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Sample records for node assay dlna

  1. Local lymph node assay with non-radioisotope alternative endpoints.

    PubMed

    Suda, Akiko; Yamashita, Masahiro; Tabei, Mitsuyuki; Taguchi, Kazuhiko; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suzuki, Ritsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Katsuaki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Mochizuki, Kouki; Nakamura, Kazuichi

    2002-08-01

    The local lymph node assay has recently been accepted by regulatory agencies as a stand-alone alternate method for predicting allergic contact dermatitis. To compare the sensitivity of non-radioisotope methods with that of the standard assay, we determined if these modified methods would affect evaluation of sensitization potency. For this reason, we used 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and benzocaine for different sensitizing criteria. Female CBA mice were treated for 3 days with a test compound or vehicle applied to each side of both ears. Bilateral auricular lymph node proliferative activity was assessed by the following endpoints with incorporation of 3H-methyl thymidine (3H-TdR), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in vivo, and BrdU ex vivo, IL-2 production, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Ear thickness was also tested. The strong sensitizer DNCB was detectable by any of the non-radioisotope endpoints as well as by radioisotope-dependent standard assay. On the other hand, when evaluating the weak sensitizer benzocaine, significant changes were evident in BrdU incorporation ex vivo and in vivo, and IL-2 production. We believe that these non-radioisotope methods can assess allergic contact dermatitis caused by chemicals even in the laboratory, where it can be difficult to handle radioisotopes.

  2. The local lymph node assay being too sensitive?

    PubMed

    Hans-Werner, Vohr; Jürgen, Ahr Hans

    2005-12-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) and modifications thereof were recently recognized by the OECD as stand-alone methods for the detection of skin-sensitizing potential. However, although the validity of the LLNA was acknowledged by the ICCVAM, attention was drawn to one major problem, i.e., the possibility of false positive results caused by non-specific cell activation as a result of inflammatory processes in the skin (irritation). This is based on the fact that inflammatory processes in the skin may lead to non-specific activation of dendritic cells, cell migration and non-specific proliferation of lymph node cells. Measuring cell proliferation by radioactive or non-radioactive methods, without taking the irritating properties of test items into account, leads thus to false positive reactions. In this paper, we have compared both endpoints: (1) cell proliferation alone and (2) cell proliferation in combination with inflammatory (irritating) processes. It turned out that a considerable number of tests were "false positive" to the definition mentioned above. By excluding such false positive results the LLNA seems not to be more sensitive than relevant guinea pig assays. These various methods and results are described here.

  3. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  4. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach.

  5. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  6. Examination of the local lymph node assay for use in contact sensitization risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Gerberick, G F; House, R V; Fletcher, E R; Ryan, C A

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) for contact sensitization risk assessment. Cellular proliferative activity in draining lymph nodes was determined for individual animals on Day 5 following four daily epicutaneous applications of the test chemical to the ears. Seventeen chemicals were tested, covering a range of materials including preservatives, drug actives, and perfume raw materials. The assay was found to be useful for identifying strong, moderate, and some weak sensitizers as defined by other testing methods (guinea pig, human). For evaluating the antigen specificity of the LLNA proliferative response, an in vitro blastogenesis assay was used. Dendritic cells (DC) isolated from lymph nodes of mice treated 24 hr earlier with trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) were capable of in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes from TNCB-sensitized mice, but not lymphocytes from mice sensitized to the preservative mixture of 5-chloro-2-methylisothiazolinone plus 2-methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI). Conversely, DC from mice treated 24 hr earlier with MCI/MI were capable of stimulating lymphocytes from MCI/MI-sensitized mice, but were unable to stimulate lymphocytes from TNCB-sensitized mice, demonstrating the specificity of the response. The results of these studies support the use of the murine LLNA for both investigative and predictive contact sensitization testing. The LLNA offers the advantages of requiring less time for completion, incorporating an objective endpoint, requiring approximately half the number of animals, and being less costly than most currently employed guinea pig test methods. In addition, we believe the murine LLNA is a useful test to incorporate into a scheme for contact sensitization risk assessment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Minor antigen graft-versus-host reactions revealed in irradiated spleen and popliteal lymph node assays

    SciTech Connect

    Claman, H.N.; Jaffee, B.D.

    1984-10-01

    The graft-versus-hot (GVH) reaction across minor (non-H-2) histocompatibility barriers was studied in mice, in vivo. To increase GVH potential and to mimic clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, we modified the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and the splenomegaly assays by irradiating the recipients before they received allogeneic lymphoid cell suspensions. In several combinations across major (H-2), minor (non-H-2) and multiple minor (non-H-2 plus minor lymphocyte stimulation) barriers, increased recipient organ weight (a measure of GVH activity) was seen with irradiated F1 recipients of parental cells. The irradiated splenomegaly (x-splenomegaly) assay was more sensitive than the (x-PLN) assay, but both correlated with in vivo GVH experiments of the P----F1 variety. The x-splenomegaly test indicated histoincompatibility in a system (B10.D2----BALB/c) in which the primary in vitro mixed leukocyte reactions is nonreactive, but in which systemic GVH can be induced. The x-splenomegaly test should be useful in analyzing complex reactions involving minor histocompatibility antigens in vivo.

  8. The skin sensitization potential of resorcinol: experience with the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Sanders, David; Jowsey, Ian R

    2007-04-01

    Resorcinol is a simple aromatic chemical (1,3-benzenediol) that has found widespread use, particularly as a coupler in hair dyes. Clinical experience clearly shows that resorcinol is a (albeit uncommon) skin sensitizer. By contrast, predictive methods, both animal and human, have previously failed to identify resorcinol as such. Here, we describe the outcome of a recent local lymph node assay performed in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline 429, which correctly identified resorcinol as a skin sensitizer. Clear evidence of a dose response was apparent, and an EC3 value of approximately 6% was calculated. This suggests that the skin-sensitizing potency of resorcinol is approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of p-phenylenediamine but similar to that of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde. These data show the importance of adherence to test guidelines and aligns the clinical experience with resorcinol with that obtained in predictive animal methods. PMID:17343618

  9. Popliteal lymph node assay as a method of investigating H-Y antigen in the rat.

    PubMed

    Markwick, J R; Pegrum, G D

    1981-03-01

    The ability of the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) To detect host-versus-graft activity in response to H-Y antigens was investigated in the rat by using presensitized recipients. It was shown that significant popliteal lymph node (PLN) enlargement in response to H-Y-incompatible lymphocytes from syngeneic donors could be obtained in female recipients that had been preimmunized by the weekly i.p. injection of 1 x 10(7) lymphocytes from males of the same strain. In one rat strain, it was also shown that when male recipients had been similarly preimmunized with lymphocytes from females of the same strain, significant PLN enlargement could be obtained in response to lymphocytes from syngeneic females. The results that we obtained using the PLNA are discussed in comparison with those that have been reported when H-Y-incompatible skin grafts have been used to investigate H-Y antigen in the rat. These results indicate that, in the rat, the PLNA provides a useful alternative method for the investigation of H-Y antigen and may also provide a useful means to investigate the response of male rats to lymphocytes from syngeneic females.

  10. Local lymph node assay: differentiating allergic and irritant responses using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberick, G F; Cruse, L W; Ryan, C A

    1999-09-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for assessing the contact sensitization potential of chemicals. Based on events that occur during the induction phase of a contact sensitization response, the LLNA measures the in vivo proliferation of cells in the draining lymph nodes (DLNs) of mice following topical exposure to chemicals. In terms of predictive identification of important skin sensitizers, the LLNA has been shown to be at least as sensitive as, and much more reliable than, current guinea pig tests. However, proliferation has also been observed following treatment with some irritants. In an attempt to distinguish allergic from irritant-induced proliferation, flow cytometric techniques have been used to examine the phenotype of lymphocyte subsets in the DLNs as well as markers of T-lymphocyte activation and memory. Mice were treated on the ears for 3 consecutive days with allergens or irritants. The DLNs were harvested 72 h after the final treatment. Single-cell suspensions were prepared, counted, and stained for analysis of the percentages of T cells and B cells and T-cell expression of two adhesion molecules that have been associated with differentiating naïve and activated/memory T cells, CD62L (L-selectin) and CD44 (H-cam). Increases in lymph node cellularity were observed in both allergen- and irritant-treated mice relative to naïve and vehicle-treated animals. Mice treated with allergens showed a preferential increase in the percentage of B220(+) B cells compared with irritant-treated mice. Treatment with allergens, but not irritants, resulted in a selective increase in the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells expressing the T-cell activation/memory phenotype CD62L(lo)CD44(hi). Taken together, flow cytometric analysis of cell phenotype and expression of T-cell activation/memory markers may provide important information for differentiating allergen- and irritant-induced proliferative responses in the DLNs of chemically treated mice.

  11. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component.

  12. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component. PMID:16324777

  13. Evaluation of skin sensitization potential of jet fuels by murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Kanikkannan, N; Jackson, T; Sudhan Shaik, M; Singh, M

    2000-07-27

    Jet A and JP-8 are the major jet fuels used in civilian and military (US Air Force) flights, respectively. JP-8+100 is a new jet fuel recently introduced by the US Air Force. Besides lung exposure, skin is the potential route of exposure to jet fuels. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the skin sensitization potential of jet fuels (Jet A, JP-8 and JP-8+100) using murine Local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female CBA/Ca mice (8-12-weeks-old) were used in the study. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, 0.25% w/v) and paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA, 2.5% w/v) were used as positive and negative control, respectively and acetone: olive oil (4:1, AOO) was used as the vehicle (control). All three jet fuels caused a proliferative activity significantly greater than the control (P<0.01). Our results demonstrate that JP-8 is a weak skin sensitizer [stimulation index (SI)=3.17]. The SI of Jet A and JP-8+100 were 2.44 and 2.38, respectively, hence are not considered as skin sensitizers. Interestingly, the SI of JP-8 with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was consistently lower than JP-8, though the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). BHT, which is an antioxidant additive of JP-8+100, reduced the skin sensitization potential of JP-8. Furthermore, the lower SI of JP-8+100 could be partially attributed to the presence of BHT. The findings reported here suggest that care should be taken to minimize dermal exposure to jet fuels especially JP-8 to avoid skin sensitization.

  14. Ethanol and diethyl phthalate: vehicle effects in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Isola, D; Api, A M

    2004-01-01

    The vehicle in which an allergen is presented to the skin has been recognized to have an effect on the skin-sensitizing potency of the allergen. Typical vehicles used to evaluate the skin sensitization potential of fragrance materials include ethanol, diethyl phthalate, or a combination of the two. The authors conducted a series of studies to evaluate each of these vehicles for their utility in the murine local lymph node assay and to investigate the potential differences in skin sensitization resulting from their use. Four fragrance materials were tested in four different vehicles. The test materials were p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde, geraniol, eugenol, and hydroxycitronellal. The vehicles were diethyl phthalate, 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate, 3:1 ethanol:diethyl phthalate, and ethanol. Each of the fragrance materials was tested at five dose levels ranging from 0.3% to 50% w/v. In all four vehicles, each material tested elicited positive responses, exhibiting weak to moderate skin sensitization potential. Overall, p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde exhibited the most potency, followed by eugenol, geraniol, and hydroxycitronellal. The sensitization potential of both p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde and geraniol was greatest when the vehicle was ethanol. The sensitization potential of eugenol was greatest in 3:1 ethanol:diethyl phthalate, but the sensitization potential for hydroxycitronellal was greatest in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The strength of the sensitization response was observed to vary with the vehicle; however, the results did not show any clear pattern of one vehicle over another regarding skin sensitization.

  15. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies. PMID:26579162

  16. Influence of irritants on lymph node cell proliferation and the detection of contact sensitivity to metal salts in the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Tsukamoto, Y; Tsuchiya, T; Nakamura, A

    1993-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) are known to cause irritation of the skin, and to enhance the penetration of chemicals into the epidermis. In the present study, the lymph node cell (LNC) proliferative response following exposure to irritants, such as SLS and DMSO, was examined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Exposure to DMSO or SLS aqueous solution induced a small increase in lymph node cell proliferation compared with aqueous solution alone. Exposure to SLS in DMSO caused a significant increase in LNC proliferation. Further, the effect of addition of the irritants in a vehicle on the detection of contact sensitivity to metal allergens was examined. Application of potassium dichromate and nickel sulfate in DMSO or SLS aqueous solution caused increases in LNC proliferation. Exposure to metal allergen with SLS in DMSO also induced a significant LNC proliferative response, but did not induce a significant increase in stimulation index (increase in 3H-thymidine incorporation relative to vehicle-treated control group). This was because of increased 3H-thymidine incorporation following exposure to SLS-DMSO in the control group. These results suggest that irritants enhance the LNC proliferative responses to metal allergens. The use of SLS in aqueous solution is effective for the detection of sensitivity to water-soluble allergens, such as metal allergens, in the LLNA, as well as the use of DMSO as an application vehicle.

  17. Development and utilization of an ex vivo bromodeoxyuridine local lymph node assay protocol for assessing potential chemical sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Williams, W C; Copeland, C; Boykin, E; Quell, S J; Lehmann, D M

    2015-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [(3) H]methyl thymidine. A more recent non-isotopic variation of the assay utilizes bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in vivo. To further improve the utility of this assay, we developed an ex vivo BrdU labeling procedure eliminating the need for in vivo injections. The results of this assay correctly identified a strong sensitizer (i.e., trimellitic anhydride) as well as weak/moderate sensitizers (i.e., eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and hexylcinnaminic aldehyde). As anticipated, neither non-sensitizers isopropanol and lactic acid nor the false negative chemical nickel II sulfate hexahydrate induced a positive threshold response in the assay. The results of this assay are in close agreement with those of the in vivo LLNA:BrdU-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay labeling procedure. We also used the ex vivo BrdU LLNA procedure to evaluate ammonium hexachloroplatinate, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and the assay correctly identified them as sensitizers based on the calculation of EC2 values. We conclude that this ex vivo BrdU labeling method offers predictive capacity comparable to previously established LLNA protocols while eliminating animal injections and the use of radioisotope. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24532485

  18. Study of the sensitising potential of various textile dyes using a biphasic murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, V; Platzek, T; Fink, H; Sonnenburg, A; Stahlmann, R

    2010-09-01

    Disperse dyes, which are suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres, are responsible for the great majority of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) cases to textile dyes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitising potential of various disperse dyes using a biphasic protocol of the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Briefly, mice were shaved over a surface of approximately 2 cm(2) on their backs and treated using a "sensitisation-challenge protocol". The shaved surface was treated once daily on days 1-3 with 50 microl of the test solution. Animals remained untreated on days 4-14. On days 15-17, mice were treated with 25 microl of the test solution on the dorsum of both ears. Mice were killed on day 19 with deep CO(2) anaesthesia, the lymph nodes prepared and various end points, such as ear thickness, ear punch weight, lymph node weight, lymph node cell count and the proportion of various lymphocyte subpopulations, were determined by flow cytometry. The results were compared to control group treated with the vehicle alone. Our results showed that almost all of the tested textile dyes caused a significant increase in lymph node cell count and lymph node weight. We also observed an increase in ear thickness and ear punch weight in most of the concentrations tested for various textile dyes. We observed a decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells and an increase in CD19+, CD45+ and CD45+/1A+ cells in most of the cases, which is characteristic for allergens. The CD4+/CD69+ cells increased in only few experiments mainly with Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106. Based on our results, the disperse dyes could be arranged in four groups on the basis of their sensitising potency in the following decreasing order (in parenthesis: lowest concentration causing a significant increase in lymph node cell number): group 1, strong: Disperse Blue 124 and Disperse Blue 106 (0.003%); group 2, moderate: Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Blue 1 (3%); group 3, weak: Disperse Orange 37 and

  19. Performance standard-based validation study for local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae-Sung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Yeo, Kyeong-Uk; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Yul; Park, Yeong-Chul; Seong, Won-Keun; Lee, Ai-Young; Chun, Young Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeung, Eui Bae; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Sohn, Soojung; Heo, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified non-radioisotopic technique with the additional advantages of accommodating multiple endpoints with the introduction of FCM, and refinement and reduction of animal use by using a sophisticated prescreening scheme. Reliability and accuracy of the LLNA: BrdU-FCM was determined according to OECD Test Guideline (TG) No. 429 (Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay) performance standards (PS), with the participation of four laboratories. Transferability was demonstrated through successfully producing stimulation index (SI) values for 25% hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA) consistently greater than 3, a predetermined threshold, by all participating laboratories. Within- and between-laboratory reproducibility was shown using HCA and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, in which EC2.7 values (the estimated concentrations eliciting an SI of 2.7, the threshold for LLNA: BrdU-FCM) fell consistently within the acceptance ranges, 0.025-0.1% and 5-20%, respectively. Predictive capacity was tested using the final protocol version 1.3 for the 18 reference chemicals listed in OECD TG 429, of which results showed 84.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 88.9% accuracy compared with the original LLNA. The data presented are considered to meet the performance criteria for the PS, and its predictive capacity was also sufficiently validated. PMID:27318101

  20. Lymph node cell proliferation assay in guinea pigs for the assessment of sensitizing potentials of chemical compounds.

    PubMed

    Kashima, R; Okada, J; Ikeda, Y

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy of a lymph node cell proliferation assay in the guinea pig as a first stage screening method of predicting sensitizing potentials of chemicals was studied by using several haptens. Animals were sensitized by a single 24-hr occlusive patch (24 cp), intradermal injection (id) and a combination of id and 24 cp, at a concentration used for guinea pig conventional contact hypersensitivity assay methods. Control animals were treated with vehicle(s) only. Suspensions of the lymph node cells (LNC) were individually prepared and cultured with [3H]methyl thymidine ([3H]TdR). [3H]TdR incorporation was measured and a stimulation index (SI) was calculated as a ratio of the mean [3H]TdR incorporation in sensitized animals and the mean [3H]TdR incorporation in control animals. LNC sensitized by 24 cp with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene proliferated maximally and significantly at day 5, whereas this occurred at day 7 after id sensitization. Significant LNC proliferation and high SI values were obtained successively by a combination of 24 cp and id. Moreover, strongly sensitizing chemicals increased significant LNC proliferation (SI > 2.0); weakly to moderately sensitizing chemicals also induced significant LNC proliferation (SI = 1.3-1.7). On the other hand, a primary irritant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, failed to encourage LNC proliferation (SI approximately 1.0).

  1. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Aptula, Aynur O

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the most common in vivo regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation, quantifying potency as the EC3, the concentration of chemical giving a threefold increase in thymidine uptake in the local lymph node. Existing LLNA data can, along with clinical data, provide useful comparator information on the potency of sensitisers. Understanding of the biological variability of data from LLNA studies is important for those developing non-animal based risk assessment approaches for skin allergy. Here an existing set of 94 EC3 values for 12 chemicals, all tested at least three times in the same vehicle have been analysed by calculating standard deviations (SD) for logEC3 values. The SDs range from 0.08 to 0.22. The overall SD for the 94 logEC3 values is 0.147. Thus the 95% confidence limits (2xSD) for LLNA EC3 values are within a factor of 2, comparable to those for physico-chemical measurements such as partition coefficients and solubility. The residual SDs of Quantitative Mechanistic Models (QMMs) based on physical organic chemistry parameters are similar to the overall SD of the LLNA, indicating that QMMs of this type are unlikely to be bettered for predictive accuracy. PMID:27470439

  2. Nothing is perfect, not even the local lymph node assay: a commentary and the implications for REACH.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; McFadden, John F; Gerberick, Frank; Cockshott, Amanda; Kimber, Ian

    2009-02-01

    For many regulatory authorities, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred assay for the predictive identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals. It is the initial requirement for sensitization testing within the new REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances) regulations in the European Union. The primary reasons for the preferment of the LLNA are the animal welfare benefits it provides compared with traditional guinea-pig methods (refinement and reduction of animal usage) and the general performance characteristics of the assay with regard to overall reliability, accuracy, and interpretation. Moreover, a substantial published literature on the LLNA is available making it appropriate for use as a benchmark against which new approaches, including in vitro alternatives, can be evaluated and validated. There is, therefore, a view that the LLNA represents the 'gold standard' for skin sensitization testing. However, although this is probably correct, it is important to recognize and acknowledge that in common with all other predictive tests (whether they be validated or not), the LLNA has limitations, in addition to strengths, some of which were mentioned above. Arguably, it is the limitations (e.g., the occurrence of false positive and false negative results) of test methods that are most important to understand. With respect to the LLNA, these limitations are similar to those associated with guinea-pig skin sensitization methods. Among these are the occurrence of false positive and false negative results, susceptibility of results to changes in vehicle, and the possibility that interspecies differences may confound interpretation. In this commentary, these issues are reviewed and their impact on the utility of the LLNA for identification, classification, and potency assessment of skin sensitizers are considered. In addition, their relevance for the future development and validation of novel in vitro and in silico

  3. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  4. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE. PMID:26558466

  5. Lack of TAK1 in dendritic cells inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response induced by trichloroethylene in local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pan; Hongqian, Chu; Qinghe, Meng; Lanqin, Shang; Jianjun, Jiang; Xiaohua, Yang; Xuetao, Wei; Weidong, Hao

    2016-09-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Occupational TCE exposure has been associated with severe, generalized contact hypersensitivity (CHS) skin disorder. The development of CHS depends on innate and adaptive immune functions. Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) controls the survival of dendritic cells (DCs) that affect the immune system homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 activity in DC on TCE-induced CHS response. Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signaling pathway activation by western blot. The ears were harvested for histopathological analysis. Control mice in the 80% TCE group displayed an inflammatory response in the ears, increased lymphocyte proliferation, elevated regulatory T-cell and activated T-cell percentages, and more IFN-γ producing CD8(+) T cells in DLNs. In contrast to control mice, DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice in the 80% TCE group showed an abolished CHS response and this was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and IFN-γ production. This effect may occur through Jnk and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates a pivotal role of TAK1 in DCs in controlling TCE-induced CHS response and suggests that targeting TAK1 function in DCs may be a viable approach to preventing and treating TCE-related occupational health hazards. PMID:27473013

  6. Lack of TAK1 in dendritic cells inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response induced by trichloroethylene in local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pan; Hongqian, Chu; Qinghe, Meng; Lanqin, Shang; Jianjun, Jiang; Xiaohua, Yang; Xuetao, Wei; Weidong, Hao

    2016-09-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Occupational TCE exposure has been associated with severe, generalized contact hypersensitivity (CHS) skin disorder. The development of CHS depends on innate and adaptive immune functions. Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) controls the survival of dendritic cells (DCs) that affect the immune system homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 activity in DC on TCE-induced CHS response. Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signaling pathway activation by western blot. The ears were harvested for histopathological analysis. Control mice in the 80% TCE group displayed an inflammatory response in the ears, increased lymphocyte proliferation, elevated regulatory T-cell and activated T-cell percentages, and more IFN-γ producing CD8(+) T cells in DLNs. In contrast to control mice, DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice in the 80% TCE group showed an abolished CHS response and this was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and IFN-γ production. This effect may occur through Jnk and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates a pivotal role of TAK1 in DCs in controlling TCE-induced CHS response and suggests that targeting TAK1 function in DCs may be a viable approach to preventing and treating TCE-related occupational health hazards.

  7. Safety assessment of allergic contact dermatitis hazards: an analysis supporting reduced animal use for the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Haseman, Joseph K; Strickland, Judy; Allen, David; Salicru, Eleni; Paris, Michael; Tice, Raymond R; Stokes, William S

    2011-02-01

    The original Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 429 (OECD TG 429) for the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) required five mice/group if mice were processed individually. We used data from 83 LLNA tests (275 treated groups) to determine the impact on the LLNA outcome of reducing the group size from five to four. From DPM measurements, we formed all possible four- and five-mice combinations for the treated and control groups. Stimulation index (SI) values from each four-mice combination were compared with those from five-mice combinations, and agreement (both SI<3 or both SI ≥ 3) determined. Average agreement between group sizes was 97.5% for the 275 treated groups. Compared test-by-test, 90% (75/83) of the tests had 100% agreement; agreement was 83% for the remaining eight tests. Disagreement was due primarily to variability in animal responses and closeness of the SI to three (positive response threshold) rather than to group size reduction. We conclude that using four rather than five mice per group would reduce animal use by 20% without adversely impacting LLNA performance. This analysis supported the recent update to OECD TG 429 allowing a minimum of four mice/group when each mouse is processed individually.

  8. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A preliminary evaluation of immune stimulation following exposure to metal particles and ions using the mouse popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Tvermoes, Brooke E; Unice, Kenneth M; Winans, Bethany; Kovochich, Michael; Christian, Whitney V; Donovan, Ellen; Fung, Ernest S; Finley, Brent L; Kimber, Ian; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the threshold for immune stimulation in mice following local exposure to metal particles and ions representative of normal-functioning cobalt-chromium (CoCr) metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) was used in this study to assess immune responses in BALB/c mice following treatment with chromium-oxide (Cr2O3) particles, metal salts (CoCl2, CrCl3 and NiCl2), or Cr2O3 particles together with metal salts using single-dose exposures representing approximately 10days (0.000114mg), 19years (0.0800mg), and 40years (0.171mg) of normal implant wear. The immune response elicited following treatment with Cr2O3 particles together with metal salts was also assessed at four additional doses equivalent to approximately 1.5months (0.0005mg), 0.6years (0.0025mg), 2.3years (0.01mg), and 9.3years (0.04mg) of normal implant wear. Mice were injected subcutaneously (50μL) into the right hind foot with the test article, or with the relevant vehicle control. The proliferative response of the draining lymph node cells (LNC) was measured four days after treatment, and stimulation indices (SI) were derived relative to vehicle controls. The PLNA was negative (SI<3) for all Cr2O3 particle doses, and was also negative at the lowest dose of the metal salt mixture, and the lowest four doses of the Cr2O3 particles with metal salt mixture. The PLNA was positive (SI>3) at the highest two doses of the metal salt mixture and the highest three doses of the Cr2O3 particles with the metal salt mixture. The provisional NOAEL and LOAEL values identified in this study for immune activation corresponds to Co and Cr concentrations in the synovial fluid approximately 500 and 2000 times higher than that reported for normal-functioning MoM hip implants, respectively. Overall, these results indicate that normal wear conditions are unlikely to result in immune stimulation in individuals not previously sensitized to metals.

  10. Economic evaluation of 21-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay in lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshibayashi, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

    2008-11-01

    The 21-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay with a patented algorithm is validated as a good predictor of prognosis and potential benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer, while its high cost raises concern about how to finance it. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing prevalent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline/St Gallen recommendation-guided treatment with the assay-guided treatment is carried out with budget impact estimation in the context of Japan's health care system. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are estimated as 2,997,495 yen/QALY (26,065 US$/QALY) in the comparison between NCCN guided-treatment vs. the assay-guided treatment, and as 1,239,055 yen/QALY (10,774 US$/QALY) in the comparison between St Gallen guided-treatment vs. the assay-guided treatment. Budget impact is estimated as yen2,638 million (US$23 million) to yen3,225 million (US$28 million) per year. The routine use of the assay is indicated as cost-effective. And the budget impact could be judged as within fundable level. PMID:18075786

  11. Quantification of melanoma mRNA markers in sentinel nodes: pre-clinical evaluation of a single-step real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Helene N; Nexo, Ebba; Steiniche, Torben; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Sorensen, Boe S

    2004-08-01

    Although reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of melanocyte-associated mRNA can detect sentinel node melanoma metastases, most published assays are semi-quantitative methods of unknown sensitivity and precision, unsuitable for clinical use. We describe a single-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay for MART-1 and tyrosinase mRNAs, suitable for sentinel node analysis in a clinical setting. Using serial dilutions of melanoma cell line SK-MEL-28 RNA in water as a calibrator, we obtained linear calibration curves covering the range 0.5 to 10,000 arbitrary units (SK-MEL-28 melanoma cell equivalents). The sensitivity limit was 0.32 (MART-1) and 5 (tyrosinase) arbitrary units. Analytical imprecision was between 11% and 34%. MART-1 PCR efficiency was unaffected when samples were diluted with negative lymph node RNA rather than water, whereas tyrosinase PCR efficiency was halved. To evaluate the clinical suitability of our assay, we quantified melanocyte mRNAs in sentinel nodes with histologically verified micrometastases (n = 10) and benign nevus inclusions (n = 10), and in sentinel nodes without evidence of intranodal melanocytes (n = 10). We found significant differences in median melanocyte-derived mRNA levels comparing the three types of lymph nodes, suggesting that this quantitative molecular protocol may increase assay precision and be useful for the clinical evaluation of sentinel nodes.

  12. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Lymph Node Tuberculosis and Detection of Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Gilman, Robert H.; Caviedes, Luz; Rizvi, Hasan; Ticona, Eduardo; Chavez, Gonzalo; Cabrera, José Luis; Matos, Eduardo D.; Evans, Carlton A.; Moore, David A. J.; Friedland, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 132 patients with lymphadenopathy were investigated. Fifty-two (39.4%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB). The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay provided rapid (13 days), accurate diagnosis (sensitivity, 65.4%) and reliable drug susceptibility testing (DST). Despite its lower sensitivity than that of other methods, its faster results and simultaneous DST are advantageous in resource-poor settings, supporting the incorporation of MODS into diagnostic algorithms for extrapulmonary TB. PMID:26511739

  13. Allergenicity evaluation of fragrance mix and its ingredients by using ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU endpoints.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Kaymak, Yesim; Karakaya, Asuman

    2014-03-01

    The present studies were performed to compare the differences between sensitization potency of fragrance mix and its ingredients (oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal), by using ex vivo LLNA-BrdU ELISA. The SI and EC3 values were calculated and potency classification was found for the mixture and for each ingredients. TH1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) releases from lymph node cell culture were also investigated as contact sensitization endpoints. The EC3 values were calculated and the potency of contact sensitization were classified for fragrance mix, oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal respectively: 4.4% (moderate), 3.4% (moderate), 0.88% (strong), 16.6% (weak), 1.91% (moderate), 9.77% (moderate), 13.1% (weak), 17.93% (weak), 7.74% (moderate). According to our results it should be concluded that exposure to fragrance mix does not constitute an evidently increased hazard compared to exposure to each of the eight fragrance ingredients separately. Cytokine analyses results indicate that both TH1 and TH2 cytokines are involved in the regulation of murine contact allergy and can be considered as useful endpoints.

  14. B cell increases and ex vivo IL-2 production as secondary endpoints for the detection of sensitizers in non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Jang, Won-Hee; Lee, Yong-Kyoung; Yum, Young Na; Sohn, Soojung; Kim, Bae-Hwan; Chung, Jin-Ho; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2012-03-25

    Non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with flow cytometry (FCM) is gaining attention since it is free from the regulatory issues in traditional LLNA (tLLNA) accompanying in vivo uses of radioisotope, (3)H-thymidine. However, there is also concern over compromised performance of non-radioisotopic LLNA, raising needs for additional endpoints to improve the accuracy. With the full 22 reference substances enlisted in OECD Test Guideline No. 429, we evaluated the performance of LLNA:BrdU-FCM along with the concomitant measurements of B/T cell ratio and ex vivo cytokine production from isolated lymph node cells (LNCs) to examine the utility of these markers as secondary endpoints. Mice (Balb/c, female) were topically treated with substances on both ears for 3 days and then, BrdU was intraperitoneally injected on day 5. After a day, lymph nodes were isolated and undergone FCM to determine BrdU incorporation and B/T cell sub-typing with B220+ and CD3e+. Ex vivo cytokine production by LNCs was measured such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, MCP-1, GM-CSF and TNFα. Mice treated with sensitizers showed preferential increases in B cell population and the selective production of IL-2, which matched well with the increases in BrdU incorporation. When compared with guinea pig or human data, BrdU incorporation, B cell increase and IL-2 production ex vivo could successfully identify sensitizers with the accuracy comparable to tLLNA, suggesting that these markers may be useful for improving the accuracy of LLNA:BrdU-FCM or as stand-alone non-radioisotopic endpoints. PMID:22245253

  15. Skin sensitization potency of isoeugenol and its dimers evaluated by a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay and guinea pig maximization test.

    PubMed

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Iida, Kenji; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke

    2008-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the serious unwanted effect arising from the use of consumer products such as cosmetics. Isoeugenol is a fragrance chemical with spicy, carnation-like scent, is used in many kinds of cosmetics and is a well-known moderate human sensitizer. It was previously reported that the dimerization of eugenol yielded two types of dimer possessing different sensitization potencies. This study reports the differences in skin sensitization potencies for isoeugenol and two types of dimer, beta-O-4-dilignol and dehydrodiisoeugenol (DIEG), as evaluated by the non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (non-RI LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test. In the guinea pig maximization test, isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were classified as extreme, weak and moderate sensitizers, respectively. As for the results of non-RI LLNA, the EC3 for isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were calculated as 12.7%, >30% and 9.4%, respectively. The two types of isoeugenol dimer showed different sensitizing activities similar to the case for eugenol dimers. A reduction of sensitization potency achieved by dimerization may lead to developing safer cosmetic ingredients. Isoeugenol dimers are not currently used for fragrance chemicals. However, the dimerization of isoeugenol may yield a promising candidate as a cosmetic ingredient with low sensitization risk. The data may also provide useful information for the structure-activity relationship (SAR) in skin sensitization.

  16. Analysis of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) variability for assessing the prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals with non-animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Coralie; Barroso, João; Matys, Izabela; Worth, Andrew; Casati, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The knowledge of the biological mechanisms leading to the induction of skin sensitisation has favoured in recent years the development of alternative non-animal methods. During the formal validation process, results from the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) are generally used as reference data to assess the predictive capacity of the non-animal tests. This study reports an analysis of the variability of the LLNA for a set of chemicals for which multiple studies are available and considers three hazard classification schemes: POS/NEG, GHS/CLP and ECETOC. As the type of vehicle used in a LLNA study is known to influence to some extent the results, two analyses were performed: considering the solvent used to test the chemicals and without considering the solvent. The results show that the number of discordant classifications increases when a chemical is tested in more than one solvent. Moreover, it can be concluded that study results leading to classification in the strongest classes (1A and EXT) seem to be more reliable than those in the weakest classes. This study highlights the importance of considering the variability of the reference data when evaluating non-animal tests. PMID:27085510

  17. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of a 21-gene recurrence score assay versus Canadian clinical practice in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axillary lymph-node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay may inform adjuvant systematic treatment decisions in women with early stage breast cancer. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of using the RS-assay versus current clinical practice (CCP) in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axilliary lymph-node negative breast cancer (ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC) from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. Methods We developed a Markov model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of ESBC. We evaluated adjuvant therapy separately in post- and pre-menopausal women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. We assumed that the RS-assay would reclassify pre- and post-menopausal women among risk levels (low, intermediate and high) and guide adjuvant systematic treatment decisions. The model was parameterized using 7 year follow up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba administrative databases, and secondary sources. Costs are presented in 2010 CAD. Future costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Results The RS-assay compared to CCP generated cost-savings in pre-menopausal women and had an ICER of $60,000 per QALY gained in post-menopausal women. The cost effectiveness was most sensitive to the proportion of women classified as intermediate risk by the RS-assay who receive adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of relapse in the RS-assay model. Conclusions The RS-assay is likely to be cost effective in the Canadian healthcare system and should be considered for adoption in women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. However, ongoing assessment and validation of the assay in real-world clinical practice is warranted. PMID:23031196

  19. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 3. Apparent discrepancies between LLNA and GPMT sensitisation potential: False positives or differences in sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the gold standard regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation along with the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT). Compared with the GPMT, LLNA uses fewer animals, it is quantitative, and it gives a numerical prediction of potency. However several concerns have been raised with this assay, mainly related to false positives and false negatives. Over the years, many authors, including the developers of the assay, have presented cases where there have been discrepancies between the GMPT and LLNA results. Several theories have been put forward for these discrepancies, the main one being the "over-sensitivity" of the GPMT. This paper analyses the data from a systematic study, published in three papers from 2008 to 2011, covering several classes of chemicals, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, sugar surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols, with many cases of chemicals testing positive in the LLNA being negative in the GPMT. Based on consideration of reaction chemistry and structural alerts, it is concluded that these discrepancies are not LLNA false positives, but can be rationalised in terms of the different protocols of the assays. PMID:27477089

  20. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  1. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay on Treatment Choice in Node Positive Micrometastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Thomas G.; Fox, Kevin R.; Smith, J. Stanley; Laronga, Christine; McSwain, Anita; Paul, Devchand; Schultz, Michael; Stilwill, Joseph; Teal, Christine; Weisberg, Tracey; Vacchino, Judith F.; Sing, Amy P.; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hsiao, Wendy; Chang, Eunice; Broder, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess clinical utility of the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score®), we determined whether women with HER2(−)/ER+ pN1mi breast cancer with low (<18) Recurrence Scores results are given adjuvant chemotherapy in a lower proportion than those with high scores (≥31). This was a multicenter chart review of ≥18 year old women with pN1mi breast cancer, HER2(−)/ER+ tumors, ductal/lobular/mixed histology, with the assay ordered on or after 1 January 2007. One hundred and eighty one patients had a mean age of 60.7 years; 82.9% had ECOG performance status 0; 33.7% had hypertension, 22.7% had osteoporosis, 18.8% had osteoarthritis, and 8.8% had type-2 diabetes. Mean Recurrence Score was 17.8 (range: 0–50). 48.6% had a mastectomy; 55.8% had a lumpectomy. 19.8% of low-risk group patients were recommended chemotherapy vs. 57.9% in the intermediate-risk group and 100% in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). A total of 80.2% of the low-risk group were recommended endocrine therapy alone, while 77.8% of the high-risk group were recommended both endocrine and chemotherapy (p < 0.001). The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score result provides actionable information that can be incorporated into treatment planning for women with HER2(−)/ER+ pN1mi breast cancer. The Recurrence Score result has clinical utility in treatment planning for HER2(−)/ER+ pN1mi breast cancer patients. PMID:25789420

  2. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-01

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics.

  3. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-01

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. PMID:25732604

  4. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  5. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... then sent to the laboratory for examination. A needle biopsy involves inserting a needle into a lymph ...

  6. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  7. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  8. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer, allows a more accurate staging of the cancer, and leaves unaffected nodes behind to continue the important job of draining fluids. The procedure involves the injection of a dye (sometimes mildly radioactive) to pinpoint the lymph node ...

  9. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Egan, R L; McSweeney, M B

    1983-05-15

    Radiographic, gross, and histopathologic studies on 158 whole breasts with primary operable carcinoma revealed intramammary lymph nodes in 28%, and of these breasts, 10% contained a metastatic deposit of carcinoma. Cancerous and noncancerous nodes were found in all quadrants of the breast with the positive ones being in the same quadrant as the carcinoma only 50% of the time. There was no demonstrable connection with the usual lymphatic drainage of the breast. With Stage II carcinoma, positive intramammary lymph nodes had no direct effect on prognosis, merely representing advanced disease and indicating a greater likelihood of axillary metastatic disease. There was a trend toward poorer prognosis in Stage I lesions with positive intramammary lymph nodes. This may indicate the Stage I carcinomas that have a similar prognosis as Stage II tumors. Conceivably, a Stage Ia, positive intramammary lymph node(s) but normal axillary lymph nodes, could be defined and used.

  10. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  11. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  12. Evaluating the sensitization potential of surfactants: integrating data from the local lymph node assay, guinea pig maximization test, and in vitro methods in a weight-of-evidence approach.

    PubMed

    Ball, Nicholas; Cagen, Stuart; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Certa, Hans; Eigler, Dorothea; Emter, Roger; Faulhammer, Frank; Garcia, Christine; Graham, Cynthia; Haux, Carl; Kolle, Susanne N; Kreiling, Reinhard; Natsch, Andreas; Mehling, Annette

    2011-08-01

    An integral part of hazard and safety assessments is the estimation of a chemical's potential to cause skin sensitization. Currently, only animal tests (OECD 406 and 429) are accepted in a regulatory context. Nonanimal test methods are being developed and formally validated. In order to gain more insight into the responses induced by eight exemplary surfactants, a battery of in vivo and in vitro tests were conducted using the same batch of chemicals. In general, the surfactants were negative in the GPMT, KeratinoSens and hCLAT assays and none formed covalent adducts with test peptides. In contrast, all but one was positive in the LLNA. Most were rated as being irritants by the EpiSkin assay with the additional endpoint, IL1-alpha. The weight of evidence based on this comprehensive testing indicates that, with one exception, they are non-sensitizing skin irritants, confirming that the LLNA tends to overestimate the sensitization potential of surfactants. As results obtained from LLNAs are considered as the gold standard for the development of new nonanimal alternative test methods, results such as these highlight the necessity to carefully evaluate the applicability domains of test methods in order to develop reliable nonanimal alternative testing strategies for sensitization testing. PMID:21645576

  13. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fingers) include: Groin Armpit Neck (there is a chain of lymph nodes on either side of the front of the neck, both sides of the neck, and down each side of the back of the neck) Under the jaw and chin Behind the ears On the back of the head

  14. XQL and Proximal Nodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

  15. The lymph node neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Henry R; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs provide a specialized microenvironment tailored to foster communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions allow immune cells to coordinate multilayered defense against pathogens. Until recently dendritic cells and macrophages were thought to comprise the main innate immune cell subsets responsible for delivering signals that drive the adaptive immune response, while the function of neutrophils was largely confined to the innate immune system. However, the discovery of neutrophils in lymph nodes has raised the question of whether neutrophils might play a more extensive role not only in innate immunity per se, but also in coordinating the interactions between innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes and how this recruitment influences subsequent immune responses both in situ and at distant sites. PMID:27025975

  16. One node driving synchronisation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  17. Coarse-node computations with an adaptive node structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis with COMMIX of liquid metal reactor (LMR) intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) transients that are characterized by low flows, and especially imbalanced low flows, shows that if a coarse-node structure is used the predicted temperatures are significantly different than those given by a fine-node structure. If a fine-node structure is used, for problems that involve a large part of the plant, the computation time becomes excessive. This paper presents an improved version of an adaptive node structure. At this stage this version has been applied only to one-dimensional problems.

  18. Cellulase Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H. Percival; Hong, Jiong; Ye, Xinhao

    Cellulose is a heterogeneous polysaccharide, and its enzymatic hydrolysis requires endoglucanase, exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase), and β-glucosidase to work together. We summarize the most commonly used assays for individual enzymes and cellulase mixture.

  19. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory.

  20. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory. PMID:24658233

  1. In vitro autoradiographic localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in sarcoid lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.K.; Chai, S.Y.; Dunbar, M.S.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1986-09-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was localized in sarcoid lymph nodes by an in vitro autoradiographic technique using a synthetic ACE inhibitor of high affinity, /sup 125/I-labelled 351A. The lymph nodes were from seven patients with active sarcoidosis who underwent mediastinoscopy and from six control subjects who had nodes resected at either mediastinoscopy or laparotomy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was localized in the epithelioid cells of sarcoid granulomata in markedly increased amounts compared with control nodes, where it was restricted to vessels and some histiocytes. In sarcoid lymph nodes, there was little ACE present in lymphocytes or fibrous tissue. Sarcoid nodes with considerable fibrosis had much less intense ACE activity than the nonfibrotic nodes. The specific activity of ACE measured by an enzymatic assay in both the control and sarcoid lymph nodes closely reflected the ACE activity demonstrated by autoradiography. Sarcoid lymph nodes with fibrosis had an ACE specific activity of half that of nonfibrotic nodes (p less than 0.05). There was a 15-fold increase in specific ACE activity in sarcoid nodes (p less than 0.05) compared to normal. Serum ACE was significantly higher in those sarcoid patients whose lymph nodes were not fibrosed compared with those with fibrosis (p less than 0.01). This technique offers many advantages over the use of polyclonal antibodies. The 351A is a highly specific ACE inhibitor, chemically defined and in limitless supply. This method enables the quantitation of results, and autoradiographs may be stored indefinitely for later comparison.

  2. [Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, N V

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas is a rather rare phenomenon; according to different authors, the incidence of lymph node metastasis is 4 to 11%. The detection of lymph node metastases in osteosarcoma is associated with a significant reduction in the 5-year survival of patients and allows its classification as clinical stage IV tumor. The risk factors for lymph node metastases in patients with bone sarcomas are age (≥64 years), gender (female), nosological entity (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma), tumor depth (muscle, bone), and the size of primary tumor (>5 сm). The mechanism of lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas seems to be related to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. PMID:27600784

  3. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  4. Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ≥250≤5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p = 0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype. PMID:23533593

  5. Node weighted network upgrade problems

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, S.S.

    1996-09-01

    Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

  6. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  7. Node, Node-Link, and Node-Link-Group Diagrams: An Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saket, Bahador; Simonetto, Paolo; Kobourov, Stephen; Börner, Katy

    2014-12-01

    Effectively showing the relationships between objects in a dataset is one of the main tasks in information visualization. Typically there is a well-defined notion of distance between pairs of objects, and traditional approaches such as principal component analysis or multi-dimensional scaling are used to place the objects as points in 2D space, so that similar objects are close to each other. In another typical setting, the dataset is visualized as a network graph, where related nodes are connected by links. More recently, datasets are also visualized as maps, where in addition to nodes and links, there is an explicit representation of groups and clusters. We consider these three Techniques, characterized by a progressive increase of the amount of encoded information: node diagrams, node-link diagrams and node-link-group diagrams. We assess these three types of diagrams with a controlled experiment that covers nine different tasks falling broadly in three categories: node-based tasks, network-based tasks and group-based tasks. Our findings indicate that adding links, or links and group representations, does not negatively impact performance (time and accuracy) of node-based tasks. Similarly, adding group representations does not negatively impact the performance of network-based tasks. Node-link-group diagrams outperform the others on group-based tasks. These conclusions contradict results in other studies, in similar but subtly different settings. Taken together, however, such results can have significant implications for the design of standard and domain snecific visualizations tools. PMID:26356937

  8. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  9. Swiss EMBnet node web server.

    PubMed

    Falquet, Laurent; Bordoli, Lorenza; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Pagni, Marco; Jongeneel, C Victor

    2003-07-01

    EMBnet is a consortium of collaborating bioinformatics groups located mainly within Europe (http://www.embnet.org). Each member country is represented by a 'node', a group responsible for the maintenance of local services for their users (e.g. education, training, software, database distribution, technical support, helpdesk). Among these services a web portal with links and access to locally developed and maintained software is essential and different for each node. Our web portal targets biomedical scientists in Switzerland and elsewhere, offering them access to a collection of important sequence analysis tools mirrored from other sites or developed locally. We describe here the Swiss EMBnet node web site (http://www.ch.embnet.org), which presents a number of original services not available anywhere else.

  10. SensorNet Node Suite

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  11. Decellularized Lymph Nodes as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineered Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzone, Daniel A.; Albano, Nicholas J.; Aschen, Seth Z.; Ghanta, Swapna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The lymphatic system is commonly injured during cancer treatment. However, despite the morbidity of these injuries, there are currently no options for replacing damaged lymphatics. The purpose of this study was to optimize methods for decellularization of murine lymph nodes (LN) and to determine if these scaffolds can be used to tissue engineer lymph node-like structures. Methods and Results: LNs were harvested from adult mice and subjected to various decellularization protocols. The degree of decellularization and removal of nuclear material was analyzed histologically and quantitatively using DNA isolation. In addition, we analyzed histological architecture by staining for matrix proteins. After the optimal method of decellularization was identified, decellularized constructs were implanted in the renal capsule of syngeneic or allogeneic recipient mice and analyzed for antigenicity. Finally, to determine if decellularized constructs could deliver lymphocytes to recipient animals, the matrices were repopulated with splenocytes, implanted in submuscular pockets, and harvested 14 days later. Decellularization was best accomplished with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in negligible residual cellular material but maintenance of LN architecture. Implantation of decellularized LNs into syngeneic or allogeneic mice did not elicit a significant antigenic response. In addition, repopulation of decellularized LNs with splenocytes resulted in successful in vivo cellular delivery. Conclusions: We show, for the first time, that LNs can be successfully decellularized and that these matrices have preserved extracellular matrix architecture and the potential to deliver leukocytes in vivo. Future studies are needed to determine if tissue engineered lymph nodes maintain immunologic function. PMID:25144673

  12. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna M; Fascelli, Michele; Law, Yan Mee; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-05-01

    Nodal staging is important in prostate cancer treatment. While surgical lymph node dissection is the classic method of determining whether lymph nodes harbor malignancy, this is a very invasive technique. Current noninvasive approaches to identifying malignant lymph nodes are limited. Conventional imaging methods rely on size and morphology of lymph nodes and have notoriously low sensitivity for detecting malignant nodes. New imaging techniques such as targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) with iron oxide particles are promising for nodal staging of prostate cancer. In this review, the strengths and limitations of imaging techniques for lymph node staging of prostate cancer are discussed.

  13. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  14. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  15. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    John, Roy M; Kumar, Saurabh

    2016-05-10

    Although sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial arrhythmias frequently coexist and interact, the putative mechanism linking the 2 remain unclear. Although SND is accompanied by atrial myocardial structural changes in the right atrium, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disease of variable interactions between left atrial triggers and substrate most commonly of left atrial origin. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the development and progression of SND and AF. Although some patients manifest SND as a result of electric remodeling induced by periods of AF, others develop progressive atrial structural remodeling that gives rise to both conditions together. The treatment strategy will thus vary according to the predominant disease phenotype. Although catheter ablation will benefit patients with predominantly AF and secondary SND, cardiac pacing may be the mainstay of therapy for patients with predominant fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy. This contemporary review summarizes current knowledge on sinus node pathophysiology with the broader goal of yielding insights into the complex relationship between sinus node disease and atrial arrhythmias.

  16. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  17. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and lymph node calcification].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, E; Fujime, M; Niijima, T

    1987-05-01

    A female patient with calculi in the left kidney and calcified lymph nodes in the vicinity of the left renal pelvis was treated successfully with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The simultaneous action of the shock waves on the calcified lymph nodes did not cause any alteration of the lymph node structure. Thus a shock-wave treatment can be carried out even in the presence of a calcified lymph node without complications.

  18. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  19. Axillary lymph node analysis using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jenny; Christie-Brown, Jonathan; Sammon, Alastair; Stone, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is an optical diagnostic technique applied in this study to classify axillary lymph nodes from breast cancer patients as positive or negative for metastases. The mapping technique in this study is 81% sensitive and 97% specific for the correct classification of positive lymph nodes. Raman spectral images of lymph node sections are constructed to facilitate interpretation of tissue features.

  20. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  1. Approach to intensely enhancing neck nodes

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Amit; Gummalla, Krishna Mohan; Loke, Siu Cheng; Goh, Julian; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical node evaluation is one of the most common problems encountered by a radiologist. Here, we present a pictorial review of intensely enhancing neck nodes. While enhancement in a cervical node is a common radiologic finding on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, only few conditions cause intense enhancement in cervical nodes. We discuss the common causes of intensely enhancing neck nodes along with pertinent radiologic features and key differentiating points that aid radiologists in reaching a diagnosis. In addition, we discuss certain potential non-nodal mimics, which need to be excluded. PMID:26782154

  2. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  3. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. PMID:23010587

  4. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  5. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  6. Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Chow, V. I.; Williams, S. L.; Botsford, L. W.; Morgan, S. G.; Nyden, B.; Tustin, J. A.; McAfee, S.; Shideler, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON) is comprised of radar mapping of surface currents, a moored current profiler, and shoreline oceanographic and meteorological observations. Ongoing shoreline data on temperature and salinity date back to 1955, with continuous records of sealevel, wind, meteorology, and chlorophyll fluorescence starting more recently. Radar observations started in 2001 with deployment of two CODAR antennae. Together with a third CODAR unit deployed in 2002, these provide coverage from Pt Reyes north to the CODE line. Real-time ADCP data from the mooring started in late 2004. Plans include nearshore wave data, CTD/fluorescence data from the mooring, and deployment of a nutrient sensor at the shoreline. This coastal ocean observing node is part of the state-funded COCMP-NC program and the CeNCOOS regional association for central and northern California. Ancillary regional data are available on offshore winds (NDBC buoys), offshore waves (CDIP buoy), river flow, and satellite observations. The value of this suite of measurements is built on (1) detailed understanding of circulation, derived from WEST, CODE, and other prior studies of this region, including mesoscale atmosphere and ocean modeling, (2) active integration of circulation patterns in ongoing studies of planktonic and benthic ecology, and (3) direct interaction with local, state and federal agencies with interest in this region. To-date, the ongoing data series have shown potential for improved understanding and monitoring of fishery populations such as salmon and crab, as well as water quality concerns including oil spills and toxic pollutants. Through an active involvement in local studies and environmental management issues, BOON seeks to develop alternatives to supply-side thinking in the design of coastal ocean observing systems. BOON is based at the Bodega Marine Laboratory and thus provides invaluable support for academic study of more fundamental questions, such as carbon budgets

  7. Megadalton-node assembly by binding of Skb1 to the membrane anchor Slf1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lin; Kabeche, Ruth; Wang, Ning; Wu, Jian-Qiu; Moseley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains both dynamic and static microdomains. Given the growing appreciation of cortical microdomains in cell biology, it is important to determine the organizational principles that underlie assembly of compartmentalized structures at the plasma membrane. The fission yeast plasma membrane is highly compartmentalized by distinct sets of cortical nodes, which control signaling for cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. The mitotic inhibitor Skb1 localizes to a set of cortical nodes that provide spatial control over signaling for entry into mitosis. However, it has been unclear whether these nodes contain other proteins and how they might be organized and tethered to the plasma membrane. Here we show that Skb1 forms nodes by interacting with the novel protein Slf1, which is a limiting factor for node formation in cells. Using quantitative fluorescence microscopy and in vitro assays, we demonstrate that Skb1-Slf1 nodes are megadalton structures that are anchored to the membrane by a lipid-binding region in the Slf1 C-terminus. We propose a mechanism for higher-order node formation by Skb1 and Slf1, with implications for macromolecular assemblies in diverse cell types. PMID:25009287

  8. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  9. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite.

  10. Sinus node dysfunction: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Karla; Scordo, Kristine

    2012-12-10

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) refers to a wide range of abnormalities involving sinus node and atrial impulse generation and propagation. SND occurs at any age and is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Clinicians must be able to accurately diagnose this syndrome, which can present from asymptomatic bradycardia to atrial standstill.

  11. A multiple node software development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinicke, P.; Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Ritchie, D.; White, V.

    1987-06-01

    Experimenters on over 30 DECnet nodes at Fermilab use software developed, distributed, and maintained by the Data Acquisition Software Group. A general methodology and set of tools have been developed to distribute, use and manage the software on different sites. The methodology and tools are of interest to any group developing and using software on multiple nodes.

  12. Testnodes: a Lightweight Node-Testing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R.; Bland, J.

    2014-06-01

    A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.

  13. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  14. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  15. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  16. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  17. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  18. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  19. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  20. Sentinel node evaluation in gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Plante, Marie; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Roy, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The sentinel node evaluation has revolutionized the modern surgical management of cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. In gynecologic oncology, sentinel node mapping has been mainly studied in vulvar and cervical cancer. In vulvar cancer, data from 12 studies including 353 cases indicate that the sentinel node detection rate is 92% and the negative-predictive value is 99%. Three groin recurrences have been documented so far (< 1%). The technique has more recently been studied in cervical cancer. Data from 12 studies including 323 cases indicate a lower sentinel node detection rate of 80% to 86% and a negative-predictive value of 99%. Three false-negative cases have been reported so far (< 1%). Review of the literature suggests that the combined approach with blue dye and lymphoscintigraphy is superior to the blue dye alone for sentinel node detection. It also suggests that the sentinel node mapping technique is feasible in vulvar and cervical cancer and that it may become a valuable alternative to the traditional groin and pelvic lymphadenectomy. However, results have not been duplicated in large multi-institutional trials, and the technique should still be performed in the context of clinical trials. Complications of the sentinel node mapping technique are rare and usually benign but physicians should be aware of the serious risk of anaphylactic reaction to the blue dye (1% to 2%). Before this technique becomes a standard approach in the management of gynecologic malignancies, more data will be needed to clarify some of the related controversies.

  1. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  2. Lymph node hyalinization in elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, I; Murakami, G; Sato, A; Fujiwara, D; Ichikawa, H; Yajima, T; Kohama, G

    2003-10-01

    Lymph node hyalinization has been comprehensively investigated using specimens obtained from elderly Japanese and white Americans. Onion-peel lesions and associated meshwork areas were often found in the medullary sinus of the thoracic node (mediastinal-type hyalinization), while eosinophilic, glassy and spotty lesions were consistently seen in B lymphocyte areas of the pelvic node (pelvic-type hyalinization). The mediastinal-type hyalinization was comprised of thin collagen fibrils (ca 50 nm in diameter), whereas the pelvic-type hyalinization had thick fibrils (ca 150 nm in diameter). This difference seemed to be consistent with a difference in composite collagen fibrils of vascular walls between the thoracic and pelvic regions. The pelvic-type hyalinization was often or sometimes seen in other nodes, such as cervical, axillary, abdominal and inguinal nodes, especially in white Americans. The mediastinal-type hyalinization, usually in combination with a sinus filled with anthracotic macrophages, tended to be observed in Japanese more frequently than in white Americans. Anthracosis seemed to be connected to the pathogenesis of the hyalinization. On the other hand, because the lesion was weakly positive for Factor VIII immunohistochemistry and because lesions were located along thin vessels, the pelvic-type hyalinization seemed to originate from vascular degeneration in the nodal cortex. Due to the high incidence and large proportion in total volume of the node, the hyalinization seems to be one of the major events that diminish the nodal filtration function and ruin the node with aging. PMID:12973685

  3. Parallel node placement method by bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Qi, Nan; Li, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An efficient Parallel Node Placement method by Bubble Simulation (PNPBS), employing METIS-based domain decomposition (DD) for an arbitrary number of processors is introduced. In accordance with the desired nodal density and Newton’s Second Law of Motion, automatic generation of node sets by bubble simulation has been demonstrated in previous work. Since the interaction force between nodes is short-range, for two distant nodes, their positions and velocities can be updated simultaneously and independently during dynamic simulation, which indicates the inherent property of parallelism, it is quite suitable for parallel computing. In this PNPBS method, the METIS-based DD scheme has been investigated for uniform and non-uniform node sets, and dynamic load balancing is obtained by evenly distributing work among the processors. For the nodes near the common interface of two neighboring subdomains, there is no need for special treatment after dynamic simulation. These nodes have good geometrical properties and a smooth density distribution which is desirable in the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of numerical examples show that quasi linear speedup in the number of processors and high efficiency are achieved.

  4. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G.; Forbes, John F.; Clark, Susan J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype. PMID:27671774

  5. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Biguria, Rafael; Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  6. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  7. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  8. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  9. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  10. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  11. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, G K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with coeliac disease and mesenteric lymph node cavitation is reported. This is a rare occurrence and has received very little attention in the English literature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3721297

  12. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  13. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. [Regional lymph nodes at a distance].

    PubMed

    Kroon, B B R; Hoefnagel, C A; Valdés Olmos, R A; Nieweg, O E

    2008-09-13

    In 3 patients, two men aged 22 years and 38 years with melanoma, and one woman aged 46 years with breast cancer, local tumour growth recurred following regional lymph node dissection. All three developed metastasis in new distant regional basins, which were once more dissected. The first melanoma patient died from haematogenous metastasis, 2 years after the excision of his primary melanoma. The other melanoma patient was alive, without evidence of disease, 8 years after the treatment of his primary tumour. The breast cancer patient, who underwent contralateral axillary lymph node dissection, was also alive, without evidence of disease, 27 years after the treatment of her primary tumour. Diversion of lymphatic flow as a result of regional lymph node dissection for cancer may lead to metastasis to a distant lymph node basin if tumour growth recurs in the original area. Knowledge of this usually unknown phenomenon is important since metastasis to these new regional basins can still be treated curatively, in the form of another lymph node dissection. These distant lymph node basins must therefore be carefully checked during follow-up monitoring.

  17. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  18. [Regional lymph nodes at a distance].

    PubMed

    Kroon, B B R; Hoefnagel, C A; Valdés Olmos, R A; Nieweg, O E

    2008-09-13

    In 3 patients, two men aged 22 years and 38 years with melanoma, and one woman aged 46 years with breast cancer, local tumour growth recurred following regional lymph node dissection. All three developed metastasis in new distant regional basins, which were once more dissected. The first melanoma patient died from haematogenous metastasis, 2 years after the excision of his primary melanoma. The other melanoma patient was alive, without evidence of disease, 8 years after the treatment of his primary tumour. The breast cancer patient, who underwent contralateral axillary lymph node dissection, was also alive, without evidence of disease, 27 years after the treatment of her primary tumour. Diversion of lymphatic flow as a result of regional lymph node dissection for cancer may lead to metastasis to a distant lymph node basin if tumour growth recurs in the original area. Knowledge of this usually unknown phenomenon is important since metastasis to these new regional basins can still be treated curatively, in the form of another lymph node dissection. These distant lymph node basins must therefore be carefully checked during follow-up monitoring. PMID:18825884

  19. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  20. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  1. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  2. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, N.; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients. PMID:26941496

  3. Lymph node revealing solution: a new method for lymph node sampling: results in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koren, R; Kyzer, S; Levin, I; Klein, B; Halpern, M; Rath-Wolfson, L; Paz, A; Melloul, M M; Mishali, M; Gal, R

    1998-01-01

    Staging of gastric carcinoma depends on exact lymph node status. However, very small nodes are not easily found as they are obscured by the surrounding adipose tissue. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the usefulness of a Olymph node revealing solutionO (LNRS) in gastric cancer. The perigastric adipose tissue of ten OproblematicO cases of gastric carcinoma, in which <10 lymph nodes were found using the traditional method, was immersed in LNRS for 6-12 h. Subsequently, the lymph nodes stood out as white chalky nodules. They were excised and processed routinely. The traditional method yielded a total of 30 lymph nodes with a mean size of 6.69 +/- 3.43 mm. The LNRS revealed 89 additional nodes with a mean size of 3.03 +/- 3.43 mm, which was significantly smaller. The Node (N) stage was changed in four cases from Nx to N0, in one case from N1 to N2, and in one case from N0 to N2. LNRS seems to be the technique of choice for staging of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma in whom <10 lymph nodes were found with the traditional method and accurate staging was not possible. PMID:9468553

  4. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-12-12

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient.

  5. New-onset haematoproteinuria in a 63-year-old man with intraperitoneal lymph node enlargement.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Akihiro; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Sato, Yuji; Fujimoto, Shouichi

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction with haematoproteinuria. Intraperitoneal lymph node enlargement was also noted. M protein was not detected by electrophoresis of his serum and urine; however, an increase in the κ/λ ratio was detected by free light-chain assay. Percutaneous kidney biopsy was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits. Lymph node biopsy showed follicular lymphoma. Urinalysis findings improved after treatment of the lymphoma. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits is rarely considered to be associated with haematological disease. We report a case of lymphoma-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits with light-chain abnormality detected by free light-chain assay, but not by electrophoresis. PMID:26907822

  6. Node sampling for protein complex estimation in bait-prey graphs.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Denise M; Spencer, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    In cellular biology, node-and-edge graph or "network" data collection often uses bait-prey technologies such as co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP). Bait-prey technologies assay relationships or "interactions" between protein pairs, with CoIP specifically measuring protein complex co-membership. Analyses of CoIP data frequently focus on estimating protein complex membership. Due to budgetary and other constraints, exhaustive assay of the entire network using CoIP is not always possible. We describe a stratified sampling scheme to select baits for CoIP experiments when protein complex estimation is the main goal. Expanding upon the classic framework in which nodes represent proteins and edges represent pairwise interactions, we define generalized nodes as sets of adjacent nodes with identical adjacency outside the set and use these as strata from which to select the next set of baits. Strata are redefined at each round of sampling to incorporate accumulating data. This scheme maintains user-specified quality thresholds for protein complex estimates and, relative to simple random sampling, leads to a marked increase in the number of correctly estimated complexes at each round of sampling. The R package seqSample contains all source code and is available at http://vault.northwestern.edu/~dms877/Rpacks/.

  7. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  8. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  10. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  11. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  12. Space Station resource node flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.

  13. Vital nodes identification in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Chen, Duanbing; Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Real networks exhibit heterogeneous nature with nodes playing far different roles in structure and function. To identify vital nodes is thus very significant, allowing us to control the outbreak of epidemics, to conduct advertisements for e-commercial products, to predict popular scientific publications, and so on. The vital nodes identification attracts increasing attentions from both computer science and physical societies, with algorithms ranging from simply counting the immediate neighbors to complicated machine learning and message passing approaches. In this review, we clarify the concepts and metrics, classify the problems and methods, as well as review the important progresses and describe the state of the art. Furthermore, we provide extensive empirical analyses to compare well-known methods on disparate real networks, and highlight the future directions. In spite of the emphasis on physics-rooted approaches, the unification of the language and comparison with cross-domain methods would trigger interdisciplinary solutions in the near future.

  14. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  15. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  16. Saddle-node bifurcation of viscous profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achleitner, Franz; Szmolyan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Traveling wave solutions of viscous conservation laws, that are associated to Lax shocks of the inviscid equation, have generically a transversal viscous profile. In the case of a non-transversal viscous profile we show by using Melnikov theory that a parametrized perturbation of the profile equation leads generically to a saddle-node bifurcation of these solutions. An example of this bifurcation in the context of magnetohydrodynamics is given. The spectral stability of the traveling waves generated in the saddle-node bifurcation is studied via an Evans function approach. It is shown that generically one real eigenvalue of the linearization of the viscous conservation law around the parametrized family of traveling waves changes its sign at the bifurcation point. Hence this bifurcation describes the basic mechanism of a stable traveling wave which becomes unstable in a saddle-node bifurcation.

  17. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  18. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    DOE PAGES

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Bonnie, Amanda Marie; Montoya, Andrew J.; Michalak, Sarah E.

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this andmore » other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.« less

  19. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  20. Intravertebral disk herniations: cartilaginous (Schmorl's) nodes.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D; Niwayama, G

    1978-01-01

    Cartilaginous (Schmorl's) nodes are related to prolapses of intervertebral disk material into the vertebral body. These nodes can be produced by any process which weakens either the cartilaginous plate covering the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body or the subchondral trabeculae of the vertebra. Such processes include juvenile kyphosis, trauma, metabolic and neoplastic disorders, and degenerative disk disease. Radiographic abnormalities include indentations of vertebral outline and radiolucencies within the vertebral body with varying degrees of sclerosis. These can be readily differentiated from other vertebral alterations such as "butterfly", "fish", and "H" vertebrae.

  1. Transbronchial aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Curling, M; Green, M

    1988-04-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes has been undertaken in 60 consecutive patients with pulmonary malignancies undergoing routine fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Four aspirates from the subcarinal nodes contained malignant cells; three squamous cell carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma. Four of 40 (10%) of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung had a positive aspirate. We have not confirmed the high positive rate previously reported, but nevertheless transbronchial needle aspiration provided useful staging information in some patients. The technique is rapid, safe and simple, and can easily be applied in a routine bronchoscopy service for all patients with suspected cancer, or selected patients under active consideration for surgery. PMID:3166928

  2. Functional morphology of the pig sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Opthof, T; de Jonge, B; Jongsma, H J; Bouman, L N

    1987-12-01

    The porcine sinoatrial node in an isolated right atrium preparation is characterized by unifocal impulse generation. It has a rather elongated shape and the larger part of its volume is taken up by collagen and fibroblasts. The impulse appears to emerge from a site where the percentage of myofilaments is relatively low. The impulse is propagated faster towards the crista terminalis than to the interatrial septum with preference for the oblique-upward direction. A very large zone of cells with low excitability is located at the interatrial septal side of the node.

  3. Searching for nodes in random graphs.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, David

    2011-11-01

    We consider the problem of searching for a node on a labeled random graph according to a greedy algorithm that selects a route to the desired node using metric information on the graph. Motivated by peer-to-peer networks two types of random graph are proposed with properties particularly amenable to this kind of algorithm. We derive equations for the probability that the search is successful and also study the number of hops required, finding both numerical and analytic evidence of a transition as the number of links is varied.

  4. Lateral flow assays.

    PubMed

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  5. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  6. Tube-Forming Assays.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  7. New Rapid Spore Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  8. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  9. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described.

  10. Enhancement of node connectivity for mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiyu; Li, Fanzhi; Adams, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    For secure mobile wireless networks whose topologies are changed dynamically in insecure environments, mobile users need to keep in contact with each other for the purpose of user authentications. For instance, the network formed by a group of soldiers equipped with wireless devices in a battlefield. Maintaining a high connectivity is crucial in such networks in order to authenticate scattered individuals and to be able to communicate with each other. To establish connections, different mobile ad hoc network routing protocols have been developed. However, much research has shown that these protocols are incapable of maintaining high connectivity when the node density is lower in the network. This paper proposes a mechanism to enhance the node connectivity, which is specifically effective for mobile ad hoc networks with lower node densities. It selects some nodes with larger transmission power as strategic nodes to assist in establishing connections with remote nodes, which are unable to connect with otherwise. The strategic nodes have the ability to connect with each other. Whenever a remote mobile node has a request to connect to another remote mobile node, the strategic nodes function as normal mobile nodes and may forward the connection requests to the desired remote destination node. The mechanism is simulated in different scenarios with various node densities, and the results show that the node connectivity is generally enhanced with the benefit of lower node density network, gaining significant improvement.

  11. Difference of perceiving object softness during palpation through single-node and multi-node contacts.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Antoine; Hu, Yaoping

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) simulators can offer alternatives for training procedures in the medical field. Most current VR simulators consider single-node contact for interacting with an object to convey displacement and force on a discrete mesh. However, a single-node contact does not closely simulate palpation, which requires a surface made of a multi-node contact to touch a soft object. Thus, we hypothesize that the softness of a deformable object (such as a virtual breast phantom) palpated through a single-node contact would be perceived differently from that of the same phantom palpated through a multi-node contact with various force arrays. We conducted a study to investigate this hypothesis. Using a co-located VR setup that aligns visual and haptic stimuli onto a spatial location, we tested 15 human participants under conditions of both visual and haptic stimuli available and only visual (or haptic) stimulus available. In a trial, each participant palpated and discriminated two virtual breast phantoms of same softness through different contacts with varying force arrays. The results of this study revealed that virtual breast phantoms palpated through a single-node contact were constantly perceived harder than their counterparts palpated through a multi-node contact with varying force arrays, when visual stimuli were available. These results imply a constraint for developing a VR system of training palpation.

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  13. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  14. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  15. The lymph node in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dick, F R; Maca, R D

    1978-01-01

    Lymph nodes were examined from 41 cases of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Degree of immaturity was graded as absent to minimal (Grade I), moderate (Grade II) and marked (Grade III). A moderate degree of immaturity was found in the lymph node in 14 of 41 cases even though the cells seen on the initial bone marrow and peripheral blood smears obtained from these patients were essentially all mature. The morphology of these nodes could be confused with poorly differentiated lymphocytic or mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma in terms of the degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity was found in 5 cases; the morphology of these cases resembled histiocytic lymphoma. In the remaining 22 cases immaturity was essentially absent. The morphology of these cases was similar to that of diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. Our studies suggest that a moderate degree of immaturity in the lymph node of patients with CLL does not indicate that these patients will have a marked shortening of their survival. PMID:580071

  16. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  17. IDIS Small Bodies and Dust Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Giacomini, L.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroPlaNet information service provides access to lists of researchers, laboratories and data archives relevant to many aspects of planetary and space physics. Information can be accessed through EuroPlaNet website or, for advanced searches, via web-services available at the different thematic nodes. The goal of IDIS is to provide easy-to-use access to resources like people, laboratories, modeling activities and data archives related to planetary sciences. The development of IDIS is an international effort started under the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme and which will expand its capabilities during the 7th Framework Programme, as part of the Capacities Specific Programme/Research Infrastructures. IDIS is complemented by a set of other EuroPlaNet web-services maintained under the responsibility of separate institutions. Each activity maintains its own web-portal with cross-links pointing to the other elements of EuroPlaNet. General access is provided via the EuroPlaNet Homepage. IDIS is not a repository of original data but rather supports the access to various data sources. The final goal of IDIS is to provide Virtual Observatory tools for the access to data from laboratory measurements and ground- and spaced-based observations to modeling results, allowing the combination of as divergent data sources as feasible. IDIS is built around four scientific nodes located in different European countries. Each node deals with a subset of the disciplines related to planetary sciences and, working in cooperation with international experts in these fields, provides a wealth of information to the international planetary science community. The EuroPlaNet IDIS thematic node "Small Bodies and Dust Node" is hosted by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario and is established in close cooperation with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. Both these institutes are part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). The IDIS Small Bodies and Dust

  18. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  19. Node link stability in wireless mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hökelek, İbrahim; Uyar, M. Ümit; Fecko, Mariusz A.

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents an improvement of a novel analytic model for ad hoc networks based on Markov chains whose states represent node degree and the number of link failures. The model divides a geographic area into logical hexagonal cells, where random walk with probabilistic state-transition matrix determines link creation/failure. We can thus compute two important metrics characterizing the dynamics of a node's random movement: the expected times for the number of link changes to drop below and for the node degree to exceed a threshold. We obtained the two-dimensional Markov chain that allows us to apply these two metrics as the selection rules for the virtual backbone formation algorithm. Hence, our model is used to analyze the performance of service discovery architectures based on virtual backbone in mobile ad-hoc networks. We also plan to extend the created modeling framework to derive a number of additional metrics that characterize network connectivity, capacity, and survivability. Because the model is capable of computing the dynamics and the expected value of the number of a node's neighbors, it can also be used to estimate the level of interference as well as achievable and sustainable routing path diversity, degree of network connectivity, and the stability of routing tables. We expect to apply our modeling framework to analytic assessment of the stability of routing domains. The rate and expected values at which the nodes move in and out of domains characterize the rate of degradation of optimally built routing domains, and hence the resulting routing scalability and overhead.

  20. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    PubMed

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  1. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    PubMed

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  3. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  4. Dirac-node arc in the topological line-node semimetal HfSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, D.; Wang, Zhiwei; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Trang, C. X.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Ando, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on HfSiS, which has been predicted to be a topological line-node semimetal with square Si lattice. We found a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surface hosting bulk nodal lines, alongside the surface states at the Brillouin-zone corner exhibiting a sizable Rashba splitting and band-mass renormalization due to many-body interactions. Most notably, we discovered an unexpected Dirac-like dispersion extending one dimensionally in k space—the Dirac-node arc—near the bulk node at the zone diagonal. These novel Dirac states reside on the surface and could be related to hybridizations of bulk states, but currently we have no explanation for its origin. This discovery poses an intriguing challenge to the theoretical understanding of topological line-node semimetals.

  5. Multiplex Flow Assays

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow or dipstick assays (e.g., home pregnancy tests), where an analyte solution is drawn through a porous membrane and is detected by localization onto a capture probe residing at a specific site on the flow strip, are the most commonly and extensively used type of diagnostic assay. However, after over 30 years of use, these assays are constrained to measuring one or a few analytes at a time. Here, we describe a completely general method, in which any single-plex lateral flow assay is transformed into a multiplex assay capable of measuring an arbitrarily large number of analytes simultaneously. Instead of identifying the analyte by its localization onto a specific geometric location in the flow medium, the analyte-specific capture probe is identified by its association with a specific optically encoded region within the flow medium. The capture probes for nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies are attached to highly porous agarose beads, which have been encoded using multiple lanthanide emitters to create a unique optical signature for each capture probe. The optically encoded capture probe-derivatized beads are placed in contact with the analyte-containing porous flow medium and the analytes are captured onto the encoded regions as the solution flows through the porous medium. To perform a multiplex diagnostic assay, a solution comprising multiple analytes is passed through the flow medium containing the capture probe-derivatized beads, and the captured analyte is treated with a suitable fluorescent reporter. We demonstrate this multiplex analysis technique by simultaneously measuring DNA samples, antigen–antibody pairs, and mixtures of multiple nucleic acids and antibodies.

  6. Fluorometric assay for aflatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1984-11-01

    The method that is now widely adopted by the government laboratories for the assay of individual aflatoxin components (B/sub 1/, B/sub 2/, G/sub 1/, and G/sub 2/) utilizes a TLC technique. The extraction and clean-up steps of this technique were further researched but the method is still time consuming. It is, therefore, very important to develop a rapid and accurate assay technique for aflatoxins. The current research proposes a technique which utilizes a Turner Fluorometer.

  7. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  8. [Lymph node staging in gastrointestinal cancer. Combination of methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection and ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping].

    PubMed

    Märkl, B; Arnholdt, H

    2012-11-01

    The histopathological lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in gastrointestinal cancer. However, the recommended numbers of lymph nodes that should be evaluated are often not reached in routine practice. Methylene blue assisted lymph node dissection was introduced as a new, simple and efficient technique to improve lymph node harvest in gastrointestinal cancer. This method is inexpensive, causes no delay and needs no toxic substances. All studies performed revealed a highly significantly improved lymph node harvest in comparison to the conventional technique. Moreover, this technique can be combined with a new ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping that for the first time is based on histological sentinel lymph node detection. The success rate of this method is similar to conventional techniques and it enables an efficient application of extended investigation methods, such as immunohistochemistry or the polymerase chain reaction.

  9. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  10. Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

  11. Scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the nodes during execution

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2012-10-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the plurality of compute nodes during execution that include: identifying one or more applications for execution on the plurality of compute nodes; creating a plurality of physically discontiguous node partitions in dependence upon temperature characteristics for the compute nodes and a physical topology for the compute nodes, each discontiguous node partition specifying a collection of physically adjacent compute nodes; and assigning, for each application, that application to one or more of the discontiguous node partitions for execution on the compute nodes specified by the assigned discontiguous node partitions.

  12. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  13. [Sonoelastography in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodes].

    PubMed

    Zubarev, A V; Bashilov, V P; Gazhonova, V E; Kartavykh, A A; Churkina, S O; Selivanov, E S

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed to assess the diagnostic possibilities of the new method of sonoelastography. 68 patients with different thyroid nodes were studied. Sonoelastography increased the sensitivity of the routine ultrasound investigation from 89 to 94.8%, the specificity from the 83 to 93%, and the accuracy of the method from 76 to 89%. The method assignes the information of the structural changes of the thyroid, unavailable by the routine ultrasound investigation. PMID:21606917

  14. Running Geant on T. Node parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J. ); Mignot, B. )

    1990-08-01

    AnInmos transputer-based computer has been utilized to overcome the difficulties due to the limitations on the processing abilities of event parallelism and multiprocessor farms (i.e., the so called bus-crisis) and the concern regarding the growing sizes of databases typical in High Energy Physics. This study was done on the T.Node parallel computer manufactured by TELMAT. Detailed figures are reported concerning the event parallelization. (AIP)

  15. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nährig, Jörg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Gröne, Jörn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jörg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grützmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ≤24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy. PMID:17522509

  17. Elevated Serum Leptin Levels are Associated With an Increased Risk of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Junna; Wei, Wei; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Wyatt, Cynthia M.; Ellerhorst, Julie A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy. Fasting blood was obtained before surgery, and serum leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a “raw” (assay value) and an “adjusted” value (raw value divided by body mass index). Leptin levels and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared between sentinel node positive and negative groups. Logistic regression models were used to predict sentinel node status using leptin and other relevant clinical parameters. The raw and adjusted leptin levels were significantly higher in the 15 patients with positive sentinel nodes. These findings could not be attributed to differences in body mass indices. Univariate models revealed raw leptin, adjusted leptin, Breslow thickness, and mitotic rate as significant predictors of sentinel node status. Leptin levels and Breslow thickness remained significant in multivariate models. Survival and follow-up analysis revealed more aggressive disease in diabetic patients. Elevated serum leptin levels predict sentinel node metastasis in melanoma. Validation of this finding in larger cohorts should enable better stratification of early stage melanoma patients. PMID:26986135

  18. Sinus node recovery time in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kulbertus, H E; Leval-Rutten, F; Mary, L; Casters, P

    1975-04-01

    Measurement of the sinus node recovery time has been proposed as a diagnostic tool for recognition of the sick sinus syndrome. The latter is most frequently encountered in elderly patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and atherosclerosis. In order to provide normal values for the sinus node recovery time in this particular population group, atrial pacing studies were carried out in 30 subjects over 50 years of age, all with peripheral vascular disease and some with angina pectoris (10), residua of infarction (6), or hypertension (7). On stimulation, 7 patients maintained a I:I atrioventricular conduction up to the rate of 180/min. Second degree atrioventricular block developed in all other cases. On six occasions, Wenckebach's periods appeared at the relatively slow pacing rate of 120/min. The maximum postoverdrive pause ranged from 680 to 1600 ms with an average of 1100 ms plus or minus 190 (10). For each pacing speed, a correlation was found between the duration of the pause and the control intrinsic cardiac rate, longer pauses being associated with longer resting PP intervals. Beyond 120/min, the duration of the pause was seen to shorten progressively as the driving rate was increased. Finally, the behavior of the sinus node pacemaker following interruption of pacing showed individual variations. After pacing at relatively slow rates, a prompt return to near control values was consistently observed, whereas, after fast rates of driving, a phase of secondary depression developed in about one-half of the studied cases.

  19. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  20. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  1. PDS Lunar Data Node - Apollo Data Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alfred B.; Williams, D. R.; Guinness, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) was formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences (GEO) Node to restore selected Apollo data sets to a modern format. The Apollo lunar missions returned a wealth of information, including long-term (1969-1977) surface data collected by autonomous ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations emplaced by the crews of the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions, surface point measurements, and orbital data. Much of the ALSEP and other surface and orbital data housed at NSSDC are in forms which are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, seldom-used formats. The LDN is prioritizing these data based on their scientific and engineering value for hazard and resource assessment and the level of effort required for archiving. Data from three experiments, X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Cold Cathode Ion Gage (CCIG), and Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS), comprising eight unique data sets, have been restored and are in peer review process. The CCIG data have completed peer review and have been delivered to PDS GEO Node. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  2. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar. PMID:27302367

  3. Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.

    1997-01-16

    We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

  4. Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chien; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Lai, Chuan-Tsai; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang

    2005-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease, the most common head and neck manifestation of which is cervical lymphadenopathy. Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male who had a 2-month history of a progressively increasing mass with soreness in his right neck. The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes. The differential diagnoses of mycobacterial or fungal infections were excluded. Thoracic evaluations, including chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography, revealed no abnormal findings. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in improved clinical symptoms. No recurrence of the neck mass or other signs of systemic sarcoidosis were noted during 1.5 years of follow-up. Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.

  5. Analysis of complex network performance and heuristic node removal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpour, Ehsan; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Removing important nodes from complex networks is a great challenge in fighting against criminal organizations and preventing disease outbreaks. Six network performance metrics, including four new metrics, are applied to quantify networks' diffusion speed, diffusion scale, homogeneity, and diameter. In order to efficiently identify nodes whose removal maximally destroys a network, i.e., minimizes network performance, ten structured heuristic node removal strategies are designed using different node centrality metrics including degree, betweenness, reciprocal closeness, complement-derived closeness, and eigenvector centrality. These strategies are applied to remove nodes from the September 11, 2001 hijackers' network, and their performance are compared to that of a random strategy, which removes randomly selected nodes, and the locally optimal solution (LOS), which removes nodes to minimize network performance at each step. The computational complexity of the 11 strategies and LOS is also analyzed. Results show that the node removal strategies using degree and betweenness centralities are more efficient than other strategies.

  6. Evaluating the importance of nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Xiong, Qingyu; Shi, Weiren; Shi, Xin; Wang, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating the importance of nodes for complex networks is of great significance to the research of survivability and robusticity of networks. This paper proposes an effective ranking method based on degree value and the importance of lines. It can well identify the importance of bridge nodes with lower computational complexity. Firstly, the properties of nodes that are connected to a line are used to compute the importance of the line. Then, the contribution of nodes to the importance of lines is calculated. Finally, degree of nodes and the contribution of nodes to the importance of lines are considered to rank the importance of nodes. Five real networks are used as test data. The experimental results show that our method can effectively evaluate the importance of nodes for complex networks.

  7. Symptomatic intravertebral disc herniation (Schmorl's node) in the cervical spine.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S J; Fox, D A; Sosman, J L

    1985-01-01

    A case of a Schmorl's node in the cervical vertebra causing neck pain is reported. An inflammatory focus was found on histological examination of Schmorl's node indicating a possible mechanism of pain production. Images PMID:4083942

  8. Sensor node for remote monitoring of waterborne disease-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  9. Sensor Node for Remote Monitoring of Waterborne Disease-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  10. Sensor node for remote monitoring of waterborne disease-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-05-05

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries.

  11. Efficient soybean regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a whole cotyledonary node as an explant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Ge, Honglian; Liu, Jinmei; Luo, Yunling; Liu, Kun; Chen, Long; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Guangxuan; Li, Chengwei

    2014-01-01

    An optimized regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol based on whole cotyledonary node explants was developed in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Zhong Huang 13. Adding 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in a germinating medium could significantly increase regeneration efficiency; the optimal BAP concentration for shoot formation was 0.5 mg/L. The concentrations of plant growth regulators in a shoot induction medium were optimized by the orthogonal test [L9 (3(3))]. The best combination for shoot regeneration was a medium of Murashige & Skoog salts with B5 vitamins (MSB) supplemented with 3.5 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 0.2 mg/L kinetin (KT). Under this favorable condition, one node could regenerate 28-30 shoots. Soybean whole cotyledonary nodes were transformed by inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a vector pBI121 containing a β-glucuronidase gene (gus). GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern blot analysis indicated that the gus gene was transformed into soybean plants with 23.1% transformation efficiency. Transgenic plants could be obtained within 5-6 weeks, which was about 4 weeks less than that of a traditional single cotyledonary node method.

  12. Lymph node revealing solution: a new method for detection of minute axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Koren, R; Kyzer, S; Paz, A; Veltman, V; Klein, B; Gal, R

    1997-11-01

    The staging and prognosis of patients with breast cancer is related to the presence or absence of axillary lymph node involvement. However, in some cases no lymph nodes or too small a number of lymph nodes are revealed by the traditional method of palpating and sectioning the axillary fat. In the present study we demonstrate the usefulness of the lymph node revealing solution (LNRS) in breast cancer. Specimens from 13 patients, in whom <10 lymph nodes were identified in the axilla by the traditional method, were included in the study. After excising the lymph nodes by the traditional method, axillary tissue was immersed in LNRS for 6-12 hours. Additional lymph nodes, which stood out as white chalky nodules, were excised and processed as usual. The LNRS increased the mean number of nodes per case from 6.0+/-2.5 found by the traditional method to 12.54+/-4.61 nodes per case (p < 0.01). The size of the nodes identified by the LNRS was significantly smaller (p < 0.01) than those detected by the traditional method. The LNRS changed the lymph node stage of the disease in four of the studied cases (30%). LNRS seems to be the technique of choice for detection of axillary lymph nodes in cases where the number of detected lymph nodes by the traditional method is too small for accurate staging. PMID:9351579

  13. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  14. A case of lymphangioleiomyomatosis affecting the supraclavicular lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Minami, Takahiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Atsuo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakashima, Yutaka; Honda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 46-year-old woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) involving the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and pelvic lymph nodes in addition to the lungs is reported. Computed tomography incidentally revealed multiple thin-walled pulmonary cysts and low-attenuating masses in the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. A biopsy of the supraclavicular mass was performed and diagnosed as LAM histopathologically. The common sites of extrapulmonary LAM include retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes; however, supraclavicular lymph node involvement is extremely rare.

  15. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  16. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation. PMID:12521546

  17. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation.

  18. Retroperitoneal lymphocele formation after selective laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node sampling.

    PubMed

    Goh, M; Kantoff, P; Kavoussi, L R

    1994-06-01

    Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node sampling is being evaluated at several institutions as a minimally invasive alternative to evaluate pathologically retroperitoneal lymph nodes in cases of clinical stage A testis tumor. We report on the development of a symptomatic lymphocele after selective laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node sampling.

  19. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  20. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium.

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. PMID:6428927

  1. Genetic Network Programming with Intron-Like Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabu, Shingo; Chen, Yan; Eto, Shinji; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Recently, Genetic Network Programming (GNP) has been proposed, which is an extension of Genetic Algorithm(GA) and Genetic Programming(GP). GNP can make compact programs and can memorize the past history in it implicitly, because it expresses the solution by directed graphs and therefore, it can reuse the nodes. In this research, intron-like nodes are introduced for improving the performance of GNP. The aim of introducing intron-like nodes is to use every node as much as possible. It is found from simulations that the intron-like nodes are useful for improving the training speed and generalization ability.

  2. Mutually connected component of networks of networks with replica nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the emergence of the giant mutually connected component in networks of networks in which each node has a single replica node in any layer and can be interdependent only on its replica nodes in the interdependent layers. We prove that if, in these networks, all the nodes of one network (layer) are interdependent on the nodes of the same other interconnected layer, then, remarkably, the mutually connected component does not depend on the topology of the network of networks. This component coincides with the mutual component of the fully connected network of networks constructed from the same set of layers, i.e., a multiplex network.

  3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in an intraparotid lymph node.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Winkler, B; Perzin, K H; Wazen, J; Blitzer, A

    1985-01-15

    A well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma that was confined to, and apparently arose within, an intraparotid lymph node is reported. Salivary gland ducts and acini often are found within intraparotid lymph nodes, and occasionally within extraparotid nodes. Salivary gland tumors, both benign and malignant, can develop within this ectopic salivary tissue. When a malignant salivary-gland-type neoplasm is found within an intraparotid or periparotid lymph node, the possibility exists that the tumor has arisen within the node and does not necessarily represent a metastasis from some other occult site.

  4. Adaptive node techniques for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D W

    2000-04-01

    The computational mesh in numerical simulation provides a framework on which to monitor the spatial dependence of function and their derivatives. Spatial mesh is therefore essential to the ability to integrate systems in time without loss of fidelity. Several philosophies have emerged to provide such fidelity (Eulerian, Lagrangian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian ALE, Adaptive Mesh Refinement AMR, and adaptive node generation/deletion). Regardless of the type of mesh, a major difficulty is in setting up the initial mesh. Clearly a high density of grid points is essential in regions of high geometric complexity and/or regions of intense, energetic activity. For some problems, mesh generation is such a crucial part of the problem that it can take as much computational effort as the run itself, and these tasks are now taking weeks of massively parallel CPU time. Mesh generation is no less crucial to electromagnetic calculations. In fact EM problem set up can be even more challenging without the clues given by fluid motion in hydrodynamic systems. When the mesh is advected with the fluid (Lagrangian), mesh points naturally congregate in regions of high activity. Similarly in AMR algorithms, strong gradients in the fluid flow are one of the triggers for mesh refinement. In the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations without advection, mesh point placement/motion is not so intuitive. In fixed geometry systems, it at least feasible to finely mesh high leverage, geometrically challenged areas. For other systems, where the action takes place far from the boundaries and, likely, changes position in time, the options are limited to either using a high resolution (expensive) mesh in all regions that could require such resolution or adaptively generating nodes to resolve the physics as it evolves. The authors have developed a new time of adaptive node technique for Maxwell's equations to deal with this set of issues.

  5. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced.

  6. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced. PMID:24089967

  7. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  8. Smart Data Node in the Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Faiza; Kantak, Anil

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses the physical and engineering principles affecting the design of the Smart Data Node in the Sky (SDNITS) -- a proposed Earth-orbiting satellite for relaying scientific data from other Earth-orbiting satellites to one or more ground station(s). The document characterizes the problem of designing the telecommunication architecture of the SDNITS as consisting of two main parts: (1) finding the most advantageous orbit for the SDNITS to gather data from the scientific satellites and relay the data to the ground, taking account of such factors as visibility and range; and (2) choosing a telecommunication architecture appropriate for the intended relay function.

  9. Gamma-probe guided localization of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Alex, J C; Krag, D N

    1993-01-01

    The initial draining lymph node (Sentinel node) of a tumour may reflect the status of the tumours spread to the remaining lymphatic bed. The sentinel node, which has been reported to predict metastatic melanoma, has recently been localized by a new invasive technique [1]. The goal of our pre-clinical trial was to test a non-invasive technique to localize the sentinel node. Gamma-probe guided localization was used to identify and then surgically remove the first draining lymph node(s) in 16 inguinal lymphatic basins of eight cats. This method was found to be comparable to an invasive method using a blue dye. Gamma-probe localization has several potential advantages in that it can: (a) precisely locate on the surface of the skin the position of an underlying lymph node, (b) intraoperatively guide the surgeon to the lymph node during dissection, (c) verify that the correct node has been biopsied, (d) determine the possible presence of residual lymph nodes, (e) allow lymph nodes to be harvested through a small incision as opposed to raising a skin flap, and (f) be rapidly and easily performed.

  10. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  11. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Weed, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  12. Gamma-probe-guided lymph node localization in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Alex, J C; Weaver, D L; Fairbank, J T; Rankin, B S; Krag, D N

    1993-10-01

    The initial draining lymph node (sentinel node) has been successfully localized using intraoperative vital dye mapping and reportedly is predictive of regional nodal metastases in Clinical- Stage 1 melanoma. In an animal model, we previously established the technique of gamma-probe-guided localization of the technetium-99 sulfur colloid labelled sentinel node and found its sensitivity equal to vital dye mapping. We now report our initial experience using gamma-probe-guided localization to identify and then surgically remove the first draining lymph node(s) in 10 malignant melanoma patients. Lymphoscintigraphy was used to confirm localization. We conclude that this technique: (a) reliably localizes the sentinel node draining the site of a primary melanoma, (b) allows the lymphatic bed to be checked intraoperatively verifying complete sentinel node biopsy, and (c) is relatively simple and can be performed under local anaesthesia.

  13. Multiplex networks with heterogeneous activities of the nodes.

    PubMed

    Cellai, Davide; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-03-01

    In multiplex networks with a large number of layers, the nodes can have different activities, indicating the total number of layers in which the nodes are present. Here we model multiplex networks with heterogeneous activity of the nodes and we study their robustness properties. We introduce a percolation model where nodes need to belong to the giant component only on the layers where they are active (i.e., their degree on that layer is larger than zero). We show that when there are enough nodes active only in one layer, the multiplex becomes more resilient and the transition becomes continuous. We find that multiplex networks with a power-law distribution of node activities are more fragile if the distribution of activity is broader. We also show that while positive correlations between node activity and degree can enhance the robustness of the system, the phase transition may become discontinuous, making the system highly unpredictable. PMID:27078361

  14. C. elegans chemotaxis assay.

    PubMed

    Margie, Olivia; Palmer, Chris; Chin-Sang, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms use chemotaxis to seek out food sources, avoid noxious substances, and find mates. Caenorhabditis elegans has impressive chemotaxis behavior. The premise behind testing the response of the worms to an odorant is to place them in an area and observe the movement evoked in response to an odorant. Even with the many available assays, optimizing worm starting location relative to both the control and test areas, while minimizing the interaction of worms with each other, while maintaining a significant sample size remains a work in progress (1-10). The method described here aims to address these issues by modifying the assay developed by Bargmann et al.(1). A Petri dish is divided into four quadrants, two opposite quadrants marked "Test" and two are designated "Control". Anesthetic is placed in all test and control sites. The worms are placed in the center of the plate with a circle marked around the origin to ensure that non-motile worms will be ignored. Utilizing a four-quadrant system rather than one 2 or two 1 eliminates bias in the movement of the worms, as they are equidistant from test and control samples, regardless of which side of the origin they began. This circumvents the problem of worms being forced to travel through a cluster of other worms to respond to an odorant, which can delay worms or force them to take a more circuitous route, yielding an incorrect interpretation of their intended path. This method also shows practical advantages by having a larger sample size and allowing the researcher to run the assay unattended and score the worms once the allotted time has expired. PMID:23644543

  15. Performance of the Roche LightCycler real-time PCR assay for diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gous, N; Scott, L E; Wong, E; Omar, T; Venter, W D F; Stevens, W

    2012-06-01

    The Roche LightCycler mycobacterium detection molecular assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium, and M. kansasii, was applied to tissue specimens. It performed well on lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid specimens and less well on lung, liver, and bone marrow core biopsy specimens, but used in conjunction with a clinical suspicion of tuberculosis, it could augment patient management.

  16. Prognostic Significance of Number of Positive Nodes: A Long-Term Study of One to Two Nodes Versus Three Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Joseph, Kurian

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Previous reports of breast cancer have generally analyzed patients with one to three positive lymph nodes as a single group, often leading to controversy regarding the practical clinical applicability. The present study separately analyzed the survival outcomes of Stage T1-T2 breast cancer patients according to whether one, two, or three axillary nodes were pathologically positive. Methods and Materials: The records of 5,996 patients were available for analysis from the population-based Saskatchewan provincial registry between 1981 and 1995. Because the reliability of the nodal assessment depends on the number of lymph nodes sampled, only those 755 patients with Stage T1-T2 disease and eight or more nodes examined were analyzed further for overall survival and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: Patients with one and two positive nodes had nearly indistinguishable survival plots, but those with three positive nodes had a distinct trend toward worse survival. The overall survival rate of patients with one, two, and three nodes at 5, 10, and 15 years was 82.7%, 77.0%, and 79.0%, 64.8%, 60.9%, and 52.8%, and 48.8%, 48.0%, and 40.9%, respectively (p = .11). The corresponding CSS rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.4%, 82.0%, and 81.3%, 78.87%, 72.9%, and 62.1%, and 72.7%. 69.0%, and 55.6% (p = .0004). The use of regional radiotherapy did not confer any apparent survival benefit in terms of either overall survival or CSS. Conclusion: Patients with one or two positive nodes had a similar CSS. However, those with three positive nodes fared worse, with a significantly reduced CSS compared with those with one or two involved nodes. Thus, the survival data among patients with one to three nodes positive reveals clearly relevant differences when analyzed separately.

  17. Radon assay for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  18. Growth cone collapse assay.

    PubMed

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  19. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  20. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  1. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  2. Sentinel node identification by scintigraphic methods in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dias Moreira, R; Altino de Almeida, S; Maliska Guimarães, C M; Resende, J F; Gutfilen, B; Barbosa da Fonseca, L M

    2005-06-01

    In melanoma patients lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor that indicates the need for therapeutic lymph node dissection. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy mapping associated with radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a well established procedure for cutaneous melanoma patients without clinically detectable lymph node metastases (stage I, II). This technique is a versatile way of characterizing the lymphatic basin at risk for metastases and identifying involved lymph nodes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node biopsy in detecting micro metastases in cutaneous melanoma. The study was a single-institution prospective analysis of 74 melanoma patients, with primary tumors having Breslow thickness > 0.7 mm, who underwent lymphoscintigraphies between May 2002 and September 2003. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected intradermally at the primary tumor site and dynamic images were obtained for 40 minutes. Two observers evaluated the images. One to two weeks after the first lymphoscintigraphy, radioguided lymph node biopsy was performed. For the biopsy, technetium-99m sulfer colloid was injected intradermally in the same manner as performed before. Lymph nodes were identified and removed with the aid of a gamma ray detecting probe (GDP), and were submitted to histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis of the sentinel lymph nodes collected during surgery was performed in a sequential manner. First, frozen sections were analyzed during surgery. The lymph nodes considered negative by frozen section were analyzed by H&E staining. Subsequently, the slides considered negative with H&E were sent for immunohistochemical analysis. Lymphoscintigraphy identified at least one sentinel lymph node in all patients. Sentinel node biopsy detected metastases in 20 patients (27.2%). In all cases the lymph node basins identified during lymphoscintigraphy were found to

  3. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  4. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  5. Fractal dimension analysis of malignant and benign endobronchial ultrasound nodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) has been applied as a routine procedure for the diagnostic of hiliar and mediastinal nodes. The authors assessed the relationship between the echographic appearance of mediastinal nodes, based on endobronchial ultrasound images, and the likelihood of malignancy. Methods The images of twelve malignant and eleven benign nodes were evaluated. A previous processing method was applied to improve the quality of the images and to enhance the details. Texture and morphology parameters analyzed were: the image texture of the echographies and a fractal dimension that expressed the relationship between area and perimeter of the structures that appear in the image, and characterizes the convoluted inner structure of the hiliar and mediastinal nodes. Results Processed images showed that relationship between log perimeter and log area of hilar nodes was lineal (i.e. perimeter vs. area follow a power law). Fractal dimension was lower in the malignant nodes compared with non-malignant nodes (1.47(0.09), 1.53(0.10) mean(SD), Mann–Whitney U test p < 0.05)). Conclusion Fractal dimension of ultrasonographic images of mediastinal nodes obtained through endobronchial ultrasound differ in malignant nodes from non-malignant. This parameter could differentiate malignat and non-malignat mediastinic and hiliar nodes. PMID:24920158

  6. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; You, Ke-Li

    2016-01-01

    The standard treatment for node-positive cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy is pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Given the potential toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy, we used the lymph node ratio (LNR) to assess the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in lymph node-positive cervical cancer patients. Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (1988–2010) were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis. A total of 2,269 eligible patients were identified (median follow-up, 78.0 months); 1,863 (82.1%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate analysis multivariate analysis, a higher LNR was significantly associated with a poorer outcome. A LNR > 0.16 was associated with poorer cervical cancer-related survival (CCSS) (hazard Ratio [HR] 1.376, confidence interval [CI] 1.082–1.750; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR 1.287, CI 1.056–1.569; P = 0.012). Postoperative radiotherapy was only associated with survival benefits in patients with a LNR > 0.16 (CCSS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) and not in patients with a LNR ≤ 0.16 (CCSS, P = 0.620; OS, P = 0.167); these trends were not affected by number of removed lymph nodes. A higher LNR is associated with a poorer survival in lymph node-positive cervical cancer. The survival benefits of postoperative radiotherapy appear to be limited to patients with a LNR > 0.16. PMID:27105541

  7. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Qiong-Hua; Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; You, Ke-Li

    2016-05-17

    The standard treatment for node-positive cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy is pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Given the potential toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy, we used the lymph node ratio (LNR) to assess the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in lymph node-positive cervical cancer patients. Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (1988-2010) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis. A total of 2,269 eligible patients were identified (median follow-up, 78.0 months); 1,863 (82.1%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate analysis multivariate analysis, a higher LNR was significantly associated with a poorer outcome. A LNR > 0.16 was associated with poorer cervical cancer-related survival (CCSS) (hazard Ratio [HR] 1.376, confidence interval [CI] 1.082-1.750; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR 1.287, CI 1.056-1.569; P = 0.012). Postoperative radiotherapy was only associated with survival benefits in patients with a LNR > 0.16 (CCSS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) and not in patients with a LNR ≤ 0.16 (CCSS, P = 0.620; OS, P = 0.167); these trends were not affected by number of removed lymph nodes. A higher LNR is associated with a poorer survival in lymph node-positive cervical cancer. The survival benefits of postoperative radiotherapy appear to be limited to patients with a LNR > 0.16. PMID:27105541

  8. Chemotaxis: Under Agarose Assay.

    PubMed

    Brazill, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum represents a superb model for examining chemotaxis. Under vegetative conditions, the amoebae are chemotactically responsive to pterins, such as folate. Under starved conditions, they lose their sensitivity to pterins, and become chemotactically responsive to cAMP. As an NIH model system, Dictyostelium offers a variety of advantages in studying chemotaxis, including its conservation of mammalian signaling pathways, its ease of growth, and its genetic tractability. In this chapter, we describe the use of the under agarose chemotaxis assay to identify proteins involved in controlling motility and directional sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum. Given the similarities between Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, this allows us to dissect the conserved pathways involved in eukaryotic chemotaxis.

  9. Adipose tissue angiogenesis assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rodriguez, Raziel; Gealekman, Olga; Kruse, Maxwell E; Rosenthal, Brittany; Rao, Kishore; Min, Soyun; Bellve, Karl D; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Corvera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Changes in adipose tissue mass must be accompanied by parallel changes in microcirculation. Investigating the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue angiogenesis could lead to better understanding of adipose tissue function and reveal new potential therapeutic strategies. Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new capillaries from existing microvessels. This process can be recapitulated in vitro, by incubation of tissue in extracellular matrix components in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors. Here, we describe a method to study angiogenesis from adipose tissue fragments obtained from mouse and human tissue. This assay can be used to define effects of diverse factors added in vitro, as well as the role of endogenously produced factors on angiogenesis. We also describe approaches to quantify angiogenic potential for the purpose of enabling comparisons between subjects, thus providing information on the role of physiological conditions of the donor on adipose tissue angiogenic potential.

  10. Regenerating a kidney in a lymph node.

    PubMed

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Lagasse, Eric

    2016-10-01

    The ultimate treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is orthotopic transplantation. However, the demand for kidney transplantation far exceeds the number of available donor organs. While more than 100,000 Americans need a kidney, only 17,000 people receive a kidney transplant each year (National Kidney Foundation's estimations). In recent years, several regenerative medicine/tissue engineering approaches have been exploited to alleviate the kidney shortage crisis. Although these approaches have yielded promising results in experimental animal models, the kidney is a complex organ and translation into the clinical realm has been challenging to date. In this review, we will discuss cell therapy-based approaches for kidney regeneration and whole-kidney tissue engineering strategies, including our innovative approach to regenerate a functional kidney using the lymph node as an in vivo bioreactor.

  11. Topological Dirac line nodes in centrosymmetric semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkuk; Wieder, Benjamin; Kane, Charles; Rappe, Andrew; TI seed Team

    Dirac line nodes (DLNs) are one-dimensional lines of Dirac band-touching points, characterized by linear dispersion in only a single direction in momentum space. In the presence of inversion symmetry and time-reversal symmetry, crystals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling can host topologically protected DLNs. Recently, we have proposed and characterized a novel Z2 class of DLN semimetals [1]. We present Z2 topological invariants, dictating the presence of DLNs, based on the parity eigenvalues at the time-reversal invariant crystal momenta. Our first-principles calculations show that DLNs can be realized in Cu3N in an anti-ReO3 structure via a metal-insulator electronic transition, driven by transition metal doping. We also discuss the resultant surface states and the effects of spin-orbit coupling.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G.; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  14. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  15. MicroRNA Expression in a Readily Accessible Common Hepatic Artery Lymph Node Predicts Time to Pancreatic Cancer Recurrence Postresection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai V; Gore, Jesse; Zhong, Xin; Savant, Sudha S; Deitz-McElyea, Samantha; Schmidt, C Max; House, Michael G; Korc, Murray

    2016-10-01

    Lymph node involvement in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) predicts postresection survival, but early lymph node metastasis detection is not easily accomplished. We assessed a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a common hepatic artery lymph node (station 8) that is readily accessible during pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) to determine if increased miRNA levels correlate with postresection recurrence. Station 8 lymph nodes overlying the common hepatic artery collected during PD were assayed for miRNA-10b, miRNA-30c, miRNA-21, and miRNA-155 and cytokeratin-19 (CK19), an epithelial cell marker, using quantitative PCR. Expression was correlated with disease recurrence, recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Station 8 lymph nodes from 37 patients (30 periampullary carcinomas (PCs), 2 chronic pancreatitis, 5 other cancers) exhibited increased miRNA-10b levels in 14/30 PCs, and in 10 of these 14 patients, cancer recurred during the study period (2012-2015). High miRNA-10b was also associated with shorter RFS (42.5 vs. 92.4 weeks, p < 0.05) but not OS, whereas miRNA-30c, miRNA-21, and miRNA-155 levels and CK19 mRNA levels in station 8 nodes were variable and did not correlate with RFS or OS. We conclude that elevated miRNA-10b levels in station 8 lymph nodes could be utilized to assess risk for early disease progression in patients with periampullary tumors.

  16. Detection of occult carcinomatous diffusion in lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using real-time RT–PCR detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Lefèvre, M; Ricci, S; Saintigny, P; Callard, P; Périé, S; Lacave, R; Bernaudin, J-F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occult lymph node carcinomatous diffusion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total of 1328 lymph nodes from 31 patients treated between 2004 and 2005 were prospectively evaluated by routine haematoxylin–eosin–safran (HES) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time Taqman reverse–transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT–PCR) assay. Amplification of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA transcripts using real-time RT–PCR was used to quantify cervical micrometastatic burden. The cervical lymph node metastatic rates determined by routine HES staining and real-time RT–PCR assay were 16.3 and 36.0%, respectively (P<0.0001). A potential change in the nodal status was observed in 13 (42.0%) of the 31 patients and an atypical pattern of lymphatic spread was identified in four patients (12.9%). Moreover, CK19 mRNA expression values in histologically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than those observed in histologically negative lymph nodes (P<0.0001). These results indicate that real-time RT–PCR assay for the detection of CK19 mRNA is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of carcinomatous cells in lymph nodes. This type of method could be used to reassess lymph node status according to occult lymphatic spread in patients with HNSCC. PMID:16622440

  17. Detection of occult carcinomatous diffusion in lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using real-time RT-PCR detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Lefèvre, M; Ricci, S; Saintigny, P; Callard, P; Périé, S; Lacave, R; Bernaudin, J-F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2006-04-24

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occult lymph node carcinomatous diffusion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total of 1328 lymph nodes from 31 patients treated between 2004 and 2005 were prospectively evaluated by routine haematoxylin-eosin-safran (HES) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time Taqman reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay. Amplification of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA transcripts using real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify cervical micrometastatic burden. The cervical lymph node metastatic rates determined by routine HES staining and real-time RT-PCR assay were 16.3 and 36.0%, respectively (P<0.0001). A potential change in the nodal status was observed in 13 (42.0%) of the 31 patients and an atypical pattern of lymphatic spread was identified in four patients (12.9%). Moreover, CK19 mRNA expression values in histologically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than those observed in histologically negative lymph nodes (P<0.0001). These results indicate that real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of CK19 mRNA is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of carcinomatous cells in lymph nodes. This type of method could be used to reassess lymph node status according to occult lymphatic spread in patients with HNSCC.

  18. Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbynĕk; Egger, Gunter F; Witter, Kirsti; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2008-10-01

    Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots. Drawbacks of this method include low reproducibility and large interobserver variance, mainly as a result of individual differences in sampling of image fields for analysis. Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs. The endothelium of blood vessels was detected in paraffin sections by a combination of immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor) and lectin histochemistry (wheat germ agglutinin) in comparison with detection of basal laminae by laminin immunohistochemistry or silver impregnation. Systematic uniform random sampling of 50 image fields was performed during photo-documentation. An unbiased counting frame (area 113,600 microm(2)) was applied to each micrograph. The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2). Vessel profiles were counted according to stereological counting rules. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were tested. The application of systematic uniform random sampling was compared with the counting of vessel profiles in hot spots. The unbiased estimate of the number of vessel profiles per unit area ranged from 100.5 +/- 44.0/mm(2) to 442.6 +/- 102.5/mm(2) in contrast to 264 +/- 72.2/mm(2) to 771.0 +/- 108.2/mm(2) in hot spots. The advantage of using systematic uniform random sampling is its reproducibility, with reasonable interobserver and low intraobserver variance. This method also allows for the possibility of using archival material, because staining quality is not limiting as it is for image analysis, and artifacts can easily be excluded. However, this method is comparatively time-consuming.

  19. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin-Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-07-01

    In topological quantum materials the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure--Dirac node arcs--in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing to the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. We propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.

  20. Nanoparticle transport from mouse vagina to adjacent lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Byron; Andreko, Susan K; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; McRaven, Michael; Catalone, Tina; Bruchez, Marcel P; Hope, Thomas J; Labib, Mohamed E

    2012-01-01

    To test the feasibility of localized intravaginal therapy directed to neighboring lymph nodes, the transport of quantum dots across the vaginal wall was investigated. Quantum dots instilled into the mouse vagina were transported across the vaginal mucosa into draining lymph nodes, but not into distant nodes. Most of the particles were transported to the lumbar nodes; far fewer were transported to the inguinal nodes. A low level of transport was evident at 4 hr after intravaginal instillation, and transport peaked at about 36 hr after instillation. Transport was greatly enhanced by prior vaginal instillation of Nonoxynol-9. Hundreds of micrograms of nanoparticles/kg tissue (ppb) were found in the lumbar lymph nodes at 36 hr post-instillation. Our results imply that targeted transport of microbicides or immunogens from the vagina to local lymph organs is feasible. They also offer an in vivo model for assessing the toxicity of compounds intended for intravaginal use. PMID:23284844

  1. Alternative staging of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanik, Antoni M.; Paszko, Agata; Szura, Miroslaw; Scully-Horner, Thecla; Kulig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The TNM pN stage based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of stage migration and problems in comparing groups of patients with different numbers of total lymph nodes harvested within TNM staging. The current version of UICC/AJCC and JGCA TNM classifications postulates a minimal number of 16 lymph nodes as the base for N stage determination. Alternative systems such as lymph node ratio (LNR), positive to negative lymph node ratio (PNLNR), and LOGODDS (or LODDS), were implemented to increase the quality of LN assessment. These methods have reached the background in the literature, but to date no standard approach according to the cut-offs for the stages has been implemented. LOGODDS is the method that most reflects the number of harvested lymph nodes. The rationale for alternative staging methods, their correlations, and limitations are presented. PMID:27713774

  2. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  3. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  4. Clinical implications of contralateral axillary sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Carmon, Moshe; Mintz, Alexander; Hain, Daniel; Olsha, Oded

    2006-04-01

    Extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes can only be detected if radioactive tracer is used and pre-operative scans are carried out. The presence of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in most extra-axillary sites will upstage patients if the ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node is normal. Paradoxically, the presence of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in the contralateral axilla has the potential to prevent upstaging to stage IV, but only if detected as a sentinel node at the initial surgery rather than as a systemic recurrence at some later time. We describe a case of bilateral axillary sentinel lymph nodes detected by pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy in a patient with a medial quadrant breast cancer and discuss the possible implications of such a finding. PMID:16005230

  5. Yeast DEL assay detects clastogens.

    PubMed

    Kirpnick, Zhanna; Homiski, Michael; Rubitski, Elizabeth; Repnevskaya, Marina; Howlett, Niall; Aubrecht, Jiri; Schiestl, Robert H

    2005-04-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements, including DNA deletions are involved in carcinogenesis. The deletion (DEL) assay scoring for DNA deletions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to detect a wide range of carcinogens. Among approximately 60 compounds of known carcinogenic activity, the DEL assay detected 86% correctly whereas the Ames Salmonella assay detected only 30% correctly [R.J. Brennan, R.H. Schiestl, Detecting carcinogens with the yeast DEL assay, Methods Mol. Biol. 262 (2004) 111-124]. Since the DEL assay is highly inducible by DNA double strand breaks, this study examined the utility of the DEL assay for detecting clastogens. Ten model compounds, with varied mechanisms of genotoxicity, were examined for their effect on the frequency of DNA deletions with the DEL assay. The compounds tested were: actinomycin D, camptothecin, methotrexate and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, which are anticancer agents, noscapine and furosemide are therapeutics, acridine, methyl acrylate and resorcinol are industrial chemicals and diazinon is an insecticide. The in vitro micronucleus assay (IVMN) in CHO cells, a commonly used tool for detection of clastogens, was performed on the same compounds and the results of the two assays were compared. The results of our study show that there is 70% concordance in the presence of metabolic activation (rat liver S9) and 80% concordance in the absence of metabolic activation between the DEL assay and the standard in vitro micronucleus assay. The lack of cytotoxicity observed for four of the ten compounds examined indicates limited diffusion of lipophilic compounds across the yeast cell wall. Thus, the development of a more permeable yeast tester strain is expected to greatly improve concordance of the DEL assay with the IVMN assay. The yeast DEL assay is inexpensive, amenable to automation and requires less expertise to perform than the IVMN. Thus, it has a strong potential as a robust, fast and economical screen for detecting clastogens in

  6. Prediction of additional lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Pohlodek, K; Bozikova, S; Meciarova, I; Mucha, V; Bartova, M; Ondrias, F

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been the principal method for evaluating axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. In the past decades sentinel lymph nodes biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been used to stage the disease. The majority of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) positive patients do not have additional metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SLN) after additional ALND. These patients are exposed to the morbidity of ALND without any benefit from additional axillary clearence. In the present study we would like to asses the criteria for selecting those patients, who have high risk for non-SLN metastases in the axilla in cases of positive SLN. In this retrospective analysis, clinical and pathologic data from 163 patients who underwent SLN biopsy followed by ALND were collected. Following clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed to predict the likehood of non-SLN metastases: age, staging, histologic type and grading of the tumors, hormonal receptor status, HER-2 receptor status and Ki-67 protein, angioinvasion, metastases in SLN and non-SLN. Relative frequencies of individual characteristics between sample groups were statistically tested by Chi-square test at significance level p=0.5, when sample sizes in groups were small (≤5) by Fisher´s exact test. Metastasis in SLN were present in 67 (41%) of patients, 48 patients (29,4%) had metastasis also in non-SLN. The ratio between non-SLN positive / non-SLN negative lymph nodes in patients with positive SLN increases with the stage of the disease, the difference between values for the pT1c and pT2 stadium was statistically significant (p = 0.0296). The same applies to grading, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). We could not find significant differences for angioinvasion of the tumor, probably for small number of patients with angioinvasion (p>0.05).Only the stage of the tumor was shown to be significant in predicting the metastasis in non-SLN in our

  7. Shear wave elasticity imaging of cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Kunwar S S; Cho, Carmen C M; Tong, Cina S L; Yuen, Edmund H Y; Ahuja, Anil T

    2012-02-01

    A pilot study of real-time shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE) for cervical lymphadenopathy in routine clinical practice was conducted on 55 nodes undergoing conventional ultrasound (US) with US-guided needle aspiration for cytology. Elastic moduli of stiffest regions in nodes were measured on colour-coded elastograms, which were correlated with cytology. Malignant nodes (n = 31, 56.4%) were stiffer (median 25.0 kPa, range 6.9-278.9 kPa) than benign nodes (median 21.4 kPa, range 8.9-30.2 kPa) (p = 0.008, Mann Whitney U test). A cut-off of 30.2 kPa attained highest accuracy of 61.8%, corresponding to 41.9% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 0.77 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Qualitatively, elastograms of benign nodes were homogeneously soft; malignant nodes were homogeneously soft or markedly heterogeneous with some including regions lacking elasticity signal. SWE is feasible for neck nodes. It appears unsuitable for cancer screening but may detect a subset of malignant nodes. The cause of spatial heterogeneity of malignant nodes on SWE is yet to be established.

  8. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  9. Detection of Lymph Node Metastases with SERRS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Harmsen, Stefan; Huang, Ruimin; Wall, Matthew A.; Andreou, Chrysafis; Eastham, James A.; Touijer, Karim A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The accurate detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients is important to direct treatment decisions. Our goal was to develop an intra-operative imaging approach to distinguish normal from metastasized lymph nodes. We therefore developed and tested gold-silica surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) nanoparticles that demonstrate high uptake within normal lymphatic tissue, and negligible uptake in areas of metastatic replacement. Procedures We evaluated the ability of SERRS nanoparticles to delineate lymph node metastases in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model using PC-3 cells transduced with mCherry fluorescent protein. Tumor bearing mice (n = 6) and non-tumor bearing control animals (n = 4) were injected intravenously with 30 fmol/g SERRS nanoparticles. After 16–18 hours, the retroperitoneal lymph nodes were scanned in situ and ex vivo with a Raman imaging system and a hand-held Raman scanner and data corroborated with fluorescence imaging for mCherry protein expression and histology. Results The SERRS nanoparticles demonstrated avid homing to normal lymph nodes, but not to metastasized lymph nodes. In cases where lymph nodes were partially infiltrated by tumor cells, the SERRS signal correctly identified, with sub-millimeter precision, healthy from metastasized components within the same lymph node. Conclusions This study serves as a first proof-of-principle that SERRS nanoparticles enable high precision and rapid intraoperative discrimination between normal and metastasized lymph nodes. PMID:26943129

  10. Histology of hemal nodes of the water buffalo (Bos bubalus).

    PubMed

    Zidan, Mohamed; Pabst, Reinhard

    2010-06-01

    Hemal nodes are independent lymphoid organs found in various mammals but are ignored by most immunologists. They seem to play a role in defense against blood-borne infections in some species. The structure of the hemal node has been described in various species but, so far, not in the water buffalo. Specimens were obtained from ten clinically healthy male animals (five calves: 2-3 months old; five bulls: 2-8 years old). Six hemal nodes were obtained from each animal from the mesenteric and perirectal region. The samples were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The hemal nodes are bean-shaped or spherical, with one hilus through which the hilus arteries and nerves enter the node and from which veins and lymphatics leave it. The buffalo hemal node has a thin capsule of connective tissue and a few smooth muscle cells. Trabeculae extend from the capsule partially dividing the parenchyma. Subcapsular and trabecular blood sinuses are present. The parenchyma is composed of irregular lymphoid cords rich in erythrocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells and is separated by blood sinuses of variable size engorged with blood. These blood sinuses drain into the trabecular sinuses and then into the subcapsular sinus. In calves, the size of the lymphoid cords is larger than that in adult bulls. Buffalo hemal nodes can be classified as typical hemal nodes, because they are definitely different from hemolymph nodes in other species. They may play a role in filtering the blood.

  11. Vascularized Free Lymph Node Flap Transfer in Advanced Lymphedema Patient after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kyung Hoon; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Seong Yoon; Jung, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a condition characterized by tissue swelling caused by localized fluid retention. Advanced lymphedema is characterized by irreversible skin fibrosis (stage IIIb) and nonpitting edema, with leather-like skin, skin crypts, and ulcers with or without involvement of the toes (stage IVa and IVb, respectively). Recently, surgical treatment of advanced lymphedema has been a challenging reconstructive modality. Microvascular techniques such as lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node flap transfer are effective for early stage lymphedema. In this study, we performed a two-stage operation in an advanced lymphedema patient. First, a debulking procedure was performed using liposuction. A vascularized free lymph node flap transfer was then conducted 10 weeks after the first operation. In this case, good results were obtained, with reduced circumferences in various parts of the upper extremity noted immediately postoperation. PMID:27064862

  12. Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics of lymph node positive and lymph node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Naila Irum; Jamal, Qamar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To record various clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer (BC) in our population and to find an association between these characteristics and axillary nodal metastasis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 150 BC patients from two tertiary care centers in Karachi from 15th February, 2013 to 31st March, 2015. Frequencies, percentages, and odds ratio were estimated to find out an association between various clinicopathological characteristics and lymph node status using SPSS version 20. Results: Approximately 75.4% patients had axillary lymph node metastasis (‘1-3’ LN = 34.4% and ‘>3’ LN = 44%). Menopausal status (p <0.013), tumor grades (‘II’ p <0.03; ‘III’ p <0.01), and stages (‘III’ p <0.002; ‘IV’ p <0.0001), tumor sizes (‘T2’ p <0.014; ‘T3’ p <0.002), perineural invasion (PNI) (p <0.007), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p <0.0001), and skin and nipple invasion (p <0.024) were significant predictors for ‘>3’ LN metastasis. Association of these variables with ‘1-3’ LN involvement was insignificant. Conclusion: Clinical spectrum of BC remains unchanged in 2016 with most of the patients presenting with high-grade, late-stage advanced disease. Moreover, clinicopathological variables, especially primary tumor size, tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion were significant predictors of >3 lymph node metastasis with high accuracy. PMID:27648029

  13. An assay for adjuvanticity

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, D. W.

    1968-01-01

    Adult mice injected with an adequate amount of a non-immunogenic antigen progress to a specific state of immunological paralysis, unless a substance with `extrinsic' adjuvanticity is injected before the induction of paralysis is completed. Consequently incipiently paralysed mice can be used to assay substances for adjuvanticity. Conventional adjuvants such as Freund's adjuvant and pertussis possess adjuvanticity; other substances with varying degrees of adjuvanticity are listed in the tables. It has been shown that the adjuvanticity effect of an injection of pertussis lasts for only a few days, although the effect of such an injection of pertussis on phagocytosis of carbon particles does not reach a maximum until 2 weeks after the injection. The dose-effectiveness of alum precipitated (highly phagocytosable) bovine γ-globulin was greatly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of pertussis. The evidence is considered to be incompatible with increased phagocytosis being either an essential factor in the role of pertussis as a conventional adjuvant, or in the adjuvanticity effect of pertussis. PMID:4179956

  14. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-03-27

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  15. Identifying highly influential nodes in the complicated grief network.

    PubMed

    Robinaugh, Donald J; Millner, Alexander J; McNally, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The network approach to psychopathology conceptualizes mental disorders as networks of mutually reinforcing nodes (i.e., symptoms). Researchers adopting this approach have suggested that network topology can be used to identify influential nodes, with nodes central to the network having the greatest influence on the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, because commonly used centrality indices do not distinguish between positive and negative edges, they may not adequately assess the nature and strength of a node's influence within the network. To address this limitation, we developed 2 indices of a node's expected influence (EI) that account for the presence of negative edges. To evaluate centrality and EI indices, we simulated single-node interventions on randomly generated networks. In networks with exclusively positive edges, centrality and EI were both strongly associated with observed node influence. In networks with negative edges, EI was more strongly associated with observed influence than was centrality. We then used data from a longitudinal study of bereavement to examine the association between (a) a node's centrality and EI in the complicated grief (CG) network and (b) the strength of association between change in that node and change in the remainder of the CG network from 6- to 18-months postloss. Centrality and EI were both correlated with the strength of the association between node change and network change. Together, these findings suggest high-EI nodes, such as emotional pain and feelings of emptiness, may be especially important to the etiology and treatment of CG. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505622

  16. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  17. Lymph node trafficking of regulatory T cells is prerequisite for immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Been-Ren; Liu, Wei-Liang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells have a crucial role in health and disease because of their immune regulation function. However, the anatomic sites where regulatory T cells exert optimal immune regulation are open to debate. In our current study with the use of a shear-stress flow assay, we found that regulatory T cells exhibited significantly decreased adhesion to either activated endothelial monolayer or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or E-selectin-coated surfaces compared with activated effector T cells. The less transmigration capacity of the regulatory T cells prompted our speculation of preferential lymph node localization for the regulatory T cells that endowed these cells with immune regulation function in the most efficient manner. To test this hypothesis, the role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression was evaluated with a footpad inflammation model. We found that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells inhibited the development of footpad inflammation. In addition, although blockage of CCR7 or CD62L had no effect on the immune suppressive function of the regulatory T cells per se, pretreatment of the regulatory T cells with either CCR7 or CD62L blocking antibodies prevented their recruitment into draining lymph nodes and concomitantly abrogated the immune suppressive effects of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells during footpad inflammation. Our data demonstrate the crucial role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression and suggest a probable hierarchy in the anatomic sites for optimal immune regulation. Elucidating the relationships between the transmigration characteristics of the regulatory T cells and their immune regulation function will provide insightful information for regulatory T cell-based cell therapy. PMID:26543091

  18. Fluorescence tomographic imaging of sentinel lymph node using near-infrared emitting bioreducible dextran nanogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Jiang, Beiqi; Lin, Chao; Zhuang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a critical procedure for SLN biopsy and its diagnosis as tumor metastasis in clinical practice. However, SLN mapping agents used in the clinic frequently cause side effects and complications in the patients. Here, we report the development of a near-infrared (NIR) emitting polymeric nanogel with hydrodynamic diameter of ~28 nm - which is the optimal size for SLN uptake - for noninvasive fluorescence mapping of SLN in a mouse. This polymeric nanogel was obtained by coupling Cy7, an NIR dye, to the self-assembled nanogel from disulfide-linked dextran-deoxycholic acid conjugate with the dextran of 10 kDa, denoted as Dex-Cy7. Fluorescence imaging analysis showed that Dex-Cy7 nanogels had an enhanced photostability when compared to Cy7 alone. After intradermal injection of Dex-Cy7 nanogel into the front paw of a mouse, the nanogels were able to migrate into the mouse's axillary lymph node, exhibiting longer retention time and higher fluorescence intensity in the node when compared to Cy7 alone. An immunohistofluorescence assay revealed that the nanogels were localized in the central region of lymph node and that the uptake was largely by the macrophages. In vitro and in vivo toxicity results indicated that the dextran-based nanogels were of low cytotoxicity at a polymer concentration up to 1,000 μg/mL and harmless to normal liver and kidney organs in mice at an intravenous dose of 1.25 mg/kg. The results of this study suggest that NIR-emitting polymeric nanogels based on bioreducible dextran-deoxycholic acid conjugates show high potential as fluorescence nanoprobes for safe and noninvasive SLN mapping.

  19. Lymph node trafficking of regulatory T cells is prerequisite for immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Been-Ren; Liu, Wei-Liang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells have a crucial role in health and disease because of their immune regulation function. However, the anatomic sites where regulatory T cells exert optimal immune regulation are open to debate. In our current study with the use of a shear-stress flow assay, we found that regulatory T cells exhibited significantly decreased adhesion to either activated endothelial monolayer or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or E-selectin-coated surfaces compared with activated effector T cells. The less transmigration capacity of the regulatory T cells prompted our speculation of preferential lymph node localization for the regulatory T cells that endowed these cells with immune regulation function in the most efficient manner. To test this hypothesis, the role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression was evaluated with a footpad inflammation model. We found that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells inhibited the development of footpad inflammation. In addition, although blockage of CCR7 or CD62L had no effect on the immune suppressive function of the regulatory T cells per se, pretreatment of the regulatory T cells with either CCR7 or CD62L blocking antibodies prevented their recruitment into draining lymph nodes and concomitantly abrogated the immune suppressive effects of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells during footpad inflammation. Our data demonstrate the crucial role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression and suggest a probable hierarchy in the anatomic sites for optimal immune regulation. Elucidating the relationships between the transmigration characteristics of the regulatory T cells and their immune regulation function will provide insightful information for regulatory T cell-based cell therapy.

  20. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  1. Control of node crossings in Saturnian gravity-assist tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    In the Saturnian system, the control of the node-crossing point is important to avoid debris in Saturn's ring plane and to target flybys of moons other than Titan. This paper describes how to use gravity assists to control a spacecrft's node crossings.

  2. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    PubMed Central

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large. PMID:25727453

  3. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.

  4. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    DOE PAGES

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothingmore » (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.« less

  5. Illumination optimization for 65nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo; Hung, Chi-Yuan

    2006-10-01

    The most important task of the microlithography process is to make the manufacturable process latitude/window, including dose latitude and Depth of Focus, as wide as possible. Thus, to perform a thorough source optimization during process development is becoming more critical as moving to high NA technology nodes. Furthermore, Optical proximity correction (OPC) are always used to provide a common process window for structures that would, otherwise, have no overlapping windows. But as the critical dimension of the IC design shrinks dramatically, the flexibility for applying OPC also decreases. So a robust microlithography process should also be OPC-friendly. This paper demonstrates our work on the illumination optimization during the process development. The Calibre ILO (Illumination Optimization) tool was used to perform the illumination optimization and provided plots of DOF vs. various parametric illumination settings. This was used to screen the various illumination settings for the one with optimum process margins. The resulting illumination conditions were then implemented and analyzed at a real wafer level on our 90/65nm critical layers, such as Active, Poly, Contact and Metal. In conclusion, based on these results, a summary is provided highlighting how OPC can get benefit from proper illumination optimization.

  6. The Pyruvate-Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Node

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [13C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (ΔpykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia. PMID:25164818

  7. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  8. Temporal node centrality in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly--on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  9. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  10. Inverse lithography technique for advanced CMOS nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaret, Alexandre; Tritchkov, Alexander; Entradas, Jorge; Yesilada, Emek

    2013-04-01

    Resolution Enhancement Techniques have continuously improved over the last decade, driven by the ever growing constraints of lithography process. Despite the large number of RET applied, some hotspot configurations remain challenging for advanced nodes due to aggressive design rules. Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT) is evaluated here as a substitute to the dense OPC baseline. Indeed ILT has been known for several years for its near-to-ideal mask quality, while also being potentially more time consuming in terms of OPC run and mask processing. We chose to evaluate Mentor Graphics' ILT engine "pxOPCTM" on both lines and via hotspot configurations. These hotspots were extracted from real 28nm test cases where the dense OPC solution is not satisfactory. For both layer types, the reference OPC consists of a dense OPC engine coupled to rule-based and/or model-based assist generation method. The same CM1 model is used for the reference and the ILT OPC. ILT quality improvement is presented through Optical Rule Check (ORC) results with various adequate detectors. Several mask manufacturing rule constraints (MRC) are considered for the ILT solution and their impact on process ability is checked after mask processing. A hybrid OPC approach allowing localized ILT usage is presented in order to optimize both quality and runtime. A real mask is prepared and fabricated with this method. Finally, results analyzed on silicon are presented to compare localized ILT to reference dense OPC.

  11. Promoting Creative Engagement with SpicyNodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The Information Age has posed new challenges to the presentation and communication of knowledge. In their attempts to handle the abundance of information in an effective way, people have come to rely on maps. Maps are a useful tool for visualization and the arrangement of concepts as they mark the current location in the context of their surroundings. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an improved method of organizing and visually presenting web-based information using radial tree maps. The project encourages creative thought on two levels. For those who create, it provides a platform for organizing and displaying information in a creative manner, and sharing those methods with others. For users, it allows the exploration of complex systems while gaining the perspective of a broader context. By presenting information in a natural and intuitive way, such radial maps can help people think in novel and creative ways. It may also aid and find application in the learning process of kids and students with learning disabilities.

  12. Assessing node risk and vulnerability in epidemics on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, T.

    2015-01-01

    Which nodes are most vulnerable to an epidemic spreading through a network, and which carry the highest risk of causing a major outbreak if they are the source of the infection? Here we show how these questions can be answered to good approximation using the cavity method. Several curious properties of node vulnerability and risk are explored: some nodes are more vulnerable than others to weaker infections, yet less vulnerable to stronger ones; a node is always more likely to be caught in an outbreak than it is to start one, except when the disease has a deterministic lifetime; the rank order of node risk depends on the details of the distribution of infectious periods.

  13. Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

  14. Pattern formation in oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xuhong; Xia, Qinzhi; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Lisheng; Hu, Gang; Mi, Yuanyuan

    2011-05-01

    Oscillatory dynamics of complex networks has recently attracted great attention. In this paper we study pattern formation in oscillatory complex networks consisting of excitable nodes. We find that there exist a few center nodes and small skeletons for most oscillations. Complicated and seemingly random oscillatory patterns can be viewed as well-organized target waves propagating from center nodes along the shortest paths, and the shortest loops passing through both the center nodes and their driver nodes play the role of oscillation sources. Analyzing simple skeletons we are able to understand and predict various essential properties of the oscillations and effectively modulate the oscillations. These methods and results will give insights into pattern formation in complex networks and provide suggestive ideas for studying and controlling oscillations in neural networks.

  15. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  16. Uncorrelatedness in growing networks with preferential survival of nodes.

    PubMed

    Juher, David; Saldaña, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of uncorrelated growing networks is proved when nodes are removed either uniformly or under the preferential survival rule recently observed in the World Wide Web evolution. To this aim, the rate equation for the joint probability of degrees is derived, and stationary symmetrical solutions are obtained, by passing to the continuum limit. When a uniformly random removal of extant nodes and linear preferential attachment of new nodes are at work, we prove that the only stationary solution corresponds to uncorrelated networks for any removal rate r∈(0,1). In the more general case of preferential survival of nodes, uncorrelated solutions are also obtained. These results generalize the uncorrelatedness displayed by the (undirected) Barabási-Albert network model to models with uniformly random and selective (against low degrees) removal of nodes.

  17. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses. PMID:26674808

  18. Practical assay issues with the PERT/PBRT assay: a highly sensitive reverse transcriptase assay.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Dusing, S

    2006-01-01

    Product safety testing for retroviruses can be achieved by a panel of screening assays, including electron microscopy, viral gene specific PCRs, virus propagation, and detection of reverse transciptase activity. The application of PCR-based reverse transcriptase assays (PERT) that are approximately a million-fold more sensitive than conventional nucleotide incorporation assays in the testing of biologicals is described. Use of PERT assays can be applied to three areas: (i) screening for adventitious retrovirus contamination; (ii) detecting and quantifying endogenous viral particle load and (iii) monitoring levels of infectious retrovirus generation in cell lines that contain endogenous retroviruses.

  19. Tumor cell entry into the lymph node is controlled by CCL1 chemokine expressed by lymph node lymphatic sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suvendu; Sarrou, Eliana; Podgrabinska, Simona; Cassella, Melanie; Mungamuri, Sathish Kumar; Feirt, Nikki; Gordon, Ronald; Nagi, Chandandeep S.; Wang, Yarong; Entenberg, David; Condeelis, John

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to contribute to metastasis primarily by serving as a transportation system. It is widely believed that tumor cells enter lymph nodes passively by the flow of lymph. We demonstrate that lymph node lymphatic sinuses control tumor cell entry into the lymph node, which requires active tumor cell migration. In human and mouse tissues, CCL1 protein is detected in lymph node lymphatic sinuses but not in the peripheral lymphatics. CCR8, the receptor for CCL1, is strongly expressed by human malignant melanoma. Tumor cell migration to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro is inhibited by blocking CCR8 or CCL1, and recombinant CCL1 promotes migration of CCR8+ tumor cells. The proinflammatory mediators TNF, IL-1β, and LPS increase CCL1 production by LECs and tumor cell migration to LECs. In a mouse model, blocking CCR8 with the soluble antagonist or knockdown with shRNA significantly decreased lymph node metastasis. Notably, inhibition of CCR8 led to the arrest of tumor cells in the collecting lymphatic vessels at the junction with the lymph node subcapsular sinus. These data identify a novel function for CCL1–CCR8 in metastasis and lymph node LECs as a critical checkpoint for the entry of metastases into the lymph nodes. PMID:23878309

  20. The history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer: From visualization of lymphatic vessels to sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    de Bree, Remco; Nieweg, Omgo E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer. Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients for treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Although this procedure has only recently been accepted for early oral cancer, the first studies on visualization of the cervical lymphatic vessels were reported in the 1960s. In the 1980s mapping of lymphatic drainage from specific head and neck sites was introduced. Sentinel node biopsy was further developed in the 1990s and after validation in this century the procedure is routinely performed in early oral cancer in several head and neck centers. New techniques may improve the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy further, particularly in difficult subsites like the floor of mouth.

  1. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  2. Function and dysfunction of human sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Joung, Boyoung; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Sinoatrial node (SAN) automaticity is jointly regulated by a voltage (cyclic activation and deactivation of membrane ion channels) and Ca(2+) clocks (rhythmic spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release). Using optical mapping in Langendorff-perfused canine right atrium, we previously demonstrated that the β-adrenergic stimulation pushes the leading pacemaker to the superior SAN, which has the fastest activation rate and the most robust late diastolic intracellular calcium (Cai) elevation. Dysfunction of the superior SAN is commonly observed in animal models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF), which are known to be associated with abnormal SAN automaticity. Using the 3D electroanatomic mapping techniques, we demonstrated that superior SAN served as the earliest atrial activation site (EAS) during sympathetic stimulation in healthy humans. In contrast, unresponsiveness of superior SAN to sympathetic stimulation was a characteristic finding in patients with AF and SAN dysfunction, and the 3D electroanatomic mapping technique had better diagnostic sensitivity than corrected SAN recovery time testing. However, both tests have significant limitations in detecting patients with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. Recently, we reported that the location of the EAS can be predicted by the amplitudes of P-wave in the inferior leads. The inferior P-wave amplitudes can also be used to assess the superior SAN responsiveness to sympathetic stimulation. Inverted or isoelectric P-waves at baseline that fail to normalize during isoproterenol infusion suggest SAN dysfunction. P-wave morphology analyses may be helpful in determining the SAN function in patients at risk of symptomatic sick sinus syndrome.

  3. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block

  4. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  5. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-09-13

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  6. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-08-09

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  7. From Antenna to Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  8. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  9. PVM Enhancement for Beowulf Multiple-Processor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A recent version of the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) computer program has been enhanced to enable use of multiple processors in a single node of a Beowulf system (a cluster of personal computers that runs the Linux operating system). A previous version of PVM had been enhanced by addition of a software port, denoted BEOLIN, that enables the incorporation of a Beowulf system into a larger parallel processing system administered by PVM, as though the Beowulf system were a single computer in the larger system. BEOLIN spawns tasks on (that is, automatically assigns tasks to) individual nodes within the cluster. However, BEOLIN does not enable the use of multiple processors in a single node. The present enhancement adds support for a parameter in the PVM command line that enables the user to specify which Internet Protocol host address the code should use in communicating with other Beowulf nodes. This enhancement also provides for the case in which each node in a Beowulf system contains multiple processors. In this case, by making multiple references to a single node, the user can cause the software to spawn multiple tasks on the multiple processors in that node.

  10. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  11. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  12. Sentinel node biopsy for ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence: a review.

    PubMed

    Palit, G; Jacquemyn, Y; Tjalma, W

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review published reports on the feasability, results, and reliability of sentinel node biopsy in cases of ipsilateral recurrent breast cancer. A Medline search on publications from January 1999 to December 2007 and cross-references in published articles were looked for. We identified 16 reports on sentinel node biopsy in recurrent breast cancer, including a total of 287 patients. In 210/287 (73.2%) a sentinel node was identified, 77/210 (37.7%) had had previous axillary lymph node dissection and 131 (62.3%) a previous sentinel node procedure. Aberrant lymphatic drainage, other than the ipsilateral axilla was noted in 68/210 (32.4%). Of these 16/68 (23.6%) were located in the contralateral axilla. Of the removed contralateral axillary sentinel nodes 8/17 (47.1%) were invaded by cancer. We conclude that sentinel node biopsy in cases of recurrent ipsilateral breast cancer is feasible. In about one out of three cases drainage to the contralateral axilla with invasion in almost half the cases takes place. The therapeutical consequences of these findings need further study. PMID:19115679

  13. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  14. Influence of racemic higenamine on the sinus node.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengxia; Kong, Lingting; Wang, Shujuan

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of racemic higenamine in the treatment of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). A total of 40 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal sinus node and damaged sinus node (SND) groups, and each group was randomly divided into treatment and control groups (n=10). The SND model was established by formaldehyde wet dressing of the sinus node area. The treatment groups were administered an intravenous infusion of 0.04 mg/kg racemic higenamine via the marginal ear vein within 5 min. The electrophysiological indicators of sinoatrial function, including the sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), total sinoatrial conduction time (TSACT) and sinus cycle length (SCL), were determined before and 20 min after medication and the changes in these indicators were evaluated. The two control groups were administered 10 ml physiological saline. Following the administration of racemic higenamine, the SNRT, CSNRT, TSACT and SCL in the normal sinus node and SND groups were significantly shortened compared with those in the control groups (P<0.01). The electrophysiological influence of racemic higenamine on sinoatrial function in the SND group was significantly greater than that in the normal sinus node group (P<0.01), and its effect in the treatment of arrhythmia caused by a damaged sinus node was statistically significant (P<0.05). The main electrophysiological mechanism of racemic higenamine in the treatment of SSS was the enhancement of sinus node self-discipline and improvement of sinoatrial and atrioventricular conduction function.

  15. Improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant derived from mature seed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation.

    PubMed

    Paz, Margie M; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Kalvig, Andrea B; Fonger, Tina M; Wang, Kan

    2006-03-01

    The utility of transformation for soybean improvement requires an efficient system for production of stable transgenic lines. We describe here an improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated soybean transformation. We use the term "half-seed" to refer to this alternative cotyledonary explant that is derived from mature seed of soybean following an overnight imbibition and to distinguish it from cotyledonary node derived from 5-7-day-old seedlings. Transformation efficiencies using half-seed explants ranged between 1.4 and 8.7% with an overall efficiency of 3.8% based on the number of transformed events that have been confirmed in the T1 generation by phenotypic assay using the herbicide Liberty (active ingredient glufosinate) and by Southern analysis. This efficiency is 1.5-fold higher than the cotyledonary node method used in our laboratory. Significantly, the half-seed system is simple and does not require deliberate wounding of explants, which is a critical and technically demanding step in the cotyledonary node method. PMID:16249869

  16. The assay of diphtheria toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gerwing, Julia; Long, D. A.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1957-01-01

    A precise assay of diphtheria toxin is described, based on the linear relationship between the diameter of the skin reaction to, and logarithm of the dose of, toxin. It eliminates the need for preliminary titrations, is economical, provides information about the slope of the log-dose response lines and, therefore, of the validity of the assay, and yields limits of error of potency from the internal evidence of the assay. A study has been made of the effects of avidity, combining power, toxicity and buffering on the assay of diphtheria toxins against the International Standards for both Diphtheria Antitoxin and Schick-Test Toxin. All the toxins assayed against the standard toxin, whatever their other properties might be, gave log-dose response lines of similar slope provided that they were diluted in buffered physiological saline. The assays were therefore valid. These experiments were repeated concurrently in non-immune and in actively immunized guinea-pigs, and comparable figures for potency obtained in both groups. The result was not significantly affected by the avidity or combining power of the toxin. However, non-avid toxins gave low values in Schick units when assayed, by the Römer & Sames technique, in terms of the International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin. The problem of the ultimate standard and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:13511133

  17. Comet Assay measurements: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, T S; Vilhar, Barbara; Faux, Stephen P; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2009-02-01

    The Comet Assay or single cell gel electrophoresis assay is one of the very widely used assays to microscopically detect DNA damage at the level of a single cell. The determination of damage is carried out either through visual scoring of cells (after classification into different categories on the basis of tail length and shape) or by using different commercially available or public domain software (which automatically recognise the extent of damage). In this assay, the shape, size and amount of DNA within the 'comet' play important roles in the determination of the level of damage. The use of a software in particular also provides a range of different parameters, many of which might not be relevant in determining the extent of DNA damage. As a large number of factors could influence the shape, size, identification and determination of induced damage, which includes the scoring criteria, staining techniques, selection of parameters (whilst using the software packages) and appearance of 'hedgehog' or 'clouds', this article aims (a) to provide an overview of evolution of measurements of DNA damage using the Comet Assay and (b) to summarise and critically analyse the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches currently being adopted whilst using this assay. It is suggested that judicious selection of different parameters, staining methods along with inter-laboratory validation and harmonisation of methodologies will further help in making this assay more robust and widely acceptable for scientific as well as regulatory studies.

  18. An evaluation of molecular markers for improved detection of breast cancer metastases in sentinel nodes

    PubMed Central

    Abdul‐Rasool, S; Kidson, S H; Panieri, E; Dent, D; Pillay, K; Hanekom, G S

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives In patients with breast cancer (BC), the sentinel node (SN) is the first node in the axillary basin that receives the primary lymphatic flow and can be used to accurately assess the axillary nodal status without removal of the axillary contents. Currently, histology and/or immunohistochemistry are the routine methods of SN analysis. The primary objective of this study was to develop a reproducible reverse transcription (RT) PCR assay, with emphasis on achieving high specificity for accurate detection of BC micrometastases in the SN. To correct for the heterogeneity of BC cells, a multimarker approach was followed, with the further aim of improving the detection rate of the assay. Methods In total, 73 markers were evaluated, of which 7 were breast epithelial markers and 66 were either cancer testis or tumour associated antigens. Twelve BC cell lines and 30 SNs (from 30 patients) were analysed using RT‐PCR to determine the in vitro and in vivo detection rates for each of the markers. In addition, 20 axillary nodes obtained from a patient with brain death were used as controls to optimise the PCR cycle numbers for all the markers. Results Of the 30 SNs, 37% (11/30) were positive on haematoxylin and eosin analysis. Extensive immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of the haematoxylin and eosin negative nodes confirmed the presence of very small numbers of BC cells in an additional 40% (12/30) of SNs. Molecular analysis with the hMAM‐A alone identified metastases in 70% (21/30) of SNs. Using MAGE‐A3 in combination with hMAM‐A identified metastases in 90% (27/30) of patients. Seven SNs (23%) were negative for micrometastases (with haematoxylin and eosin and IHC) but RT‐PCR positive for either hMAM‐A or MAGE‐A3. Conclusions As IHC analysis resulted in a 77% detection rate compared with 37% for haematoxylin and eosin analysis, we consider that IHC is essential in order not to miss SN micrometastases. Molecular analysis with hMAM‐A and

  19. Scalable Video Broadcasting with Distributed Node Selection in Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghun; Lee, Kyujin; Lee, Kyesan; Suh, Doug Young

    We propose a distributed node selection (DNS) scheme that guarantees quality of service (QoS) of the scalable video broadcasting system over wireless channels. The proposed DNS scheme chooses the destination node based on the SVC layer information, and it selects the best relay from a set of competing candidate nodes by considering two factors: 1) wireless channel conditions between destination and relay candidates and 2) scalable video's layer information. In simulations, the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of quality gains, complexity (overhead) and applicability was examined.

  20. Effects of amiodarone on sinus node in man.

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, P; Atallah, G; Gressard, A; Kirkorian, G

    1979-01-01

    The effects of amiodarone on the sinuatrial node were studied in 24 patients after an intravenous injection of the drug (5 mg/kg). Sinuatrial function was assessed by rapid atrial pacing and premature atrial stimulation. Sinus cycle length did not change significantly, but the corrected sinus node recovery time was prolonged. While there was no significant change in sinuatrial conduction time, prolongation of the non-reset zone in 14 cases, as well as the abolition of the platesu in 2/24 patients, suggested that conduction of the atrial responses to the sinus node might have been depressed. PMID:518781

  1. Identifying influential nodes in complex networks based on expansion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Jing, Yun; Chang, Baofang

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the top influential spreaders in a network has practical significance. In this paper, we propose a novel centrality to identify influential spreaders based on expansion factor. Nodes with high expansion factor centrality (EFC) have strong spreading capability. During the course of the work, an improved strategy is proposed to reduce the time complexity of EFC. We discuss the correlations between EFC and the other five classical indicators. Simulation results on the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model manifest that EFC can identify influential nodes and find some critical influential nodes neglected by other indicators.

  2. Diffusion on a tree with stochastically gated nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2016-06-01

    We consider diffusion on a tree with nodes that randomly switch between allowing and prohibiting particles to pass. We find exact expressions for various splitting probabilities and mean first passage times for a single diffusing particle and show how the many parameters in the problem, such as the node gating statistics and tree topology, contribute to these exit statistics. We also consider a concentration of particles that can always pass through interior branch nodes and determine how an intermittent source at one end of the tree affects the flux at the other end. The latter problem is motivated by applications to insect respiration.

  3. Identifying influential nodes in weighted networks based on evidence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Daijun; Deng, Xinyang; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-05-01

    The design of an effective ranking method to identify influential nodes is an important problem in the study of complex networks. In this paper, a new centrality measure is proposed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The proposed measure trades off between the degree and strength of every node in a weighted network. The influences of both the degree and the strength of each node are represented by basic probability assignment (BPA). The proposed centrality measure is determined by the combination of these BPAs. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Design & implementation of distributed spatial computing node based on WPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jibo

    2014-03-01

    Currently, the research work of SIG (Spatial Information Grid) technology mostly emphasizes on the spatial data sharing in grid environment, while the importance of spatial computing resources is ignored. In order to implement the sharing and cooperation of spatial computing resources in grid environment, this paper does a systematical research of the key technologies to construct Spatial Computing Node based on the WPS (Web Processing Service) specification by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). And a framework of Spatial Computing Node is designed according to the features of spatial computing resources. Finally, a prototype of Spatial Computing Node is implemented and the relevant verification work under the environment is completed.

  5. Epithelial and pancreatic choristoma in bovine lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Quesada, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Andrada, M; Fernández, A; de los Monteros, A Espinosa

    2010-01-01

    Lymph nodes from 186 cows were evaluated as part of a bovine tuberculosis eradication programme. The mediastinal lymph nodes of 13 animals contained atypical structures. In 12 cases (6.45%) these consisted of multiple epithelial structures and, in one case, of pancreatic-like tissue. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the epithelial structures were consistent with respiratory epithelium and with ectopic pancreatic tissue, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the first histological and immunohistochemical descriptions of epithelial and pancreatic choristomas in bovine lymph nodes.

  6. Cascading failures in networks with proximate dependent nodes.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V

    2014-03-01

    We study the mutual percolation of a system composed of two interdependent random regular networks. We introduce a notion of distance to explore the effects of the proximity of interdependent nodes on the cascade of failures after an initial attack. We find a nontrivial relation between the nature of the transition through which the networks disintegrate and the parameters of the system, which are the degree of the nodes and the maximum distance between interdependent nodes. We explain this relation by solving the problem analytically for the relevant set of cases. In the process, we solve a variant of Rényi's parking problem on treelike graphs.

  7. [Lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer. Ex vivo methylene blue injection as a novel technique to improve lymph node visualization].

    PubMed

    Märkl, B; Kerwel, T; Jähnig, H; Anthuber, M; Arnholdt, H

    2008-07-01

    The UICC requires investigation of a minimum of 12 lymph nodes for adequate lymph node staging in colorectal cancer. Despite that, many authors recommend investigation of a larger number, and different techniques, such as fat clearance, have therefore been developed. In this study we introduce a novel technique involving ex vivo lymph node staining with intraarterial methylene blue injection in colon cancer. We compared 14 cases in which methylene injection was used with 14 cases from our records in which conventional investigation techniques were applied. The lymph node harvest differed highly significantly (p<0.001) between the two groups, with average numbers of 28+/-7 and 14+/-3 in the methylene blue group and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference occurred in the size group 2-4 mm (191 vs 70 lymph nodes). In 6 cases in the unstained group additional embedding of fatty tissue was necessary to reach an adequate number of investigated lymph nodes. Methylene blue injection is a novel and highly effective method that will improve lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer.

  8. Axillary Lymph Node Status in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients with Sentinel Node Micrometastases (0.2-2 mm)

    PubMed Central

    Bargehr, Johannes; Edlinger, Michael; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian; Reitsamer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Omission of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is increasingly becoming the new standard of care for patients with sentinel lymph node micrometastases (SNMMs). However, a formidable proportion of patients is afflicted with non-sentinel node (NSN) macrometastatic tumor burden. Methods Over 1 decade 5,000 patients underwent sentinel node biopsies (SNB) at 2 certified breast cancer centers in Austria. All available cases of SNMM during this time period were reviewed. Clinical, tumor and lymph node parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis to retrieve predictors for further NSN involvement. Results We identified 216 patients with SNMMs, of whom 181 subsequently underwent ALND. Of the latter patients, 16% (n = 29/181) presented with NSN axillary metastases. ALND revealed NSN macrometastases in 10.5% (n = 19/181) of all the investigated patients, and 66% of the NSN-positive patients (n = 19/29). In 28% (n = 8/29) of the NSN-positive patients, more than 1 macrometastasis was detected. The number of removed sentinel nodes was found to be a significant predictor (p = 0.007) for NSN involvement. Conclusion In this retrospective investigation of breast cancer patients with SNMMs, a substantial proportion exhibited involvement of NSNs. Macrometastases accounted for the largest fraction of NSN tumor burden. Refraining from ALND in the face of SNMMs may entail substantial micro- and macrometastatic tumor burden in the remaining axillary lymph node basin. PMID:24415968

  9. Plaque assay for murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B; Bragazzi Cunha, Juliana; Wobus, Christiane E

    2012-01-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only member of the Norovirus genus that efficiently grows in tissue culture. Cell lysis and cytopathic effect (CPE) are observed during MNV-1 infection of murine dendritic cells or macrophages. This property of MNV-1 can be used to quantify the number of infectious particles in a given sample by performing a plaque assay. The plaque assay relies on the ability of MNV-1 to lyse cells and to form holes in a confluent cell monolayer, which are called plaques. Multiple techniques can be used to detect viral infections in tissue culture, harvested tissue, clinical, and environmental samples, but not all measure the number of infectious particles (e.g. qRT-PCR). One way to quantify infectious viral particles is to perform a plaque assay, which will be described in detail below. A variation on the MNV plaque assay is the fluorescent focus assay, where MNV antigen is immunostained in cell monolayers. This assay can be faster, since viral antigen expression precedes plaque formation. It is also useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques. However, the fluorescent focus assay requires additional resources beyond those of the plaque assay, such as antibodies and a microscope to count focus-forming units. Infectious MNV can also be quantified by determining the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50). This assay measures the amount of virus required to produce CPE in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells by endpoint titration. However, its limit of detection is higher compared to a plaque assay. In this article, we describe a plaque assay protocol that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples. This method is based on the preparation of 10-fold serial dilutions of MNV-containing samples, which are used to inoculate a monolayer of permissive cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells). Virus is allowed to attach to the cell monolayer for a given period of

  10. Error recovery to enable error-free message transfer between nodes of a computer network

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2016-01-26

    An error-recovery method to enable error-free message transfer between nodes of a computer network. A first node of the network sends a packet to a second node of the network over a link between the nodes, and the first node keeps a copy of the packet on a sending end of the link until the first node receives acknowledgment from the second node that the packet was received without error. The second node tests the packet to determine if the packet is error free. If the packet is not error free, the second node sets a flag to mark the packet as corrupt. The second node returns acknowledgement to the first node specifying whether the packet was received with or without error. When the packet is received with error, the link is returned to a known state and the packet is sent again to the second node.

  11. Coexisting coherent and incoherent domains near saddle-node bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V. K.; Suresh, R.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-09-01

    A common external forcing can cause a saddle-node bifurcation in an ensemble of identical Duffing oscillators by breaking the symmetry of the individual bistable (double-well) unit. The strength of the forcing determines the separation between the saddle and the node, which in turn dictates different dynamical transitions depending on the distribution of the initial states of the oscillators. In particular, chimera-like states appear in the vicinity of the saddle-node bifurcation for which theoretical explanation is provided from the stability of the steady state of the slow-scale dynamics of the original system of equations. Further, we have also established similar states by replacing the external forcing with an appropriate coupling between the oscillators in the same parameter space. Additionally, we have also designed an appropriate coupling that can lead to saddle-node bifurcation due to symmetry breaking of the bistable systems in the vicinity of which the synchronized and desynchronized domains coexist.

  12. Using mapping entropy to identify node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Tingyuan; Guo, Zheng; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Zhe-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The problem of finding the best strategy to attack a network or immunize a population with a minimal number of nodes has attracted much current research interest. The assessment of node importance has been a fundamental issue in the research of complex networks. In this paper, we propose a new concept called mapping entropy (ME) to identify the importance of a node in the complex network. The concept is established according to the local information which considers the correlation among all neighbors of a node. We evaluate the efficiency of the centrality by static and dynamic attacks on standard network models and real-world networks. The simulation result shows that the new centrality is more efficient than traditional attack strategies, whether it is static or dynamic.

  13. [Low-power Wireless Micro Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Node].

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Li, Jianqing

    2016-02-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring can effectively reduce the risk and death rate of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The Body Sensor Network (BSN) based ECG monitoring is a new and efficien method to protect the CVDs patients. To meet the challenges of miniaturization, low power and high signal quality of the node, we proposed a novel 50 mmX 50 mmX 10 mm, 30 g wireless ECG node, which includes the single-chip an alog front-end AD8232, ultra-low power microprocessor MSP430F1611 and Bluetooth module HM-11. The ECG signal quality is guaranteed by the on-line digital filtering. The difference threshold algorithm results in accuracy of R-wave detection and heart rate. Experiments were carried out to test the node and the results showed that the pro posed node reached the design target, and it has great potential in application of wireless ECG monitoring. PMID:27382732

  14. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow. PMID:25962306

  15. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  16. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. C.

    2012-10-24

    RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

  17. Troponin revisited 2008: assay performance.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jillian R

    2008-01-01

    Troponin quality specifications describing the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical performance of cardiac troponin (cTn) assays are important for both manufacturers of cTn assays and laboratories that routinely test for cTn. Pre-analytical requirements refer not only to acceptable sample type for analysis and the stability of cTn but also to the proper handling of specimens prior to analysis to avoid pre-analytical false positive results. Analytical issues that may contribute to differences between cTn assays include analytical sensitivity and imprecision at low cTn concentration, antibody specificity and immunoreactivity of plasma cTn forms, assay specificity and the presence of falsely positive and negative interferences, and for cTnI the lack of standardised measurement, all which may impact on patient cTn results. Current second generation cTnI and fourth generation cTnT assays generally have an imprecision of around 20% coefficient of variation (CV) at the 99th percentile of the reference population, which is greater than the recommended imprecision of 10% CV. As the next generation of more analytically sensitive cTn assays are developed it can be anticipated that cTn upper reference limits will decrease by approximately 10-fold. Monitoring assay imprecision at ultra low cTn concentrations will require that the laboratory uses a quality control close to this level and a negative control to monitor baseline drift. Establishment of cTn reference ranges will require reference populations to be cardio-healthy to enable differentiation from community populations who are at increased cardiovascular risk. Close collaboration between the laboratory and local clinicians is required to ensure adequate clinical validation of more sensitive cTn assays.

  18. Methods to assay Drosophila behavior.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Becnel, Jaime; Pandey, Udai B

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, has been used to study molecular mechanisms of a wide range of human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and various neurological diseases(1). We have optimized simple and robust behavioral assays for determining larval locomotion, adult climbing ability (RING assay), and courtship behaviors of Drosophila. These behavioral assays are widely applicable for studying the role of genetic and environmental factors on fly behavior. Larval crawling ability can be reliably used for determining early stage changes in the crawling abilities of Drosophila larvae and also for examining effect of drugs or human disease genes (in transgenic flies) on their locomotion. The larval crawling assay becomes more applicable if expression or abolition of a gene causes lethality in pupal or adult stages, as these flies do not survive to adulthood where they otherwise could be assessed. This basic assay can also be used in conjunction with bright light or stress to examine additional behavioral responses in Drosophila larvae. Courtship behavior has been widely used to investigate genetic basis of sexual behavior, and can also be used to examine activity and coordination, as well as learning and memory. Drosophila courtship behavior involves the exchange of various sensory stimuli including visual, auditory, and chemosensory signals between males and females that lead to a complex series of well characterized motor behaviors culminating in successful copulation. Traditional adult climbing assays (negative geotaxis) are tedious, labor intensive, and time consuming, with significant variation between different trials(2-4). The rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay(5) has many advantages over more widely employed protocols, providing a reproducible, sensitive, and high throughput approach to quantify adult locomotor and negative geotaxis behaviors. In the RING assay, several genotypes or drug treatments can be tested simultaneously

  19. Microbiological assay using bioluminescent organism

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V.

    1987-12-21

    This invention relates to testing processes for toxicity involving microorganisms and, more particularly, to testing processes for toxicity involving bioluminescent organisms. The present known method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity employs the mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) as the assay organism. The shrimp are difficult to raise and handle as laboratory assay organisms. This method is labor-intensive, because it requires a assay time of about 96 hours. Summary of the Invention: A microbiological assay in which the assay organism is the dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula. A sample of a substance to be assayed is added to known numbers of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate and the mixture is agitated to subject the organisms to a shear stress causing them to emit light. The amount of light emitted is measured and compared with the amount of light emitted by a known non-toxic control mixture to determine if there is diminution or non-diminution of light emitted by the sample under test which is an indication of the presence or absence of toxicity, respectively. Accordingly, an object of the present invention is the provision of an improved method of testing substances for toxicity. A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity using bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Pyrocystis lunula).

  20. Sinus node dysfunction: an adverse effect of lacosamide.

    PubMed

    Chinnasami, Suganthi; Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Duncan, John S

    2013-06-01

    Lacosamide, a recently introduced antiepileptic drug, acts by enhancing the slow inactivation of voltage-dependent sodium channels. Cardiac conduction disturbances, namely atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular block, have been reported in patients with epilepsy. We report a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who developed asymptomatic sinus node dysfunction following lacosamide use, which resolved on stopping lacosamide. This is the first report of sinus node dysfunction associated with lacosamide therapy.

  1. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  2. Modelling the Energy Efficient Sensor Nodes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, R.; Arora, A. K.; Singh, V. R.

    2015-09-01

    Energy is an important requirement of wireless sensor networks for better performance. A widely employed energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduce operational capabilities. In this paper, Markov model of a sensor network is developed. The node is considered to enter a sleep mode. This model is used to investigate the system performance in terms of energy consumption, network capacity and data delivery delay.

  3. Patterns of Retropharyngeal Node Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaoshen; Hu Chaosu Ying Hongmei; Zhou Zhengrong; Ding Jianhui; Feng Yan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the pattern of metastasis to retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) and its relationship with tumor range in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients by using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance images of 618 NPC patients were reviewed. Nodes were classified as metastatic on the basis of size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: A total of 597 involved RLN were detected in 392 patients (63.4%). The sites of RLN metastasis included occipital bone, 37 (6.2%); first cervical vertebra (C1), 453 (75.9%); second cervical vertebra (C2), 104 (17.4%); and third cervical vertebra (C3), 3 (0.5%). The incidence of RLN involvement was less than that of Level IIb node involvement (72.2% vs. 86.5%) in 543 patients with lymphadenopathy. The incidence of RLN metastasis was significantly higher in cases of parapharyngeal space invasion or involvement of Level II, Level III, Level IV, and/or Level V nodes and significantly lower in N0 and Stage I disease. Conversely, the incidence of RLN metastasis did not differ significantly among T1, 2, 3, and 4 disease or among Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: Level IIb nodes, rather than RLN, seem to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC. The incidence of RLN metastasis decreases steadily from level C1 to level C3. Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis correlates well with involvement of the parapharyngeal space and metastases to Level II, III, IV, and/or V nodes but not with T stage.

  4. Interdependent networks with identical degrees of mutually dependent nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Shere, Nathaniel W.; Cwilich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    We study a problem of failure of two interdependent networks in the case of identical degrees of mutually dependent nodes. We assume that both networks (A and B) have the same number of nodes N connected by the bidirectional dependency links establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the nodes of the two networks in a such a way that the mutually dependent nodes have the same number of connectivity links; i.e., their degrees coincide. This implies that both networks have the same degree distribution P(k). We call such networks correspondently coupled networks (CCNs). We assume that the nodes in each network are randomly connected. We define the mutually connected clusters and the mutual giant component as in earlier works on randomly coupled interdependent networks and assume that only the nodes that belong to the mutual giant component remain functional. We assume that initially a 1-p fraction of nodes are randomly removed because of an attack or failure and find analytically, for an arbitrary P(k), the fraction of nodes μ(p) that belong to the mutual giant component. We find that the system undergoes a percolation transition at a certain fraction p=pc, which is always smaller than pc for randomly coupled networks with the same P(k). We also find that the system undergoes a first-order transition at pc>0 if P(k) has a finite second moment. For the case of scale-free networks with 2<λ⩽3, the transition becomes a second-order transition. Moreover, if λ<3, we find pc=0, as in percolation of a single network. For λ=3 we find an exact analytical expression for pc>0. Finally, we find that the robustness of CCN increases with the broadness of their degree distribution.

  5. Single-node orbit analsyis with radiation heat transfer only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The steady-state temperature of a single node which dissipates energy by radiation only is discussed for a nontime varying thermal environment. Relationships are developed to illustrate how shields can be utilized to represent a louver system. A computer program is presented which can assess periodic temperature characteristics of a single node in a time varying thermal environment having energy dissipation by radiation only. The computer program performs thermal orbital analysis for five combinations of plate, shields, and louvers.

  6. Reconstruction of Graph Signals Through Percolation from Seeding Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segarra, Santiago; Marques, Antonio G.; Leus, Geert; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    New schemes to recover signals defined in the nodes of a graph are proposed. Our focus is on reconstructing bandlimited graph signals, which are signals that admit a sparse representation in a frequency domain related to the structure of the graph. Most existing formulations focus on estimating an unknown graph signal by observing its value on a subset of nodes. By contrast, in this paper, we study the problem of reconstructing a known graph signal using as input a graph signal that is non-zero only for a small subset of nodes (seeding nodes). The sparse signal is then percolated (interpolated) across the graph using a graph filter. Graph filters are a generalization of classical time-invariant systems and represent linear transformations that can be implemented distributedly across the nodes of the graph. Three setups are investigated. In the first one, a single simultaneous injection takes place on several nodes in the graph. In the second one, successive value injections take place on a single node. The third one is a generalization where multiple nodes inject multiple signal values. For noiseless settings, conditions under which perfect reconstruction is feasible are given, and the corresponding schemes to recover the desired signal are specified. Scenarios leading to imperfect reconstruction, either due to insufficient or noisy signal value injections, are also analyzed. Moreover, connections with classical interpolation in the time domain are discussed. The last part of the paper presents numerical experiments that illustrate the results developed through synthetic graph signals and two real-world signal reconstruction problems: influencing opinions in a social network and inducing a desired brain state in humans.

  7. Hemangioendothelioma of the lymph node: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J; Bartal, N

    1985-04-01

    Primary benign vascular tumors of lymph nodes are very rare. Various forms of lymph nodal vascular transformations defined as hemangiomatoid lesions, pannodal vasodilatation, or nodal angiomatosis have been described. We present a patient who was thought to have an epithelial salivary gland tumor, but instead was found to have an hemangioendothelioma of an adjacent enlarged lymph node in the region of the left submandibular gland.

  8. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  9. The imaging node for the Planetary Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, E.M.; LaVoie, S.K.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Imaging Node maintains and distributes the archives of planetary image data acquired from NASA's flight projects with the primary goal of enabling the science community to perform image processing and analysis on the data. The Node provides direct and easy access to the digital image archives through wide distribution of the data on CD-ROM media and on-line remote-access tools by way of Internet services. The Node provides digital image processing tools and the expertise and guidance necessary to understand the image collections. The data collections, now approaching one terabyte in volume, provide a foundation for remote sensing studies for virtually all the planetary systems in our solar system (except for Pluto). The Node is responsible for restoring data sets from past missions in danger of being lost. The Node works with active flight projects to assist in the creation of their archive products and to ensure that their products and data catalogs become an integral part of the Node's data collections.

  10. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    SciTech Connect

    Keselman, Dmitry; Tompkins, George H; Leishman, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  11. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  12. Inguinal Lymph Nodes in Carcinoma Penis-Observation or Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Althaf, Syed; Gangaiah, Dinesh M.; Dev, Kapil; Kurpad, Vishnu P.; Gurawalia, Jaiprakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Indian sub-continent the presentation of carcinoma penis is variable. Mostly presents with palpable inguinal lymph nodes but not confirm of metastases. Aim To evaluate whether all clinically positive nodes are metastatic and decide when to address inguinal lymph node. Materials and Methods A retrospective observational study on carcinoma penis from a regional cancer centre of south India over a period from 2001 to 2012. All the clinical, investigational, operative, pathology details and follow-up data were collected from patient records. Results Two hundred and thirty cases of carcinoma penis have been identified and 112 cases had clinically positive nodes. In 74 cases fine needle cytology was positive for malignancy and they have been addressed with block dissection with surgery of primary lesion. At two years follow up, 70 patients were identified with inguinal lymph node metastasis and block dissection was performed and all was were positive for malignancy on histology. The rate of recurrence is related to the T stage of the primary tumour. Conclusion It can be concluded that elective surgery is appropriate for palpable inguinal lymph nodes and prophylactic nodal dissection in high risk cases of carcinoma penis. PMID:26894163

  13. Immunohistochemical delineation of the conduction system. I: The sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Oosthoek, P W; Virágh, S; Mayen, A E; van Kempen, M J; Lamers, W H; Moorman, A F

    1993-09-01

    We have raised a mouse monoclonal antibody that reacts specifically with the myocytes of the sinoatrial node of the bovine heart. By use of this antibody (445-6E10) and antibodies against the gap junction protein connexin43, the periphery of the sinoatrial node and the distribution of gap junctions in the nodal region were studied. The reaction patterns of 445-6E10 and anti-connexin43 are exactly complementary; ie, connexin43 was not detected in the nodal myocytes but was clearly present in the atrial myocytes. Both reaction patterns demonstrate that nodal myocytes and atrial myocytes can unambiguously be distinguished by their characteristic molecular phenotype. The transitional nodal myocytes at the periphery of the node that have intermediate morphological and electrophysiological characteristics could now clearly be defined as nodal by our immunohistochemical criteria. The center of the node is surrounded by a region of interdigitating nodal and atrial bundles. Nodal bundles, coming from the center of the node, penetrate the atrial myocardium aligned at atrial bundles, forming histological connections between nodal and atrial myocytes at regular distances. This interdigitating arrangement of bundles of connexin43-negative nodal and connexin43-positive atrial myocytes is also found in the human and rat heart. We hypothesize that the architecture of the periphery of the node is important to prevent silencing of the pacemaking nodal myocytes by the atrium while ensuring a sufficient source loading of the nodal myocytes. PMID:8394223

  14. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  15. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin -Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-04-04

    In topological quantum materials1,2,3 the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals4,5,6,7,8. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space2,3. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure—Dirac node arcs—in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing tomore » the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. Here, we propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.« less

  16. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Atiya, Amir F.; Fernandez, Benito; Tsai, Wei K.; Chong, Kil T.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  17. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, A.G.; Atiya, A.F.; Fernandez, B.; Tsai, W.K.; Chong, K.T.

    1995-12-26

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer. The hidden layer includes nodes in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device occurring in the feedback path (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit from all the other nodes within the same layer. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing. 21 figs.

  18. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Teresa H.; Berry, Nina M.

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  19. Assaying DNA damage in hippocampal neurons using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Nowsheen, Somaira; Xia, Fen; Yang, Eddy S

    2012-12-19

    A number of drugs target the DNA repair pathways and induce cell kill by creating DNA damage. Thus, processes to directly measure DNA damage have been extensively evaluated. Traditional methods are time consuming, expensive, resource intensive and require replicating cells. In contrast, the comet assay, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay, is a faster, non-invasive, inexpensive, direct and sensitive measure of DNA damage and repair. All forms of DNA damage as well as DNA repair can be visualized at the single cell level using this powerful technique. The principle underlying the comet assay is that intact DNA is highly ordered whereas DNA damage disrupts this organization. The damaged DNA seeps into the agarose matrix and when subjected to an electric field, the negatively charged DNA migrates towards the cathode which is positively charged. The large undamaged DNA strands are not able to migrate far from the nucleus. DNA damage creates smaller DNA fragments which travel farther than the intact DNA. Comet Assay, an image analysis software, measures and compares the overall fluorescent intensity of the DNA in the nucleus with DNA that has migrated out of the nucleus. Fluorescent signal from the migrated DNA is proportional to DNA damage. Longer brighter DNA tail signifies increased DNA damage. Some of the parameters that are measured are tail moment which is a measure of both the amount of DNA and distribution of DNA in the tail, tail length and percentage of DNA in the tail. This assay allows to measure DNA repair as well since resolution of DNA damage signifies repair has taken place. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 50 strand breaks per diploid mammalian cell (1,2). Cells treated with any DNA damaging agents, such as etoposide, may be used as a positive control. Thus the comet assay is a quick and effective procedure to measure DNA damage.

  20. The lingual lymph node identified as a sentinel node on CT lymphography in a patient with cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

    PubMed Central

    Saito, M; Nishiyama, H; Oda, Y; Shingaki, S; Hayashi, T

    2012-01-01

    We performed CT lymphography on an 81-year-old female patient with a histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue with no clinical or radiological evidence of cervical lymph node involvement. The lateral lingual lymph node was identified as a sentinel node, which is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a primary tumour. CT lymphography also showed draining lymphatics passing through the sublingual space, the medial side of the submandibular gland and near the hyoid bone and connected with the middle internal jugular node. Although metastasis to the lateral lingual lymph node is known as one of the crucial events in determining survival outcome in cancer of the tongue and floor of the mouth, very few reports are available on the imaging of the lateral lingual lymph node metastasis. This is the first report regarding the lateral lingual lymph node identified as a sentinel node demonstrated on CT lymphography. PMID:22074865

  1. Toward Intraoperative Detection of Disseminated Tumor Cells in Lymph Nodes with Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy P; Winter, Marnie A; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Stockmann, Regina; Yang, Chih-Tsung; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Thierry, Benjamin

    2016-02-23

    Within an hour, as little as one disseminated tumor cell (DTC) per lymph node can be quantitatively detected using an intraoperative biosensing platform based on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW FET). It is also demonstrated that the integrated biosensing platform is able to detect the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of colorectal cancer patients. The presence of DTCs in lymph nodes and CTCs in peripheral blood is highly significant as it is strongly associated with poor patient prognosis. The SiNW FET sensing platform out-performed in both sensitivity and rapidity not only the current standard method based on pathological examination of tissue sections but also the emerging clinical gold standard based on molecular assays. The possibility to achieve accurate and highly sensitive analysis of the presence of DTCs in the lymphatics within the surgery time frame has the potential to spare cancer patients from an unnecessary secondary surgery, leading to reduced patient morbidity, improving their psychological wellbeing and reducing time spent in hospital. This study demonstrates the potential of nanoscale field-effect technology in clinical cancer diagnostics. PMID:26859618

  2. HIV-1 Capsid Stabilization Assay.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Thomas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The stability of the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm is crucial for productive HIV-1 infection. Mutations that stabilize or destabilize the core showed defects in HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection. We developed a novel and simple assay to measure stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. This assay allowed us to demonstrate that cytosolic extracts strongly stabilize the HIV-1 core (Fricke et al., J Virol 87:10587-10597, 2013). By using our novel assay, one can measure the ability of different drugs to modulate the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes, such as PF74, CAP-1, IXN-053, cyclosporine A, Bi2, and the peptide CAI. We also found that purified CPSF6 (1-321) protein stabilizes in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes (Fricke et al., J Virol 87:10587-10597, 2013). Here we describe in detail the use of this capsid stability assay. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 capsid stability in vitro.

  3. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Assays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen-Ting; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence-based detection techniques are popular in high throughput screening due to sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Four commonly used techniques exist, each with distinct characteristics. Fluorescence intensity assays are the simplest to run, but suffer the most from signal interference. Fluorescence polarization assays show less interference from the compounds or the instrument, but require a design that results in change of fluorophore-containing moiety size and usually have narrow assay signal window. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is commonly used for detecting protein-protein interactions and is constrained not by the sizes of binding partners, but rather by the distance between fluorophores. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), an advanced modification of FRET approach utilizes special fluorophores with long-lived fluorescence and earns its place near the top of fluorescent techniques list by its performance and robustness, characterized by larger assay window and minimized compound spectral interference. TR-FRET technology can be applied in biochemical or cell-based in vitro assays with ease. It is commonly used to detect modulation of protein-protein interactions and in detection of products of biochemical reactions and cellular activities. PMID:27316992

  4. Luminogenic cytochrome P450 assays.

    PubMed

    Cali, James J; Ma, Dongping; Sobol, Mary; Simpson, Daniel J; Frackman, Susan; Good, Troy D; Daily, William J; Liu, David

    2006-08-01

    Luminogenic cytochrome P450 (CYP) assays couple CYP enzyme activity to firefly luciferase luminescence in a technology called P450-Glo(TM) (Promega). Luminogenic substrates are used in assays of human CYP1A1, -1A2, -1B1, -2C8, -2C9, -2C19, -2D6, -2J2, -3A4, -3A7, -4A11, -4F3B, -4F12 and -19. The assays detect dose-dependent CYP inhibition by test compounds against recombinant CYP enzymes or liver microsomes. Induction or inhibition of CYP activities in cultured hepatocytes is measured in a nonlytic approach that leaves cells intact for additional analysis. Luminogenic CYP assays offer advantages of speed and safety over HPLC and radiochemical-based methods. Compared with fluorogenic methods the approach offers advantages of improved sensitivity and decreased interference between optical properties of test compound and CYP substrate. These homogenous assays are sensitive and robust tools for high-throughput CYP screening in early drug discovery. PMID:16859410

  5. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  6. The GARD assay for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Lindstedt, Malin

    2013-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin disease caused by an immunologic reaction to low molecular weight compounds, so called haptens. These substances are commonly present in products used by humans in daily life, such as in cosmetics and fragrances, as well as within chemical industry and in pharmaceuticals. The frequent usage of these compounds in different applications has led to increasing incidences of allergic contact dermatitis, which has become a substantial economic burden for society. As a consequence, chemicals are routinely tested for their ability to induce skin sensitization, using animal models such as the murine Local Lymph Node Assay. However, recent legislations regulate the use of animal models within chemical testing. Thus, there is an urgent need for in vitro alternatives to replace these assays for safety assessment of chemicals. Recently, we identified a signature of predictive genes, which are differentially regulated in the human myeloid cell-line MUTZ-3 when stimulated with sensitizing compounds compared to non-sensitizing compounds. Based on these findings, we have formulated a test strategy for assessment of sensitizing compounds, called Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection, GARD. In this paper, we present a detailed method description of how the assay should be performed. PMID:23032079

  7. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  8. Patterns of lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhikai; Hu, Ke; Liu, An; Shen, Jie; Hou, Xiaorong; Lian, Xin; Sun, Shuai; Yan, Junfang; Zhang, Fuquan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patterns and locations of lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancers.A total of 244 consecutive patients with stage IIb cervical cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were used for lymph node grading. Lymph nodes with the shortest axis (>1 cm) were categorized as positive and those between 0.5 and 1 cm were categorized as suspicious. All lymph nodes (LNs) were also classified by their anatomic locations.Nine hundred thirty-one LNs (136 positive and 795 suspicious) were identified. Sixty-three (25.8%) patients had positive LNs, and 153 (62.7%) patients had only suspicious LNs. The metastatic pattern was predictable traveling from level 1 (external iliac, internal iliac, obturator, and mesorectum groups) through level 2 (common iliac and presacral groups) to level 3 (para-aortic groups). In most groups, LNs were located within 1.0 cm of main blood vessels. Our novel findings were: presacral LNs metastases were rare (2/244, 0.82%); the left common iliac group (LCI) had significantly more enlarged nodes than the right common iliac group (P = 0.00); the LCI and left down-para-aortic group were further away from blood vessels than expected (1.2 cm and 1.4 cm, respectively); no additional margin was needed in anterolateral direction for external iliac groups.The lymph node metastatic patterns are relatively predicable. Different expansions from vessels should be used to include LNs for different groups. Presacral nodes metastases are rare, and further study is warranted to see whether this region can be excluded from nodal CTV. PMID:27684810

  9. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  10. Anticancer Properties of Novel Rhenium Pentylcarbanato Compounds against MDA-MB-468(HTB-132) Triple Node Negative Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Parson, Carl; Smith, Valerie; Krauss, Christopher; Banerjee, Hirendra N.; Reilly, Christopher; Krause, Jeanette A.; Wachira, James M.; Giri, Dipak; Winstead, Angela; Mandal, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To study the efficacy of novel rhenium compounds to treat triple node negative breast cancer. Place and Duration Six (6) novel rhenium pentycarbanato compounds (PC1-6) were synthesized and triple node negative breast cancer cell lines HTB-132 and Balb/c mouse kidney cell lines were treated with each of them for 48 hours. The results were analyzed by a common trypan blue cell death assay system and statistically analyzed. Place and Duration The compounds were synthesized, analyzed and evaluated at the Department of Chemistryof Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland and the Pharmaceutical Sciences Department of Elizabeth City State University campus of the University of North Carolina system. Methodology The novel rhenium compounds were synthesized from one-pot reactions of Re2(CO)10 with the corresponding α-diimine ligands in 1-pentanol.The compounds were characterized spectroscopically. The cell lines were cultured by standard cell culture procedure and treated with each of the six compounds in DMSO for 48 hours with a negative control and a DMSO vehicular control along with a cisplatin positive control.The cytotoxicity was evaluated by standard trypan blue assay and the results were statistically analyzed. Results The trypan blueassay reveals that these compounds have significant cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-468 (HTB-132) triple node negative breast cancer cell lines and are less nephrotoxic than cisplatin. Conclusion The novel rhenium compounds PC 1-6 can potentially find applications in the treatment of highly malignant triple node negative breast cancer. PMID:25419517

  11. Pigmentation in the sentinel node correlates with increased sentinel node tumor burden in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, Cornelia G F; Koljenović, Senada; Grunhagen, Dirk-Jan; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients is predicted by a number of characteristics such as size and site of the metastases in the SN. The pathway and prognosis of strong pigmentation of melanoma metastases in the SN is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of pigmentation and growth pattern of metastases in the SN with respect to survival. A total of 389 patients underwent an SN procedure (1997-2011). Ninety-five patients had a positive SN and material from 75 patients was available for review. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range 6-164). Pigmentation was scored from 0 to 2 using the following scale: 0=absent, 1=slight, and 2=strong. Growth pattern was scored as either eccentric (1) or infiltrative (2). SN tumor burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. The primary melanoma had a median Breslow thickness of 2.90 mm (0.8-12.00 mm). Ulceration was present in 34 patients (45.3%). There was a median SN tumor burden of 0.5 mm (0.05-7.00 mm). In a total of 75 patients, 59 patients (79%) had no pigmentation, 13 patients (17%) had slight pigmentation, and three patients (4%) had strong pigmentation in the SN. Because of the small numbers, the classification was modified to either absent 59 (79%) or present 16 (21%) pigmentation, respectively. The SN tumor burden was significantly higher (P=0.031) for patients with pigmentation. Patients with pigmentation had a 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of 47% and a 10-year MSS of 33%. Patients without pigmentation had a 5-year MSS of 70% and a 10-year MSS of 59% (P=0.06). There was no difference in MSS for patients with an eccentric or an infiltrative growth pattern, nor did it correlate with other prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis for MSS showed five significant factors associated with worse prognosis: male sex (P=0.036), nodular melanoma (P=0.001), truncal site (P=0.0001), SN tumor burden more than 1.0 mm (P=0.022), and positive completion lymph node

  12. Displacement enzyme linked aptamer assay.

    PubMed

    Baldrich, Eva; Acero, Josep Lluis; Reekmans, Gunter; Laureyn, Wim; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2005-08-01

    Immense effort has been placed on the realization of immunoassays exploiting displacement of a suboptimum target, due to the ease of use and applicability to immunochromatographic strips and immunosensors. Most of the efforts reported to date focus on the use of a suboptimal target that is displaceable by the target toward which the antibody has higher affinity. Limited success has been achieved due to difficulty in obtaining suboptimal targets to which the antibody has enough affinity to bind while at the same time having lower levels of affinity in comparison to the target to facilitate displacement. Aptamers are synthetic oligonucleotides specifically selected to bind a certain target. Thanks to their high affinity and sensitivity, aptamers appear as alternative candidates to antibodies for analytical devices and several enzyme-linked aptamer assays and aptasensors have been reported. Aptamers, in contrast to antibodies, require the formation of a three-dimensional structure for target binding and can thus be anticipated to have a much higher affinity for binding its target rather than a modified form of the target (e.g., enzyme-labeled target). This phenomenon can be exploited for the development of a displacement assay, using enzyme-labeled target as a suboptimal displaceable molecule. Here, we report the first demonstration of the exploitation of an aptamer in an extremely rapid and highly sensitive displacement assay. Surface plasmon resonance studies demonstrated the thrombin-binding aptamer to have a lower affinity for enzyme-labeled thrombin than unmodified thrombin, with respective K(D) of 1.1 x 10(-8) and 2.9 x 10(-9) M. The assay is extremely rapid, requiring only 10 min for completion, and exhibits a detection limit lower than that obtainable with competitive enzyme-linked aptamer assays and comparable to that of hybrid aptamer-antibody assays. Optimal storage conditions for precoated microtiter plates (consisting of coated aptamer and captured

  13. 76 FR 45254 - Report and Recommendations on the Usefulness and Limitations of the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... classification and labeling. NICEATM published a Federal Register notice (72 FR 27815) requesting public comments... (BRDs), released them for public comment in January 2008 (73 FR 1360), and convened a public meeting of... May 2008 (73 FR 29136) for public comment. The draft ICCVAM BRDs, draft ICCVAM test...

  14. Thermoelectric energy harvesting as a wireless sensor node power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, C.; Davidson, J.

    2010-04-01

    Size and power requirements of wireless sensor nodes are gradually decreasing and this has allowed data collection across a range of spatial and temporal ranges. These nodes have power requirements that often necessitate batteries as an energy source. As the power requirements decrease for these sensors, alternative energy sources become more attractive. One such technology is thermal energy harvesting. Thermal energy harvesting requires a differential temperature between a heat source and a cool sink. As heat energy flows from source to the sink, energy can be harvested and utilized to power sensor nodes. By exploiting the temperature difference between a sun-warmed plate and a heat sink immersed in water, electrical energy can be harvested. The proposed concept utilizes a thermoelectric device to convert solar energy into electrical power. Initial experiments were carried out at the CSIRO Energy Centre for a variety of winter time intervals in 2009, with peak power outputs in the order of 50mW. Results indicate such a system could power a wireless sensor node continuously at ocean, lake and river water interfaces. We are presently in the process of evaluating the concept by powering a CSIRO FleckTM wireless node to transmit water temperature and battery voltage data.

  15. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  16. Impulse formation and conduction of excitation in the atrioventricular node.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, M

    1994-06-01

    Meijler et al. have recently challenged the classical concept of AV nodal conduction (the conduction hypothesis) and suggest that the AV node might be controlling ventricular rhythmicity through its automaticity electrotonically modulated by atrial excitation (the modulated pacemaker hypothesis). This article critically evaluates the three major arguments of Meijler: (1) the absence of convincing evidence for conduction of excitation in the AV node; (2) the prevalence of disproportionately short AV intervals in larger animals; and (3) elimination of RR intervals shorter than the cycle length of ventricular pacing during atrial fibrillation, to judge which of these two hypotheses would more satisfactorily explain various experimental and clinical findings accumulated in the past. Previous observations including microelectrode mapping of the rabbit AV junction during regular sinus rhythm as well as second-degree AV block, clinical and experimental studies on concealed conduction, and studies on the ventricular response to atrial fibrillation appear to be compatible with the conduction hypothesis, whereas clearcut evidence for automatic impulse formation in the AV node has not been presented, except in a small number of hearts showing spontaneous AV junctional rhythms. In view of these observations and theoretical considerations based on comparative anatomy of the AV node-His-Purkinje system and on the latest experimental study on the equine AV node, the authors conclude that the conduction hypothesis appears to better explain all the available data, except perhaps in a few cases with second-degree intra-AV nodal block.

  17. Mandatory leaf node prediction in hierarchical multilabel classification.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei; Kwok, James T

    2014-12-01

    In hierarchical classification, the output labels reside on a tree- or directed acyclic graph (DAG)-structured hierarchy. On testing, the prediction paths of a given test example may be required to end at leaf nodes of the label hierarchy. This is called mandatory leaf node prediction (MLNP) and is particularly useful, when the leaf nodes have much stronger semantic meaning than the internal nodes. However, while there have been a lot of MLNP methods in hierarchical multiclass classification, performing MLNP in hierarchical multilabel classification is difficult. In this paper, we propose novel MLNP algorithms that consider the global label hierarchy structure. We show that the joint posterior probability over all the node labels can be efficiently maximized by dynamic programming for label trees, or greedy algorithm for label DAGs. In addition, both algorithms can be further extended for the minimization of the expected symmetric loss. Experiments are performed on real-world MLNP data sets with label trees and label DAGs. The proposed method consistently outperforms other hierarchical and flat multilabel classification methods. PMID:25420248

  18. [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in pregnancy-associated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Téglás, Melinda; Kovács, Eszter; Sávolt, Akos; Udvarhelyi, Nóra; Bartal, Alexandra; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer is rising. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the method of choice in clinically node negative cases as the indicated minimally invasive regional staging procedure. Some reports have linked radioisotope and blue dye required for lymphatic mapping to teratogenic effects, the idea of which has become a generalized statement and, until recently, contraindication for these agents was considered during pregnancy. Today, there are many published reports of successful interventions with low-dose 99mTc-labeled human albumin nanocolloid, based on dosimetric modeling demonstrating a negligible radiation exposure of the fetus. These results contributed to the seemingly safe and successful use of sentinel lymph node biopsy during pregnancy, though generally it can not replace axillary lymphadenectomy in the absence of high-quality evidence. The possibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy should be offered to pregnancy-associated early breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla, and patients should be involved in the decision making following extensive counselling. This paper presents the successful use of sentinel lymph node biopsy with low-dose tracer during two pregnancies (in the first and third trimesters) and, for the first time in Hungarian language, it offers a comprehensive literature review on this topic. Orv. Hetil., 154(50), 1991-1997. PMID:24317358

  19. Network structure exploration in networks with node attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Bu, Junzhao; Tang, Buzhou; Xiang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful way to represent complex systems and have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of network analysis is to detect structures (also called structural regularities) embedded in networks by determining group number and group partition. Most of network structure exploration models only consider network links. However, in real world networks, nodes may have attributes that are useful for network structure exploration. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) model to explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes, called Bayesian nonparametric attribute (BNPA) model. This model does not only take full advantage of both links between nodes and node attributes for group partition via shared hidden variables, but also determine group number automatically via the Bayesian nonparametric theory. Experiments conducted on a number of real and synthetic networks show that our BNPA model is able to automatically explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models.

  20. Wireless sensor node for detection of freight train derailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Andrea; Milani, Damiano; Resta, Ferruccio; Tomasini, Gisella

    2016-04-01

    The target of the research activity presented in this paper is to design, to realize and to test an autonomous sensor node able to measure the accelerations in correspondence of the axle box of a freight train. The final goal of the sensor is to identify the derailment conditions by observing the variations in the spectra of the box accelerations, around the frequencies associated to the wheel revolution and its multiples. The sensor node embeds an accelerometer, a microprocessor, a transmission system, a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and an integrated circuit for managing the power distribution to each component of the node. In particular, a mechanical filter to be applied to the node was specifically designed to increment the energy recovered by the harvester and to filter out the high frequency components of the axle-box acceleration, allowing the use of a more sensitive accelerometer. The harvesting system was setup by means of laboratory tests carried out with an electromechanical shaker and the sensor node was finally tested through field tests on freight trains.

  1. [Statistical distribution of involved axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Guern, Anne-Sophie; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2008-04-01

    Our aim is to characterize the statistical distribution of the number of involved lymph nodes in breast cancer. The material uses a sample of 109618 women from the US SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results). In a first analysis, we observed a log-concave distribution with overdispersion which excluded a Poisson stochastic process. A Negative Binomial (NB) provided an acceptable fit. Overdispersion implies that there are patients who are more at risk than expected, and/or cascade processes in which the variability increases when there are more involved lymph nodes. In a second series of analyses, we applied predictive models taking into account or not the NB. Logistic models, commonly used, allow only the prediction of nodal status, and we found a poor predictive value. A NB generalized linear regression (NBGLR) allowed us to model the number of involved nodes. We argued that the approach of modeling the number of nodes, and not merely the nodal status, allows a grading of nodal involvement risk and might identify patients for whom neoadjuvant treatment would be justified. Incidentally, the NBGLR found in our sample a seasonal factor affecting the numbers of nodes, suggesting the variability of medical practice, which might warrant further investigation. PMID:18495575

  2. Hierarchical sensor network architecture for stationary smart node supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ming-Hui; Wu, Wen-Jong; Chen, Chun-Kuang; Chen, Yih-Fan; Wen, Chih-Min; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Yu, Shih-An; Lin, Yun-Han; Huang, Jhen-Gang; Rao, Herman; Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2004-07-01

    Most wireless sensor networks base their design on an ad hoc (multi-hop) network technology that focus on organizing and maintaining a network formed by a group of moving objects with a communication device in an area with no fixed base stations or access points. Although ad hoc network technologies are capable of constructing a sensor network, the design and implementation of sensor networks for monitoring stationary nodes such as construction sites and nature-disaster-prone areas can be furthered simplified to reduce power consumption and overhead. Based on the nature of immobile nodes, a hierarchical sensor network architecture and its associated communication protocols are proposed in this paper. In this proposed architecture, most elements in the sensor network are designed to be equipped with no functions for message forwarding or channel scheduling. The local control center uses a centralized communication protocol to communicate with each sensor node. The local control center can also use ad hoc network technology to relay the data between each of the sensors. This approach not only minimizes the complexity of the sensor nodes implemented but also significantly reduces the cost, size and power consumption of each sensor node. In addition, the benefit of using ad-hoc network technology is that the local controller retains its routing capabilities. Therefore, power efficiency and communication reliability can be both achieved and maximized by this type of hierarchical sensor network.

  3. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN) metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN) metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients). Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance) significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach - more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy - clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. PMID:27390528

  4. Breast cancer recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    AlSaif, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look into the pattern of breast cancer recurrence following mastectomy, breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy after SLNB at our institution. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2014, all patients diagnosed with breast cancer with clinically negative axilla, underwent SLNB. We reviewed their medical records to identify pattern of cancer recurrence. Results: The median follow-up was 35.5 months. Eighty five patients (70.8%) had a negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequently had no further axillary treatment, one of them (1.2%) developed axillary recurrence 25 months postoperatively. Twenty five patients (20.8%) had a positive SLN (macrometastases) and subsequently had immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Ten patients (8.3%) had a positive SLN (micrometastases). In the positive SLN patients (macrometastases and micrometastases), there were two ipsilateral breast recurrences (5.7%), seen three and four years postoperatively. Also in this group, there was one (2.9%) distant metastasis to bone three years postoperatively. Conclusion: In this series, the clinical axillary false negative rate for SLNB was 1.2% which is in accordance with the published literature. This supports the use of SLNB as the sole axillary staging procedure in breast cancer patients with negative SLNB. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in patients with micrometastases in their sentinel lymph node(s). PMID:26870109

  5. Malicious node detection in ad-hoc wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Richard L.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2003-07-01

    Advances in wireless communications and the proliferation of mobile computing devices has led to the rise of a new type of computer network: the ad-hoc wireless network. Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of fixed infrastructure, which give ad-hoc networks a great deal of flexibility, but also increases the risk of security problems. In wired networks, key pieces of network infrastructure are secured to prevent unauthorized physical access and tampering. Network administrators ensure that everything is properly configured and are on-hand to fix problems and deal with intrusions. In contrast, the nodes in an ad-hoc network are responsible for routing and forwarding data in the network, and there are no network administrators to handle potential problems. This makes an ad-hoc network more vulnerable to a misconfigured, faulty, or compromised node. We propose a means for a node in an ad-hoc network to detect and handle these malicious nodes by comparing data available to the routing protocol, such as cached routes in Dynamic Source Routing, ICMP messages, and transport layer information, such as TCP timeouts. This data can then be used along with network probes to isolate the malicious node.

  6. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy in ipsilateral breast cancer relapse.

    PubMed

    Tasevski, R; Gogos, A J; Mann, G B

    2009-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is controversial following ipsilateral breast tumour relapse (IBTR) and previous axillary surgery. We retrospectively assessed the feasibility, outcomes and utility of this procedure. Eighteen patients with IBTR who underwent reoperative SLNB were identified. Fifteen women had previously undergone axillary lymph node dissection and three SLNB for breast cancer. Twelve of 16 patients underwent successful lymphoscintigraphy (LSG). Lymphatic drainage patterns varied widely - ipsilateral axilla (5), contralateral axilla (5), and ipsilateral internal mammary (5). Two patients had drainage to more than one nodal basin. Nine of 12 patients demonstrated drainage outside of the ipsilateral axilla. Reoperative SLNB was successful in 12/18 of patients - 4 ipsilateral axilla, 1 ipsilateral internal mammary, 1 ipsilateral intramammary, 4 contralateral axilla. Two patients had sentinel nodes in multiple nodal basins. Positive sentinel node was found in one successful case (contralateral axilla) and isolated tumour cells in two (1 contralateral axilla, 1 ipsilateral internal mammary). In conclusion, reoperative SLNB is feasible. Lymphatic drainage patterns vary widely and preoperative LSG is vital to facilitate identification of sentinel nodes in unusual sites. Its prognostic and therapeutic significance warrants further study. PMID:19819141

  7. Identifying controlling nodes in neuronal networks in different scales.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have detected hubs in neuronal networks using degree, betweenness centrality, motif and synchronization and revealed the importance of hubs in their structural and functional roles. In addition, the analysis of complex networks in different scales are widely used in physics community. This can provide detailed insights into the intrinsic properties of networks. In this study, we focus on the identification of controlling regions in cortical networks of cats' brain in microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, based on single-objective evolutionary computation methods. The problem is investigated by considering two measures of controllability separately. The impact of the number of driver nodes on controllability is revealed and the properties of controlling nodes are shown in a statistical way. Our results show that the statistical properties of the controlling nodes display a concave or convex shape with an increase of the allowed number of controlling nodes, revealing a transition in choosing driver nodes from the areas with a large degree to the areas with a low degree. Interestingly, the community Auditory in cats' brain, which has sparse connections with other communities, plays an important role in controlling the neuronal networks.

  8. Prognostic Significance of Molecular Upstaging of Paraffin-Embedded Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hiroya; Morton, Donald L.; Kuo, Christine; Turner, Roderick R.; Elashoff, David; Elashoff, Robert; Taback, Bret; Fujimoto, Akihide; Hoon, Dave S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Detection of micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is important for accurate staging and prognosis in melanoma patients. However, a significant number of patients with histopathology-negative SLNs subsequently develop recurrent disease. We hypothesized that a quantitative realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT) assay using multiple specific mRNA markers could detect occult metastasis in paraffin-embedded (PE) SLNs to upstage and predict disease outcome. Patients and Methods qRT was performed on retrospectively collected PE SLNs from 215 clinically node-negative patients who underwent lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for melanoma and were followed up for at least 8 years. PE SLNs (n = 308) from these patients were sectioned and assessed by qRT for mRNA of four melanoma-associated genes: MART-1 (antigen recognized by T cells-1), MAGE-A3 (melanoma antigen gene-A3 family), GalNAc-T (β1→4-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase), and Pax3 (paired-box homeotic gene transcription factor 3). Results Fifty-three (25%) patients had histopathology-positive SLNs by hemotoxylin and eosin and/or immunohistochemistry. Of the 162 patients with histopathology-negative SLNs, 48 (30%) had nodes that expressed at least one of the four qRT markers, and these 48 patients also had a significantly increased risk of disease recurrence by a Cox proportional hazards model analysis (P < .0001; risk ratio, 7.48; 95% CI, 3.70 to 15.15). The presence of ≥ one marker in histopathology-negative SLNs was also a significant independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis for overall survival (P = .0002; risk ratio, 11.42; 95% CI, 3.17 to 41.1). Conclusion Molecular upstaging of PE histopathology-negative SLNs by multiple-marker qRT assay is a significant independent prognostic factor for long-term disease recurrence and overall survival of patients with early-stage melanoma. PMID:15226334

  9. Correlation between mitochondrial TRAP-1 expression and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jing-Yan; Song, Bao-Rong; Peng, Jun-Jie; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of mitochondrial tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP-1) on the lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and develop potential LNM-associated biomarkers for CRC using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. METHODS: Differences in mitochondrial TRAP-1 gene expression between primary CRC with LNM (LNM CRC) and without LNM (non-LNM CRC) were assessed in 96 Chinese colorectal carcinoma samples using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, Western blotting, and confirmed with immunohistochemical assay. The relationship between clinicopathological parameters and potential diagnostic biomarkers was also examined. RESULTS: TRAP-1 was significantly upregulated in LNM CRC compared with non-LNM CRC, which was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical assay. The expression of TRAP-1 in two different metastatic potential human colorectal cancer cell lines, LoVo and HT29, was analyzed with Western blotting. The expression level of TRAP-1 was dramatically higher in LoVo than in HT29. Overexpression of TRAP-1 was significantly associated with LNM (90.2% in LNM group vs 22% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001), the advanced tumor node metastasis stage (89.1% in LNM group vs 26.9% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001), the increased 5-year recurrence rate (82.7% in LNM group vs 22.6% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001) and the decreased 5-year overall survival rate (48.4% in LNM vs 83.2% in non-LNM group, P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that TRAP-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and survival of CRC patients (Hazard ratio of 2.445 in recurrence, P = 0.017; 2.867 in survival, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Mitochondria TRAP-1 affects the lymph node metastasis in CRC, and may be a potential biomarker for LNM and a prognostic factor in CRC. Over-expression of TRAP-1 is a predictive factor for the poor outcome of colorectal cancer patients

  10. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector Lawrence N.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node I was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node I nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit for Node 1, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  11. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  12. Assays for B lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Bondada, Subbarao; Robertson, Darrell A

    2003-11-01

    This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. The first basic protocol is a generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production and can accommodate various types of antigens under study. Secreted antibodies can then be measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other soluble-antibody detection systems. Alternatively, the number of antibody-producing cells can be quantified by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays presented in this unit: the Cunningham-Szenberg and the Jerne-Nordin techniques. Both methods employ specially prepared slide chambers, described here, in which the antibody-producing B cells are mixed with complement and indicator sheep red blood cells (SRBC), or with trinitrophenol-modified SRBC (TNP-SRBC), with subsequent lysis and counting of plaques. Because IgM antibodies fix complement efficiently, whereas IgG and IgA antibodies do not, unmodified PFC assays measure only IgM antibodies. The assay can be modified, however, to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells, as described in alternate protocols. Yet another method of measuring the number of antibody-producing B cells (in a class-specific fashion) is to use the ELISPOT technique described in UNIT 7.14. The resting B cells used in these procedures are prepared as described in the final support protocols for Percoll gradient centrifugation. PMID:18432909

  13. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  14. An improved choline monooxygenase assay

    SciTech Connect

    Lafontaine, P.J.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Glycine betaine accumulates in leaves of plants from several angiosperm families in response to drought or salinization. Its synthesis, from the oxidation of choline, is mediated by a two step pathway. In spinach the first enzyme of this pathway is a ferredoxin-dependent choline monooxygenase (CMO). In order to purify this enzyme a sensitive and reliable assay is necessary. Two types of modifications were explored to improve the existing assay. (1) Ferredoxin reduction - one way of providing reduced Fd to CMO is by the addition of isolated spinach thylakoids in the assay mixture. In order to optimize the reduction of Fd two different systems were compared: (a) where only PS is active, by adding DCMU to inhibit electron transport from PS II and DAD as electron donor for PS I; (b) where both PS II and PS I are active. (2) Betaine aldehyde estimation - to simplify this, it is possible to couple the CMO reaction with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) from E. coli. BADH converts betaine aldehyde to betaine as it is formed in the assay, eliminating the need for a chemical oxidation step.

  15. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  16. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist. PMID:8736333

  17. Propionibacterium acnes isolated from lymph nodes of patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Bart; Veltkamp, Marcel; Wauters, Carla A; Grutters, Jan C; Janssen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been repeatedly suggested as a candidate causative agent of sarcoidosis. It is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions by bacterial culture so far and this has been described in Japanese patients only. We report two non-Japanese patients in whom mediastinoscopy was performed in order to obtain lymph node tissue for histopathology, which was suggestive for sarcoidosis. Bacterial culture of these uncontaminated mediastinal lymph nodes revealed P. acnes in both patients. As shown in these two cases, P. acnes can be isolated from sterile biopsied sarcoid lymph nodes of non-Japanese patients and supports the belief that there is an etiologic link between P. acnes sarcoidosis. Further elucidation could provide an opening to novel strategies using antibiotics for treating sarcoidosis.

  18. Abnormal Behavior in Cascading Dynamics with Node Weight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianwei; Cai, Lin; Xu, Bo; Wu, Yuedan

    2015-01-01

    Considering a preferential selection mechanism of load destination, we introduce a new method to quantify initial load distribution and subsequently construct a simple cascading model. By attacking the node with the highest load, we investigate the cascading dynamics in some synthetic networks. Surprisingly, we observe that for several networks of different structural patterns, a counterintuitive phenomenon emerges if the highest load attack is applied to the system, i.e., investing more resources to protect every node in a network inversely makes the whole network more vulnerable. We explain this ability paradox by analyzing the micro-structural components of the underlying network and therefore reveals how specific structural patterns may influence the cascading dynamics. We discover that the robustness of the network oscillates as the capacity of each node increases. The conclusion of the paper may shed lights on future investigations to avoid the demonstrated ability paradox and subsequent cascading failures in real-world networks. PMID:26451594

  19. Effect of coagulation of nodes in an evolving complex network.

    PubMed

    Miura, Wataru; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2012-04-20

    We propose a new type of stochastic network evolution model based on annihilation, creation, and coagulation of nodes, together with the preferential attachment rule. The system reaches a unique quasistatistically steady state in which the distribution of links follows a power law, lifetime of nodes follows an exponential distribution, and the mean number of links grows exponentially with time. The master equation of the model is solved analytically by applying Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for aerosols. The results indicate that coagulation of nodes in complex networks and mean field analysis of aerosols are similar in both the growth dynamics with irreversible processes and in the steady state statistics. We confirm that the basic properties of the model are consistent with the empirical results of a business transaction network having about 1×10(6) firms.

  20. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes.

  1. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:25741091

  2. 9nm node wafer defect inspection using visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renjie; Edwards, Chris; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 2 years, we have developed a common optical-path, 532 nm laser epi-illumination diffraction phase microscope (epi-DPM) and successfully applied it to detect different types of defects down to 20 by 100 nm in a 22nm node intentional defect array (IDA) wafer. An image post-processing method called 2DISC, using image frame 2nd order differential, image stitching, and convolution, was used to significantly improve sensitivity of the measured images. To address 9nm node IDA wafer inspection, we updated our system with a highly stable 405 nm diode laser. By using the 2DISC method, we detected parallel bridge defects in the 9nm node wafer. To further enhance detectability, we are exploring 3D wafer scanning, white-light illumination, and dark-field inspection.

  3. Ranking the spreading ability of nodes in network core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jiang-Pan; Guo, Qiang; Ni, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Ranking nodes by their spreading ability in complex networks is of vital significance to better understand the network structure and more efficiently spread information. The k-shell decomposition method could identify the most influential nodes, namely network core, with the same ks values regardless to their different spreading influence. In this paper, we present an improved method based on the k-shell decomposition method and closeness centrality (CC) to rank the node spreading influence of the network core. Experiment results on the data from the scientific collaboration network and U.S. aviation network show that the accuracy of the presented method could be increased by 31% and 45% than the one obtained by the degree k, 32% and 31% than the one by the betweenness.

  4. Earth System Grid (ESG) Data Node Software Stack

    2009-12-01

    The ESG-CET system consist of two major components: 1) Gateways that support portal services, which serve as interfaces to end-users who can search, discover, and request data and data products, and 2) Data Nodes where the data actually resides. The Data is "published" to the Data Node, which makes the data visible to a Gateway and enables its delivery to end-users. It is expected that Gateways will only be installed by a small number ofmore » centers devoted to serving data (e.g., LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, GFDL, DADC, DKRZ, ANU, JAMSTEC), whereas it is hoped that most climate modeling centers will install the Data Node software through which they can serve their model output.« less

  5. Topological Node-Line Semimetal in Three Dimensional Graphene Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Hongming; Liang, Yunye; Xu, Qiunan; Yu, Rui; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2015-03-01

    Graphene, a two dimensional (2D) carbon sheet, acquires many of its amazing properties from the Dirac point nature of its electronic structures with negligible spin-orbit coupling. Extending to 3D space, graphene networks with negative curvature, called Mackay-Terrones crystals (MTC), have been proposed and experimentally explored, yet their topological properties remain to be discovered. Based on the first-principle calculations, we report an all-carbon MTC with topologically non-trivial electronic states by exhibiting node-lines in bulk. When the node-lines are projected on to surfaces to form circles, ``drumhead'' like flat surface bands nestled inside of the circles are formed. The bulk node-line can evolve into 3D Dirac point in the absence of inversion symmetry, which has shown its plausible existence in recent experiments.

  6. Propionibacterium acnes isolated from lymph nodes of patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Bart; Veltkamp, Marcel; Wauters, Carla A; Grutters, Jan C; Janssen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been repeatedly suggested as a candidate causative agent of sarcoidosis. It is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions by bacterial culture so far and this has been described in Japanese patients only. We report two non-Japanese patients in whom mediastinoscopy was performed in order to obtain lymph node tissue for histopathology, which was suggestive for sarcoidosis. Bacterial culture of these uncontaminated mediastinal lymph nodes revealed P. acnes in both patients. As shown in these two cases, P. acnes can be isolated from sterile biopsied sarcoid lymph nodes of non-Japanese patients and supports the belief that there is an etiologic link between P. acnes sarcoidosis. Further elucidation could provide an opening to novel strategies using antibiotics for treating sarcoidosis. PMID:26422574

  7. Dynamics of neutrophil migration in lymph nodes during infection

    PubMed Central

    Chtanova, Tatyana; Schaeffer, Marie; Han, Seong-Ji; van Dooren, Giel G.; Nollmann, Marcelo; Herzmark, Paul; Chan, Shiao Wei; Satija, Harshita; Camfield, Kristin; Aaron, Holly; Striepen, Boris; Robey, Ellen A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary While the signals that control neutrophil migration from the blood to sites of infection have been well characterized, little is known about their migration patterns within lymph nodes, or the strategies that neutrophils use to find their local sites of action. To address these questions, we used two-photon scanning laser microscopy (TPSLM) to examine neutrophil migration in intact lymph nodes during infection with an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. We find that neutrophils form both small, transient or large, persistent swarms via a strikingly coordinated migration pattern. We provide evidence that cooperative action of neutrophils and parasite egress from host cells can trigger swarm formation. Neutrophil swarm formation coincides in space and time with the removal of macrophages that line the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. Our data provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying neutrophil swarming and suggest new roles for neutrophils in shaping immune responses. PMID:18718768

  8. Effect of Coagulation of Nodes in an Evolving Complex Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Wataru; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2012-04-01

    We propose a new type of stochastic network evolution model based on annihilation, creation, and coagulation of nodes, together with the preferential attachment rule. The system reaches a unique quasistatistically steady state in which the distribution of links follows a power law, lifetime of nodes follows an exponential distribution, and the mean number of links grows exponentially with time. The master equation of the model is solved analytically by applying Smoluchowski’s coagulation equation for aerosols. The results indicate that coagulation of nodes in complex networks and mean field analysis of aerosols are similar in both the growth dynamics with irreversible processes and in the steady state statistics. We confirm that the basic properties of the model are consistent with the empirical results of a business transaction network having about 1×106 firms.

  9. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. Material/Methods A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. Results Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. Conclusions The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells. PMID:27385226

  10. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. RESULTS Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. CONCLUSIONS The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells. PMID:27385226

  11. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-07-07

    BACKGROUND The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. RESULTS Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. CONCLUSIONS The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells.

  12. Recent Developments in Electrotaxis Assays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiandong; Lin, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Significance: A wide range of cell types can migrate in response to physiological or externally applied direct current electric field (dcEF), a process termed electrotaxis. In particular, electrotaxis of epithelial cells to wound-generated dcEF for mediating wound healing is a well-accepted mechanism. In addition, various immune cells have been demonstrated to undergo electrotaxis, suggesting a link between electrotaxis and inflammatory responses in wound healing. Electrotaxis research will generate important insight into the electrical guiding mechanism for cell migration thereby providing the scientific basis to further develop clinical applications for wound care. Development of advanced electrotaxis assays will critically enable in-depth experimental electrotaxis studies in vitro. Recent Advances: Recently, a number of new electrotaxis assays or new uses of previously developed assays for electrotaxis studies have been reported. These new developments provide improved solutions for experimental throughput, configuration of three-dimensional cell migration environments and coexisting guiding signals, measurements of collective electrotactic cell migration, and sorting electrotactic populations. Critical Issues: These new developments face the challenge of playing a more important role to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying electrotaxis, in addition to making a stronger impact on relevant applications. Future Directions: On one hand, specific electrotaxis assays should be further developed to improve its function and tested for a broader range of experimental conditions and electrotactic populations. On the other hand, joint efforts among electrotaxis researchers are needed to integrate the unique features of specific electrotaxis assays, allowing more advanced and efficient electrotaxis analyses to answer both basic science and clinical questions. PMID:24761355

  13. Comparison between Ultrasound and Pathologic Status of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Clinically Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amanda; Layne, Ginger; Shahan, Cimmie; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Siji; Radis, Sarah; Richmond, Bryan; Partin, Jessica; Hazard, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Ultrasound (US) has shown promise when used to assess axillary lymph nodes preoperatively, thus aiding surgical decision making. We examined the correlation between preoperative US and SLNB results to further clarify the role of US in clinicopathologic staging of breast cancer when the axilla is clinically negative on physical examination. Our institutional cancer registry was used to identify clinically node-negative patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Variables including age, body mass index, date of surgery, date of diagnosis, US results, US-directed biopsy results, SLNB results, and final pathology were recorded. Incomplete charts were excluded. In all, 249 patients were included. Sensitivity/specificity of US in the clinically negative axilla were 7.4 per cent and 91.8 per cent, respectively. The false-positive rate was 80 per cent, whereas the negative predictive value was 78 per cent. The effect of time from diagnosis/US to SLNB, interpreting radiologist, year in which US was performed, and body mass index were not statistically significant. US in the clinically node-negative patient, although useful when it leads to a positive needle biopsy result, is unlikely to replace SLNB owing to its low sensitivity and a high false-positive rate. Further prospective study into the role of US in the evaluation of the clinically negative axilla is warranted. PMID:26350662

  14. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  15. Metastatic lymph nodes in hilar cholangiocarcinoma: does size matter?

    PubMed Central

    Ruys, Anthony T; Ten Kate, Fiebo JW; Busch, Olivier R; Engelbrecht, Marc R; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the size criteria for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes (LN) in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). Introduction LN metastasis is one of the most significant independent prognostic factors in patients with HCCA. Presently, in spite of the well known lack of sensitivity and specificity, one of the most used clinical criteria for nodal metastases is LN size. Methods Pathological slides of 147 patients who had undergone exploration for HCCA were assessed. The size (maximum and short axis diameter) of each single node was retrieved from the pathology report or measured from a section on the glass slide using a stereo microscope and a calibrated ruler integrated in the software. When a metastatic lesion was detected, the proportion of the lesion in relation to LN size was estimated. Results Out of 147 patients, 645 LN were retrieved and measured. In all, 106 nodes (16%) showed evidence of metastasis. The proportion of positive nodes was 8% in nodes <5 mm and 37% in nodes >30 mm. Ten per cent of LN smaller than 10 mm were positive, whereas only 23% of LN larger than 10 mm were metastastically involved. No clear cut-off point could be found. Similar results were found for the short axis diameter. In 50% of positive LN, the metastatic lesion accounted for 10% or less of the LN size. Conclusion No cut-off point could be determined for accurately predicting nodal involvement. Therefore, imaging studies should not rely on LN size when assessing nodal involvement. PMID:22081924

  16. Corrected sinus node recovery time. Experimental physiologic and pathologic determinants.

    PubMed

    Chadda, K D; Banka, V S; Bodenheimer, M M; Helfant, R H

    1975-05-01

    To determine the factors affecting reproducibility of sinus node recovery time, the effects of basic pacing rate, pacing duration, milliamperage, vagal and beta-adrenergic stimulation, and sinud node injury, as well as its instantaneous and daily reproducibility, were studied in 36 anesthetized dogs. Corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) showed a mean variation of 9.8 plus or minus 0.4 msec at an atrial pacing rate of 200 beats/min and 29.8 plus or minus 8 msec at an atrial pacing rate of 140 beats/min (P smaller than 0.05). CSNRT increased progressively from 55.4 plus or minus 10 msec to 103.7 plus or minus 13 msec with increase in pacing rate from 140 beats/min to 200 beats/min. It was reproducible when atrial pacing was carried out for 1-5 min, although a wide variation (10-30 msec) was seen from 7-60 minutes (P smaller than 0.05). This measurement was reproducible on two consecutive days and was unaffected by changes in milliamperage. Vagal stimulation consistently prolonged the CSNRT while beta-adrenergic stimulation decreased it from 132.9 plus or minus 34.5 msec to 50.0 plus or minus 6.5 msec. Sinus node injury consistently prolonged CSNRT at all paced rates. In summary, CSNRT is reproducible only if the same pacing rate and duration are utilized. Since vagal stimulation and sinus node injury prolong this measurement while beta-adrenergic stimulation shortens it, an "abnormal" CSNRT should be assessed in terms of the possible influence of the autonomic nervous system as well as sinus node dysfunction per se.

  17. LEGION: Lightweight Expandable Group of Independently Operating Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    LEGION is a lightweight C-language software library that enables distributed asynchronous data processing with a loosely coupled set of compute nodes. Loosely coupled means that a node can offer itself in service to a larger task at any time and can withdraw itself from service at any time, provided it is not actively engaged in an assignment. The main program, i.e., the one attempting to solve the larger task, does not need to know up front which nodes will be available, how many nodes will be available, or at what times the nodes will be available, which is normally the case in a "volunteer computing" framework. The LEGION software accomplishes its goals by providing message-based, inter-process communication similar to MPI (message passing interface), but without the tight coupling requirements. The software is lightweight and easy to install as it is written in standard C with no exotic library dependencies. LEGION has been demonstrated in a challenging planetary science application in which a machine learning system is used in closed-loop fashion to efficiently explore the input parameter space of a complex numerical simulation. The machine learning system decides which jobs to run through the simulator; then, through LEGION calls, the system farms those jobs out to a collection of compute nodes, retrieves the job results as they become available, and updates a predictive model of how the simulator maps inputs to outputs. The machine learning system decides which new set of jobs would be most informative to run given the results so far; this basic loop is repeated until sufficient insight into the physical system modeled by the simulator is obtained.

  18. Laparoscopic iliac and iliofemoral lymph node resection for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Don; Roberts, Kurt E; Teng, Edward; Narayan, Deepak

    2012-12-01

    Regional lymphadenectomy in the iliac and groin, originally devised by Basset in 1912, is performed for the treatment of melanoma metastatic to this lymphatic basin. Laparoscopic iliac node dissection may be a valuable management option because it allows performance of the same procedure as in open surgery but with significant benefits such as decreased operative morbidity due to decreased surgical trauma, less violation of the abdominal muscles or the inguinal ligament, reduced postoperative pain, and increased patient satisfaction with the cosmetic appearance. The authors' approach makes use of a laparoscopic technique to offer an alternative to traditionally described lymph node dissection for melanoma. A review of the literature showed few laparoscopic approaches in this context. Jones et al. do not perform the resection en bloc and do not address the iliofemoral lymph node dissection with a combined retroperitoneal technique such as the current authors use. Two authors in the literature use laparoscopy through a transperitoneal approach, with a piecemeal removal of nodes. Delman et al. limit their technique to the inguinal and high femoral basin alone. The video demonstrates the novel use of a laparoscopic method to harvest iliac lymph nodes in combination with a minimally invasive approach to groin dissection for metastatic melanoma. After a laparoscopic resection of these nodes, the authors deliver the iliac nodal contents through the groin using a minimally invasive approach. This approach is highly beneficial to the patient. He is able to leave the hospital significantly earlier than he would have after a traditional open procedure. He can return to his job as a car mechanic within 1 week and is metastasis free at the 9-month follow-up assessment without evidence of lymphocele formation. The authors do not believe that this technique has any significant implication for lymphocele formation compared with an open procedure because in essence, the same

  19. Failure to remove true sentinel nodes can cause failure of the sentinel node biopsy technique: evidence from antimony concentrations in false-negative sentinel nodes from melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Scolyer, Richard A; Thompson, John F; Li, Ling-Xi L; Beavis, Alison; Dawson, Michael; Doble, Phillip; Ka, Vivian S K; McKinnon, J Gregory; Soper, Robyne; Uren, Roger F; Shaw, Helen M; Stretch, Jonathan R; McCarthy, Stanley W

    2004-03-01

    We have recently found that antimony (originating from the technetium 99m antimony trisulfide colloid, used for preoperative lymphoscintigraphy) can be measured in tissue sections from archival paraffin blocks of sentinel nodes (SNs) by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to confirm that removed nodes are true SNs. We performed a retrospective analysis of antimony concentrations in all our false-negative (FN) SNs to determine whether errors in lymphadenectomy (i.e., failure to remove true SNs) may be a cause of FN SN biopsies (SNBs). Among 27 patients with an FN SNB, metastases were found on histopathologic review of the original slides or additional sections in 7 of 23 patients for which they were available; however, antimony concentrations were low in 5 of 20 presumptive SNs. Our results suggest that an FN SNB can occur because of failure to remove the true SN as well as histopathologic misdiagnosis.

  20. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad

    2013-07-09

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer, each node including at least two processing cores, that include: establishing, for each node, a plurality of logical rings, each ring including a different set of at least one core on that node, each ring including the cores on at least two of the nodes; iteratively for each node: assigning each core of that node to one of the rings established for that node to which the core has not previously been assigned, and performing, for each ring for that node, a global allreduce operation using contribution data for the cores assigned to that ring or any global allreduce results from previous global allreduce operations, yielding current global allreduce results for each core; and performing, for each node, a local allreduce operation using the global allreduce results.

  1. A New Node Deployment and Location Dispatch Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Ruan, Binfeng; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND) algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN) algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations. PMID:26761009

  2. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad

    2013-02-12

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer, each node including at least two processing cores, that include: performing, for each node, a local reduction operation using allreduce contribution data for the cores of that node, yielding, for each node, a local reduction result for one or more representative cores for that node; establishing one or more logical rings among the nodes, each logical ring including only one of the representative cores from each node; performing, for each logical ring, a global allreduce operation using the local reduction result for the representative cores included in that logical ring, yielding a global allreduce result for each representative core included in that logical ring; and performing, for each node, a local broadcast operation using the global allreduce results for each representative core on that node.

  3. A New Node Deployment and Location Dispatch Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Ruan, Binfeng; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-09

    Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND) algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN) algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations.

  4. Attack and flee: game-theory-based analysis on interactions among nodes in MANETs.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Yang, Yinying; Wu, Jie

    2010-06-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes have the inherent ability to move. Aside from conducting attacks to maximize their utility and cooperating with regular nodes to deceive them, malicious nodes get better payoffs with the ability to move. In this paper, we propose a game theoretic framework to analyze the strategy profiles for regular and malicious nodes. We model the situation as a dynamic Bayesian signaling game and analyze and present the underlining connection between nodes' best combination of actions and the cost and gain of the individual strategy. Regular nodes consistently update their beliefs based on the opponents' behavior, while malicious nodes evaluate their risk of being caught to decide when to flee. Some possible countermeasures for regular nodes that can impact malicious nodes' decisions are presented as well. An extensive analysis and simulation study shows that the proposed equilibrium strategy profile outperforms other pure or mixed strategies and proves the importance of restricting malicious nodes' advantages brought by the flee option.

  5. A New Node Deployment and Location Dispatch Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Ruan, Binfeng; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND) algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN) algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations. PMID:26761009

  6. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-06-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  7. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed.

  8. Single benign metastasising leiomyoma of an inguinal lymph node.

    PubMed

    Laban, Kamil G; Tobon-Morales, Roberto E; Hodge, Janice A L; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML) is a rare benign disease associated with uterine leiomyoma and history of uterine surgery. It most frequently occurs in premenopausal woman, with a pulmonary localisation, and consisting of multiple nodules. We present an uncommon case of a 69-year-old woman with a single BML of an inguinal lymph node. CT scans of thorax and abdomen excluded other metastasis localisation. The patient was cured with surgical excision of the mass. Lymph node involvement has been reported incidentally in BML literature. Lymphangitic spread can be considered a possible mechanism of BML metastasis. PMID:27511755

  9. Superconducting quantum node for entanglement and storage of microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Flurin, E; Roch, N; Pillet, J D; Mallet, F; Huard, B

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting circuits and microwave signals are good candidates to realize quantum networks, which are the backbone of quantum computers. We have realized a quantum node based on a 3D microwave superconducting cavity parametrically coupled to a transmission line by a Josephson ring modulator. We first demonstrate the time-controlled capture, storage, and retrieval of an optimally shaped propagating microwave field, with an efficiency as high as 80%. We then demonstrate a second essential ability, which is the time-controlled generation of an entangled state distributed between the node and a microwave channel. PMID:25793790

  10. Superconducting quantum node for entanglement and storage of microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Flurin, E; Roch, N; Pillet, J D; Mallet, F; Huard, B

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting circuits and microwave signals are good candidates to realize quantum networks, which are the backbone of quantum computers. We have realized a quantum node based on a 3D microwave superconducting cavity parametrically coupled to a transmission line by a Josephson ring modulator. We first demonstrate the time-controlled capture, storage, and retrieval of an optimally shaped propagating microwave field, with an efficiency as high as 80%. We then demonstrate a second essential ability, which is the time-controlled generation of an entangled state distributed between the node and a microwave channel.

  11. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  12. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2015-03-31

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum, pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  13. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christoppher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2014-05-20

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  14. Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, lymph node transfer has rapidly gained popularity among plastic surgeons for the treatment of chronic lymphedema because of the initial promising results and its unique technical advantages compared with the other reconstructive options. However, its functional mechanism is still a matter of great debate, and some concerning reports have emerged regarding the safety of this procedure in patients with chronic lymphedema. The authors review the literature on the experimental and clinical evidence for lymph node transfer, discuss its proposed functional mechanisms, review the potential risk of iatrogenic lymphedema following this procedure, and discuss the suggested strategies to avoid this complication.

  15. Internal mammary lymph node biopsy guided by computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Henry C.; Hardy, Graham J.

    1982-01-01

    Internal mammary lymph node enlargement may be demonstrated using computed tomography (CT), and a confirmatory tissue diagnosis of metastatic involvement may be obtained using fine needle aspiration biopsy with needle tip placement guided by the CT scanner. A case history is described to illustrate how a patient presented 9 years after mastectomy with an internal mammary lymph node metastasis and how cytopathological diagnosis of this metastasis was achieved by CT guided biopsy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:7145793

  16. Broad base biological assay using liquid based detection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F; Albala, J; Colston, B; Langlois, R; Venkateswaren, K

    2000-10-31

    The release of a biological agent by terrorists represents a serious threat to the safety of US citizens. At present there are over 50 pathogens and toxins on various agency threat lists. Most of these pathogens are rarely seen by public health personnel so the ability to rapidly identify their infection is limited. Since many pathogenic infections have symptomatic delays as long as several days, effective treatment is often compromised. This translates into two major deficiencies in our ability to counter biological terrorism (1) the lack of any credible technology to rapidly detect and identify all the pathogens or toxins on current threat lists and (2) the lack of a credible means to rapidly diagnose thousands of potential victims. In this SI we are developing a rapid, flexible, inexpensive, high throughput, and deeply multiplex-capable biological assay technology. The technology, which we call the Liquid Array (LA), utilizes optical encoding of small diameter beads which serve as the templates for biological capture assays. Once exposed to a fluid sample these beads can be identified and probed for target pathogens at rates of several thousand beads per second. Since each bead can be separately identified, one can perform parallel assays by assigning a different assay to each bead in the encoded set. The goal for this development is a detection technology capable of simultaneously identifying 100s of different bioagents and/or of rapidly diagnosing several thousand individuals. We are pursuing this research in three thrusts. In the first we are exploring the fundamental interactions of the beads with proteins and nucleic acids in complex mixtures. This will provide us with a complete understanding of the limits of the technology with respect to throughput and complex environment. A major spin-off of this activity is in the rapidly emerging field of proteomics where we may be able to rapidly assess the interactions responsible for cell metabolism, structural

  17. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  18. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  19. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  20. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  1. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  2. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    2009-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node 1 was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  3. Myeloid Cell Isolation from Mouse Skin and Draining Lymph Node Following Intradermal Immunization with Live Attenuated Plasmodium Sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Buckwalter, Matthew R; Gueirard, Pascale; Ménard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Malaria infection begins when the sporozoite stage of Plasmodium is inoculated into the skin of a mammalian host through a mosquito bite. The highly motile parasite not only reaches the liver to invade hepatocytes and transform into erythrocyte-infective form. It also migrates into the skin and to the proximal lymph node draining the injection site, where it can be recognized and degraded by resident and/or recruited myeloid cells. Intravital imaging reported the early recruitment of brightly fluorescent Lys-GFP positive leukocytes in the skin and the interactions between sporozoites and CD11c(+) cells in the draining lymph node. We present here an efficient procedure to recover, identify and enumerate the myeloid cell subsets that are recruited to the mouse skin and draining lymph node following intradermal injection of immunizing doses of sporozoites in a murine model. Phenotypic characterization using multi-parametric flow cytometry provides a reliable assay to assess early dynamic cellular changes during inflammatory response to Plasmodium infection. PMID:27286053

  4. Sentinel node biopsy as a surgical staging method for solid cancers.

    PubMed

    Koops, H S; Doting, M H; de Vries, J; Tiebosch, A T; Plukker, J T; Hoekstra, H J; Piers, D A

    1999-04-01

    The sentinel node is the first lymph node that drains a primary tumour. If this lymphatic drainage occurs in a step-wise fashion, this lymph node reflects the pathological status of the remaining lymph node basin. The day before the operation, a total dose of 60 MBq 99mTc nanocolloid is injected around the primary tumour for lymphoscintigraphy. On the day of surgery, 1 ml of blue dye is injected around the primary tumour to facilitate sentinel lymph node detection. After making a small incision over the regional lymph node region, the sentinel node can be detected using a hand-held gamma ray detection probe; the sentinel lymph node and the afferent lymphatic vessels will be stained blue. Sentinel node biopsy has proved useful for malignant melanoma, breast cancer, penile cancer, vulvar cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma and thyroid cancer. New studies are described on breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Gamma-probe-guided localization of radiolabelled lymph nodes can direct the surgeon non-invasively to the exact location of the sentinel node. Once localized with a gamma probe, it is quick and easy to remove the sentinel node through a small incision. Discriminating the node from other tissue can be aided by blue dye which stains the lymph node. It appears that both radioactivity and blue dye are complementary for locating the sentinel node.

  5. Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined. PMID:24379568

  6. [Lymph node eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of 2 cases of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis with isolated lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Robert, M; Marty-Double, C

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of isolated lymph node involvement by Langerhans' cell histiocytosis which affected two young children. The histologic aspect reveals that lymph nodes have been modified by a proliferation of large histiocyte-like cells, associated with eosinophils. An immunohistochemical study on paraffin sections and for one case on frozen sections, reveals the usual phenotype of Langerhans' cells: these cells stain positively with S 100 protein and CD1 and are negative for both lysozyme and al antichymotrypsine. After a period of two years for one child and four years for the other, these children are in total remission, one spontaneously, the other after chemotherapy. PMID:9339010

  7. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  8. The skin-blanching assay.

    PubMed

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.

  9. Pulsating bead-based assay.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jason A; Bau, Haim H

    2011-04-15

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using porous microbeads such as agarose beads as solid supports to bind target molecules from complex fluid samples. Porous beads have large surface area to volume ratios and high receptor concentrations, and they facilitate relatively high sensitivity detection and multiplexing. Unfortunately, to take full advantage of the porous beads' attributes, long incubation times are needed due to the relatively slow mass transfer of target molecules from the exterior solution into the beads' interior. To accelerate the mass transfer process, we propose a novel assay in which functionalized porous beads are periodically compressed and expanded. Preliminary experiments were carried out to compare the performance of the pulsating beads with that of conventional, nonpulsating beads. These experiments indicate that the pulsating beads significantly accelerate binding rates with minimal increase in nonspecific binding. Thus, pulsing has the potential of significantly reducing assay time.

  10. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  11. Danish North Sea crude assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-09-12

    Danish North Sea blend was assayed earlier this year. The light, sweet crude comprises crude oil from 10 fields. The crude is piped from offshore production facilities to the A/S Dansk Shell refinery at Fredericia, Denmark. Fig. 1 shows the boiling point curve for the crude, and Fig. 2 illustrates the metals content (vanadium, nickel, and iron), as a function of distillation temperature. The table lists properties of the crude and its fractions.

  12. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  13. Lithium-induced sinus node dysfunction at therapeutic levels.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ranjan K; Vivek, G; Parida, Amrita; Chetty, Shashikanth

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is used as an antimanic and mood-stabilising drug. It can cause various adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, polyuria, fine tremors, myocarditis and arrhythmias. We are describing a case of lithium induced sinus-node dysfunction in a patient with serum lithium levels in therapeutic range.

  14. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  15. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed.

  16. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  17. Node retraction during patterning of the urinary collecting duct system.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Nils O; Chang, C-Hong; Valerius, M Todd; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a novel mechanism for remodelling a branched epithelial tree. The mouse renal collecting duct develops by growth and repeated branching of an initially unbranched ureteric bud: this mechanism initially produces an almost fractal form with young branches connected to the centre of the kidney via a sequence of nodes (branch points) distributed widely throughout the developing organ. The collecting ducts of a mature kidney have a different form: from the nephrons in the renal cortex, long, straight lengths of collecting duct run almost parallel to one another through the renal medulla, and open together to the renal pelvis. Here we present time-lapse studies of E11.5 kidneys growing in culture: after about 5 days, the collecting duct trees show evidence of 'node retraction', in which the node of a 'Y'-shaped branch moves downwards, shortening the stalk of the 'Y', lengthening its arms and narrowing their divergence angle so that the 'Y' becomes a 'V'. Computer simulation suggests that node retraction can transform a spread tree, like that of an early kidney, into one with long, almost-parallel medullary rays similar to those seen in a mature real kidney. PMID:25292187

  18. Soft-core processor study for node-based architectures.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Jarosz, Jason P.; Welch, Benjamin James; Gallegos, Daniel E.; Learn, Mark Walter

    2008-09-01

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hardcore processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA based processors for use in future NBA systems--two soft cores (MicroBlaze and non-fault-tolerant LEON) and one hard core (PowerPC 405). Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration. Cache configurations impacted the results greatly; for optimal processor efficiency it is necessary to enable caches on the processors. Processor caches carry a penalty; cache error mitigation is necessary when operating in a radiation environment.

  19. Applying Quadrature Rules with Multiple Nodes to Solving Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemiparast, S. M.; Avazpour, L.

    2008-09-01

    There are many procedures for the numerical solution of Fredholm integral equations. The main idea in these procedures is accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we use Gaussian quadrature with multiple nodes to improve the solution of these integral equations. The application of this method is illustrated via some examples, the related tables are given at the end.

  20. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  1. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Sample Delivery Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Sample Delivery Subsystem (SDS) and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for this part of the subsystem.

  2. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  3. Lymph node mapping using quantum dot-labeled polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Nikolova, Biliana; Murayama, Shuhei; Lazarova, Desislava; Tsoneva, Iana; Aoki, Ichio

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether poly-ion complex hollow vesicles (polymersomes), based on chemically-modified chitosan, are appropriate for lymph node mapping in the context of their application in the development of theranostic nanosized drug delivery systems (nano-DDS). The experiments were performed on Balb/c nude mice (colon cancer-grafted). The mice were subjected to anesthesia and quantum dot (QD(705))-labeled polymersomes (d-120 nm) were injected intravenously via the tail vein. The optical imaging was carried out on Maestro EX Imaging System (excitation filter: 435-480 nm; emission filter: 700 nm). A strong fluorescent signal, corresponding to QD(705) fluorescence, was detected in the lymph nodes, as well as in the tumor. A very weak fluorescent signal was found in the liver area. The half-life of QD(705)-labelled polymersomes was 6 ± 2 hours in the bloodstream and 11 ± 3 hours in the lymph nodes. The data suggest that polymersomes are very promising carriers for lymph node mapping using QD as a contrast agent. They are useful matrix for development of nano-formulations with theranostic capabilities.

  4. Restoration of Apollo Data by the PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; Schultz, A. B.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Lowman, P. D.; Taylor, P. T.

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  5. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. PMID:25455506

  6. Sentinel node navigation surgery for gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Okubo, Keishi; Kijima, Takashi; Matsushita, Daisuke; Amatatsu, Masahiko; Hagihara, Takahiko; Haraguchi, Naoto; Mataki, Yuko; Ehi, Katsuhiko; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The percentage of gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) among all gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs has gradually increased worldwide. Sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) has been developed as a personalized approach in the surgical strategy for early gastrointestinal tract cancers. We herein report 2 cases of gastroduodenal NETs treated with SNNS. 99m Technetium-tin colloid including indocyanine green was endoscopically injected into the submucosa around a tumor the day before surgery. Basin dissection including the sentinel nodes (SNs), which were identified by Navigator GPS and near-infrared fluorescence imaging, was performed during laparoscopic surgery. SNs were intraoperatively examined using hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining. SNs were detected in 2 patients. Lymph node metastasis was intraoperatively identified in 1 of the 2 patients. Consequently, 1 patient with metastatic SNs underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy. Pathological findings identified submucosal NET measuring 6.0 mm × 5.0 mm. Our results suggest that SNNS is a promising surgical tool for detecting subclinical lymph node metastasis in patients with gastroduodenal NETs. PMID:27368046

  7. A wind energy powered wireless temperature sensor node.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  8. A wind energy powered wireless temperature sensor node.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-02-27

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  9. Refining the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero, Frederico R; Wagner, Andrew; Brito, Fabio A; Muntener, Michael; Lima, Guilherme C; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2006-01-01

    Since its initial description, the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has evolved considerably, from a purely diagnostic tool performed to stage germ cell testicular cancer to a therapeutic operation that fully duplicates the open technique. Herein, we describe the current technique employed at our institution, along with illustrations of all surgical steps, and delineate the refinements of the technique over time.

  10. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  11. Statistical Mechanics of Node-Perturbation Learning for Nonlinear Perceptron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2013-05-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. Node-perturbation learning with M linear perceptrons has previously been analyzed using the methods of statistical mechanics. It was shown that cross-talk noise, which originates from the error of the other outputs, increases the generalization error as the number of outputs increases. On the other hand, a nonlinear perceptron has several advantages over a linear perceptron, such as the ability to use nonlinear outputs, learnability, storage capacity, and so forth. However, node-perturbation for a nonlinear perceptron has yet to be analyzed theoretically. In this paper, we derive a learning rule of node-perturbation learning for a nonlinear perceptron within the framework of REINFORCE learning and analyze the learning behavior by using statistical mechanical methods. From the results, we found that the signal and cross-talk terms of the order parameter Q have different forms for a nonlinear perceptron. Moreover, the increase in the generalization error with increasing number of outputs is less than for a linear perceptron.

  12. Weighted Markov Chains and Graphic State Nodes for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses users' search behavior and decision making in data mining and information retrieval. Describes iterative information seeking as a Markov process during which users advance through states of nodes; and explains how the information system records the decision as weights, allowing the incorporation of users' decisions into the Markov…

  13. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  14. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  15. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape cytology.

    PubMed

    Mannell, Aylwyn; Wium, Brunton; Thatcher, Charles

    2014-08-08

    Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for macrometastases, as well as adjuvant therapy for macrometastases and micrometastasic spread.Aim. To determine the accuracy of scrape cytology (SC) for intraoperative examination of the SLNs.Methods. SLNB was performed in 100 patients with early breast cancer in whom the axillary nodes appeared normal on clinical examination and ultrasonography. None of the patients with negative SLNs or SLNs with micrometastases only (N1mic, 0.2 - 2 mm) had further axillary dissection. Patients with SLNs containing macrometastases (N1, >2 mm) underwent axillary lymph node dissection. The results of intraoperative cytology were compared with the histopathological findings on examination of serial paraffin-embedded sections of the SLNs.Results. Intraoperative SC identified SLN metastases in 20 patients: 17 had macrometastases and 3 micrometastases. Histopathological examination of the SLNs found macrometastases in 18 patients and micrometastases in 6. SC had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the detection of macrometastases. For micrometastatic spread, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 100%, respectively.Conclusion. SC is a rapid, sensitive technique for detection of macrometastases in the SLNs of women with breast cancer. The overall accuracy in identification of any metastatic spread (N1mic, N1) to the SLNs was 85%, rising to 94% in SLNs with macrometastases.

  16. Regional lymph node staging in breast cancer: the increasing role of imaging and ultrasound-guided axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B

    2010-09-01

    The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer and helps guide patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as a less morbid alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. However, when sentinel lymph node biopsy is positive, axillary dissection is typically performed for complete staging and local control. Axillary ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) are useful for detecting axillary nodal metastasis preoperatively and can spare patients sentinel node biopsy, because those with positive cytology on USFNA can proceed directly to axillary dissection or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Internal mammary nodes are not routinely evaluated, but when the appearance of these nodes is abnormal on imaging, further treatment or metastatic evaluation may be necessary. PMID:20868896

  17. Executing scatter operation to parallel computer nodes by repeatedly broadcasting content of send buffer partition corresponding to each node upon bitwise OR operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2009-11-06

    Executing a scatter operation on a parallel computer includes: configuring a send buffer on a logical root, the send buffer having positions, each position corresponding to a ranked node in an operational group of compute nodes and for storing contents scattered to that ranked node; and repeatedly for each position in the send buffer: broadcasting, by the logical root to each of the other compute nodes on a global combining network, the contents of the current position of the send buffer using a bitwise OR operation, determining, by each compute node, whether the current position in the send buffer corresponds with the rank of that compute node, if the current position corresponds with the rank, receiving the contents and storing the contents in a reception buffer of that compute node, and if the current position does not correspond with the rank, discarding the contents.

  18. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  19. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  20. Molecular and functional imaging for detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Ansje; Rooij, Maarten de; Zamecnik, Patrik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Barentsz, Jelle

    2013-07-03

    Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal) treatment of the positive nodes only.

  1. Glide dislocation nucleation from dislocation nodes at semi-coherent {111} Cu–Ni interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Shuai; Wang, Jian; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Misra, Amit

    2015-07-23

    Using atomistic simulations and dislocation theory on a model system of semi-coherent {1 1 1} interfaces, we show that misfit dislocation nodes adopt multiple atomic arrangements corresponding to the creation and redistribution of excess volume at the nodes. We identified four distinctive node structures: volume-smeared nodes with (i) spiral or (ii) straight dislocation patterns, and volume-condensed nodes with (iii) triangular or (iv) hexagonal dislocation patterns. Volume-smeared nodes contain interfacial dislocations lying in the Cu–Ni interface but volume-condensed nodes contain two sets of interfacial dislocations in the two adjacent interfaces and jogs across the atomic layer between the two adjacent interfaces. Finally, under biaxial tension/compression applied parallel to the interface, we show that the nucleation of lattice dislocations is preferred at the nodes and is correlated with the reduction of excess volume at the nodes.

  2. Glide dislocation nucleation from dislocation nodes at semi-coherent {111} Cu–Ni interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Shuai; Wang, Jian; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Misra, Amit

    2015-07-23

    Using atomistic simulations and dislocation theory on a model system of semi-coherent {1 1 1} interfaces, we show that misfit dislocation nodes adopt multiple atomic arrangements corresponding to the creation and redistribution of excess volume at the nodes. We identified four distinctive node structures: volume-smeared nodes with (i) spiral or (ii) straight dislocation patterns, and volume-condensed nodes with (iii) triangular or (iv) hexagonal dislocation patterns. Volume-smeared nodes contain interfacial dislocations lying in the Cu–Ni interface but volume-condensed nodes contain two sets of interfacial dislocations in the two adjacent interfaces and jogs across the atomic layer between the two adjacent interfaces.more » Finally, under biaxial tension/compression applied parallel to the interface, we show that the nucleation of lattice dislocations is preferred at the nodes and is correlated with the reduction of excess volume at the nodes.« less

  3. Implementing asyncronous collective operations in a multi-node processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-07-08

    A method, system, and computer program product are disclosed for implementing an asynchronous collective operation in a multi-node data processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises sending data to a plurality of nodes in the data processing system, broadcasting a remote get to the plurality of nodes, and using this remote get to implement asynchronous collective operations on the data by the plurality of nodes. In one embodiment, each of the nodes performs only one task in the asynchronous operations, and each nodes sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with said each node. In another embodiment, each of the nodes performs a plurality of tasks in said collective operations, and each task of each node sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with the task.

  4. Self-pacing direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2015-02-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for self-pacing DMA data transfer operations for nodes in a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a RTS message to a target node, the RTS message specifying an message on the origin node for transfer to the target node; receiving, in an origin injection FIFO for the origin DMA from a target DMA on the target node in response to transferring the RTS message, a target RGET descriptor followed by a DMA transfer operation descriptor, the DMA descriptor for transmitting a message portion to the target node, the target RGET descriptor specifying an origin RGET descriptor on the origin node that specifies an additional DMA descriptor for transmitting an additional message portion to the target node; processing, by the origin DMA, the target RGET descriptor; and processing, by the origin DMA, the DMA transfer operation descriptor.

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanin green guidance: Initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Aydoğan, Fatih; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Aytaç, Erman; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Sager, Muhammet Sait; Çelik, Varol; Uras, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be applied by using either blue dye or radionuclide method or both in breast cancer. Fluorescent imaging with indocyanine green is a new defined method. This study evaluates the applicability of sentinel lymph node biopsy via fluorescent indocyanine green. Material and Methods: IC-VIEW (Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Munich, Germany) infrared visualization system was used for imaging. Two mL of indocyanine green was injected to visualize sentinel lymph nodes. After injection, subcutaneous lymphatics were traced and sentinel lymph nodes were found with simultaneous imaging. Sentinel lymph nodes were excised under fluorescent light guidance, and excised lymph nodes were examined histopathologically. Patients with sentinel lymph node metastases underwent axillary dissection. Results: Four patients with sentinel lymph node biopsy due to breast cancer were included in the study. Sentinel lymph nodes were visualized with indocyanine green in all patients. The median number of excised sentinel lymph node was 2 (2–3). Two patients with lymph node metastasis underwent axillary dissection. No metastasis was detected in lymph nodes other than the sentinel nodes in patients with axillary dissection. There was no complication during and after the operation related to the method. Conclusion: According to our limited experience, sentinel lymph node biopsy under fluorescent indocyanine green guidance, which has an advantage of simultaneous visualization, is technically feasible. PMID:26985159

  6. Sentinel node biopsy in uro-oncology: a history of the development of a promising concept.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian

    2015-11-01

    Lymph node staging is important in many urologic malignancies. The lack of a sufficiently accurate noninvasive lymph node staging modality has proven to be challenging as most urologic malignancies rely on surgical lymph node removal for regional staging. Penile cancer has been a model disease for the development of the sentinel node concept, which has subsequently been successfully adapted to breast cancer and melanoma studies. Currently, the sentinel node technique is standardized in many centers and under development for new indications. The introduction of near-infrared cameras and fluorescence techniques has paved the way for robot-assisted laparoscopic sentinel node biopsies in prostate cancer, urinary bladder cancer, and renal cancer. Fluorescence techniques have increased visual guidance towards lymph nodes during surgery and have challenged previously established templates for surgical lymph node removal. This review discusses the history of our understanding of the lymphatic system and the development of the sentinel node concept and highlights the importance of early and minimally invasive regional lymph node staging. Contemporary data on sentinel node biopsy in each of the urologic malignancies are assessed. Current trends towards robot-assisted sentinel lymph node removal are discussed, and the diagnostic accuracy and oncologic safety of sentinel node procedures are addressed. In an era of several new sentinel node indications, the importance of proper case selection, protocolled regimen, consequent follow-up, and back-up strategies in the case of radiotracer-silent or nonvisualized regions is stressed. PMID:26409314

  7. Differentiation induction of mouse cardiac stem cells into sinus node-like cells by co-culturing with sinus node.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Xuan; Wen, Jing; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Feng-Xu; Deng, Ming-Bin; Wu, Chang-Xue; Liao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Sinus nodal cells can generate a diastolic or "pacemaker" depolarization at the end of an action potential driving the membrane potential slowly up to the threshold for firing the next action potential. It has been proved that adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) can differentiate into sinus nodal cells by demethylating agent. However, there is no report about adult CSCs-derived sinus nodal cells with pacemaker current (the funny current, I f). In this study, we isolated the mouse adult CSCs from mouse hearts by the method of tissue explants adherence. The expression of c-kit protein indicated the isolation of CSCs. Then we co-cultured mouse CSCs with mouse sinus node tissue to induce the differentiation of these CSCs into sinus node-like cells, which was proved by identifying the enhanced expression of marker proteins cTnI, cTnT and α-Actinin with Immunofluorescence staining. At the same time, with whole-cell patch-clamp we detected the I f current, which can be blocked by CsCl, in these differentiated cells. In conclusion, by confirming specific I f current in the induced node-like cells, our work shows a method inducing differentiation of CSCs into sinus node-like cells, which can provide helpful information for the further research on sick sinus syndrome.

  8. Initial experience in a cancer hospital in Nepal with sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy for evaluation of axillary lymph node status in palpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Nirmal; Pradhan, Manohar; Neupane, Prakash Raj; Shrestha, Bhakta Man; Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Cox, Charles Evandor

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the performance and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer patients using patent blue dye. From March 2004, we are consecutively enrolling breast cancer patients with tumor size less than 5 cm with no clinically palpable axillary lymph nodes in this feasibility study. So far, 21 patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using 1.0% patent blue dye injection around the tumor followed by axillary dissection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was compared with axillary dissection for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Age of patients ranged form 32-67 years old with mean age of 46.72 years. Fifty seven percent of patients were postmenopausal. Patients with T1 lesions were 8 and T2 were 13. The sentinel lymph node/s were successfully identified in 20 out of 21 patients (95.0%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 1 to 5 (average 2.0) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from 5-22 (average 12.0). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, DCIS with early invasion in 4 patients, invasive lobular carcinoma in 1 and medullary carcinoma in 1 patient. Of the 20 patients in whom sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified, nodes were positive in 35.0% (7/20) of patients. All the positive nodes were detected in group with T2 lesions. SLNs were the only positive nodes in 2 patients. There were no false negative patients, yielding an accuracy of 100.0%. Lymphatic mapping using patent blue dye alone is technically feasible for patients with small (T1 or T2) palpable breast tumors. The sentinel node can be reliably identified in the majority of these patients, and its histology reflects that of the axilla with a high degree of accuracy. This method is very useful in economically backward countries as it involves less expensive material.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Patterns of spread

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lizhi; Zhang Guoyi; Xie Chuangmiao; Liu Xuewen; Cui Chunyan; Li Li . E-mail: lililixj@hotmail.com

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, distribution, and spread pattern of retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) involvement in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: The MR images of 275 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were reviewed retrospectively. Nodes were classified as metastatic based on size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: Retropharyngeal lymph node involvement was detected in 175 (63.6%) patients. Metastatic RLNs were seen at the following levels: occipital bone, 24 (9.6%) nodes; C1, 157 (62.5%) nodes; C1/2, 40 (15.9%) nodes; C2, 27 (10.8%) nodes; C2/3, 1 (0.4%) node; and C3, 2 (0.8%) nodes. The incidence of RLN involvement was equal to the incidence of cervical lymph node involvement (81.4% vs. 81.4%) in 215 patients with nodal metastases. A significantly higher incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed in the presence of oropharynx, prestyloid parapharyngeal space, post-styloid parapharyngeal space, longus colli muscle, medial pterygoid muscle, levator muscle of velum palatini, tensor muscle of velum palatini, Level II node, Level III node, and Level V node involvement. A significantly lower incidence of metastatic RLNs was found in T1, N0, and Stage I disease. Conversely, no significant difference in the incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed between T1, 2, and, 3; N2 and N3; or Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: There is an orderly decrease in the incidence of metastatic lateral RLNs from the C1 to C3 level. Metastatic RLNs associate well with involvement of certain structures in early stage primary tumors and lymph node metastases of the upper jugular chain (Level II, Level III nodes) and the posterior triangle (Level V nodes). Both RLNs and cervical Level II nodes appear to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC.

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: an analysis of the maximum number of nodes requiring excision.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jasper; Lovegrove, Richard; Naessens, Katrien; Pursell, Roslyn; Cominos, Timothy; McCormick, Colin; Umeh, Hilary; Courtney, Stephen; Smith, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is now the standard of care in assessment of patients with clinically staged T1-2, N0 breast cancers. This study investigates whether there is a maximum number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) that need to be excised without compromising the false-negative (FN) rate of this procedure. Data were prospectively collected for 319 patients undergoing SNB between February 2001 and December 2006 at our institution. This data were analysed, both in terms of the order of SLN retrieval and relative isotope counts of the SLNs, in order to determine the maximum number of SLNs that need to be retrieved without increasing the FN rate. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between SLN blue dye concentration and the presence of SLN metastases. The SLN identification rate was 97% with no false-negative cases amongst patients undergoing simultaneous axillary clearance historically during technique validation. In patients with SLN metastases, excision of the first 4 SLNs encountered results in the identification of a metastatic SLN in all cases. Although the majority (86%) of SNB metastases are in the hottest node, the SLN containing the metastasis is in the first 4 hottest nodes in 99% of patients with nodal metastases. The remaining 1% of SLN metastases were identified by blue dye. There was no statistically significant association between the SLN blue dye concentration and the presence of SLN metastases. A policy to remove a maximum of four blue and/or hot SLNs along with any palpably abnormal lymph nodes does not result in an increased false-negative rate of detection of SLN metastases.

  11. Lymph Node Ratio as a Risk Factor for Locoregional Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients with 10 or More Axillary Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Im, Young-Hyuck; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed the association of lymph node ratio (LNR) wth locoregional control (LRC) in breast cancer patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes who underwent multimodality treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 234 breast cancer patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes between 2000 and 2011. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) after radical surgery. The cutoff value of LNR was obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The majority of patients (87.2%) received chemotherapeutic regimen including taxane. RT consisted of tangential fields to the chest wall or intact breast, delivered at a median dose of 50 Gy, and a single anterior port to the supraclavicular lymph node area, delivered at a median dose of 50 Gy. For patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, an electron boost with a total dose of 9 to 15 Gy was delivered to the tumor bed. Results Within a median follow-up period of 73.5 months (range, 11-183 months), locoregional recurrence (LRR) occurred in 30 patients (12.8%) and the 5-year LRC rate was 88.8%. After multivariate analysis, LNR ≥0.7 was the only independent factor significantly associated with LRC (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-4.29; p=0.05). Conclusion An aggressive multimodal treatment approach showed favorable locoregional outcome in patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes. However, patients with a high LNR ≥0.7 still had an increased risk for LRR, even in the setting of current local treatments. PMID:27382393

  12. Significance of level v lymph node dissection in clinically node positive oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and evaluation of potential risk factors for level v lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Devendra G; Chheda, Yogen P; Shah, Shakuntala V; Patel, Ashok M; Sharma, Mohit R

    2013-09-01

    Level V lymph node (LN) dissection has been significantly associated with postoperative shoulder dysfunction as a sequel of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) dysfunction. The aim of study was to determine the role of level V LN dissection in clinically node positive (cN+) oral cavity cancer. We have prospectively evaluated 210 patients of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). During neck dissection, the contents of the level V LN were dissected, labelled, and processed separately from the neck dissection specimen. We studied the prevalence of histopathologic metastasis to level V nodes in clinically node negative (cN0), cN1 and cN2 groups. Potential risk factors for the involvement of level V LN were also analysed. Of 210 cases, 48 were cN0. Out of them 77 % were pN0 and none of cNo (48) patients had level V metastases. Out of 162 cN+ cases, 112 were cN1 and 49 cN2. Amongst cN1 (112) cases, cN1 with palpable level lb LN (99), 60 % had pN0 and none of them had level V LN involvement but cN1 with palpable ll/lll LN (13), 85 % had pN+ and 1 patient had level V LN involvement (8 %). 8 patients from cN2 (49) group had level V LN involvement (16 %). Over all level V LN involvement was 4.3 %. Tongue was the most common site to give rise to level V LN metastases and extra capsular spread (ECS) was present in 100 % patient with level V LN metastases. Thus, we concluded that, apart from cN0, patients with cN1 oral cavity cancer with level lb as only site, carefully selected cases could safely undergo SND. Potential risk factors for level V LN metastases are clinically evident ECS, multiple LN involvement and cN1 with deep jugular chain of LN involvement. PMID:24426737

  13. Animal models and molecular imaging tools to investigate lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Servais, Elliot L.; Colovos, Christos; Bograd, Adam J.; White, Julie; Sadelain, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a strong predictor of poor outcome in cancer patients. Animal studies of lymph node metastasis are constrained by difficulties in the establishment of appropriate animal models, limitations in the noninvasive monitoring of lymph node metastasis progression, and challenges in the pathologic confirmation of lymph node metastases. In this comprehensive review, we summarize available preclinical animal cancer models for noninvasive imaging and identification of lymph node metastases of non-hematogenous cancers. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of common noninvasive imaging modalities used to identify tumor-bearing lymph nodes and provide guidelines for their pathological confirmation. PMID:21556810

  14. An improved label propagation algorithm using average node energy in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Li, Lin; Lu, Jianfeng; Han, Jianmin; Wu, Songyang

    2016-10-01

    Detecting overlapping community structure can give a significant insight into structural and functional properties in complex networks. In this Letter, we propose an improved label propagation algorithm (LPA) to uncover overlapping community structure. After mapping nodes into random variables, the algorithm calculates variance of each node and the proposed average node energy. The nodes whose variances are less than a tunable threshold are regarded as bridge nodes and meanwhile changing the given threshold can uncover some latent bridge node. Simulation results in real-world and artificial networks show that the improved algorithm is efficient in revealing overlapping community structures.

  15. Contralateral axillary node metastasis from recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoko; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Junko; Koyama, Masamichi

    2014-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node detection (SLND) with radiocolloid has become widely used for evaluation of nodal metastasis in primary breast cancer. However, the procedure for recurrent breast cancer is not well established. Contralateral axillary node metastasis is uncommon. We report 2 cases of contralateral axillary node metastasis with recurrent breast cancer. In the first case, contralateral node metastasis was found by SLND. In the other case without SLND, contralateral node metastasis developed after resection of local recurrence. FDG-avid contralateral node was pathologically diagnosed as metastasis. The SLND might be useful in patients with local recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:24368539

  16. The in vitro micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Ann T

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test detects genotoxic damage in interphase cells. The in vitro micronucleus test provides an alterative to the chromosome aberration test, and because the in vitro micronucleus test examines cells at interphase, the assessment of micronuclei can be scored faster, as the analysis of damage is thought to be less subjective and is more amenable to automation.Micronuclei may be the result of aneugenic (whole chromosome) or clastogenic (chromosome breakage) damage. This chapter provides methods for mononucleate and binucleate micronucleus tests and the addition of centromeric labelling and a non-disjunction assay to investigate any potential aneugenic mode of action.

  17. Tape underlayment rotary-node (TURN) valves for simple on-chip microfluidic flow control

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dmitry A.; Manuel, Steven; Shor, Leslie M.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Wikswo, John P.; Samson, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple and reliable fabrication method for producing multiple, manually activated microfluidic control valves in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. These screwdriver-actuated valves reside directly on the microfluidic chip and can provide both simple on/off operation as well as graded control of fluid flow. The fabrication procedure can be easily implemented in any soft lithography lab and requires only two specialized tools – a hot-glue gun and a machined brass mold. To facilitate use in multi-valve fluidic systems, the mold is designed to produce a linear tape that contains a series of plastic rotary nodes with small stainless steel machine screws that form individual valves which can be easily separated for applications when only single valves are required. The tape and its valves are placed on the surface of a partially cured thin PDMS microchannel device while the PDMS is still on the soft-lithographic master, with the master providing alignment marks for the tape. The tape is permanently affixed to the microchannel device by pouring an over-layer of PDMS, to form a full-thickness device with the tape as an enclosed underlayment. The advantages of these Tape Underlayment Rotary-Node (TURN) valves include parallel fabrication of multiple valves, low risk of damaging a microfluidic device during valve installation, high torque, elimination of stripped threads, the capabilities of TURN hydraulic actuators, and facile customization of TURN molds. We have utilized these valves to control microfluidic flow, to control the onset of molecular diffusion, and to manipulate channel connectivity. Practical applications of TURN valves include control of loading and chemokine release in chemotaxis assay devices, flow in microfluidic bioreactors, and channel connectivity in microfluidic devices intended to study competition and predator / prey relationships among microbes. PMID:19859812

  18. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  3. A Robust and Flexible Design for GCEP Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring: An OLEM Collection Node Network

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; March-Leuba, Jose A; Garner, James R

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laoratory (ORNL) has engineered an on-line enrichment monitor (OLEM) to continuously measure U-235 emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) as a component of the International Atomic Energy Agency s (IAEA) new generation of technology to support enrichment plant safeguards1. In contrast to other enrichment monitoring approaches, OLEM calibrates and corrects for the pressure and temperature dependent UF6 gas-density without external radiation sources by using the inherent unit header pipe pressure dynamics and combining U-235 gamma-ray spectrometery using a shielded NaI detector with gas pressure and temperature data near the spectrum measurement point to obtain the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. From a safeguards perspective, OLEM can provide early detection of a GCEP being misused for production of highly enriched uranium, but would not detect directly the isolation and use of a cascade within the production unit to produce HEU. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and, if coupled with load cell monitoring, could support isotope mass balance verification and unattended cylinder verification. The earlier paper presented OLEM as one component along with shared load cells and unattended cylinder verification, in the IAEA emering toolbox for unattended instruments at GCEPs1 and described the OLEM concept and how previous modeling studies and field measurements helped confirm the viability of a passive on-line enrichment monitor for meeting IAEA objectives and to support the development of performance targets. Phase I of the United States Support Program (USSP) OLEM project completed a preliminary hardware, software and communications design; phase II will build and test field prototypes in controlled laboratory settings and then at an operational facility. That paper also discussed many of the OLEM collection node commercial off the

  4. A Multi-Marker Prognostic Assay for Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Venna, Suraj; Nosrati, Mehdi; Rangel, Javier; Sucker, Antje; Egberts, Friederike; Baehner, Frederick L.; Simko, Jeff; Leong, Stanley P.L.; Haqq, Chris; Hauschild, Axel; Schadendorf, Dirk; Miller, James R.; Sagebiel, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prognostic significance of a multi-marker assay incorporating expression levels of three molecular markers in primary cutaneous melanoma. Experimental Design We assessed expression levels of NCOA3, SPP1, and RGS1 using immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray cohort of 395 patients. For each marker, we identified optimal cut-points for expression intensity to predict disease-specific survival (DSS) and, as a secondary endpoint, sentinel lymph node (SLN) status. The cumulative over-expression of all three markers was embodied in a multi-marker index, and its prognostic impact on DSS and SLN status was assessed using Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and logistic regression. The prognostic impact of this multi-marker assay on DSS was assessed in an independent cohort of 141 patients, in which marker expression levels were scored using immunohistochemical analysis of stained tissue sections. Results Increasing multi-marker index scores were significantly predictive of reduced DSS and increased SLN metastasis in the 395-patient cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed multi-marker expression scores as an independent predictor of SLN status (P=0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed the independent impact of the multi-marker index on DSS (P<0.001). The multi-marker index was the most significant factor predicting DSS, when compared to other clinical and histological factors, including SLN status (P=0.002). Multi-marker expression scores were also the most significantly predictive of DSS in the independent cohort (P=0.01). Conclusions These results describe a multi-marker assay with independent prognostic impact on the prediction of survival associated with melanoma in two distinct cohorts. PMID:19887476

  5. Methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection technique is not associated with an increased detection of lymph node metastases in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Märkl, Bruno; Schaller, Tina; Krammer, Ines; Cacchi, Claudio; Arnholdt, Hans M; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kretsinger, Hallie; Anthuber, Matthias; Spatz, Hanno

    2013-09-01

    Lymph node staging is of paramount importance for prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in colorectal cancer. A high number of harvested lymph nodes is associated with an improved outcome. Methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection effectively improves the lymph node harvest and ensures sufficient staging. Now, the effect on node positivity rate and stage-related outcome was investigated. The study cohort with advanced lymph node dissection consisted of 669 colorectal cancer cases of all stages, which were collected between 2007 and 2012. A historical collection of 663 cases investigated with conventional techniques between 2002 and 2004 served as control. Lymph node harvest was dramatically improved in the study group with mean lymph node numbers of 34 ± 17 vs 13 ± 5 (P<0.001) and sufficient staging rates of 98% vs 62% (P<0.001). However, neither the rate of nodal positive cases (37% vs 37%; P = 0.98) nor the rate of N2 cases differed between the two groups (14% vs 13%; P = 0.80). Furthermore, no differences were found concerning the outcome in both groups. The advanced lymph node dissection technique guarantees adequate histopathological lymph node staging in virtually all cases of colorectal cancer and is therefore extremely helpful. The hypothesis that it also provides a higher sensitivity in detecting metastases, however, could be not proved.

  6. Caspr reveals an aggregation of nodes and flanking node free zones at the rat trigeminal sensory root and dorsal root entry zones.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael A; Rzasa, Rachael S; Beeler, Joshua J; Levinson, S Rock

    2005-02-01

    The sensory root entry zone demarcates the transition from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) to the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we describe the organization of nodes of Ranvier at the trigeminal sensory and dorsal root entry zones of the rat. Caspr immunoreactivity (IR) was used to identify the paranodal region of nodes of Ranvier, while L-MAG-IR was used to identify CNS oligodendrocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed a dense aggregation of nodes precisely at the PNS to CNS transition with prominent node-depleted zones on either side, while L-MAG-IR was confined to ensheathing fibers on the central side of nodes located in this dense band and identified these as transitional nodes. Morphometric analysis of the PNS and CNS sides of the trigeminal and the PNS side of the dorsal root entry zones confirmed the presence of virtually node-free domains flanking the transitional zone. Further, the reappearance of nodes on the far side of the node-free zones strongly correlated with nodal diameter, with small nodes reappearing first. These findings suggest that the PNS/CNS transition may represent the initial site of myelination of the primary afferent axon within this area. PMID:15538752

  7. Pathological assessment of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer: implications for non-invasive mediastinal staging.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, K M; Lamb, D; Wathen, C G; Walker, W S; Douglas, N J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of computed tomography in mediastinal staging of lung cancer relies on the premiss that malignant lymph nodes are larger than benign ones. This hypothesis was tested by linking node size and presence or absence of malignancy and looking at factors possibly influencing the size of benign nodes. METHODS: All accessible mediastinal lymph nodes were taken from 56 consecutive patients with lung cancer who underwent thoracotomy. Nodes were measured and histologically examined. Resected cancer bearing lung from 44 of these patients was assessed for degree of acute and chronic inflammation. RESULTS: Lymph node size was not significantly related to the presence of metastatic disease, 58% of malignant and 43% of benign lymph nodes measuring over 15 mm. Similarly, there was no statistically significant relation between size of lymph nodes and the likelihood of malignancy, 20% of lymph nodes of 10 mm or more but also 15% of those less than 10 mm being malignant. Thresholds of 15 and 20 mm showed similar results. The maximum size of benign lymph nodes was significantly greater in those patients with histological evidence of acute pulmonary inflammation than in those without. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that in patients with lung cancer (1) malignant mediastinal lymph nodes are not larger than benign nodes; (2) small mediastinal lymph nodes are not infrequently malignant; and (3) benign adenopathy is more common in patients with acute pulmonary inflammation. Images PMID:1609375

  8. Value of peripheral nodes in controlling multilayer scale-free networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the controllability of a two-layer network, where driver nodes can be chosen randomly only from one layer. Each layer contains a scale-free network with directed links and the node dynamics depends on the incoming links from other nodes. We combine the in-degree and out-degree values to assign an importance value w to each node, and distinguish between peripheral nodes with low w and central nodes with high w. Based on numerical simulations, we find that the controllable part of the network is larger when choosing low w nodes to connect the two layers. The control is as efficient when peripheral nodes are driver nodes as it is for the case of more central nodes. However, if we assume a cost to utilize nodes that is proportional to their overall degree, utilizing peripheral nodes to connect the two layers or to act as driver nodes is not only the most cost-efficient solution, it is also the one that performs best in controlling the two-layer network among the different interconnecting strategies we have tested. PMID:26871094

  9. Value of peripheral nodes in controlling multilayer scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the controllability of a two-layer network, where driver nodes can be chosen randomly only from one layer. Each layer contains a scale-free network with directed links and the node dynamics depends on the incoming links from other nodes. We combine the in-degree and out-degree values to assign an importance value w to each node, and distinguish between peripheral nodes with low w and central nodes with high w . Based on numerical simulations, we find that the controllable part of the network is larger when choosing low w nodes to connect the two layers. The control is as efficient when peripheral nodes are driver nodes as it is for the case of more central nodes. However, if we assume a cost to utilize nodes that is proportional to their overall degree, utilizing peripheral nodes to connect the two layers or to act as driver nodes is not only the most cost-efficient solution, it is also the one that performs best in controlling the two-layer network among the different interconnecting strategies we have tested.

  10. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  11. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, R.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.

    2011-04-27

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O{sub 2}, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  12. Serum indices: managing assay interference.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Christopher-John L; Carter, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    Clinical laboratories frequently encounter samples showing significant haemolysis, icterus or lipaemia. Technical advances, utilizing spectrophotometric measurements on automated chemistry analysers, allow rapid and accurate identification of such samples. However, accurate quantification of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference is of limited value if laboratories do not set rational alert limits, based on sound interference testing experiments. Furthermore, in the context of increasing consolidation of laboratories and the formation of laboratory networks, there is an increasing requirement for harmonization of the handling of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia-affected samples across different analytical platforms. Harmonization may be best achieved by considering both the analytical aspects of index measurement and the possible variations in the effects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interferences on assays from different manufacturers. Initial verification studies, followed up with ongoing quality control testing, can help a laboratory ensure the accuracy of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia index results, as well as assist in managing any biases in index results from analysers from different manufacturers. Similarities, and variations, in the effect of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference in assays from different manufacturers can often be predicted from the mechanism of interference. Nevertheless, interference testing is required to confirm expected similarities or to quantify differences. It is important that laboratories are familiar with a number of interference testing protocols and the particular strengths and weaknesses of each. A rigorous approach to all aspects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference testing allows the analytical progress in index measurement to be translated into improved patient care. PMID:27147624

  13. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  14. Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III; Scott, W.S.

    1995-02-01

    One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.

  15. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  16. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  17. Insight into the differences in classification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes between Wang's lymph node map and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node map.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Qing; Wang, Ko-Pen; Ben, Su-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignant-tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has for the past 30 years been an effective technique for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Understanding the anatomy of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes is essential to improve the yield of TBNA. Wang's lymph node map is based on the lymph node map of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and on the TBNA technique; it was published in 1994, and has promoted the development of both conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) developed a new chest lymph node map to reconcile the differences between the Naruke and The Mountain-Dresler (MD)-ATS lymph node maps. The IASLC lymph node map was incorporated into the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer, which directly affected the treatment and prognosis of lung cancer. There are significant differences between Wang's lymph node map and the IASLC lymph node map in TNM staging, and it is imperative to understand these differences and correlate these maps for the prognosis and staging of lung cancer using cTBNA or EBUS-TBNA.

  18. Factors Influencing Non-sentinel Node Involvement in Sentinel Node Positive Patients and Validation of MSKCC Nomogram in Indian Breast Cancer Population.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Naveen; Ayub, Muhamed Faizal; Hussain, Khadher; Kurien, Ann; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend completion axillary lymphnode dissection (ALND) when sentinel lymphnode (SLN) contains metastatic tumor deposit. In consequent ALND sentinel node is the only node involved by tumor in 40-70 % of cases. Recent studies demonstrate the oncologic safety of omitting completion ALND in low risk patients. Several nomograms (MSKCC, Stanford, MD Anderson score, Tenon score) had been developed in predicting the likelihood of additional nodes metastatic involvement. We evaluated accuracy of MSKCC nomogram and other clinicopathologic variables associated with additional lymph node metastasis in our patients. A total of 334 patients with primary breast cancer patients underwent SLN biopsy during the period Jan 2007 to June 2014. Clinicopathologic variables were prospectively collected. Completion ALND was done in 64 patients who had tumor deposit in SLN. The discriminatory accuracy of nomogram was analyzed using Area under Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). SLN was the only node involved with tumor in 69 % (44/64) of our patients. Additional lymph node metastasis was seen in 31 % (20/64). On univariate analysis, extracapsular infiltration in sentinel node and multiple sentinel nodes positivity were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with additional lymph node metastasis in the axilla. Area under ROC curve for nomogram was 0.58 suggesting poor performance of the nomogram in predicting NSLN involvement. Sentinel nodes are the only nodes to be involved by tumor in 70 % of the patients. Our findings indicate that multiple sentinel node positivity and extra-capsular invasion in sentinel node significantly predicted the likelihood of additional nodal metastasis. MSKCC nomogram did not reliably predict the involvement of additional nodal metastasis in our study population. PMID:27065658

  19. Lymph-node staining with activated carbon CH40: a new method for axillary lymph-node dissection in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Takashi; Saito, Toshihiro; Narushima, Yoichi; Iwamoto, Kazutsugu; Iizuka, Masashi; Hagiwara, Akeo; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Shu; Kunii, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Hidemi

    2000-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the usefulness of activated carbon particles (CH40) as a vital staining dye for visualizing lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes in breast cancer. Design A retrospective evaluation. Setting Department of Surgery in Sendai National Hospital, Japan, a 716-bed teaching hospital. Methods To identify as many lymph nodes as possible in the axillary fat, by which we might decrease the possibility of the presence of undetected metastatic nodes, an emulsion of activated carbon particles (CH40) was injected into the centre of the mammary gland, close to the tumour site, 3 days before radical surgery. Main outcome measure The number of lymph nodes found by the traditional method and by the CH40-injection method were recorded. Results After injection, the CH40 was readily adsorbed into regional lymphatics and streamed along with the lymph flow to blacken regional lymph nodes. The CH40-guided method increased the mean number of nodes per case found in the axilla from 8.4, by the traditional method, to 14.0 nodes per case. Conclusions The use of the CH40 technique has two technical advantages; one is that it allows surgeons to locate the blackened lymph nodes at the time of surgery and the other is that it allows pathologists to look for the nodes in fatty tissue. Lymph-node dissection with the aid of activated carbon particles is inexpensive, easy to perform and enables the smallest lymph nodes to be easily recognized. CH40 is the technique of choice for the detection of axillary lymph nodes in cases where the number of lymph nodes detected by the traditional method is too small for accurate surgery. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CH40 could be an appropriate tool for more accurate staging of breast cancer axillary specimens. PMID:10851412

  20. Lunar Data Node: Apollo Data Restoration and Archiving Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, Howard K.; Guiness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie Julia

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) of the Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for the restoration and archiving of Apollo data. The LDN is located at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), which holds much of the extant Apollo data on microfilm, microfiche, hard-copy documents, and magnetic tapes in older formats. The goal of the restoration effort is to convert the data into user-accessible PDS formats, create a full set of explanatory supporting data (metadata), archive the full data sets through PDS, and post the data online at the PDS Geosciences Node. This will both enable easy use of the data by current researchers and ensure that the data and metadata are securely preserved for future use. We are also attempting to locate and preserve Apollo data which were never archived at NSSDC. We will give a progress report on the data sets we have been restoring and future work.