential energies. Exploring the parameter space of this model, we further show that it not only combines the basic dynamics of walking and running in one mechanical system, but also reveals these gaits to be just two out of the many solutions to legged locomotion offered by compliant leg behaviour and accessed by energy or speed. PMID:17015312

  6. Treatment of pediatric restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amos, Louella B; Grekowicz, Megan L; Kuhn, Evelyn M; Olstad, Jenna D; Collins, Maureen M; Norins, Nan A; D'Andrea, Lynn A

    2014-04-01

    The primary aim was to determine if iron supplementation effectively treats children with restless legs syndrome (RLS), the time to improvement or resolution of symptoms, and patient characteristics (family history of RLS, secondary sleep disorders, medical diagnoses, and/or mental health diagnoses) that may affect outcome. METHODS.: This was a retrospective chart review of children between 5 and 18 years old who were diagnosed with RLS at the pediatric sleep disorders clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Documented RLS treatment approaches included supplemental iron, nonpharmacologic interventions, melatonin, gabapentin, clonidine, and dopamine agonists (pramipexole and ropinirole). Ninety-seven children were diagnosed with RLS; 60.8% of children were between 5 and 11 years old. Most children (65%) received iron either as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments. Approximately 80% of the children who received iron and had follow-up had improvement or resolution of their symptoms. The median baseline ferritin level was 22.7 ng/mL, and 71% of children had a ferritin level less than 30 ng/mL. The median time to improvement or resolution of symptoms was 3.8 months. Supplemental iron as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments is effective in treating pediatric RLS. A prospective study could help determine if the initial ferritin level and degree of change in the ferritin level impact response to iron treatment. It is also important to study the long-term outcomes in these patients.

  7. Athermal laser treatment of the diabetic leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1995-03-01

    This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

  8. Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in West Virginia (USA)

    Treesearch

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined...

  9. Local Characteristics of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer in Response to External Pressure Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Steven; Baas, Peter; van Hooft, Antoon; van Hooijdonk, Ivo; Bosveld, Fred; van de Wiel, Bas

    2017-04-01

    Geostrophic wind speed data, derived from pressure observations, are used in combination with tower measurements to investigate the nocturnal stable boundary layer at Cabauw, The Netherlands. Since the geostrophic wind speed is not directly influenced by local nocturnal stability, it may be regarded as an external forcing parameter of the nocturnal stable boundary layer. This is in contrast to local parameters such as in situ wind speed, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter (z/L) or the local Richardson number. To characterize the stable boundary layer, ensemble averages of clear-sky nights with similar geostrophic wind speed are formed. In this manner, the mean dynamical behavior of near-surface turbulent characteristics, and composite profiles of wind and temperature is systematically investigated. We find that the classification results in a gradual ordering of the diagnosed variables in terms of the geostrophic wind speed. In an ensemble sense the transition from the weakly stable to very stable boundary layer is more gradual than expected. Interestingly, for very weak geostrophic winds turbulent activity is found to be negligibly small while the resulting boundary cooling stays finite. Realistic numerical simulations for those cases should therefore have a a solid description of other thermodynamic processes such as soil heat conduction and radiative transfer. This prerequisite poses a challenge for Large-Eddy Simulations of weak wind nocturnal boundary layers.

  10. Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henton, Comradge L.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

  11. Seasonal and nocturnal periodicities in ant nuptial flights in the tropics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres; R.R. Snelling; M. Canals

    2001-01-01

    Nocturnal nuptial flights of ants were studied at Guaynabo and Guanica in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A great proportion of the species had a high frequency of flights during the year with little seasonality in the frequency of flights. Flights were less frequent during the dry season. Nuptlal flights at Guaynabo occurred mostly during the post-sunset (18:30-22...

  12. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-08-18

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets.

  13. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the U.S. adult general population.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Mark R

    2013-01-08

    As noted by Ohayon et al., nocturnal wandering (NW) is not synonymous with sleepwalking. NW may also refer to wandering during the night due to epilepsy. Alcohol intoxication can also result in drunken behavior while awake, but this type of cognitive impairment may be undistinguishable from other forms of NW. Dementia and CNS drug effects can also result in NW.

  14. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail.

  15. Detection of subtle nocturnal motor activity from 3-D accelerometry recordings in epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Nijsen, Tamara M E; Cluitmans, Pierre J M; Arends, Johan B A M; Griep, Paul A M

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents a first step towards reliable detection of nocturnal epileptic seizures based on 3-D accelerometry (ACM) recordings. The main goal is to distinguish between data with and without subtle nocturnal motor activity, thus reducing the amount of data that needs further (more complex) analysis for seizure detection. From 15 ACM signals (measured on five positions on the body), two features are computed, the variance and the jerk. In the resulting 2-D feature space, a linear threshold function is used for classification. For training and testing, the algorithm ACM data along with video data is used from nocturnal registrations in seven mentally retarded patients with severe epilepsy. Per patient, the algorithm detected 100% of the periods of motor activity that are marked in video recordings and the ACM signals by experts. From all the detections, 43%-89% was correct (mean =65%). We were able to reduce the amount of data that need to be analyzed considerably. The results show that our approach can be used for detection of subtle nocturnal motor activity. Furthermore, our results indicate that our algorithm is robust for fluctuations across patients. Consequently, there is no need for training the algorithm for each new patient.

  16. Field studies of transport and dispersion of atmospheric tracers in nocturnal drainage flows

    Treesearch

    Paul H. Gudiksen; Gilbert J. Ferber; Malcolm M. Fowler; Wynn L. Eberhard; Michael A. Fosberg; William R. Knuth

    1984-01-01

    A series of tracer experiments were carried out as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program to evaluate pollutant transport and dispersion characteristics of nocturnal drainage flows within a valley in northern California. The results indicate that the degree of interaction of the drainage flows with the larger scale regional flows are...

  17. Prognostic value of nocturnal pulse oximetry in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rivera-López, Ricardo; Jordán-Martínez, Laura; López-Fernández, Silvia; Rivera-Fernandez, Ricardo; Tercedor, Luis; Sáez-Roca, Germán

    2018-05-23

    To analyze the prognostic value of nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable nocturnal pulse-oximetry in patients hospitalized due to heart failure and its relation to mortality and hospital readmission. We included 38 patients who were admitted consecutively to our unit with the diagnosis of decompensated heart failure. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia when more than 10 desaturations per hour were recorded during sleep. Follow-up was performed for 30.3 (standard deviation [SD] 14.2) months, the main objective being a combined endpoint of all-cause mortality and hospital readmission due to heart failure. The average age was 70.7 (SD 10.7) years, 63.3% were males. Pulse-oximetry was considered positive for hypoxemia in 27 (71%) patients. Patients with positive pulse-oximetry had the most frequent endpoint (9.1% [1] vs. 61.5% [16], P = 0.003). After multivariate analysis, continuous nocturnal hypoxemia was related to the combined endpoint (HR = 8.37, 1.19-68.4, P = 0.03). Patients hospitalized for heart failure and nocturnal hypoxemia measured with portable pulse-oximeter have an increased risk of hospital readmission and death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Processes preventing nocturnal equilibration between leaf and soil water potential in tropical savanna woody species.

    Treesearch

    Sandra Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Jose A. Hinojosa; William A. Hoffman; Augusto C. Franco

    2004-01-01

    The impact of nocturnal water loss and recharge of stem water storage on predawn disequilibrium between leaf (ΨL) and soil (Ψ S) water potentials was studied in three dominant tropical savanna woody species in central Brazil (Cerrado). Sap flow continued throughout the night during the dry season and...

  19. Nocturnality in synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years

    PubMed Central

    Angielczyk, K. D.; Schmitz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal activity was not an innovation unique to mammals but a character that appeared much earlier in synapsid history, possibly several times independently. The 24 Carboniferous to Jurassic non-mammalian synapsid species in our sample featured eye morphologies consistent with all major diel activity patterns, with examples of nocturnality as old as the Late Carboniferous (ca 300 Ma). Carnivores such as Sphenacodon ferox and Dimetrodon milleri, but also the herbivorous cynodont Tritylodon longaevus were likely nocturnal, whereas most of the anomodont herbivores are reconstructed as diurnal. Recognizing the complexity of diel activity patterns in non-mammalian synapsids is an important step towards a more nuanced picture of the evolutionary history of behaviour in the synapsid clade. PMID:25186003

  20. Two New Species of Nocturnal Bees of the Genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with Keys to Species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new species of the nocturnal bee genus Megalopta are described: M. (Megalopta) tetewana, n. sp., from Mexico and M. (Noctoraptor) huaoranii, n. sp., from Ecuador. Identification keys to the Mesoamerican species of Megalopta s. str. and the species of the cleptoparasitic subgenus Noctoraptor ar...

  1. Retinal and optical adaptations for nocturnal vision in the halictid bee Megalopta genalis.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-06-01

    The apposition compound eye of a nocturnal bee, the halictid Megalopta genalis, is described for the first time. Compared to the compound eye of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera and the diurnal halictid bee Lasioglossum leucozonium, the eye of M. genalis shows specific retinal and optical adaptations for vision in dim light. The major anatomical adaptations within the eye of the nocturnal bee are (1) nearly twofold larger ommatidial facets and (2) a 4-5 times wider rhabdom diameter than found in the diurnal bees studied. Optically, the apposition eye of M. genalis is 27 times more sensitive to light than the eyes of the diurnal bees. This increased optical sensitivity represents a clear optical adaptation to low light intensities. Although this unique nocturnal apposition eye has a greatly improved ability to catch light, a 27-fold increase in sensitivity alone cannot account for nocturnal vision at light intensities that are 8 log units dimmer than during daytime. New evidence suggests that additional neuronal spatial summation within the first optic ganglion, the lamina, is involved.

  2. The Effects of a Contingency Contracting Program on the Nocturnal Enuresis of Three Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Anthony C.; Dunlap, Glen; Neff, Bryon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a contingency contracting program to eliminate nocturnal enuresis of three children ages 5 to 12. Methods: The program was implemented by the children's primary caregivers, two of whom were foster parents and the third a case worker in the foster care system. The program was a package…

  3. Feeding and survival of two nocturnal cursorial spiders on extrafloral nectar and honeydew sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugars in the form of extrafloral nectar and honeydews may be important resources for nocturnal cursorial spiders such as Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) and Hibana futilis (Banks). C. inclusum spiderlings given only water survived an average of only 6.1 d. Feeding on cotton extrafloral nectar and m...

  4. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  5. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  6. Nocturnality in synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years.

    PubMed

    Angielczyk, K D; Schmitz, L

    2014-10-22

    Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal activity was not an innovation unique to mammals but a character that appeared much earlier in synapsid history, possibly several times independently. The 24 Carboniferous to Jurassic non-mammalian synapsid species in our sample featured eye morphologies consistent with all major diel activity patterns, with examples of nocturnality as old as the Late Carboniferous (ca 300 Ma). Carnivores such as Sphenacodon ferox and Dimetrodon milleri, but also the herbivorous cynodont Tritylodon longaevus were likely nocturnal, whereas most of the anomodont herbivores are reconstructed as diurnal. Recognizing the complexity of diel activity patterns in non-mammalian synapsids is an important step towards a more nuanced picture of the evolutionary history of behaviour in the synapsid clade. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. EVOLUTION OF THE NOCTURNAL INVERSION LAYER AT AN URBAN AND NONURBAN LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolutionary cycle of the nocturnal radiation inversion layer from formation until dissipation under fair weather conditions was investigated by time-series analyses of observations of inversion base and top heights, and inversion strength at an urban and a nonurban site in S...

  8. Variants in angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) contribute to variation in nocturnal oxyhaemoglobin saturation level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic determinants of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), a common set of disorders that contribute to significant cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric morbidity, are not clear. Overnight nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2) is a clinically relevant and easily measured indicator of SDB severity but its...

  9. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Susan; Al-Kurdi, Deyaa; Ologun, Yemisi; Ovington, Liza G; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Richardson, Rachel

    2013-12-23

    Venous leg ulcers are a type of chronic wound affecting up to 1% of adults in developed countries at some point during their lives. Many of these wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. The presence of infection may delay ulcer healing. Two main strategies are used to prevent and treat clinical infection in venous leg ulcers: systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics or antiseptics. The objective of this review was to determine the effects of systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics and antiseptics on the healing of venous ulcers; review authors also examined the effects of these interventions on clinical infection, bacterial flora, bacterial resistance, ulcer recurrence, adverse effects, patient satisfaction, health-related quality of life and costs. In May 2013, for this second update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 24 May 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE (1948 to Week 3 May 2013); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-indexed Citations, 22 May 2013); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to Week 20 2013); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 17 May 2013). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting people with venous leg ulceration, evaluating at least one systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic or topical antiseptic that reported an objective assessment of wound healing (e.g. time to complete healing, frequency of complete healing, change in ulcer surface area) were eligible for inclusion. Selection decisions were made by two review authors while working independently. Information on the characteristics of participants, interventions and outcomes was recorded on a standardised data extraction form. In addition, aspects of trial methods were extracted, including randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data and study group

  10. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Susan; Al-Kurdi, Deyaa; Ologun, Yemisi; Ovington, Liza G; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Richardson, Rachel

    2014-01-10

    Venous leg ulcers are a type of chronic wound affecting up to 1% of adults in developed countries at some point during their lives. Many of these wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. The presence of infection may delay ulcer healing. Two main strategies are used to prevent and treat clinical infection in venous leg ulcers: systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics or antiseptics. The objective of this review was to determine the effects of systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics and antiseptics on the healing of venous ulcers. In May 2013, for this second update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 24 May 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE (1948 to Week 3 May 2013); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-indexed Citations, 22 May 2013); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to Week 20 2013); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 17 May 2013). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting people with venous leg ulceration, evaluating at least one systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic or topical antiseptic that reported an objective assessment of wound healing (e.g. time to complete healing, frequency of complete healing, change in ulcer surface area) were eligible for inclusion. Selection decisions were made by two review authors while working independently. Information on the characteristics of participants, interventions and outcomes was recorded on a standardised data extraction form. In addition, aspects of trial methods were extracted, including randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data and study group comparability at baseline. Data extraction and validity assessment were conducted by one review author and were checked by a second. Data were pooled when appropriate. Forty-five RCTs reporting 53 comparisons and recruiting a total of

  11. Adaptation to Life in the High Andes: Nocturnal Oxyhemoglobin Saturation in Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Catherine Mary; Baya, Ana; Gavlak, Johanna; Carroll, Annette; Heathcote, Kate; Dimitriou, Dagmara; L'Esperance, Veline; Webster, Rebecca; Holloway, John; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Kirkham, Fenella Jane; Bucks, Romola Starr; Hogan, Alexandra Marie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Physiological adaptation to high altitude hypoxia may be impaired in Andeans with significant European ancestry. The respiratory ‘burden’ of sleep may challenge adaptation, leading to relative nocturnal hypoxia. Developmental aspects of sleep-related breathing in high-altitude native children have not previously been reported. We aimed to determine the influence of development on diurnal-nocturnal oxyhemoglobin differences in children living at high altitude. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Seventy-five healthy Bolivian children aged 6 mo to 17 y, native to low altitude (500 m), moderate high altitude (2,500 m), and high altitude (3,700 m) were recruited. Daytime resting pulse oximetry was compared to overnight recordings using Masimo radical oximeters. Genetic ancestry was determined from DNA samples. Results: Children had mixed European/Amerindian ancestry, with no significant differences between altitudes. Sixty-two participants had ≥ 5 h of nocturnal, artifact-free data. As predicted, diurnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation decreased across altitudes (infants and children, both P < 0.001), with lowest diurnal values at high altitude in infants. At high altitude, there was a greater drop in nocturnal mean oxyhemoglobin saturation (infants, P < 0.001; children, P = 0.039) and an increase in variability (all P ≤ 0.001) compared to low altitude. Importantly, diurnal to nocturnal altitude differences diminished (P = 0.036), from infancy to childhood, with no further change during adolescence. Conclusions: Physiological adaptation to high-altitude living in native Andeans is unlikely to compensate for the significant differences we observed between diurnal and nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation, most marked in infancy. This vulnerability to sleep-related hypoxia in early childhood has potential lifespan implications. Future studies should characterize the sleep- related respiratory physiology underpinning our

  12. How performing a repetitive one-legged stance modifies two-legged postural control.

    PubMed

    Burdet, Cyril; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Rougier, Patrice R

    2011-10-01

    The proprioceptive cues in the control of movement is recognized as playing a major role in postural control. However, little is known about its possible increased contribution to postural control consecutive to repetitive muscular activations. To test this, the short-term effects induced by a 1-legged exercise on 2-legged postural control with the eyes closed were assessed in healthy subjects. The center-of-pressure (CP) displacements obtained using a force platform were split into 2 elementary movements: center-of-gravity vertical projection (CGv) and the difference (CP - CGv). These movements assessed the net postural performance and the level of neuromuscular activity, respectively, and were processed afterward (a) through variances, mean velocity, and the average surface covered by the trajectories and (b) a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) modeling. The latter provides further information about how much the subject controls the movements and the spatiotemporal relation between the successive control mechanisms. No difference was found using the classical parameters. In contrast, fBm parameters showed statistically significant changes in postural control after 1-legged exercises: The spatial and temporal coordinates of the transition points for the CG movements along the anteroposterior axis are decreased. Because the body movement control does not rely on visual or vestibular cues, this ability to trigger the corrective process of the CG movements more quickly in the postexercise condition and once a more reduced distance has been covered emphasizes how prior muscular activation improves body movement detection. As a general rule, these data show that the motor systems control body motions better after repetitive stimulation of the sensory cues. These insights should be of interest in physical activities based on a precise muscular length control.

  13. Radiating leg pain and positive straight leg raising in spondylolysis in children.

    PubMed

    Halperin, N; Copeliovitch, L; Schachner, E

    1983-09-01

    Three children presented with low back pain radiating to the leg and with spasm of the hamstring and paravertebral muscles. Since the pain could not be ascribed to trauma, it was necessary to exclude the presence of infection or tumors. All the signs--localization of the pain, tenderness on one side of the back, X-ray film findings of unilateral or bilateral spondylolysis, and localized positive bone scan--pointed to spondylolysis as the cause of pain. All three children exhibited symptoms resembling those found in the facet syndrome described by Mooney and Robertson.

  14. Nocturnal eating disturbs phosphorus excretion in young subjects: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Masae; Noda, Saaya; Morimoto, Yuuka; Suzuki, Akitsu; Nishino, Kanaho; Ando, Sakiko; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Arai, Hidekazu

    2015-10-08

    Nocturnal eating have recently increased. Serum phosphorus levels and regulators of phosphorus have circadian variations, so it is suggested that the timing of eating may be important in controlling serum phosphorus levels. However, there have been no reports on the effects of nocturnal eating on phosphorus metabolism. The objective was to evaluate the effects of nocturnal eating on phosphorus metabolism. Fourteen healthy men participated in two experimental protocols with differing dinner times. The design of this study was a crossover study. The subjects were served test meals three times (breakfast; 07:30 h, lunch; 12:30 h, dinner; 17:30 or 22:30 h) a day. Blood and urine samples were collected to assess diurnal variation until the following morning. The following morning, fasting serum phosphorus levels in the late dinner group were markedly higher than those in the early dinner group (p < 0.001), although serum calcium levels were maintained at approximately constant levels throughout the day in both groups. Fluctuations in urinary calcium excretion were synchronized with the timing of dinner eating, however, fluctuations in urinary phosphorus excretion were not synchronized. Urinary phosphorus excretions at night were inhibited in the late dinner group. In the late dinner group, intact parathyroid hormone levels didn't decrease, and they were significantly higher in this group compared with the early dinner group at 20:00 h (p = 0.004). The following morning, fasting serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in the late dinner group had not changed, but those in the early dinner group were significantly increased (p = 0.003). Serum free fatty acid levels before dinner were significantly higher in the late dinner group compared with the early dinner group. Our results indicate that nocturnal eating inhibits phosphorus excretion. It is suggested that nocturnal eating should be abstained from to manage serum phosphorus levels to within an adequate

  15. Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services.

    PubMed

    Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO 2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light.

  16. Dark Matters: Challenges of Nocturnal Communication Between Plants and Animals in Delivery of Pollination Services

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Renee M.

    2018-01-01

    The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress. Nocturnal pollinators have visual adaptations to function under dim light conditions but may also trade off vision against olfaction when they are dependent on nectar-rewarding and scented flowers. Nocturnal pollinators may use CO2 and humidity cues emanating from freshly-opened flowers as indicators of nectar-rich resources. Some endothermic nocturnal insect pollinators are attracted to thermogenic flowers within which they remain to obtain heat as a reward to increase their energy budget. This review focuses on mechanisms that pollinators use to find flowers at night, and the signals that nocturnally blooming flowers may employ to attract pollinators under dim light conditions. It also indicates gaps in our knowledge. While millions of years of evolutionary time have given pollinators and plants solutions to the delivery of pollination services and to the offering of appropriate rewards, this history of successful evolution is being threatened by artificial light at night. Excessive and inappropriate illumination associated with anthropogenic activities has resulted in significant light pollution which serves to undermine life processes governed by dim light. PMID:29599655

  17. Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy Associated with Nocturnal Dip in Blood Pressure: Findings from the Maracaibo Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Melgarejo, Jesús D; Lee, Joseph H; Petitto, Michele; Yépez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Jin, Zhezhen; Chávez, Carlos A; Pirela, Rosa V; Calmón, Gustavo E; Lee, Winston; Johnson, Matthew P; Mena, Luis J; Al-Aswad, Lama A; Terwilliger, Joseph D; Allikmets, Rando; Maestre, Gladys E; De Moraes, C Gustavo

    2018-06-01

    To determine which nocturnal blood pressure (BP) parameters (low levels or extreme dipper status) are associated with an increased risk of glaucomatous damage in Hispanics. Observational cross-sectional study. A subset (n = 93) of the participants from the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS) who met the study eligibility criteria were included. These participants, who were at least 40 years of age, had measurements for optical tomography coherence, visual field (VF) tests, 24-hour BP, office BP, and intraocular pressure <22 mmHg. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses under the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework were used to examine the relationships between glaucomatous damage and BP parameters, with particular attention to decreases in nocturnal BP. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) based on the presence of optic nerve damage and VF defects. The mean age was 61.9 years, and 87.1% were women. Of 185 eyes evaluated, 19 (26.5%) had signs of GON. Individuals with GON had significantly lower 24-hour and nighttime diastolic BP levels than those without. However, results of the multivariate GEE models indicated that the glaucomatous damage was not related to the average systolic or diastolic BP levels measured over 24 hours, daytime, or nighttime. In contrast, extreme decreases in nighttime systolic and diastolic BP (>20% compared with daytime BP) were significant risk factors for glaucomatous damage (odds ratio, 19.78 and 5.55, respectively). In this population, the link between nocturnal BP and GON is determined by extreme dipping effects rather than low nocturnal BP levels alone. Further studies considering extreme decreases in nocturnal BP in individuals at high risk of glaucoma are warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural organisation in the first optic ganglion of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Birgit; Ribi, Willi A; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Each neural unit (cartridge) in the first optic ganglion (lamina) of the nocturnal bee Megalopta genalis contains nine receptor cell axons (6 short and 3 long visual fibres), and four different types of first-order interneurons, also known as L-fibres (L1 to L4) or lamina monopolar cells. The short visual fibres terminate within the lamina as three different types (svf 1, 2, 3). The three long visual fibres pass through the lamina without forming characteristic branching patterns and terminate in the second optic ganglion, the medulla. The lateral branching pattern of svf 2 into adjacent cartridges is unique for hymenopterans. In addition, all four types of L-fibres show dorso-ventrally arranged, wide, lateral branching in this nocturnal bee. This is in contrast to the diurnal bees Apis mellifera and Lasioglossum leucozonium, where only two out of four L-fibre types (L2 and L4) reach neighbouring cartridges. In M. genalis, L1 forms two sub-types, viz. L1-a and L1-b; L1-b in particular has the potential to contact several neighbouring cartridges. L2 and L4 in the nocturnal bee are similar to L2 and L4 in the diurnal bees but have dorso-ventral arborisations that are twice as wide. A new type of laterally spreading L3 has been discovered in the nocturnal bee. The extensive neural branching pattern of L-fibres in M. genalis indicates a potential role for these neurons in the spatial summation of photons from large groups of ommatidia. This specific adaptation in the nocturnal bee could significantly improve reliability of vision in dim light.

  19. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles attract the generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo-Guevara, Natalia; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Cabezas-Guerrero, Milton F.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants ( Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer ( Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar ( Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey. Additionally, we examined whether the earwig preferred odors emitted from short- or long-term damaged maize. We first determined the earwig diel foraging rhythm and confirmed that D. luteipes is a nocturnal predator. Olfactometer assays showed that during the day, although the earwigs were walking actively, they did not discriminate the volatiles of undamaged maize plants from those of herbivore damaged maize plants. In contrast, at night, earwigs preferred volatiles emitted by maize plants attacked by D. saccharalis or S. frugiperda over undamaged plants and short- over long-term damaged maize. Our GC-MS analysis revealed that short-term damaged nocturnal plant volatile blends were comprised mainly of fatty acid derivatives (i.e., green leaf volatiles), while the long-term damaged plant volatile blend contained mostly terpenoids. We also observed distinct volatile blend composition emitted by maize damaged by the different caterpillars. Our results showed that D. luteipes innately uses nocturnal herbivore-induced plant volatiles to search for prey. Moreover, the attraction of the earwig to short-term damaged plants is likely mediated by fatty acid derivatives.

  1. Circadian characteristics of urinary leukotriene E(4) in healthy subjects and nocturnal asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, K; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, S; Abe, S

    2001-12-01

    Circadian rhythmicity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTs) and thromboxane (TX)-A(2) in healthy subjects and nocturnal asthmatic patients remains a subject of controversy. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of these mediators to the pathogenesis of nocturnal asthma. We measured peak expiratory flow rate, urinary concentration of LTE(4), 11-dehydro-TXB(2), and creatinine eight times every 3 h in three groups: healthy control subjects (n = 5, group A), nocturnal asthmatic patients (n = 9, group B), and nonnocturnal asthmatic subjects (n = 9, group C). To evaluate the reproducibility of the measurement of urinary LTE(4), we measured urinary LTE(4) in group A for 3 separate days. The urinary LTE(4) concentrations from 3 to 6 AM were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than from 3 to 6 PM in both group A and group B, but not in group C. The mean levels of LTE(4) in group B and group C were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in group A. In group B, another small peak was observed from 6 to 9 PM. No significant day-to-day variation was observed in group A. Urinary 11-dehydro-TXB(2) values from 3 to 6 AM were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those levels from 3 to 6 PM in all groups, and the mean levels in group B and group C were significantly higher than those in group A (p < 0.05). Circadian rhythmicity of urinary LTE(4) with a morning peak was found in healthy control subjects and nocturnal asthmatic subjects, but not in nonnocturnal asthmatic patients. It was suggested that cysteinyl LTs rather than TXA(2) might contribute to the nocturnal worsening of asthma.

  2. Elevated nocturnal NEFA are an early signal for hyperinsulinaemic compensation during diet-induced insulin resistance in dogs.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Josiane L; Kolka, Cathryn M; Castro, Ana V B; Asare Bediako, Isaac; Paszkiewicz, Rebecca L; Szczepaniak, Edward W; Szczepaniak, Lidia S; Knutson, Kristen L; Kim, Stella P; Bergman, Richard N

    2015-11-01

    A normal consequence of increased energy intake and insulin resistance is compensatory hyperinsulinaemia through increased insulin secretion and/or reduced insulin clearance. Failure of compensatory mechanisms plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus; consequently, it is critical to identify in vivo signal(s) involved in hyperinsulinaemic compensation. We have previously reported that high-fat feeding leads to an increase in nocturnal NEFA concentration. We therefore designed this study to test the hypothesis that elevated nocturnal NEFA are an early signal for hyperinsulinaemic compensation for insulin resistance. Blood sampling was conducted in male dogs to determine 24 h profiles of NEFA at baseline and during high-fat feeding with and without acute nocturnal NEFA suppression using a partial A1 adenosine receptor agonist. High-fat feeding increased nocturnal NEFA and reduced insulin sensitivity, effects countered by an increase in acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)). Pharmacological NEFA inhibition after 8 weeks of high-fat feeding lowered NEFA to baseline levels and reduced AIR(g) with no effect on insulin sensitivity. A significant relationship emerged between nocturnal NEFA levels and AIR(g). This relationship indicates that the hyperinsulinaemic compensation induced in response to high-fat feeding was prevented when the nocturnal NEFA pattern was returned to baseline. Elevated nocturnal NEFA are an important signal for hyperinsulinaemic compensation during diet-induced insulin resistance.

  3. [Nocturnal continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion--a therapeutic possibility in labile type I diabetes under exceptional conditions].

    PubMed

    Bruns, W; Steinborn, F; Menzel, R; Staritz, B; Bibergeil, H

    1990-03-15

    The whole-day continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with portable pumps in daily blood glucose autocontrol guarantees a more stabile and favourable glycaemia than multiple injections in labile type I diabetics. The success is mainly to be traced back to the continuous replacement of the basal secretion, particularly to the nocturnal fasting phase. In this study the effect on the glycaemia is investigated with exclusively nocturnal administration of the CSII under maintenance of multiple insulin injections during this day. In a group of 18 type I diabetics the nocturnal CSII in comparison to intermediate insulin administrations in the evening led to a significant improvement of glycaemia (p less than 0.01), in particular to the decrease of the fasting blood sugars (p less than 0.05). In two casuistic observations in comparison to all the other conventional methods for the compensation of the nocturnal glycaemia (depot insulin, nocturnal injection of normal insulin) the nocturnal CSII proved to be superior. Therefore, the nocturnal CSII is an--though more rarely to be used--alternative, which may be taken into consideration, of a whole-day CSII is temporarily unwished for.

  4. The effect of dexlansoprazole MR on nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances in patients with symptomatic GERD.

    PubMed

    Fass, Ronnie; Johnson, David A; Orr, William C; Han, Cong; Mody, Reema; Stern, Kathleen N; Pilmer, Betsy L; Perez, M Claudia

    2011-03-01

    Nocturnal heartburn and related sleep disturbances are common among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluated the efficacy of dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg in relieving nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances, improving work productivity, and decreasing nocturnal symptom severity in patients with symptomatic GERD. Patients (N=305) with frequent, moderate-to-very severe nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep disturbances were randomized 1:1 in a double-blind fashion to receive dexlansoprazole MR or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the percentage of nights without heartburn. Secondary end points were the percentage of patients with relief of nocturnal heartburn and of GERD-related sleep disturbances over the last 7 days of treatment. At baseline and week 4/final visit, patients completed questionnaires that assessed sleep quality, work productivity, and the severity and impact of nocturnal GERD symptoms. Dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg (n=152) was superior to placebo (n=153) in median percentage of nights without heartburn (73.1 vs. 35.7%, respectively; P<0.001). Dexlansoprazole MR was significantly better than placebo in percentage of patients with relief of nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances (47.5 vs. 19.6%, 69.7 vs. 47.9%, respectively; P<0.001), and led to significantly greater improvements in sleep quality and work productivity and decreased nocturnal symptom severity. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups. In patients with symptomatic GERD, dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg is significantly more efficacious than placebo in providing relief from nocturnal heartburn, in reducing GERD-related sleep disturbances and the consequent impairments in work productivity, and in improving sleep quality/quality of life.

  5. The Motor and the Brake of the Trailing Leg in Human Walking: Leg Force Control Through Ankle Modulation and Knee Covariance

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step-to-step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production. PMID:27334888

  6. Restless legs syndrome in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ulfberg, Jan; Nyström, Birgitta

    2004-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be a cause of significant sleep disturbance. In a Swedish survey, the prevalence of RLS has been estimated to be 5.8% among men and 11.4% among women. Blood donation may result in iron deficiency, which is hypothesized to be one substantial cause of RLS. Nine hundred and forty-six (618 men, 328 women) consecutive blood donors aged 18-64 years, who attended a blood donation unit in mid-Sweden, answered a questionnaire that included questions about sleep habits. Frequency of blood donation was recorded and intake of iron tablets was assessed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was also recorded. The value of RDW increases in relation to iron deficiency. RLS affected 14.7% of male and 24.7% of female blood donors. The mean intake of iron among the blood donors after each blood donation was only 781 mg, although the recommended intake is 2000 mg. Among the women, 7.4% presented an RDW of >14.5%, which strongly indicates iron deficiency. In this group of women, 37.5% were affected by RLS. The female RLS-sufferers were more affected than the female non-RLS subjects by problems initiating sleep (P=0.006 maintaining sleep (P<0.0001) and were also less refreshed upon awakening (P<0.001). This study showed that RLS was common among female blood donors. Women with RLS were more iron-deficient than those without and were affected by impaired sleep.

  7. Swimming with stiff legs at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2015-08-01

    Locomotion at low Reynolds number is not possible with cycles of reciprocal motion, an example being the oscillation of a single pair of rigid paddles or legs. Here, I demonstrate the possibility of swimming with two or more pairs of legs. They are assumed to oscillate collectively in a metachronal wave pattern in a minimal model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the traveling wave, as commonly observed along the body of free-swimming crustaceans. The displacement of the body and the swimming efficiency depend on the number of legs, the amplitude, and the phase of oscillations. This study shows that paddling legs with distinct orientations and phases offers a simple mechanism for driving flow.

  8. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003775.htm Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the ...

  9. Body Composition of Bangladeshi Children: Comparison and Development of Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Equation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, I.; Hawlader, Sophie Mohammad Delwer Hossain; Arifeen, Shams El; Moore, Sophie; Hills, Andrew P.; Wells, Jonathan C.; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kabir, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Tanita TBF 300A leg-to-leg bioimpedance analyzer for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) in Bangladeshi children aged 4-10 years and to develop novel prediction equations for use in this population, using deuterium dilution as the reference method. Two hundred Bangladeshi children were enrolled. The isotope dilution technique with deuterium oxide was used for estimation of total body water (TBW). FFM estimated by Tanita was compared with results of deuterium oxide dilution technique. Novel prediction equations were created for estimating FFM, using linear regression models, fitting child's height and impedance as predictors. There was a significant difference in FFM and percentage of body fat (BF%) between methods (p<0.01), Tanita underestimating TBW in boys (p=0.001) and underestimating BF% in girls (p<0.001). A basic linear regression model with height and impedance explained 83% of the variance in FFM estimated by deuterium oxide dilution technique. The best-fit equation to predict FFM from linear regression modelling was achieved by adding weight, sex, and age to the basic model, bringing the adjusted R2 to 89% (standard error=0.90, p<0.001). These data suggest Tanita analyzer may be a valid field-assessment technique in Bangladeshi children when using population-specific prediction equations, such as the ones developed here. PMID:23082630

  10. Variability of single-leg versus double-leg stance radiographs in the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew; Rich, Valerie; Bain, Elizabeth; Sterett, William I

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated measured radiographic parameter variability between single-leg stance (SLS) and double-leg stance (DLS) radiographs in patients with varus knee malalignment, indicated for high tibial osteotomy. Fifty-three consecutive knees (mean, 49 years; range, 18-79 years) were evaluated for varus thrust. SLS and DLS radiographs were obtained. A single blinded observer measured mechanical axis angles and weight-bearing line (WBL) deviation using a goniometer. Mechanical axis angles averaged 9.1 degrees (DLS) and 11.3 degrees (SLS). SLS radiographs averaged 9% greater WBL medialization than did DLS. Medial opening averaged 16.4 mm (DLS) and 18.8 mm (SLS). DLS and SLS radiographs showed no significant differences in patients without varus thrust. Patients with varus thrust demonstrated differences in mechanical axis angles (DLS, 9.4 degrees; SLS, 12.2 degrees), WBL deviation (12.1% less), medialization (DLS), and medial opening necessary for correction (DLS, 16.6 mm; SLS, 20.3 mm). In varus thrust, SLS radiographs more closely replicate dynamic knee malalignment, possibly providing more accurate measurements of angular deformity.

  11. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.

  12. Leg ulcer assessment techniques in a remote rural area.

    PubMed

    Graham, Julia

    Community-based leg ulcer clinics are a cost-effective and efficient way of managing patients with leg ulcers in the community (Blair et al, 1988; Moffatt and Oldroyd, 1994). According to the Scottish Clinical Standards for Vascular Services (NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2003): 'It is essential that all vascular patients are seen by a nurse with vascular expertise, who is able to provide information, support and health promotion advice'.

  13. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  14. Structure Elucidation of Mixed-Linker Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks by Solid-State (1)H CRAMPS NMR Spectroscopy and Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jayachandrababu, Krishna C; Verploegh, Ross J; Leisen, Johannes; Nieuwendaal, Ryan C; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar

    2016-06-15

    Mixed-linker zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are nanoporous materials that exhibit continuous and controllable tunability of properties like effective pore size, hydrophobicity, and organophilicity. The structure of mixed-linker ZIFs has been studied on macroscopic scales using gravimetric and spectroscopic techniques. However, it has so far not been possible to obtain information on unit-cell-level linker distribution, an understanding of which is key to predicting and controlling their adsorption and diffusion properties. We demonstrate the use of (1)H combined rotation and multiple pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) NMR spin exchange measurements in combination with computational modeling to elucidate potential structures of mixed-linker ZIFs, particularly the ZIF 8-90 series. All of the compositions studied have structures that have linkers mixed at a unit-cell-level as opposed to separated or highly clustered phases within the same crystal. Direct experimental observations of linker mixing were accomplished by measuring the proton spin exchange behavior between functional groups on the linkers. The data were then fitted to a kinetic spin exchange model using proton positions from candidate mixed-linker ZIF structures that were generated computationally using the short-range order (SRO) parameter as a measure of the ordering, clustering, or randomization of the linkers. The present method offers the advantages of sensitivity without requiring isotope enrichment, a straightforward NMR pulse sequence, and an analysis framework that allows one to relate spin diffusion behavior to proposed atomic positions. We find that structures close to equimolar composition of the two linkers show a greater tendency for linker clustering than what would be predicted based on random models. Using computational modeling we have also shown how the window-type distribution in experimentally synthesized mixed-linker ZIF-8-90 materials varies as a function of their composition. The

  15. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Physicians ... Media Center The DO JAOA AOA Health Watch Professional Development AOA Board Certification Continuing Medical Education Research ...

  16. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  17. Ultrasonography of Skin Changes in Legs with Chronic Venous Disease.

    PubMed

    Caggiati, A

    2016-10-01

    In daily practice, ultrasonography (US) is used only to designate the location and pattern of venous lesions. Skin US is not performed between routine venous investigations. Skin morphology is evaluated by the same probes used for routine Duplex evaluation of superficial veins. US findings from evident skin lesions are comparatively evaluated with those from the surrounding apparently normal skin and from the contralateral leg. Inflammation and dermal edema can be found in the apparently normal skin of C2 legs. Swollen legs show thickening of the subcutaneous layer as a result of diffuse soaking or anechoic cavities, with or without dermal edema. Chronic hypodermitis is characterized by inflammatory edema in initial phases, and by liposclerosis in advanced cases. Recrudescence of inflammation provokes focal rarefactions of the subcutaneous layer, possibly related to ulcer opening. In legs with venous disorders, sonography refines clinical evaluation of the skin and may reveal changes not highlighted by inspection. Some of these changes could require further investigation because they have not yet been explained or described. Skin sonography should improve knowledge of the natural history of skin changes, as well as contribute to a better grading of venous diseases severity In particular, US evidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous changes in C2 legs should be considered to stratify the treatment in C2 legs, by identifying those in which varicose veins are not simply a cosmetic problem. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coordination of planar cell polarity pathways through Spiny-legs

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis and physiology of tissues and organs requires planar cell polarity (PCP) systems that orient and coordinate cells and their behaviors, but the relationship between PCP systems has been controversial. We have characterized how the Frizzled and Dachsous-Fat PCP systems are connected through the Spiny-legs isoform of the Prickle-Spiny-legs locus. Two different components of the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, can each independently interact with Spiny-legs and direct its localization in vivo. Through characterization of the contributions of Prickle, Spiny-legs, Dachsous, Fat, and Dachs to PCP in the Drosophila wing, eye, and abdomen, we define where Dachs-Spiny-legs and Dachsous-Spiny-legs interactions contribute to PCP, and provide a new understanding of the orientation of polarity and the basis of PCP phenotypes. Our results support the direct linkage of PCP systems through Sple in specific locales, while emphasizing that cells can be subject to and must ultimately resolve distinct, competing PCP signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09946.001 PMID:26505959

  19. Design of Force Sensor Leg for a Rocket Thrust Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woten, Douglas; McGehee, Tripp; Wright, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A hybrid rocket is composed of a solid fuel and a separate liquid or gaseous oxidizer. These rockets may be throttled like liquid rockets, are safer than solid rockets, and are much less complex than liquid rockets. However, hybrid rockets produce thrust oscillations that are not practical for large scale use. A lab scale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility is used to develop sensors to measure physical properties of hybrid rockets. Research is currently being conducted to design a six degree of freedom force sensor to measure the thrust and torque in all three spacial dimensions. The detector design uses six force sensor legs. Each leg utilizes strain gauges and a Wheatstone bridge to produce a voltage propotional to the force on the leg. The leg was designed using the CAD software ProEngineer and ProMechanica. Computer models of the strains on the single leg will be presented. A prototype leg was built and was tested in an INSTRON and results will be presented.

  20. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  1. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-03-01

    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  2. Modulation of corticospinal input to the legs by arm and leg cycling in people with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, R; Alvarado, L; Kim, S; Chong, S L; Mushahwar, V K

    2017-10-01

    The spinal cervico-lumbar interaction during rhythmic movements in humans has recently been studied; however, the role of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs is not well understood. The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of active rhythmic arm movements on the corticospinal drive to the legs ( study 1 ) and assess the effect of simultaneous arm and leg training on the corticospinal pathway after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) ( study 2). In study 1 , neurologically intact (NI) participants or participants with iSCI performed combinations of stationary and rhythmic cycling of the arms and legs while motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. In the NI group, arm cycling alone could facilitate the VL MEP amplitude, suggesting that dynamic arm movements strongly modulate the corticospinal pathway to the legs. No significant difference in VL MEP between conditions was found in participants with iSCI. In study 2 , participants with iSCI underwent 12 wk of electrical stimulation-assisted cycling training: one group performed simultaneous arm and leg (A&L) cycling and the other legs-only cycling. MEPs in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were compared before and after training. After training, only the A&L group had a significantly larger TA MEP, suggesting increased excitability in the corticospinal pathway. The findings demonstrate the importance of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs and suggest that active engagement of the arms in lower limb rehabilitation may produce better neural regulation and restoration of function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs. It provides direct evidence in humans that active movement of the arms could facilitate corticospinal transmission to the legs and, for the first time, shows that facilitation is absent after spinal cord

  3. Severe Nocturnal and Postexercise Hypoxia in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Halphen, Isabelle; Elie, Caroline; Brousse, Valentine; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Allali, Slimane; Bonnet, Damien; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that is inconsistently associated with painful crises and acute chest syndrome. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoxia, we recorded daytime, nocturnal, and postexercise pulse oximetry (SpO2) values in 39 SCD patients with a median age of 10.8 years. Median daytime SpO2 was 97% (range, 89%–100%), and 36% of patients had daytime hypoxia defined as SpO2<96%. Median nocturnal SpO2 was 94.7% (range, 87.7%–99.5%), 50% of patients had nocturnal hypoxia defined as SpO2≤93%, and 11(37%) patients spent more than 10% of their total sleep time with SpO2<90%. Median postexercise SpO2 was 94% (range, 72%–100%) and 44.7% of patients had postexercise hypoxia defined as an SpO2 decrease ≥3% after a 6-minute walk test. Among patients with normal daytime SpO2, 35% had nocturnal and 42% postexercise hypoxia. Compared to 9 patients without daytime, nocturnal, or postexercise hypoxia, 25 patients with hypoxia under at least one of these three conditions had greater anemia severity (P = 0.01), lower HbF levels (P = 0.04), and higher aspartate aminotransferase levels (P = 0.03). Males predominated among patients with postexercise hypoxia (P = 0.004). Hypoxia correlated neither with painful crises nor with acute chest syndrome. Of 32 evaluable patients, 6 (18.8%) had a tricuspid regurgitation velocity ≥2.6 m/s, and this feature was associated with anemia (P = 0.044). Median percentage of the predicted distance covered during a 6-minute walk test was 86% [46–120]; the distance was negatively associated with LDH (P = 0.044) and with a past history of acute chest syndrome (P = 0.009). In conclusion, severe episodes of nocturnal and postexercise hypoxia are common in children with SCD, even those with normal daytime SpO2. PMID:24878576

  4. Cryptic seedling herbivory by nocturnal introduced generalists impacts survival, performance of native and exotic plants.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sharon Y; Stanton, Maureen L; Emery, Nancy C; Bradley, Carrie A; Carleton, Alexandra; Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Ervin, Olivia A; Gray, Levi N; Hamilton, Andrew M; Rogge, Jennifer Harrington; Harper, Skye D; Law, Kimberley Cook; Pham, Vinh Q; Putnam, Matthew E; Roth, Tara M; Theil, Jacob H; Wells, Lara M; Yoshizuka, Eric M

    2009-02-01

    Although much of the theory on the success of invasive species has been geared at escape from specialist enemies, the impact of introduced generalist invertebrate herbivores on both native and introduced plant species has been underappreciated. The role of nocturnal invertebrate herbivores in structuring plant communities has been examined extensively in Europe, but less so in North America. Many nocturnal generalists (slugs, snails, and earwigs) have been introduced to North America, and 96% of herbivores found during a night census at our California Central Valley site were introduced generalists. We explored the role of these herbivores in the distribution, survivorship, and growth of 12 native and introduced plant species from six families. We predicted that introduced species sharing an evolutionary history with these generalists might be less vulnerable than native plant species. We quantified plant and herbivore abundances within our heterogeneous site and also established herbivore removal experiments in 160 plots spanning the gamut of microhabitats. As 18 collaborators, we checked 2000 seedling sites every day for three weeks to assess nocturnal seedling predation. Laboratory feeding trials allowed us to quantify the palatability of plant species to the two dominant nocturnal herbivores at the site (slugs and earwigs) and allowed us to account for herbivore microhabitat preferences when analyzing attack rates on seedlings. The relationship between local slug abundance and percent cover of five common plant taxa at the field site was significantly negatively associated with the mean palatability of these taxa to slugs in laboratory trials. Moreover, seedling mortality of 12 species in open-field plots was positively correlated with mean palatability of these taxa to both slugs and earwigs in laboratory trials. Counter to expectations, seedlings of native species were neither more vulnerable nor more palatable to nocturnal generalists than those of

  5. Mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis in lebanese children: prevalence, relation with obesity, and psychological effect.

    PubMed

    Merhi, Bassem Abu; Hammoud, Ahmad; Ziade, Fouad; Kamel, Raymond; Rajab, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is involuntary urination while sleeping after a certain age, usually five years, when children should have established bladder control. The prevalence has been found to be up to 20% in five year old children, and it is considered the most common urological childhood complication. This study was conducted on Makassed School children aged 5-18 years. This was a two-step study, the first step was a questionnaire distributed to the children to be answered by their parents. The second step included individually meeting with every child who met the inclusion criteria and his/her parents and physically examining the child. 11,440 questionnaires were distributed to school children aged 5-18 years, to be answered by their parents. Of the 7270 parents who responded back, 6620 reported no enuresis, 90 (1.25%) reported only diurnal enuresis, 107 (1.5%) reported diurnal and nocturnal enuresis, and 453 parents reported their child having nocturnal enuresis only. The data collected was analyzed according to age, sex, area, body mass index (BMI), and the PMQOL-SF score. The prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) in Lebanon was found to be 5.3%. The results showed that the prevalence of MNE is inversely proportional to age. The prevalence of male to female ratio was 1.4:1. As for the prevalence according to different geographic areas, the results have shown that the North had the majority of cases with 7.6% prevalence. Results showed that 82.4% of children had a score more than 50, and only 28% of parents had a score above 50. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Lebanon is lower than that in neighboring countries such as Turkey8 and Saudi Arabia,9 but higher than that in Italy10 and Hong Kong. Our study has managed to show the same results, with a peak in incidence at seven years then dropping back to 0% at the age of 16. Our study has shown a male to female predominance but the male to female ratio was 1.4:1, a value lower than that

  6. Evidence of reduced bladder capacity during nighttime in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Borg, B; Kamperis, K; Olsen, L H; Rittig, S

    2018-04-01

    Bladder capacity in children with nocturnal enuresis is assessed by maximal voided volumes (MVV) obtained through daytime frequency volume (FV) charts. Although a degree of association has been demonstrated, daytime MVV does not consistently correspond with the nocturnal bladder capacity (NBC) in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE). It was hypothesized that isolated reduced NBC is a common phenomenon in children with nocturnal enuresis, despite normal daytime bladder function. The aim of this study was to evaluate NBC in children with MNE and normal daytime voided volumes. Specifically, it aimed to determine the prevalence and degree of reduced NBC when using nocturnal urine production (NUP) during wet nights as a surrogate estimate of NBC. Furthermore, it aimed to investigate the relationship between NBC and desmopressin response. Data from 103 children aged 5-15 years consecutively treated for MNE in a tertiary referral centre and with normal MVV on daytime FV charts were collected for this cohort study. Home recordings were completed for 2 weeks at baseline and during desmopressin dose titration. Estimated nocturnal bladder capacity (eNBC) was assessed separately each night as the total NUP causing a wet night. If NUP during a wet night was less than MVV, it was considered to be reduced eNBC during that particular night. Surprisingly, 82% (n = 84) of the children with MNE and normal daytime MVV experienced at least one wet night, with NUP below the daytime MVV indicative of a reduced eNBC. For 84 patients, mean percentage of wet nights with reduced eNBC (NUP below MVV) was 49% (SD ± 31). A total of 11% of children with frequently reduced eNBC (>40% of wet nights with reduced eNBC) responded to desmopressin (Summary Fig.). Of the children with frequently reduced NBC, 91% experienced wet nights, with NUP <65% of expected bladder capacity (EBC). A significant proportion of children with MNE and normal MVV during the daytime frequently experienced wet

  7. Evaluation of the occurrence and diagnose definitions for Nocturnal Polyuria in Spinal Cord Injured patients during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Viaene, Annick; Denys, Marie-Astrid; Goessaert, An-Sofie; Claeys, Jana; Raes, Ann; Roggeman, Saskia; Everaert, Karel

    2017-11-03

    Little is known about the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and the definitions which are preferable in this population. To determine the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria (NP) in spinal cord injured patients during in-patient rehabilitation in the Ghent University Hospital. To study the influence of different time periods (daytime, bed rest and sleep) on the accuracy of the existing diagnose definitions for NP specifically for this type of patients. Retrospective study using patient records. SCI patients during hospital based rehabilitation between 2011 and 2014. Seventy-four SCI patients were selected and their records of frequency-volume charts were examined, after exclusion of unreliable data, forty-seven patients were retained for the current study. Retrospective study using data from frequency-volume charts of either two or three days from patients with SCI. Nocturnal urine production (NUP) and nocturnal polyuria index (NPi) were calculated. There was a significant increase in diuresis, calculated as urine production, between day time and bed rest (p=0.008) and between day time and sleep (p=0.001). All patients showed nocturnal polyuria during a 12-hour night time period (including both bed rest and sleep) and 39 patients showed nocturnal polyuria during the 8 hour period of sleep. There was no significant difference in mean urine production between bed rest and sleep. Prevalence of NP did not significantly differ between the complete or incomplete SCI patients or between patients with higher and lower SCI levels. This study showed that the occurrence of nocturnal polyuria in patients with SCI is high and that it is important to consider which definitions of NP are used for diagnosis. Increase in diuresis is observed during bed rest and sleep and the diagnose is correctly estimated when nocturnal urine production definitions are used in both time periods. In accordance with what was expected, diagnose of NP was

  8. The effect of lateral decubitus position on nocturnal intraocular pressure over a habitual 24-hour period in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Hao; Yang, Diya; Wang, Ningli

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of lateral decubitus position (LDP) on nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) and the effect of LDP on 24-hour habitual IOP pattern in healthy subjects. Intraocular pressure was measured every 2-hours using an Accupen Applanation Tonometer (Accutome, USA). During the diurnal period (7:30 am, 9:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 3:30 pm, 5:30 pm, 7:30 pm, and 9:30 pm), IOP was measured in the sitting position under bright light (500-1000 lux) after the subjects had been seated for 5 min. The nocturnal IOP was measured in the supine position, right LDP, and left LDP, with randomized sequences, under dim light (<10 lux) at 11:30 pm, 1:30 am, 3:30 am, and 5:30 am. The subjects were awakened and maintained each position for 5 min before the measurement. The 24-hour habitual IOP patterns were obtained according to the nocturnal position (supine, right LDP and left LDP) for either eye. P<0.05 was considered to be significant. Nineteen healthy subjects were included with a mean age of 51.3±5.8 years. During the nocturnal period, a significant IOP difference was found between the dependent eye (the eye on the lower side) of LDP and the supine position, but not for all the nocturnal time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant, although the mean nocturnal IOP and the diurnal-nocturnal IOP change for the right and the left eye in the LDP pattern was slightly higher than that in the sitting-supine pattern. Significant nocturnal IOP differences existed between the dependent eye and the supine, but did not occur consistently for all time points. Over a 24-hour period, the effect of LDP on habitual IOP pattern was not statistically significant in healthy subjects.