Science.gov

Sample records for node assay dlna

  1. A draining lymph node assay (DLNA) for assessing the sensitizing potential of proteins.

    PubMed

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Osterloh-Quiroz, Mandy; Woolhiser, Michael R

    2010-03-15

    There is a need for a simple and predictive model to identify the respiratory sensitization potential of (novel) proteins. The present study examined the use of a mouse draining lymph node assay (DLNA) approach, employing several routes of exposure, as a possible starting point for assessing protein sensitization potential. Consistent with the experimental procedure for the standard local lymph node assay (LLNA), female BALB/c mice were dosed dermally (topical), intranasally (IN) or by oropharyngeal aspiration (OP) on days 1, 2 and 3, and proliferation in the relevant draining lymph nodes was measured on day 6. For each route, the auricular, superficial cervical and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) were evaluated following treatment with Subtilisin Carlsberg (SUB; a potent sensitizer/allergen), ovalbumin (OVA; a potent food allergen), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG; a moderate food allergen), and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH; a strong immunogen with no reports of respiratory sensitization). Initial studies with OVA indicated that dermal administration did not stimulate lymph node proliferation. Responses in the tracheobronchial lymph node were most dramatic (stimulation indices up to 100) and reproducible for both the IN and OP routes. In a comparative experiment, all proteins induced lymph node proliferation with a rank order potency of SUB>KLH>OVA>BLG. The influence of the endotoxin content on lymph node proliferation was determined to be minimal, and did not impact the rank order potency. Molecular characterization of the TBLN at an equipotent proliferative dose was conducted for select gene transcripts based on research examining chemical sensitizers. Expression profiles differed among the four proteins, but the relevance of these responses was not clear and they did not further discriminate their allergic potential. These data illustrate both the opportunities and challenges associated with the examination of the draining lymph node proliferative response to

  2. Popliteal lymph node assay: facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Guillaume; Descotes, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) derives from the hypothesis that some supposedly immune-mediated adverse effects induced by certain pharmaceuticals involve a mechanism resembling a graft-versus-host reaction. The injection of many but not all of these compounds into the footpad of mice or rats produces an increase in the weight and/or cellularity of the popliteal lymph node in the treated limb (direct PLNA). Some of the compounds known to cause these adverse effects in humans, however, failed to induce a positive PLNA response, leading to refinements of the technique to include pretreatment with enzyme inducers, depletion of CD4(+) T cells or additional endpoints such as histological examination, lymphocyte subset analysis and cytokine fingerprinting. Alternative approaches have been used to improve further the predictability of the assay. In the secondary PLNA, the test compound is injected twice in order to illicit a greater secondary response, thus suggesting a memory-specific T cell response. In the adoptive PLNA, popliteal lymph node cells from treated mice are injected into the footpad of naive mice; a marked response to a subsequent footpad challenge demonstrates the involvement of T cells. Finally, the reporter antigens TNP-Ficoll and TNP-ovalbumin are used to differentiate compounds that induce responses involving neo-antigen help or co-stimulatory signals (modified PLNA). The PLNA is increasingly considered as a tool for detection of the potential to induce both sensitization and autoimmune reactions. A major current limitation is validation. A small inter-laboratory validation study of the direct PLNA found consistent results. No such study has been performed using an alternative protocol. Other issues include selection of the optimal protocol for an improved prediction of sensitization vs autoimmunity, and the elimination of false-positive responses due to primary irritation. Finally, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is essential to

  3. Comparison of mouse strains using the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Woolhiser, M R; Munson, A E; Meade, B J

    2000-05-05

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA), as recommended by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), only allows for the use of CBA mice. The objective of these studies was to begin to assess the response of chemical sensitizers in the LLNA across six strains of female mice (C57BL/6, SJL/J, BALB/c, B6C3F1, DBA/2 and CBA). The moderate sensitizer alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) was chosen as the test chemical, while toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) were evaluated at single concentrations as positive controls. Draining lymph node cell proliferation following acetone exposure varied across strains. SJL mice had a significantly higher degree of proliferation with 2111 d.p.m./2 nodes. The remaining five strains demonstrated responses which ranged from 345 to 887 dpm/2 nodes. DBA/2, B6C3F1, BALB/c and CBA mice had essentially equal levels of lymph node proliferation following exposure to the three chemicals. While C57BL/6 mice gave similar results as CBA mice following DNFB and HCA administration, the LLNA response to TDI was considerably lower. SJL mice provided low stimulation indexes (SI) values for all three chemicals evaluated. Regardless of the level of LLNA response, all six mouse strains identified the sensitization potential of HCA, TDI or DNFB. Based on these studies, DBA/2, B6C3F1 and BALB/c mice are good choices for continued evaluation as additional mouse strains for use in the LLNA.

  4. Popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay to study adjuvant effects on respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Martinus; Alberg, Torunn; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Samuelsen, Mari; Groeng, Else-Carin; Gaarder, Per Ivar

    2007-01-01

    Different variants of the popliteal lymph node (PLN) assay have been published. Here we describe the adjuvant popliteal lymph node assay, an immune response assay to study the adjuvant activity of soluble substances as well as particulate matter. The substance to be studied for adjuvant activity is injected into the hind footpad of mice or rats together with an antigen. Adjuvant activity is determined as the increase in PLN weight and cell numbers in animals receiving antigen together with the substance under study, compared with PLN weight and cell numbers in animals given the antigen without the substance in question, and animals given the putative adjuvant alone. Because lymph node weight and cell numbers are immunologically non-specific parameters, specific immune response assays like serum antibody responses or antibody-forming cell numbers should additionally be performed. Different antigens and immune response assays may be used, depending on the research question asked. In relation to respiratory (or food) allergy, the assays should as a minimum include determination of specific IgE in serum, and preferably also IgG1 (mouse). Serum specific IgG2a antibody determination may be added to get an indication of the Th1-Th2-balance of the response. The adjuvant PLN assay, with cellular response assays performed in the draining popliteal lymph node and antibody determinations in serum, requires small amounts of test material. The assay offers a practical, sensitive and reproducible method to determine the adjuvant activity of soluble substances as well as particulate material, with the possibility to also perform mechanistic studies.

  5. Temporal stability of local lymph node assay responses to hexyl cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Dearman, R J; Hilton, J; Evans, P; Harvey, P; Basketter, D A; Kimber, I

    1998-01-01

    The local lymph node assay is an alternative method for the prospective identification of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization. Activity in the assay is measured as a function of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced by topical exposure of mice to the test chemical. Positive responses are defined as those where a test chemical, at one or more application concentrations, is able to induce a stimulation index of 3 or greater compared with concurrent vehicle-treated control values. Although the method has been evaluated extensively, the stability over time of responses induced in the local lymph node assay has not previously been addressed formally. It was the purpose of the investigations described here to consider this issue and, to this end, responses provoked in the local lymph node assay by hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA)--a skin sensitizing chemical of moderate potency--were assessed in five separate experiments conducted in a single laboratory over a 10-month period. In each case, HCA elicited a positive response. Although some significant inter-experimental variation was recorded, this was attributable entirely to the stimulation by HCA of slightly more vigorous responses in one of the five experiments. When the results of this experiment were excluded from the data set, significant variations were lost. Finally, for each experiment an EC3 value was derived, this being the estimated concentration of test chemical required to induce a stimulation index of 3. Similar EC3 values were derived in each experiment. These data demonstrate the relative stability over time of activity in the local lymph node assay.

  6. Diagnostic performance of interferon-γ release assay for lymph node tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongyan; Pan, Liping; Du, Boping; Sun, Qi; Wei, Rongrong; Xing, Aiying; Du, Fengjiao; Sun, Huishan; Zhang, Zongde

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) (T-SPOT.TB) for patients with suspected lymph node tuberculosis (TB). Of the 405 patients with suspected lymph node TB, enrolled from Beijing Chest Hospital between July 2011 and April 2015, 83 (20.5%) were microbiologically/histopathologically confirmed lymph node TB, and 282 (69.6%) did not have active TB. The remaining 21 inconclusive TB and 19 clinical TB were excluded from the final analysis (9.9%). T-SPOT.TB using peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed to examine the IFN-γ response to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10. The overall sensitivity and specificity for T-SPOT.TB were 90.4% and 70.5%, respectively. Spot-forming cells in the lymph node TB group (184 [48-596/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells {PBMCs}]) were significantly higher than that in the nonactive TB group (0 [0-41]/10(6) PBMCs) (P<0.001). These results suggest that the IGRA assay could be a useful aid in the diagnosis of lymph node TB. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Application of the popliteal lymph node assay to evaluate an immunosuppression protocol.

    PubMed

    Quigley, R L

    1994-01-01

    There exists a variety of experimental techniques which are used to evaluate host immunity. None of these in vitro assay systems are optimal, since they are performed ex vivo. Here is described an in vivo model, using four rat strain combinations and a modification of the popliteal lymph node assay, which quantifies the immune response to blood transfusion, in a sensitive and reproducible fashion. The subcutaneous injection of a 5 x 10(5) or 10 x 10(5) (depending on the rat strain) X-irradiated allogeneic lymph node cells into the hind footpad of a rat results in an increase in the weight of the draining popliteal lymph node harvested 7 days later. Injection of 100 x 10(5) X-irradiated cells results in the maximum nodal enlargement (fourfold). A dose of 50 x 10(5) cells results in lymph node enlargement just shy of maximum and so was selected for use in all experiments. When 50 x 10(5) nonirradiated allogeneic lymph node cells are injected, there is up to an eightfold increase in nodal size. To eliminate the effects of non-specific inflammation, as well as variation in node weights, a stimulation index (SI) was established. Transfusion of a rodent with blood from the same strain as the lymph node donor, 1 week prior to subcutaneous injection, resulted in a significantly lower SI, compared to the SI observed in untreated animals challenged with the same inoculum or third-party controls (P < 0.05). The significance of all comparisons was assessed by the Students' t test. This simple method of in vivo quantification of the immune response has obvious application to the evaluation of any experimental immunosuppression regimen.

  8. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  9. Evaluation of the Metasin assay for intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, G J; Hodges, E; Markham, H; Zhang, S; Cutress, R I

    2017-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the preferred surgical technique for staging the axilla in clinically node-negative breast cancer. Accurate intraoperative staging allows for the immediate performance of an axillary clearance in node-positive patients. We assessed the Metasin assay for the intraoperative analysis of SLNs in a prospective evaluation of 250 consecutive patients undergoing intraoperative SLN analysis at the Breast Unit, University Hospital, Southampton, UK. Metasin uses a quantitative reverse transcription PCR to detect two markers of metastasis: cytokeratin 19 (CK19) an epithelial marker and mammaglobin (MGB) a breast specific marker. Metasin results were compared with the results from routine paraffin block histopathology. Metasin was robust, with a failure rate of <1%, and demonstrated excellent accuracy and reproducibility. The average turnaround time for the Metasin assay was 42 min, the largest variable being the number of nodes assayed. A total of 533 SLNs were evaluated with 75 patients testing positive for MGB and/or CK19. Based on the analysis of individual SLNs, the overall concordance between Metasin and histology was 92.3% (sensitivity 88.7%, specificity 92.9%). When adjusted for tissue allocation bias, the concordance was 93.8% (sensitivity 89.8%, specificity 94.6%). In this evaluation, 57/250 patients (23%) proceeded to axillary clearance based on Metasin results and were considered spared a second operative procedure. Metasin has proven to be an accurate, reproducible and reliable laboratory test. The analysis time is acceptable for intraoperative use, and in comparison to routine histology demonstrates acceptable concordance, sensitivity and specificity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Development of a non-radioactive endpoint in a modified local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Hariya, T; Hatao, M; Ichikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    A murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed as an alternative to guinea pig models for contact sensitization testing. Although the LLNA appears to be a little less sensitive than the most stringent of guinea pig assays, it provides a rapid, objective, quantitative and cost-effective method for screening strong contact sensitizers and has advantages with respect to animal welfare. However, a potential disadvantage is the need for the use of radioactive material. We have reported previously that an ex vivo assay based on similar principles to the original in vivo LLNA, but using a non-radioactive endopoint, was valid for the prediction of strong sensitizers. This ex vivo assay was not sensitive enough to allow prediction of moderately potent ones. In this study, we propose a new parameter, Corrected IL-2 Index (CII), for the prediction of moderate sensitizers. To obtain CII the IL-2 release in the supernatant of the cell culture is corrected for lymph node weight ratio and ratio of CD4-positive subset. We found that CII predicted the allergenicity of moderate sensitizers, including the ones recommended by the OECD in guideline 406, such as mercaptobenzothiazole and hexyl cinnamic aldehyde. The allergenicity of metal salts, such as potassium dichromate, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and cobalt chloride, was also predicted by the CII. We conclude that the use of CII as an index significantly increases the sensitivity of the ex vivo method so that moderate sensitizers may also be detected.

  11. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach.

  12. The suitability of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde as a calibrant for the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Dearman, R J; Wright, Z M; Basketter, D A; Ryan, C A; Gerberick, G F; Kimber, I

    2001-06-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the prospective identification of contact allergens assesses skin sensitization potential as a function of proliferative activity induced in lymph nodes draining the site of topical exposure to test chemical. This method has been endorsed recently as a stand alone test for the identification of contact allergens. We have now examined the suitability of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), a recommended positive control for skin sensitization testing, as a calibrant for comparing the consistency of LLNA responses with time, and between laboratories, and thus for the routine assessment of assay reliability. Standard LLNAs were performed with CBA strain mice in 3 independent laboratories over a period of 8 years. Dose-response curves were used to derive mathematically the EC3 value (the estimated concentration of chemical necessary to cause a stimulation index (SI) of 3 compared with proliferation induced by concurrent vehicle controls). In each laboratory, 6 separate experiments were conducted using a single concentration of HCA (25%). Very similar stimulation indices were achieved, with mean values of 9.0, 6.5 and 6.6 recorded. A total of 10 dose-response experiments were performed independently in the 3 laboratories and these revealed that there was very little inter-laboratory, or temporal, variation in EC3 values. These data confirm that HCA responses in the LLNA are very stable and demonstrate that HCA provides a suitable calibrant for determining assay sensitivity and performance.

  13. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  14. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  15. Cross-reactivity between methylisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone using a modified local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, J F; Menné Bonefeld, C; Zachariae, C; Agerbeck, C; Petersen, T H; Geisler, C; Bollmann, U E; Bester, K; Johansen, J D

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the exceptionally high rates of contact allergy to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI), information about cross-reactivity between MI, octylisothiazolinone (OIT) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) is needed. To study cross-reactivity between MI and OIT, and between MI and BIT. Immune responses to MI, OIT and BIT were studied in vehicle and MI-sensitized female CBA mice by a modified local lymph node assay. The inflammatory response was measured by ear thickness, cell proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD19(+) B cells in the auricular draining lymph nodes. MI induced significant, strong, concentration-dependent immune responses in the draining lymph nodes following a sensitization phase of three consecutive days. Groups of MI-sensitized mice were challenged on day 23 with 0·4% MI, 0·7% OIT and 1·9% BIT - concentrations corresponding to their individual EC3 values. No statistically significant difference in proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was observed between mice challenged with MI compared with mice challenged with BIT and OIT. The data indicate cross-reactivity between MI, OIT and BIT, when the potency of the chemical was taken into account in choice of challenge concentration. This means that MI-sensitized individuals may react to OIT and BIT if exposed to sufficient concentrations. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Minor antigen graft-versus-host reactions revealed in irradiated spleen and popliteal lymph node assays

    SciTech Connect

    Claman, H.N.; Jaffee, B.D.

    1984-10-01

    The graft-versus-hot (GVH) reaction across minor (non-H-2) histocompatibility barriers was studied in mice, in vivo. To increase GVH potential and to mimic clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, we modified the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and the splenomegaly assays by irradiating the recipients before they received allogeneic lymphoid cell suspensions. In several combinations across major (H-2), minor (non-H-2) and multiple minor (non-H-2 plus minor lymphocyte stimulation) barriers, increased recipient organ weight (a measure of GVH activity) was seen with irradiated F1 recipients of parental cells. The irradiated splenomegaly (x-splenomegaly) assay was more sensitive than the (x-PLN) assay, but both correlated with in vivo GVH experiments of the P----F1 variety. The x-splenomegaly test indicated histoincompatibility in a system (B10.D2----BALB/c) in which the primary in vitro mixed leukocyte reactions is nonreactive, but in which systemic GVH can be induced. The x-splenomegaly test should be useful in analyzing complex reactions involving minor histocompatibility antigens in vivo.

  17. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment.

  18. The respiratory local lymph node assay as a tool to study respiratory sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; de Jong, Wim H; van Triel, Jos J; Schijf, Marcel A; de Klerk, Arja; van Loveren, Henk; Kuper, C Frieke

    2008-12-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to test the potential of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds to induce sensitization via the skin. In the present study, a respiratory LLNA was developed. Male BALB/c mice were exposed head/nose-only during three consecutive days for 45, 90, 180, or 360 min/day to various LMW allergens. Ear application (skin LLNA) was used as a positive control. Negative controls were exposed to the vehicle. Three days after the last exposure, proliferation was determined in the draining mandibular lymph nodes, and the respiratory tract was examined microscopically. Upon inhalation, the allergens trimellitic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), dinitrochlorobenzene, and oxazolone were positive and showed stimulation indices (SIs) up to 11, whereas trimeric IPDI, formaldehyde, and methyl salicylate were negative (viz. SI < 3). All compounds, except trimeric IPDI, induced histopathological lesions predominantly in the upper respiratory tract. Exposure by inhalation is a realistic approach to test respiratory allergens. However, based on the local toxicity, the dose that can be applied is (generally) much lower than can be achieved by skin application. It is concluded that strong LMW allergens, regardless their immunological nature, besides the skin can also sensitize the body via the respiratory tract. In addition, the contact allergens were as potent as the respiratory allergens, although the potency ranking differed from that in a skin LLNA.

  19. [Cost-Effectiveness of the 21 Gene Assay in Patients with Node-Positive Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Fischer, L; Arnold, M; Kirsch, F; Leidl, R

    2016-11-01

    Aim: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women. Most guidelines recommend patients with lymph-node positive (LN+) early stage breast cancer to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy to prevent or delay distant recurrence. This may lead to frequent, general usage of chemotherapy accompanied with high costs and side effects. The Oncotype DX, also called 21 Gene Assay, by Genomic Health is a genomic test which predicts the individual risk of breast cancer recurrence as well as the benefits of chemotherapy. Economic analyses have indicated the cost-effectiveness of the 21 Gene Assay for patients with LN- breast cancer. This paper discusses recent research on the cost-effectiveness of using this assay for patients with LN+ breast cancer. Methods: A systematic literature research was undertaken using the following databases: Pubmed, Embase, Business Source Complete and EconLit. Studies found were analysed for study design, parameters, and analysis of uncertainty. The transferability of the results to Germany was examined using a list of criteria. Results: 7 relevant economic analyses were identified. Incremental cost-utility ratios ranged from cost-savings of € 3 548 per patient to additional costs of € 9 113 per QALY gained. The transferability of the results to Germany is limited particularly by differences in the medical cost approach, in absolute and relative prices in health-care, and by practice variation. Conclusion: There is evidence that the cost-utility of the assay when used for LN+ breast cancer is basically comparable to that for the use with the LN- type. More precise results for Germany would require valid data on the risk of recurrence as well as on the description and evaluation of health-related quality of life of patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Immune modulation by cadmium and lead in the acute reporter antigen-popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Carey, John B; Allshire, Ashley; van Pelt, Frank N

    2006-05-01

    Immune modulation by heavy metals may cause serious adverse health effects in humans, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Both cadmium and lead are important environmental and occupational toxins. Therefore, in the current study, the costimulatory/adjuvant effects and the T-cell-activating potential of these metals (i.e., CdCl2 and PbCl2), are examined. These immune-modulating properties are critical in the development of conditions such as allergy, hypersensitivity, and autoimmunity. Using the direct popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) and reporter antigen-popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA) both metals were examined individually for immunotoxicity. Mercury (i.e., HgCl2) was included for comparative purposes as its effects in the RA-PLNA are well documented. Seven days following a single footpad injection containing metal and/or RA (trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin [TNP-OVA] or TNP-Ficoll), BALB/c mice were sacrificed and the popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs) removed. PLN cellularity, TNP-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and lymphocyte subsets were assessed. All three metals strongly stimulated T- and B-cell proliferation and ASC production following coinjection with the RA TNP-OVA. In each case, ASC production was skewed towards the IgG1 isotype. In addition, all three metals induced IgG production to TNP-Ficoll (although relatively weakly in the case of Cd). These results show that each of these metals can provide adjuvant signals to promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance adaptive immune responses to unrelated antigens. Skewing of immune responses towards T helper type 2 responses suggests that each of these metals can enhance allergic and hypersensitivity reactions to environmental antigens. Furthermore, the induction of IgG responses to TNP-Ficoll, a T-cell-independent antigen, indicates that each of these metals can activate neoantigen-specific T cells. T-cell activation by metals can lead to metal hypersensitivity and has been

  1. Further experience with the local lymph node assay using standard radioactive and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Basketter, David; Schrage, Arnhild; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, the predictive capacity of a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) based on cell counts, the LNCC, was demonstrated to be closely similar to that of the original assay. In addition, a range of substances, including some technical/commercial materials and a range of agrochemical formulations (n = 180) have also been assessed in both methods in parallel. The results in the LNCC and LLNA were generally consistent, with 86% yielding an identical classification outcome. Discordant results were associated with borderline data and were evenly distributed between the two methods. Potency information derived from each method also demonstrated good consistency (n = 101), with 93% of predictions being close. Skin irritation was observed only infrequently and was most commonly associated with positive results; it was not associated with the discordant results. Where different vehicles were used with the same test material, the effect on sensitizing activity was modest, consistent with historical data. Analysis of positive control data indicated that the LNCC and LLNA displayed similar levels of biological variation. When taken in combination with the previously published results on LLNA Performance Standard chemicals, it is concluded that the LNCC provides a viable non-radioactive alternative to the LLNA for the assessment of substances, including potency predictions, as well as for the evaluation of preparations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Advantages of one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) whole node assay in sentinel lymph node (SLN) analysis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Santaballa, Ana; De La Cueva, Helena; Salvador, Carmen; García-Martínez, Ana M; Guarín, María J; Lorente, David; Palomar, Laura; Aznar, Ismael; Dobón, Fernando; Bello, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our first results of sentinel node analysis (SLN) by one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) in routine clinical practice in our centre and compare them with the results of classic histopathological analysis in a historical cohort from our same institution. 407 patients (total study population) with early breast cancer and no clinical nodal involvement underwent SLN biopsy in our institution. The SLN was analysed by OSNA in 164 biopsies. OSNA results were compared with the conventional histopathology study of 244 patients who had undergone SLN biopsy previously. The characteristics of the patients in both groups were evaluated and a comparison was made of the rate of metastases detected by both methods and of the surgical procedures needed in each group. We also investigated the state of non-sentinel lymph nodes if micrometastases where found in SLN. SLN biopsy result was considered as positive in 45 patients (28%) in the OSNA group and in 58 in the historical group (24%). There was no difference in the rate of macrometastases (16,5% for OSNA, 20% for HE) but we found differences in the rate of micrometastases (11% for OSNA and 3,6% for HE p = 0.0007). Axillary lymphadenectomy (ALND) was performed in 43/45 cases in the OSNA group and in 51/58 of the historical group. In all patients diagnosed by OSNA, ALND was performed during the initial surgical procedure. In the historical cohort ALND was performed during the initial surgical procedure in 41 patients and in a second surgical procedure in 10 patients. Patients from both groups with micrometastases in the SLN had no metastases in other nodes when the ALND was performed. OSNA analysis allows the detection of SLN metastases as precisely as conventional pathology with an increased detection of micrometastases. The OSNA method can reduce the need of a deferred lymphadenectomy.

  3. Assessment of sensitization potential of monoterpenes using the rat popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Karen; Delgado, Isabella F; Santos, Laísa M F; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2007-08-01

    The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) has been proposed as a screening test for detecting chemicals with potential of inducing allergic and auto-immune-like reactions in humans. In the present study, we used the rat PLNA to evaluate the immuno-sensitizing potential of 10 monoterpenes found in the essential oils of a variety of aromatic, edible and medicinal plants. The primary or direct PLNA was performed with the monoterpenes, and chlorpromazine (CPZ) and barbital were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Female, 7-8 week-old Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously (50 microL) with the test substance (0.5, 2.5 or 5mg) into the right hind footpad while the contralateral footpad was injected with the vehicle (DMSO) alone. Weight (WI) and cellularity (CI) indices for draining PLNs were determined 7 days after treatment. PLNA was positive (WI >or= 2 and CI >or= 5) for CPZ, citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene, and negative for barbital, DMSO, (-)-menthol, 1,8-cineole, (+/-) citronellal, (+)-limonene, (+/-) camphor and terpineol. A secondary PLNA, a T-cell priming test, was carried out with the four substances that had been positive in the primary assay. Six weeks after being locally primed with 5 mg/paw, rats were sc injected into the same footpad with a dose (0.5 mg/paw) of the substance that had been previously found to be insufficient to cause a positive response. WI and CI were then calculated 4 and 7 days after the second injection. CPZ was also positive in the secondary assay thereby confirming that it is a sensitizing agent. Citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene, however, were negative in the secondary assay. In summary, citral, alpha-terpinene, beta-myrcene and (-)-alpha-pinene induced a clear immuno-stimulatory response due to their irritant properties but no monoterpene proved to be a sensitizing agent in the PLNA.

  4. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies.

  5. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies. PMID:26579162

  6. Intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer treatment with one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA)

    PubMed Central

    Szychta, Paweł; Westfal, Bogusław; Maciejczyk, Rafał; Smolarz, Beata; Romanowicz, Hanna; Krawczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA) for intraoperative detection of metastases to sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in comparison to examination of frozen sections, and to summarize the results of previous studies. Material and methods We enrolled 98 patients aged 58.13 ±10.74 years treated surgically for breast cancer, and 99 biopsies of SLNs were followed by analysis of 105 SLNs. The central 1 mm slice of SLN was used for examination of frozen sections, whereas 2 outer slices of SLNs were analyzed intraoperatively with OSNA. Detection of isolated tumor cells (ITC), micrometastases or macrometastases with OSNA extended surgery to axillary lymph node dissection. Congruency of results was assessed between OSNA and examination of frozen sections. Results One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected metastases in 29/105 SLNs in surgery of 27/99 breasts, including ITC in 3/29 SLNs, micrometastases in 12/29 and macrometastases in 14/29. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected significantly more metastases to SLNs than examination of frozen sections (p < 0.0001). All 8 inconsistent results were positive in OSNA and negative in examination of frozen sections; ITC were identified in 2/8 SLNs and micrometastases in 6/8 SLNs. Sensitivity for OSNA was calculated as 100%, specificity as 90.47%, and κ was 79.16%. Conclusions One-step nucleic acid amplification assay analysis allows rapid and quantitative detection of mRNA CK19 with high specificity and a low rate of false positives. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay is a reliable tool for intraoperative diagnosis of whole SLNs during surgery of breast cancer. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay minimizes the need for secondary surgery and avoids delays in the adjuvant treatment. PMID:27904514

  7. Study of the sensitising potential of various textile dyes using a biphasic murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Platzek, T; Fink, H; Sonnenburg, A; Stahlmann, R

    2010-09-01

    Disperse dyes, which are suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres, are responsible for the great majority of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) cases to textile dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Briefly, mice were shaved over a surface of approximately 2 cm(2) on their backs and treated using a "sensitisation-challenge protocol". The shaved surface was treated once daily on days 1-3 with 50 microl of the test solution. Animals remained untreated on days 4-14. On days 15-17, mice were treated with 25 microl of the test solution on the dorsum of both ears. Mice were killed on day 19 with deep CO(2) anaesthesia, the lymph nodes prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations, were determined by flow cytometry. The results were compared to control group treated with the vehicle alone. Our results showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight. We also observed an increase in ear thickness and ear punch weight in most of the concentrations tested for various textile dyes. We observed a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells and an increase in CD19+, CD45+ and CD45+/1A+ cells in most of the cases, which is characteristic for allergens. The CD4+/CD69+ cells increased in only few experiments mainly with Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106. Based on our results, the disperse dyes could be arranged in four groups on the basis of their sensitising potency in the following decreasing order (in parenthesis: lowest concentration causing a significant increase in lymph node cell number): group 1, strong: Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106 (0.003%); group 2, moderate: Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Blue 1 (3%); group 3, weak: Disperse Orange 37 and

  8. Performance standard-based validation study for local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae-Sung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Yeo, Kyeong-Uk; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Yul; Park, Yeong-Chul; Seong, Won-Keun; Lee, Ai-Young; Chun, Young Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeung, Eui Bae; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Sohn, Soojung; Heo, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified non-radioisotopic technique with the additional advantages of accommodating multiple endpoints with the introduction of FCM, and refinement and reduction of animal use by using a sophisticated prescreening scheme. Reliability and accuracy of the LLNA: BrdU-FCM was determined according to OECD Test Guideline (TG) No. 429 (Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay) performance standards (PS), with the participation of four laboratories. Transferability was demonstrated through successfully producing stimulation index (SI) values for 25% hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA) consistently greater than 3, a predetermined threshold, by all participating laboratories. Within- and between-laboratory reproducibility was shown using HCA and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, in which EC2.7 values (the estimated concentrations eliciting an SI of 2.7, the threshold for LLNA: BrdU-FCM) fell consistently within the acceptance ranges, 0.025-0.1% and 5-20%, respectively. Predictive capacity was tested using the final protocol version 1.3 for the 18 reference chemicals listed in OECD TG 429, of which results showed 84.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 88.9% accuracy compared with the original LLNA. The data presented are considered to meet the performance criteria for the PS, and its predictive capacity was also sufficiently validated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An European inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints of the murine local lymph node assay: 2nd round.

    PubMed

    Ehling, G; Hecht, M; Heusener, A; Huesler, J; Gamer, A O; van Loveren, H; Maurer, Th; Riecke, K; Ullmann, L; Ulrich, P; Vandebriel, R; Vohr, H-W

    2005-08-15

    The original local lymph node assay (LLNA) is based on the use of radioactive labelling to measure cell proliferation. Other endpoints for the assessment of proliferation are also authorized by the OECD Guideline 429 provided there is appropriate scientific support, including full citations and description of the methodology (OECD, 2002. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals; Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay, Guideline 429. Paris, adopted 24th April 2002.). Here, we describe the outcome of the second round of an inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA conducted in nine laboratories in Europe. The validation study was managed and supervised by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic) in Bern. Ear-draining lymph node (LN) weight and cell counts were used to assess LN cell proliferation instead of [3H]TdR incorporation. In addition, the acute inflammatory skin reaction was measured by ear weight determination of circular biopsies of the ears to identify skin irritation properties of the test items. The statistical analysis was performed in the department of statistics at the university of Bern. Similar to the EC(3) values defined for the radioactive method, threshold values were calculated for the endpoints measured in this modification of the LLNA. It was concluded that all parameters measured have to be taken into consideration for the categorisation of compounds due to their sensitising potencies. Therefore, an assessment scheme has been developed which turned out to be of great importance to consistently assess sensitisation versus irritancy based on the data of the different parameters. In contrast to the radioactive method, irritants have been picked up by all the laboratories applying this assessment scheme.

  10. A six-color flow cytometry assay for immunophenotyping classical Hodgkin lymphoma in lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Jonathan R; Wood, Brent L

    2014-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) can be immunophenotyped by flow cytometry (FC), thus obviating the need for immunohistochemistry in many cases. The previously described nine-color assay, however, cannot be used by laboratories that do not have access to a nine- or ten-color flow cytometer. Therefore, a six-color FC tube was designed employing the following combination: CD64-FITC/CD30-PE/CD40-PeCy5.5/CD20-PECy7/CD95-APC/CD3-APC-H7. To validate this assay, we analyzed 408 tissue specimens (including 55 CHL cases, 26 of which had been previously cryopreserved). Specimen inclusion criteria included the identification of an abnormal population by FC or (if no abnormal population was identified) greater than 50,000 viable events and specimen age less than 4 days. All FC studies were examined blinded to any clinical, laboratory, or histologic information. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the six-color FC assay was 85.4% and 99.7%, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that the six-color FC assay has acceptable sensitivity and specificity for clinical use, allowing more FC laboratories to immunophenotype CHL by this method.

  11. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Aptula, Aynur O

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the most common in vivo regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation, quantifying potency as the EC3, the concentration of chemical giving a threefold increase in thymidine uptake in the local lymph node. Existing LLNA data can, along with clinical data, provide useful comparator information on the potency of sensitisers. Understanding of the biological variability of data from LLNA studies is important for those developing non-animal based risk assessment approaches for skin allergy. Here an existing set of 94 EC3 values for 12 chemicals, all tested at least three times in the same vehicle have been analysed by calculating standard deviations (SD) for logEC3 values. The SDs range from 0.08 to 0.22. The overall SD for the 94 logEC3 values is 0.147. Thus the 95% confidence limits (2xSD) for LLNA EC3 values are within a factor of 2, comparable to those for physico-chemical measurements such as partition coefficients and solubility. The residual SDs of Quantitative Mechanistic Models (QMMs) based on physical organic chemistry parameters are similar to the overall SD of the LLNA, indicating that QMMs of this type are unlikely to be bettered for predictive accuracy.

  12. Evaluation of the immunosensitizing potential of chlorogenic acid using a popliteal lymph node assay in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohua; Liu, Zhaoping; Shi, Yanqiu; Zhou, Gengyin

    2010-04-01

    It has yet to be established whether chlorogenic acid (CGA), a common xenobiotic with potential exposure risk to humans, is associated with immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions (HRs). The primary limitation in evaluating this potential relationship is the lack of an effective animal model for use in predicting the immunosensitizing potential of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs). Currently, the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) is considered a very promising tool for assessing immunosensitizing potential of LMWCs. To determine whether CGA may possess an intrinsic capacity to stimulate or dysregulate immune responses, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved, we characterized the popliteal lymph node reaction induced by CGA in naive female BALB/c mice using both a direct PLNA (d-PLNA) and a reporter antigen PLNA (RA-PLNA) method. Our results show that CGA failed to induce immunoreactivity following a single subcutaneous injection either alone or when combined with TNP-OVA or TNP-Ficoll. These results indicated that CGA lacks the intrinsic capacity to sensitize or stimulate immune responses in BALB/c mice. Moreover, these results suggest that exposure to CGA may not represent a safety concern for humans and that removal of CGA from Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections may not significantly decrease the prevalence of HRs.

  13. An intravenous exposure mouse model for prediction of potential drug-sensitization using reporter antigens popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingbao; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yingchao; Li, Xiang; Jin, Yecheng; Gong, Wan; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Yi

    2012-06-01

    Immune-mediated drug hypersensitivity is a particularly concerning health-safety issue among clinicians given its unpredictability and potentially life-threatening effects, especially with exposure to intravenous drugs. Therefore, the development of intravenous drug-exposure models for drug-hazard assessments has garnered increasing interest in recent years. In this study, we used reporter antigens popliteal lymph node assay to investigate the potential value of intravenous exposure to a selected variety of allergenic compounds, including ovalbumin (OVA), concanavalin A (ConA) and diclofenac. The trinitrophenyl (TNP)-specific antibody-forming cells were used to assess the systemic immune responses to a bystander antigen. Mice were subsequently sensitized by TNP-OVA, and then intravenous exposure to one of the selective compounds. As expected, all positive compounds induced significant popliteal lymph node (PLN) proliferation compared with the control. OVA significantly increased Cluster of Differentiation 4 receptors (CD⁴)⁺ interleukin-4 (IL-4)⁺ T-helper 2 (Th2) cells and, consequently, increased the ratios of IL-4/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) antibody-forming cells (AFCs) in PLNs, while bringing about a dose-dependent increase in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) AFCs; these findings indicate that a Th2 hypersensitivity response was induced. A Th2 response was also observed in diclofenac sodium-treated groups, and for ConA, a more mixed Th1/Th2 immune response appeared to be induced. In addition, there was no marked reaction with the negative compound. Together, it seems likely that the intravenous exposure model may be useful for drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity assessments.

  14. Safety assessment of allergic contact dermatitis hazards: an analysis supporting reduced animal use for the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Haseman, Joseph K; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Salicru, Eleni; Paris, Michael; Tice, Raymond R; Stokes, William S

    2011-02-01

    The original Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 429 (OECD TG 429) for the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) required five mice/group if mice were processed individually. We used data from 83 LLNA tests (275 treated groups) to determine the impact on the LLNA outcome of reducing the group size from five to four. From DPM measurements, we formed all possible four- and five-mice combinations for the treated and control groups. Stimulation index (SI) values from each four-mice combination were compared with those from five-mice combinations, and agreement (both SI<3 or both SI ≥ 3) determined. Average agreement between group sizes was 97.5% for the 275 treated groups. Compared test-by-test, 90% (75/83) of the tests had 100% agreement; agreement was 83% for the remaining eight tests. Disagreement was due primarily to variability in animal responses and closeness of the SI to three (positive response threshold) rather than to group size reduction. We conclude that using four rather than five mice per group would reduce animal use by 20% without adversely impacting LLNA performance. This analysis supported the recent update to OECD TG 429 allowing a minimum of four mice/group when each mouse is processed individually.

  15. 4D-Fingerprint Categorical QSAR Models for Skin Sensitization Based on Classification Local Lymph Node Assay Measures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Tseng, Yufeng J.; Pan, Dahua; Liu, Jianzhong; Kern, Petra S.; Gerberick, G. Frank; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the only validated methods to identify skin sensitization effects are in vivo models, such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and guinea pig studies. There is a tremendous need, in particular due to novel legislation, to develop animal alternatives, eg. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. Here, QSAR models for skin sensitization using LLNA data have been constructed. The descriptors used to generate these models are derived from the 4D-molecular similarity paradigm and are referred to as universal 4D-fingerprints. A training set of 132 structurally diverse compounds and a test set of 15 structurally diverse compounds were used in this study. The statistical methodologies used to build the models are logistic regression (LR), and partial least square coupled logistic regression (PLS-LR), which prove to be effective tools for studying skin sensitization measures expressed in the two categorical terms of sensitizer and non-sensitizer. QSAR models with low values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic, χHL2, are significant and predictive. For the training set, the cross-validated prediction accuracy of the logistic regression models ranges from 77.3% to 78.0%, while that of PLS-logistic regression models ranges from 87.1% to 89.4%. For the test set, the prediction accuracy of logistic regression models ranges from 80.0%-86.7%, while that of PLS-logistic regression models ranges from 73.3%-80.0%. The QSAR models are made up of 4D-fingerprints related to aromatic atoms, hydrogen bond acceptors and negatively partially charged atoms. PMID:17226934

  16. Societal cost-effectiveness analysis of the 21-gene assay in estrogen-receptor-positive, lymph-node-negative early-stage breast cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hideko; Nakagawa, Chizuko; Yamashige, Shinji; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hayashi, Naoki; Hornberger, John; Yu, Tiffany; Chao, Calvin; Yoshizawa, Carl; Nakamura, Seigo

    2014-09-05

    Breast-cancer incidence and mortality have been increasing in Japan. Japanese-specific clinical validity and utility data for the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX® Breast Cancer Assay; Genomic Health, Inc., Redwood City, USA) are now available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 21-gene assay for the guidance of adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in estrogen-receptor-positive, lymph-node-negative, early-stage breast cancer patients, from the Japanese societal perspective. The recurrence risk group distribution by the 21-gene assay result and the assay's influence on adjuvant chemotherapy recommendations were obtained from a study of 104 patients. A state-transition cohort (Markov) model tracked time from surgery until distant recurrence and from distant recurrence to death. Adjuvant chemotherapy benefit by 21-gene assay risk group was based on published clinical validation studies. Direct and indirect medical costs were obtained from the referral centers. Utilities associated with progression and chemotherapy-related adverse events were extracted from literature. Sensitivity analyses assessed the key drivers and robustness of the primary outcomes. The 21-gene assay identified 48% of patients as low-risk, 36% as intermediate-risk, and 16% as high-risk. Total acute chemotherapy-related costs decreased by ¥154,066 due to less adjuvant chemotherapy usage. In the high-risk group, adjuvant chemotherapy use increased 18%, leading to survival benefits. Chemotherapy use overall decreased by 19%. Monitoring costs increased by ¥3,744 but recurrence costs declined by ¥46,113 per patient. Use of the 21-gene assay increased quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) by 0.241 per patient on average; the net cost per QALY gained was ¥636,752 ($6,368). The 21-gene assay for women with estrogen-receptor-positive, lymph-node-negative, early-stage breast cancer is projected to be cost-effective in Japan.

  17. Examination of a vehicle for use with water soluble materials in the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A; Cruse, L W; Skinner, R A; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I; Gerberick, G F

    2002-11-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a validated method for identifying skin sensitization hazard. Vehicle choice can influence the sensitization potential of haptens in both the LLNA and in humans, therefore selection of an appropriate vehicle is important. Suggested vehicles for the LLNA include organic solvents and organic-aqueous mixtures. However, due to its high surface tension and poor wetting qualities, water is not recommended and therefore testing aqueous soluble materials can be problematic. The aims of this investigation were to identify a water-based vehicle that possesses better skin wetting properties than water alone, and to assess its performance relative to other solvents in the LLNA using aqueous soluble haptens. The selected wetting agent was the surfactant Pluronic(R) L92 (L92). Concentrations of L92 of up to 50% did not induce positive responses in the LLNA. 1% aqueous L92 was chosen for further examination. Dose-response analyses were performed with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) and formaldehyde formulated either in water, 1% L92, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethyl formamide (DMF). Potassium dichromate (PDC) and nickel sulfate were tested in 1% L92, DMSO or DMF. The highest concentration of potassium dichromate was retested in each vehicle and in water to assess the effect of the wetting agent. Estimates of the relative sensitizing potency in each vehicle were determined by calculation of EC3 values (the estimated concentration required to induce a threshold positive response). While DNBS and formaldehyde produced positive responses in all four vehicles, their relative potency varied among the vehicles. The rank ordering of potencies for both materials was, from highest to lowest, DMF > or = DMSO > 1% L92 > water. Compared with water, use of 1% L92 resulted in >2-fold increase in potency for DNBS and >3-fold increase for formaldehyde. PDC was positive in DMF, DMSO and 1% L92. The potency ranking was DMF > or = DMSO > 1% L92

  18. Gene expression profiles in auricle skin as a possible additional endpoint for determination of sensitizers: A multi-endpoint evaluation of the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Maeda, Akihisa; Nakajima, Mayumi; Kitsukawa, Mika; Takahashi, Kei; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Mutsuga, Mayu; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Miyamoto, Yohei; Oshida, Keiyu

    2017-10-05

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to test chemicals to induce skin sensitization. Exposure of mouse auricle skin to a sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has been measured by in vivo incorporation of H(3)-methyl thymidine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The stimulation index (SI), the ratio of the mean proliferation in each treated group to that in the concurrent vehicle control group, is frequently used as a regulatory-authorized endpoint for LLNA. However, some non-sensitizing irritants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or methyl salicylate (MS), have been reported as false-positives by this endpoint. In search of a potential endpoint to enhance the specificity of existing endpoints, we evaluated 3 contact sensitizers; (hexyl cinnamic aldehyde [HCA], oxazolone [OXA], and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB]), 1 respiratory sensitizer (toluene 2,4-diisocyanate [TDI]), and 2 non-sensitizing irritants (MS and SDS) by several endpoints in LLNA. Each test substance was applied to both ears of female CBA/Ca mice daily for 3 consecutive days. The ears and auricle lymph node cells were analyzed on day 5 for endpoints including the SI value, lymph node cell count, cytokine release from lymph node cells, and histopathological changes and gene expression profiles in auricle skin. The SI values indicated that all the test substances induced significant proliferation of lymph node cells. The lymph node cell counts showed no significant changes by the non-sensitizers assessed. The inflammatory findings of histopathology were similar among the auricle skins treated by sensitizers and irritants. Gene expression profiles of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in auricle skin were similar to the cytokine release profiles in draining lymph node cells. In addition, the gene expression of the chemokine CXCL1 and/or CXCL2 showed that it has the potential to discriminate sensitizers and non-sensitizing irritants. Our results

  19. Screening petrochemicals for contact hypersensitivity potential: a comparison of the murine local lymph node assay with guinea pig and human test data.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D A; Soranno, T M; Amoruso, M A; House, R V; Tummey, A C; Trimmer, G W; Thomas, P T; Ribeiro, P L

    1994-08-01

    Over the last few years, the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (MLLNA) has received considerable attention as a more quantitative, less expensive alternative to the guinea pig assays currently employed to identify potential human contact allergens. At this time, several companies are involved in both independent and joint efforts to validate the MLLNA with their products. This report describes the preliminary results of an Exxon-sponsored research effort to validate the assay with selected materials that are representative of our company's diverse chemical and petroleum product groups. Nine test materials were chosen for which there already existed guinea pig and/or human patch sensitization data. When the MLLNA results were compared to those data obtained from currently used predictive tests (guinea pig, human patch test), the MLLNA showed good agreement for moderate and strong sensitizers. However, the assay may be prone to the potential confounding effects of irritation (false positives), may be insensitive to weak sensitizers, and may be influenced by vehicle selection.

  20. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Lymph Node Tuberculosis and Detection of Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Gilman, Robert H.; Caviedes, Luz; Rizvi, Hasan; Ticona, Eduardo; Chavez, Gonzalo; Cabrera, José Luis; Matos, Eduardo D.; Evans, Carlton A.; Moore, David A. J.; Friedland, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 132 patients with lymphadenopathy were investigated. Fifty-two (39.4%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay provided rapid (13 days), accurate diagnosis (sensitivity, 65.4%) and reliable drug susceptibility testing (DST). Despite its lower sensitivity than that of other methods, its faster results and simultaneous DST are advantageous in resource-poor settings, supporting the incorporation of MODS into diagnostic algorithms for extrapulmonary TB. PMID:26511739

  1. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Lymph Node Tuberculosis and Detection of Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Daniela E; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Gilman, Robert H; Caviedes, Luz; Rizvi, Hasan; Ticona, Eduardo; Chavez, Gonzalo; Cabrera, José Luis; Matos, Eduardo D; Evans, Carlton A; Moore, David A J; Friedland, Jon S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 132 patients with lymphadenopathy were investigated. Fifty-two (39.4%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay provided rapid (13 days), accurate diagnosis (sensitivity, 65.4%) and reliable drug susceptibility testing (DST). Despite its lower sensitivity than that of other methods, its faster results and simultaneous DST are advantageous in resource-poor settings, supporting the incorporation of MODS into diagnostic algorithms for extrapulmonary TB. Copyright © 2015 Kirwan et al.

  2. Allergenicity evaluation of fragrance mix and its ingredients by using ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU endpoints.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Kaymak, Yesim; Karakaya, Asuman

    2014-03-01

    The present studies were performed to compare the differences between sensitization potency of fragrance mix and its ingredients (oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal), by using ex vivo LLNA-BrdU ELISA. The SI and EC3 values were calculated and potency classification was found for the mixture and for each ingredients. TH1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) releases from lymph node cell culture were also investigated as contact sensitization endpoints. The EC3 values were calculated and the potency of contact sensitization were classified for fragrance mix, oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal respectively: 4.4% (moderate), 3.4% (moderate), 0.88% (strong), 16.6% (weak), 1.91% (moderate), 9.77% (moderate), 13.1% (weak), 17.93% (weak), 7.74% (moderate). According to our results it should be concluded that exposure to fragrance mix does not constitute an evidently increased hazard compared to exposure to each of the eight fragrance ingredients separately. Cytokine analyses results indicate that both TH1 and TH2 cytokines are involved in the regulation of murine contact allergy and can be considered as useful endpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Farr, Craig; McLaughlin, James; Berdasco, Nancy; Wiench, Karin; Kimber, Ian

    2007-10-01

    There are currently available no systematic experimental data on the skin sensitizing properties of acrylates that are of relevance in occupational settings. Limited information from previous guinea-pig tests or from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is available; however, these data are incomplete and somewhat contradictory. For those reasons, we have examined in the LLNA 4 acrylates: butyl acrylate (BA), ethyl acrylate (EA), methyl acrylate (MA), and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The LLNA data indicated that all 4 compounds have some potential to cause skin sensitization. In addition, the relative potencies of these acrylates were measured by derivation from LLNA dose-response analyses of EC3 values (the effective concentration of chemical required to induce a threefold increase in proliferation of draining lymph node cells compared with control values). On the basis of 1 scheme for the categorization of skin sensitization potency, BA, EA, and MA were each classified as weak sensitizers. Using the same scheme, EHA was considered a moderate sensitizer. However, it must be emphasized that the EC3 value for this chemical of 9.7% is on the borderline between moderate (<10%) and weak (>10%) categories. Thus, the judicious view is that all 4 chemicals possess relatively weak skin sensitizing potential.

  4. Comparison of the Diagnostic Value Between Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Histopathologic Examination in Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Patients With Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Nam, Soo Kyung; Shin, Eun; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Hee Eun; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Woo Ho; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN)-based diagnosis in gastric cancers has shown varied sensitivities and false-negative rates in several studies. Application of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in SLN diagnosis has recently been proposed. A total of 155 SLNs from 65 patients with cT1-2, N0 gastric cancer were examined. The histopathologic results were compared with results obtained by real-time RT-PCR for detecting molecular RNA (mRNA) of cytokeratin (CK)19, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CK20. The sensitivity and specificity of the multiple marker RT-PCR assay standardized against the results of the postoperative histological examination were 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577-0.914) and 0.781 (95% CI, 0.700-0.850), respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative diagnosis were 0.819 (95% CI, 0.619-0.937) and 1.000 (95% CI, 0.972-1.000), respectively. The positive predictive value of the multiple-marker RT-PCR assay was 0.355 (95% CI, 0.192-0.546) for predicting non-SLN metastasis, which was lower than that of intraoperative diagnosis (0.813, 95% CI, 0.544-0.960). The real-time RT-PCR assay could detect SLN metastasis in gastric cancer. However, the predictive value of the real-time RT-PCR assay was lower than that of precise histopathologic examination and did not outweigh that of our intraoperative SLN diagnosis. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comparison of BALB/c and CBA/J mice for the local lymph node assay using bromodeoxyuridine with flow cytometry (LLNA: BrdU-FCM).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Seo, Souk Jin; Kim, Joo Hwan; Jung, Mi-Sook; Seo, Im-Kwon; Ahn, Ilyoung; Ko, Kyungyuk; Kim, Tae Sung; Lim, Kyung Min; Sohn, Soojung

    2017-02-01

    The local lymph node assay using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with flow cytometry (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified LLNA that is used to identify skin sensitizers by counting BrdU-incorporated lymph node cells (LNCs) with flow cytometry. Unlike other LLNA methods (OECD TG 429, 442A and 442B) in which the CBA/J mouse strain is used, LLNA: BrdU-FCM was originally designed to be compatible with BALB/c, a mouse strain that is more widely used in many countries. To justify the substitution of CBA/J for BALB/c, the equivalence of the test results between two strains shall be established prior to the official implementation of LLNA: BrdU-FCM. This study aims to compare the test results of LLNA: BrdU-FCM produced in BALB/c mice with those in CBA/J mice for 18 reference substances, including 13 sensitizers and 5 non-sensitizers, listed in OECD Test Guideline 429. Based on the LLNA: BrdU-FCM test procedure, we selected an appropriate solvent and then performed preliminary tests to determine the non-irritating dose ranges for the main study, which revealed the difference in the irritation responses to 8 of the 18 chemicals between the two strains. In the main study, we measured the changes in the number of total LNCs, which indicated differences in the responses to test chemicals between the two strains. However, the stimulation index obtained with the counts of BrdU-incorporated LNCs with 7-AAD using flow cytometry yielded comparable results and 100% concordance between the BALB/c and CBA/J mouse strains was achieved, suggesting that the performance of LLNA: BrdU-FCM using BALB/c mice was equivalent to that with CBA/J mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive capacity of a non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: Comparison of a cutoff approach and inferential statistics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Eun; Yang, Hyeri; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Choi, Jin Kyu; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung Eun; Sohn, Soo Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Ahn, Il Young; Jeong, Tae-Cheon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2016-01-01

    In order for a novel test method to be applied for regulatory purposes, its reliability and relevance, i.e., reproducibility and predictive capacity, must be demonstrated. Here, we examine the predictive capacity of a novel non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay, LLNA:BrdU-FCM (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry), with a cutoff approach and inferential statistics as a prediction model. 22 reference substances in OECD TG429 were tested with a concurrent positive control, hexylcinnamaldehyde 25%(PC), and the stimulation index (SI) representing the fold increase in lymph node cells over the vehicle control was obtained. The optimal cutoff SI (2.7≤cutoff <3.5), with respect to predictive capacity, was obtained by a receiver operating characteristic curve, which produced 90.9% accuracy for the 22 substances. To address the inter-test variability in responsiveness, SI values standardized with PC were employed to obtain the optimal percentage cutoff (42.6≤cutoff <57.3% of PC), which produced 86.4% accuracy. A test substance may be diagnosed as a sensitizer if a statistically significant increase in SI is elicited. The parametric one-sided t-test and non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test produced 77.3% accuracy. Similarly, a test substance could be defined as a sensitizer if the SI means of the vehicle control, and of the low, middle, and high concentrations were statistically significantly different, which was tested using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis, with post hoc analysis, Dunnett, or DSCF (Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner), respectively, depending on the equal variance test, producing 81.8% accuracy. The absolute SI-based cutoff approach produced the best predictive capacity, however the discordant decisions between prediction models need to be examined further.

  7. Interlaboratory validation of 1% pluronic l92 surfactant as a suitable, aqueous vehicle for testing pesticide formulations using the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Wiescinski, Connie M; Botham, Phil; Lees, David; Debruyne, Eric; Repetto-Larsay, Marina; Ladics, Gregory; Hoban, Denise; Gamer, Armin; Remmele, Marina; Wang-Fan, Weizheng; Ullmann, Ludwig G; Mehta, Jyotigna; Billington, Richard; Woolhiser, Michael R

    2008-09-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has become the preferred test for evaluating the dermal sensitization potential of chemicals and requirements are now emerging for its use in the evaluation of their formulated products, especially in the European Union. However, despite its widespread use and extensive validation, the use of this assay for directly testing mixtures and formulated products has been questioned, which could lead to repeat testing using multiple animal models. As pesticide formulations are typically a specific complex blend of chemicals for use as aqueous-based dilutions, traditional vehicles prescribed for the LLNA may change the properties of these formulations leading to inaccurate test results and hazard identification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aqueous solution of Pluronic L92 block copolymer surfactant (L92) as a vehicle in the mouse LLNA across five laboratories. Three chemicals with known sensitization potential and four pesticide formulations for which the sensitization potential in guinea pigs and/or humans had previously been assessed were used. Identical LLNA protocols and test materials were used in the evaluation. Assessment of the positive control chemicals, hexylcinnamaldehyde, formaldehyde, and potassium dichromate revealed positive results when using 1% aqueous L92 as the vehicle. Furthermore, results for these chemicals were reproducible among the five laboratories and demonstrated consistent relative potency determinations. The four pesticide formulations diluted in 1% aqueous L92 also demonstrated reproducible results in the LLNA among the five laboratories. Results for these test materials were also consistent with those generated previously using guinea pigs or from human experience. These data support testing aqueous compatible chemicals or pesticide formulations using the mouse LLNA, and provide additional support for the use of 1% aqueous L92 as a suitable, aqueous-based vehicle.

  8. Evaluation of non-radioactive endpoints of ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU to investigate select contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Ates, Ilker; Atak, Aysegul; Karakaya, Asuman

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to verify the utility of the non-radioactive endpoints LLNA BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) ex vivo incorporation and cytokine release using auricular lymph node cells isolated from BALB/c mice topically treated with a strong (formaldehyde or p-phenylene-diamine [PPD]), moderate sensitizer (cinnamal), or weak sensitizer (eugenol). Stimulation index (SI) and EC₃ values were calculated for each agent. Based on the results of ex vivo LLNA-BrdU assays, EC₃ values were calculated to be 0.29, 0.09, 1.91, and 16.60% for formaldehyde, PPD, cinnamal, and eugenol, respectively. These results were in good agreement with data from previous standard radioactive LLNA. Cytokine analyses indicated T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokine involvement in the regulation of murine contact allergy and these could be utilized as endpoints in assessments of contact allergy in mice. In conclusion, the current study provided evidence that the non-radioactive endpoint LLNA BrdU ex vivo incorporation could be of use as a viable alternative approach to assess the skin sensitization potential of test compound with respect to improving animal welfare. This is of particular importance in the case of any laboratory where it might be difficult to handle and/or readily employ radioisotopes. Further studies will be required to confirm--across test agents--the reproducibility as well as the limits of utility of this new ex vivo BrdU method.

  9. Analysis of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) variability for assessing the prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals with non-animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Coralie; Barroso, João; Matys, Izabela; Worth, Andrew; Casati, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The knowledge of the biological mechanisms leading to the induction of skin sensitisation has favoured in recent years the development of alternative non-animal methods. During the formal validation process, results from the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) are generally used as reference data to assess the predictive capacity of the non-animal tests. This study reports an analysis of the variability of the LLNA for a set of chemicals for which multiple studies are available and considers three hazard classification schemes: POS/NEG, GHS/CLP and ECETOC. As the type of vehicle used in a LLNA study is known to influence to some extent the results, two analyses were performed: considering the solvent used to test the chemicals and without considering the solvent. The results show that the number of discordant classifications increases when a chemical is tested in more than one solvent. Moreover, it can be concluded that study results leading to classification in the strongest classes (1A and EXT) seem to be more reliable than those in the weakest classes. This study highlights the importance of considering the variability of the reference data when evaluating non-animal tests.

  10. Application of an original RT-PCR–ELISA multiplex assay for MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 determination in node-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, J M; Etienne, M C; Formento, J L; Francoual, M; Rostagno, P; Peyrottes, I; Ettore, F; Teissier, E; Leblanc-Talent, P; Namer, M; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The long-term prognostic value of tumoural MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 and other classical parameters, was analysed on 85 node-positive breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy. All patients underwent tumour resection plus irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy (the majority receiving fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide). Median follow-up for the 54 alive patients was 7.8 years. Mean age was 53.7 years (range 28–79) and 54 patients were post-menopausal. MDR1 and MRP expression were quantified according to an original reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction multiplex assay with colourimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection(β2-microglobulin as control). P53 protein was analysed using an immunoluminometric assay (Sangtec). MDR1 expression varied within an 11-fold range (mean 94, median 83), MRP within a 45-fold range (mean 315, median 242) and p53 protein from the limit of detection (0.002 ng mg−1) up to 35.71 ng mg−1(mean 1.18, median 0.13 ng mg−1). P53 protein was significantly higher in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative than in ER-positive tumours (P = 0.039). The higher the p53, the lower the MDR1 expression (P = 0.015, r = –0.27). P53 was not linked to progesterone receptor (PR) status, S phase fraction, or MRP. Significantly greater MDR1 expression was observed in grade I tumours (P = 0.029). No relationship was observed between MDR1 and MRP. Neither MDR1 nor MRP was linked to ER or PR status. Unlike MDR1, MRP was correlated with the S phase: the greater the MRP, the lower the S phase (P = 0.006, r = –0.42). Univariate Cox analyses revealed that MDR1, MRP, p53 and S phase had no significant influence on progression-free or specific survival. A tendency suggested that the greater the p53, the shorter the progression-free survival (P = 0.076 as continuous and 0.069 as dichotomous). © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638986

  11. Application of BALB/c mouse in the local lymph node assay:BrdU-ELISA for the prediction of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fenxia; Xing, Caihong; Li, Bin; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Man

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a skin disease characterized by eczema and itching. A considerable proportion of chemicals induce ACD in humans. More than 10,000 substances should be tested for skin sensitization potential under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) regulation. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) has been designated as the first-choice in vivo assay for sensitization testing by REACH. The LLNA:BrdU-ELISA is a validated non-radioactive modification to the LLNA. For both the LLNA and the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA, CBA/JN mouse is the preferred mouse strain recommended in the regulatory guidelines. However, the availability of CBA/JN mouse in China is only limited to a few animal suppliers, which makes the mouse difficult to obtain. BALB/c mouse, which is widely commercially available, is considered for alternative use but it can only be used in the assay after it has been evaluated by formal validation study. Thus, a validation study was conducted in our laboratory to determine if BALB/c mouse could also be used in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA. Forty-three test substances including 32 LLNA sensitizers and 11 LLNA non-sensitizers, their vehicles and each concentration used were the same as that used in the formal validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using CBA/JN mouse. Female BALB/c mice of 8-10 weeks old were randomly allocated to groups (four mice per group). The test substance (25 μl) or the vehicle alone was applied to the dorsum of both ears daily for 3 consecutive days. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of BrdU (10mg/ml) solution was given on day 5. On day 6, a pair of auricular lymph nodes from each mouse was excised, weighed and stored at -20°C until BrdU-ELISA was conducted. This validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using BALB/c mouse correctly identified 30 of 31 sensitizers and 8 of 11 non-sensitizers. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate

  12. [Skin sensitization of 3, 4-bis (4'-aminofurazano-3') furoxan in mice evaluated by BrdU-ELISA local lymph node assay].

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Gao, J H; Liu, Z Y; Yue, H; Gao, Y C; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z Z; Zhou, Y S

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate skin sensitization of 3, 4-bis (4'-aminofurazano-3') furoxan (DATF) in mice using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BrdU-ELISA) . Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free BALB/C mice were randomly divided into high-, medium-, and low-dose DATF groups, positive control group, and solvent control group, with six mice in each group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose DATF groups were treated with 50%, 25%, and 10% (0.5, 0.25, and 0.10 g/ml) DATF solution, those in the positive control group were treated with 1% 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzol (DNCB) , and those in the solvent control group were treated with acetone/olive oil (4∶1) . After treatment, retroauricular lymph nodes were collected and cell suspension was prepared. ELISA was used to measure the level of cell proliferation after the addition of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) , and the BrdU labeling index (LI) and test substance concentration at a stimulation index (SI) of 1.6 (EC1.6) were calculated. Results: There were no significant differences in auricular thickness between groups (P>0.05) , and DAFT did not have skin irritation. Compared with the solvent control group, the high-dose DATF group and the positive control group showed significant increases in the weight of lymph nodes (P<0.05) . Compared with the solvent control group, all the other groups showed significant increases in BrdU LI (P<0.01) . The low-, medium-, and high-dose DATF groups had SIs of 6.1, 8.8, and 12.1, respectively, and the EC1.6 of DATF was 2.2%, which suggested that DATF had strong sensitization. Conclusion: DATF has strong skin sensitization in mice, with reference to the guideline of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Item No. 442B (OECD TG 442B) .

  13. Molecular staging by multimarker reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of lymphatic drainage and blood from melanoma patients after lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I; Kulik, Jadwiga; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Siedlecki, Janusz A

    2008-08-01

    Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-mediated detection of melanoma cells may be a prognostic factor for disease outcome. We investigated the presence of melanoma cells in lymphatic drainage and blood in melanoma patients after lymph node dissection (LND) via the highly sensitive multimarker (MM) RT-PCR assay. We collected 24-h lymph fluid (LY) and peripheral blood (BL) from 107 stage III melanoma patients after radical LND (59 axillary and 48 ilioinguinal LND). Tyrosinase, MART1 and uMAGE mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR to detect melanoma cells, and the presence of at least one marker signified a positive result. All patients underwent follow-up (median for survivors, 21 months, range: 4-37 months). Forty patients (37.4%) were positive for LY MM RT-PCR and 28 (26.2%) were positive based on BL MM RT-PCR. No differences for disease-free survival (DFS) curves according to BL MM RT-PCR were observed, but we found significant differences in the estimated 24-month DFS rate for patients with at least one marker and those without any marker in lymph fluid [18.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4-37.5%) and 42.1% (95% confidence interval: 29.7-54.5%), median: 9.9 and 15.3 months, respectively] (P=0.04). Detection of multiple markers in lymph fluid correlated with shorter DFS. Approximately 37% of lymph fluid after radical LND were positive by MM RT-PCR, which correlated significantly with early melanoma recurrences and shorter survival. The LY MM RT-PCR seems to be an effective prognostic tool for stage III melanoma patients. The MM RT-PCR analysis of single peripheral blood sample in these patients did not have additional prognostic value.

  14. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  15. Total tumor load assessed by one-step nucleic acid amplification assay as an intraoperative predictor for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Celso; Figueiredo, Joana; Lopes, Paulina; Martins, Manuela; Araújo, António

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between CK19 mRNA copy number in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) assessed by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) technique, and non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) metastization in invasive breast cancer. A model using total tumor load (TTL) obtained by OSNA technique was also constructed to evaluate its predictability. We conducted an observational retrospective study including 598 patients with clinically T1-T3 and node negative invasive breast cancer. Of the 88 patients with positive SLN, 58 patients fulfill the inclusion criteria. In the analyzed group 25.86% had at least one positive NSLN in axillary lymph node dissection. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, TTL and number of SLN macrometastases were predictive factors for NSLN metastases. In multivariate analysis just the TTL was predictive for positive NSLN (OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; P = 0.036). The ROC curve for the model using TTL alone was obtained and an AUC of 0.805 (95% CI 0.69-0.92) was achieved. For TTL >1.9 × 10(5) copies/μL we got 73.3% sensitivity, 74.4% specificity and 88.9% negative predictive value to predict NSLN metastases. When using OSNA technique to evaluate SLN, NSLN metastases can be predicted intraoperatively. This prediction tool could help in decision for axillary lymph node dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 3. Apparent discrepancies between LLNA and GPMT sensitisation potential: False positives or differences in sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the gold standard regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation along with the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT). Compared with the GPMT, LLNA uses fewer animals, it is quantitative, and it gives a numerical prediction of potency. However several concerns have been raised with this assay, mainly related to false positives and false negatives. Over the years, many authors, including the developers of the assay, have presented cases where there have been discrepancies between the GMPT and LLNA results. Several theories have been put forward for these discrepancies, the main one being the "over-sensitivity" of the GPMT. This paper analyses the data from a systematic study, published in three papers from 2008 to 2011, covering several classes of chemicals, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, sugar surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols, with many cases of chemicals testing positive in the LLNA being negative in the GPMT. Based on consideration of reaction chemistry and structural alerts, it is concluded that these discrepancies are not LLNA false positives, but can be rationalised in terms of the different protocols of the assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ground Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    Node deployment. Original plans were to deploy directly to Fort Jefferson on Dry Tortugas (near Key West, FL). Current plans are to initially deploy...to the USCG Station on Ismoralda Key for training operations; then deploy at a to-be- determined date to Fort Jefferson on Dry Tortugas . During FY09...Dry Tortugas . NRL expects to deliver the Ground Node to Ismoralda Key in October 2009. FY09 continued the third year of providing Ground

  18. A CFSE-based Assay to Study the Migration of Murine Skin Dendritic Cells into Draining Lymph Nodes During Infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed

    Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Nylén, Susanne; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti

    2016-10-09

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important for initiating immune responses, in part through their ability to acquire and shuttle antigen to the draining lymph node (DLN). The mobilization of DCs to the DLN is complex and remains to be fully elucidated during infection. Herein described is the use of an innovative, simple assay that relies on the fluorochrome 5- and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to track the migration of DCs during footpad infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in C57BL/6 mice. This assay enables the characterization of skin DC sub-populations that actively relocate to the draining, popliteal LN in response to BCG. This protocol originates from a BCG model where migratory skin DCs were identified by flow cytometry. The assay is amiable to the study and identification of DCs or other cells that home to the popliteal LN after inoculation of microbes, their metabolites or other inflammatory stimuli in the footpad, and consequently to study factors that regulate the migration of these cells.

  19. A CFSE-based Assay to Study the Migration of Murine Skin Dendritic Cells into Draining Lymph Nodes During Infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin

    PubMed Central

    Bollampalli, Vishnu Priya; Nylén, Susanne; Rothfuchs, Antonio Gigliotti

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important for initiating immune responses, in part through their ability to acquire and shuttle antigen to the draining lymph node (DLN). The mobilization of DCs to the DLN is complex and remains to be fully elucidated during infection. Herein described is the use of an innovative, simple assay that relies on the fluorochrome 5- and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to track the migration of DCs during footpad infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in C57BL/6 mice. This assay enables the characterization of skin DC sub-populations that actively relocate to the draining, popliteal LN in response to BCG. This protocol originates from a BCG model where migratory skin DCs were identified by flow cytometry. The assay is amiable to the study and identification of DCs or other cells that home to the popliteal LN after inoculation of microbes, their metabolites or other inflammatory stimuli in the footpad, and consequently to study factors that regulate the migration of these cells. PMID:27768071

  20. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  1. Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2003-08-28

    p-Chloro-m-cresol (PCMC) and p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. For risk assessment of skin sensitizers, information on dose-response profiles in the induction and elicitation phases and cross-reactivity with analogous chemicals are important. In the non-radioactive local lymph-node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine instead of 3H-methyl thymidine, significant effect on lymph node cell proliferation was detected at 10% PCMC and 25% PCMX, while in the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) at least one animal tested in the group was sensitized at a 5 ppm induction dose of either chemical. When mean skin reaction score in an animal group maximally sensitized with each allergen with the GPMT was plotted against log challenge concentration, linear regression lines with high correlations were obtained in both cases. The calculated elicitation threshold was lower for PCMC than PCMX. The area under the linear regression line between the threshold point and 1% of the elicitation concentration, another index of relative elicitation potency, was also greater for PCMC. Bidirectional cross-reactivity between PCMX and PCMC was detected in the GPMT. PCMC was thus identified in both LLNA and GPMT as a stronger sensitizer than PCMX in both the induction and elicitation phases. These results suggest that the non-radioactive LLNA is a simple and useful method for evaluating allergenicity in the induction phase, while the GPMT using a maximally sensitized animal group is more suitable for assessing the dose-response profile and cross-reactivity in the elicitation phase.

  2. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  3. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  4. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  5. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  6. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  7. Scalable Node Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Drotar, Alexander P.; Quinn, Erin E.; Sutherland, Landon D.

    2012-07-30

    Project description is: (1) Build a high performance computer; and (2) Create a tool to monitor node applications in Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) using code from Lightweight Data Metric Service (LDMS). The importance of this project is that: (1) there is a need a scalable, parallel tool to monitor nodes on clusters; and (2) New LDMS plugins need to be able to be easily added to tool. CBTF stands for Component Based Tool Framework. It's scalable and adjusts to different topologies automatically. It uses MRNet (Multicast/Reduction Network) mechanism for information transport. CBTF is flexible and general enough to be used for any tool that needs to do a task on many nodes. Its components are reusable and 'EASILY' added to a new tool. There are three levels of CBTF: (1) frontend node - interacts with users; (2) filter nodes - filters or concatenates information from backend nodes; and (3) backend nodes - where the actual work of the tool is done. LDMS stands for lightweight data metric servies. It's a tool used for monitoring nodes. Ltool is the name of the tool we derived from LDMS. It's dynamically linked and includes the following components: Vmstat, Meminfo, Procinterrupts and more. It works by: Ltool command is run on the frontend node; Ltool collects information from the backend nodes; backend nodes send information to the filter nodes; and filter nodes concatenate information and send to a database on the front end node. Ltool is a useful tool when it comes to monitoring nodes on a cluster because the overhead involved with running the tool is not particularly high and it will automatically scale to any size cluster.

  8. Popliteal lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Sholar, Alina; Martin, Robert C G; McMasters, Kelly M

    2005-02-01

    Most sentinel nodes are located in the cervical, axillary, and inguinal nodal basins. Sometimes, however, sentinel nodes exist outside these traditional nodal basins. Popliteal nodal metastasis is relatively uncommon, and popliteal lymph node dissection is infrequently necessary. However, with lymphoscintigraphic identification of popliteal sentinel nodes, surgeons are more frequently called on to address the popliteal nodal basin. Therefore, knowledge of the anatomy and surgical technique for popliteal lymphadenectomy is essential. This case study illustrates the importance of considering the approach to the popliteal lymph node basin for patients with melanoma.

  9. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  10. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  11. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands; Glands - swollen; Lymph nodes - swollen; Lymphadenopathy Images Lymphatic system Infectious mononucleosis Circulation of lymph Lymphatic system Swollen glands References Armitage JO. Approach to ...

  12. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Jadusingh, I. H.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the prevalence and pathology of intramammary lymph nodes in breast specimens. METHODS: All breast specimens examined by a single pathologist over 70 months in a large teaching hospital were studied retrospectively. All the surgical pathology reports were reviewed. Relevant glass slides from cases in which intramammary lymph nodes were identified were also reexamined. RESULTS: Breast specimens (n = 682) were examined. Seven lymph nodes were found in five patients. The specimens comprised 533 biopsy specimens, 29 segmental resections, 22 reduction mammoplasties, 77 modified radical mastectomies and 20 gynecomastia mastectomies. No clinically relevant microscopical abnormalities were found in four lymph nodes and slight sinus histiocytosis was seen in two nodes. One node contained metastatic adenocarcinoma and benign glandular epithelial inclusions. CONCLUSION: Although rare, intramammary lymph nodes may be detected by careful gross examination of breast specimens even in the absence of clinical identification. They can occur in any quadrant of the breast and can display a variety of pathological conditions. Pathologists should be alert to the existence and potential importance of these lymph nodes. Images PMID:1452776

  13. Theory SkyNode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Richard P.; Norman, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    A working example of a Basic SkyNode serving theoretical data will be presented. The data is taken from the Simulated Cluster Archive (a set of simulated galaxy clusters, where each cluster was computed using four different physics models). The Theory SkyNode tables contain columns of both computational and observational interest. Examples will be shown of using this theoretical data for comparison to data taken from observational SkyNodes, and vice versa. The relative ease of setting up the Theory SkyNode is of import, as it represents a clear way to present tabular theory data to the Virtual Observatory. Also, the Theory SkyNode provides a prototype for additional "theory catalogs", which wil be created from other simulations. This work is supported by the University of California Office of the President via UCDRD-LLNL award "Scientific Data Management". Travel funding was provided by the US NVO Summer School.

  14. Tani in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-02

    ISS016-E-008034 (2 Nov. 2007) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, sleeps in his sleeping bag in the Unity node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  15. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... round organs that are part of the body’s lymphatic system . They are found widely throughout the body and ... lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Anatomy of the lymphatic system, showing the lymph vessels and lymph organs, including ...

  16. Pettit in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-05

    ISS031-E-012199 (5 May 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 31 flight engineer, holds a liquid salt dispenser and chop sticks near the galley in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  17. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  18. Kuipers in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-15

    ISS031-E-157791 (15 May 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 31 flight engineer, conducts a water sampling analysis in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  19. Wiseman in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-17

    ISS040-E-012306 (16 June 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, conducts an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) long life battery (LLB) auto-cycle initiate in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  20. Nyberg in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-13

    Photo of Astronaut Karen Nyber,Expedition 36 flight engineer,with a snack of peanut butter and chocolate sandwiched between two waffles. Photo taken in the Node 1 module. Also sent as Twitter message.

  1. Ferguson in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-24

    S126-E-009195 (23 Nov. 2008) --- Astronaut Chris Ferguson, STS-126 commander, looks over a checklist in the Unity node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Endeavour remains docked with the station.

  2. Parmitano in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-15

    ISS037-E-001084 (15 Sept. 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 37 flight engineer, installs the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) Centerline Berthing Camera System (CBCS) inside the International Space Station’s Harmony node.

  3. [Pelvic lymph nodes imaging].

    PubMed

    Roy, C

    2013-10-01

    Detecting metastatic pelvic lymph nodes is essential during the survey of a pelvic carcinoma. In routine clinical practice, CT scan is commonly used. However, its accuracy is quite low for small size lymph nodes. Diffusion-weighted imaging could be in the near future an efficient modality. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Nespoli in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-02

    ISS016-E-008792 (2 Nov. 2007) --- European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Paolo Nespoli, STS-120 mission specialist, rests in his sleeping bag in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  5. Cancer and lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or concerns about swollen lymph nodes or your cancer treatment. Alternative Names Lymph gland References Camp MS, Smith BL. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:592- ...

  6. Misurkin in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-30

    ISS035-E-010396 (30 March 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin, Expedition 35 flight engineer, and the other two new arrivals (out of frame) to the International Space Station wasted little time in moving and stowage operations. During the second day of their stay, Misurkin can be seen inspecting a bag of pantry-type items in the Unity node.

  7. Parmitano in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-12

    ISS036-E-007249 ( June 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, creates a bubble of orange juice from a beverage dispenser in the Unity node during some of his off-duty time aboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station. Parmitano is scheduled to stay aboard the orbital outpost until November.

  8. Patrick in Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-13

    S130-E-007770 (14 Feb. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Nicholas Patrick, STS-130 mission specialist, smiles for a photo while floating freely in the newly-installed Tranquility node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Endeavour remains docked with the station.

  9. Furukawa in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-18

    S135-E-009501 (18 July 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa is pictured inside the International Space Station's Node 1 or Unity. Furukawa and his five Expedition 28 crewmates were preparing to bid farewell to the STS-135 crew members, who have been visiting the station, carrying out a very busy agenda of work for over a week. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Kelly in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-11

    ISS025-E-007052 (12 Oct. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, Expedition 25 flight engineer, is pictured inside the Unity node onboard the International Space Station some three days after his arrival and that of two crewmates to bring the total population on the orbital outpost to six.

  11. Tumor immunity in rat lymph nodes following transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rabson, J A; Geyer, S J; Levine, G; Swartz, W M; Futrell, J W

    1982-07-01

    Inguinal lymph nodes in the Buffalo rat were autotransplanted to the popliteal fossa by an intact vascular pedicle or by microvascular anastomosis. These revascularized nodes had normal histology and made spontaneous afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with surrounding lymphatic vessels, as documented by ink and silicone rubber injection studies. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc antimony sulfide colloid correctly predicted the 44 of 120 node transplants that had made afferent reconnection. To demonstrate immunologic activity of lymph nodes following transplantation, a cellular adherance assay was employed to detect cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymph node cells isolated from rats sensitized to an allogeneic gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity was detected in nontransplanted regional nodes sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.01) and in nodes transplanted by vascular pedicle and then sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that lymph nodes can be transplanted with restoration of functional lymphatic anatomy, and that following transplantation, lymph nodes retain the ability to mount an immune response against tumor.

  12. Tumor immunity in rat lymph nodes following transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Rabson, J A; Geyer, S J; Levine, G; Swartz, W M; Futrell, J W

    1982-01-01

    Inguinal lymph nodes in the Buffalo rat were autotransplanted to the popliteal fossa by an intact vascular pedicle or by microvascular anastomosis. These revascularized nodes had normal histology and made spontaneous afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with surrounding lymphatic vessels, as documented by ink and silicone rubber injection studies. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc antimony sulfide colloid correctly predicted the 44 of 120 node transplants that had made afferent reconnection. To demonstrate immunologic activity of lymph nodes following transplantation, a cellular adherance assay was employed to detect cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymph node cells isolated from rats sensitized to an allogeneic gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity was detected in nontransplanted regional nodes sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.01) and in nodes transplanted by vascular pedicle and then sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that lymph nodes can be transplanted with restoration of functional lymphatic anatomy, and that following transplantation, lymph nodes retain the ability to mount an immune response against tumor. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7092359

  13. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  14. Nyberg in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-14

    ISS036-E-008126 (14 June 2013) --- Expedition 36 Flight Engineer Karen Nyberg of NASA puts together a meal in the Unity node of the International Space Station on the eve of a special but busy day for the six person crew aboard the outpost. The European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle-4 (ATV-4) “Albert Einstein” is scheduled to dock to the orbital outpost June 15, 2013, following a ten-day period of free-flight.

  15. Current Status and Scope of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Min; Park, Sung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lymph node micrometastasis has been evaluated for its prognostic value in gastric cancer. Lymph node micrometastasis cannot be detected via a usual pathologic examination, but it can be detected by using some other techniques including immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. With the development of such diagnostic techniques, the detection rate of lymph node micrometastasis is constantly increasing. Although the prognostic value of lymph node micrometastasis remains debatable, its clinical impact is apparently remarkable in both early and advanced gastric cancer. At present, studies on the prognostic value of lymph node micrometastasis are evolving to overcome its current limitations and extend the scope of its application. PMID:25861517

  16. Enzyme assays.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  17. Hadfield in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-30

    ISS035-E-010435 (30 March 2013) --- In the Unity node of the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency enjoys part of the "fruits of labor," so to speak, from a visiting spacecraft for the second time in a month. This particular grapefruit came by way of the Soyuz TMA-08M spacecraft, which arrived on March 29, along with three new Expedition 35 crew members. The SpaceX Dragon-2 unmanned spacecraft delivered a nice assortment of fresh fruit along with more than a half ton of supplies and gear on March 3, when Hadfield was serving as a flight engineer on the Expedition 34 crew.

  18. Parmitano in Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-01

    ISS036-E-005384 (2 June 2013) --- In the Tranquility node of the Earth-orbiting International Space Station, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT), technically named the Treadmill 2 and abbreviated as T2. It is a treadmill for use on board the orbital outpost and is designed to allow astronauts to run without vibrating delicate microgravity science experiments in adjacent labs. It was derived from the treadmill that was originally taken to the station. COLBERT/T2 uses a different kind of vibration-suppression system than the original. Parmitano has been on board the orbital outpost for about three days and will continue his stay into November.

  19. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  20. Kelly in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-12

    ISS026-E-009371 (12 Dec. 2010) --- Wearing a Santa Claus hat, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, Expedition 26 commander, poses for a holiday photo near Christmas decorations in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  1. Kuipers in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-03

    ISS030-E-117506 (3 Feb. 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, is pictured near fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  2. Kuipers in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-02

    ISS030-E-116840 (2 Feb. 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, is pictured near fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  3. Kelly exercises in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    ISS025-E-011558 (3 Nov. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Scott Kelly, Expedition 25 flight engineer, exercises using the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  4. AR system in Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-03

    ISS033-E-009199 (3 Oct. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Sunita Williams, Expedition 33 commander, conducts the continuing preventive inspection and cleaning of accessible Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system bacteria filters in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  5. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis.

  6. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  7. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  8. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  9. TVIS IFM in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-28

    ISS025-E-005728 (28 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Shannon Walker, Expedition 25 flight engineer, poses for a photo while performing routine in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  10. Dinner in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-05

    ISS020-E-045336 (5 Oct. 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer and Expedition 21 commander; and spaceflight participant Guy Laliberte make food selections from a stowage container in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  11. Creamer Exercises in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-11

    S130-E-007388 (11 Feb. 2010) --- NASA astronaut T.J. Creamer, Expedition 22 flight engineer, exercises using the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Endeavour (STS-130) remains docked with the station.

  12. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  13. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  14. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring tissues. Furthermore, stage 6 Hensen's node contains approximately 3 times more retinoid than that of stage 4 embryos. These endogenous retinoids may establish a concentration gradient from Hensen's node to adjacent tissues and play a role in establishing the primary embryonic axis in the vertebrate. The results also suggest that the retinoid concentration in Hensen's node is developmentally regulated. Images PMID:1438194

  15. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-11-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring tissues. Furthermore, stage 6 Hensen's node contains approximately 3 times more retinoid than that of stage 4 embryos. These endogenous retinoids may establish a concentration gradient from Hensen's node to adjacent tissues and play a role in establishing the primary embryonic axis in the vertebrate. The results also suggest that the retinoid concentration in Hensen's node is developmentally regulated.

  16. Detection of micrometastases by flow cytometry in sentinel lymph nodes from patients with renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Hartana, Ciputra Adijaya; Kinn, Johan; Rosenblatt, Robert; Anania, Stefan; Alamdari, Farhood; Glise, Hans; Sherif, Amir; Winqvist, Ola

    2016-10-11

    Stage is an important prognostic factor in renal tumours and dissemination to regional lymph nodes is associated with poor outcomes. Lymph nodes are routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry and microscopic evaluation, a time-consuming process where micrometastases might go undiagnosed. We evaluate an alternative method for detecting metastatic cells in sentinel nodes (SNs) by flow cytometry. A total of 15 nodes from 5 patients diagnosed with renal tumours were analysed by flow cytometry. Staining for the intracellular marker cytokeratin 18 (CK18) with the surface markers carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) and Cadherin 6 were used in flow cytometry analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the addition of known concentrations of cancer cell lines were analysed to investigate the sensitivity of micrometastasis detection. Stability of the assay was marked by low intra-assay variability (coefficient of variance ⩽16%) and low inter-assay variability (R(2)=0.9996-1). Eight nodes in four patients were positive for metastasis; six of them were considered being micrometastatic. These metastases were undetected by routine pathology and the patients were restaged from pN0 to pN1. Flow cytometry is able to detect micrometastases in lymph nodes of renal tumour patients that were undetected under H&E examination.

  17. Analysis of potential markers for detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merrie, A E H; Yun, K; Gunn, J; Phillips, L V; McCall, J L

    1999-01-01

    We have developed sensitive assays for cytokeratin (K) 8, 16, 19, stromelysin 3 (ST3), MUC1 and maspin mRNAs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and used these to assess lymph node status in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer. In addition the RT-PCR assays were tested against lymph nodes from non-cancer patients to determine their specificity. Despite high sensitivity RT-PCR assays for K8, K16, K19, ST3 and maspin were not found to be useful as markers of submicroscopic disease as transcripts of these genes were detected in the great majority of control lymph nodes tested. Expression of MUC1 was also not found to be useful as it was both insensitive and non-specific. The importance of assessing potential markers against an adequately sized control population is demonstrated, as failure to do so can lead to erroneous conclusions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471055

  18. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  19. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  20. Histopathology of the Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    Lymph nodes function as filters of tissues and tissue fluids and are sites of origin and production of lymphocytes for normal physiological functions. As part of this normal function, they react to both endogenous and exogenous substances with a variety of specific morphological and functional responses. Lesions can be both proliferative and nonproliferative, and can be treatment-related or not. The histological evaluation of lymph nodes is necessary in order to understand the immunotoxic effects of chemicals with the resulting data providing an important component of human risk assessment. It is the challenge of the toxicologic pathologist to interpret the pathology data within the complete clinical evaluation of the entire animal. Daily insults, ageing and toxins can alter the normal histology and primary function of lymph nodes. Therefore it is important to distinguish and differentiate lesions that occur naturally during normal development and ageing from those that are induced by xenobiotics. To achieve this goal, comparison with strain- age- and sex-matched controls is crucial. PMID:17067938

  1. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  2. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  3. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  4. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes.

    PubMed

    DSouza, Alisha V; Elliott, Jonathan T; Gunn, Jason R; Barth, Richard J; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Pogue, Brian W

    2015-04-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes [Formula: see text] was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes.

  5. [PTH assay: whole PTH assay (new IRMA assay)].

    PubMed

    Tanno, Yudo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2003-03-01

    The common intact-PTH assay detects not only PTH (1-84) but also PTH (7-84) fragment. Recently, it is reported that PTH (7-84) fragment is the antagonist to PTH (1-84) biological action. Thus, conventional intact-PTH assay might mislead the overestimation of parathyroid function in uremic patients. Whole PTH assay, which detect only PTH (1-84) fragments may be useful for more precise evaluation of PTH activity in uremic patient.

  6. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  7. Nonadiabatic eigenfunctions can have conical nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Peter W.; Peters, William K.; Jonas, David M.

    2017-09-01

    It has been argued the total vibrational probability amplitude for a molecular nonadiabatic eigenfunction should not have nodes unless required by symmetry. For a model with two nonadiabatically coupled electronic states, exact factorization of nonadiabatic eigenfunctions into a total vibrational probability amplitude and a normalized electronic factor reveals zero-dimensional nodes in nonadiabatic eigenfunctions over a two-dimensional vibrational space. These conical nodes have the shape of a right elliptical cone with the node at the vertex. Low dimensionality nodes are likely when the number of nonadiabatically coupled electronic states is less than or equal to the dimensionality of the vibrational space.

  8. Detection of Brucella canis from inguinal lymph nodes of naturally infected dogs by PCR.

    PubMed

    Aras, Z; Uçan, U S

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and evaluate a PCR assay for the detection of Brucella canis (B. canis) in lymph node samples of naturally infected dogs. The performance of the PCR was compared with the results of bacteriological culture as reference method. Forty-eight inguinal lymph node samples were collected from 48 dogs (18 males and 30 females) that died in the city's pound in the years 2007-2008 and were examined by microbiological culture and the PCR assay. B. canis was isolated from 4 (8.3%) of 48 lymph node samples. Forty-four (91.7%) of the samples were bacteriological culture negative. B. canis DNA was directly detected from all culture positive lymph node samples (n = 4) by PCR. All of the culture negative samples were confirmed as negative by PCR. When the culture method was used as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were found to be 100%. The limit of PCR detection of B. canis DNA was 1.4 x 10(1) CFU/g at least. In conclusion, the PCR assay has been shown to have a diagnostic performance equal to bacteriological culture for detection of B. canis. By a non-hazardous protocol for laboratory workers, the assay can be performed in one day. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apelin promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Viktoria; Rozsas, Anita; Garay, Tamas; Torok, Szilvia; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter; Paku, Sandor; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Masri, Bernard; Tovari, Jozsef; Groger, Marion; Klepetko, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Dome, Balazs

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the role of the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor and its ligand, apelin, in angiogenesis has been well documented, the ability of the apelin/APJ system to induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis has been largely unexplored. To this end, we first show that APJ is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and, moreover, that it responds to apelin by activating the apelinergic signaling cascade. We find that although apelin treatment does not influence the proliferation of LECs in vitro, it enhances their migration, protects them against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, increases their spheroid numbers in 3D culture, stimulates their in vitro capillary-like tube formation and, furthermore, promotes the invasive growth of lymphatic microvessels in vivo in the matrigel plug assay. We also demonstrate that apelin overexpression in malignant cells is associated with accelerated in vivo tumor growth and with increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. These results indicate that apelin induces lymphangiogenesis and, accordingly, plays an important role in lymphatic tumor progression. Our study does not only reveal apelin as a novel lymphangiogenic factor but might also open the door for the development of novel anticancer therapies targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24962866

  10. The sentinel node in gynaecological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Balega, J; Van Trappen, P O

    2006-01-01

    As lymph node metastasis is one of the earliest features of tumour cell spread in most human cancers, assessment of the regional lymph nodes is required for tumour staging, determining prognosis and planning adjuvant therapeutic strategies. However, complete lymph node dissections are frequently associated with significant complications. Conjugating the diagnostic advantages with decreased morbidity, the sentinel node concept represents one of the most recent advances in surgical oncology. In this review we briefly highlight the historical background of the development of the sentinel node concept, the anatomical evidence for applying the sentinel node concept in pelvic gynaecological cancers and the technical aspects of sentinel node detection. We discuss recent studies in vulval, cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:16520291

  11. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  12. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  13. Lymph node pooling: a feasible and efficient method of lymph node molecular staging in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rakislova, Natalia; Montironi, Carla; Aldecoa, Iban; Fernandez, Eva; Bombi, Josep Antoni; Jimeno, Mireya; Balaguer, Francesc; Pellise, Maria; Castells, Antoni; Cuatrecasas, Miriam

    2017-01-14

    Pathologic lymph node staging is becoming a deficient method in the demanding molecular era. Nevertheless, the use of more sensitive molecular analysis for nodal staging is hampered by its high costs and extensive time requirements. Our aim is to take a step forward in colon cancer (CC) lymph node (LN) pathology diagnosis by proposing a feasible and efficient molecular method in routine practice using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Molecular detection of tumor cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA with RT-LAMP was performed in 3206 LNs from 188 CC patients using two methods: individual analysis of 1449 LNs from 102 patients (individual cohort), and pooled LN analysis of 1757 LNs from 86 patients (pooling cohort). A median of 13 LNs (IQR 10-18) per patient were harvested in the individual cohort, and 18 LNs (IQR 13-25) per patient in the pooling cohort (p ≤ 0.001). The median of molecular assays performed in the pooling cohort was 2 per patient (IQR 1-3), saving a median of 16 assays/patient. The number of molecular assays performed in the individual cohort was 13 (IQR 10-18), corresponding to the number of LNs to be analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the pooling method for LN involvement (assessed by hematoxylin and eosin) were 88.9% (95% CI 56.5-98.0) and 79.2% (95% CI 68.9-86.8), respectively; concordance, 80.2%; PPV, 33.3%; NPV, 98.4%. The individual method had 100% sensitivity (95% CI 72.2-100), 44.6% specificity (95% CI 34.8-54.7), 50% concordance, 16.4% PPV, and 100% NPV. The amount of tumor burden detected in all LNs of a case, or total tumor load (TTL) was similar in both cohorts (p = 0.228). LN pooling makes it possible to analyze a high number of LNs from surgical colectomies with few molecular tests per patient. This approach enables a feasible means to integrate LN molecular analysis from CC specimens into pathology diagnosis and provides a more accurate LN pathological staging with potential prognostic

  14. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  15. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy reveals a positive popliteal node in clear cell sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shibata, Shinichi; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the tendons and aponeuroses is an aggressive, rare soft tissue tumor with frequent metastases to regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which has dramatically changed the management of melanoma, was used for clear cell sarcoma for an evaluation of popliteal and groin lymph node status. Although all isosulfan blue-stained groin lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, a popliteal lymph node was positive. Adjuvant 50 Gy of radiotherapy to the popliteal node might have been effective for local control for one year.

  17. Network model with structured nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisco, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    We present a network model in which words over a specific alphabet, called structures, are associated to each node and undirected edges are added depending on some distance measure between different structures. This model shifts the underlying principle of network generation from a purely mathematical one to an information-based one. It is shown how this model differs from the Barábasi-Albert and duplication models and how it can generate networks with topological features similar to biological networks: power law degree distribution, low average path length, clustering coefficient independent from the network size, etc. Two biological networks: S. cerevisiae gene network and E. coli protein-protein interaction network, are replicated using this model.

  18. Space transfer vehicle accommodations at transportation nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    1990-01-01

    This task identifies requirements for accommodation of space transfer vehicles (STVs) at orbital transportation nodes. Requirements are based on mission models which include high energy missions and human exploration initiatives. Study data includes results of trade studies evaluating STV accommodations concepts at Space Station nodes and at alternative free-flying nodes. Data and scars on the Phase One Space Station Freedom to allow growth to the accommodation concepts are identified.

  19. Megadalton-node assembly by binding of Skb1 to the membrane anchor Slf1.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lin; Kabeche, Ruth; Wang, Ning; Wu, Jian-Qiu; Moseley, James B

    2014-09-01

    The plasma membrane contains both dynamic and static microdomains. Given the growing appreciation of cortical microdomains in cell biology, it is important to determine the organizational principles that underlie assembly of compartmentalized structures at the plasma membrane. The fission yeast plasma membrane is highly compartmentalized by distinct sets of cortical nodes, which control signaling for cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. The mitotic inhibitor Skb1 localizes to a set of cortical nodes that provide spatial control over signaling for entry into mitosis. However, it has been unclear whether these nodes contain other proteins and how they might be organized and tethered to the plasma membrane. Here we show that Skb1 forms nodes by interacting with the novel protein Slf1, which is a limiting factor for node formation in cells. Using quantitative fluorescence microscopy and in vitro assays, we demonstrate that Skb1-Slf1 nodes are megadalton structures that are anchored to the membrane by a lipid-binding region in the Slf1 C-terminus. We propose a mechanism for higher-order node formation by Skb1 and Slf1, with implications for macromolecular assemblies in diverse cell types.

  20. Imaging of head and neck lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, Laura B; Wiggins, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    The cervical lymph nodes can be affected by a variety of infectious, inflammatory, benign, and malignant pathologic conditions. Clinical history and physical examination with the complementary use of imaging is essential to accurately make a diagnosis or appropriate differential. Knowledge of cervical lymph node anatomy, drainage pathways, morphologic variations, and common nodal pathology is key to correct interpretation of cervical lymph nodes on imaging. Computed tomography (CT), MR, ultrasound, and PET/CT are complementary imaging modalities that can be used in the evaluation of cervical lymph node pathology.

  1. The complex network reliability and influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; He, Yongfeng

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the complex network node important degree and reliability, considering semi-local centrality, betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm, through the simulation method to gradually remove nodes and recalculate the importance in the random network, small world network and scale-free network. Study the relationship between the largest connected component and node removed proportion, the research results show that betweenness centrality and PageRank algorithm based on the global information network are more effective for evaluating the importance of nodes, and the reliability of the network is related to the network topology.

  2. Fluorescence-Based Molecular Imaging of Porcine Urinary Bladder Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak J; Barback, Christopher V; Hoh, Carl K; Qin, Zhengtao; Kader, Kareem; Hall, David J; Vera, David R; Kane, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective was to test the ability of a laparoscopic camera system to detect the fluorescent signal emanating from sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) approximately 2 d after injection and imaging of a positron-emitting molecular imaging agent into the submucosa of the porcine urinary bladder. Methods: Three female pigs underwent a submucosal injection of the bladder with fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept, radiolabeled with both (68)Ga and (99m)Tc. One hour after injection, a pelvic PET/CT scan was acquired for preoperative SLN mapping. Approximately 36 h later, robotic SLN mapping was performed using a fluorescence-capable camera system. After identification of the fluorescent lymph nodes, a pelvic lymph node dissection was completed with robotic assistance. All excised nodal packets (n = 36) were assayed for (99m)Tc activity, which established a lymph node as an SLN. (99m)Tc activity was also used to calculate the amount of dye within each lymph node. Results: All of the SLNs defined by the ex vivo γ-well assay of (99m)Tc activity were detected by fluorescence mode imaging. The time between injection and robotic SLN mapping ranged from 32 to 38 h. A total of 5 fluorescent lymph nodes were detected; 2 pigs had 2 fluorescent lymph nodes and 1 pig exhibited a single lymph node. Four of the 5 SLNs exhibited increased SUVs of 12.4-139.0 obtained from PET/CT. The dye content of the injection sites ranged from 371 to 1,441 pmol, which represented 16.5%-64.1% of the injected dose; the amount of dye within the SLNs ranged from 8.5 to 88 pmol, which was equivalent to 0.38%-3.91% of the administered dose. Conclusion: Fluorescent-labeled (68)Ga-tilmanocept allows for PET imaging and real-time intraoperative detection of SLNs during robotic surgery. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, Bekir . E-mail: bekirkuru@hotmail.com; Bozgul, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma. Our aim was to define whether the total number of removed axillary lymph nodes influences the pN and thus the staging. Methods and Materials: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed. The total number of removed nodes were grouped, and compared with the patient and tumor characteristics and the influence of the number of nodes removed on the staging was analyzed. Results: The proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (59%), and pN3 status (51%) were the highest in the group with 21-25 nodes removed. Compared with patients with 1-20 nodes removed, the proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (52%), and pN3 status (46%) were significantly higher in those with more than 20 nodes removed. Although the proportion of Stage IIA and IIB decreased, the proportion of Stage IIIA and IIIC increased in patients with >20 nodes removed compared with those with 1-20 nodes removed. Conclusions: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes. Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.

  4. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-Il

    2016-02-18

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect.

  5. Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Node-only Recurrence of Prostate Cancer: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Suardi, Nazareno; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-12-30

    Several studies show that salvage lymph-node dissection for node-only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical treatment might represent a viable treatment modality for node-only recurrent PCa. However, as long as high quality data is not available, this approach should still be considered experimental.

  6. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  7. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  8. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  9. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Christoph, Dietrich F

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal "avascular" areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue(®), Sonazoid(®) and Definity(®). This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  10. A multiple node software development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinicke, P.; Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Ritchie, D.; White, V.

    1987-06-01

    Experimenters on over 30 DECnet nodes at Fermilab use software developed, distributed, and maintained by the Data Acquisition Software Group. A general methodology and set of tools have been developed to distribute, use and manage the software on different sites. The methodology and tools are of interest to any group developing and using software on multiple nodes.

  11. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  12. Assays of Serum Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Herati, Amin S; Cengiz, Cenk; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-05-01

    The diagnosis of male hypogonadism depends on an assessment of the clinical signs and symptoms of hypogonadism and serum testosterone level. Current clinical laboratory testosterone assay platforms include immunoassays and mass spectrometry. Despite significant advances to improve the accuracy and precision of the currently available assays, limited comparability exists between assays at the lower and upper extremes of the testosterone range. Because of this lack of comparability, there is no current gold standard assay for the assessment of total testosterone levels.

  13. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  14. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  15. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  16. Intraoperative molecular analysis of sentinel lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with clinical node negative breast cancer: An institutional study.

    PubMed

    Parada, David; Peña, Karla B; Riu, F Francesc; Aguilar, A Esther; Cohan, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, safe method for determining the axillary lymph node status. However, insufficient evidence exists to support the recommendation of SLNB in patients who have had neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to downsize tumours and allow for breast conservation surgery. The present study aimed to use molecular approaches to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB in patients treated with NAC prior to SLN mapping and surgery. A total of 50 consecutive patients with operable invasive breast carcinomas who had received prior NAC were assessed using the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) method. The rate of SLN identification was 100%. The OSNA assay showed that 29 patients (58%) were negative for SLN and 21 patients (42%) were positive. In 19 of these 21 patients (90.48%), the SLN was the only positive lymph node. No axillary lymph nodes metastases were observed in patients with isolated tumour cells or with micrometastases. The OSNA assay is a highly sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic technique that can be used to analyse SLNs following NAC. The total tumoral load may assist with predicting additional non-SLN metastases.

  17. Intraoperative molecular analysis of sentinel lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with clinical node negative breast cancer: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Parada, David; Peña, Karla B.; Riu, F. Francesc; Aguilar, A. Esther; Cohan, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, safe method for determining the axillary lymph node status. However, insufficient evidence exists to support the recommendation of SLNB in patients who have had neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to downsize tumours and allow for breast conservation surgery. The present study aimed to use molecular approaches to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB in patients treated with NAC prior to SLN mapping and surgery. A total of 50 consecutive patients with operable invasive breast carcinomas who had received prior NAC were assessed using the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) method. The rate of SLN identification was 100%. The OSNA assay showed that 29 patients (58%) were negative for SLN and 21 patients (42%) were positive. In 19 of these 21 patients (90.48%), the SLN was the only positive lymph node. No axillary lymph nodes metastases were observed in patients with isolated tumour cells or with micrometastases. The OSNA assay is a highly sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic technique that can be used to analyse SLNs following NAC. The total tumoral load may assist with predicting additional non-SLN metastases. PMID:27882235

  18. Selective activator protein-1 inhibitor T-5224 prevents lymph node metastasis in an oral cancer model.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Daisuke; Yamashita, Taku; Araki, Koji; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yuya; Tanaka, Shingo; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2016-05-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of various genes associated with tumor invasion and migration. The purpose of our study was to assess the therapeutic effects of a novel selective AP-1 inhibitor, T-5224, in preventing lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in an orthotopic mouse model. We assessed the effect of T-5224 on HNSCC cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and MMP activity by carrying out an in vitro study using an invasion assay, scratch assay, WST-8 assay, and gelatin zymography. We also observed morphological changes in HNSCC cells by time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, cervical lymph node metastasis was assessed using an orthotopic tumor model of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-3-M3) injected in the tongue of a BALB/c nude mouse. T-5224 (150 mg/kg) or vehicle was given orally every day for 4 weeks. Animals were killed and assessed for lymph node metastasis by H&E staining of resected lymph nodes. T-5224 significantly inhibited the invasion, migration, and MMP activity of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner; there was no significant influence on cell proliferation. The antimetastatic effect of T-5224 was also confirmed in our animal study. The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in the model was 40.0% in the T-5224-treated group (n = 30) versus 74.1% in the vehicle-treated group (n = 27; P < 0.05). In conclusion, T-5224 inhibited the invasion and migration of HNSCC cells in vitro, and prevented lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer in an animal model. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. [SENTINEL LYMPH NODES DISSECTION IN GYNECOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Naaman, Yael; Goldenhersh, Limor; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has become an essential part of primary surgical treatment in a number of malignancies including breast cancer, melanoma and head-and-neck malignancies. Dye or radioactive substances are injected at the primary tumor site, followed by pre-operative and intra-operative mapping. During surgery only positive lymph nodes are being dissected instead of a complete dissection of the lymphatic basin. The advantages of sentinel lymph nodes dissection are reducing the side effects of extensive lymph nodes dissection, while maintaining high detection rates and sensitivity in identifying cases with lymphatic tumor spread. In the past years, the use of sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has also been incorporated in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In vulvar cancer, it has been shown that sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is correlated with the same survival and recurrence rates as full groin lymph nodes dissection, while substantially lowering complications and especially morbid lymphedema. Preliminary experience in cervical cancer and carcinoma of the endometrium also displays the feasibility and liability of this method. Yet, there are still several controversies regarding the optimal detection method, site of injection and its oncological safety. In this article we present a review of the current literature on this evolving field.

  20. Node Immunization with Time-Sensitive Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wen; Gong, Xiaoqing; Liu, Chen; Xu, Dan; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi; Tang, Shaojie; Wu, Fan; Chen, Guihai

    2016-01-01

    When we encounter a malicious rumor or an infectious disease outbreak, immunizing k nodes of the relevant network with limited resources is always treated as an extremely effective method. The key challenge is how we can insulate limited nodes to minimize the propagation of those contagious things. In previous works, the best k immunised nodes are selected by learning the initial status of nodes and their strategies even if there is no feedback in the propagation process, which eventually leads to ineffective performance of their solutions. In this paper, we design a novel vaccines placement strategy for protecting much more healthy nodes from being infected by infectious nodes. The main idea of our solution is that we are not only utilizing the status of changing nodes as auxiliary knowledge to adjust our scheme, but also comparing the performance of vaccines in various transmission slots. Thus, our solution has a better chance to get more benefit from these limited vaccines. Extensive experiments have been conducted on several real-world data sets and the results have shown that our algorithm has a better performance than previous works. PMID:27983680

  1. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  2. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G.; Forbes, John F.; Clark, Susan J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype. PMID:27671774

  3. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients.

    PubMed

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G; Forbes, John F; Clark, Susan J; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Scott, Rodney J

    2016-09-27

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype.

  4. Lymph node involvement in multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Engohan-Aloghe, Corinne; Anaf, Vincent; Noël, Jean Christophe

    2009-11-01

    Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion most frequently encountered in women of reproductive age. Although the pathologic characteristics have been documented, the lymph node status associated with this pathology, the etiopathogenesis and prognosis of which remain unclear, is unknown. We report here the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 5.5 cm multicystic mesothelioma affecting the pelvic peritoneum of the rectum. Involvement by multicystic mesothelioma was observed within two lymph nodes simultaneously resected with the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, lymph node involvement has not been described in previous studies.

  5. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  6. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  7. Completion Dissection or Observation for Sentinel-Node Metastasis in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Thompson, John F; Cochran, Alistair J; Andtbacka, Robert H; Mozzillo, Nicola; Zager, Jonathan S; Jahkola, Tiina; Bowles, Tawnya L; Testori, Alessandro; Beitsch, Peter D; Hoekstra, Harald J; Moncrieff, Marc; Ingvar, Christian; Wouters, Michel W J M; Sabel, Michael S; Levine, Edward A; Agnese, Doreen; Henderson, Michael; Dummer, Reinhard; Rossi, Carlo R; Neves, Rogerio I; Trocha, Steven D; Wright, Frances; Byrd, David R; Matter, Maurice; Hsueh, Eddy; MacKenzie-Ross, Alastair; Johnson, Douglas B; Terheyden, Patrick; Berger, Adam C; Huston, Tara L; Wayne, Jeffrey D; Smithers, B Mark; Neuman, Heather B; Schneebaum, Schlomo; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Desai, Darius C; Jacobs, Lisa; McMasters, Kelly M; Gesierich, Anja; Hersey, Peter; Bines, Steven D; Kane, John M; Barth, Richard J; McKinnon, Gregory; Farma, Jeffrey M; Schultz, Erwin; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Hoefer, Richard A; Lewis, James M; Scheri, Randall; Kelley, Mark C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Noyes, R Dirk; Hoon, Dave S B; Wang, He-Jing; Elashoff, David A; Elashoff, Robert M

    2017-06-08

    Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is associated with increased melanoma-specific survival (i.e., survival until death from melanoma) among patients with node-positive intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2 to 3.5 mm). The value of completion lymph-node dissection for patients with sentinel-node metastases is not clear. In an international trial, we randomly assigned patients with sentinel-node metastases detected by means of standard pathological assessment or a multimarker molecular assay to immediate completion lymph-node dissection (dissection group) or nodal observation with ultrasonography (observation group). The primary end point was melanoma-specific survival. Secondary end points included disease-free survival and the cumulative rate of nonsentinel-node metastasis. Immediate completion lymph-node dissection was not associated with increased melanoma-specific survival among 1934 patients with data that could be evaluated in an intention-to-treat analysis or among 1755 patients in the per-protocol analysis. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean (±SE) 3-year rate of melanoma-specific survival was similar in the dissection group and the observation group (86±1.3% and 86±1.2%, respectively; P=0.42 by the log-rank test) at a median follow-up of 43 months. The rate of disease-free survival was slightly higher in the dissection group than in the observation group (68±1.7% and 63±1.7%, respectively; P=0.05 by the log-rank test) at 3 years, based on an increased rate of disease control in the regional nodes at 3 years (92±1.0% vs. 77±1.5%; P<0.001 by the log-rank test); these results must be interpreted with caution. Nonsentinel-node metastases, identified in 11.5% of the patients in the dissection group, were a strong, independent prognostic factor for recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.78; P=0.005). Lymphedema was observed in 24.1% of the patients in the dissection group and in 6.3% of those in the observation group. Immediate completion lymph-node dissection increased

  8. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    PubMed

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  9. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Results To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines. Conclusions phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node. PMID:28410421

  10. phylo-node: A molecular phylogenetic toolkit using Node.js.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2017-01-01

    Node.js is an open-source and cross-platform environment that provides a JavaScript codebase for back-end server-side applications. JavaScript has been used to develop very fast and user-friendly front-end tools for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses. However, no such toolkits are available using Node.js to conduct comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. To address this problem, I have developed, phylo-node, which was developed using Node.js and provides a stable and scalable toolkit that allows the user to perform diverse molecular and phylogenetic tasks. phylo-node can execute the analysis and process the resulting outputs from a suite of software options that provides tools for read processing and genome alignment, sequence retrieval, multiple sequence alignment, primer design, evolutionary modeling, and phylogeny reconstruction. Furthermore, phylo-node enables the user to deploy server dependent applications, and also provides simple integration and interoperation with other Node modules and languages using Node inheritance patterns, and a customized piping module to support the production of diverse pipelines. phylo-node is open-source and freely available to all users without sign-up or login requirements. All source code and user guidelines are openly available at the GitHub repository: https://github.com/dohalloran/phylo-node.

  11. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  12. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  13. Robotic-assisted fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping using multimodal image guidance in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; Stroup, Sean P; Qin, Zhengtao; Hoh, Carl K; Hall, David J; Vera, David R; Kane, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    To investigate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) preoperative imaging and intraoperative detection of a fluorescent-labeled receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical in a prostate cancer animal model. Three male beagle dogs underwent an intraprostatic injection of fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept, radiolabeled with both gallium Ga-68 and technetium Tc-99m. One hour after injection, a pelvic PET/CT scan was performed for preoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. The definition of SLN was a standardized uptake value that exceeded 5% of the lymph node with the highest standardized uptake value. Thirty-six hours later, we performed robotic-assisted SLN dissection using a fluorescence-capable camera system. Fluorescent lymph nodes were clipped, the abdomen was opened, and the pelvic and retroperitoneal nodes were excised. All excised nodal packets were assayed by in vitro nuclear counting and reported as the percentage of injected dose. Preoperative PET/CT imaging identified a median of 3 SLNs per animal. All SLNs (100%) identified by the PET/CT were fluorescent during robotic-assisted lymph node dissection. Of all fluorescent nodes visualized by the camera system, 9 of 12 nodes (75%) satisfied the 5% rule defined by the PET/CT scan. The 2 lymph nodes that did not qualify accumulated <0.002% of the injected dose. Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept has optimal logistic properties to obtain preoperative PET/CT and subsequent real-time intraoperative confirmation during robotic-assisted SLN dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Swanson in Node 2 with ACE samples

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    ISS040-E-060673 (14 July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, works with test samples for the Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) at a work station in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  15. Surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Morton, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining SN also is a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with SN metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether SN biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

  16. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  17. Kelly in Node 1 with fruit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    ISS025-E-011216 (3 Nov. 2010) --- NASA astronauts Doug Wheelock (background), Expedition 25 commander; and Scott Kelly, flight engineer, are pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  18. Parmitano with fruit in Node 1 module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-28

    ISS036-E-025504 (28 July 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  19. Garan and Coleman in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-15

    ISS027-E-013096 (15 April 2011) --- NASA astronauts Ron Garan and Cady Coleman, both Expedition 27 flight engineers, work with extravehicular activity (EVA) grease guns in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  20. Garan and Coleman in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-15

    ISS027-E-013097 (15 April 2011) --- NASA astronauts Ron Garan and Cady Coleman, both Expedition 27 flight engineers, work with extravehicular activity (EVA) grease guns in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  1. Central metabolic nodes for diverse biochemical production.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Lauren T; Alper, Hal S

    2016-12-01

    Central carbon metabolism is conserved among all organisms for cellular function and energy generation. The connectivity of this metabolic map gives rises to key metabolite nodes. Five of these nodes in particular, pyruvate, citric acid, tyrosine and aspartate, acetyl-CoA, serve as critical starting points for the generation of a broad class of relevant chemical molecules with ranging applications from fuels, pharmaceuticals and polymer precursors. This review highlights recent progress in converting these metabolite nodes into valuable products. In particular, acetyl-CoA, the most well-connected node, serves as the building block for several classes of molecules including fatty acids and terpenes. Systematic metabolic engineering efforts focused on these metabolic building blocks has enabled the production of industrially-relevant, biobased compounds.

  2. Wiseman on COLBERT in Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-31

    ISS040-E-006091 (31 May 2014) --- NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, Expedition 40 flight engineer, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  3. EMU floating in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-15

    ISS041-E-011851 (15 Sept. 2014) --- An unoccupied Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, photographed by an Expedition 41 crew member, floats freely near the hatches inside the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  4. Wheelock floats into Node 1 / Unity module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-25

    S120-E-006435 (25 Oct. 2007) --- Astronaut Doug Wheelock, STS-120 mission specialist, floats into the Unity node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  5. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  6. Node 1 taken during Expedition 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    ISS026-E-005316 (26 Nov. 2010) --- A fish-eye lens attached to an electronic still camera was used by an Expedition 26 crew member to capture this image of the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  7. Node 1 taken during Expedition 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    ISS026-E-005318 (26 Nov. 2010) --- A fish-eye lens attached to an electronic still camera was used by an Expedition 26 crew member to capture this image of the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  8. Food Stowage in Node 2 Harmony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-04

    ISS018-E-044614 (4 April 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 18/19 flight engineer, is pictured near food and drink containers floating freely in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  9. Wakata with Food packets in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-03

    ISS020-E-006349 (3 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, holds chopsticks near two food containers floating freely in Unity node of the International Space Station.

  10. Parmitano with food packets in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-019775 (24 June 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, is pictured near food packages floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  11. Parmitano with food packets in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-24

    ISS036-E-019772 (24 June 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, is pictured near food packages floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  12. Nyberg with ARED in Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-03

    ISS036-E-005939 (3 June 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, gets a workout on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  13. Wakata with water bubble in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-16

    ISS020-E-011074 (16 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, attempts to catch a water bubble with his mouth in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  17. Synthesis of Embedded Software for Sensor Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the development of the fitness evaluator (i.e., the mapping of candidate solutions into values of the relevant cost function), and of the move... the application input data, and each property stored in a particle’s coordinate. An example of mapping the formatted input to the node representation...sensor nodes for a wireless sensor network application, and appended to the Figure 5: Mapping of

  18. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    DOEpatents

    Budnik, Thomas A [Rochester, MN; Knudson, Brant L [Rochester, MN; Megerian, Mark G [Rochester, MN; Miller, Samuel J [Rochester, MN; Stockdell, William M [Byron, MN

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  19. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  20. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basso, Stefano M M; Chiara, Giordano B; Lumachi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The approach to the axilla is an evolving paradigm, and recognition of the complexity of breast cancer (BC) biology is changing treatment options. The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) technique is based on the excision and histological examination of the axillary lymph nodes(s), which is assumed to be the first one draining from the primary tumor. SLNB can accurately stage the axilla, and several trials have shown that there are no significant differences in local recurrence and overall survival between patients treated with or without axillary node dissection (ALND) after a negative SLNB. Surgical morbidity was significantly reduced in terms of rates of lymphedema and neuropathy, with reduced hospital stay and better quality of life after the SLNB procedure. ALND can safely be omitted in patients with ≥2 positive nodes who received conservative surgery and radiotherapy, while ALND is still recommended in clinically N1 BCs, in case of ≥3 positive nodes, and when the number of positive nodes would be crucial for the choice of chemotherapy. Micrometastatic disease can be safely managed with SLNB alone, and additional identification of micrometastases with immunohistochemistry does not affect disease-free survival or overall survival. An appropriate management of the axilla is crucial for the outcome of patients with early BC, and SLNB introduction into the clinical practice dramatically changed the surgical treatment, reducing morbidity without decreasing survival. A tailored approach should be suggested in each patient with BC, considering the biology of the tumor rather than nodal involvement.

  1. Simple mastectomy and axillary node sampling (pectoral node biopsy) in the management of primary breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, A P; Stewart, H J; Roberts, M M; Steele, R J

    1982-01-01

    Axillary node sampling was introduced as a means of defining those patients whose primary breast cancer was treated by simple mastectomy in whom postoperative radiotherapy could be avoided safely. The authors have initiated controlled randomized trials in Cardiff and Edinburgh which have indicated that, provided that nodes are identified for histologic examination, simple mastectomy, node sampling, and selective radiotherapy give equal survival rates to routine radical treatment, whether this is by surgery or radiotherapy. Provided sampling of nodes is adequate and histologically proven, locoregional control also is satisfactory. A current randomized trial comparing this policy with Patey mastectomy has allowed comparative studies of axillary node status. These and follow-up data indicate that for a valid assessment, three to four nodes should be identified by the surgeon for histologic examination, the false negative rate being less than 10%. Images Fig. 3A and B. PMID:7051998

  2. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  3. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  4. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (<45 years), advanced T stage, and higher depth of tumor invasion. Isolated perifacial node metastasis is high in oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  6. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-12-12

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient.

  7. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  8. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Almir José; Dias, Rogério; Laurienzo, Carla Elaine; Gonçalves, Mônica Carboni Pereira; Dias, Daniel Spadoto; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using lymphos-cintigraphy (LS). Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images). For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. Results There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01) and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01) in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004), while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan images of the SLNB group (P<0.01). The deltopectoral lymph node was only identified in the ALND group, but with no significant difference. Conclusion The lymphatic flow from the axilla was redirected to alternative extra-axillary routes in the ALND group. PMID:28331338

  9. TRAC-PF1 LOCA calculations using fine-node and coarse-node input models

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, D.; Buxton, L.D.; Wong, C.N.C.

    1985-05-01

    TRAC-PF1 calculations of a 200% cold-leg break LOCA have been completed for a UHI (upper head injection accumulator) plant using both fine-node (with 776 mesh cells) and coarse-node (with 320 mesh cells) input models. This study was performed to determine the effect of noding on predicted results and on computer running time. It was found that the overall sequence of events and the important trends of the transient were predicted to be nearly the same with both the fine-node and coarse-node models. There were differences in the time-dependent behavior of the cold-leg accumulator injection, and the predicted PCT for the coarse-node calculation was about 75 K less than that for the fine-node calculation. The higher PCT of the fine-node calculation is attributed primarily to three-dimensional flow effects in the core. The complete (steady state plus transient) coarse-node calculation required 13.5 hours of CYBER 76 computer time compared to 68.3 hours for the fine node calculation, yielding an overall factor of five decrease in running time. Thus, we conclude that for any large break LOCA analyses in which only the overall trends are of concern, the loss of accuracy resulting from use of such a coarse-node model will normally be inconsequential compared to the savings in resources that are realized. However, if the objective of the analyses is the investigation of the effects of multi-dimensional flows on clad temperatures, then a detailed model is required.

  10. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Moussa, Malaak N.; Paolini, Brielle M.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10–20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the “correct” method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves

  11. Defining nodes in complex brain networks.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Moussa, Malaak N; Paolini, Brielle M; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2013-11-22

    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10-20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the "correct" method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves extensive

  12. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  14. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  15. Detecting controlling nodes of boolean regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Schober, Steffen; Kracht, David; Heckel, Reinhard; Bossert, Martin

    2011-10-11

    Boolean models of regulatory networks are assumed to be tolerant to perturbations. That qualitatively implies that each function can only depend on a few nodes. Biologically motivated constraints further show that functions found in Boolean regulatory networks belong to certain classes of functions, for example, the unate functions. It turns out that these classes have specific properties in the Fourier domain. That motivates us to study the problem of detecting controlling nodes in classes of Boolean networks using spectral techniques. We consider networks with unbalanced functions and functions of an average sensitivity less than 23k, where k is the number of controlling variables for a function. Further, we consider the class of 1-low networks which include unate networks, linear threshold networks, and networks with nested canalyzing functions. We show that the application of spectral learning algorithms leads to both better time and sample complexity for the detection of controlling nodes compared with algorithms based on exhaustive search. For a particular algorithm, we state analytical upper bounds on the number of samples needed to find the controlling nodes of the Boolean functions. Further, improved algorithms for detecting controlling nodes in large-scale unate networks are given and numerically studied.

  16. Weyl Nodes in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Singular points in the momentum space (Dirac nodes) have been under intensive investigation recently. Among various Dirac systems, materials having three-dimensional Dirac nodes without spin degeneracy (Weyl nodes) are of particular interest because of their topological nature. We study trigonal Te and Se as systems having both strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and broken inversion symmetry, which is necessary for the Weyl node. We calculate the electronic structure by using QMAS based on relativistic density functional theory, and add the self-energy correction in the GW approximation. Te and Se are insulating at ambient pressure. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture. The energy gap decreases with increasing pressure. In the metallic phase, the spin rotates twice around H on the kz = +/- π/c plane, which can be explained by the motion of the Weyl nodes under pressure. We also find that trigonal Te shows the Weyl semimetal phase with time-reversal symmetry under pressure.

  17. Labeling Nodes Using Three Degrees of Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sara; Goldenberg, Anna; Morris, Quaid

    2012-01-01

    The properties (or labels) of nodes in networks can often be predicted based on their proximity and their connections to other labeled nodes. So-called “label propagation algorithms” predict the labels of unlabeled nodes by propagating information about local label density iteratively through the network. These algorithms are fast, simple and scale to large networks but nonetheless regularly perform better than slower and much more complex algorithms on benchmark problems. We show here, however, that these algorithms have an intrinsic limitation that prevents them from adapting to some common patterns of network node labeling; we introduce a new algorithm, 3Prop, that retains all their advantages but is much more adaptive. As we show, 3Prop performs very well on node labeling problems ill-suited to label propagation, including predicting gene function in protein and genetic interaction networks and gender in friendship networks, and also performs slightly better on problems already well-suited to label propagation such as labeling blogs and patents based on their citation networks. 3Prop gains its adaptability by assigning separate weights to label information from different steps of the propagation. Surprisingly, we found that for many networks, the third iteration of label propagation receives a negative weight. Availability The code is available from the authors by request. PMID:23284828

  18. Sentinel node biopsy: ALARA and other considerations.

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, I; Finlayson, C

    2004-02-01

    For a majority of solid tumors, the most powerful and predictive prognostic factor is the status of the regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node sampling continues to gain in popularity as patients and their physicians seek to avoid the potential morbidity associated with standard axillary node dissection. Lymphoscintigraphy, one of the recently explored techniques of lymphatic mapping, involves pre-operative intradermal or subcutaneous administration of a radiopharmaceutical. While this approach is gaining widely spread acceptance, there is still a lack of consensus on which radiopharmaceutical agent has the most ideal properties. By far, the most commonly used agents are 99mTc labeled colloids, but other agents are also used clinically and are under investigation or development worldwide. A number of other clinical, technical, dosimetric, and logistical considerations regarding this procedure remain. They include questions such as who should be performing the procedure, what precautions to take during surgery, how to better isolate "hot" nodes and thus improve the efficacy of determining metastases to the draining lymph node, what precautions to take when handling surgical specimens, etc. There is clearly a need to review as low as reasonably achievable considerations and other issues that arise as this technique evolves and finds its role in the evaluation of various types of cancers. This paper, based on our own experiences and those of others, fills this gap.

  19. Node-surface and node-line fermions from nonsymmorphic lattice symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qi-Feng; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Rui; Wang, Zhi; Weng, Hongming

    2016-02-01

    We propose a kind of topological quantum state of semimetals in the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) crystal family BaMX 3 (M =V , Nb, or Ta; X =S or Se) by using symmetry analysis and first-principles calculation. We find that in BaVS3 the valence and conduction bands are degenerate in the kz=π /c plane (c is the lattice constant along the z ̂ axis) of the Brillouin zone (BZ). These nodal points form a node surface, and they are protected by a nonsymmorphic crystal symmetry consisting of a twofold rotation about the z ̂ axis and a half-translation along the same z ̂ axis. The band degeneracy in the node surface is lifted in BaTaS3 by including strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of Ta. The node surface is reduced into 1D node lines along the high-symmetry paths kx=0 and kx=±√{3 }ky on the kz=π /c plane. These node lines are robust against SOC and guaranteed by the symmetries of the P 63/m m c space group. These node-line states are entirely different from previous proposals which are based on the accidental band touchings. We also propose a useful material design for realizing topological node-surface and node-line semimetals.

  20. KIAA1377 is associated with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Tao; Yang, Chen-Chen; Liu, Qing; Liu, Tao; Lu, Mang; Dai, Fang; Gao, Xiang-Peng; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Lu, Xiao-Mei

    2016-12-01

    KIAA1377, of which there are few studies regarding cell biology and neurological diseases, has been found to be significantly amplified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with lymph node metastasis compared with ESCC without lymph node metastasis. This suggests that KIAA1377 may play a role in the lymph node metastasis of ESCC. There has, to the best of our knowledge, been no study performed to investigate the role of KIAA1377 in ESCC. In the present study, the expression of KIAA1377 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its expression was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, using commercially obtained tissue arrays consisting of 86 cases of ESCC and 79 paired controls. KIAA1377 was knocked down ex vivo using transient transfection with specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors into ESCC TE-1 and EC9706 cell lines whose endogenous KIAA1377 level was highest. The variation of proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, wound healing and Transwell assay, respectively. It was found in vivo that KIAA1377 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and differentiation, and ex vivo that knockdown of KIAA1377 cannot significantly affect proliferation and mobility in the ESCC cell line TE-1. Overall, this is the first study suggesting that KIAA1377 may play a role in the lymph node micrometastasis of ESCC.

  1. KIAA1377 is associated with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shu-Tao; Yang, Chen-Chen; Liu, Qing; Liu, Tao; Lu, Mang; Dai, Fang; Gao, Xiang-Peng; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Lu, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    KIAA1377, of which there are few studies regarding cell biology and neurological diseases, has been found to be significantly amplified in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with lymph node metastasis compared with ESCC without lymph node metastasis. This suggests that KIAA1377 may play a role in the lymph node metastasis of ESCC. There has, to the best of our knowledge, been no study performed to investigate the role of KIAA1377 in ESCC. In the present study, the expression of KIAA1377 was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its expression was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, using commercially obtained tissue arrays consisting of 86 cases of ESCC and 79 paired controls. KIAA1377 was knocked down ex vivo using transient transfection with specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors into ESCC TE-1 and EC9706 cell lines whose endogenous KIAA1377 level was highest. The variation of proliferation, migration and invasion were evaluated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, wound healing and Transwell assay, respectively. It was found in vivo that KIAA1377 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and differentiation, and ex vivo that knockdown of KIAA1377 cannot significantly affect proliferation and mobility in the ESCC cell line TE-1. Overall, this is the first study suggesting that KIAA1377 may play a role in the lymph node micrometastasis of ESCC. PMID:28144289

  2. Effects of prometryne on apoptosis and necrosis in thymus, lymph node and spleen in mice.

    PubMed

    Dikić, Domagoj; Zidovec-Lepej, Snježana; Remenar, Anica; Bendelja, Krešo; Benković, Vesna; Horvat-Knežević, Anica; Brozović, Gordana; Oršolić, Nada

    2009-03-01

    Prometryne is a methylthio-s-triazine herbicide. Significant traces are documented in environment, mainly waters, soil and plants used for nutrition. The aim of this study was to estimate prometryne immunotoxic properties through induction of apoptotic and/or necrotic changes in thymocytes, splenocytes and lymph node cells after repeated subchronical exposure. Three different doses of prometryne (185, 375, 555mgkg(-1)) were applied per os every 48h, over 28 days. Flow cytometry assay (annexinV-FITC and PI) was conducted to record apoptotic and necrotic damage. In the spleen significant changes in the percentage of apoptotic cells were not detected between treated and control groups respectively. In thymus and lymph node, within the lowest dose group (185mgkg(-)1), an increase in percentage of early apoptosis without any significant increase in necrosis was detected. Medium (375mgkg(-1)) as well as high dose triggered increase in late apoptosis in lymph node while in thymus; late apoptosis was increased only in animals exposed to the highest dose (555mgkg(-1)). The highest applied dose, in thymus and lymph node respectively, caused a general decrease in percentage of vital cells in favour of marked increase of percentages of all types of dying cells (apoptotic, late apoptotic/early necrotic and necrotic). Prometryne caused disbalance in major organs of immune system, markedly lymph nodes and thymus, by induction of early apoptotic changes in dose/time specific manner.

  3. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  4. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  5. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  6. Vital nodes identification in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Chen, Duanbing; Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Real networks exhibit heterogeneous nature with nodes playing far different roles in structure and function. To identify vital nodes is thus very significant, allowing us to control the outbreak of epidemics, to conduct advertisements for e-commercial products, to predict popular scientific publications, and so on. The vital nodes identification attracts increasing attentions from both computer science and physical societies, with algorithms ranging from simply counting the immediate neighbors to complicated machine learning and message passing approaches. In this review, we clarify the concepts and metrics, classify the problems and methods, as well as review the important progresses and describe the state of the art. Furthermore, we provide extensive empirical analyses to compare well-known methods on disparate real networks, and highlight the future directions. In spite of the emphasis on physics-rooted approaches, the unification of the language and comparison with cross-domain methods would trigger interdisciplinary solutions in the near future.

  7. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting. PMID:27873975

  8. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  9. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  10. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  11. Factor IX assay

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas factor assay; Serum factor IX; Hemophilic factor B; Plasma thromboplastin component; PTC ... chap 137. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Factor IX (Christmas factor, hemophilic factor B, plasma thromboplastin component, PTC) - ...

  12. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  13. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  14. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  15. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    DOE PAGES

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; ...

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this andmore » other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.« less

  16. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Bonnie, Amanda Marie; Montoya, Andrew J.; Michalak, Sarah E.

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this and other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.

  17. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Bonnie, Amanda Marie; Montoya, Andrew J.; Michalak, Sarah E.

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this and other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.

  18. Multiple log potash assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. G.

    1993-10-01

    A five-mineral multiple-log potash assay technique has been successfully applied to evaluate potash-rich intervals in evaporite sequences. The technique is able to distinguish economic potash minerals from non-economic potash minerals and from other non-potash radioactive minerals. It can be applied on location, using a programmable calculator or microcomputer, providing near real-time logs of potash mineral concentrations. Log assay values show good agreement with core wet chemistry analyses.

  19. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  20. Serum selenium assay following serum ferritin assay

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.; Morris, J.S.; Hann, H.L.; Pulsipher, B.; Stahlhut, M.W.

    1986-08-01

    Stored serum samples can be an important research resource into the etiology of cancer. These sera cannot be replaced and should therefore be used to best advantage. In previous epidemiologic studies, only single serum constituents have been assayed in individual serum samples. For example, serum ferritin has been examined in samples stored for as long as 10 years at -20C for a possible relation with general mortality (1) and cancer death (2). Ferritin is the tissue iron-storage protein and is therefore subject to denaturation. Serum selenium has also been examined in relation to cancer risk in a prospective manner by using stored frozen serum samples (3, 4). The interactions of a variety of serum factors in relation to cancer risk would be a desirable research goal, except that the amounts of serum typically available in frozen serum banks are less than 1 ml. It was the purpose of this investigation to determine if a radioimmunoassay for ferritin affected a subsequent neutron activation assay for selenium on the same 0.1 ml serum sample.

  1. Microfilaria in lymph node mimicking Kimura disease

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmy, PS; Pothen, Lillykutty; Letha, V; Sheeja, S

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical countries, parasitic infections are very rampant causing peripheral blood and or tissue eosinophilia. Here, a case of microfilaria in lymph node that produced intense eosinophil infiltrate is being reported. The dense eosinophil collection in the lymph node raised a possibility of Kimura's disease because no worms were seen in the initial sectioning of the tissue. Extensive sampling and diligent search revealed sections of microfilaria embedded in the eosinophil abscess along with foreign body giant cell reaction to its sheath material, leading to the correct diagnosis of this case. PMID:23508372

  2. Hydrodynamic Phase Locking in Mouse Node Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Rotational movement of mouse node cilia generates leftward fluid flow in the node cavity, playing an important role in left-right determination in the embryo. Although rotation of numerous cilia was believed necessary to trigger the determination, recent reports indicate the action of two cilia to be sufficient. We examine cooperative cilia movement via hydrodynamic interaction. Results show cilia to be cooperative, having phases locked in a certain relation; a system with a pair of nonidentical cilia can achieve phase-locked states more easily than one with a pair of identical cilia.

  3. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described.

  4. Reliability of sentinel node procedure for lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients at high risk for lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Laura; Joniau, Steven; Haustermans, Karin; Deroose, Christophe M; Isebaert, Sofie; Oyen, Raymond; Mottaghy, Felix M; Ameye, Filip; Berkers, Joost; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Lerut, Evelyne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the reliability of a sentinel node (SN) procedure for nodal staging in prostate cancer (PCa) patients at high risk for lymph node (LN) involvement. Seventy-four patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma, who were clinically node-negative and had a risk of LN involvement of ≥ 10% (Partin tables), were prospectively enrolled. Upon intraprostatic 99mTc-nanocolloid injection, they underwent planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging. Surgical removal of the SN, located by means of a gamma probe, was completed with a superextended LN dissection (seLND) as a reference and followed by radical prostatectomy. In total, 470 SN (median 6, IQR 3-9) were scintigraphically detected of which 371 (median 4, IQR 2-6) were located by gamma probe and selectively removed during surgery (79%). Histopathology confirmed LN metastases in 37 patients (50%) having 106 affected LN in total (median number per patient 2, IQR 1-4). Twenty-eight patients were node positive (N+) based on the analysis of the resected SN. However, the seLND that was performed as a reference revealed nine additional N+ patients resulting in a sensitivity of 76% (28/37). In total, 15 of 37 patients (41%) had metastases in SN only and could have been spared seLND to remove all affected nodes. We found a relatively low sensitivity when addressing the SN procedure for nodal staging in PCa patients at high risk for LN involvement. Importantly, only less than half of the N+ patients could have been spared a seLND to remove all affected lymphoid tissue.

  5. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  6. Tani trims his hair in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-10

    S122-E-007643 (10 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, trims his hair in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Atlantis is docked with the station. Tani used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  7. Tani trims his hair in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-10

    S122-E-007645 (10 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, trims his hair in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Atlantis is docked with the station. Tani used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  8. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  9. Krikalev films Usachev in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-17

    STS102-340-014 (8-21 March 2001) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition One flight engineer (left), and cosmonaut Yury V. Usachev, Expedition Two commander, are photographed in the Unity node holding cameras. Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition Two commander, joins them as he floats through the tunnel from the Russian-built Zarya control module. All three are associated with Rosaviakosmos.

  10. Expedition 34 crewmembers in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-24

    ISS034-E-010504 (24 Dec. 2012) --- Expedition 34 crew members assemble in the Unity node of the International Space Station for a brief celebration of the Christmas holiday. Pictured are NASA astronaut Kevin Ford (partially obscured at left), commander; Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield (with guitar at right), Russian cosmonauts Roman Romanenko (with camera) and Evgeny Tarelkin, all flight engineers.

  11. Kotov and Dyson in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041804 (16 May 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, Expedition 23 commander; and NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, flight engineer, are pictured near fresh fruit and vegetables floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  12. Mastracchio holds fruit in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-043027 (6 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, prepares to eat a fresh orange in the Unity node of the International Space Station. The fruit was brought to the station on the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked Feb. 5, 2014.

  13. Mastracchio holds fruit in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-043015 (6 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, prepares to eat a fresh orange in the Unity node of the International Space Station. The fruit was brought to the station on the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked Feb. 5, 2014.

  14. Mastracchio watches fruit in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-043011 (6 Feb. 2014) --- NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio, Expedition 38 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh fruit floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station. The fruit was brought to the station on the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked Feb. 5, 2014.

  15. Expedition 20 crew gathers in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-10

    ISS020-E-018162 (10 July 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses a communication system in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Also pictured are cosmonauts Gennady Padalka (left foreground), commander, and Roman Romanenko, flight engineer.

  16. Expedition 20 crew gathers in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-10

    ISS020-E-018161 (10 July 2009) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Robert Thirsk, Expedition 20 flight engineer, uses a communication system in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. Also pictured are cosmonauts Gennady Padalka, commander, and Roman Romanenko (back to camera), flight engineer.

  17. Sturckow in the Node 1/Unity module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-11

    STS088-359-003 (4-15 Dec. 1998) --- Astronaut Frederick W. ?Rick? Sturckow, pilot, holds up a panel while putting final touches on the interior of Node 1 or Unity. Sturckow, who had been working with a battery-powered tool, was joined by other crew members in preparing the module for its International Space Station (ISS) duty.

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Sportoletti Baduel, Eugenio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Dika, Emi; Quaglino, Pietro; Picciotto, Franco; Macripò, Giuseppe; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-08-01

    The management of melanoma is constantly evolving. New therapies and surgical advances have changed the landscape over the last years. Since being introduced by Dr Donald Morton, the role of sentinel lymph node has been debated. In many melanoma centers, sentinel node biopsy is not a standard of care for melanoma above 1 mm in thickness. The results of the MSLT-II Trial are not available for a while and in the meantime, this procedure is offered as a prognostic indicator as it has been shown to be very useful for assessing risk of relapse. The biology of lymph node spread in melanoma is a complex field and there are many factors which influence it such as age, melanoma body site, thickness but other factors such as regression, ulceration and gender need further evaluation. In this review, we address the clinical value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and how its indication has changed over the years especially recently with the setup of many adjuvant trials which are offered to stage 3 melanomas.

  19. Stott with T2 in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-09

    ISS020-E-050838 (9 Oct. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Nicole Stott, Expedition 20/21 flight engineer, equipped with a bungee harness, exercises on the Combined Operational Load Bearing External Resistance Treadmill (COLBERT) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  20. Nespoli and Melroy in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-31

    ISS016-E-008106 (31 Oct. 2007) --- Astronauts Pam Melroy, STS-120 commander, and European Space Agency's (ESA) Paolo Nespoli, mission specialist, are pictured in the Harmony node of the International Space Station during a congratulatory phone call from the president of Italy. A module of Harmony floats freely in the foreground.

  1. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  2. Acaba and Williams in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-07

    ISS032-E-016863 (7 Aug. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Joe Acaba, Expedition 32 flight engineer, works on the Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) Chamber Insert Assembly (CIA) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. NASA astronaut Sunita Williams, flight engineer, works with an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit in the background.

  3. Intraoperative Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    camera and probe. Sentinel Node 2004, submitted. CONCLUSION User experience suggests that a field of view (FOV) less than 5" x 5" would not be useful in...SLN localization especially for breast cancer cases. Preliminary analysis of acquired data and user experience suggest a 5" x 5" FOV has some

  4. Distribution of Node Characteristics in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Barabasi, A.-L.

    2008-03-01

    Our enhanced ability to map the structure of various complex networks is accompanied by the capability to independently identify the functional characteristics of each node, leading to the observation that nodes with similar characteristics show tendencies to link to each other. Examples can be easily found in biological, technological, and social networks. Here we propose a tool to quantify the interplay between node properties and the structure of the underlying network. We show that when nodes in a network belong to two distinct classes, two independent parameters are needed. We find that the network structure limits the values of these parameters, requiring a phase diagram to uniquely characterize the configurations available to the system. The phase diagram shows independence from the network size, a finding that allows us to estimate its shape for large networks from their samples. We study biological and socioeconomic systems, finding that the proposed parameters have a strong discriminating power. ootnotetextJ. Park and A.-L. Barab'asi, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104, pp. 17916--17920 (2007)

  5. Swanson, Wiseman and Gerst in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-29

    ISS040-E-006033 (29 May 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson (center), Expedition 40 commander; along with European Space Agency astronaut Alexander Gerst (left) and NASA astronaut Reid Wiseman, both flight engineers, give a “thumbs up” signal in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  6. Kuipers and Kononenko in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-27

    ISS030-E-033361 (27 Dec. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers (left) and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko, both Expedition 30 flight engineers, are pictured near food containers floating freely at the galley in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  7. Expedition 40 patch added to Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    ISS040-E-139596 (9 Sept. 2014) --- In the Unity node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson (left), Expedition 40 commander, adds the Expedition 40 patch to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have worked on the International Space Station. Russian cosmonauts Alexander Skvortsov (center) and Oleg Artemyev, both flight engineers, look on.

  8. Poindexter with Mission Patch in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-16

    ISS023-E-024158 (16 April 2010) --- NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander, poses for a photo after adding his crew's patch to the growing collection, in the Unity node, of insignias representing crews who have worked on the International Space Station.

  9. Expedition 40 patch added to Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-09

    ISS040-E-139592 (9 Sept. 2014) --- In the Unity node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson (left), Expedition 40 commander, adds the Expedition 40 patch to the growing collection of insignias representing crews who have worked on the International Space Station. Russian cosmonauts Alexander Skvortsov (center) and Oleg Artemyev, both flight engineers, look on.

  10. Research sheds light on lymph node mystery.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Researchers explain why so much HIV is found in the lymph nodes. The follicular dendritic cells act like flypaper to HIV and other pathogens. Once attracted, HIV is able to ambush critical immune cells, even in the presence of a vast excess of neutralizing antibodies. In the absence of follicular dendritic cells, similar quantities of neutralizing antibodies block HIV infectivity.

  11. Williams in Node 1 / Unity module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-01

    ISS014-E-15830 (4 March 2007) --- Astronaut Sunita L. Williams, Expedition 14 flight engineer, works with a portion of the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) during in-flight maintenance (IFM) in the Unity node of the International Space Station.

  12. Poindexter on ARED in Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-10

    S131-E-008530 (10 April 2010) --- NASA astronaut Alan Poindexter, STS-131 commander, exercises using the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Discovery remains docked with the station.

  13. Wakata with water bubble in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-16

    ISS020-E-011068 (16 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, squeezes a water bubble out of his beverage container, showing his image refracted, in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  14. Wakata with water bubble in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-16

    ISS020-E-011082 (16 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, watches a water bubble float freely between him and the camera, showing his image refracted, in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  15. Wakata with water bubble in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-16

    ISS020-E-011077 (16 June 2009) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 20 flight engineer, squeezes a water bubble out of his beverage container, showing his image refracted, in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  16. Skvortsov with Tomatoes in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041832 (16 May 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov, Expedition 23 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh tomatoes floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  17. Kornienko with Tomatoes in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041829 (16 May 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, Expedition 23 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh tomatoes floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  18. Noguchi with Tomatoes in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041838 (16 May 2010) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer, is pictured near fresh tomatoes floating freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.

  19. Lithography strategy for 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodovsky, Yan A.; Schenker, Richard E.; Allen, Gary A.; Tejnil, Edita; Hwang, David H.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Singh, Vivek K.; Gleason, Robert E.; Brandenburg, Joseph E.; Bigwood, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    Intel will start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the 65nm node in 2005. Microprocessor density and performance trends will continue to follow Moore's law and cost-effective patterning solutions capable of supporting it have to be found, demonstrated and developed during 2002-2004. Given the uncertainty regarding the readiness and respective capabilities of 157nm and 193nm lithography to support 65nm technology requirements, Intel is developing both lithographic options and corresponding infrastructure with the intent to use both options in manufacturing. Development and use of dual lithographic options for a given technology node in manufacturing is not a new paradigm for Intel: whenever introduction of a new exposure wavelength presented excessive risk to the manufacturing schedule, Intel developed parallel patterning approaches in time for the manufacturing ramp. Both I-line and 248nm patterning solutions were developed and successfully used in manufacturing of the 350nm node at Intel. Similarly, 248nm and 193nm patterning solutions were fully developed for 130nm node high volume manufacturing.

  20. Zamka in Node 2 with bracing straps

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-01

    ISS016-E-008007 (1 Nov. 2007) --- Astronaut George Zamka, STS-120 pilot, holds a "cufflink" apparatus in the Harmony node of the International Space Station, which will be attached to the damaged solar arrays and take the structural load off of the broken hinge during the next spacewalk while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  1. IDIS Small Bodies and Dust Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Giacomini, L.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroPlaNet information service provides access to lists of researchers, laboratories and data archives relevant to many aspects of planetary and space physics. Information can be accessed through EuroPlaNet website or, for advanced searches, via web-services available at the different thematic nodes. The goal of IDIS is to provide easy-to-use access to resources like people, laboratories, modeling activities and data archives related to planetary sciences. The development of IDIS is an international effort started under the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme and which will expand its capabilities during the 7th Framework Programme, as part of the Capacities Specific Programme/Research Infrastructures. IDIS is complemented by a set of other EuroPlaNet web-services maintained under the responsibility of separate institutions. Each activity maintains its own web-portal with cross-links pointing to the other elements of EuroPlaNet. General access is provided via the EuroPlaNet Homepage. IDIS is not a repository of original data but rather supports the access to various data sources. The final goal of IDIS is to provide Virtual Observatory tools for the access to data from laboratory measurements and ground- and spaced-based observations to modeling results, allowing the combination of as divergent data sources as feasible. IDIS is built around four scientific nodes located in different European countries. Each node deals with a subset of the disciplines related to planetary sciences and, working in cooperation with international experts in these fields, provides a wealth of information to the international planetary science community. The EuroPlaNet IDIS thematic node "Small Bodies and Dust Node" is hosted by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario and is established in close cooperation with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. Both these institutes are part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). The IDIS Small Bodies and Dust

  2. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  3. Homogeneous, bioluminescent proteasome assays.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Martha A; Moravec, Richard A; Riss, Terry L; Bulleit, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Protein degradation is mediated predominantly through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The importance of the proteasome in regulating degradation of proteins involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and angiogenesis led to the recognition of the proteasome as a therapeutic target for cancer. The proteasome is also essential for degrading misfolded and aberrant proteins, and impaired proteasome function has been implicated in neurodegerative and cardiovascular diseases. Robust, sensitive assays are essential for monitoring proteasome activity and for developing inhibitors of the proteasome. Peptide-conjugated fluorophores are widely used as substrates for monitoring proteasome activity, but fluorogenic substrates can exhibit significant background and can be problematic for screening because of cellular autofluorescence or interference from fluorescent library compounds. Furthermore, fluorescent proteasome assays require column-purified 20S or 26S proteasome (typically obtained from erythrocytes), or proteasome extracts from whole cells, as their samples. To provide assays more amenable to high-throughput screening, we developed a homogeneous, bioluminescent method that combines peptide-conjugated aminoluciferin substrates and a stabilized luciferase. Using substrates for the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activities in combination with a selective membrane permeabilization step, we developed single-step, cell-based assays to measure each of the proteasome catalytic activities. The homogeneous method eliminates the need to prepare individual cell extracts as samples and has adequate sensitivity for 96- and 384-well plates. The simple "add and read" format enables sensitive and rapid proteasome assays ideal for inhibitor screening.

  4. SIGMA RECEPTOR BINDING ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    CHU, UYEN B.; RUOHO, ARNOLD E.

    2016-01-01

    Sigma receptors belong to a class of small molecule-regulated, primarily endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated receptors, of which there are two subtypes: the Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) and the Sigma-2 receptor (S2R). Both S1R and S2R bind to a number of drugs including antipsychotic, haloperidol, and the opioid analgesic, (+)-pentazocine. Sigma receptors are implicated in multiple disease pathologies associated with the nervous system including diseases affecting motor control such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Alzeimher's disease. This unit describes methods for the pharmacological characterization of S1R and S2R using radioligand-binding assays. In the first section, radioligand saturation binding assay to determine receptor densities and competitive inhibition assays to characterize affinities of novel compounds are presented for S1R using the selective S1R ligand, [3H]-(+)-pentazocine. The second section describes radioligand saturation binding assay and competitive inhibition assays for the S2R using a non-selective S1R and S2R ligand, [3H]-1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine ([3H]-DTG). PMID:26646191

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hideyuki; Hyun, Hoon; Vargas, Christina; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Gravier, Julien; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) hypothesis has been applied to many tissues and organs, liver has remained unstudied. At present, it is unclear whether hepatic SLNs even exist. If so, they could alter management in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other hepatic malignancies by minimizing the extent of surgery while still providing precise nodal staging. We investigated whether invisible yet tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light can provide simultaneous identification of both the sentinel lymph node (SLN) and all other regional lymph nodes (RLN) in the liver. Method In twenty five Yorkshire pigs, we determined whether SLNs exist in liver, and compared the effectiveness of two clinically available NIR fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG), and two novel NIR fluorophores previously described by our group, ESNF14 and ZW800-3C, for SLN and RLN mapping. Results ESNF14 showed the highest signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and longest retention time in SLNs, without leakage to second-tier lymph nodes. ICG had apparent leakage to second-tier nodes, while ZW800-3C suffered from poor migration after intraparenchymal injection. However, when injected intravenously, ZW800-3C was able to highlight all RLNs in liver over a 4–6 h period. Simultaneous dual channel imaging of SLN (ESNF14) and RLN (ZW800-3C) permitted unambiguous identification and image-guided resection of SLNs and RLNs in liver. Conclusion The NIR imaging technology enables real-time intraoperative identification of SLNs and RLNs in the liver of swine. If these results are confirmed in patients, new strategies for the surgical management of intrahepatic malignancies should be possible. PMID:25968620

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Naohito; Morita, Reiji; Yamada, Mizuki; Echigo, Takeshi; Hirano, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Yokoyama, Kunihiko

    2004-10-01

    Patients with invasive extramammary Paget's disease appear to have a risk of regional lymph node metastasis. Despite the poor prognosis for patients with lymph node metastasis, management of extramammary Paget's disease without clinical evidence of involved nodes is controversial. To evaluate the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy, patients with extramammary Paget's disease underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative patent blue dye injection with a handheld gamma-detecting probe. Thirteen patients with primary genital extramammary Paget's disease were included in the study. Sentinel nodes identified were excised and examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. All sentinel lymph nodes were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC1, cytokeratin 7, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15. A total of 23 nodes were removed successfully. Tumor cells were detected in 4 nodes from four patients by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No additional lymph nodes were positive by immunohistochemistry. Three of the four sentinel-node-positive patients developed distant metastases. All nine patients without node involvement were free from disease during the follow-up period. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was safe and feasible method and may have an important role in the management of extramammary Paget's disease with clinically N0 status. To establish the optimal management of inguinal lymph nodes in extramammary Paget's disease, additional studies in large number of patients are needed.

  7. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Clonogenic Assay: Adherent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T.; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2011-01-01

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 19561. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture1. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811)2. Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  9. Multiplex Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow or dipstick assays (e.g., home pregnancy tests), where an analyte solution is drawn through a porous membrane and is detected by localization onto a capture probe residing at a specific site on the flow strip, are the most commonly and extensively used type of diagnostic assay. However, after over 30 years of use, these assays are constrained to measuring one or a few analytes at a time. Here, we describe a completely general method, in which any single-plex lateral flow assay is transformed into a multiplex assay capable of measuring an arbitrarily large number of analytes simultaneously. Instead of identifying the analyte by its localization onto a specific geometric location in the flow medium, the analyte-specific capture probe is identified by its association with a specific optically encoded region within the flow medium. The capture probes for nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies are attached to highly porous agarose beads, which have been encoded using multiple lanthanide emitters to create a unique optical signature for each capture probe. The optically encoded capture probe-derivatized beads are placed in contact with the analyte-containing porous flow medium and the analytes are captured onto the encoded regions as the solution flows through the porous medium. To perform a multiplex diagnostic assay, a solution comprising multiple analytes is passed through the flow medium containing the capture probe-derivatized beads, and the captured analyte is treated with a suitable fluorescent reporter. We demonstrate this multiplex analysis technique by simultaneously measuring DNA samples, antigen–antibody pairs, and mixtures of multiple nucleic acids and antibodies. PMID:27819063

  10. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is /sup 125/I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed.

  11. CTL ELISPOT assay.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Elena; Popescu, Iulia; Gigante, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (Elispot) is a quantitative method for measuring relevant parameters of T cell activation. The sensitivity of Elispot allows the detection of low-frequency antigen-specific T cells that secrete cytokines and effector molecules, such as granzyme B and perforin. Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) studies have taken advantage with this high-throughput technology by providing insights into quantity and immune kinetics. Accuracy, sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of Elispot resulted in a wide range of applications in research as well as in diagnostic field. Actually, CTL monitoring by Elispot is a gold standard for the evaluation of antigen-specific T cell immunity in clinical trials and vaccine candidates where the ability to detect rare antigen-specific T cells is of relevance for immune diagnostic. The most utilized Elispot assay is the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test, a marker for CD8(+) CTL activation, but Elispot can also be used to distinguish different subsets of activated T cells by using other cytokines such as T-helper (Th) 1-type cells (characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-21, and TNF-α), Th2 (producing cytokines like IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13), and Th17 (IL-17) cells. The reliability of Elispot-generated data, by the evaluation of T cell frequency recognizing individual antigen/peptide, is the core of this method currently applied widely to investigate specific immune responses in cancer, infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. The Elispot assay is competing with other methods measuring single-cell cytokine production, e.g., intracellular cytokine by FACS or Miltenyi cytokine secretion assay. Other types of lymphocyte frequency and function assays include limiting dilution assay (LDA), cytotoxic T cell assay (CTL), and tetramer staining. Compared with respect to sensitivity the Elispot assay is outranking other methods to define frequency of antigen-specific lymphocytes. The method

  12. Fluorometric assay for aflatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1984-11-01

    The method that is now widely adopted by the government laboratories for the assay of individual aflatoxin components (B/sub 1/, B/sub 2/, G/sub 1/, and G/sub 2/) utilizes a TLC technique. The extraction and clean-up steps of this technique were further researched but the method is still time consuming. It is, therefore, very important to develop a rapid and accurate assay technique for aflatoxins. The current research proposes a technique which utilizes a Turner Fluorometer.

  13. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  14. Detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases with polymerase chain reaction in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Heller, R; VanVoorhis, N; Cruse, C W; Glass, F; Fenske, N; Berman, C; Leo-Messina, J; Rappaport, D; Wells, K

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The presence or absence of lymph node metastases in patients with malignant melanoma is the most powerful prognostic factor for predicting survival. If regional nodal metastases are found, the 5-year survival for the patient decreases approximately 50%. If the presence or absence of regional nodal metastases will determine which patients receive formal dissections or which patients enter adjuvant trials, then a technique is needed to accurately screen lymph node samples for occult disease. Routine histopathologic examination routinely underestimates the number of patients with metastases. This study was initiated to develop a highly sensitive clinically applicable method to detect micrometastases by examining lymph nodes for the presence of tyrosinase messenger RNA (mRNA). The hypothesis was that if mRNA for tyrosinase is found in the lymph node preparation, that finding is good evidence that metastatic melanoma cells are present. METHODS. The assay is accomplished using the combination of reverse transcription and double-round polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified samples are examined on a 2% agarose gel and tyrosinase cDNA is seen as a 207 base pair fragment. Lymph node preparations from 29 patients who were clinically stage I and II and undergoing elective node dissections were analyzed both by standard pathologic staining and RT-PCR. RESULTS. Eleven of 29 lymph node (38%) samples from 29 patients with intermediate thickness melanoma were pathologically positive. Nineteen of the 29 lymph node preparations (66%) were RT-PCR-positive, and these included all of the pathologically positive samples, so that the false-negative rate was 0. In a spiking experiment, one SK-Mel-28 melanoma cell in a background of one million normal lymphocytes could be detected, thus indicating the sensitivity of this method. In addition, analysis by restriction enzyme mapping showed that the amplified 207-bp PCR product produced is part of the tyrosinase gene

  15. Dirac-node arc in the topological line-node semimetal HfSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, D.; Wang, Zhiwei; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Trang, C. X.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Ando, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on HfSiS, which has been predicted to be a topological line-node semimetal with square Si lattice. We found a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surface hosting bulk nodal lines, alongside the surface states at the Brillouin-zone corner exhibiting a sizable Rashba splitting and band-mass renormalization due to many-body interactions. Most notably, we discovered an unexpected Dirac-like dispersion extending one dimensionally in k space—the Dirac-node arc—near the bulk node at the zone diagonal. These novel Dirac states reside on the surface and could be related to hybridizations of bulk states, but currently we have no explanation for its origin. This discovery poses an intriguing challenge to the theoretical understanding of topological line-node semimetals.

  16. Research on Critical Nodes Algorithm in Social Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications and has attracted more and more institutions and scholars. How to determine the K critical nodes with the most influence in a social network is a NP (define) problem. Considering the widespread community structure, this paper presents an algorithm for discovering critical nodes based on two information diffusion models and obtains each node's marginal contribution by using a Monte-Carlo method in social networks. The solution of the critical nodes problem is the K nodes with the highest marginal contributions. The feasibility and effectiveness of our method have been verified on two synthetic datasets and four real datasets.

  17. Detection of parasternal metastatic lymph nodes by sentinel lymph node methods in a patient with recurrence in the conserved breast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Ando, Yoshiaki; Hato, Yukari; Horio, Akiyo; Toyoshima, Chieko; Yamada, Mai; Iwata, Hiroji

    2014-03-01

    We herein report a case of second sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A 57-year-old woman underwent breast-conserving surgery including axillary clearance at Aichi Cancer Center on October 20, 2003. Recurrent tumor in the conserved breast was diagnosed in March 2006. She received SLNB using radioactive tracer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy detected 2 parasternal lymph nodes as hot spots. No abnormal lymph nodes were revealed on preoperative computed tomography. Salvage mastectomy was performed along with dissection of the Rotter and infraclavicular lymph nodes and biopsy of the detected parasternal lymph nodes. Micrometastases were discovered in both parasternal lymph nodes detected as sentinel lymph nodes. No more metastases were seen in the other lymph nodes. Reoperative SLNB offers the possibility of detecting metastasis in residual lymph nodes and determining whether chemotherapy should be used.

  18. Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Number of Nodes Examined and Optimal Lymph Node Prognostic Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Bagante, Fabio; Tran, Thuy; Spolverato, Gaya; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Buttner, Stefan; Ethun, Cecilia G; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Conci, Simone; Idrees, Kamran; Isom, Chelsea A; Fields, Ryan C; Krasnick, Bradley; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Martin, Robert CG; Scoggins, Charles; Shen, Perry; Mogal, Harveshp D; Schmidt, Carl; Beal, Eliza; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Vitiello, Gerardo; IJzermans, Jan NM; Maithel, Shishir K; Poultsides, George; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of routine lymphadenectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is still controversial and no study has defined the minimum number of lymph nodes examined (TNLE). We sought to assess the prognostic performance of American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (7th edition) N stage, lymph node ratio, and log odds (LODDS; logarithm of the ratio between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes) in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and identify the optimal TNLE to accurately stage patients. METHODS A multi-institutional database was queried to identify 437 patients who underwent hepatectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995 and 2014. The prognostic abilities of the lymph node staging systems were assessed using the Harrell’s c-index. A Bayesian model was developed to identify the minimum TNLE. RESULTS One hundred and fifty-eight (36.2%) patients had lymph node metastasis. Median TNLE was 3 (interquartile range, 1 to 7). The LODDS had a slightly better prognostic performance than lymph node ratio and American Joint Committee on Cancer, in particular among patients with <4 TNLE (c-index = 0.568). For 2 TNLE, the Bayesian model showed a poor discriminatory ability to distinguish patients with favorable and poor prognosis. When TNLE was >2, the hazard ratio for N1 patients was statistically significant and the hazard ratio for N1 patients increased from 1.51 with 4 TNLE to 2.10 with 10 TNLE. Although the 5-year overall survival of N1 patients was only slightly affected by TNLE, the 5-year overall survival of N0 patients increased significantly with TNLE. CONCLUSIONS Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients undergoing radical resection should ideally have at least 4 lymph nodes harvested to be accurately staged. In addition, although LODDS performed better at determining prognosis among patients with <4 TNLE, both lymph node ratio and LODDS outperformed compared with American Joint Committee on Cancer N stage among

  19. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  20. Dissecting molecular stress networks: identifying nodes of divergence between life-history phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-02-01

    The complex molecular network that underlies physiological stress response is comprised of nodes (proteins, metabolites, mRNAs, etc.) whose connections span cells, tissues and organs. Variable nodes are points in the network upon which natural selection may act. Thus, identifying variable nodes will reveal how this molecular stress network may evolve among populations in different habitats and how it might impact life-history evolution. Here, we use physiological and genetic assays to test whether laboratory-born juveniles from natural populations of garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans), which have diverged in their life-history phenotypes, vary concomitantly at candidate nodes of the stress response network, (i) under unstressed conditions and (ii) in response to an induced stress. We found that two common measures of stress (plasma corticosterone and liver gene expression of heat shock proteins) increased under stress in both life-history phenotypes. In contrast, the phenotypes diverged at four nodes both under unstressed conditions and in response to stress: circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide, H(2)O(2)); liver gene expression of GPX1 and erythrocyte DNA damage. Additionally, allele frequencies for SOD2 diverge from neutral markers, suggesting diversifying selection on SOD2 alleles. This study supports the hypothesis that these life-history phenotypes have diverged at the molecular level in how they respond to stress, particularly in nodes regulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, the differences between the life-history phenotypes were more pronounced in females. We discuss the responses to stress in the context of the associated life-history phenotype and the evolutionary pressures thought to be responsible for divergence between the phenotypes.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is positively associated with lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Deng, Qiaoling; Fan, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Peipei; Tang, Shihui; Wang, Ping; Wang, Jun’e

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in head and neck cancers, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the association between COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis in NPC remains uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis meta-analysis investigated the relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis and other signs of disease progression in NPC. Methods Previously published studies assessing COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis in NPC were identified in four English databases and three Chinese ones (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Vip Journal Integration Platform) up to November 2016. Quality of all eligible studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Pooled odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated with fixed-effects or random-effects model to evaluate the effects of COX-2 expression on lymph node metastasis. Results A total of 27 studies with 1797 NPC patients met the inclusion criteria. The expression of COX-2 was significantly higher in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma than those without the carcinoma, with a combined OR of 21.17 (95%CI = 15.02–29.85, I2 = 35.1%, Pheterogeneity = 0.070). A statistically significant association between COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis in NPC patients, with an OR of 4.44 (95%CI = 3.46–5.70, I2 = 38.3%, Pheterogeneity = 0.024), and with other indicators of disease progression. Subgroup analyses based on COX-2 assay and staging criteria of TNM showed no significant heterogeneity. Conclusions The results suggest that expression of COX-2 is associated with lymph node metastasis and disease progression in NPC, indicating a potential role in evaluation of prognosis and in treatment decisions. COX-2 inhibitors have potential in the treatment of NPC that

  2. Prognostic role of the lymph node ratio in node positive colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Jun-Lin; Li, Yuan; Yang, Lie; Yu, Yong-Yang; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The lymph node ratio (LNR) (i.e. the number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by the number of totally resected lymph nodes) has recently emerged as an important prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system for colorectal cancer does not consider it as a prognostic parameter. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of the LNR in node positive CRC. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies up to November 2015. As a result, a total of 75,838 node positive patients in 33 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Higher LNR was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.71–2.14; P = 0.0000) and disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14–3.53; P = 0.0000). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. Based on these results, LNR was an independent predictor of survival in colorectal cancer patients and should be considered as a parameter in future oncologic staging systems. PMID:27662659

  3. Scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the nodes during execution

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2012-10-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the plurality of compute nodes during execution that include: identifying one or more applications for execution on the plurality of compute nodes; creating a plurality of physically discontiguous node partitions in dependence upon temperature characteristics for the compute nodes and a physical topology for the compute nodes, each discontiguous node partition specifying a collection of physically adjacent compute nodes; and assigning, for each application, that application to one or more of the discontiguous node partitions for execution on the compute nodes specified by the assigned discontiguous node partitions.

  4. Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

  5. Sigma Receptor Binding Assays.

    PubMed

    Chu, Uyen B; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2015-12-08

    Sigma receptors, both Sigma-1(S1R) and Sigma-2 (S2R), are small molecule-regulated, primarily endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated sites. A number of drugs bind to sigma receptors, including the antipsychotic haloperidol and (+)-pentazocine, an opioid analgesic. Sigma receptors are implicated in many central nervous system disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease and conditions associated with motor control, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Described in this unit are radioligand binding assays used for the pharmacological characterization of S1R and S2R. Methods detailed include a radioligand saturation binding assay for defining receptor densities and a competitive inhibition binding assay employing [³H]-(+)-pentazocine for identifying and characterizing novel ligands that interact with S1R. Procedures using [³H]-1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine ([³H]-DTG), a nonselective sigma receptor ligand, are described for conducting a saturation binding and competitive inhibition assays for the S2R site. These protocols are of value in drug discovery in identifying new sigma ligands and in the characterization of these receptors.

  6. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  7. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  8. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis.

  9. [Tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Dvorski, I

    1989-01-01

    Clinical observations and experiences in the treatment of 52 patients with tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis are presented during the period of 15 yrs. In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistological analysis of extirpated lymph nodes. In 88% of patients the caseous necrosis form of tuberculosis was histologically verified while in 12% the productive one. In 87% of patients the tuberculous process was localised unilaterally and in 13% bilaterally. Deep lymph nodes were more frequently involved than those on the surface (58%:42%). Most of the patients were in the third, fourth and fifth decade of life. Female patients were more frequent than males (58%:42%). In all patients the chemotherapy with antituberculous drugs was administered. In 42% patients tonsilectomy was performed with or without adenoidectomy depending on age of the patient. Pathohistologically tuberculosis of the tonsillae was found only in 3 cases.

  10. Harmony Node 2 in Shuttle Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by Earth's horizon and the blackness of space, the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, Harmony, is featured in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay during the STS-120 mission. This image was photographed by an Expedition 16 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS) while Discovery was docked with the station. The aluminum node is 7.2 meters (23.6 feet) long and 4.4 meters (14.5 feet) in diameter. Its pressurized volume is 75.5 cubic meters (2666 cubic feet), and its launch weight is approximately 14,288 kilograms (31,500 pounds). The installation of Harmony increases the living and working space inside the station to approximately 500 cubic meters (18,000 cubic feet). It also allows the addition of international laboratories from Europe and Japan to the station.

  11. Synthesis of Lymph Node-Targeting Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2017-01-01

    Molecular adjuvants based off of pattern recognition receptor agonists are capable of potently stimulating innate immunity and inducing protective immune responses to subunit antigens. One significant disadvantage to these small molecule adjuvants is their pharmacokinetic profile of entering the blood stream rather than the lymphatics after parental injection. In order to target molecular adjuvants to lymph nodes, we have developed nanoparticle carriers whose size has been optimized to avoid the blood and efficiently drain to lymph nodes (Hanson et al. Vaccine 33:861-8,2015; Hanson et al. J Clin Invest 125:2532-2546, 2015). This chapter describes in detail the materials and procedures necessary to synthesize liposome nanoparticle carriers of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic adjuvants, including synthesis tips, alternative equipment options, and pitfalls to avoid.

  12. Harmony Node 2 in Shuttle Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by Earth's horizon and the blackness of space, the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, Harmony, is featured in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay during the STS-120 mission. This image was photographed by an Expedition 16 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS) while Discovery was docked with the station. The aluminum node is 7.2 meters (23.6 feet) long and 4.4 meters (14.5 feet) in diameter. Its pressurized volume is 75.5 cubic meters (2666 cubic feet), and its launch weight is approximately 14,288 kilograms (31,500 pounds). The installation of Harmony increases the living and working space inside the station to approximately 500 cubic meters (18,000 cubic feet). It also allows the addition of international laboratories from Europe and Japan to the station.

  13. Lymph Node Dissection for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi, Aviram; Shaha, Ashok R.

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have a wide spectrum of clinical significance. Several variables are taken under consideration when trying to decide on the optimal management of patients with DTC. Routine prophylactic central and/or lateral lymph node dissection is not advocated with exception of central neck dissection for locally advanced tumors. When regarding recurrent disease, foundations have been laid for clinicians to make accurate decisions as to when to perform surgery and when to continue maintaining the patient’s disease under observation. These complex decisions are determined based upon multiple factors, not only regarding the patient’s disease but also the patient’s comprehension of the procedure and apprehension levels. Nevertheless if the patient and/or clinician are emotionally keen to surgically remove the disease then the procedure should be considered. PMID:28117285

  14. Lymph node content of supraclavicular and thoracodorsal-based axillary flaps for vascularized lymph node transfer.

    PubMed

    Gerety, Patrick A; Pannucci, Christopher J; Basta, Marten N; Wang, Amber R; Zhang, Paul; Mies, Carolyn; Kanchwala, Suhail K

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular transfer of lymph node flaps has recently gained popularity as a treatment for secondary lymphedema often occurring after axillary, groin, or pelvic lymph node dissections. This study aimed to delineate the lymph node contents and pedicle characteristics of the supraclavicular (SC) and thoracodorsal (TD)-based axillary flaps as well as to compare lymph node quantification of surgeon vs pathologist. SC and TD flaps were dissected from fresh female cadavers. The surgeon assessed pedicle characteristics, lymph node content, and anatomy. A pathologist assessed all flaps for gross and microscopic lymph node contents. The κ statistic was used to compare surgeon and pathologist. Ten SC flaps and 10 TD flaps were harvested and quantified. In comparing the SC and TD flaps, there were no statistical differences between artery diameter (3.1 vs 3.2 mm; P = .75) and vein diameter (2.8 vs 3.5 mm; P = .24). The TD flap did have a significantly longer pedicle than the SC flap (4.2 vs 3.2 cm; P = .03). The TD flap was found to be significantly heavier than the SC flap (17.0 ± 4.8 vs 12.9 ± 3.3 g; P = .04). Gross lymph node quantity was similar in the SC and TD flaps (2.5 ± 1.7 vs 1.8 ± 1.2; P = .33). There was good agreement between the surgeon and pathologist in detecting gross lymph nodes in the flaps (SC κ = 0.87, TD κ = 0.61). The SC and TD flaps have similar lymph node quantity, but the SC flap has higher lymphatic density. A surgeon's estimation of lymph node quantity is reliable and has been verified in this study by comparison to a pathologist's examination. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  16. Capillary Flow Experiment in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    ISS036-E-029773 (8 Aug. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE observes the flow of fluid, in particular capillary phenomena, in microgravity. The data from this experiment will improve computer models used to design fluid transfer systems and fuel tanks on future spacecraft.

  17. Capillary Flow Experiment in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-08

    ISS036-E-029767 (8 Aug. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg, Expedition 36 flight engineer, conducts a session with the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) in the Harmony node of the International Space Station. CFE observes the flow of fluid, in particular capillary phenomena, in microgravity. The data from this experiment will improve computer models used to design fluid transfer systems and fuel tanks on future spacecraft.

  18. Expedition 34 crewmembers in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-24

    ISS034-E-010478 (24 Dec. 2012) --- Expedition 34 crew members assemble in the Unity node of the International Space Station for a brief celebration of the Christmas holiday. Pictured clockwise (from top right) are NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, commander; Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Russian cosmonauts Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, all flight engineers.

  19. Expedition 34 crewmembers in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-24

    ISS034-E-010476 (24 Dec. 2012) --- Expedition 34 crew members assemble in the Unity node of the International Space Station for a brief celebration of the Christmas holiday. Pictured clockwise (from top right) are NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, commander; Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Russian cosmonauts Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, all flight engineers.

  20. [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].

    PubMed

    Kvirikashvili, T O

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.

  1. FAWN: A Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    MapReduce : Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters . [8] G. DeCandia, D. Hastorun, M. Jampani, G. Kakulapati, A. Lakshman, A. Pilchin, S. Siva...for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This paper introduces the FAWN?Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes? cluster ...for the specific, but important, class of primary-key, seek-bound applications that perform a large number of retrievals of small data objects. A few

  2. Capillary Flow Experiment in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-15

    Astronaut Karen Nyberg,Expedition 36 flight engineer,works on the Capillary Flow Experiment (CFE) Vane Gap-1 (VG-1) setup in the Node 2/Harmony. The CFE-2 vessel is used to observe fluid interface and critical wetting behavior in a cylindrical chamber with elliptic cross-section and an adjustable central perforated vane. The primary objective of the Vane Gap experiments is to determine equilibrium interface configurations and critical wetting conditions for interfaces between interior corners separated by a gap.

  3. Coleman wearing electrodes in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-20

    ISS026-E-018798 (20 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, is pictured in the Unity node of the International Space Station. Coleman is wearing electrodes, a Holter Monitor 2 (HM2) for recording Electrocardiogram (ECG), a European Space Agency (ESA) Cardio pressure / Blood Pressure unit to continuously monitor blood pressure and two Actiwatches (hip/waist and ankle) for monitoring activity levels.

  4. Analysis of complex network performance and heuristic node removal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpour, Ehsan; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Removing important nodes from complex networks is a great challenge in fighting against criminal organizations and preventing disease outbreaks. Six network performance metrics, including four new metrics, are applied to quantify networks' diffusion speed, diffusion scale, homogeneity, and diameter. In order to efficiently identify nodes whose removal maximally destroys a network, i.e., minimizes network performance, ten structured heuristic node removal strategies are designed using different node centrality metrics including degree, betweenness, reciprocal closeness, complement-derived closeness, and eigenvector centrality. These strategies are applied to remove nodes from the September 11, 2001 hijackers' network, and their performance are compared to that of a random strategy, which removes randomly selected nodes, and the locally optimal solution (LOS), which removes nodes to minimize network performance at each step. The computational complexity of the 11 strategies and LOS is also analyzed. Results show that the node removal strategies using degree and betweenness centralities are more efficient than other strategies.

  5. History of sentinel node and validation of the technique

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, Pieter J; Nieweg, Omgo E; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Th Rutgers, Emiel J; Kroon, Bin BR

    2001-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients with occult lymph node metastases who may benefit from further regional or systemic therapy. The sentinel node is the first lymph node reached by metastasising cells from a primary tumour. Attempts to remove this node with a procedure based on standard anatomical patterns did not become popular. The development of the dynamic technique of intraoperative lymphatic mapping in the 1990s resulted in general acceptance of the sentinel node concept. This hypothesis of sequential tumour dissemination seems to be valid according to numerous studies of sentinel node biopsy with confirmatory regional lymph node dissection. This report describes the history and the validation of the technique, with particular reference to breast cancer. PMID:11250756

  6. Diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ghariani, Asma; Jaouadi, Taha; Smaoui, Selma; Mehiri, Emna; Marouane, Chama; Kammoun, Sana; Essalah, Leila; Driss, Maha; Messadi, Feriele; Slim-Saidi, Leila

    2015-12-01

    GeneXpert MTB/RIF is a fully-automated diagnostic molecular test which simultaneously detects tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin (RIF) drug resistance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in lymph node specimens and to show the place of Mycobacterium bovis as a major cause of TB lymphadenitis. This study was conducted simultaneously in the National Reference Laboratory for Mycobacteria of Ariana and the Central Laboratory of Sfax, from January to December 2013. In total, 174 lymph node specimens were processed simultaneously for Ziehl-Neelsen, auramine and immuno-histochemical staining. Conventional culture on both Lowenstein-Jensen and liquid medium (Bactec MGIT 960 BD system) and the new molecular-based GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay system were performed. Positive cultures were confirmed using molecular identification (Genotype MTBC Hain Lifescience). Among the 174 samples tested, the GeneXpert detected the DNA of MTBC in 134 samples (77%). Standard bacteriological assays, including AFB microscopy and culture, were positive, respectively, in 41 (23.6%) and 79 (45.4%) specimens. M. bovis was isolated in 76% of positive cultures. GeneXpert sensitivity and specificity results were assessed according to smear and culture results, clinical and histological findings. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert assay were 87.5% (126/144) and 73.3%, respectively. The implementation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay may dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of lymph node TB. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  8. Pacinian Corpuscles in Human Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Feito, J; Cobo, J L; Santos-Briz, A; Vega, J A

    2017-08-14

    The occurrence of Pacinian corpuscles associated to lymph nodes is an anatomical rarity and very scarce information exists in this regard. Here we examined immunohistochemically four Pacinian corpuscles found in the close vicinity of the hiliar blood vessels of lymph nodes (2 cervical, 1 axillary, and 1 inguinal) during routine surgical pathology. Pacinian corpuscles were normally arranged and displayed a pattern of protein distribution as follows: the axon was positive for neurofilament proteins and neuron specific enolase, the inner core cells showed intense S100 protein and vimentin immunostaining while they were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein, type IV collagen and glucose transporter 1; vimentin, type IV collagen, and glucose transporter 1 were also observed also in the outer-core and the capsule. These results are in agreement with those reported for cutaneous Pacinian corpuscles, demonstrating that the immunohistochemical profile of these corpuscles is independent of its anatomical localization. The possible functional significance of Pacinian corpuscles in lymph nodes is discussed. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar.

  10. PDS Lunar Data Node - Apollo Data Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alfred B.; Williams, D. R.; Guinness, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) was formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences (GEO) Node to restore selected Apollo data sets to a modern format. The Apollo lunar missions returned a wealth of information, including long-term (1969-1977) surface data collected by autonomous ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations emplaced by the crews of the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions, surface point measurements, and orbital data. Much of the ALSEP and other surface and orbital data housed at NSSDC are in forms which are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, seldom-used formats. The LDN is prioritizing these data based on their scientific and engineering value for hazard and resource assessment and the level of effort required for archiving. Data from three experiments, X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Cold Cathode Ion Gage (CCIG), and Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS), comprising eight unique data sets, have been restored and are in peer review process. The CCIG data have completed peer review and have been delivered to PDS GEO Node. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  11. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  12. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    PubMed

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Akihiko; Sata, Ken-ichi; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Abe, Hideyuki; Azuma, Koichi; Murakami, Yuichi; Izumi, Hiroto; Takahashi, Takashi; Kage, Masayoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3) and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL)-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  13. Sensor Node for Remote Monitoring of Waterborne Disease-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  14. Primary tumor induces sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroki; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Sakakura, Koichi; Miyata, Masanori; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2010-05-01

    The main factor that affects the prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is regional lymph node metastases, which usually spreads first to the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor cells in several malignancies can induce lymphangiogenesis in SLNs before metastasizing. To elucidate the mechanisms of tumor dissemination of OSCC, we investigated whether primary tumors induce lymphangiogenesis within SLNs in patients with OSCC. The mRNA expression of lymphatic-specific markers, including VEGFR-3, Prox-1, and LYVE-1 in 23 metastasis-negative SLNs obtained from 10 patients with OSCC, was investigated using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and compared with control lymph nodes from patients with non-cancerous diseases. In addition, VEGF-C and VEGF-D expressions of the primary tumor were examined by immunohistochemistry. In SLNs, there were highly significant correlations between the three lymphatic markers examined. Interestingly, the level of LYVE-1 expression in SLNs, despite the absence of metastasis, was significantly higher than in control lymph nodes. Moreover, SLNs from patients with VEGF-C-positive tumor showed a significantly higher expression of VEGFR-3 than those from patients with VEGF-C-negative tumor. Our findings suggest that in OSCC, the primary tumor actively induces lymphangiogenesis in SLNs prior to the onset of metastases, and where tumor-derived VEGF-C plays an important role.

  15. Efficient soybean regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a whole cotyledonary node as an explant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Ge, Honglian; Liu, Jinmei; Luo, Yunling; Liu, Kun; Chen, Long; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol based on whole cotyledonary node explants was developed in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Zhong Huang 13. Adding 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in a germinating medium could significantly increase regeneration efficiency; the optimal BAP concentration for shoot formation was 0.5 mg/L. The concentrations of plant growth regulators in a shoot induction medium were optimized by the orthogonal test [L9 (3(3))]. The best combination for shoot regeneration was a medium of Murashige & Skoog salts with B5 vitamins (MSB) supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.2 mg/L kinetin (KT). Under this favorable condition, one node could regenerate 28-30 shoots. Soybean whole cotyledonary nodes were transformed by inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a vector pBI121 containing a β-glucuronidase gene (gus). GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis indicated that the gus gene was transformed into soybean plants with 23.1% transformation efficiency. Transgenic plants could be obtained within 5-6 weeks, which was about 4 weeks less than that of a traditional single cotyledonary node method. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Novel Methods of Lymph Node Evaluation for Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek Soo; Choi, Sung Bong; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, In Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node metastasis is an important factor for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, approximately 60% of patients do not receive adequate lymph node evaluation (less than 12 lymph nodes). In this study, we identified a more effective tool for predicting the prognosis of patients who received inadequate lymph node evaluation. Materials and Methods The number of metastatic lymph nodes, total number of lymph nodes examined, number of negative metastatic lymph nodes (NL), lymph node ratio (LR), and the number of apical lymph nodes (APL) were examined, and the prognostic impact of these parameters was examined in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January 2004 to December 2011. In total, 806 people were analyzed retrospectively. Results In comparison of different lymph node analysis methods for rectal cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, the LR showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and the APL predicted a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS). In the case of colon cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, LR predicted a significant difference in DFS and OS, and the APL predicted a significant difference in DFS. Conclusion If patients did not receive adequate lymph node evaluation, the LR and NL were useful parameters to complement N stage for predicting OS in colon cancer, whereas LR was complementary for rectal cancer. The APL could be used for prediction of DFS in all patients. PMID:25943323

  17. [Long-term results of sentinel node biopsy diagnostics in penile carcinoma : Dynamic sentinel node biopsy in cases with nonpalpable lymph nodes in the groin].

    PubMed

    Naumann, C M; Bothe, K; Munk-Hartig, A-K; van der Horst, C; Massad, H; Lützen, U; Jünemann, K-P; Hamann, M F

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) has been recommended in the EAU guidelines for several years as a minimally invasive method for lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable lymph nodes. However, due to the high methodological demands and the primarily unreliable results, this method is rarely used in Germany. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability and morbidity of this method. The frequency of lymph node recurrent disease and complications were prospectively recorded in patients with initially nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes and histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes. Quality criteria were the false negative rate (percentage of lymph node recurrence in negative procedures) and the morbidity rate. Inguinal regions with palpable lymph nodes and/or evidence of metastases were not considered. The study included 37 patients with histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes in 63 groins with nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. There were 21 T1(a/b) stages, 10 T2, and 6 T3 stages. Tumor differentiation was good in 4, moderate in 26, and poor in 7 patients. During a median follow-up of 52 months (range 1-131 months), we observed a bilateral lymph node recurrence in 1 patient and a conservatively managed prolonged lymphorrhea in another patient. Per inguinal region the false-negative rate was 3.2 % and the morbidity rate was 1.6 %; seen per patient the rates were both 2.7 %. DSNB is a reliable method of lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. The high degree of reliability in combination with the low morbidity justifies the higher methodical complexity of this method.

  18. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: A Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-08-01

    -Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. -To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. -Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. -The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin-stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non-sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment.

  19. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  20. A case of lymphangioleiomyomatosis affecting the supraclavicular lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Minami, Takahiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Atsuo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakashima, Yutaka; Honda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 46-year-old woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) involving the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and pelvic lymph nodes in addition to the lungs is reported. Computed tomography incidentally revealed multiple thin-walled pulmonary cysts and low-attenuating masses in the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. A biopsy of the supraclavicular mass was performed and diagnosed as LAM histopathologically. The common sites of extrapulmonary LAM include retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes; however, supraclavicular lymph node involvement is extremely rare.

  1. On Heterogeneous Mobile Network Connectivity: Number of Gateway Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-28

    clusters . Once the network has partitioned, mobile nodes cannot in different clusters cannot maintain connectivity due to insufficient radio...mobile nodes in different clusters can only occur when each cluster contains a gateway node. In this paper, we investigated the number of gateway...disperse geographical area. As tactical nodes move durng an operatioit. the network may partition into several segregated clusters . Once the network

  2. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation.

  3. Processing sentinel nodes in breast cancer: when and how many?

    PubMed

    Schuman, Samer; Walker, Gail; Avisar, Eli

    2011-04-01

    To analyze a series of sentinel nodes (SNs) from patients with node-positive breast cancer to determine their diagnostic value, to delineate a working algorithm, and to assess the clinical value of our common practice A prospectively collected database. Tertiary referral center. One hundred five patients with node-positive breast cancer who underwent SN biopsy. The diagnostic value of SNs by analyzing the sensitivity of processing the hottest, 2 hottest, hot and blue, or hot, blue, and suspicious SNs. Three hundred fifty-three axillary SNs were recorded in the database. An analysis of the 282 radioactive axillary nodes for which the 10-second count was recorded reveals that the most radioactive node was positive in 73 of 94 analyzable patients (77.7%). Consideration of the 2 most intense axillary nodes was sufficient to diagnose nodal disease in an additional 12 patients, representing a significant increase in sensitivity to 90.4% (P < .001). Examination of all other radioactive nodes did not diagnose any additional cases. On the basis of all 105 patients, consideration of nonradioactive blue axillary nodes did not add significant diagnostic value relative to testing only radioactive nodes: sensitivity of 86.7% vs 88.6% (P = .50), whereas consideration of all hot, blue, and suspicious nodes improved sensitivity to 96.2% (P = .002). Processing of the 2 hottest nodes, along with suspicious but nonhot and nonblue nodes, is sufficient for initial axillary staging. Additional radioactive SNs should be processed only in the presence of nodal disease.

  4. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  5. Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  6. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  7. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  8. Arabidopsis assay for mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Gichner, T; Badayev, S A; Demchenko, S I; Relichová, J; Sandhu, S S; Usmanov, P D; Usmanova, O; Velemínský, J

    1994-10-16

    Four laboratories, two in the Czech Republic (Brno and Prague) and two in the CIS (Moscow and Duschanbe), participated in the International Programme on Chemical Safety's (IPCS) collaborative study to evaluate the utility of the most commonly used plant test systems, including the Arabidopsis thaliana assay, for assessing the mutagenic potential of environmental agents. Out of the five compounds evaluated in the Arabidopsis assay, three compounds, i.e., ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and azidoglycerol, were reported to be mutagenic by all four participating laboratories. Sodium azide (NaN3) demonstrated a negative response in all four laboratories, whereas maleic hydrazide was reported to be weakly mutagenic by one laboratory and nonmutagenic by the other three laboratories.

  9. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  10. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  11. Multiplexed Elispot Assay

    PubMed Central

    Harriman, William D.; Collarini, Ellen J.; Cromer, Remy G.; Dutta, April; Strandh, Magnus; Zhang, Fen; Kauvar, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Micron scale latex beads are well established as highly biocompatible reagents. Imbibing two fluorescent dyes into the interior of the beads enables the creation of a family of combinatorially colored labels. Previous use of such beads, in flow cytometry for example, has focused on beads of ~5μm diameter. We show here that 280 nm combinatorially labeled particles can be used to create ELISA-style assays in 200 μm scale virtual wells, using digital microscopy as the readout. The utility of this technique is illustrated by profiling the secreted cytokine footprints of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a multiparametric version of the popular Elispot assay. Doing so reveals noncanonical classes of T lymphocytes. We further show that the secreting cell type can be concurrently identified by surface staining with a cell type specific antibody conjugated to the same multiplexed beads. PMID:19084532

  12. The corneal pocket assay.

    PubMed

    Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cornea in most species is physiologically avascular, and thus this assay allows the measurement of newly formed vessels. The continuous monitoring of neovascular growth in the same animal allows the evaluation of drugs acting as suppressors or stimulators of angiogenesis. Under anesthesia a micropocket is produced in the cornea thickness and the angiogenesis stimulus (tumor tissue, cell suspension, growth factor) is placed into the pocket in order to induce vascular outgrowth from the limbal capillaries. Neovascular development and progression can be modified by the presence of locally released or applied inhibitory factors or by systemic treatments. In this chapter the experimental details of the avascular cornea assay, the technical challenges, and advantages and disadvantages in different species are discussed. Protocols for local drug treatment and tissue sampling for histology and pharmacokinetic profile are reported.

  13. Cytotoxicity assay automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinthal, E. C.; Payne, R. O.

    1971-01-01

    The design and construction of a system to automatically test HLP antigens are described. Major efforts were made to test and evaluate the performance of such a system, and compare its performance with nonautomatic tissue typing techniques. The system is based on the fluorochromatic cytotoxicity assay. Results show the system will work but is subject to malfunctions after a few samplings, and poses problems in showing correctly the necessary readings.

  14. B cell helper assays.

    PubMed

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  15. Lymph Node Biopsy Specimens and Diagnosis of Cat-scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Lepidi, Hubert; Zanaret, Michel; Triglia, Jean-Michel; Michel, Gérard; Thomas, Pascal-Alexandre; Texereau, Michèle; Stein, Andreas; Romaru, Anette; Eb, François

    2006-01-01

    We report microbiologic analysis of 786 lymph node biopsy specimens from patients with suspected cat-scratch disease (CSD). The specimens were examined by standard, cell culture, and molecular methods. Infectious agents were found in samples from 391 (49.7%) of 786 patients. The most commonly identified infectious agent was Bartonella henselae (245 patients, 31.2%), the agent of CSD. Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 54 patients (6.9%) by culture and retrospectively confirmed by using a specific real-time PCR assay. Neoplasm was diagnosed in 181 specimens suitable for histologic analysis (26.0%) from 47 patients. Moreover, 13 patients with confirmed Bartonella infections had concurrent mycobacteriosis (10 cases) or neoplasm (3 cases). A diagnosis of CSD does not eliminate a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis or neoplasm. Histologic analysis of lymph node biopsy specimens should be routinely performed because some patients might have a concurrent malignant disease or mycobacteriosis. PMID:17073081

  16. A new miniaturized fiber positioning node for LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Gu, Yonggang; Shen, Yuran; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    To distribute more fiber positioning nodes on the LAMOST focal plate, two steps are proposed to miniaturize the fiber positioning node in this paper. The first step is to miniaturize the mechanical device of the fiber positioning node. The second step is to redesign the entire wireless driving board using smaller and performance-higher devices. As a result, the size of the new miniaturized fiber positioning node has to be reduced by above 40% and the dense of fiber positioning nodes on focal plate increases by 20% at least.

  17. Genetic Network Programming with Intron-Like Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabu, Shingo; Chen, Yan; Eto, Shinji; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Recently, Genetic Network Programming (GNP) has been proposed, which is an extension of Genetic Algorithm(GA) and Genetic Programming(GP). GNP can make compact programs and can memorize the past history in it implicitly, because it expresses the solution by directed graphs and therefore, it can reuse the nodes. In this research, intron-like nodes are introduced for improving the performance of GNP. The aim of introducing intron-like nodes is to use every node as much as possible. It is found from simulations that the intron-like nodes are useful for improving the training speed and generalization ability.

  18. [Cytological examination of the intrathoracic lymph nodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simeĉek, C

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, cytological examinations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes have become a usual method of bronchological examinations, being applied by way of routine. Taking the analysis of 3408 perbronchial and pertracheal lymph node punctions as a basis, the author discusses the results. Mostly the intrathoracic nodes of lung cancer patients were examined. A metastasization could be detected in 58 per cent. At sarcoidosis and tuberculosis the results correspond to those of mediastinoscopy. The occurrence of the cholesterol crystals is mentioned. Occasionally, megacaryocytes and immature cells of the hematopoiesis are found in the lymph nodes. Due to the favourable anatomic conditions, also normal lymph nodes are accessible to perbronchial punction.

  19. Proposing prognostic thresholds for lymph node yield in clinically lymph node-negative and lymph node-positive cancers of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Phoebe; Mehra, Saral; Sosa, Julie A; Roman, Sanziana A; Husain, Zain A; Burtness, Barbara A; Tate, Janet P; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Judson, Benjamin L

    2016-12-01

    Prognostic lymph node yield thresholds have been identified and incorporated into treatment guidelines for multiple cancer sites, but not for oral cancer. The objective of this study was to identify optimal thresholds in elective and therapeutic neck dissection for oral cavity cancers. Patients with oral cavity cancers in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were stratified into clinically lymph node-negative (cN0) and clinically lymph node-positive (cN+) cohorts to reflect the differing surgical management for these diseases. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relation between lymph node yield and overall survival, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Thresholds derived from the NCDB were validated in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. In patients with cN0 cancers of the oral cavity from the NCDB, those who had <16 lymph nodes had significantly decreased survival. The proportion of positive lymph nodes was higher for patients who had ≥16 lymph nodes (27.2% vs 16.3% for < 16 lymph nodes; P < .001). This threshold was validated in 2715 lymph node-negative cancers from SEER, with a mortality hazard ratio of 0.825 for ≥ 16 lymph nodes (95% confidence interval, 0.764-0.950; P = .004). In patients with cN + oral cavity cancers from the NCDB, groups with <26 lymph nodes had significantly decreased survival. This threshold was validated in 1903 lymph node-positive cancers from SEER, with a mortality hazard ratio of 0.791 (95% confidence interval, 0.692-0.903; P = .001). Academic centers, higher volume centers, and geographic location predicted higher lymph node yields. More extensive neck dissection (≥16 lymph nodes in cN0, ≥ 26 lymph nodes in cN+) was associated with better survival. Further evaluation of practice patterns in lymph node yield may represent an opportunity for improved quality of care. Cancer 2016;122:3624-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer

  20. Internal mammary node management in breast cancer. A review.

    PubMed

    Vrana, David; Gatek, Jiri; Cwiertka, Karel; Lukesova, Lucie; Koranda, Pavel

    2013-09-01

    Internal mammary nodes visualized during sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer, remain an unresolved management issue. Further, both internal mammary node (IMN) radiotherapy and biopsy have attendant risks and hence should be used with caution. The purpose of this review is to highlight the available data and evidence. A PubMed database from 1960 to 2012 using key words: internal mammary nodes, breast cancer radiotherapy planning, adjuvant radiotherapy, sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer and selected publications on the significance of internal mammary nodes in breast cancer treatment, published data and approaches used. We found 14513 relevant papers and we selected 30 that clearly investigated the management of internal mammary nodes during sentinel node search. We focused on the incidence of IMN metastasis (6 papers), risk factors associated with IMN drainage (9 reports), management of IMN and the impact on disease free and overall patient survival (15 papers). The evidence for breast cancer axillary nodes management is good but the data for other draining nodes such as internal mammary nodes are far less conclusive and further research is needed.

  1. [Intraoperative lymph node staging in bronchogenic carcinoma surgery. Consensus report].

    PubMed

    2001-12-01

    To define methods for lymph node staging and the absence of nodal involvement (pN0) during surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma (BC). Review of previous definitions of the Bronchogenic Carcinoma Cooperation Group of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Chest Surgery (GCCB-S), and a comparison with the international literature; proposal of new definitions agreed upon by the GCCB-S. Methods for intraoperative lymph node evaluation proposed are as follows: not performed; biopsy (biopsy or removal of nodes with no intention of sampling all nodal stations); sampling (removal of nodes of a pre-established number of nodal stations, including at least the paratracheal, subcarinal and hilar stations); systematic nodal dissection (SND) (excision of all nodes from stations on the operated side); extended nodal dissection (removal of contralateral pulmonary and mediastinal nodes as a complement to SND); and miscellaneous, for other forms of intraoperative staging. The proposed definition for pN0 is removal of at least six lymph nodes, pathology of all N1 locations, removal of lymph nodes from right superior and inferior paratracheal and subcarinal stations for right lung tumors, removal of subcarinal nodes for left lung tumors, removal of subaortic and anterior mediastinal nodes for tumors of the left upper lobe, and removal of paraesophageal and pulmonary ligament nodes for tumors of lower lobes. The new definitions encompass the current forms of intraoperative evaluation of BC and avoid the inaccuracies of previous definitions from the GCCB-S.

  2. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Removed and Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Lymph Node Ratio in Breast Carcinoma Patients with 1–3 Axillary Lymph Node(s) Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Duraker, Nüvit; Batı, Bakır; Demir, Davut; Çaynak, Zeynep Civelek

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio (LNR), number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by number of removed nodes in 924 breast carcinoma patients with 1–3 metastatic axillary lymph node(s). The most significant LNR threshold value separating patients in low- and high-risk groups with significant survival difference was 0.20 for disease-free survival (P < 0.001), 0.30 for locoregional recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), and 0.15 for distant metastasis-free survival (P < 0.001), and the patients with lower LNR had better survival. All three LNR threshold values had independent prognostic significance in Cox analysis (P < 0.001 for all three of them). In conclusion, LNR is a useful tool in separating breast carcinoma patients with 1–3 metastatic lymph node(s) into low- and high-risk prognostic groups. PMID:22091427

  3. [Lymph node dissection in non-medullary differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, M

    2006-01-01

    Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are the most common form of endocrine carcinomas. Lymph node involvement seems to be a low risk factor for death, but it increases the risk for loco-regional recurrences and distant metastasis. The limits and the key points of the cervical lymph node dissection are described. The sentinel lymph node is used to rarely, so it could limit the lymph dissection. Node-picking has to be avoided. Central lymph node resection is recommended for high-risk patients, as male, patients more than 45 or less than 21 years old, papillary carcinomas greater than 1 cm or follicular carcinoma more than 2 cm in diameter. Lateral lymph node resection is performed when the lymph nodes of the central compartment are involved, more than 3 cm in diameter, and bulked. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy is useless. When thyroid carcinoma is known postoperatively, re-operation depends of the cervical mass and of the results of the radioactive iodine treatment.

  4. Optical response of a line node semimetal.

    PubMed

    Carbotte, J P

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the AC optical response of a line node semimetal with emphasis on characteristic behaviours which can be used to distinguish them from point node materials such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals. The interband optical background at zero temperature displays a flat region at small photon energies ([Formula: see text]) analogue to the universal background seen in graphene. However, in contrast to graphene, the height of the constant region is not universal but depends inversely on the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers and directly on the radius (b) in momentum space of the nodal circle. The parameter b is a defining energy scale and determines the range of photon energy over which the flat response persists. At high energies [Formula: see text], the interband response becomes linear in [Formula: see text] in agreement with the case for 3D-Dirac fermions with point node. The optical spectral weight contained in the interband or Drude conductivity shows the same two distinct regimes. At low temperature (T) (chemical potential (μ)), it rises linearly with [Formula: see text] and is proportional to b. At high temperature, [Formula: see text], a [Formula: see text] law is obtained, which is independent of b. At T  =  0, the Lorentz number takes on the conventional value [Formula: see text] for all values of μ. It increases with increasing temperature to reach a first plateau of 2.4L o provided [Formula: see text] but [Formula: see text]. At high temperature, T  >  b, a second plateau of height 4.2L o emerges. The first plateau is characteristic of 2D-Dirac while the second corresponds to 3D-Dirac. The thermopower as a function of temperature also shows an evolution from a 2D to 3D behaviour.

  5. Adaptive node techniques for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D W

    2000-04-01

    The computational mesh in numerical simulation provides a framework on which to monitor the spatial dependence of function and their derivatives. Spatial mesh is therefore essential to the ability to integrate systems in time without loss of fidelity. Several philosophies have emerged to provide such fidelity (Eulerian, Lagrangian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian ALE, Adaptive Mesh Refinement AMR, and adaptive node generation/deletion). Regardless of the type of mesh, a major difficulty is in setting up the initial mesh. Clearly a high density of grid points is essential in regions of high geometric complexity and/or regions of intense, energetic activity. For some problems, mesh generation is such a crucial part of the problem that it can take as much computational effort as the run itself, and these tasks are now taking weeks of massively parallel CPU time. Mesh generation is no less crucial to electromagnetic calculations. In fact EM problem set up can be even more challenging without the clues given by fluid motion in hydrodynamic systems. When the mesh is advected with the fluid (Lagrangian), mesh points naturally congregate in regions of high activity. Similarly in AMR algorithms, strong gradients in the fluid flow are one of the triggers for mesh refinement. In the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations without advection, mesh point placement/motion is not so intuitive. In fixed geometry systems, it at least feasible to finely mesh high leverage, geometrically challenged areas. For other systems, where the action takes place far from the boundaries and, likely, changes position in time, the options are limited to either using a high resolution (expensive) mesh in all regions that could require such resolution or adaptively generating nodes to resolve the physics as it evolves. The authors have developed a new time of adaptive node technique for Maxwell's equations to deal with this set of issues.

  6. Sentinel node approach in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2015-01-01

    In general terms, one of the main objectives of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy, as well as increasing the identification rate of occult lymphatic metastases by offering the pathologist those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to ascertain unpredictable lymphatic drainages. In prostate cancer this aspect is essential due to the multidirectional character of the lymphatic drainage in the pelvis. In this context the inclusion of SPECT/CT should be mandatory in order to improve the SLN detection rate, to clarify the location when SLNs are difficult to interpret on planar images, to achieve a better definition of them in locations close to injection site, and to provide anatomical landmarks to be recognized during operation to locate SLNs. Conventional and laparoscopic hand-held gamma probes allow the SLN technique to be applied in any kind of surgery. The introduction and combination of new tracers and devices refines this technique, and the use of intraoperative images. These aspects become of vital importance due to the recent incorporation of robot-assisted procedures for SLN biopsy. In spite of these advances various aspects of SLN biopsy in prostate cancer patients still need to be discussed, and therefore their clinical application is not widely used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical response of a line node semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the AC optical response of a line node semimetal with emphasis on characteristic behaviours which can be used to distinguish them from point node materials such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals. The interband optical background at zero temperature displays a flat region at small photon energies ( Ω ) analogue to the universal background seen in graphene. However, in contrast to graphene, the height of the constant region is not universal but depends inversely on the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers and directly on the radius (b) in momentum space of the nodal circle. The parameter b is a defining energy scale and determines the range of photon energy over which the flat response persists. At high energies Ω >2b , the interband response becomes linear in Ω in agreement with the case for 3D-Dirac fermions with point node. The optical spectral weight contained in the interband or Drude conductivity shows the same two distinct regimes. At low temperature (T) (chemical potential (μ)), it rises linearly with T≤ft(μ \\right) and is proportional to b. At high temperature, T≤ft(μ \\right) , a {{T}2}≤ft({μ2}\\right) law is obtained, which is independent of b. At T  =  0, the Lorentz number takes on the conventional value {{L}o}={π2}/3{{e}2} for all values of μ. It increases with increasing temperature to reach a first plateau of 2.4L o provided T>μ but μ \\ll b . At high temperature, T  >  b, a second plateau of height 4.2L o emerges. The first plateau is characteristic of 2D-Dirac while the second corresponds to 3D-Dirac. The thermopower as a function of temperature also shows an evolution from a 2D to 3D behaviour.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: is there a correlation of preoperative lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph nodes harvested?

    PubMed

    Hudak, Kristen Ann; Hudak, Kevin E; Dzwierzynski, William W

    2015-04-01

    Nodal status is the most significant prognostic factor in melanoma. No study has examined the relationship between lymphoscintigraphy, γ probe counts, harvested nodes, and nodal status. Two-hundred sixty two patients were identified who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma between 2001 and 2010. Clinicopathologic and treatment information was collected. The number of lymph nodes and basins demonstrated on lymphoscintigraphy was compared to those at surgery. γ Probe counts were compared. Median age was 54.5 years (range, 18-90 years) with 52.3% male. Average Breslow depth was 2.0 (1.9) mm; 99.6% of lymphoscintigraphy studies identified at least 1 basin, 80% showed only 1 (range, 0-4). Lymphoscintigraphy identified on average 1.5 (0.9) sentinel nodes and 31% with secondary node. Surgery excised on average 2.6 (1.4) nodes involving 1.2 (0.5) basins; 17.6% had a positive sentinel lymph node. There was no difference in the sum or average of γ counts between positive and negative sentinel lymph node groups (P = 0.2, P = 0.5). When comparing lymphoscintigraphy and surgical excision, the correlation of lymphatic basins was r = 0.67 and of lymph node numbers was r = 0.33. Lymphoscintigraphy should be used to identify the proper lymphatic basins for a sentinel node procedure, however, the removal of nodes must continue until the background count is less than 10%. The correlation of lymph node number identified on lymphoscintigraphy to surgical excision is weak. γ Probe counts cannot be used to differentiate positive from negative nodes and the positive lymph node is not always the hottest node.

  9. Line of Dirac Nodes in Hyperhoneycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kieran; Uchoa, Bruno; Glatzhofer, Daniel T

    2015-07-10

    We propose a family of structures that have "Dirac loops," closed lines of Dirac nodes in momentum space, on which the density of states vanishes linearly with energy. Those lattices all possess the planar trigonal connectivity present in graphene, but are three dimensional. We show that their highly anisotropic and multiply connected Fermi surface leads to quantized Hall conductivities in three dimensions for magnetic fields with toroidal geometry. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we show that those structures have topological surface states. We discuss the feasibility of realizing the structures as new allotropes of carbon.

  10. Line of Dirac Nodes in Hyperhoneycomb Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Kieran; Uchoa, Bruno; Glatzhofer, Daniel T.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a family of structures that have "Dirac loops," closed lines of Dirac nodes in momentum space, on which the density of states vanishes linearly with energy. Those lattices all possess the planar trigonal connectivity present in graphene, but are three dimensional. We show that their highly anisotropic and multiply connected Fermi surface leads to quantized Hall conductivities in three dimensions for magnetic fields with toroidal geometry. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we show that those structures have topological surface states. We discuss the feasibility of realizing the structures as new allotropes of carbon.

  11. Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia with amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    West, K. P.; Morgan, D. R.; Lauder, I.

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia are described, one of the solitary plasma cell type the other of the multicentric hyaline vascular type. Both cases illustrate the wide ranging clinical and pathological findings associated with this condition but both also have unusual features. The solitary plasma cell lesion had an exceptional 32 year clinical history and was associated with systemic amyloidosis of AL type. The multicentric hyaline vascular case was associated with coexistent multiple myeloma and amyloid deposition also of AL type. These cases are presented with a review of the relevant literature. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2780459

  12. Krikalev at work in Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-07

    STS098-346-0032 (7-20 February 2001) --- Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, Expedition One flight engineer representing the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, carries the Vozdukh in the Unity node. Vozdukh is designed to maintain the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the cabin air within the medically permissible range for long-duration exposure. It provides the primary means of removing CO2 from the outpost's atmosphere, and its operation is based on the use of regenerated adsorbers of CO2.

  13. Crew Meal in Node 1 Unity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-09

    S131-E-008304 (9 April 2010) --- With 13 astronauts and cosmonauts onboard the station at one time, activities around the galley in the Unity node get rather busy at meal time. Over half the 13 are seen in this flight day five aggregation. NASA astronaut James P. Dutton Jr., STS-131 pilot, prepares part of his meal at left. Also pictured clockwise (from the right) are JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, both Expedition 23 flight engineers; NASA astronauts Stephanie Wilson and Clayton Anderson, both STS-131 mission specialists; along with Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Mikhail Kornienko, Expedition 23 commander and flight engineer, respectively.

  14. Crew Meal in Node 1 Unity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-09

    S131-E-008307 (9 April 2010) --- Three Expedition 23 crew members share a meal at the galley in the Unity node of the International Space Station. Pictured from the left are Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, commander; Mikhail Kornienko and Alexander Skvortsov, both flight engineers. Skvortsov had interrupted his meal to document the station crew members and the visiting Discovery astronauts (out of frame) during the meal. Thirteen cosmonauts and astronauts will continue their joint activities over the next several days aboard the orbital complex.

  15. Reverse Geographic Location of a Computer Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    2-9 2.3.4 Dijkstra’s Algorithm…………………………… 2-10 2.4 Location Tools.………………………………………….. 2-13 2.4.1 CAIDA Tools...way to its destination, such as the node names. 2.4.1 CAIDA Tools. “ CAIDA , the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis, provides tools...and analyses promoting the engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable global Internet infrastructure… CAIDA is a collaborative undertaking

  16. Radon assay for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  17. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  18. Prognostic Significance of Number of Positive Nodes: A Long-Term Study of One to Two Nodes Versus Three Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Joseph, Kurian

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Previous reports of breast cancer have generally analyzed patients with one to three positive lymph nodes as a single group, often leading to controversy regarding the practical clinical applicability. The present study separately analyzed the survival outcomes of Stage T1-T2 breast cancer patients according to whether one, two, or three axillary nodes were pathologically positive. Methods and Materials: The records of 5,996 patients were available for analysis from the population-based Saskatchewan provincial registry between 1981 and 1995. Because the reliability of the nodal assessment depends on the number of lymph nodes sampled, only those 755 patients with Stage T1-T2 disease and eight or more nodes examined were analyzed further for overall survival and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: Patients with one and two positive nodes had nearly indistinguishable survival plots, but those with three positive nodes had a distinct trend toward worse survival. The overall survival rate of patients with one, two, and three nodes at 5, 10, and 15 years was 82.7%, 77.0%, and 79.0%, 64.8%, 60.9%, and 52.8%, and 48.8%, 48.0%, and 40.9%, respectively (p = .11). The corresponding CSS rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.4%, 82.0%, and 81.3%, 78.87%, 72.9%, and 62.1%, and 72.7%. 69.0%, and 55.6% (p = .0004). The use of regional radiotherapy did not confer any apparent survival benefit in terms of either overall survival or CSS. Conclusion: Patients with one or two positive nodes had a similar CSS. However, those with three positive nodes fared worse, with a significantly reduced CSS compared with those with one or two involved nodes. Thus, the survival data among patients with one to three nodes positive reveals clearly relevant differences when analyzed separately.

  19. Zebrafish Assays of Ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaghloul, Norann A.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    In light of the growing list of human disorders associated with their dysfunction, primary cilia have recently come to attention as being important regulators of developmental signaling pathways and downstream processes. These organelles, present on nearly every vertebrate cell type, are highly conserved structures allowing for study across a range of species. Zebrafish, in particular, have emerged as useful organisms in which to explore the consequences of ciliary dysfunction and to model human ciliopathies. Here, we present a range of useful techniques that allow for investigation of various aspects of ciliary function. The described assays capitalize on the hallmark gastrulation defects associated with ciliary defects as well as relative ease of visualization of cilia in whole-mount embryos. Further, we describe our recently developed assay for querying functionality of human gene variants in live developing embryos. Finally, a current catalog of known zebrafish ciliary mutant lines is included. The techniques presented here provide a basic toolkit for in vivo investigation of both the biological and genetic mechanisms underlying a growing class of human diseases. PMID:21951534

  20. Expression of chemokine receptor CCR7 is associated with cervical lymph node metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zheng Jun; Liu, Ke; Shao, Zhe

    2009-06-01

    Tumor cell migration and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. The present study was designed to examine the expression of chemokine receptor CCR7 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to investigate the possible role of CCR7/CCL21 interaction in neck lymph node metastasis of OSCC. By using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western Blot, expression of CCR7 was examined in 85 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and Tca8113 and ACC cell lines. CCL21-mediated cell migration was assayed in Matrigel-coated chemotaxis chamber. In vitro adhesion assay was shown for banding of tumor cell lines to submandibular lymph nodes with or without anti-CCR7 antibody treatment. Immunohistochemical staining showed 65.9% (56/85) of positive CCR7 expression in OSCC tissues. CCR7 expression was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis compared with those without lymph node metastasis (P=0.015) and was also associated with tumor size (P=0.014), and clinical stage (P=0.009). RT-PCR and Western Blot also confirmed positive CCR7 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and Tca8113 cell line, and negative CCR7 expression in normal oral mucosa and ACC cell line. CCL21 stimulation increased the ability of CCR7-positive Tca8113 cells passing through the Matrigel membrane. CCR7-positive Tca8113 cells also showed stronger adhesion to lymph nodes, which could be partly blocked by anti-CCR7 antibody incubation. These results indicated that the chemotactic CCR7/CCL21 interaction may be a possible mechanism for induction of directional lymph node metastasis by oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  2. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  3. Battlefield connectivity via airborne communications nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-06-01

    Communications are essential to support today's information- rich tactics with distributed forces in a non-linear battlespace. Rapid deployment requirements and limited air/sea lift capability makes it difficult to transport and emplace communications infrastructure equipment in a timely manner. Furthermore, mobile forces quickly out-run fixed communications infrastructure and lose contact with command, support, and intelligence sources. What is needed is a reliable, easily deployed theater-wide communications network to provide the connectivity to separated forces; a mechanism for supplying this is a network of airborne communications nodes. A UAV flying at high altitude (65,000 ft) can provide line of sight connectivity (at up to 150 mi radius) between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or on-board satellite gateways to provide world-wide connectivity. Since a high-altitude, long-endurance UAV (such as the Global Hawk) self-deploys from a great distance, there is no local infrastructure burden to provide this capability. Furthermore, since the range to the ground is relatively short, communications links can be established with even hand-held, low-power radios; heavy ground communications gear is not needed. This paper explores the utility of the UAV communication node concept, discussing applications, capabilities, and networking possibilities. In particular, UAVs, other aircraft, and selected ground sites could provide a backbone network for data communications on a 'warfighter's Internet.'

  4. Simulating cell apoptosis induced sinus node dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kharche, Sanjay; Beling, John; Biktasheva, Irina V; Zhang, Henggui; Biktashev, Vadim N

    2013-01-01

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is correlated to the pacemaker sinoatrial node (SAN) cell apoptosis. This study explores the effect of such a dysfunctional SAN on electrical propagation into neighboring atrial tissue. The Fenton Karma model was extended to simulate mouse SAN and atrial cell action potentials. The cell models were incorporated into a 2D model consisting of a central SAN region surrounded by atrial tissue. The intercellular gap junctional coupling, as quantified by the diffusion constant, was estimated to give conduction speeds as observed in mouse atrial tissue. The size of mouse SAN pacemaking region was estimated using the 2D model. In multiple simulations, the effects of an increasing proportion of apoptotic pacemaker cells on atrial tissue pacing were simulated and quantified. The SAN size that gave a basal mouse atrial cycle length (ACL) of 295 ms was found to be 0.6 mm in radius. At low pacemaker cell apoptosis proportion, there was a drastic increase of ACL. At modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells, bradycardia was observed. The incidence of sinus arrest was also found to be high. When the number of apoptotic cells were 10% of the total number of pacemaking cells, all pacemaking was arrested. Phenomenological models have been developed to study mouse atrial electrophysiology and confirm experimental findings. The results show the significance of cell apoptosis as a major mechanism of SND.

  5. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  6. Data driven CAN node reliability assessment for manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leiming; Yuan, Yong; Lei, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the Controller Area Network(CAN) is critical to the performance and safety of the system. However, direct bus-off time assessment tools are lacking in practice due to inaccessibility of the node information and the complexity of the node interactions upon errors. In order to measure the mean time to bus-off(MTTB) of all the nodes, a novel data driven node bus-off time assessment method for CAN network is proposed by directly using network error information. First, the corresponding network error event sequence for each node is constructed using multiple-layer network error information. Then, the generalized zero inflated Poisson process(GZIP) model is established for each node based on the error event sequence. Finally, the stochastic model is constructed to predict the MTTB of the node. The accelerated case studies with different error injection rates are conducted on a laboratory network to demonstrate the proposed method, where the network errors are generated by a computer controlled error injection system. Experiment results show that the MTTB of nodes predicted by the proposed method agree well with observations in the case studies. The proposed data driven node time to bus-off assessment method for CAN networks can successfully predict the MTTB of nodes by directly using network error event data.

  7. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  8. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  9. Video-assisted breast surgery can sample the second and third sentinel nodes to omit axillary node dissection for sentinel-node-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Shimizu, K

    2009-07-01

    The preservation of the axillary node (AN) has become standard therapy for early breast cancer patients with a metastasis-positive sentinel node (SN). However, about half of the patients with metastasis in the SN have no metastasis in the other AN. Late-phase three-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography (3D-CT LG) of the breast can show the axillary lymphatic architecture from the SN into the venous angle. These nodes are classified into five groups. For the sake of aesthetics, video-assisted breast surgery (VABS) was used to sample the second and third nodes shown by 3D-CT LG. For marking the SN on the skin, 3D-CT LG was performed the day before the surgery. Iopamiron 300 (2 ml) was injected subcutaneously. A 16-channel multidetector-row helical CT image was reconstructed to produce a 3D image of the lymph ducts and nodes. A biopsy of the SN was performed by the dye-staining method using Visiport-aided endoscopy for VABS. Stained nodes were located by following the dye in the lymph ducts on a video monitor. For SN-metastasis-positive patients, standard AN dissection was performed under video assistance. Since July 2002, the authors have performed SN biopsy for 186 patients as well as 3D-CT LG and VABS SN biopsy for 146 patients. Five chained-node groups were shown. Even in the multiple SN case, the lymph ducts were converging into the second node. The second and third nodes beyond the SN were detected and sampled in 82 patients (56.2%) by VABS assisted with 3D-CT LG. Sentinel node metastasis (n = 40) involved SN metastasis alone in 21 cases (52.5%) and SN, second-node, and third-node metastasis in eight cases. A reviewed lymphoid path by 3D-CT LG confirmed that metastasis occurred in order of lymph flow. The use of 3D-CT LG-guided VABS SN biopsy of the second and third nodes will predict SN metastasis alone and help to obviate the need for dissection of more nodes.

  10. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT): 3-year results of sentinel node biopsy in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K; Broglie, Martina A; Huber, Gerhard F; Sorensen, Jens Ahm; Bakholdt, Vivi; Krogdahl, Annelise; von Buchwald, Christian; Bilde, Anders; Sebbesen, Lars R; Odell, Edward; Gurney, Benjamin; O'Doherty, Michael; de Bree, Remco; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Flach, Geke B; Villarreal, Pedro M; Fresno Forcelledo, Manuel Florentino; Junquera Gutiérrez, Luis Manuel; Amézaga, Julio Alvarez; Barbier, Luis; Santamaría-Zuazua, Joseba; Moreira, Augusto; Jacome, Manuel; Vigili, Maurizio Giovanni; Rahimi, Siavash; Tartaglione, Girolamo; Lawson, Georges; Nollevaux, Marie-Cecile; Grandi, Cesare; Donner, Davide; Bragantini, Emma; Dequanter, Didier; Lothaire, Philippe; Poli, Tito; Silini, Enrico M; Sesenna, Erinco; Dolivet, Giles; Mastronicola, Romina; Leroux, Agnes; Sassoon, Isabel; Sloan, Philip; McGurk, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Optimum management of the N0 neck is unresolved in oral cancer. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) can reliably detect microscopic lymph node metastasis. The object of this study was to establish whether the technique was both reliable in staging the N0 neck and a safe oncological procedure in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB was undertaken with an average of 3.2 nodes removed per patient. Patients were excluded if the sentinel node (SN) could not be identified. A positive SN led to a neck dissection within 3 weeks. Analysis was performed at 3-year follow-up. An SN was found in 99.5% of cases. Positive SNs were found in 23% (94 in 415). A false-negative result occurred in 14% (15 in 109) of patients, of whom eight were subsequently rescued by salvage therapy. Recurrence after a positive SNB and subsequent neck dissection occurred in 22 patients, of which 16 (73%) were in the neck and just six patients were rescued. Only minor complications (3%) were reported following SNB. Disease-specific survival was 94%. The sensitivity of SNB was 86% and the negative predictive value 95%. These data show that SNB is a reliable and safe oncological technique for staging the clinically N0 neck in patients with T1 and T2 oral cancer. EORTC Protocol 24021: Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Management of Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection as First-Line Treatment of Node-Positive Seminoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Brian; Shah, Swar; Shojaei, Sepehr; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The long-term morbidity associated with treating advanced seminoma can be significant. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has established oncologic efficacy in treating germ cell tumors with minimal long-term toxicity. We describe our experience with RPLND as a front-line treatment of lymph node-positive seminoma. We reviewed our institutional review board-approved testicular cancer database to find the patients with pure seminoma and isolated retroperitoneal lymph node disease who had undergone primary RPLND. The clinical and pathologic variables were obtained. The follow-up data were used to determine recurrence and death. Four patients with a mean age of 37 years were identified. All patients had normal tumor markers and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy measuring 1.1, 1.5, 1.8, and 5.5 cm before RPLND. Of the 4 patients, 3 had had seminoma diagnosed at orchiectomy and 1 (with a 5.5-cm retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and a burned out primary testicular mass) had had seminoma diagnosed at RPLND after 2 nondiagnostic retroperitoneal biopsies. All patients had undergone nerve-sparing, template, extraperitoneal RPLND and were discharged home after 3 days. An average of 3 positive lymph nodes were found. Of the 4 patients, 3 had pathologic stage IIA and 1 stage IIB disease, with no patient undergoing adjuvant therapy. At a mean follow-up period of 25 months, no patient had experienced disease recurrence, and none had died. All patients maintained antegrade ejaculation, and no long-term complications had developed. Our small series has demonstrated encouraging oncologic efficacy for RPLND as a primary treatment of retroperitoneal lymph node-positive seminoma. A multi-institutional phase II trial of RPLND for stage IIA seminoma is being developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemotaxis: Under Agarose Assay.

    PubMed

    Brazill, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum represents a superb model for examining chemotaxis. Under vegetative conditions, the amoebae are chemotactically responsive to pterins, such as folate. Under starved conditions, they lose their sensitivity to pterins, and become chemotactically responsive to cAMP. As an NIH model system, Dictyostelium offers a variety of advantages in studying chemotaxis, including its conservation of mammalian signaling pathways, its ease of growth, and its genetic tractability. In this chapter, we describe the use of the under agarose chemotaxis assay to identify proteins involved in controlling motility and directional sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum. Given the similarities between Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, this allows us to dissect the conserved pathways involved in eukaryotic chemotaxis.

  13. First one-step nucleic acid amplification testing in papillary thyroid cancer lymph nodes - a comparison with histopathology and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kaczka, Krzysztof; Fendler, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej; Młynarski, Wojciech; Pomorski, Lech

    2014-01-01

    The significance of lymph node metastases and the optimal extent of lymphadenectomy remain matters of controversy in papillary thyroid cancer. This study was designed to assess the feasibility and reliability of OSNA and real-time PCR for CK19 and TG mRNA in papillary thyroid cancer lymph nodes evaluation compared to standard histopathology. Each of 92 randomised lymph nodes from 32 papillary thyroid cancer patients were divided into representative parts and assessed using the three studied methods. Eighteen (19.6%) lymph nodes from ten (31.3%) patients were positive according to histopathology. When the cut-off value distinguishing metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in the OSNA assay was set at 250 copies per microlitre, the results were positive in 16 (17.4%) lymph nodes from 11 (34.4%) patients. Twenty three (25%) lymph nodes were tested positive in real-time PCR for TG mRNA. Real-time PCR for CK19 mRNA was positive in 18 (19.6%) lymph nodes from 13 (40.6%) patients. No statistically significant differences were noted between the diagnostic accuracy of either molecular method compared to the histopathological examination (p = 0.81). Overall, 20 positive molecular biology results were noted in patients with negative histopathology results. Conversely, in 18 lymph nodes, despite a metastasis finding in histopathology, at least one molecular test yielded a negative result. It was revealed that OSNA is a reliable technique for the evaluation of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer. This method was shown to have equivalent accuracy to histopathology and real-time PCR.

  14. Mutations in GLDN, Encoding Gliomedin, a Critical Component of the Nodes of Ranvier, Are Responsible for Lethal Arthrogryposis.

    PubMed

    Maluenda, Jérôme; Manso, Constance; Quevarec, Loic; Vivanti, Alexandre; Marguet, Florent; Gonzales, Marie; Guimiot, Fabien; Petit, Florence; Toutain, Annick; Whalen, Sandra; Grigorescu, Romulus; Coeslier, Anne Dieux; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Laquerrière, Annie; Devaux, Jérôme; Melki, Judith

    2016-10-06

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a developmental condition characterized by multiple joint contractures resulting from reduced or absent fetal movements. Through linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in four unrelated families affected by lethal AMC, we identified biallelic mutations in GLDN in the affected individuals. GLDN encodes gliomedin, a secreted cell adhesion molecule involved in the formation of the nodes of Ranvier. Transmission electron microscopy of the sciatic nerve from one of the affected individuals showed a marked lengthening defect of the nodes. The GLDN mutations found in the affected individuals abolish the cell surface localization of gliomedin and its interaction with its axonal partner, neurofascin-186 (NF186), in a cell-based assay. The axoglial contact between gliomedin and NF186 is essential for the initial clustering of Na(+) channels at developing nodes. These results indicate a major role of gliomedin in node formation and the development of the peripheral nervous system in humans. These data indicate that mutations of GLDN or CNTNAP1 (MIM: 616286), encoding essential components of the nodes of Ranvier and paranodes, respectively, lead to inherited nodopathies, a distinct disease entity among peripheral neuropathies. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Eun H.; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V.

    2017-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans. PMID:28241407

  16. Effect of early pregnancy on the expression of progesterone receptor and progesterone-induced blocking factor in ovine lymph node.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zang, Shengqin; Bai, Ying; Yao, Xiaolei; Zhang, Leying

    2017-04-15

    Lymph nodes are the sites where the immune reaction or suppression takes place. Progesterone (P4) exerts an essential effect of the immunomodulation on the maternal uterus during early pregnancy in ruminants. At present study, the inguinal lymph nodes were obtained at day 16 of non-pregnancy, days 13, 16 and 25 of pregnancy (n = 3 for each group) in ewes, and RT-PCR assay, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to analyze to the effect of early pregnancy on the expression of P4 receptor (PGR) and progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) in the lymph nodes. Our results showed that the PGR and PIBF mRNA were up-regulated in the lymph nodes in pregnant ewes, and the PGR isoform (60 kDa) and the PIBF variant (75 kDa) were expressed constantly in the lymph nodes. However, there was no expression of the PGR isoform (40 kDa) and the PIBF variant (48 kDa) at day 16 of the estrous cycle. The immunohistochemistry results confirmed that the PGR and PIBF proteins were limited to the subcapsular sinus and trabeculae in the cortex, medullary sinuses, and were localized in the cytoplasm of the specific cells. This paper reports for the first time that early pregnancy exerts its effect on the specific cells in the lymph nodes through P4, which results in the up-regulated expression of the PGR mRNA and 40 kDa isoform, the PIBF mRNA and 48 kDa variant, and is involved in the immunoregulation of the lymph nodes through a cytosolic pathway in ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroRNA Expression in a Readily Accessible Common Hepatic Artery Lymph Node Predicts Time to Pancreatic Cancer Recurrence Postresection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai V; Gore, Jesse; Zhong, Xin; Savant, Sudha S; Deitz-McElyea, Samantha; Schmidt, C Max; House, Michael G; Korc, Murray

    2016-10-01

    Lymph node involvement in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) predicts postresection survival, but early lymph node metastasis detection is not easily accomplished. We assessed a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a common hepatic artery lymph node (station 8) that is readily accessible during pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) to determine if increased miRNA levels correlate with postresection recurrence. Station 8 lymph nodes overlying the common hepatic artery collected during PD were assayed for miRNA-10b, miRNA-30c, miRNA-21, and miRNA-155 and cytokeratin-19 (CK19), an epithelial cell marker, using quantitative PCR. Expression was correlated with disease recurrence, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Station 8 lymph nodes from 37 patients (30 periampullary carcinomas (PCs), 2 chronic pancreatitis, 5 other cancers) exhibited increased miRNA-10b levels in 14/30 PCs, and in 10 of these 14 patients, cancer recurred during the study period (2012-2015). High miRNA-10b was also associated with shorter RFS (42.5 vs. 92.4 weeks, p < 0.05) but not OS, whereas miRNA-30c, miRNA-21, and miRNA-155 levels and CK19 mRNA levels in station 8 nodes were variable and did not correlate with RFS or OS. We conclude that elevated miRNA-10b levels in station 8 lymph nodes could be utilized to assess risk for early disease progression in patients with periampullary tumors.

  18. MicroRNA Expression in a Readily Accessible Common Hepatic Artery Lymph Node Predicts Time to Pancreatic Cancer Recurrence Postresection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai V.; Gore, Jesse; Zhong, Xin; Savant, Sudha S.; Deitz-McElyea, Samantha; Schmidt, C. Max; House, Michael G.; Korc, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node involvement in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) predicts postresection survival, but early lymph node metastasis detection is not easily accomplished. We assessed a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a common hepatic artery lymph node (station 8) that is readily accessible during pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) to determine if increased miRNA levels correlate with postresection recurrence. Station 8 lymph nodes overlying the common hepatic artery collected during PD were assayed for miRNA-10b, miRNA-30c, miRNA-21, and miRNA-155 and cytokeratin-19 (CK19), an epithelial cell marker, using quantitative PCR. Expression was correlated with disease recurrence, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Station 8 lymph nodes from 37 patients (30 periampullary carcinomas (PCs), 2 chronic pancreatitis, 5 other cancers) exhibited increased miRNA-10b levels in 14/30 PCs, and in 10 of these 14 patients, cancer recurred during the study period (2012–2015). High miRNA-10b was also associated with shorter RFS (42.5 vs. 92.4 weeks, p < 0.05) but not OS, whereas miRNA-30c, miRNA-21, and miRNA-155 levels and CK19 mRNA levels in station 8 nodes were variable and did not correlate with RFS or OS. We conclude that elevated miRNA-10b levels in station 8 lymph nodes could be utilized to assess risk for early disease progression in patients with periampullary tumors. PMID:27456015

  19. Interaction between vascularized lymph node transfer and recipient lymphatics after lymph node dissection- a pilot study in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Suami, Hiroo; Scaglioni, Mario F.; Dixon, Katherine A.; Tailor, Ramesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) has become more wide-spread for surgical treatment of lymphedema. However, interaction between a transferred lymph node and the recipient lymphatic system in relieving lymphedema has not been identified. The aims of this study were to investigate anatomical changes in the lymphatic system in the forelimb of a canine after lymph node dissection and irradiation and to clarify the interaction between the transferred lymph node and recipient lymphatics. Materials and Methods Two adult female mongrel canines were used for this exploratory study. The unilateral axillary and lower neck node dissections were performed, and 15-Gy irradiation was applied on postoperative day three. After one year, a VLNT flap was harvested from the lower abdominal region and inset in the axilla with vascular anastomoses. The girth of each forelimb was determined with a tape measure at different time points. Indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography and lymphangiography were performed before and after each surgery to evaluate morphological changes in the lymphatics. Results Both canines revealed identical changes in the lymphatic system but only one canine developed lymphedema. After lymph node dissection, a collateral lymphatic pathway formed a connection to the contralateral cervical node. After VLNT, an additional collateral pathway formed a connection to the internal mammary node via the transferred node in the axilla. Conclusions The findings suggest that the lymphatic system has a homing mechanism, which allows the severed lymphatic vessels to detect and connect to adjacent lymph nodes. VLNT may create new collateral pathways to relieve lymphedema. PMID:27565078

  20. Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays.

    PubMed

    Adan, Aysun; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf

    Cell viability is defined as the number of healthy cells in a sample and proliferation of cells is a vital indicator for understanding the mechanisms in action of certain genes, proteins and pathways involved cell survival or death after exposing to toxic agents. Generally, methods used to determine viability are also common for the detection of cell proliferation. Cell cytotoxicity and proliferation assays are generally used for drug screening to detect whether the test molecules have effects on cell proliferation or display direct cytotoxic effects. Regardless of the type of cell-based assay being used, it is important to know how many viable cells are remaining at the end of the experiment. There are a variety of assay methods based on various cell functions such as enzyme activity, cell membrane permeability, cell adherence, ATP production, co-enzyme production, and nucleotide uptake activity. These methods could be basically classified into different categories: (I) dye exclusion methods such as trypan blue dye exclusion assay, (II) methods based on metabolic activity, (III) ATP assay, (IV) sulforhodamine B assay, (V) protease viability marker assay, (VI) clonogenic cell survival assay, (VII) DNA synthesis cell proliferation assays and (V) raman micro-spectroscopy. In order to choose the optimal viability assay, the cell type, applied culture conditions, and the specific questions being asked should be considered in detail. This particular review aims to provide an overview of common cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays together with their own advantages and disadvantages, their methodologies, comparisons and intended purposes.

  1. Coagulation assays and anticoagulant monitoring.

    PubMed

    Funk, Dorothy M Adcock

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy, including conventional agents and a variety of new oral, fast-acting drugs, is prescribed for millions of patients annually. Each anticoagulant varies in its effect on routine and specialty coagulation assays and each drug may require distinct laboratory assay(s) to measure drug concentration or activity. This review provides an overview of the assorted assays that can measure anticoagulant drug concentration or activity and includes key assay interferences. The effect of these conventional and new anticoagulant agents on specialty coagulation assays used to evaluate for bleeding or clotting disorders, and whether this impact is physiological or factitious, is included. Also provided is a short review of superwarfarin poisoning and features distinguishing this from warfarin overdose. Knowledge of clinically significant pearls and pitfalls pertinent to coagulation assays in relation to anticoagulant therapy are important to optimize patient care.

  2. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of inguinal lymph nodes, simulating lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akansha; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Multiple enlarged lymph nodes in an elderly female patient can have varied etiologies as well as histologic pictures. We are presenting the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with inguinal lymphadenopathy with fever, which was clinically misconstrued as lymphoma. Cytology could not exclude a lymphoma. Histology led to the unusual diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of lymph node in this case. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node is a rare, distinctive reactive proliferative pattern in the lymph node which involves proliferation of the connective tissue elements of the lymph node, admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and histiocytes. Multiple etiologic agents have been suggested in existing literature. Despite extensive search, no definite attributable cause could be sought. It is now widely accepted that inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph node is a non-neoplastic proliferation which has a benign clinical course and excellent prognosis after surgical resection.

  3. Nodal staging of colorectal carcinomas and sentinel nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cserni, G

    2003-01-01

    This review surveys the staging systems used for the classification of colorectal carcinomas, including the TNM system, and focuses on the assessment of the nodal stage of the disease. It reviews the quantitative requirements for a regional metastatic work up, and some qualitative features of lymph nodes that may help in the selection of positive and negative lymph nodes. Identification of the sentinel lymph nodes (those lymph nodes that have direct drainage from the primary tumour site) is one such qualitative feature that is claimed to allow the upstaging of colorectal carcinomas via an oriented, enhanced pathological work up. Current evidence in favour of a change in the requisite of assessing as may lymph nodes as is possible, and concentrating the efforts on only a selected number of lymph nodes, is weak. PMID:12719450

  4. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks.

    PubMed

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-02

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  7. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin-Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-07-01

    In topological quantum materials the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure--Dirac node arcs--in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing to the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. We propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.

  8. Alternative staging of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanik, Antoni M.; Paszko, Agata; Szura, Miroslaw; Scully-Horner, Thecla; Kulig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The TNM pN stage based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of stage migration and problems in comparing groups of patients with different numbers of total lymph nodes harvested within TNM staging. The current version of UICC/AJCC and JGCA TNM classifications postulates a minimal number of 16 lymph nodes as the base for N stage determination. Alternative systems such as lymph node ratio (LNR), positive to negative lymph node ratio (PNLNR), and LOGODDS (or LODDS), were implemented to increase the quality of LN assessment. These methods have reached the background in the literature, but to date no standard approach according to the cut-offs for the stages has been implemented. LOGODDS is the method that most reflects the number of harvested lymph nodes. The rationale for alternative staging methods, their correlations, and limitations are presented. PMID:27713774

  9. Research on centrality of urban transport network nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui; Fu, Xiufen

    2017-05-01

    Based on the actual data of urban transport in Guangzhou, 19,150 bus stations in Guangzhou (as of 2014) are selected as nodes. Based on the theory of complex network, the network model of Guangzhou urban transport is constructed. By analyzing the degree centrality index, betweenness centrality index and closeness centrality index of nodes in the network, the level of centrality of each node in the network is studied. From a different point of view to determine the hub node of Guangzhou urban transport network, corresponding to the city's key sites and major transfer sites. The reliability of the network is determined by the stability of some key nodes (transport hub station). The research of network node centralization can provide a theoretical basis for the rational allocation of urban transport network sites and public transport system planning.

  10. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately. PMID:25728010

  11. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G.; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  12. Fast neutron treatment of cervical lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    An editonal is presented which discusses a brief interim report of the prospective, randomized, RTOG study of fast neutron radiation therapy, mixed neutron and photon treatment and standard photon radiation therapy for inoperable, advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck excluding brain. The authors point out that neck nodes serve as an excellent in vivo test site to evaluate the results of fast neutron radiotherapy. The tumor volume is easily measured and the responses of both tumor and normal tissues are easily assessed. The editorial continues that it is all too rare to see the result of a randomized clinical trial in oncology which shows a statistically significant improvement, has a reasonably large number of patients, and is followed-up for a sufficiently long time. It is therefore a particular pleasure to see these three factors occurring together in the report of neutron treatments by Griffin.

  13. Topological Dirac line nodes in centrosymmetric semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkuk; Wieder, Benjamin; Kane, Charles; Rappe, Andrew; TI seed Team

    Dirac line nodes (DLNs) are one-dimensional lines of Dirac band-touching points, characterized by linear dispersion in only a single direction in momentum space. In the presence of inversion symmetry and time-reversal symmetry, crystals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling can host topologically protected DLNs. Recently, we have proposed and characterized a novel Z2 class of DLN semimetals [1]. We present Z2 topological invariants, dictating the presence of DLNs, based on the parity eigenvalues at the time-reversal invariant crystal momenta. Our first-principles calculations show that DLNs can be realized in Cu3N in an anti-ReO3 structure via a metal-insulator electronic transition, driven by transition metal doping. We also discuss the resultant surface states and the effects of spin-orbit coupling.

  14. Bradycardia: sinus and AV node dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Cara N; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2015-09-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) holds many clues with regard to the etiology of bradycardia and site of atrioventricular (AV) block. Bedside maneuvers may prove helpful in cases of 2:1 AV block or situations where the data is not all concordant. Wenckebach conduction may occur in any region of the heart, and there are nonpathologic mimickers of Mobitz II AV block as well. The surface ECG may aid in the inference of etiology for better than expected or slowed rather than blocked AV conduction. Sinus node dysfunction may present in several forms and often accompanies other conduction system disease. On occasion invasive studies may be required to help elucidate the mechanism of bradycardia.

  15. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  16. GAS eleven node thermal model (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Eleven Node Thermal Model (GEM) of the Get Away Special (GAS) container was originally developed based on the results of thermal tests of the GAS container. The model was then used in the thermal analysis and design of several NASA/GSFC GAS experiments, including the Flight Verification Payload, the Ultraviolet Experiment, and the Capillary Pumped Loop. The model description details the five cu ft container both with and without an insulated end cap. Mass specific heat values are also given so that transient analyses can be performed. A sample problem for each configuration is included as well so that GEM users can verify their computations. The model can be run on most personal computers with a thermal analyzer solution routine.

  17. Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbynĕk; Egger, Gunter F; Witter, Kirsti; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2008-10-01

    Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots. Drawbacks of this method include low reproducibility and large interobserver variance, mainly as a result of individual differences in sampling of image fields for analysis. Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs. The endothelium of blood vessels was detected in paraffin sections by a combination of immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor) and lectin histochemistry (wheat germ agglutinin) in comparison with detection of basal laminae by laminin immunohistochemistry or silver impregnation. Systematic uniform random sampling of 50 image fields was performed during photo-documentation. An unbiased counting frame (area 113,600 microm(2)) was applied to each micrograph. The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2). Vessel profiles were counted according to stereological counting rules. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were tested. The application of systematic uniform random sampling was compared with the counting of vessel profiles in hot spots. The unbiased estimate of the number of vessel profiles per unit area ranged from 100.5 +/- 44.0/mm(2) to 442.6 +/- 102.5/mm(2) in contrast to 264 +/- 72.2/mm(2) to 771.0 +/- 108.2/mm(2) in hot spots. The advantage of using systematic uniform random sampling is its reproducibility, with reasonable interobserver and low intraobserver variance. This method also allows for the possibility of using archival material, because staining quality is not limiting as it is for image analysis, and artifacts can easily be excluded. However, this method is comparatively time-consuming.

  18. Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression as Supporting Marker to Cytokeratin 19 mRNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Marek; Woźniak, Marta; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Kołodziej, Paweł; Rzeszutko, Marta; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive sentinel lymph node diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by immunohistochemistry as supporting marker to cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients and to relate this expression with clinicopathological data. This study was conducted on fresh sentinel lymph nodes obtained from 40 patients with tumors classified as carcinoma of no special type. The presence of metastatic cells in the slices of lymph nodes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CK19 and MMP-9. Expression of CK19 and MMP-9 in lymph nodes was also confirmed by means of Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the strongest correlation with CK19 mRNA was displayed by MMP-9, CK19 (by immunohistochemistry, IHC), and nodal metastases (p < 0.001). Higher histological grading also positively correlated with CK19 mRNA, however that correlation was less significant. Since MMP-9 shows very strong correlation with CK19 mRNA in breast carcinoma of no special type metastases, expression of MMP-9 in sentinel lymph nodes should be considered as useful method whenever OSNA analysis is not available.

  19. Prediction of additional lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Pohlodek, K; Bozikova, S; Meciarova, I; Mucha, V; Bartova, M; Ondrias, F

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been the principal method for evaluating axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. In the past decades sentinel lymph nodes biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been used to stage the disease. The majority of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) positive patients do not have additional metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SLN) after additional ALND. These patients are exposed to the morbidity of ALND without any benefit from additional axillary clearence. In the present study we would like to asses the criteria for selecting those patients, who have high risk for non-SLN metastases in the axilla in cases of positive SLN. In this retrospective analysis, clinical and pathologic data from 163 patients who underwent SLN biopsy followed by ALND were collected. Following clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed to predict the likehood of non-SLN metastases: age, staging, histologic type and grading of the tumors, hormonal receptor status, HER-2 receptor status and Ki-67 protein, angioinvasion, metastases in SLN and non-SLN. Relative frequencies of individual characteristics between sample groups were statistically tested by Chi-square test at significance level p=0.5, when sample sizes in groups were small (≤5) by Fisher´s exact test. Metastasis in SLN were present in 67 (41%) of patients, 48 patients (29,4%) had metastasis also in non-SLN. The ratio between non-SLN positive / non-SLN negative lymph nodes in patients with positive SLN increases with the stage of the disease, the difference between values for the pT1c and pT2 stadium was statistically significant (p = 0.0296). The same applies to grading, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). We could not find significant differences for angioinvasion of the tumor, probably for small number of patients with angioinvasion (p>0.05).Only the stage of the tumor was shown to be significant in predicting the metastasis in non-SLN in our

  20. Lymph node metastasis of soft tissue tumors: a cytomorphologic study.

    PubMed

    Loya, Anand C; Prayaga, Aruna K; Arora, Anu; Sundaram, C; Rao, I Satish; Uppin, Shantveer G; Raju, G Suryanarayana; Surath, Anjna; Rajappa, R Senthil

    2007-01-01

    To study the frequency of regional lymph node metastasis of soft tissue tumors (STT) and to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as an initial investigative modality. A prospective and retrospective study of over 6 years (1998-2004) was performed to look for frequency of STT metastasizing to lymph nodes. FNAC of enlarged nodes was performed as a routine outpatient procedure after obtaining complete clinical details. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were correlated where available. Lymph node enlargement was seen in 23 of 241 patients with STTs, of which 19 cases showed involvement (7.88%), synchronous with primary in 12 cases and metachronous in 7 cases. The most common sites of primary tumor were the lower extremity and head and neck region with involved regional lymph nodes. STTs commonly involving lymph nodes were rhabdomyosarcoma and extraskeletal Ewing's/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); other rare tumors included malignant granular cell tumor, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, mediastinal ganglioneuroblastoma, angiosarcoma and epithelioid sarcoma. Lymph node aspirates should be examined for alien cells, particularly smears that are paucicellular and demonstrate cystic change. Lymph node metastasis of STT is rare and influences staging, treatment and prognosis. Enlarged regional nodes should be examined with FNAC.

  1. Probabilistic issues with sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2015-09-01

    To address issues of probability for sentinel lymph node results in melanoma and provide details about the probabilistic nature of the numbers of sentinel nodes as well as to address how these issues relate to tumor thickness and patient outcomes. Analysis of the probability of observing sentinel node metastases uses the discrete exponential probability distribution to address the number of observed positive sentinel nodes. In addition, mathematical functions derived from survival analysis are used. Data are then chosen from the literature to illustrate the approach and to derive results. Observations about the numbers of positive and negative sentinel nodes closely follow discrete exponential probability distributions, and the relationship between the probability of a positive sentinel node and tumor thickness follows closely a function derived from survival analysis. Sentinel node results relate to tumor thickness as well as to the total number of nodes harvested but fall short of identifying all those who eventually develop metastatic melanoma. Probability analyses provide useful insight into the success and failure of the sentinel node biopsy procedure in patients with melanoma. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  2. Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation in Women with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Laura L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognosticator of survival among women with early stage cervical cancer. This means that many cervical cancer patients will undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of their treatment. Unfortunately, this procedure is associated with significant morbidity. Utilizing the sentinel lymph node technique for women with cervical cancer has the potential to decrease this morbidity. Multiple studies have suggested that sentinel lymph node mapping in these patients is feasible with excellent detection rates and sensitivity. This review examines the current body of literature regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy among women with cervical cancer. PMID:24407177

  3. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part I.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma was introduced in the early 1990s as a minimally invasive method of identifying and pathologically staging regional lymph node basins in patients with clinical stage I/II melanoma. Numerous large trials have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node evaluation has utility in improving accuracy of prognostication and for risk stratifying patients into appropriate groups for clinical trials. However, there remains a great deal of controversy regarding the therapeutic role of removal of the remainder of locoregional lymph nodes should metastatic cells be identified in the sentinel node. This CME article will outline a brief history of the sentinel node concept before reviewing updates in surgical technique, histopathologic evaluation of nodal tissue, and cost effectiveness of sentinel node biopsy. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to describe the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy, to discuss the risks and benefits associated with this procedure, and to summarize the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of patients with melanoma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Lymph Node Metastases with SERRS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Harmsen, Stefan; Huang, Ruimin; Wall, Matthew A.; Andreou, Chrysafis; Eastham, James A.; Touijer, Karim A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The accurate detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients is important to direct treatment decisions. Our goal was to develop an intra-operative imaging approach to distinguish normal from metastasized lymph nodes. We therefore developed and tested gold-silica surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) nanoparticles that demonstrate high uptake within normal lymphatic tissue, and negligible uptake in areas of metastatic replacement. Procedures We evaluated the ability of SERRS nanoparticles to delineate lymph node metastases in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model using PC-3 cells transduced with mCherry fluorescent protein. Tumor bearing mice (n = 6) and non-tumor bearing control animals (n = 4) were injected intravenously with 30 fmol/g SERRS nanoparticles. After 16–18 hours, the retroperitoneal lymph nodes were scanned in situ and ex vivo with a Raman imaging system and a hand-held Raman scanner and data corroborated with fluorescence imaging for mCherry protein expression and histology. Results The SERRS nanoparticles demonstrated avid homing to normal lymph nodes, but not to metastasized lymph nodes. In cases where lymph nodes were partially infiltrated by tumor cells, the SERRS signal correctly identified, with sub-millimeter precision, healthy from metastasized components within the same lymph node. Conclusions This study serves as a first proof-of-principle that SERRS nanoparticles enable high precision and rapid intraoperative discrimination between normal and metastasized lymph nodes. PMID:26943129

  6. Kinetics of Myosin Node Aggregation into a Contractile Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojkic, Nikola; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2010-07-01

    We study a stochastic aggregation model for the assembly of the contractile ring from a broad band of nodes during cytokinesis in fission yeast. We found that bands of nodes condense into rings when the range of node interactions is larger than the width of the band. Wide bands are unstable to clump formation due to Poisson density fluctuations. We derive expressions for node kinetics and times for ring vs clump formation and test them using numerical simulations. These results suggest clump formation mechanisms in mutant cells.

  7. Node-based measures of connectivity in genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    At-site environmental conditions can have strong influences on genetic connectivity, and in particular on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal. However, at-site processes are rarely explored in landscape genetic analyses. Networks can facilitate the study of at-site processes, where network nodes are used to model site-level effects. We used simulated genetic networks to compare and contrast the performance of 7 node-based (as opposed to edge-based) genetic connectivity metrics. We simulated increasing node connectivity by varying migration in two ways: we increased the number of migrants moving between a focal node and a set number of recipient nodes, and we increased the number of recipient nodes receiving a set number of migrants. We found that two metrics in particular, the average edge weight and the average inverse edge weight, varied linearly with simulated connectivity. Conversely, node degree was not a good measure of connectivity. We demonstrated the use of average inverse edge weight to describe the influence of at-site habitat characteristics on genetic connectivity of 653 American martens (Martes americana) in Ontario, Canada. We found that highly connected nodes had high habitat quality for marten (deep snow and high proportions of coniferous and mature forest) and were farther from the range edge. We recommend the use of node-based genetic connectivity metrics, in particular, average edge weight or average inverse edge weight, to model the influences of at-site habitat conditions on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal.

  8. SpicyNodes: radial layout authoring for the general public.

    PubMed

    Douma, Michael; Ligierko, Grzegorz; Ancuta, Ovidiu; Gritsai, Pavel; Liu, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Trees and graphs are relevant to many online tasks such as visualizing social networks, product catalogs, educational portals, digital libraries, the semantic web, concept maps and personalized information management. SpicyNodes is an information-visualization technology that builds upon existing research on radial tree layouts and graph structures. Users can browse a tree, clicking from node to node, as well as successively viewing a node, immediately related nodes and the path back to the "home" nodes. SpicyNodes' layout algorithms maintain balanced layouts using a hybrid mixture of a geometric layout (a succession of spanning radial trees) and force-directed layouts to minimize overlapping nodes, plus several other improvements over prior art. It provides XML-based API and GUI authoring tools. The goal of the SpicyNodes project is to implement familiar principles of radial maps and focus+context with an attractive and inviting look and feel in an open system that is accessible to virtually any Internet user.

  9. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG−. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient. PMID:24334464

  10. The prognostic relevance of the mitotic activity index in axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, Jan J; van der Palen, Job; Brinkhuis, Mariël; Nortier, Johan W R; Struikmans, Henk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to look at the mitotic activity index (MAI) as a prognostic factor in a prospective population-based cohort of lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer patients. Analyses were based on 2,048 breast-conserving therapies in 1,971 patients, node-negative, and without any form of adjuvant systemic therapy with long-term follow-up. The 15-year distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) for women ≤55 years was 88.3 % for low MAI values (≤12) versus 73.4 % for high MAI values (>12); (HR 2.8; 95 % CI 1.8-4.4; p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses for DMFS showed significance for MAI. For MAI and Bloom-Richardson grading, by performing a likelihood ratio test, we showed the statistical significance for both. For women >55-years, the MAI was not an independent significant factor. We also confirmed the above findings for disease-specific survival. When multi-gene assays are not available, the MAI remains a robust prognostic marker in women younger than 55 years of age with early node-negative breast cancer.

  11. Predictive Factors for Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Two or Fewer Nodes in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Toshikawa, Chie; Koyama, Yu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Hasegawa, Miki; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Manba, Naoko; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In breast cancer, recent clinical trials have shown that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone without axillary lymph node dissection results in excellent prognosis if there is sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in two or fewer nodes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopathological factors in case of SLN metastasis in two or fewer nodes in breast cancer. Patients who underwent SLNB for invasive breast cancer and were found to have positive SLN in two or fewer nodes were evaluated. The associations between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopahological factors were examined. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. A total of 358 patients were enrolled during the study period and all of these patients were female and 54 patients had SLN metastasis (15%). Positive SLN in two or fewer nodes was identified in 44 patients (81.5%). Among these patients, 17 (38.6%) were found to have non-SLN metastasis. Non-SLN metastasis was associated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.015) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P = 0.011) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.019) remained significant independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis, and that an invasive tumor size cut-off point of 28 mm was useful for dividing patients with positive SLN in two or fewer nodes into non-SLN-positive and non-SLN-negative groups. Non-SLN metastasis was found in more than 30% of patients with SLN metastasis present in two or fewer nodes. Large tumor size and the presence of lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis.

  12. Predictive Factors for Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Two or Fewer Nodes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toshikawa, Chie; Koyama, Yu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Hasegawa, Miki; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Manba, Naoko; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Background In breast cancer, recent clinical trials have shown that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone without axillary lymph node dissection results in excellent prognosis if there is sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in two or fewer nodes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopathological factors in case of SLN metastasis in two or fewer nodes in breast cancer. Methods Patients who underwent SLNB for invasive breast cancer and were found to have positive SLN in two or fewer nodes were evaluated. The associations between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopahological factors were examined. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results A total of 358 patients were enrolled during the study period and all of these patients were female and 54 patients had SLN metastasis (15%). Positive SLN in two or fewer nodes was identified in 44 patients (81.5%). Among these patients, 17 (38.6%) were found to have non-SLN metastasis. Non-SLN metastasis was associated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.015) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P = 0.011) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.019) remained significant independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis, and that an invasive tumor size cut-off point of 28 mm was useful for dividing patients with positive SLN in two or fewer nodes into non-SLN-positive and non-SLN-negative groups. Conclusions Non-SLN metastasis was found in more than 30% of patients with SLN metastasis present in two or fewer nodes. Large tumor size and the presence of lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis. PMID:26124908

  13. Biomolecular Interaction Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Brown, L; Holman, David A.; Olson, Lydia; Grate, Jay W.

    2000-12-29

    Understanding the binding interactions of complexes of multiple proteins is an important area of medical research since many biological signaling pathways involve multiple protein complexes. A number of sensor technologies have been adapted to monitoring biomolecular interactions. Acoustic wave devices such as flexural plate wave devices, surface transverse waves, and quartz crystal microbalances detect the mass increase observed upon binding of a solution biomolecule to a surface bound biomolecule. However, these devices will also respond to changes in viscosity, temperature, liquid density, and viscoelastic effects, which may confound the interpretation of observed signals. Nonspecific binding is indistinguishable from specific binding. Several techniques for refractive index sensing, such as planar wave guides and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), can also be used to observe biomolecular interactions localized at a surface. Again, nonspecific binding is indistinguishable from specific binding. In addition, the derivatized surface must be very thin and uniform to obtain adequate sensitivity and reproducibility, and the technique is not suited for monitoring large multiple protein complexes since the measurement sensitivity decreases rapidly with distance from the sensor surface. All of these techniques use planar surfaces that are difficult to prepare and characterize, and must be prepared fresh for each assay.

  14. Assay for calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  15. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Lymph Node Density in Node-Positive Laryngeal Carcinoma: Analysis of Prognostic Value for Survival.

    PubMed

    Imre, Abdulkadir; Pinar, Ercan; Dincer, Elif; Ozkul, Yılmaz; Aslan, Hale; Songu, Murat; Tatar, Bekir; Onur, Irem; Ozturkcan, Sedat; Aladag, Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the value of lymph node density (LND) as a predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and positive neck node (pN+) after laryngectomy. Case series with chart review. Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. We reviewed the records of 289 patients with newly diagnosed primary laryngeal carcinomas who underwent partial or total laryngectomy and combined neck dissection at a tertiary referral center between June 2006 and December 2014. Patients with pN+ laryngeal SCC (n = 101) were included in the study. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used to evaluate the prognostic significance of LND. In 101 patients with pN+ laryngeal SCC, LND ≥0.09 and number of metastatic lymph nodes >4 were significantly associated with OS and DFS but not the overall tumor, node, and metastasis stage. Forward stepwise Cox regression analysis revealed that LND ≥0.09 was the only independent predictor of both DFS and OS. Furthermore, the odds ratio of LND ≥0.09 was 10 times higher in patients with regional recurrence when compared patients without regional recurrence. LND was the only independent prognostic predictor of OS and DFS in patients with pN+ laryngeal SCC. Moreover, patients with LND ≥0.09 were significantly associated with high risk of regional recurrence. Thus, patients with LND ≥0.09 are at high risk of regional recurrence and death and may be considered for adjuvant chemoradiation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  17. Lymph node density predicts recurrence and death after inguinal lymph node dissection for penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwen, Zeyad R.; Ko, Joan S.; Meyer, Alexa; Netto, George J.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of lymph node density (LND) on survival after inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) for penile cancer. Materials and Methods Our institutional penile cancer database was queried for patients who underwent ILND. Clinicopathologic characteristics including LND and total number of positive lymph nodes (LNs) were analyzed to determine impact on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). LND, or the percent of positive LN out of total LN, was calculated as a categorical variable at varying thresholds. Results Twenty-eight patients with complete follow-up were identified. Indications for ILND were stage >T2 in 20 patients (71.4%), palpable adenopathy in 7 (25%), high grade T1 in 1 (3.6%). Median node yield was 17.5 (interquartile range, 12−22), and positive LNs were found in 14 patients (50%). RFS and OS were significantly lower for patients with >15% LN density (median RFS: 62 months vs. 6.3 months, p=0.0120; median OS: 73.6 months vs. 6.3 months, p<0.001). Controlling for age, medical comorbidities, number of positive LN, T stage, pelvic LN status and indication, LN density >15% was independently associated with worse RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6; p=0.04) and OS (HR, 73.6; p=0.002). The c-index for LND was higher than total positive LNs for RFS (0.64 vs. 0.54) and OS (0.79 vs. 0.61). Conclusions In this small, retrospective penile cancer cohort, the presence of nodal involvement >15% was associated with decreased RFS and OS, and outperformed total number of positive LN as a prognostic indicator. PMID:28097264

  18. Node-to-node field calibration of wireless distributed air pollution sensor network.

    PubMed

    Kizel, Fadi; Etzion, Yael; Shafran-Nathan, Rakefet; Levy, Ilan; Fishbain, Barak; Bartonova, Alena; Broday, David M

    2017-09-23

    Low-cost air quality sensors offer high-resolution spatiotemporal measurements that can be used for air resources management and exposure estimation. Yet, such sensors require frequent calibration to provide reliable data, since even after a laboratory calibration they might not report correct values when they are deployed in the field, due to interference with other pollutants, as a result of sensitivity to environmental conditions and due to sensor aging and drift. Field calibration has been suggested as a means for overcoming these limitations, with the common strategy involving periodical collocations of the sensors at an air quality monitoring station. However, the cost and complexity involved in relocating numerous sensor nodes back and forth, and the loss of data during the repeated calibration periods make this strategy inefficient. This work examines an alternative approach, a node-to-node (N2N) calibration, where only one sensor in each chain is directly calibrated against the reference measurements and the rest of the sensors are calibrated sequentially one against the other while they are deployed and collocated in pairs. The calibration can be performed multiple times as a routine procedure. This procedure minimizes the total number of sensor relocations, and enables calibration while simultaneously collecting data at the deployment sites. We studied N2N chain calibration and the propagation of the calibration error analytically, computationally and experimentally. The in-situ N2N calibration is shown to be generic and applicable for different pollutants, sensing technologies, sensor platforms, chain lengths, and sensor order within the chain. In particular, we show that chain calibration of three nodes, each calibrated for a week, propagate calibration errors that are similar to those found in direct field calibration. Hence, N2N calibration is shown to be suitable for calibration of distributed sensor networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Patterns and clinical significance of cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer patients with Delphian lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guibin; Zhang, Hua; Hao, Shaolong; Liu, Chengxin; Xu, Jie; Ning, Jinyao; Wu, Guochang; Jiang, Lixin; Li, Guojun; Zheng, Haitao; Song, Xicheng

    2017-08-22

    Although the roles of Delphian lymph node (DLN) metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have been previously reported, there are still limited data on correlations of clinicopathologic factors with DLN metastasis and unique patterns of cervical node subsite metastasis in PTC patients with DLN metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 320 patients with a diagnosis of PTC who underwent primary surgery. Clinicopathologic features and DLN metastasis patterns were analyzed for predicting extensive cervical lymph node metastasis. Both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent factors for cervical lymph node metastasis. DLN metastasis was significantly associated with multifocality, tumor size > 1 cm, extrathyroid extension, BRAF(V600E) mutation, central neck node metastasis (CNNM), and lateral neck nodes metastases. Patients with DLN metastasis had more lymph node metastases in the central compartment. CNNM number and tumor size > 1 cm were independent risk factors for DLN metastasis. DLN metastasis was highly predictive of lateral lymph node metastasis with moderate sensitivity and high specificity. DLN metastasis is associated with several poor prognostic factors, including extensive cervical lymph node metastasis, and can serve as a predictor of advanced PTC. The presence of DLN metastasis should prompt surgeons to perform an aggressive surgery approach.

  20. Mirror-image lymph node in FDG PET/CT and SPECT/CT for sentinel node detection.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Beatriz; Paredes, Pilar; Rubí, Sebastià; Pahisa, Jaume; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Pons, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of a patient with presumed stage IB1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in which FDG PET/CT scan revealed 1 hypermetabolic left iliac node suggestive to be malignant. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT studies previous to sentinel node (SLN) biopsy revealed unilateral drainage in the right pelvis. Intraoperative pathological assessment of the SLN showed no tumoral involvement, and the hypermetabolic node revealed macrometastasis. Tumor node invasion can lead to a lymphatic blockage and become false-negative for SLN technique. Although FDG PET/CT has lower sensitivity than surgical staging, this case shows its value as a preoperative imaging technique.

  1. Electrophysiologic effects of propranolol on sinus node function in patients with sinus node dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Strauss, H C; Gilbert, M; Svenson, R H; Miller, H C; Wallace, A G

    1976-09-01

    The electrophysiologic effects of intravenously administered propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) on three parameters of sinus node function were examined in ten symptomatic patients with sinus node dysfunction. The patients ranged in age from 26 to 79 years. Symptoms ranged from fatigue to frank syncope. Sinoatrial (SA) block and sinus pauses were observed in one patient; sinus pauses alone were observed in three patients. Five (5/10) patients had intraatrial block; three (3/10) patients had atrioventricular block; four (4/10) patients had an intraventricular conduction disturbance. At the time of electrophysiologic study, two patients had a control spontaneous sinus cycle length that exceeded 1000 msec. Following propranolol, the mean spontaneous cycle length increased by 17.4% (924 to 1085 msec, P less than 0.005) and spontaneous second degree SA block reappeared in the one patient. The maximum escape cycle ranged from 116% to 229% of the prepacing spontaneous cycle length and was considered to be prolonged in two of ten patients. Propranolol had no significant effect on the maximum escape cycle/prepacing cycle length X 100 (%). The estimated sinoatrial conduction time (SACT) was determined in seven patients and ranged in value from 120 to 238 mes. Propranolol increased the mean value of the estimated SACT from 179 to 213 msec, P less than 0.025. Propranolol may cause marked bradyarrhythmias in some patients with sinus node dysfunction, and should be used with caution in these patients.

  2. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  3. Number of Lymph Nodes Harvested From a Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark S.; Decker, Paul A.; Ballman, Karla; Malthaner, Richard A.; Inculet, Richard I.; Jones, David R.; McKenna, Robert J.; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Putnam, Joe B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status is a major determinant of stage and survival in patients with lung cancer; however, little information is available about the expected yield of a mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Methods: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0030 prospective, randomized trial of mediastinal lymph node sampling vs complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary resection enrolled 1,111 patients from July 1999 to February 2004. Data from 524 patients who underwent complete mediastinal lymph node dissection were analyzed to determine the number of lymph nodes obtained. Results: The median number of additional lymph nodes harvested from a mediastinal lymphadenectomy following systematic sampling was 18 with a range of one to 72 for right-sided tumors, and 18 with a range of four to 69 for left-sided tumors. The median number of N2 nodes harvested was 11 on the right and 12 on the left. A median of at least six nodes was harvested from at least three stations in 99% of patients, and 90% of patients had at least 10 nodes harvested from three stations. Overall, 21 patients (4%) were found to have occult N2 disease. Conclusions: Although high variability exists in the actual number of lymph nodes obtained from various nodal stations, complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy removes one or more lymph nodes from all mediastinal stations. Adequate mediastinal lymphadenectomy should include stations 2R, 4R, 7, 8, and 9 for right-sided cancers and stations 4L, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for left-sided cancers. Six or more nodes were resected in 99% of patients in this study. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00003831; URL: clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20829340

  4. Sentinel nodes of malignancies originating in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kitajima, Masaki; Kubo, Atsushi

    2004-02-01

    The feasibility of the sentinel node concept for malignancies originating in the alimentary tract is attracting much interest among researchers in the field of gastrointestinal oncology. We have tested more than 350 such cases and obtained favorable and promising initial results. The detectability of sentinel nodes using endoscopically injected Tc-99m tin colloid for these tumors exceeded 90%. Although the false negative ratio was not so low (approximately 10%), most of these cases had an inaccurate preoperative evaluation of mural invasion and/or a technically unfavorable injection. When the indication is restricted to patients with early-stage disease, and when the radioactive colloid is properly administered, sentinel node navigation therapy would be applicable for gastrointestinal malignancies. To achieve successful sentinel node navigation surgery it is essential to accurately identify sentinel nodes, and lymphoscintigraphy is a very useful test to confirm the location of sentinel nodes preoperatively. However, image processing is required for lymphoscintigrams because the original image depicts only high activity at the injection site and faint radioactivity in the sentinel nodes. We have clearly imaged the silhouette of the body using Compton scattered photons, and have also proposed several methods to improve the contrast between the injection sites and sentinel nodes. Many sentinel nodes can be clearly visualized by subtraction of the background activity with heterogeneous distribution. The development of the portable gamma camera, enabling intraoperative imaging, also contributes to less invasive biopsy of sentinel nodes. We have obtained promising initial results using a portable imaging device with semiconductor detectors. These promising results suggest that sentinel node navigation therapy including radiotherapy will be a new therapy for early-stage gastrointestinal malignancies in the near future, with nuclear medicine contributing to the

  5. Cell migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Moutasim, Karwan A; Nystrom, Maria L; Thomas, Gareth J

    2011-01-01

    A number of in vitro assays have been developed to study tumor cell motility. Historically, assays have been mainly monocellular, where carcinoma cells are studied in isolation. Scratch assays can be used to study the collective and directional movement of populations of cells, whereas two chamber assays lend themselves to the analysis of chemotactic/haptotactic migration and cell invasion. However, an inherent disadvantage of these assays is that they grossly oversimplify the complex process of invasion, lacking the tumor structural architecture and stromal components. Organotypic assays, where tumor cells are grown at an air/liquid interface on gels populated with stromal cells, are a more physiologically relevant method for studying 3-dimensional tumor invasion.

  6. Impaired T-cell responses to sphingosine-1-phosphate in HIV-1 infected lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Joseph C.; Murphy, Patrick; Manion, Maura; Debernardo, Robert; Hardacre, Jeffrey; Ammori, John; Hardy, Gareth A.; Harding, Clifford V.; Mahabaleshwar, Ganapati H.; Jain, Mukesh K.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Brooks, Ari D.; Lewis, Sharon; Schacker, Timothy W.; Anderson, Jodi; Haddad, Elias K.; Cubas, Rafael A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Sieg, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of HIV-1-associated lymphadenopathy are poorly understood. We hypothesized that lymphocytes could be sequestered in the HIV-1+ lymph node (LN) through impairments in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) responsiveness. To test this hypothesis, we developed novel assays for S1P-induced Akt phosphorylation and actin polymerization. In the HIV-1+ LN, naïve CD4 T cells and central memory CD4 and CD8 T cells had impaired Akt phosphorylation in response to S1P, whereas actin polymerization responses to S1P were impaired dramatically in all LN maturation subsets. These defects were improved with antiretroviral therapy. LN T cells expressing CD69 were unable to respond to S1P in either assay, yet impaired S1P responses were also seen in HIV-1+ LN T cells lacking CD69 expression. Microbial elements, HIV-1, and interferon α – putative drivers of HIV-1associated immune activation all tended to increase CD69 expression and reduce T-cell responses to S1P in vitro. Impairment in T-cell egress from lymph nodes through decreased S1P responsiveness may contribute to HIV-1-associated LN enlargement and to immune dysregulation in a key organ of immune homeostasis. PMID:23422746

  7. High-throughput assays for sirtuin enzymes: a microfluidic mobility shift assay and a bioluminescence assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yichin; Gerber, Raphaele; Wu, John; Tsuruda, Trace; McCarter, John D

    2008-07-01

    Silent information regulator or sirtuin (SIRT) enzymes are beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized) (NAD(+))-dependent class III histone deacetylases. In this paper, two distinct assays to measure SIRT1 activity are described: a microfluidic mobility shift assay utilizing a fluorophore-labeled peptide substrate and a bioluminescence assay based upon quantitation of remaining NAD(+). The mobility shift assay involves the electrophoretic separation of an N-acetyl-lysine-containing peptide substrate from deacetylated product which bears an additional positive charge. Interference from fluorescent compounds is minimized during screening by direct visualization of separated fluorophore-labeled substrate and product. A preferred peptide substrate for SIRT1 was identified using this assay. The NAD(+) bioluminescence assay couples NAD(+) consumption to the bacterial luciferase-catalyzed oxidation of decanal. This assay does not require synthesis of a labeled peptide and is applicable to sirtuins of any specificity with respect to peptide substrate. The stoichiometry between NAD(+) consumption and peptide deacetylation was shown to be 1:1 by the NAD(+) bioluminescence assay. Kinetic parameters of peptide and NAD(+) cosubstrates and IC(50) values of standard reference inhibitors determined in either assay were similar. With robust Z' values (0.7), both assays are amenable to high-throughput screening.

  8. Evaluation of three commercial progesterone receptor assays in a single tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cohort.

    PubMed

    Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Klimowicz, Alexander C; Guggisberg, Natalia; Ogilvie, Travis; Morris, Don G; Webster, Marc; Magliocco, Anthony M

    2016-12-01

    Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status are routinely assessed using immunohistochemistry assays to assist in patient prognosis and clinical management. Three commonly utilized autostainer vendors-Dako, Leica and Ventana-provide ready-to-use progesterone receptor assays; however, they have never been directly compared in a single breast cancer cohort. We looked at three immunohistochemical progesterone receptor assays, in addition to original ligand-binding assay results, in a single retrospective, tamoxifen-treated breast cancer cohort to investigate inter- and intra-observer agreement, concordance, prognostic ability and measures of test performance. All immunohistochemical assays utilized the manufacturer's specified protocols. Five-year disease-free survival was the endpoint of interest, and multivariate models were adjusted for lymph node status, tumor grade, tumor size and human epidermal growth factor 2 status. All assays showed substantial to almost perfect agreement between the three observers (Dako κ=0.69-0.90; Leica κ=0.70-0.89; and Ventana κ=0.78-0.94) and concordance (Dako/Leica κ=0.81; Dako/Ventana κ=0.78; and Leica/Ventana κ=0.82). Univariate survival analyses showed that only the ligand-binding assay, Dako and Ventana assays achieved statistical significance. No statistically significant results were seen in multivariate models, although a strong trend was seen with the Ventana progesterone receptor assay. All assays performed similarly with regards to measures of test performance with ligand-binding assay set as the reference, and all immunohistochemical assays outperformed the ligand-binding assay in regards to 5-year disease-free survival. Despite similar agreement and concordance with the progesterone receptor assays, clear differences were noted with regards to 5-year disease-free survival. Additional survival analyses suggest that clinical utility of estrogen receptor assays vary when investigated in combination with

  9. Role of microRNA-141 in colorectal cancer with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Ma, Hongqing; Chang, Liang; Zhou, Xinliang; Wang, Na; Zhao, Lianmei; Zuo, Jing; Wang, Yudong; Han, Jing; Wang, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-141 in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In total, 58 CRC patients were included in the present study. The mRNA and protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAP4K4) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The miRNA-141 expression was measured by RT-qPCR, while serum MAP4K4 content was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Natural killer (NK) cells and T cells in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of MAP4K4 were significantly elevated in the tumor tissues, lymph nodes (P<0.01) and serum (P<0.05) in CRC. Furthermore, the expression levels of MAP4K4 in CRC patients with lymph node metastasis were higher compared with those in patients without metastasis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that MAP4K4 may be the target gene of miRNA-141. The expression levels of miRNA-141 in the tumor tissues, lymph nodes and serum were significantly decreased in CRC patients, with a more evident decline in cases with lymph node metastasis. In addition, the percentage of NK, CD3+ T and CD4+ T cells was significantly decreased, whilst the number of CD8+ T cells was significantly increased, in the peripheral blood in CRC. The present results showed that miRNA-141 was downregulated in CRC, which increased the expression levels of MAP4K4 and altered the anti-tumor response, further increasing the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the tumors. These findings may contribute to improving the current understanding of the pathogenesis of CRC, and lead to the development of therapies involving miRNA-141. PMID:27882171

  10. A comparison of transportation node costs and their primary drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Douglas A.; Shepard, Kyle M.; Youngs, Jack M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the process for defining and evaluating the costs of alternative transportation node concepts for Space Station Freedom. A cost estimating methodology including costs of development, production, delivery, assembly, steady state operations, and mission-specific operations is described in detail. The primary drivers of transportation node costs are identified and discussed.

  11. [Clinical physiology and physiopathology of the atrioventricular node].

    PubMed

    Runge, M; Luckmann, E; Narula, O S

    1977-10-22

    The functional behaviour of the healthy and sick human AV-node under various clinical-experimental conditions is described with special reference to (1) AV-nodal conduction, (2) AV-nodel refractoriness, (3) influence of autonomic tone and (4) role of the AV-node in the initiation of rhythm disturbances.

  12. [Patient with bilateral lung nodes like metastasis. Late silicosis].

    PubMed

    Monzón, T; Castillo, J; Ruiz Yagüe, M; Jiménez, R

    2009-09-01

    We present a 72-year-old patient that he has admitted to analize a large amount and bilateral lung nodes in a incidentally thorax x-ray. It is carried out a lung node biopsy, with a result of silicoanthacosis.

  13. Unexpected locations of sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    How, Jeffrey; Boldeanu, Irina; Lau, Susie; Salvador, Shannon; How, Emily; Gotlieb, Raphael; Abitbol, Jeremie; Halder, Ajay; Amajoud, Zainab; Probst, Stephan; Brin, Sonya; Gotlieb, Walter

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomical location of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) following intra-operative cervical injection in endometrial cancer. All consecutive patients with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping were included in this prospective study following intra-operative cervical injection of tracers. Areas of SLN detection distribution were mapped. Among 436 patients undergoing SLN mapping, there were 1095 SLNs removed, and 7.9% of these SLNs found in 13.1% of patients, were detected in areas not routinely harvested during a standard lymph node dissection. These included the internal iliac vein, parametrial, and pre-sacral areas. The SLN was the only positive node in 46.1% (15/36) of cases with successful mapping and completion lymphadenectomy, including 3 cases where the sentinel node in the atypical location was the only node with metastatic disease. SLN mapping using intra-operative cervical injection is capable to map out areas not typically included in a standard lymphadenectomy. The sentinel node is the most relevant lymph node to analyze and may enable to discover metastatic disease in unusual areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detecting and isolating malicious nodes in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanzhi; Jassim, Sabah

    2007-04-01

    Malicious nodes can seriously impair the performance of wireless ad hoc networks as a result of different actions such as packet dropping. Secure routes are shortest paths on which every node on the route is trusted even if unknown. Secure route discovery requires the adoption of mechanisms of associating trust to nodes. Most existing secure route discovery mechanisms rely on shared keys and digital signature. In the absence of central nodes that act as certification authority, such protocols suffer from heavy computational burden and are vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper we shall review existing techniques for secure routing and propose to complement route finding with creditability scores. Each node would have a credit list for its neighbors. Each node monitors its neighbors' pattern of delivering packets and regularly credits are reviewed and updated accordingly. Unlike most existing schemes the focus of our work is based on post route discovery stage, i.e. when packets are transmitted on discovered routes. The level of trust in any route will be based on the credits associated with the neighbors belonging to the discovered route. We shall evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme by modifying our simulation system so that each node has a dynamic changing "credit list" for its neighbors' behavior. We shall conduct a series of simulations with and without the proposed scheme and compare the results. We will demonstrate that the proposed mechanism is capable of isolating malicious nodes and thereby counteracting black hole attacks.

  15. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node location with magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chu W.; Rogers, James M.; Groman, Ernest V.

    1999-04-01

    Subcutaneously administered magnetite nanoparticles were used to locate sentinel lymph nodes in normal rats. Nanoparticles sequestered in brachial and axillary lymph nodes produced magnetic susceptibility artifacts in gradient recall echo magnetic resonance images. The artifact sizes enabled the determination of nanoparticle nodal uptake rates and lymphatic drainage patterns. These studies were confirmed by use of 59Fe labeled magnetite nanoparticles.

  16. Intra-lymph node injection of biodegradable polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Andorko, James I; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M

    2014-01-02

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines.

  17. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large.

  18. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  19. Popliteal lymphadenectomy on sentinel lymph node melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Barrasa Shaw, Antonio; Sancho Merle, Francisca; Fuster Diana, Carlos; Campos Máñez, Jorge; Vázquez Albadalejo, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is a procedure that surgeons rarely perform and, therefore, scarcely represented in bibliography. In this paper we present the case of a patient with melanoma metastasis to popliteal sentinel lymph nodes showing the surgical procedure and discussing some epidemiological and technical issues.

  20. Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. Lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    al-Gindan, Y; Kubba, R; el-Hassan, A M; Omer, A H; Kutty, M K; Saeed, M B

    1989-05-01

    In a study of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to leishmania major in an endemic focus in Saudi Arabia, lymph node enlargement was observed in 66 of 643 patients (10.26%). The epitrochlear lymph nodes were most commonly involved (68%), but cervical (11%), axillary (15%), and inguinal (18%) lymph nodes were also involved. In eight patients (12%), two lymph node areas were involved. The affected lymph nodes were typically solitary, firm, mobile, nontender, only moderately enlarged, and appeared to persist beyond the clinical healing of the associated skin lesions. The results of pathologic and immunopathologic studies carried out on eight lymph nodes obtained from this group of patients supported the leishmanial etiology. Although amastigotes were only demonstrated in two lymph nodes, the leishmanial antigen was found in all eight specimens. The lymph node involvement is another manifestation of dissemination in infection with a dermotropic leishmania. It appears that in some cases, instead of the parasite, it may be the leishmanial antigen that disseminates and produces lymphadenitis.

  1. Giant lymph node hyperplasia of the mediastinum and refractory anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Geary, C G; Fox, H

    1978-01-01

    An example is described of the syndrome of refractory anaemia in association with the plasma cell variant of giant lymph node hyperplasia of the mediastinum; the anaemia responded to removal of the lymphoid mass. The entity of giant lymph node hyperplasia is discussed and its relationship to the haematological syndrome is considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:690239

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.

  3. Intra-lymph Node Injection of Biodegradable Polymer Particles

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines. PMID:24430972

  4. Node importance for dynamical process on networks: a multiscale characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Li, Ping; Zhang, Kai; Small, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Defining the importance of nodes in a complex network has been a fundamental problem in analyzing the structural organization of a network, as well as the dynamical processes on it. Traditionally, the measures of node importance usually depend either on the local neighborhood or global properties of a network. Many real-world networks, however, demonstrate finely detailed structure at various organization levels, such as hierarchy and modularity. In this paper, we propose a multiscale node-importance measure that can characterize the importance of the nodes at varying topological scale. This is achieved by introducing a kernel function whose bandwidth dictates the ranges of interaction, and meanwhile, by taking into account the interactions from all the paths a node is involved. We demonstrate that the scale here is closely related to the physical parameters of the dynamical processes on networks, and that our node-importance measure can characterize more precisely the node influence under different physical parameters of the dynamical process. We use epidemic spreading on networks as an example to show that our multiscale node-importance measure is more effective than other measures.

  5. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter . E-mail: peter.jenkins@glos.nhs.uk; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes.

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    DOE PAGES

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothingmore » (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.« less

  7. Expression of CXCR4 and VEGF-C is correlated with lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ming Ming; Shang, Bin; Wang, Zhou; Chen, Gang

    2017-09-19

    This study investigated the correlations between CXCR4 and VEGF-C expression and lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tumor specimens, lymph nodes, and normal lung tissues were obtained from 110 NSCLC patients who underwent complete resection. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were conducted to evaluate messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of CXCR4 and VEGF-C. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. CXCR4 and VEGF-C mRNA expression were observed in 78 (70.9%) and 64 (58.2%) lung cancer tissues, while CXCR4 and VEGF-C protein expression were observed in 76 (69.9%) and 58 (52.7%) lung cancer tissues, respectively. The expression rates of CXCR4 and VEGF-C mRNA in metastatic lymph nodes were 84.8% and 66.7%, which were higher than that in non-metastatic lymph nodes (27.3% and 18.2%), respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive expressions of CXCR4 and VEGF-C mRNA were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. Furthermore, combined expression of CXCR4 and VEGF-C showed a much higher odds ratio than CXCR4 or VEGF-C expression alone. CXCR4 and VEGF-C were highly expressed in lung cancer tissues and metastatic lymph nodes. CXCR4 and VEGF-C expression levels were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. CXCR4 and VEGF-C might synergically promote lymphatic metastasis in lung cancer and might be a clinical predictor of lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Cascading Failures in Networks with Proximate Dependent Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2013-03-01

    We study a system composed of two identical, random regular, interdependent networks. When a fraction of nodes in the first network are eliminated by failure or attack, further nodes that become isolated or lose their dependent node fail in turn, initiating a process of cascading failures. In contrast to previous models, these networks are constructed such that interdependent nodes are no more than a set distance away, with the distance defined by the number of intervening nodes. We find that as the maximum distance and the degree of connectivity increase, the disintegration of the system shifts from being similar to that of a single network to resembling the failure found in other models of interdependent networks. As the distance and degree increase, the collapse at the critical threshold changes from a second-order transition to a first-order one. The critical threshold monotonically increases as the distance increases.

  9. Resistance between two nodes of a ring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhuozhuo; Yan, Weigen

    2017-10-01

    The resistance between two nodes in some resistor networks has been studied extensively by mathematicians and physicists. Given m positive integers m1 ,m2 , ⋯ ,mn, let G[mi]1n be the resistor network with node set V =V1 ∪V2 ∪ ⋯ ∪Vn and with a unit resistor between arbitrary two nodes u ∈Vi , v ∈Vi+1 for i = 1 , 2 , ⋯ , n, where Vi ∩Vj = 0̸ if i ≠ j, and ∣Vi ∣ =mi ,Vn+1 =V1. Gervacio (2016) introduces a modified method to compute the resistance between two nodes. Based on this method, in this paper, we use the elimination and substitution principles in electrical circuit to obtain the resistance between arbitrary two nodes of G[mi]1n.

  10. Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix with lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Terada, K Y; Morley, G W; Roberts, J A

    1988-11-01

    From January 1, 1946, through January 1, 1986, at the University of Michigan, 60 patients were treated with Stage IB (FIGO) carcinoma of the cervix with lymph node metastases. Clinical variables were examined with regard to long-term survival. Prognostically significant variables were (1) highest level of lymph node involvement and (2) tumor histology. Patients with common iliac or periaortic node involvement had an actuarial survival at 5 years of 14%; 5-year survival for patients with only pelvic node involvement (external iliac, hypogastric, or obturator) was 68%. Patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histology had an actuarial survival at 5 years of 16%; 5-year survival for patient with squamous cell carcinoma was 71%. Overall survival for all patients with lymph node involvement was 61%. For patients undergoing radical hysterectomy as primary treatment, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy did not significantly improve survival.

  11. Effective number of accessed nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Viana, Matheus P; Batista, João L B; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-03-01

    The measurement called accessibility has been proposed as a means to quantify the efficiency of the communication between nodes in complex networks. This article reports results regarding the properties of accessibility, including its relationship with the average minimal time to visit all nodes reachable after h steps along a random walk starting from a source, as well as the number of nodes that are visited after a finite period of time. We characterize the relationship between accessibility and the average number of walks required in order to visit all reachable nodes (the exploration time), conjecture that the maximum accessibility implies the minimal exploration time, and confirm the relationship between the accessibility values and the number of nodes visited after a basic time unit. The latter relationship is investigated with respect to three types of dynamics: traditional random walks, self-avoiding random walks, and preferential random walks.

  12. Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

  13. Reentry confined to the atrioventricular node: electrophysiologic and anatomic findings.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, M M; Gonzalez, R; Thomas, A; Ullyot, D; Bharati, S; Lev, M

    1982-05-01

    A patient with recurrent disabling, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia refractory to drug treatment underwent electrophysiologic studies. The paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia was found to be due to atrioventricular (A-V) nodal reentry. The patient died shortly after surgical His bundle section and detailed anatomic studies were performed. These showed fatty infiltration of the approaches to the sinoatrial node, atrial preferential pathways, and A-V node and common bundle. The A-V node was mechanically damaged and the common His bundle was completely severed. These abnormalities were clearly delineated and there was no evidence of an atrio-His bundle bypass tract to an accessory A-V node. Specifically, the central fibrous body and pars membranacea were defined and no atrial muscular fibers pierced these structures to joint the A-V bundle. It is concluded that paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia due to A-V nodal reentry can be confined to the A-V node.

  14. Feedback arcs and node hierarchy in directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2017-06-01

    Directed networks such as gene regulation networks and neural networks are connected by arcs (directed links). The nodes in a directed network are often strongly interwound by a huge number of directed cycles, which lead to complex information-processing dynamics in the network and make it highly challenging to infer the intrinsic direction of information flow. In this theoretical paper, based on the principle of minimum-feedback, we explore the node hierarchy of directed networks and distinguish feedforward and feedback arcs. Nearly optimal node hierarchy solutions, which minimize the number of feedback arcs from lower-level nodes to higher-level nodes, are constructed by belief-propagation and simulated-annealing methods. For real-world networks, we quantify the extent of feedback scarcity by comparison with the ensemble of direction-randomized networks and identify the most important feedback arcs. Our methods are also useful for visualizing directed networks.

  15. node.dating: dating ancestors in phylogenetic trees in R.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bradley R; Poon, Art F Y

    2017-03-15

    Phylogenetic trees encode the evolutionary distances between species or populations. With sufficient information, these evolutionary distances can be rescaled over time to provide estimates of the dates of the most recent ancestors of the species. Here we present the R program node.dating, divergence-time analysis software, which uses a maximum-likelihood method to estimate the dates of the internal nodes of a phylogenetic tree. node.dating is available as a part of the R v3.30 package ape v4.0 (cran.r-project.org). node.dating is also available in the GitHub repository: https://github.com/brj1/node.dating , along with supplementary software and tests. brj1@sfu.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  17. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  18. Promoting Creative Engagement with SpicyNodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The Information Age has posed new challenges to the presentation and communication of knowledge. In their attempts to handle the abundance of information in an effective way, people have come to rely on maps. Maps are a useful tool for visualization and the arrangement of concepts as they mark the current location in the context of their surroundings. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an improved method of organizing and visually presenting web-based information using radial tree maps. The project encourages creative thought on two levels. For those who create, it provides a platform for organizing and displaying information in a creative manner, and sharing those methods with others. For users, it allows the exploration of complex systems while gaining the perspective of a broader context. By presenting information in a natural and intuitive way, such radial maps can help people think in novel and creative ways. It may also aid and find application in the learning process of kids and students with learning disabilities.

  19. Emergency communications via airborne communications node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-02-01

    Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes invariably result in disruption of the commercial communications infrastructure and can severely impede the delivery of emergency services by local and federal agencies. In addition, the public's inability to communicate with commercial service providers can substantially slow the recovery process. Since wide-spread destruction of communications plant and distribution systems takes a long time to rebuild, an attractive alternative would be to provide communications connectivity through an airborne platform configured as a communication node. From a high altitude, a single aircraft could provide line of sight connectivity between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or satellite gateways to the national PSTN. This capability could be used to substitute for multiple base stations for fire and police as well as military relief workers using their normal mobile communications gear. The airborne platform could also serve as a wide area base station to replace cellular phone towers that have been destroyed; this would enable civilian access to communications services from existing cellular phones, but could also be used by relief workers carrying low-cost commercial handsets. This paper examines the technical methods for achieving these goals, identifies the equipment needed on the airborne platform, and discusses the performance that could be expected.

  20. Inverse lithography technique for advanced CMOS nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaret, Alexandre; Tritchkov, Alexander; Entradas, Jorge; Yesilada, Emek

    2013-04-01

    Resolution Enhancement Techniques have continuously improved over the last decade, driven by the ever growing constraints of lithography process. Despite the large number of RET applied, some hotspot configurations remain challenging for advanced nodes due to aggressive design rules. Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT) is evaluated here as a substitute to the dense OPC baseline. Indeed ILT has been known for several years for its near-to-ideal mask quality, while also being potentially more time consuming in terms of OPC run and mask processing. We chose to evaluate Mentor Graphics' ILT engine "pxOPCTM" on both lines and via hotspot configurations. These hotspots were extracted from real 28nm test cases where the dense OPC solution is not satisfactory. For both layer types, the reference OPC consists of a dense OPC engine coupled to rule-based and/or model-based assist generation method. The same CM1 model is used for the reference and the ILT OPC. ILT quality improvement is presented through Optical Rule Check (ORC) results with various adequate detectors. Several mask manufacturing rule constraints (MRC) are considered for the ILT solution and their impact on process ability is checked after mask processing. A hybrid OPC approach allowing localized ILT usage is presented in order to optimize both quality and runtime. A real mask is prepared and fabricated with this method. Finally, results analyzed on silicon are presented to compare localized ILT to reference dense OPC.

  1. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  2. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and bilateral detection than methylene blue.

  3. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. Results The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and

  4. Differential Cytokine Gene Expression in Granulomas from Lungs and Lymph Nodes of Cattle Experimentally Infected with Aerosolized Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark lesion of tuberculosis in humans and animals is the granuloma. The granuloma represents a distinct host cellular immune response composed of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells, often surrounding a caseous necrotic core. Within the granuloma, host-pathogen interactions determine disease outcome. Factors within the granulomas such as cytokines and chemokines drive cell recruitment, activity, function and ultimately the success or failure of the host’s ability to control infection. Hence, an understanding of the granuloma-level cytokine response is necessary to understand tuberculosis pathogenesis. In-situ cytokine expression patterns were measured using a novel in situ hybridization assay, known as RNAScope® in granulomas of the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes and caudal mediastinal lymph nodes of cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis via aerosol exposure. In spite of microscopic morphological similarities, significant differences were seen between late stage granulomas of the lung compared to those of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes for IL-17A, IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL10 and IL-22 but not for TNF-α. Additionally, significant differences were noted between granulomas from two different thoracic lymph nodes that both receive afferent lymphatics from the lungs (i.e., tracheobronchial and caudal mediastinal lymph nodes) for TNF-α, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TGF-β and IL-10 but not for IL-22. These findings show that granuloma morphology alone is not a reliable indicator of granuloma function as granulomas of similar morphologies can have disparate cytokine expression patterns. Moreover, anatomically distinct lymph nodes (tracheobronchial vs caudal mediastinal) differ in cytokine expression patterns even when both receive afferent lymphatics from a lung containing tuberculoid granulomas. These findings show that selection of tissue and anatomic location are critical factors in assessing host immune response to M

  5. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays.

    PubMed

    Basu, Amar S

    2017-08-01

    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  6. ELISPOT assay on membrane microplates.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhny, Alexander E

    2009-01-01

    Membranes used for western blotting can be also used for ELISPOT, an enzyme-linked immunospot assay, which allows determining frequencies of cytokine-secreting immune system cells. In addition to their high antibody-retaining capacity PVDF and NC membranes provide good support to immune system cells cultured in vitro and do not affect their physiology. ELISPOT assays utilizing membrane-backed microplates are used in many areas of research including vaccine development, HIV research, cancer and infection disease research, autoimmune disease, and allergy research.ELISPOT utilizes the same antibody "sandwich" technique as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but unlike the latter ELISPOT belongs to state-of-the-art techniques when outcome of the assay depends on skills and accuracy of the operator, a thorough selection of matched pairs of capture and detection antibodies, and using appropriate staining reagents. This review covers basics of ELISPOT assay including its immunochemical design, selection of reagents and membrane microplates, and some troubleshooting recommendations.

  7. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-09-13

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  8. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-08-09

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  9. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  10. From Antenna to Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  11. The history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer: From visualization of lymphatic vessels to sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    de Bree, Remco; Nieweg, Omgo E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer. Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients for treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Although this procedure has only recently been accepted for early oral cancer, the first studies on visualization of the cervical lymphatic vessels were reported in the 1960s. In the 1980s mapping of lymphatic drainage from specific head and neck sites was introduced. Sentinel node biopsy was further developed in the 1990s and after validation in this century the procedure is routinely performed in early oral cancer in several head and neck centers. New techniques may improve the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy further, particularly in difficult subsites like the floor of mouth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too.

  13. Impact of Completion Lymph Node Dissection on Patients with Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David Y; Lau, Briana J; Huynh, Kelly T; Flaherty, Devin C; Lee, Ji-Hey; Stern, Stacey L; Day, Steve J O'; Foshag, Leland J; Faries, Mark B

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for complete lymph node dissection (CLND) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is an important unanswered clinical question. Study Design Patients diagnosed with positive SNB at a melanoma referral center from 1991 to 2013 were studied. Outcomes of patients who underwent CLND were compared to those who did not undergo immediate CLND (observation group, OBS). Results There were 471 patients who had positive SNB; 375 (79.6%) in the CLND group and 96 (20.4%) in the OBS group. The groups were similar except that the CLND group was younger and had more sentinel nodes removed. Five-year nodal recurrence free survival was significantly better in the CLND group compared to the OBS group (93.1% vs 84.4%, p= 0.005). However, the 5- (66.4% vs 55.2%) and 10- year (59.5% vs 45.0%) distant metastasis free survival was not significantly different (p= 0.061). The CLND group's melanoma specific survival (MSS) was superior to the OBS group; 5 year MSS was (73.7 vs 65.5%) and10 year MSS- (66.8 vs 48.3%, p=0.015). On multivariate analysis, CLND was associated with improved MSS (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.89, p= 0.011) and lower nodal recurrence (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, p=0.016). Increased Breslow thickness, older age, ulceration, and trunk melanoma were all associated with worse outcomes. On subgroup analysis, following factors were associated with better outcomes from CLND- male gender, non-ulcerated primary, intermediate thickness, Clark level IV or lower extremity tumors. Conclusions Treatment of positive SNB with CLND was associated with improved MSS and nodal recurrence rate. Follow up beyond 5 years was needed to see a significant difference in MSS. PMID:27236435

  14. Dual-modality imaging with 99mTc and fluorescent indocyanine green using surface-modified silica nanoparticles for biopsy of the sentinel lymph node: an animal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We propose a new approach to facilitate sentinel node biopsy examination by multimodality imaging in which radioactive and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles depict deeply situated sentinel nodes and fluorescent nodes with anatomical resolution in the surgical field. For this purpose, we developed polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-coated silica nanoparticles loaded with technetium-99m (99mTc) and indocyanine green (ICG). Methods We conducted animal studies to test the feasibility and utility of this dual-modality imaging probe. The mean diameter of the PAMAM-coated silica nanoparticles was 30 to 50 nm, as evaluated from the images of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The combined labeling with 99mTc and ICG was verified by thin-layer chromatography before each experiment. A volume of 0.1 ml of the nanoparticle solution (7.4 MBq, except for one rat that was injected with 3.7 MBq, and 1 μg of an ICG derivative [ICG-sulfo-OSu]) was injected submucosally into the tongue of six male Wistar rats. Results Scintigraphic images showed increased accumulation of 99mTc in the neck of four of the six rats. Nineteen lymph nodes were identified in the dissected neck of the six rats, and a contact radiographic study showed three nodes with a marked increase in uptake and three nodes with a weak uptake. NIR fluorescence imaging provided real-time clear fluorescent images of the lymph nodes in the neck with anatomical resolution. Six lymph nodes showed weak (+) to strong (+++) fluorescence, whereas other lymph nodes showed no fluorescence. Nodes showing increased radioactivity coincided with the fluorescent nodes. The radioactivity of 15 excised lymph nodes from the four rats was assayed using a gamma well counter. Comparisons of the levels of radioactivity revealed a large difference between the high-fluorescence-intensity group (four lymph nodes; mean, 0.109% ± 0.067%) and the low- or no-fluorescence-intensity group (11 lymph nodes

  15. Clinical application of carbon nanoparticle lymph node tracer in the VI region lymph node dissection of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, S P; Zhang, Y; Cui, Z Q; Chen, Q; Zhang, W; Zhou, C X; Xie, P P; Liu, B G

    2014-04-30

    The application and clinical significance of carbon nanoparticle lymph tracer in the VI region (central region) lymph node dissection of differentiated thyroid cancer was investigated. Eighty patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were equally divided into the carbon nanoparticle-marked group (ipsilateral thyroid injection) and the control group (no injection). All patients underwent standard primary tumor treatment and VI lymph node dissection. The number of lymph nodes retrieved in the carbon nanoparticle group (mean=6.725 pieces, range=1-13) was significantly higher than those retrieved in the control group (mean=3.6, range=1-7; P<0.05). The black staining lymph node rate was 69.89%. A significantly higher number of lymph nodes less than 2 mm were detected in the carbon nanoparticle group (P=0.0023). The transfer rates and lymph node metastasis rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. The black-staining lymph node metastasis rate was 20.74% (39/188) and the non-staining lymph node metastasis rate was 22.22% (18/81), which were not significantly different (P=0.7856). No parathyroid accidental resection was observed in the carbon nanoparticle group, whereas three cases occurred in the control group (P=0.2405). In conclusion, carbon nanoparticles show good lymphatic tracer effects, easy identification, increased number of lymph nodes retrieved, more accurate reflection of the VI region lymph node status, and increased accuracy of the clinical stage. These results should help develop reasonable surgery programs and follow-up comprehensive treatments, and can help to reduce the risk of accident parathyroid resection.

  16. Rice BRITTLE CULM 5 (BRITTLE NODE) is Involved in Secondary Cell Wall Formation in the Sclerenchyma Tissue of Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Aohara, Tsutomu; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kaneko, Yasuko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Several brittle culm (bc) mutants known in grasses are considered excellent materials to study the process of secondary cell wall formation. The brittle phenotype of the rice bc5 (brittle node) mutant appears exclusively in the developed nodes, which is distinct from other bc mutants (bc1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7) that show the brittle phenotype in culms and leaves. To address the defects of the rice bc5 mutant in node-specific cell wall formation, we analyzed tissue morphology and cell wall composition. The bc5 mutation was found to affect the cell wall deposition of node sclerenchyma tissues at 1 week after heading, the stage at which the cell wall sugar content is reduced, in the bc5 nodes, compared with wild-type nodes. Moreover, decreased accumulation of lignin and thickness of cell walls in the sclerenchyma tissues were also observed in the bc5 nodes. The amounts of cellulose and hemicellulose were reduced to 53 and 65% of those in the wild-type plants, respectively. Sugar composition and glycosidic linkage analyses of the hemicellulose showed that the accumulation of glucuronosyl arabinoxylan in bc5 nodes was perturbed by the mutation. The bc5 locus was narrowed to an approximately 3.1 Mb region of chromosome 2, where none of the other bc genes is located. The bc5 mutation appeared to reduce the expression levels of the OsCesA genes in the nodes after heading. The results indicate that the BC5 gene regulates the development of secondary cell walls of node sclerenchyma tissues. PMID:19812064

  17. The role of lymph node revealing solution on the improvement of lymph node harvest in colorectal cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Profeta da Luz, M M; Lacerda-Filho, A; Demas Alvares Cabral, M M; Maciel da Fonseca, L; de Almeida Araújo, S; de Almeida Sanches, S R; Gomes da Silva, R

    2016-03-01

    The correct analysis of lymph node status is one of the most important parameters for the accurate pathological diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the number of lymph nodes among the specimens obtained from colorectal resections due to colorectal cancer, before and after the routine use of a lymph node revealing solution (LNRS). Data from 780 surgical specimens from patients of both genders with colorectal cancer were studied. The cases were divided chronologically into two groups: the conventional group included 497 specimens treated with conventional methods, i.e. without the use of the LNRS (January 2000 to July 2007), and the LNRS group included 283 specimens examined through the routine use of this solution (August 2007 to July 2012). Most patients were female (57.4%) with a median age of 62 years. The median lymph node number was 18, and 75.9% of the cases (592) had 12 or more nodes dissected. Lymph node metastases were noted in 334 cases (42.8%). A median of 24 lymph nodes was dissected in the LNRS group compared to 15 in the conventional group (P < 0.001). The LNRS group had 9.2% of cases with fewer than 12 lymph nodes dissected compared with 32.6% in the conventional group (P < 0.001). The use of the LNRS increases the number of lymph nodes obtained from colorectal cancer surgical specimens and can help to reduce the number of cases with < 12 lymph nodes. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Comparative Morbidity of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection and the Sentinel Lymph Node Technique

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Allan W.; McVay, Carie; Cohen, Jason S.; Altura, Jack F.; Brackert, Sandra; Sarna, Gregory P.; Palmer, Daphne; Ko, Albert; Memsic, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess our long-term complications from complete axillary lymph node dissection (AXLND) in patients with breast cancer. Summary Background Data: Complete AXLND as part of the surgical therapy for breast cancer has come under increased scrutiny due the use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique to assess the status of the axillary nodes. As the enthusiasm for the SLN technique has increased, our impression has been that the perceived complication rate from AXLND has increased dramatically while the negative aspects of the SLN technique have been underemphasized. Methods: Female patients seen in routine follow-up over a 1-year period were eligible for our retrospective study of the long-term complications from AXLND if they were a minimum of 1 year out from all primary therapy; ie, surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either a modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or a segmental mastectomy with axillary dissection and postoperative radiation (SegAx/XRT). All patients had a Level I–III dissection. Objective measurements, including upper and lower arm circumferences and body mass index (BMI), were obtained, and a subjective evaluation from the patients was conducted. Results: Ninety-four patients were eligible for our study; 44 had undergone MRM, and 50 had undergone SegAx/XRT. The average number of nodes removed was 25.6 (standard deviation, 8). Thirty-three percent of the patients had positive nodal disease, 95% of the patients had an upper arm circumference within 2 cm of the unaffected side, and 93.3% had a lower arm circumference within 2 cm of the unaffected side. Subjectively, 90.4% of the patients had either no or minimal arm swelling, and 96.8% of the patients had “good” or “excellent” overall arm function. The most common long-term symptom was numbness involving the upper, inner aspect of the affected arm (25.5%). Conclusions: Our data indicate that a complete AXLND can be performed with

  19. The STARK-B database VAMDC node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.; Nessib, N. Ben

    2017-03-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modelling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. The access to such data via an on line database is essential. The aim of STARK-B is to meet these needs for widths and shifts of "isolated" lines of neutral and ionized atoms due to electron and ion impacts. It is devoted to modelling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipments and technological plasmas. So, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. STARK-B is a collaborative project between the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade (AOB) and the laboratory LERMA at Observatory of Paris, which started at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a database of LERMA and a node of VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre) and thus complies with the standards of the Virtual Observatories. This database opened at the end of 2008. Today, the database contains our calculated data for a various number of transitions of neutral or ionized atoms, published in more than 150 papers in international refereed journals. We continue to implement our previously published data, and the new ones as soon as they are published. A summary of the scientific objectives, the key points of the impact-semiclassical-perturbation method used for the calculations, the current state of development of our ongoing work and our plans for the future objectives of the database are presented. Finally, an example of the results of a query is displayed.

  20. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block