Wang Shulian; Li Yexiong; Song Yongwen; Wang Weihu; Jin Jing; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao
Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of determining estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy. Methods and Materials: The records of 835 node-positive breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy between January 2000 and December 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 764 patients (91.5%) received chemotherapy; 68 of 398 patients (20.9%) with T1-2N1 disease and 352 of 437 patients (80.5%) with T3-4 or N2-3 disease received postoperative radiotherapy. Patients were classified into four subgroups according to hormone receptor (Rec+ or Rec-) and HER2 expression profiles: Rec-/HER2- (triple negative; n = 141), Rec-/HER2+ (n = 99), Rec+/HER2+ (n = 157), and Rec+/HER2- (n = 438). The endpoints were the duration of locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with triple-negative, Rec-/HER2+, and Rec+/HER2+ expression profiles had a significantly lower 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival than those with Rec+/HER2- profiles (86.5% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.002). Compared with those with Rec+/HER2+ and Rec+/HER2- profiles, patients with Rec-/HER2- and Rec-/HER2+ profiles had significantly lower 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (69.1% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.000), lower disease-free survival (66.6% vs. 75.6%, p = 0.000), and lower overall survival (71.4% vs. 84.2%, p = 0.000). Triple-negative or Rec-/HER2+ breast cancers had an increased likelihood of relapse and death within the first 3 years after treatment. Conclusions: Triple-negative and HER2-positive profiles are useful markers of prognosis for locoregional recurrence and survival in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy.
Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G.; Forbes, John F.; Clark, Susan J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype. PMID:27671774
Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G; Forbes, John F; Clark, Susan J; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Scott, Rodney J
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype.
Kim, Joo Young; Heo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Seul Ki; Song, In Hye; Park, In Ah; Kim, Young-Ae; Park, Hye Seon; Park, Suk Young; Bang, Won Seon; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin
Glutamine metabolism is emerging as one aspect of dysregulated metabolism of tumors. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are glutamine dependent, whereas luminal-type cells tend to be glutamine independent. Therefore, TNBC patients might benefit from therapies targeting glutamine metabolism. To investigate the clinical significance of glutamine metabolism, we examined expression and prognostic significance of glutaminase in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in TNBC. We retrieved 658 surgically resected TNBCs and analyzed glutaminase expression in tumor cells and TILs by immunohistochemical staining. Glutaminase expression was observed in 237 cases (36.0%) in tumor cells and 104 cases (15.5%) in TILs. Although glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with a low level of TILs (p = 0.018), glutaminase expression in TILs was significantly higher in cases with a high level of TILs (p = 0.031). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival in patients with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs (p = 0.020). In addition, it was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 10.643, 95% confidence interval = 1.999-56.668; p = 0.006). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was observed in a subset of TNBC patients. It was significantly associated with a low level of TILs and poor disease-free survival in TNBCs presenting with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs.
Jang, Ki-Seok; Han, Hong Xiu; Paik, Seung Sam; Brown, Powel H; Kong, Gu
The aim of this study is to investigate the possible role of inhibitor of DNA binding (Id-1) overexpression in human breast cancer. We examined Id-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 263 human breast cancers, 15 in situ lesions and 248 invasive cancers to investigate the relationship between its expression and various clinicopathological factors. Id-1 expression was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma than in in situ ductal carcinoma or other invasive cancer subtypes (P=0.029 and 0.006, respectively). We also examined the association between Id-1 expression and tumor angiogenesis by measuring microvessel densities (MVD). Regarding the endothelial cells of microvessels showed negative or very weak Id-1 expression, Id-1 overexpression was found to be significantly related to MVD (P=0.014). Furthermore, Id-1 overexpression was found to be significantly associated with higher MVD in the ER-negative and node-involved subgroups of breast cancer (P=0.040 and 0.046, respectively). These data indicate that Id-1 overexpression is significantly associated with tumor angiogenesis, especially in the ER-negative and node-positive subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Thus, Id-1 presents a possible therapeutic antitumor target molecule in ER-negative and node-positive breast cancer.
Jiang, Shuai; Jiang, Wen; Chen, Kai; Kim, Betty Y.S.; Liu, Qiang; Jacobs, Lisa K.
Purpose The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients with pathological negative nodes (ypN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains controversial. Methods A total of 1560 clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients treated with NAC and mastectomy who achieved ypN0 between 1998 and 2009 in the National Cancer Database were analyzed. The effects of PMRT on overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort and multiple subgroups were evaluated. Imputation and propensity score matching were used as sensitivity analyses to minimize biases. Results Of the entire 1560 eligible patients, 903 (57.9%) received PMRT and 657 (42.1%) didn’t. At a median follow-up of 56.0 months, no statistical difference was observed for OS between two groups by univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.120; HR 1.571, 95% CI 0.839-2.943). On subgroup analyses, PMRT significantly improved OS in patients with clinical stage IIIB/IIIC disease, T3/T4 tumor, or residual invasive breast cancer after NAC (P < 0.05). This improvement in OS remained significant after sensitivity analyses for the propensity score-matched patients. Conclusions This study demonstrated that PMRT showed a heterogeneous effect in clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients with ypN0 following NAC. PMRT improved OS for patients with clinical stage IIIB/IIIC disease, T3/T4 tumor, or residual invasive breast tumor after NAC. In the absence of definitive conclusions from prospective studies, including the ongoing NSABP B-51 trial, our findings may help identify specific groups of women with clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancers who could benefit from PMRT after NAC. PMID:26709538
Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
HER2/Neu Negative; No Evidence of Disease; One or More Positive Axillary Nodes; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Nitsche, Mirko; Hermann, Robert
At the moment, positive sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) of the axilla is followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard of care. Recent data proves that omitting ALND after positive SLND in clinically lymph node-negative early stage breast cancer patients is feasible with low recurrence rates. The well known effect of radiotherapy to destroy occult tumor cells highly contributes to these results as a large extent of level I and II lymph nodes are unavoidably included in standard tangential radiation treatment fields. Reviewing the up to date published data on axillary lymph node treatment with radiotherapy, we hypothesize that full dosage coverage of level I and II of the axilla in early stage breast cancer will improve outcome and should be further evaluated.
Reddy, Gowry Maram; Pai, Radha R.
Introduction Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies affecting women in developing countries. Molecular studies of breast carcinoma have classified the tumour based on the immunohistochemical staining into 4 subtypes, such as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2/neu Positive and Triple Negative Breast Carcinoma (TNBC). TNBCs are reported to have an aggressive behaviour and wide metastasis, leading to selective treatment outcomes. Aim The aim was to study the clinicopathological features such as age, site, tumour size, histopathological type, histologic grade, lymph node status, stage and treatment outcomes of triple negative breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 108 cases of breast carcinoma received during the period of 2 years. The tumour was classified based on immunohistochemical staining into four subtypes. The clinicopathological details, histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of TNBC were studied. Results Of the 108 patients, 34 patients were diagnosed as TNBC. The average age at presentation was 48 years. Most of the cases showed Nottingham Modification of Scarff Bloom-Richardson (NMBR) grade 3 (55.9%) and stage II (67.6%). Ly-mph node metastasis was seen in 50% of cases. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type (91.2%) was the most common histological type. Among the other subtypes, Luminal A carcinoma was the most common (36.1%), followed by TNBC (31.5%) and HER2/neu positive carcinomas (28.7%). Compared to the other types of tumours, TNBC showed the most frequent distant lymph node metastasis (50%) when compared to luminal A (38.5%), luminal B (25%), HER2/neu positive (48.4%). Unlike the other types of tumours, TNBC were mostly high-grade. Conclusion TNBC have an aggressive behaviour compared to other subtypes with higher NMBR grade, nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic rate and lymph node metastasis. PMID:28273970
Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Gucalp, Ayca; Traina, Tiffany A
Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 15%-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, but it accounts for a disproportionate number of breast cancer-related deaths each year. Owing to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, patients with triple-negative breast cancer do not benefit from generally well-tolerated and effective therapies targeting the estrogen and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling pathways and are faced with an increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. The heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer has been increasingly recognized and this may lead to therapeutic opportunities because of newly defined oncogenic drivers and targets. A subset of triple-negative breast tumors expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and this may benefit from treatments that inhibit the AR-signaling pathway. The first proof-of-concept trial established activity of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, in patients with advanced AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Since that time, evidence further supports the activity of other next-generation AR-targeted agents such as enzalutamide. Not unlike in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, mechanisms of resistance are being investigated and rationale exists for thoughtful, well-designed combination regimens such as AR antagonism with CDK4/6 pathway inhibitors or PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, novel agents developed for the treatment of prostate cancer, which reduce androgen production such as abiraterone acetate and seviteronel, are being tested as well. This review summarizes the underlying biology of AR signaling in breast cancer development and the available clinical trial data for the use of anti-androgen therapy in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer.
Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Guo, Liying; Zhu, Qianwen; Aisimutuola, Mulati; Yilamu, Dilimina; Liu, Sha; Jakulin, Adina
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in triple-negative and triple-positive breast cancer patients, and evaluate its utility as a prognostic factor. Between January 2000 and December 2010, primary tumor tissue samples were collected from 234 subjects, including 107 triple-negative and 127 triple-positive breast cancer patients. The samples were embedded in paraffin and immunohistochemical staining was conducted to determine the expression levels of ERβ. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze patient survival rates. ERβ expression was observed in 38/107 patients (35.5%) with triple-negative breast cancer and 63/127 patients (49.6%) with triple-positive breast cancer. The ERβ expression rate was significantly decreased in the patients with triple-negative breast cancer, as compared with those with triple-positive breast cancer (P=0.03). Analysis of the survival rates indicated that patients with triple-negative breast cancer and positive ERβ expression exhibited poor disease progression-free survival (DFS) compared with those with negative ERβ expression (P=0.021). However, no statistically significant difference was observed in the DFS between the triple-positive breast cancer patients with positive and negative ERβ expression. Therefore, the expression of ERβ varies between triple-negative and triple-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, positive expression of ERβ indicates a poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients; however, this is not the case for triple-positive breast cancer patients.
Lawrence, Robert T; Perez, Elizabeth M; Hernández, Daniel; Miller, Chris P; Haas, Kelsey M; Irie, Hanna Y; Lee, Su-In; Blau, C Anthony; Villén, Judit
Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by poor clinical outcomes and a shortage of targeted treatment options. To discover molecular features of triple-negative breast cancer, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis of twenty human-derived breast cell lines and four primary breast tumors to a depth of more than 12,000 distinct proteins. We used this data to identify breast cancer subtypes at the protein level and demonstrate the precise quantification of biomarkers, signaling proteins, and biological pathways by mass spectrometry. We integrated proteomics data with exome sequence resources to identify genomic aberrations that affect protein expression. We performed a high-throughput drug screen to identify protein markers of drug sensitivity and understand the mechanisms of drug resistance. The genome and proteome provide complementary information that, when combined, yield a powerful engine for therapeutic discovery. This resource is available to the cancer research community to catalyze further analysis and investigation.
Gu, Guowei; Gelsomino, Luca; Covington, Kyle R.; Beyer, Amanda R.; Wang, John; Rechoum, Yassine; Huffman, Kenneth; Carstens, Ryan; Ando, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne A.W.
Purpose Discover novel nuclear receptor targets in triple negative breast cancer Methods Expression microarray, western blot, qRT-PCR, MTT growth assay, soft agar anchorage-independent growth assay, TRE reporter transactivation assay, statistical analysis. Results We performed microarray analysis using 227 triple negative breast tumors, and clustered the tumors into five groups according to their nuclear receptor expression. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ) was one of the most differentially expressed nuclear receptors in group 5 compared to other groups. TRβ low expressing patients were associated with poor outcome. We evaluated the role of TRβ in triple negative breast cancer cell lines representing group 5 tumors. Knockdown of TRβ increased soft agar colony and reduced sensitivity to docetaxel and doxorubicin treatment. Docetaxel or doxorubicin long-term cultured cell lines also expressed decreased TRβ protein. Microarray analysis revealed cAMP/PKA signaling was the only KEGG pathways upregulated in TRβ knockdown cells. Inhibitors of cAMP or PKA, in combination with doxorubicin further enhanced cell apoptosis and restored sensitivity to chemotherapy. TRβ-specific agonists enhanced TRβ expression, and further sensitized cells to both docetaxel and doxorubicin. Sensitization was mediated by increased apoptosis with elevated cleaved PARP and caspase 3. Conclusions TRβ represents a novel nuclear receptor target in triple negative breast cancer; low TRβ levels were associated with enhanced resistance to both docetaxel and doxorubicin treatment. TRβ-specific agonists enhance chemosensitivity to these two agents. Mechanistically enhanced cAMP/PKA signaling was associated with TRβ’s effects on response to chemotherapy. PMID:25820519
human TNBC cell lines treated with leptin, and novel leptin receptor inhibitor bound to nanoparticles (IONPs-LPrA) alone, and combined with cisplatin ...markers in human TNBC that was accompanied by induction of mammosphere formation, reduced effectiveness of cisplatin and sunitinib and increased...can contribute to TNBC resistance to chemotherapeutics (i.e., cisplatin and sunitinib). Key words Leptin, LPrA2, IONP-LPrA2, triple negative
Eralp, Yeşim; Kılıç, Leyla; Alço, Gül; Başaran, Gül; Doğan, Mutlu; Dinçol, Dilek; Demirci, Senem; İçli, Fikri; Onur, Handan; Saip, Pınar; Haydaroğlu, Ayfer
Objective Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is generally considered as a poorer prognostic subgroup, with propensity for earlier relapse and visceral involvement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of non-metastatic TNBC patients from different centers in Turkey and identify clinical and pathologic variables that may effect survival. Materials and Methods Between 1993–2007, from five different centers in Turkey, 316 nonmetastatic triple negative breast cancer patients were identified with follow-up of at least 12 months. The data was collected retrospectively from patient charts. The prognostic impact of several clinical variables were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox multivariate anayses. Results Mean age at diagnosis was 49 years (range: 24–82). The majority of the patient group had invasive ductal carcinoma (n: 260, 82.3%) and stage II disease (n: 164; 51.9%). Majority of the patients (87.7%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. 5 year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 84.6% and 71.6%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed locally advanced disease (p: 0.001), advanced pathological stage (p: 0.021), larger tumor size (T1&T2 vs T3&T4) (p<0.001), nodal positivity (p: 0.006), and extensive nodal involvement (p<0.001) as significant factors for DFS; whereas, advanced pathological stage (p: 0.017), extensive nodal involvement (p<0.001) and larger tumor size (p: 0,001) and presence of breast cancer-affected member in the family (p=0.05) were identified as prognostic factors with an impact on OS. Multivariate analysis revealed larger tumor size (T3&T4 vs T1&T2) and presence of lymph node metastases (node-positive vs node-negative) as significant independent prognostic factors for DFS (Hazard ratio (HR): 3.03, 95% CI: 1.71–5.35, p<0.001 and HR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.05–3.0, p=0.03, respectively). Higher tumor stage was the only independent factor affecting overall survival (HR: 2.81; 95% CI, 1.27–6.22, p=0
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), comprise 15-20% of breast cancers, and are associated with later stage at diagnosis, increased mortality, and occur more frequently in younger women where mammographic screening is less reliable. TNBCs are more likely to be diagnosed by physical exam than by mammographic screening. There is an unmet clinical need for biomarkers for the early detection of TNBC. Here, we are proposing the development of a plasma-based biomarker panel for the routine screening of women over the age of 40 for TNBC that can be used to identify women for further imaging.
Lehmann, Brian D.; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a molecularly heterogeneous disease lacking recurrent targetable alterations and thus therapeutic advances have been challenging. The absence of ER, PR and HER2 amplifications, leaves combination chemotherapy as the standard of care treatment option in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. Recently, multiple studies have shed some light on the heterogeneity of TNBC and identified distinct transcriptional subtypes with unique biologies. Herein we review the molecular heterogeneity and the impact on previous and future clinical trials. PMID:26253813
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Tomao, Federica; Papa, Anselmo; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Rossi, Luigi; Caruso, Davide; Minozzi, Marina; Vici, Patrizia; Frati, Luigi; Tomao, Silverio
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing a large number of entities showing different morphological features and having clinical behaviors. It has became apparent that this diversity may be justified by distinct patterns of genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic aberrations. The identification of gene-expression microarray-based characteristics has led to the identification of at least five breast cancer subgroups: luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and basal-like. Triple-negative breast cancer is a complex disease diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, and it is characterized by malignant cells not expressing estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors at all, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Along with this knowledge, recent data show that triple-negative breast cancer has specific molecular features that could be possible targets for new biological targeted drugs. The aim of this article is to explore the use of new drugs in this particular setting, which is still associated with poor prognosis and high risk of distant recurrence and death. PMID:25653541
Plasilova, Magdalena L; Hayse, Brandon; Killelea, Brigid K; Horowitz, Nina R; Chagpar, Anees B; Lannin, Donald R
The aim of this study was to determine the features of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using a large national database. TNBC is known to be an aggressive subtype, but national epidemiologic data are sparse. All patients with invasive breast cancer and known molecular subtype diagnosed in 2010 to 2011 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with and without TNBC were compared with respect to their sociodemographic and clinicopathologic features. TNBC was present in 38,628 of 295,801 (13%) female patients compared to 185 of 3136 (6%) male patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of TNBC varied by region from 10.8% in New England to 15.8% in the east south central US (P < 0.001), as well as by race with the highest rates in African-Americans (23.7%), and lowest in Filipino patients (8.9%). The incidence of TNBC also varied by histology, accounting for 76% of metaplastic cancers, but only 2% of infiltrating lobular carcinomas. TNBCs were significantly larger than non-TNBC (mean 2.8 cm vs 2.1 cm, P < 0.001), and more TNBC were poorly differentiated compared to other subtypes (79.7% vs 25.8%, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, TNBC was no more likely than non-TNBC to have node-positive disease (32.0% vs 31.7%, respectively, P = 0.218) but in a multivariable analysis controlling for tumor size and grade, TNBC was associated with significantly less node-positivity (OR = 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.60). TNBC has distinct features regarding age, gender, geographic, and racial distribution. Compared to non-TNBC, TNBC is larger and higher grade, but less likely to have lymph node metastases.
Li, Quan; Jin, Wenxu; Cai, Yefeng; Yang, Fang; Chen, Endong; Ye, Danrong; Wang, Qingxuan; Guan, Xiaoxiang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor subtype lacking effective prognostic indicators or therapeutic targets. Therefore, finding a novel molecular biomarker for TNBC to achieve target therapy and predict its prognosis is crucial in preventing inappropriate treatment. Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) families of protein can negatively regulate signaling of heterotrimeric G proteins and are known to be upregulated in various tumors. In this study, we demonstrated that RGS20 was more highly expressed in TNBC tumor tissue than in adjacent normal tissue by analyzing the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database. However, RGS20 expression was low in all breast cancer and luminal breast cancer patients. Validated by the TCGA cohort, RGS20 was upregulated in lymph node-positive TNBC compared with that in lymph node-negative breast cancer. High expression of RGS20 had a risk of lymph node metastasis, ki-67 > 14%, poor N stage, and poor clinical stage in the immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. Moreover, K-M plot analysis showed that TNBC patients with high RGS20 expression had poor relapse-free survival. In summary, the findings revealed that RGS20 was a special TNBC oncogene that promoted tumor progression and influenced TNBC prognosis. This study is the first to show that RGS20 was a special oncogene, and its high expression was significantly associated with the progression and prognosis of TNBC. RGS20 may be a novel molecular biomarker for the targeted therapy and prognosis of TNBC.
Ahn, Sung Gwe; Kim, Seung Jun; Kim, Cheungyeul
Tumor heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been the main barrier in conquering breast cancer. To dissect the molecular diversity of TNBC and discover therapeutic targets for TNBC, the molecular classification of TNBC is a prioritized issue in research area. Accordingly, recent studies have been successful in classifying TNBC into several distinct subtypes with specific biologic pathways. Despite the different methodologies used and varied number of final subtypes, these studies identically suggested that TNBC consists of four major subtypes: basal-like, mesenchymal, luminal androgen receptor, and immune-enriched. By reviewing these methods of classifications of TNBC, we highlight the unmet need to develop a molecular classifier suited for TNBC. PMID:27721871
Mendes, Tânia Filipa S.; Kluskens, Leon D.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a particular immunopathological subtype of breast cancer that lacks expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene. Characterized by aggressive and metastatic phenotypes and high rates of relapse, TNBC is the only breast cancer subgroup still lacking effective therapeutic options, thus presenting the worst prognosis. The development of targeted therapies, as well as early diagnosis methods, is vital to ensure an adequate and timely therapeutic intervention in patients with TNBC. This review intends to discuss potentially emerging approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of TNBC patients, with a special focus on nano‐based solutions that actively target these particular tumors. PMID:27980912
Jamdade, Vinayak S; Sethi, Nikunj; Mundhe, Nitin A; Kumar, Parveen; Lahkar, Mangala; Sinha, Neeraj
Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) does not show immunohistochemical expression of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors or HER2. At present, no suitable treatment option is available for patients with TNBC. This dearth of effective conventional therapies for the treatment of advanced stage breast cancer has provoked the development of novel strategies for the management of patients with TNBC. This review presents recent information associated with different therapeutic options for the treatment of TNBC focusing on promising targets such as the Notch signalling, Wnt/β-catenin and Hedgehog pathways, in addition to EGFR, PARP1, mTOR, TGF-β and angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26040571
Banerjee, Sagarika; Wei, Zhi; Tan, Fei; Peck, Kristen N.; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Michael; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Alwine, James C.; Robertson, Erle S.
Infectious agents are the third highest human cancer risk factor and may have a greater role in the origin and/or progression of cancers, and related pathogenesis. Thus, knowing the specific viruses and microbial agents associated with a cancer type may provide insights into cause, diagnosis and treatment. We utilized a pan-pathogen array technology to identify the microbial signatures associated with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This technology detects low copy number and fragmented genomes extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded archival tissues. The results, validated by PCR and sequencing, define a microbial signature present in TNBC tissue which was underrepresented in normal tissue. Hierarchical clustering analysis displayed two broad microbial signatures, one prevalent in bacteria and parasites and one prevalent in viruses. These signatures demonstrate a new paradigm in our understanding of the link between microorganisms and cancer, as causative or commensal in the tumor microenvironment and provide new diagnostic potential. PMID:26469225
Branham, M T; Marzese, D M; Laurito, S R; Gago, F E; Orozco, J I; Tello, O M; Vargas-Roig, L M; Roqué, M
Breast cancer is a group of clinically, histopathologically and molecularly heterogeneous diseases, with different outcomes and responses to treatment. Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers are defined as tumors that lack the expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor 2. This subgroup accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer and its prevalence is higher among young African, African-American and Latino women. The hypermethylation of CpG islands (CpGI) is a common epigenetic alteration for suppressing gene expression in breast cancer and has been shown to be a key factor in breast carcinogenesis. In this study we analyzed the hypermethylation of 110 CpGI within 69 cancer-related genes in TN tumors. For the methylation analysis, we used the methyl-specific multiplex-ligation probe amplification assay. We found that the number of methylated CpGI is similar between TN and non-TN tumors, but the methylated genes between the groups are different. The methylation profile of TN tumors is defined by the methylation of five genes (that is, CDKN2B, CD44, MGMT, RB and p73) plus the non-methylation of 11 genes (that is, GSTP1, PMS2, MSH2, MLH1, MSH3, MSH6, DLC1, CACNA1A, CACNA1G, TWIST1 and ID4). We conclude that TN tumors have a specific methylation profile. Our findings give new information for better understanding tumor etiology and encourage future studies on potential drug targets for triple-negative breast tumors, which now lack a specific treatment. PMID:23552734
Qiu, Jingdan; Xue, Xinying; Hu, Chao; Xu, Hu; Kou, Deqiang; Li, Rong; Li, Ming
Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has attracted more attention both clinically and experimentally because of its high-risk biological characteristics and lacking of effective treatment method. The purpose of this retrospective study was to find out the incidence of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in all kinds of breast cancers and to compare and analyze the clinicopathological features, recurrence, metastasis and prognosis of patients with TNBC and non-triple negative breast cancer (non-TNBC). Methods: A total of 1578 female patients with primary breast cancer were diagnosed and treated at the department of General Surgery, the Chinese PLA General Hospital, China, from Jan. 2004 to Jun. 2009. The 1578 breast cancer patients were divided into two groups: the TNBC group and the non-TNBC group. The clinical features and prognosis of the two groups were compared. Results: The incidence of TNBC was 20.41%. Compared with the non-TNBC, the TNBC were characterized as younger age, higher histological grade, higher rate of positive lymph node, bigger tumor size, higher clinical stage at diagnosis, higher histological grade, quicker and easier recurrence and metastasis and lower 5-year DFS rate and 5-year OS rate. The metastasis of TNBC had obvious organic tendency. The lungs, liver and brain were the first three most common sites of metastases. The information of age, the tumor size, lymph node status, clinical stage, histological grade, pathological types and operation method, especially the age and lymph node status play the important roles in judging the prognosis of TNBC. Conclusions: According to this study we found that TNBC was a distinct subgroup of breast cancer with particular clinicopathologic behavior. Compared with the non-TNBC, TNBC was characterized by more aggressive behavior, and lower DFS and OS rate. The metastasis of TNBC had obvious organic tendency. The information of age, the maximum diameter of the tumor, lymph node status, clinical
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glyceollins on the suppression of tumorigenesis in triple negative breast carcinoma cell lines. We further explored the effects of glyceollins on microRNA and protein expression in MDA MB 231 cells. Triple negative (ER , PgR, and Her2/neu ...
Identification and resection of the clipped node decreases the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node surgery in patients presenting with node positive breast cancer (T0-T4, N1-2) who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy – results from ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)
Boughey, Judy C.; Ballman, Karla V.; Le-Petross, Huong T.; McCall, Linda M.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Feliberti, Eric C.; Hunt, Kelly K.
Background The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial reported a false negative rate (FNR) of 12.6% with sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women presenting with node-positive breast cancer. One proposed method to decrease the FNR is clip placement in the positive node at initial diagnosis with confirmation of clipped node resection at surgery. Methods Z1071 was a multi-institutional trial in which women with clinical T0-4,N1-2,M0 breast cancer underwent SLN surgery and axillary dissection (ALND) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In cases with a clip placed in the node, the clip location at surgery (SLN or ALND) was evaluated. Results A clip was placed at initial node biopsy in 203 patients. In the 170 (83.7%) patients with cN1 disease and at least 2 SLNs resected, clip location was confirmed in 141 cases. In 107 (75.9%) patients where the clipped node was within the SLN specimen, the FNR was 6.8% (CI:1.9–16.5%). In 34 (24.1%) cases where the clipped node was in the ALND specimen, the FNR was 19.0% (CI:5.4–41.9%). In cases without a clip placed (n=355) and those where clipped node location was not confirmed at surgery (n=29), the FNR was 13.4% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion Clip placement at diagnosis of node-positive disease with removal of the clipped node during SLN surgery reduces the FNR of SLN surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Clip placement in the biopsy-proven node at diagnosis and evaluation of resected specimens for the clipped node should be considered when performing SLN surgery in this setting. PMID:26649589
O’Reilly, Elma A.; Gubbins, Luke; Sharma, Shiva; Tully, Riona; Guang, Matthew Ho Zhing; Weiner-Gorzel, Karolina; McCaffrey, John; Harrison, Michele; Furlong, Fiona; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda
Background Treatment options for women presenting with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are limited due to the lack of a therapeutic target and as a result, are managed with standard chemotherapy such as paclitaxel (Taxol®). Following chemotherapy, the ideal tumour response is apoptotic cell death. Post-chemotherapy, cells can maintain viability by undergoing viable cellular responses such as cellular senescence, generating secretomes which can directly enhance the malignant phenotype. Scope of Review How tumour cells retain viability in response to chemotherapeutic engagement is discussed. In addition we discuss the implications of this retained tumour cell viability in the context of the development of recurrent and metastatic TNBC disease. Current adjuvant and neo-adjuvant treatments available and the novel potential therapies that are being researched are also reviewed. Major conclusions Cellular senescence and cytoprotective autophagy are potential mechanisms of chemoresistance in TNBC. These two non-apoptotic outcomes in response to chemotherapy are inextricably linked and are neglected outcomes of investigation in the chemotherapeutic arena. Cellular fate assessments may therefore have the potential to predict TNBC patient outcome. General Significance Focusing on the fact that cancer cells can bypass the desired cellular apoptotic response to chemotherapy through cellular senescence and cytoprotective autophagy will highlight the importance of targeting non-apoptotic survival pathways to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:26676166
Marmé, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas
Summary Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease comprised of several biologically distinct subtypes. However, treatment is currently mainly relying on chemotherapy as there are no targeted therapies specifically approved for TNBC. Despite initial responses to chemotherapy, resistance frequently and rapidly develops and metastatic TNBC has a poor prognosis. New targeted approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Currently, bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A antibody, is the only targeted agent with an approval for the therapy of metastatic breast cancer, but does not provide a specific benefit in the TNBC subtype. This review discusses the current clinical developments in targeted approaches for TNBC, including anti-angiogenic therapies, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum salts, as well as novel strategies using immune-checkpoint inhibitors, which have recently demonstrated first promising results. Strategies focusing on specific subtypes of TNBC like anti-androgenic therapies for the luminal androgen receptor subtype (LAR) and others are also discussed. PMID:26557820
Collignon, Joëlle; Lousberg, Laurence; Schroeder, Hélène; Jerusalem, Guy
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the absence of HER2 overexpression. These cancers represent a heterogeneous breast cancer subtype with a poor prognosis. Few systemic treatment options exist besides the use of chemotherapy (CT). The heterogeneity of the disease has limited the successful development of targeted therapy in unselected patient populations. Currently, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. However, intense research is ongoing to identify specific targets and develop additional and better systemic treatment options. Standard adjuvant and neoadjuvant regimens include anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide, and taxanes. Platinum-based CT has been proposed as another CT option of interest in TNBC. We review the role of this therapy in general, and particularly in patients carrying BRCA germ-line mutations. Available data concerning the role of platinum-based CT in TNBC were acquired primarily in the neoadjuvant setting. The routine use of platinum-based CT is not yet recommended by available guidelines. Many studies have reported the molecular characterization of TNBCs. Several actionable targets have been identified. Novel therapeutic strategies are currently being tested in clinical trials based on promising results observed in preclinical studies. These targets include androgen receptor, EGFR, PARP, FGFR, and the angiogenic pathway. We review the recent data on experimental drugs in this field. We also discuss the recent data concerning immunologic checkpoint inhibitors.
Székely, Borbála; Silber, Andrea L M; Pusztai, Lajos
Relatively few clinically important therapeutic advances have occurred in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) since the introduction of taxanes as adjuvant therapy over 20 years ago. However, this is rapidly changing due to a variety of conceptually important clinical trials and emerging new options such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and antibody-drug conjugates. Evidence also increasingly supports that platinum drugs and inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, or PARP, are particularly effective in the treatment of germline BRCA-mutant cancers, including TNBC. An important development in early-stage TNBC was the recognition that extensive residual cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy identifies patients who remain at high risk for recurrence. This has led to the design of two ongoing adjuvant trials (one testing pembrolizumab, the other investigating platinum drugs and capecitabine) that offer a "second chance" to improve the survival of patients with residual cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Genomic analysis of TNBC has revealed large-scale transcriptional, mutational, and copy number heterogeneity, without any frequently recurrent mutations, other than TP53. Consistent with this molecular heterogeneity, most targeted agents, so far, have demonstrated low overall activity in unselected TNBC, but important "basket" trials are ongoing.
von Minckwitz, G; Martin, M
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides a means both of improving subsequent surgical intervention and of testing novel therapies or combinations. Historically, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has responded well in the neoadjuvant setting, with rates of pathological complete response (pCR) commonly higher than for other breast tumour types. However, more than half of TNBC patients do not achieve a pCR and have a very poor prognosis. The lack of drug-targetable receptors on TNBC tumours has made improving the available interventions in TNBC an area of important medical need. The routine use of neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane combinations in TNBC is currently being supplemented by ongoing investigations of their use with other types of agent. In particular, the substantial proportion of TNBC tumours associated with BRCA1 mutations is driving clinical research into the use of DNA-damaging agents such as platinums, as well as of potentiators of DNA damage such as the investigational agent iniparib and inhibitors of poly-ADP ribose polymerase such as olaparib. Tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors and microtubule-targeting inhibitors of cell cycling are also under active investigation. The use of neoadjuvant treatment with pCR as a surrogate of overall survival will allow the rapid evaluation and comparison of these and other much-needed new treatments for TNBC.
Alluri, Prasanna; Newman, Lisa A
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are defined by their failure to express the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2/neu protein markers. This basic feature is clinically relevant because it indicates that these cancers cannot be managed with endocrine or anti-HER2 systemic therapies. Furthermore, most TNBC cases are also characterized as being of the genetically defined basal subtype, which is an inherently and biologically more aggressive pattern of disease. The two terms, however, are not synonymous, and some TNBC cases are prognostically more favorable. TNBC differs from non-TNBC in risk-factor profile, pattern, and rate of metastatic spread.
Mosalpuria, Kailash; Hall, Carolyn; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Lodhi, Ashutosh; Hallman, D Michael; Baraniuk, Mary S; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Lucci, Anthony
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterised by lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2/neu gene amplification. TNBC patients typically present at a younger age, with a larger average tumor size, higher grade and higher rates of lymph node positivity compared to patients with ER/PR-positive tumors. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 regulates the production of prostaglandins and is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors. In breast cancer, the overexpression of COX-2 is associated with indicators of poor prognosis, such as lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and large tumor size. Since both TNBC status and COX-2 overexpression are known poor prognostic markers in primary breast cancer, we hypothesized that the COX-2 protein is overexpressed in the primary tumors of TNBC patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there exists an association between TNBC status and COX-2 protein overexpression in primary breast cancer. We prospectively evaluated COX-2 expression levels in primary tumor samples obtained from 125 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated between February, 2005 and October, 2007. Information on clinicopathological factors was obtained from a prospective database. Baseline tumor characteristics and patient demographics were compared between TNBC and non-TNBC patients using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. In total, 60.8% of the patients were classified as having ER-positive tumors, 51.2% were PR-positive, 14.4% had HER-2/neu amplification and 28.0% were classified as TNBC. COX-2 overexpression was found in 33.0% of the patients. TNBC was associated with COX-2 overexpression (P=0.009), PR expression (P=0.048) and high tumor grade (P=0.001). After adjusting for age, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), lymph node status and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), TNBC was an independent predictor of COX-2 overexpression (P=0.01). In conclusion, the
Huang, Chun; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Baocun; Li, Man; Zhao, Xiulan; Gu, Yanjun; Cui, Yanfen; Li, Yan
To investigate the association between high parity and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and explore the etiologic mechanisms of TNBC in Tientsin Albinao 2 (TA2) mice model. After the TA2 mice model with high parity and TNBC had been established, the cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by immunohistochemical and TUNEL staining in mammary epithelia from different conditions, which included non-pregnancy, low and high gravidity in pregnancy, and carcinogenesis. Apoptotic signaling was analyzed by measuring bcl-2, bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and real-time PCR technique. Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) were determined by immunohistochemical staining and real-time PCR. Both proliferation and apoptosis in mammary epithelia changed with the increasing of parity. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell proliferation and apoptosis were related with upregulation of ERα, PR, bcl-2, bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 expression, especially during the fourth pregnancy. Mammary gland in the fourth pregnancy stage was the closest to precancerous. In precancerous mammary gland, cell proliferation rate was much higher than apoptosis rate. High parity could increase the ovarian hormones level and alter ovarian hormone receptor levels in TA2 mice, and their sensitivity to ovarian hormones result in the imbalance between cell proliferation and apoptosis in precancerous mammary epithelial cells.
Li, Ziyao; Tian, Jiawei; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Hui; Wu, Tong
The objective of this study was to identify multi-modal ultrasound imaging parameters that could potentially help to differentiate between triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC. Conventional ultrasonography, ultrasound strain elastography and 3-D ultrasound (3-D-US) findings from 50 TNBC and 179 non-TNBC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical examination was used as the reference gold standard for cancer subtyping. Different ultrasound modalities were initially analyzed to define TNBC-related features. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was applied to TNBC-related features to establish models for predicting TNBC. TNBCs often presented as micro-lobulated, markedly hypo-echoic masses with an abrupt interface (p = 0.015, 0.0015 and 0.004, compared with non-TNBCs, respectively) on conventional ultrasound, and showed a diminished retraction pattern phenomenon in the coronal plane (p = 0.035) on 3-D-US. Our findings suggest that B-mode ultrasound and 3-D-US in multi-modality ultrasonography could be a useful non-invasive technique for differentiating TNBCs from non-TNBCs.
Wang, Yiran; Zhai, Xiao; Liu, Chuan; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yajie
Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. However, there have been limited data to evaluate the trend of TNBC research. This study aims to investigate the trend of TNBC research and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations, and authors. Methods: TNBC-related publications from 2007 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013 (Redmond, Washington, USA), GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Prism Software Inc., San Diego, CA), and VOSviewer (Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands) software were used to analyze the trend of TNBC research. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Results: A total of 1695 papers were identified and were cited 34,078 times with a time limit of May 27, 2016. The United States accounted for 43.10% of the articles, 57.59% of the citations, and the highest H-index (64). China ranked second in total number of articles, but seventh in citation frequency (1998) and ninth in H-index (21). The journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment had the highest number of publications. The author, Narod SA, has published the most papers in this field (30). The keyword “receptor” was mentioned the most, 1489 times, and the word “myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1)” was the latest hot spot by 2015. Conclusion: Literature growth related to TNBC is expanding rapidly in recent years. The quality of the articles from China still requires improvement. Newest progress of the TNBC research may be released by the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment first. Narod SA, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, and Hortobagyi GN may be good candidates for collaborative research in this field. MCL-1 is an emerging topic that should be closely observed. PMID:27861384
Xiong, Bin; Lei, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Jia
Olfactomedin 4 abnormal expression has been observed in several types of human cancer, but the status of olfactomedin 4 in triple negative breast cancer is still unknown. The aim of our study is to explore the clinical significance and biological function of olfactomedin 4 in triple negative breast cancer. The mRNA and protein expression of olfactomedin 4 in triple negative breast cancer tissues and cell lines was detected, and the correlation between olfactomedin 4 expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The biological function of olfactomedin 4 on tumor-metastasis was explored by Transwell migration assay and invasion assay in vitro. In our results, olfactomedin 4 mRNA and protein expression is decreased in triple-negative breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Olfactomedin 4 protein low-expression associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, clinical stage and poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer patients. Up-regulation of olfactomedin 4 suppresseed triple-negative breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and reduced cell metastasis-associated protein MMP 9 expression. In conclusion, olfactomedin 4 is a novel biomarker of triple-negative breast cancer for predicting prognosis and developing targeted molecular therapies.
Androgen Receptor Positive; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and
Sneider, Alexandra; Jadia, Rahul; Piel, Brandon; VanDyke, Derek; Tsiros, Christopher; Rai, Prakash
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) continues to present a challenge in the clinic, as there is still no approved targeted therapy. TNBC is the worst sub-type of breast cancer in terms of prognosis and exhibits a deficiency in estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. One possible option for the treatment of TNBC is chemotherapy. The issue with many chemotherapy drugs is that their effectiveness is diminished due to poor water solubility, and the method of administration directly or with a co-solvent intravenously can lead to an increase in toxicity. The issues of drug solubility can be avoided by using liposomes as a drug delivery carrier. Liposomes are engineered, biological nanoconstructs that possess the ability to encapsulate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and have been clinically approved to treat cancer. Specific targeting of cancer cell receptors through the use of ligands conjugated to the surface of drug-loaded liposomes could lessen damage to normal, healthy tissue. This study focuses on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, folate conjugated, benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD)-loaded liposomes for treatment via photodynamic therapy (PDT). The folate receptor is over expressed on TNBC cells so these liposomes are targeted for greater uptake into cancer cells. PDT involves remotely irradiating light at 690 nm to trigger BPD, a hydrophobic photosensitive drug, to form reactive oxygen species that cause tumor cell death. BPD also displays a fluorescence signal when excited by light making it possible to image the fluorescence prior to PDT and for theranostics. In this study, free BPD, non-targeted and folate-targeted PEGylated BPD-loaded liposomes were introduced to a metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) in vitro. The liposomes were reproducibly synthesized and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, stability, and BPD release kinetics. Folate competition tests, fluorescence
Domagala, Pawel; Hybiak, Jolanta; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan
BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers are sensitive to poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum compounds mainly due to their deficiency in DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR). However, approximately only 15% of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are BRCA1/2-associated. TNBCs that exhibit BRCAness (a phenotype reflecting impaired HR in BRCA1/2-negative tumors) are also regarded sensitive to PARP inhibitors and platinum compounds. Thus, we hypothesized that hereditary BRCA1/2-negative TNBCs may exhibit BRCAness. To find a subset of hereditary BRCA1/2-negative TNBCs among 360 TNBCs, we first identified a group of 41 hereditary TNBCs by analyzing the family histories of the patients. Next, we tested this group for the presence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations, and finally, we compared the expression levels of 120 genes involved in HR and five other major mechanisms of DNA damage repair between BRCA1/2-associated and BRCA1/2-negative subgroups of hereditary TNBCs using real-time PCR arrays. Approximately 73% of the hereditary TNBCs were BRCA1/2-associated and 27% were BRCA1/2-negative. The expression levels of the analyzed genes showed no significant differences between these two subgroups indicating the BRCAness of the BRCA1/2-negative hereditary TNBCs and thereby distinguishing a novel subset of TNBCs as a potential target for PARP inhibitors or platinum-based therapy. The results show the significance of family history in selecting patients with TNBC for therapies directed at incompetent DNA repair (e.g., PARP inhibitors and/or platinum-based therapies) and indicate that a relatively simple strategy for broadening the target group for these modes of treatment is to identify patients with hereditary TNBCs.
Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)
Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer
Khan, Yasir; Tisman, Glenn
Introduction Serum vitamin D levels measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been shown to be low in cancer patients, including breast cancer patients. However, the vitamin D status has yet to be studied in different breast cancer phenotypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2+/ER-, and triple negative comprising the majority of basal-like. Case presentation Fifteen triple-negative breast cancer patients have presented to our medical oncology office in the last five years. Thirteen of these fifteen patients (87%) were found to be vitamin D deficient, defined as serum 25(OH)D less than 80 nmol/L, prior to initiation of adjuvant therapy. Ninety-one breast cancer patients from our office were classified as: luminal A (ER+ &/or PR+ and HER2-), luminal B (ER+ &/or PR+ and HER2+), HER2+/ER- (ER-, PR-, and HER2+), and triple-negative or basal-like (ER-, PR-, and HER2-). A normal mean was found from 78 volunteers. The breast cancer patients were found to be statistically different than the normal population. The triple-negative phenotype was found to be the most statistically different than the normal population. Conclusion The triple-negative breast cancer phenotype has the lowest average vitamin D level and the highest percentage of patients that are vitamin D deficient. These data suggests that low vitamin D levels are characteristic of the triple-negative phenotype. PMID:19830074
Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Awolude, Olutosin Alaba; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola
Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC) refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu). The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu antigens was used to determine carcinomas that are among the TNEOC. We also compared the clinicopathological parameters (age, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, grade and histological subtype) in patients with TNEOC and non- TNEOC . Results: Thirty-eight (42.2%) of the 90 tumours diagnosed as EOC were negative for ER, PR and HER2/neu expression. There was no significant association between TNEOC with other parameters such as age, FIGO stage and histological grade. Sixteen (66.7%) of the 24 mucinous carcinomas were triple negative, while only 21 (33.3%) of the 63 serous carcinomas were triple-negative and one (50%) of the two endometrioid carcinomas was triple negative. There was a significant association between triple-negative tumours and histological subtypes of EOC (p = 0.034). Conclusions: A subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that is negative for ER, PR and HER-2/neu has been discovered in indigenous African women. TNEOC expression is high and is comparable to the triple negative breast cancer subtype seen in people of African ancestry. Future study of TNEOC in a large sample size should be considered.
Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Awolude, Olutosin Alaba; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola
Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC) refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu). The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu antigens was used to determine carcinomas that are among the TNEOC. We also compared the clinicopathological parameters (age, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, grade and histological subtype) in patients with TNEOC and non- TNEOC . Results: Thirty-eight (42.2%) of the 90 tumours diagnosed as EOC were negative for ER, PR and HER2/neu expression. There was no significant association between TNEOC with other parameters such as age, FIGO stage and histological grade. Sixteen (66.7%) of the 24 mucinous carcinomas were triple negative, while only 21 (33.3%) of the 63 serous carcinomas were triple-negative and one (50%) of the two endometrioid carcinomas was triple negative. There was a significant association between triple-negative tumours and histological subtypes of EOC (p = 0.034). Conclusions: A subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that is negative for ER, PR and HER-2/neu has been discovered in indigenous African women. TNEOC expression is high and is comparable to the triple negative breast cancer subtype seen in people of African ancestry. Future study of TNEOC in a large sample size should be considered. PMID:27853516
Sil'nikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Gvozdeva, L. G.
We consider triple configurations of compression shocks in supersonic flows of an inviscid perfect gas. The boundaries of the domain of existence of shock-wave structures of a new type (triple configurations with a negative slope of the reflected shock or negative triple configurations) on a set of flow parameters have been theoretically investigated.
Yu, Xinmiao; Zhang, Xiupeng; Zhang, Yong; Jiang, Guiyang; Mao, Xiaoyun; Jin, Feng
TMEM88, a newly discovered protein localized on the cell membrane, inhibits canonical Wnt signaling. Immunohistochemic alanalysis of 139 breast cancers pecimens(64 triple-negative cancers and 75 non-triple-negative cancers) indicated that TMEM88 is expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer tissues (71.22%, 99/139) than in normal breast tissues (11.4%, 4/35; p < 0.001). The cytosolic and nuclear expression rates of TMEM88 were 57.81% and 9.37% in triple-negative and 52% and 33.33% (p = 0.5 and p = 0.001) in the non-triple-negative breast cancer tissues, respectively. Western blot analyses indicated that TMEM88 promoted Snail expression and inhibited Zo-1 and Occludin expression by interacting with dishevelled (Dvl) proteins, thereby stimulating invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. While cytosolic TMEM88 did not affect canonical Wnt signaling, cytosolic localization of this protein was positively correlated with both advanced TNM stage (p = 0.038 and p < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.01 and p = 0.002) in all and triple-negative specimens, respectively, and stimulated cell invasion by interacting with Dvls. Meanwhile, nuclear localization of TMEM88 was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.046). Lastly, the increased prevalence of TMEM88 nuclear localization observed in non-triple-negative, compared to triple-negative tissues, suggests that the biological roles of TMEM88 differ depending on the subcellular localization.
Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Brain; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Liu, Yan-Xi; Wang, Ke-Ren; Xing, Hua; Zhai, Xu-Jie; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wan
Significant efforts have been made to gain a better understanding of the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancers from the histological to the molecular and genomic levels. In this study, we attempted to bring forward gene expression subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TBNC) to the clinic, by translating gene stratification to clinically accessible immunohistochemical (IHC) classification. Using IHC analysis, we categorized 154 TBNC cases into three main subclasses. Differences in the frequencies of basic characteristics and clinicopathological parameters between the subtypes were examined using Chi-square tests. We defined three main groups among the 154 triple-negative cases. The basal-like (BL) group expressed cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and/or CK14 (83 cases), the AR(+) group demonstrated positivity for androgen receptor (18 cases), and the final group exhibited a CD44+CD24-(/)low phenotype (39 cases). There were three overlapping cases between the BL subgroup and the CD44+CD24-/low phenotype subgroup, and 11 unclassified cases. In this new IHC classification, three subcategories exhibited a statistical difference with regard to age, tumor size, histological grade, tumor necrosis, Ki67 labeling index, relapse-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and response to chemotherapy. According to our definition, the BL group and CD44+CD24-(/)low phenotype could be observed in tumors that were not triple-negative, and BL tumors that were triple-negative demonstrated almost undistinguishable clinicopathological characteristics compared with BL tumors that were not triple-negative. The same observation was made with CD44+CD24-/low tumors that were triple-negative vs. CD44+CD24-(/)low tumors that were not. The AR+ group demonstrated undistinguishable clinicopathological characteristics compared with the luminal subtype. We successfully distinguished three subtypes exhibiting diverse clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics with the minimum use of
Park, Heae Surng; Jang, Min Hye; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, In Ah; Park, So Yeon
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer and is emerging as a therapeutic target. EGFR gene copy number alteration and mutation are highly variable and scientists have been challenged to define their prognostic significance in triple-negative breast cancer. We examined EGFR protein expression, EGFR gene copy number alteration and mutation of exon 18 to 21 in 151 cases of triple-negative breast cancer and correlated these findings with clinical outcomes. In addition, intratumoral agreement of EGFR protein overexpression and gene copy number alteration was evaluated. EGFR overexpression was found in 97 of 151 cases (64%) and high EGFR gene copy number was detected in 50 cases (33%), including 3 gene amplification (2%) and 47 high polysomy (31%). Five EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of 151 cases (3%) and included G719A in exon 18 (n=1), V786M in exon 20 (n=1), and L858R in exon 21 (n=3). One case had two mutations (G719A and L858R). High EGFR copy number, but not EGFR mutation, correlated with EGFR protein overexpression. Intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR protein overexpression and EGFR copy number alteration was not significant. In survival analyses, high EGFR copy number was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-free survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Our findings showed that EGFR mutation was a rare event, but high EGFR copy number was relatively frequent and correlated with EGFR overexpression in triple-negative breast cancer. Moreover, high EGFR copy number was associated with poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting that evaluation of EGFR copy number may be useful for predicting outcomes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer and for selecting patients for anti-EGFR-targeted therapy.
Kallel, I; Rebaï, M; Khabir, A; Rebaï, A
Triple-negative breast cancers are not a homogeneous subgroup. There is substantial intra-subgroup diversity in tumor biology, prognosis and treatment sensitivity. Then, these triple-negative phenotype (TNP) groups, having specific features, can be again divided into subclasses based on an added immunohistochemical markers. The challenge in treating TNP breast cancers is that they are not responsive to antiestrogens or trastuzumab secondary to negative receptor status, and as a result have a poor prognosis. Therefore, the presence or absence of supplementary markers could help predict which therapies are best suited for patients based on the pattern that their disease markers show. In this review, we will recapitulate the major supplementary biomarkers related to triple-negative breast cancer, which could give new therapeutic options.
Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H
Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.
Ramezani, Fatemeh; Salami, Siamak; Omrani, Mir Davood; Maleki, Davood
One decade early onset of the breast cancer in Iranian females was reported but the basis of the observed difference has remained unclear and difference in gene silencing by epigenetic processes is suggested. Hence, this study was sought to map the methylation status of ER gene CpG islands and its impact on clinicopathological factors of triple negative and non-triple negative ductal cell carcinoma of the breast in Iranian females. Surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissues from sixty Iranian women with confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma were assessed by methylation-specific PCR using primer sets encompassing some of the 29 CpGs across the ER gene CpG island. The estrogen and progesterone receptors, Her-2 overexpression, and nuclear accumulation of P53 were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methylated ER3, ER4, and ER5 were found in 41.7, 11.3, and 43.3% of the samples, respectively. Significantly higher methylation of ER4 was found in the tumors with nuclear accumulation of P53, and significantly higher methylation of ER5 was found in patients with lymph node involvement and tumor with bigger size or higher grades. Furthermore, significantly higher rate of ER5 methylation was found in patients with Her-2+ tumors and in postmenopausal patients with ER-, PgR-, or ER-/PgR- tumors. However, no significant difference in ERs methylation status was found between triple negative and non-triple negative tumors in pre- and postmenopausal patients. Findings revealed that aberrant hypermethylation of ER-a gene frequently occur in Iranian women with invasive ductal cell carcinoma of the breast. However, methylation of different CpG islands produced a diverse impact on the prognosis of breast cancer, and ER5 was found to be the most frequently methylated region in the Iranian women, and could serve as a marker of poor prognosis.
Chiavarina, Barbara; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence; Bianchi, Elettra; Turtoi, Andrei; Peulen, Olivier; Peixoto, Paul; Irigaray, Philippe; Uchida, Koji; Belpomme, Dominique; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila
Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by-product, is generated through a non-enzymatic reaction from triose-phosphate intermediates. This dicarbonyl compound is highly reactive and contributes to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine, a MG-arginine adduct, in human breast adenocarcinoma and we observed a consistent increase of Arg-pyrimidine in cancer cells when compared with the non-tumoral counterpart. Further immunohistochemical comparative analysis of breast cancer subtypes revealed that triple negative lesions exhibited low accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine compared with other subtypes. Interestingly, the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1), an enzyme that detoxifies MG, was significantly higher in triple negative than in other subtype lesions, suggesting that these aggressive tumors are able to develop an efficient response against dicarbonyl stress. Using breast cancer cell lines, we substantiated these clinical observations by showing that, in contrast to triple positive, triple negative cells induced Glo-1 expression and activity in response to MG treatment. This is the first report that Arg-pyrimidine adduct accumulation is a consistent event in human breast cancer with a differential detection between triple negative and other breast cancer subtypes.
Zawlik, Izabela; Kaznowska, Ewa; Cebulski, Jozef; Kolodziej, Magdalena; Depciuch, Joanna; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Cholewa, Marian
Triple-negative breast cancer is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. Approximately 70% of triple-negative breast cancer patients fail to achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR) after chemotherapy due to the lack of targeted therapies for this subtype. We report here the development of a focal-plane-array Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopic technique combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for monitoring chemotherapy effects in triple-negative breast cancer patients. The PCA results obtained using the FPA-FTIR spectral data collected from the same patients before and after the chemotherapy revealed discriminatory features that were consistent with the pathologic and clinical responses to chemotherapy, indicating the potential of the technique as a monitoring tool for observing chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:27857183
Breast cancer tumor with triple-negative receptors (estrogen, progesterone and Her 2, receptors) is the most aggressive and deadly subtype, with high rates of disease recurrence and poor survival. Here, we show that induction in cell surface GRP78 by doxorubicin and tunicamycin was associated with CHOP/GADD153 upregulation and increase in apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer tumor cells. GRP78 is a major regulator of the stress induced unfolded protein response pathway and CHOP/GADD153 is a pro-apoptotic transcription factor associated exclusively with stress induced apoptosis. The blocking of cell surface GRP78 by anti-GRP78 antibody prevented apoptosis, suggesting that induction of cell surface GRP78 by doxorubicin and tunicamycin is required for apoptosis. A better understanding of stress induction of apoptotic signaling in triple negative breast cancer cells may help to define new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25360516
Zawlik, Izabela; Kaznowska, Ewa; Cebulski, Jozef; Kolodziej, Magdalena; Depciuch, Joanna; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Cholewa, Marian
Triple-negative breast cancer is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. Approximately 70% of triple-negative breast cancer patients fail to achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR) after chemotherapy due to the lack of targeted therapies for this subtype. We report here the development of a focal-plane-array Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopic technique combined with principal component analysis (PCA) for monitoring chemotherapy effects in triple-negative breast cancer patients. The PCA results obtained using the FPA-FTIR spectral data collected from the same patients before and after the chemotherapy revealed discriminatory features that were consistent with the pathologic and clinical responses to chemotherapy, indicating the potential of the technique as a monitoring tool for observing chemotherapy efficacy.
Bernier, Jacques; Poortmans, Philip M P
Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours. The objective of this review is to provide an insight into the biological and clinical behaviour of triple-negative breast cancers and revisit the most recent advances in their management, focussing on local-regional treatments.
Speiser, Jodi J; Erşahin, Cağatay; Osipo, Clodia
The term "triple-negative breast cancer" (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer. Unfortunately, due to the lack of expression of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, therefore the lack of US Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies, TNBC has the worst prognosis of all subtypes of breast cancer. Notch signaling has emerged as a pro-oncogene in several human malignancies and has particularly been associated with the triple-negative subtype of breast cancer. This chapter explores the role of Notch signaling in triple negative and other subtypes of breast cancer, the relationship of Notch with other breast cancer biomarkers, prognostic indicators associated with Notch, and potential therapeutic strategies targeting Notch inhibition. Hopefully, better understanding of this signaling pathway in the future will lead to optimal molecular therapeutic treatments for TNBC patients, improving their quality of life and outcome.
van Roozendaal, Lori M; Smit, Leonie H M; Duijsens, Gaston H N M; de Vries, Bart; Siesling, Sabine; Lobbes, Marc B I; de Boer, Maaike; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Smidt, Marjolein L
Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with early recurrence and low survival rates. Several trials investigate the safety of a more conservative approach of axillary treatment in clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer comprises only 15 % of newly diagnosed breast cancers, which might result in insufficient power for representative results for this subgroup. We aimed to provide a nationwide overview on the occurrence of (regional) recurrences in triple-negative breast cancer patients with a clinically T1-2N0 status. For this cohort study, 2548 women diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 with clinically T1-2N0 triple-negative breast cancer were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Follow-up data until 2014 were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 2486 patients, and (completion) axillary lymph node dissection in 562 patients. Final pathologic nodal status was pN0 in 78.5 %, pN1mi in 4.5 %, pN1 in 12.3 %, pN2-3 in 3.6 %, and pNx in 1.1 %. During a follow-up of 5 years, regional recurrence occurred in 2.9 %, local recurrence in 4.2 % and distant recurrence in 12.2 %. Five-year disease-free survival was 78.7 %, distant disease-free survival 80.5 %, and 5-year overall survival 82.3 %. Triple-negative clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer patients rarely develop a regional recurrence. Their disease-free survival is more threatened by distant recurrence, affecting their overall survival. Consequently, it seems justified to include triple-negative breast cancer patients in randomized controlled trials investigating the safety of minimizing axillary staging and treatment.
Su, Shishuai; Tian, Yanhua; Li, Yiye; Ding, Yanping; Ji, Tianjiao; Wu, Meiyu; Wu, Yan; Nie, Guangjun
Effective therapeutics against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has no standard-of-care therapy, needs to be developed urgently. Here we demonstrated a strategy of integrating indocyanine green (ICG), paclitaxel (PTX), and survivin siRNA into one thermosensitive poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-b-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (P (MEO2MA-co-OEGMA-co-DMAEMA)-b-PLGA) nanoparticle (NP-IPS) for triple-punch strategy against TNBC. The NP-IPS significantly enhanced the stability of ICG. Controlled release of the PTX in tumor regions was triggered by the hyperthermia produced by laser irradiated ICG. The NP-IPS exhibited remarkable antitumor efficacy (almost complete ablation of the tumor xenografts) due to the combinational effects of chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, and gene therapy with low drug dose (ICG, 0.32 μmol/kg; PTX, 0.54 μmol/kg; siRNA, 1.5 mg/kg) and minimal side effects. Taken together, our current study demonstrates a nanoplatform for triple-therapy, which reveals a promising strategy for TNBC treatment.
Adamo, Barbara; Anders, Carey K
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have increased rates of pathologic complete response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, yet have poorer prognosis compared with non-TNBC. Known as the triple-negative paradox, this highlights the need to dissect the biologic and clinical heterogeneity within TNBC. In the present issue, Keam and colleagues suggest two subgroups of TNBC exist based on the proliferation-related marker Ki-67, each with differential response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To place results into context, we review several definitions available under the TNBC umbrella that may stratify TNBC into clinically relevant subgroups.
Bowerman, Charles J; Byrne, James D; Chu, Kevin S; Schorzman, Allison N; Keeler, Amanda W; Sherwood, Candice A; Perry, Jillian L; Luft, James C; Darr, David B; Deal, Allison M; Napier, Mary E; Zamboni, William C; Sharpless, Norman E; Perou, Charles M; DeSimone, Joseph M
Novel treatment strategies, including nanomedicine, are needed for improving management of triple-negative breast cancer. Patients with triple-negative breast cancer, when considered as a group, have a worse outcome after chemotherapy than patients with breast cancers of other subtypes, a finding that reflects the intrinsically adverse prognosis associated with the disease. The aim of this study was to improve the efficacy of docetaxel by incorporation into a novel nanoparticle platform for the treatment of taxane-resistant triple-negative breast cancer. Rod-shaped nanoparticles encapsulating docetaxel were fabricated using an imprint lithography based technique referred to as Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates (PRINT). These rod-shaped PLGA-docetaxel nanoparticles were tested in the C3(1)-T-antigen (C3Tag) genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) of breast cancer that represents the basal-like subtype of triple-negative breast cancer and is resistant to therapeutics from the taxane family. This GEMM recapitulates the genetics of the human disease and is reflective of patient outcome and, therefore, better represents the clinical impact of new therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that delivery of these PLGA-docetaxel nanoparticles increased docetaxel circulation time and provided similar docetaxel exposure to tumor compared to the clinical formulation of docetaxel, Taxotere. These PLGA-docetaxel nanoparticles improved tumor growth inhibition and significantly increased median survival time. This study demonstrates the potential of nanotechnology to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapies and rescue therapeutic efficacy to treat nonresponsive cancers.
Mercatali, Laura; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Liverani, Chiara; De Vita, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni
Metastatic bone disease has a major impact on morbidity of breast cancer (BC) patients. Alterations in mTOR signaling are involved both in cancer progression and in osteoclast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of mTOR inhibitor Everolimus (Eve) on osteoclastogenesis induced by triple negative BC cells. To this aim, we developed an in vitro human model of osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood monocytes co-cultured with the triple negative SCP2 and the hormonal receptor positive MCF7 cell lines. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by TRAP staining, evaluation of F actin rings and Calcitonin Receptor expression. Eve significantly reduced differentiation induced by cancer cells and resulted more effective when evaluated in combination with Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid (Zol). Combination with Zol showed a total abrogation of osteoclast differentiation induced by the triple negative cell line, not by MCF7. Finally, we observed that Eve was active in the inhibition of the crosstalk between cancer cells and osteoclasts reproduced by our model, highlighting a new therapeutic choice for the subsetting of triple negative BC patients. We observed a difference in the response to bone-targeted therapy with respect to BC subtypes. Our model may represent a valid platform for preclinical trials on bone-targeted drugs and for the study of the interplay of BC with bone stromal cells. PMID:27809291
Smolarz, Beata; Zadrożny, Marek; Duda-Szymańska, Joanna; Makowska, Marianna; Samulak, Dariusz; Michalska, Magdalena M; Mojs, Ewa; Bryś, Magdalena; Forma, Ewa; Romanowicz-Makowska, Hanna
The most lethal damage for the cell among all damage is double-strand breaks (DSB) of DNA. DSB cause development of cancer diseases including the triple-negative molecular subtype of breast cancer. The aim of this work was to evaluate the single nucleotide polymorphism -135G>C (rs1801320) of the RAD51 gene encoding DNA repair proteins by homologous recombination (HR) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We assessed the RAD51 -135G>C polymorphism in 50 women with triple-negative breast cancer and in 50 women from the control group. RAD51 polymorphism was analysed by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique. Our results demonstrated a significant positive association between the RAD51 C/C genotype and TNBC, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 5.95 (p = 0.002). The homozygous C/C genotype was found in 68% of breast cancer cases and 20% of controls. The variant 135C allele of RAD51 increased TNBC risk. This is the first study linking single nucleotide polymorphisms of the RAD51 gene with TNBC incidence in the population of Polish women. In conclusion, RAD51 polymorphisms may be regarded as predictive factors of triple-negative breast cancer in the female population. Large studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Configurational information is generated when three or more sources of variance interact. The variations not only disturb each other relationally, but by selecting upon each other, they are also positioned in a configuration. A configuration can be stabilized and/or globalized. Different stabilizations can be considered as second-order variation, and globalization as a second-order selection. The positive manifestations and the negative selections operate upon one another by adding and reducing uncertainty, respectively. Reduction of uncertainty in a configuration can be measured in bits of information. The variables can also be considered as dimensions of the probabilistic entropy in the system(s) under study. The configurational information then provides us with a measure of synergy within a complex system. For example, the knowledge base of an economy can be considered as such a synergy in the otherwise virtual (that is, fourth) dimension of a regime
Arnedos, Monica; Bihan, Celine; Delaloge, Suzette
The so-called triple-negative breast cancer, as defined by tumors that lack estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression, has generated growing interest in recent years despite representing less than 20% of all breast cancers. These tumors constitute an important clinical challenge, as they do not respond to endocrine treatment and other targeted therapies. As a group they harbor an aggressive clinical phenotype with early development of visceral metastases and a poor long-term prognosis. While chemotherapy remains effective in triple-negative disease, research continues to further identify potential new targets based on phenotypical and molecular characteristics of these tumors. In this respect, the presence of a higher expression of different biomarkers including epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor and Akt activation has led to a proliferation of clinical trials assessing the role of inhibitors to these pathways in triple-negative tumors. Moreover, the described overlap between triple-negative and basal-like tumors, and the similarities with tumors arising in the BRCA1 mutation carriers has offered potential therapeutic avenues for patients with these cancers including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and a focus on a higher sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapy agents. Results from these trials have shown some benefit in small subgroups of patients, even in single-agent therapy, which reflects the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer and highlights the need for a further subclassification of these types of tumors for better prognosis identification and treatment individualization. PMID:22754593
Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agusti; Prat, Jaime
The cDNA microarrays allows the classification of breast cancers into 6 groups: luminal A, luminal B, luminal C, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, and basal-like. This latter is characterized by the expression of basal cytokeratins (CKs), and frequent negativity for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. There is a marked parallelism between triple negative breast carcinomas and basal-like carcinoma, but these are not equivalent terms. Estimated concordance is around 80%. CK5 seems to be the best marker for the identification of these tumors. Other good markers to identify these tumors are CK14, CK17, and epidermal growth factor receptor. A subset of triple negative breast carcinomas has myoepithelial differentiation, with positivities for smooth muscle actin, p63, S-100, and CD10 among others. Recent studies suggest that basal like carcinomas are originated from mammary stem cells.
Hussein, Yaser R.; Sood, Anil K.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Albashiti, Bassam; Semaan, Assaad; Nahleh, Zeina; Roh, Juwon; Han, Hee Dong; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba
The polycomb group protein, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), is a transcriptional repressor involved in cell cycle regulation and has been linked to aggressive breast cancer. We examined the clinical and biological significance of EZH2 expression in triple-negative breast cancers. Tissue microarrays were constructed with invasive breast cancer cases and stained with EZH2, cytokeratin 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor 1(EGFR) and p53. The expression of these markers was correlated with clinicopathologic variables and patients’ outcome. Furthermore, in vivo EZH2 gene silencing was achieved using siRNA incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles. Out of 261 cases of invasive breast cancer, high expression of EZH2 was detected in 87 (33%) cases, and it was strongly associated with a triple-negative breast cancer phenotype (P<.001) compared to all other non-triple negative breast cancers. Furthermore, high EZH2 was significantly associated with high histologic grade (P=.01), estrogen receptor negativity (P<.001), progesterone receptor negativity (P<.001), EGFR positivity (P=.04), and high p53 expression (P<.001). Survival analysis demonstrated that patients with high EZH2 had a poorer overall survival, compared to those with low EZH2 (P=.03), and it retained its significance as an independent prognostic factor (P=.02). In addition, EZH2 gene silencing resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth (P<.01) in the orthotopic MB-231 mouse model of breast carcinoma. Our results show that high EZH2 expression is significantly associated with triple-negative breast cancer and decreased survival. EZH2 may represent a potential therapeutic target for this aggressive disease, which warrants further investigation. PMID:22436627
EL Baiomy, Mohamed Ali; El Kashef, Wagdi F
Background: Possible targeted therapies for metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) include cytotoxic chemotherapy that causes interstrand breaks (platinum-based drugs). The excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1) enzyme plays an essential role in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, removing platinum-induced DNA adducts and contributing to cisplatin resistance. Detecting ERCC1 overexpression is important in considering treatment options for metastatic TNBC, including individualized approaches to therapy, and may facilitate improved responses or reduction of unnecessary toxicity. We hypothesized that assigning cisplatin based on pretreatment ERCC1 expression would improve response and survival. This study was conducted to assess the impact of ERCC1 expression on PFS, OS and response rates in metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: From June 2012 to November 2013, 52 metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients were enrolled. ERCC1 protein expression was detected from pretreatment biopsies by Immunohistochemistry. All patients received cisplatin plus paclitaxel. The primary end point was the impact of ERCC1 expression on PFS and OS. Results: 34 patients (65.4%) showed positive ERCC1 expression while 18 (34.6%) proved negative. Positive ERCC1 expression was associated with short PFS (median, 5 months vs. 7 months; P = 0.043), short OS (median, 9 months vs. 11 months; P = 0.033) and poor response to cisplatin based chemotherapy (P = 0.046). Conclusions: This prospective study further validated ERCC1 as a reliable biomarker for customized chemotherapy in metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients. High expression of ERCC1 was thereby fond to be significantly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with platinum based chemotherapy.
Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa; Maiorana, Antonio
Rare earth metals (REM) are a group of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and the lanthanides. In relation to atomic volume and geological behavior, the lanthanides are further subdivided into light, medium and heavy REM. They find many applications in the technological field; however, their impact on the human health is still conflicting and, for many aspects, unknown. During a research program carried on 113 cases of female breast cancer, immunohistochemically categorized in Her2-positive (29 cases), Her2-negative (57 cases) and triple negative (27 cases), aimed to evaluate the role of environmental particulate in carcinogenesis by elemental microanalysis, for the first time in literature we have detected a REM uptake, in detail europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy) and praseodymium (Pr), inside the neoplastic cells belonging to a single triple negative breast cancer. Curiously, the woman affected by this form of malignancy had worked in the ceramic industry, a well-known source of REM, during her life, and she was the one and only patient of our series to be dedicated to this activity. The medical repercussions of our findings are here discussed: in fact, a REM detection in only 1 of 113 examined cases seems to exclude active roles in breast carcinogenesis and discloses new possibilities for therapeutic developments in triple negative breast cancer.
Fkih M'hamed, Insaf; Privat, Maud; Trimeche, Mounir; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Kenani, Abderraouf
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs composed of 18-25 nucleotides that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and have key regulatory roles in cancer, acting as both oncogenes and tumor suppressors. About 1000 genes in humans encode miRNAs, which account for approximately 3% of the human genome, and up to 30% of human protein coding genes may be regulated by miRNAs. The objective of this article is to evaluate the expression profile of four miRNAs previously implicated in triple negative breast cancer: miR-10b, miR-26a, miR-146a and miR-153, and to determine their possible interaction in triple negative and non triple negative breast cancer based on clinical outcome and the expression of BRCA1. 24 triple-negative and 13 non triple negative breast cancer cases, were studied by q-RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of the four studied miRNAs and the BRCA1 protein, respectively. We observed that the BRCA1 protein was absent in 62.5% of the triple negative cases. Besides, the miR-146a and miR-26a were over expressed in triple negative breast cancer. These two miRNAs, miR-10b and miR-153 were significantly associated to lymph node metastases occurrence in triple negative breast carcinoma. All the analyzed microRNAs were not associated with the expression of BRCA1 in our conditions. Our work provides evidence that miR-146a, miR-26a, miR-10b and miR-153 could be defined as biomarkers in triple negative breast cancer to predict lymph node metastases (LNM).
Gasparini, Pierluigi; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Guler, Gulnur; Balci, Serdar; Irkkan, Cigdem; Paisie, Carolyn; Lovat, Francesca; Morrison, Carl; Zhang, Jianying; Scarpa, Aldo; Croce, Carlo M; Shapiro, Charles L; Huebner, Kay
Triple negative breast cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by poor patient survival and lack of targeted therapeutics. Androgen receptor has been associated with triple negative breast cancer pathogenesis, but its role in the different subtypes has not been clearly defined. We examined androgen receptor protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 678 breast cancers, including 396 triple negative cancers. Fifty matched lymph node metastases were also examined. Association of expression status with clinical (race, survival) and pathological (basal, non-basal subtype, stage, grade) features was also evaluated. In 160 triple negative breast cancers, mRNA microarray expression profiling was performed, and differences according to androgen receptor status were analyzed. In triple negative cancers the percentage of androgen receptor positive cases was lower (24.8% vs 81.6% of non-triple negative cases), especially in African American women (16.7% vs 25.5% of cancers of white women). No significant difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in primary tumors vs matched metastatic lesions. Positive androgen receptor immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with tumor grade (p<0.01) and associated with better overall patient survival (p = 0.032) in the non-basal triple negative cancer group. In the microarray study, expression of three genes (HER4, TNFSF10, CDK6) showed significant deregulation in association with androgen receptor status; eg CDK6, a novel therapeutic target in triple negative cancers, showed significantly higher expression level in androgen receptor negative cases (p<0.01). These findings confirm the prognostic impact of androgen receptor expression in non-basal triple negative breast cancers, and suggest targeting of new androgen receptor-related molecular pathways in patients with these cancers.
reduced in comparison to shCON. Metabolomic profiling – alternative metabolic pathways during serum starvation and the coordination of LRP8/ApoE4...hours / siCON at 48 hours). Serum- starvation resulted in the activation of Warburg metabolism , with increases in tryptophan and reduced NAD+ levels...receptor (VLDLR) signaling in triple-negative breast cancer which results in activation of glycolytic and lipid metabolism to drive TNBC tumor cell growth
Xu, Jinhua; Prosperi, Jenifer R; Choudhury, Noura; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Goss, Kathleen H
Our previous data illustrated that activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was enriched in triple-negative breast cancer and associated with reduced overall survival in all patients. To determine whether Wnt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer, we investigated whether β-catenin was necessary for tumorigenic behaviors in vivo and in vitro. β-catenin expression level was significantly reduced in two human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and HCC38, using lentiviral delivery of β-catenin-specific small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Upon implantation of the cells in the mammary fat pad of immunocompromised mice, we found that β-catenin shRNA HCC38 cells formed markedly smaller tumors than control cells and grew much more slowly. In in vitro assays, β-catenin silencing significantly reduced the percentage of Aldefluor-positive cells, a read-out of the stem-like cell population, as well as the expression of stem cell-related target genes including Bmi-1 and c-Myc. β-catenin-knockdown cells were also significantly impaired in their ability to migrate in wound-filling assays and form anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar. β-catenin-knockdown cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and cisplatin. Collectively, these data suggest that β-catenin is required for triple-negative breast cancer development by controlling numerous tumor-associated properties, such as migration, stemness, anchorage-independent growth and chemosensitivity.
Kmiecik, Alicja M; Pula, Bartosz; Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Tomasz; Kruczak, Anna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ugorski, Maciej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr
It has been recently found that metallothionein-3 (MT3) enhances the invasiveness and tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. This finding is in contrast to those of earlier studies, which indicated that overexpression of MT3 in breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines inhibits their growth in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of MT3 in breast cancer progression, we analyzed the effect of MT3-overexpression on proliferation, invasiveness, migration, and tumorigenesis of breast cancer MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells. It was found that MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells overexpressing MT3 were characterized by increased invasiveness in vitro, compared to the control cells. Interestingly, this increased invasiveness correlated with a highly increased concentration of MMP3 in the culture supernatants (p<0.0001). Our data suggest that MT3 may regulate breast cancer cell invasiveness by modulating the expression of MMP3. These experimental results, obtained using triple-negative MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells, were further supported by clinical data. It was found that, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), nuclear MT3 immunoreactivity in cancer cells tended to be associated with patients' shorter disease-specific survival, suggesting that nuclear MT3 expression may be a potential marker of poor prognosis of triple-negative TNBC cases.
Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Tomasz; Kruczak, Anna; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ugorski, Maciej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr
It has been recently found that metallothionein-3 (MT3) enhances the invasiveness and tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. This finding is in contrast to those of earlier studies, which indicated that overexpression of MT3 in breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines inhibits their growth in vitro. Therefore, to clarify the role of MT3 in breast cancer progression, we analyzed the effect of MT3-overexpression on proliferation, invasiveness, migration, and tumorigenesis of breast cancer MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells. It was found that MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells overexpressing MT3 were characterized by increased invasiveness in vitro, compared to the control cells. Interestingly, this increased invasiveness correlated with a highly increased concentration of MMP3 in the culture supernatants (p<0.0001). Our data suggest that MT3 may regulate breast cancer cell invasiveness by modulating the expression of MMP3. These experimental results, obtained using triple-negative MDA-MB-231/BO2 cells, were further supported by clinical data. It was found that, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), nuclear MT3 immunoreactivity in cancer cells tended to be associated with patients’ shorter disease-specific survival, suggesting that nuclear MT3 expression may be a potential marker of poor prognosis of triple-negative TNBC cases. PMID:25933064
Chiorean, Roxana; Braicu, Cornelia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana
Triple negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of tumors, lacking the expression of estrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptors. As frequency, it accounts about 15-20% of all breast cancers. Although in the last years there was a "boom" in publishing over this issue, multiple molecular classifications being elaborated, "the triple negative breast cancer odyssey " is still far away from ending, as the complicated molecular pathways of pathogenesis and drug resistance mechanisms remain yet insufficiently explored. The aim of this review is presentation of molecular signatures that could predict outcome and drug resistance in triple negative breast cancer.
Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma
Thuy, V. T. T.; Viet, D. T.; Hieu, N. V.; Lee, Y. P.; Lam, V. D.; Tung, N. T.
We expand the picture of plasmon hybridization in metamagnetic structure via numerically studying the electromagnetic coupling in the metallic cut-wire-pair super cells. It is shown that a triple negative permeability band can be achieved by systematically controlling the plasmon hybridization in such the structure. The corresponding transmission properties as well as the electromagnetic responses of the plasmon-hybridized structures were presented by using the finite integration technique simulations. Our results would reveal a promising design to obtain the multiple negative refractions based on the combination of hybridized cut-wire-pairs and continuous wires.
Stevens, Kristen N.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Vachon, Celine M.; Wang, Xianshu; Margolin, Sara; Lindblom, Annika; Nevanlinna, Heli; Greco, Dario; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Nickels, Stefan; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Meindl, Alfons; Bartram, Claus R.; Schott, Sarah; Engel, Christof; Godwin, Andrew K.; Weaver, JoEllen; Pathak, Harsh B.; Sharma, Priyanka; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Miron, Penelope; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Fountzilas, George; Gogas, Helen J.; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Annie; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Pérez, José Ignacio Arias; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Peto, Julian; Johnson, Nichola; Fletcher, Olivia; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Wiangnon, Surapon; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Park, Daniel J.; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsu, Huan-Ming; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Hamann, Ute; Dünnebier, Thomas; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans Ulrich; Pharoah, Paul P.; Dunning, Alison M; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcom W.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Hwang, Helena; Eccles, Diana M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Sherman, Mark E.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Severi, Gianluca; Kosel, Matthew L.; Pankratz, V.S.; Slager, Susan; Olson, Janet E.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Lambrechts, Diether; Hatse, Sigrid; Dieudonne, Anne-Sophie; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Soini, Ylermi; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.
The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Here we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 Odds Ratio (OR)=1.10, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.05 – 1.15, p=3.49 × 10-5] and triple negative (TN) (ER, PR and HER2 negative) breast cancer [rs8170 OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.13 – 1.31, p=2.22 × 10-7]. However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk when TN cases were excluded [OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.89 – 1.07, p=0.62]. In addition, a combined analysis of TN cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (n=3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and TN breast cancer risk [OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.18 – 1.33, p=3.31 × 10-13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple negative-specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histological subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. PMID:22331459
Xiong, Bin; Lei, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Jia
Our previous study showed olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) suppressed triple-negative breast cancer cells migration, invasion and metastasis-associated protein MMP 9 expression. OLFM4 was identified as a potential target of miR-103 according to microRNA target databases and published studies. The aim of this study is to validate the relationship between miR-103 and OLFM4, and explore the function and clinical significance of miR-103 in triple-negative breast cancer patients. In our results, miR-103 negatively regulated OLFM4 expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR. OLFM4 was a functional target of miR-103 to regulate triple-negative breast cancer cells migration, invasion and MMP 9 expression. Moreover, miR-103 overexpression was observed in triple-negative breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that miR-103 overexpression was a poor independent prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancer patients. In conclusion, miR-103 acts as an oncogene miRNA to promote triple-negative breast cancer cells migration and invasion through targeting OLFM4.
Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Amith, Schammim Ray; Vincent, Krista Marie; Wilkinson, Jodi Marie; Postovit, Lynne Marie; Fliegel, Larry
Mounting evidence supports a major role for the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 in cancer progression and metastasis. NHE1 is hyperactive at the onset of oncogenic transformation, resulting in intracellular alkalinization and extracellular microenvironmental acidification. These conditions promote invasion and facilitate metastasis. However, the signal pathways governing the regulation of exchanger activity are still unclear. This is especially important in the aggressively metastatic, triple-negative basal breast cancer subtype. We used affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry to identify novel and putative interaction partners of NHE1 in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. NHE1 associated with several types of proteins including cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones. We validated protein interactions by co-immunoprecipitation for: 14-3-3, AKT, α-enolase, CHP1, HSP70 and HSP90. Additionally, we used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to study NHE1 gene expression in primary patient breast tumours versus adjacent normal tissue. NHE1 expression was elevated in breast tumour samples and, when broken down by breast cancer subtype, NHE1 gene expression was significantly lower in tumours of the basal subtype compared to luminal and HER2+ subtypes. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis showed that NHE1 expression positively correlated with p90(RSK) expression in basal, but not luminal, primary tumours. Other proteins were negatively correlated with NHE1 expression in basal breast cancer tumours. Taken together, our data provides the first insight into the signalling molecules that form the NHE1 interactome in triple-negative breast cancer cells. These results will focus our search for novel targeted therapies.
Ababil, M. H.; Saimoom, M. F.; Chowdhury, S. M. H.; Mahdy, M. R. C.; Matin, M. A.
Based on the idea of additional modified mode(s) (Mahdy et al., IEEE Antennas Wirel Propag Lett 10:869-872, 2011), metamaterial-loaded triple-band rectangular patch antennas have been reported in (Mahdy et al., Prog Electromagn Res Lett 21:99-107, 2011). But the idea of additional modified mode(s) to achieve multiband performance in circular patch antenna has not been reported so far. Recently we have reported the idea of "additional modified mode(s)" in circular shaped patch antennas loaded with metamaterials to achieve multiband performance (Ferdous et al., IET Microw Antennas Propag J 7:768-776, 2013). On the basis of the design algorithm reported in (Ferdous et al., IET Microw Antennas Propag J 7:768-776, 2013), in this chapter, a triple-band circular patch antenna loaded with ENG metamaterial has been proposed. The proposed antenna not only provides good resonance, but also ensures satisfactory radiation performances (directivity, radiation efficiency, and gain) for all the three bands. Achieving a triple-band performance has been possible by modifying TM δ10(1 < δ < 2) mode (using ɛ negative metamaterial) along with TM210 mode modification (due to symmetrical slotting). It is expected that this sort of antenna will be really effective in multiband highly directive applications, especially in satellite communication.
Gvozdeva, L. G.; Gavrenkov, S. A.
Triple configurations of shock waves with negative reflection angles are considered. These configurations have been observed in quasi-steady cases of shock wave reflection from a planar wedge in real gases, while in steady cases three-shock configurations are only known to occur with positive reflection angles. Boundaries for the appearance of a three-shock configuration with a negative reflection angle in steady cases are analytically determined as dependent on the initial Mach number of the flow, angle of incidence, and adiabatic index. The formation of a three-shock configuration with a negative reflection angle in a steady flow must lead to a change in the character of the wave pattern, and under certain conditions it can lead to instability.
Dawood, S.; Broglio, K.; Esteva, F. J.; Yang, W.; Kau, S.-W.; Islam, R.; Albarracin, C.; Yu, T. K.; Green, M.; Hortobagyi, G. N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, A. M.
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and survival following brain metastases among women with triple receptor-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: In all, 679 patients with nonmetastatic triple receptor-negative breast cancer diagnosed from 1980 to 2006 were identified. Cumulative incidence of brain metastases was computed. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to explore factors that predict for development of brain metastases. Survival was computed using the Kaplan–Meier product limit method. Results: Median follow-up was 26.9 months. In all, 42 (6.2%) patients developed brain metastases with a cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years of 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8% to 7.9%] and 9.6% (95% CI 6.8% to 13%), respectively. A total of 24 (3.5%) patients developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence with cumulative incidence at 2 and 5 years of 2.0% (95% CI 2.6% to 6.0%) and 4.9% (95% CI 3.2% to 7.0%), respectively. In the multivariable model, no specific factor was observed to be significantly associated with time to brain metastases. Median survival for all patients who developed brain metastases and those who developed brain metastases as the first site of recurrence was 2.9 months (95% CI 2.0–7.6 months) and 5.8 months (95% CI 1.7–11.0 months), respectively. Conclusion: In this single-institutional study, patients with nonmetastatic triple receptor-negative breast tumors have a high early incidence of brain metastases associated with poor survival and maybe an ideal cohort to target brain metastases preventive strategies. PMID:19150943
Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong
Highlights: • Suppression of PKM2 sensitizes triple-negative breast cancer cells to doxorubicin. • Repression of PKM2 affects the glycolysis and decreases ATP production. • Downregulation of PKM2 increases the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin. • Inhibition of PKM2 enhances the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin in vivo. - Abstract: Cancer cells alter regular metabolic pathways in order to sustain rapid proliferation. One example of metabolic remodeling in cancerous tissue is the upregulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis. Indeed, PKM2 has previously been identified as a tumor biomarker and as a potential target for cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effects of combined treatment with doxorubicin and anti-PKM2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The suppression of PKM2 resulted in changes in glucose metabolism, leading to decreased synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Reduced levels of ATP resulted in the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in several triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the combined effect of PKM2 siRNA and doxorubicin was evaluated in an in vivo MDA-MB-231 orthotopic breast cancer model. The siRNA was systemically administered through a polyethylenimine (PEI)-based delivery system that has been extensively used. We demonstrate that the combination treatment showed superior anticancer efficacy as compared to doxorubicin alone. These findings suggest that targeting PKM2 can increase the efficacy of chemotherapy, potentially providing a new approach for improving the outcome of chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.
Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Huan-Chau; Chiang, Yi-Hao; Chen, Caleb Gon-Shen; Huang, Ling; Wang, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Chun-Chia; Lin, Johnson; Chang, Yi-Fang; Chang, Ming-Chih; Hsieh, Ruey-Kuen; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lim, Ken-Hong; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh
Mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR genes have been identified in the majority of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients, and patients negative for these three mutations are the so-called triple-negative (TN) MPN. In this study, we examined the mutational profiles of 16 triple-negative MPN patients including 7 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 1 primary myelofibrosis and 8 polycythemia vera (PV). Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed using the ACTOnco Comprehensive Cancer Panel (Ion AmpliSeq Comprehensive Cancer Panel, Life Technologies) to target all coding exons of 409 cancer-related genes. Overall, 30 nonsynonymous somatic mutations were detected in 12 (75%) patients with a range of 1-5 mutations per sample. Notably, one ET patient was found to have JAK2V617F and KITP551L mutations at very low allele frequency. One MPLP70L and 1 MPLM602T mutations were identified each in 1 ET and 1 PV, respectively. Other recurrent mutations were also identified including KMT2C, KMT2D, IRS2, SYNE1, PDE4DIP, SETD2, ATM, TNFAIP3 and CCND2. In addition, germline mutations were also found in some cancer-related genes. Copy number changes were rare in this cohort of TN MPNs. In conclusion, both somatic and germline mutations can be detected in TN MPN patients.
Castrellon, Aurelio Bartolome; Pidhorecky, Ihor; Valero, Vicente; Raez, Luis Estuardo
Triple negative breast (TNBC) cancer constitutes a heterogeneous group of disease with histologic and molecular differences. Complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in TNBC is associated with improved outcomes. Efforts have been made in identifying drug combinations that will increase the response rate to preoperative chemotherapy. In this review we present recent studies that have incorporated carboplatin (Cb) in the NACT of TNBC. We discuss the homologous recombination deficiency score and the somatic or germline mutation for BRCA as potential biomarkers for future selection of patients that could benefit from the addition of Cb to NACT. PMID:28382189
LaPorta, Erika; Welsh, JoEllen
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with six molecularly defined subtypes, the most aggressive of which are triple negative breast cancers that lack expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and do not exhibit amplification of the growth factor receptor HER2. Triple negative breast cancers often exhibit basal-like gene signatures and are enriched for CD44+ cancer stem cells. In this report we have characterized the molecular actions of the VDR in a model of triple negative breast cancer. Estrogen independent, invasive mammary tumor cell lines established from wild-type (WT) and VDR knockout (VDRKO) mice were used to demonstrate that VDR is necessary for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) mediated anti-cancer actions in vitro and to identify novel targets of this receptor. Western blotting confirmed differential VDR expression and demonstrated the lack of ER, PR and Her2 in these cell lines. Re-introduction of human VDR (hVDR) into VDRKO cells restored the anti-proliferative actions of 1,25D. Genomic profiling demonstrated that 1,25D failed to alter gene expression in KO240 cells whereas major changes were observed in WT145 cells and in KO clones stably expressing hVDR (KO(hVDR) cells). With a 2-fold cutoff, 117 transcripts in WT145 cells and 197 transcripts in the KO(hVDR) clones were significantly altered by 1,25D. Thirty-five genes were found to be commonly regulated by 1,25D in all VDR-positive cell lines. Of these, we identified a cohort of four genes (Plau, Hbegf, Postn, Has2) that are known to drive breast cancer invasion and metastasis whose expression was markedly down regulated by 1,25D. These data support a model whereby 1,25D coordinately suppresses multiple proteins that are required for survival of triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer cells. Since studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women with basal-like breast cancer, correction of vitamin D deficiency in these women represents a
Saha, Poornima; Nanda, Rita
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease in which tumors are defined by lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. No targeted therapies are available for the treatment of TNBC, and chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Gene expression profiling has identified six distinct molecular subtypes of TNBC. The identification of novel targets, coupled with the development of therapies for different subsets of TNBC, holds great promise for the future treatment of this aggressive form of breast cancer. This review focuses on novel therapies in development for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:27583027
Zhang, Jun-Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Bin
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a very heterogeneous group of breast diseases. Currently, the backbone of therapy for TNBC is mainly chemotherapy as there are no effective specific targeted agents approved to treat TNBC. Despite initial responses to chemotherapy, resistance frequently and rapidly develops and metastatic TNBC has a poor prognosis. Therefore, new targeted strategies are, accordingly, urgently needed. This article discusses the recent developments in targeted agents explored for TNBC, aiming to offer novel therapeutic strategies that can potentially assist in designing personalized therapeutics in the future as well as provide the basis for further research in an attempt to target TNBC. PMID:27799799
Adams, Sylvia; Goldstein, Lori J; Sparano, Joseph A; Demaria, Sandra; Badve, Sunil S
Upon analysis of archived primary tumors of 482 patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) enrolled in two randomized Phase III adjuvant chemotherapy trials, we have found that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), as assessed and quantified by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining are a robust and independent predictor of disease-free survival (DFS), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI) and overall survival (OS).(1) Our findings provide confirmation of results observed in TNBC in a European adjuvant chemotherapy dataset and therefore elevate TILs as prognostic biomarker for operable TNBC to level I evidence.
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Brain; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative
Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Swanner, Jessica; Mims, Jade; Carroll, David L; Akman, Steven A; Furdui, Cristina M; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi N
Identification of differential sensitivity of cancer cells as compared to normal cells has the potential to reveal a therapeutic window for the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. Exposure to AgNPs is known to cause dose-dependent toxicities, including induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage, which can lead to cell death. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes are more vulnerable to agents that cause oxidative stress and DNA damage than are other breast cancer subtypes. We hypothesized that TNBC may be susceptible to AgNP cytotoxicity, a potential vulnerability that could be exploited for the development of new therapeutic agents. We show that AgNPs are highly cytotoxic toward TNBC cells at doses that have little effect on nontumorigenic breast cells or cells derived from liver, kidney, and monocyte lineages. AgNPs induced more DNA and oxidative damage in TNBC cells than in other breast cells. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that AgNPs reduce TNBC growth and improve radiation therapy. These studies show that unmodified AgNPs act as a self-therapeutic agent with a combination of selective cytotoxicity and radiation dose-enhancement effects in TNBC at doses that are nontoxic to noncancerous breast and other cells. PMID:26185437
Kim, Won Hwa; Han, Wonshik; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Park, In Ae; Moon, Woo Kyung
There has been a major need to better understand the biological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers. Compared with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cancers, several magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings have been reported as characteristic findings. However, information regarding their location has not been described. Our study was to compare the location of triple-negative breast cancers with that of ER-positive breast cancers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The locations of 1102 primary breast cancers (256 triple-negative and 846 ER-positive) in 1090 women (mean, 52.1 years) were reviewed using three-dimensional (3D) coordinates. The x-axis measurement was recorded as the transverse distance from the posterior nipple line; y-axis measurement as the anteroposterior distance from the chest wall; z-axis measurement as the superoinferior distance from the posterior nipple line. The association between breast cancer subtype and tumor location was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Triple-negative breast cancers were significantly closer to the chest wall than ER-positive breast cancers in absolute (1.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, P < .0001) and normalized (0.21 vs. 0.25, P < .0001) y-axis distances. The x- and z-axes distances were not significantly different between triple-negative and ER-positive breast cancers. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, mammographic density, axillary nodal status, and triple-negative subtype were significantly associated with absolute and normalized distances from the chest wall (all P < .05). Our results show that triple-negative breast cancers have a tendency toward a posterior or prepectoral location compared with ER-positive breast cancers.
Huebschman, Michael L; Lane, Nancy L; Liu, Huaying; Sarode, Venetia R; Devlin, Judith L; Frenkel, Eugene P
Purpose This study interrogates the molecular status of individual cells in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and explores the molecular identification and characterization of these tumors to consider the exploitation of a potential-targeted therapeutic approach. Patients and methods Hyperspectral immunologic cell by cell analysis was applied to touch imprint smears obtained from fresh tumors of breast cancer patients. Results Cell by cell analysis confirms significant intratumoral molecular heterogeneity in cancer markers with differences from polymerase chain reaction marker reporting. The individual cell heterogeneity was recognized in adjacent cells examined with panels of ten molecular markers in each single cell and included some markers that are considered to express “stem-cell” character. In addition, heterogeneity did not relate either to the size or stage of the primary tumor or to the site from within the cancer. Conclusion There is a very significant molecular heterogeneity when “adjacent cells” are examined in triple-negative breast cancer, thereby making a successful targeted approach unlikely. In addition, it is not reasonable to consider that these changes will provide an answer to tumor dormancy. PMID:26316815
Al Dhaheri, Yusra; Attoub, Samir; Ramadan, Gaber; Arafat, Kholoud; Bajbouj, Khuloud; Karuvantevida, Noushad; AbuQamar, Synan; Eid, Ali; Iratni, Rabah
Background In this study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of carnosol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, in triple negative breast cancer. Results We found that carnosol significantly inhibited the viability and colony growth induced G2 arrest in the triple negative MDA-MB-231. Blockade of the cell cycle was associated with increased p21/WAF1 expression and downregulation of p27. Interestingly, carnosol was found to induce beclin1-independent autophagy and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The coexistence of both events, autophagy and apoptosis, was confirmed by electron micrography. Induction of autophagy was found to be an early event, detected within 3 h post-treatment, which subsequently led to apoptosis. Carnosol treatment also caused a dose-dependent increase in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). Moreover, we show that carnosol induced DNA damage, reduced the mitochondrial potential and triggered the activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, we found that carnosol induced a dose-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of ROS by tiron, a ROS scavenger, blocked the induction of autophagy and apoptosis and attenuated DNA damage. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify the induction of autophagy by carnosol. Conclusion In conclusion our findings provide strong evidence that carnosol may be an alternative therapeutic candidate against the aggressive form of breast cancer and hence deserves more exploration. PMID:25299698
Pileczki, Valentina; Braicu, Cornelia; Gherman, Claudia D.; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the promotion and progression of cancer, including triple negative breast cancer cells. Thus, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular signaling pathways that connect TNF-α with the survival of tumor cells. In our experiments, we used as an in vitro model for triple negative breast cancer the cell line Hs578T. The purpose of this study is to determine the gene expression profiling of apoptotic signaling networks after blocking TNF-α formation by using specially designed siRNA molecules to target TNF-α messenger RNA. Knockdown of TNF-α gene was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, as observed by monitoring the cell index using the xCELLigence RTCA System and flow cytometry. PCR array technology was used to examine the transcript levels of 84 genes involved in apoptosis. 15 genes were found to be relevant after comparing the treated group with the untreated one of which 3 were down-regulated and 12 up-regulated. The down-regulated genes are all involved in cell survival, whereas the up-regulated ones are involved in and interact with pro-apoptotic pathways. The results described here indicate that the direct target of TNF-α in the Hs578T breast cancer cell line increases the level of certain pro-apoptotic factors that modulate different cellular networks that direct the cells towards death. PMID:23263670
Fitzpatrick, P A; Akrap, N; Söderberg, E M V; Harrison, H; Thomson, G J; Landberg, G
In order to identify novel treatment principles specifically affecting cancer stem cells in triple-negative breast cancer, we have developed a high-throughput screening method based on the mammosphere and anoikis resistance assays allowing us to screen compounds using a functional readout. The assay was validated against manual protocols and through the use of positive controls, such as the response to hypoxia and treatment with the known cancer stem cell-targeting compound salinomycin. Manual and robotic procedures were compared and produced similar results in cell handling, cell cultures, and counting techniques, with no statistically significant difference produced from either method. The variance between samples processed manually versus robotically was no greater than 0.012, while Levene's test of significance was 0.2, indicating no significant difference between mammosphere data produced manually or robotically. Through the screening of 989 FDA-approved drugs and a follow-up screen assessing the antineoplastic subgroup, we have identified three therapeutic compounds with the ability to modulate the breast cancer stem cell fraction in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, highlighting their potential usage as stem cell-specific adjuvant treatments.
Bassey-Archibong, Blessing I; Rayner, Lyndsay G A; Hercules, Shawn M; Aarts, Craig W; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Bramson, Jonathan L; Hassell, John A; Daniel, Juliet M
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly aggressive and lack specific targeted therapies. Recent studies have reported high expression of the transcription factor Kaiso in triple negative tumors, and this correlates with their increased aggressiveness. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of Kaiso in the growth and survival of TNBCs. Herein, we report that Kaiso depletion attenuates TNBC cell proliferation, and delays tumor onset in mice xenografted with the aggressive MDA-231 breast tumor cells. We further demonstrate that Kaiso depletion attenuates the survival of TNBC cells and increases their propensity for apoptotic-mediated cell death. Notably, Kaiso depletion downregulates BRCA1 expression in TNBC cells expressing mutant-p53 and we found that high Kaiso and BRCA1 expression correlates with a poor overall survival in breast cancer patients. Collectively, our findings reveal a role for Kaiso in the proliferation and survival of TNBC cells, and suggest a relevant role for Kaiso in the prognosis and treatment of TNBCs.
Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Geyer, Felipe C; De Filippo, Maria R; Eberle, Carey A; Akram, Muzaffar; Fusco, Nicola; Ichihara, Shu; Sakr, Rita A; Yatabe, Yasushi; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O; Wen, Y Hannah; Weigelt, Britta; Schnitt, Stuart J; Reis-Filho, Jorge S
Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare proliferative lesion of the breast composed of small glands lacking myoepithelial cells and lined by S100-positive, oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative epithelial cells. There is evidence to suggest that MGA may constitute a non-obligate precursor of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We sought to define the genomic landscape of pure MGA and of MGA, atypical MGA (AMGA) and associated TNBCs, and to determine whether synchronous MGA, AMGA, and TNBCs would be clonally related. Two pure MGAs and eight cases of MGA and/or AMGA associated with in situ or invasive TNBC were collected, microdissected, and subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all coding regions of 236 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer or related to DNA repair. Pure MGAs lacked clonal non-synonymous somatic mutations and displayed limited copy number alterations (CNAs); conversely, all MGAs (n = 7) and AMGAs (n = 3) associated with TNBC harboured at least one somatic non-synonymous mutation (range 3-14 and 1-10, respectively). In all cases where TNBCs were analyzed, identical TP53 mutations and similar patterns of gene CNAs were found in the MGA and/or AMGA and in the associated TNBC. In the MGA/AMGA associated with TNBC lacking TP53 mutations, somatic mutations affecting PI3K pathway-related genes (eg PTEN, PIK3CA, and INPP4B) and tyrosine kinase receptor signalling-related genes (eg ERBB3 and FGFR2) were identified. At diagnosis, MGAs associated with TNBC were found to display subclonal populations, and clonal shifts in the progression from MGA to AMGA and/or to TNBC were observed. Our results demonstrate the heterogeneity of MGAs, and that MGAs associated with TNBC, but not necessarily pure MGAs, are genetically advanced, clonal, and neoplastic lesions harbouring recurrent mutations in TP53 and/or other cancer genes, supporting the notion that a subset of MGAs and AMGAs may constitute
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are associated with aggressive course, higher rates of visceral and central nervous system metastases and lower survival rate than hormone receptor positive. Once metastasis has occurred, a median survival was approximately one year. Currently, chemotherapy in TNBC is similar to other HER2- negative breast cancers but in the near future, it will revolutionize. TNBCs are quite heterogeneous based on biomarkers and genetic variations. The series of new drugs have been tried; in this article, platinum, anti-epigenetic drugs, PARP inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, Src family kinase inhibitor, anti androgen, glycoprotein Non-metastatic melanoma B (gpNMB) antibody, LHRH conjugated to cytotoxic drugs and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway will be explained. What is the optimal therapy for TNBC patients? It is still not clear but it seems that the road map according to biological and genetic markers is taking shape.
Lavrov, A V; Zubtsova, Zh I; Zubtsov, D A; Frolova, M A; Ignatova, E O; Skrypnikova, M A; Malysheva, E V; Legchenko, E V; Petrovskii, A V; Utyashev, I A; Tyulyandin, S A; Gol'dshtein, D V
The presence of circulating tumor cells in the blood of patients with triple negative breast cancer (early and locally advanced cancer) before and after preoperative chemotherapy was assessed using expression markers. Before therapy, circulating tumor cells were detected in 5 of 13 (38%) patients with early cancer and in 7 of 17 (41.2%) patients with locally advanced cancer. After therapy, the circulating immune cells were detected in one patient with locally advanced cancer, who had no circulating cells before therapy. The tumor was resistant to chemotherapy and the disease progressed. The detected circulating tumor cells were HER-2-positive, while the primary tumor was HER-2-negative. It was concluded that the circulating immune cells can be a potential marker of the efficiency of therapy and predictors of the disease course, while their phenotype can differ from the phenotype of the primary tumor.
Breast cancer has long been recognized as a heterogeneous entity, with distinct subsets characterized by differences in tumor biology and response to therapy. With the advent of molecular profiling, we have gained a further appreciation of the heterogeneity of this complex disease. While the last decade has seen advances in the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/erb-B2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers, outcomes for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and HER2-negative-or "triple-negative"-breast cancer (TNBC) remain poor. A better understanding of the shared biology of BRCA1-associated breast cancer and sporadic TNBC holds much promise for changing the outlook for women with this aggressive disease. This review focuses on our current understanding of the clinicopathological features of TNBC, therapeutic options and ongoing research efforts.
Kuroda, S.; Shirakawa, H.
Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron-nuclear-nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) spectra of stretch-oriented cis-rich polyacetylene at low temperatures show clear spectral turning points when the external magnetic field is parallel to the stretch direction. The difference between ENDOR and TRIPLE spectra, depending on the pumping frequency of the latter, provide direct evidence that the turning points are associated with the negative spin sites of the soliton, arising from electron correlation effect, as predicted from our previous ENDOR analysis.
Villarreal-Garza, C.; Weitzel, J. N.; Llacuachaqui, M.; Sifuentes, E.; Magallanes-Hoyos, M. C.; Gallardo, L.; Alvarez-Gómez, R. M.; Herzog, J.; Castillo, D.; Royer, R.; Akbari, Mohammad; Lara-Medina, F.; Herrera, L. A.; Mohar, A.
Various guidelines recommend that women with triple-negative breast cancer should be tested for BRCA1 mutations, but the prevalence of mutations may vary with ethnic group and with geographic region, and the optimal cutoff age for testing has not been established. We estimated the frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among 190 women with triple-negative breast cancer, unselected for family history, diagnosed at age 50 or less at a single hospital in Mexico City. Patients were screened for 115 recurrent BRCA mutations, which have been reported previously in women of Hispanic origin, including a common large rearrangement Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del). A BRCA mutation was detected in 44 of 190 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (23 %). Forty-three mutations were found in BRCA1 and one mutation was found in BRCA2. Seven different mutations accounted for 39 patients (89 % of the total mutations). The Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del) was found 18 times and accounted for 41 % of all mutations detected. There is a high prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young triple-negative breast cancer patients in Mexico. Women with triple-negative breast cancer in Mexico should be screened for mutations in BRCA1. PMID:25716084
Rane, Chetan; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef; Crochiere, Marsha; Das-Gupta, Soumyasri; Minden, Audrey
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of several subtypes. Among these subtypes, triple negative breast cancer is particularly difficult to treat. This is due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms behind the disease, and consequently a lack of druggable targets. PAK4 plays critical roles in cell survival, proliferation, and morphology. PAK4 protein levels are high in breast cancer cells and breast tumors, and the gene is often amplified in basal like breast cancers, which are frequently triple negative. PAK4 is also overexpressed in other types of cancer, making it a promising drug target. However, its inhibition is complicated by the fact that PAK4 has both kinase-dependent and -independent functions. Here we investigate a new clinical compound KPT-9274, which has been shown to inhibit PAK4 and NAMPT. We find that KPT-9274 (and its analog, KPT-8752) can reduce the steady state level of PAK4 protein in triple negative breast cancer cells. These compounds also block the growth of the breast cancer cells in vitro, and stimulate apoptosis. Most importantly, oral administration of KPT-9274 reduces tumorigenesis in mouse models of human triple negative breast cancer. Our results indicate that KPT-9274 is a novel therapeutic option for triple negative breast cancer therapy. PMID:28198380
Ai, Xiaohong; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhiyan; Xie, Xiaoming
Background Anemia usually refers to low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Previous studies indicated that anemia negatively influence the survival in various cancers. Hematocrit (HCT) is the volume percentage of red blood cells in blood, which could indicate anemia in both individuals and populations. This study compared the value of HCT with that of Hb for predicting outcomes of patients who underwent treatment for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods A retrospective study of 293 triple negative breast cancer patients, accepting treatment from January 2004 to December 2009 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, was conducted. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were used to calculate disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results The cut-off value of HCT was 35.9% determined by X-tile software analysis. The cut-off value of Hb was 12.0 g/dl based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In univariate analysis, low HCT and low Hb were both significantly associated with decreased DFS and OS. In multivariate analysis, HCT (HR: 0.570; 95% CI: 0.331–0.981, P = 0.042 for DFS; HR: 0.456; 95% CI: 0.256–0.813, P = 0.008 for OS) was still identified as independent predictor of outcome, but not Hb. Conclusion Pretreatment low HCT is independently associated with poor prognosis in TNBC patients. However, HCT was found to be superior to Hb in terms of predicting breast cancer mortality. In the future, large-scale prospective studies or validation studies are needed to verify our findings. PMID:27851755
Ye, Jun; Xia, Xuejun; Dong, Wujun; Hao, Huazhen; Meng, Luhua; Yang, Yanfang; Wang, Renyun; Lyu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yuling
There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs) on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel–cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul) was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231) and non-TNBC (MCF7) cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native LDL. The findings of this paper further confirm the therapeutic potential of PTX-CH Emul in clinical applications involving TNBC therapy. PMID:27601899
Zhang, Jianchao; Shao, Ximing; Sun, Haiyan; Liu, Ke; Ding, Zhihao; Chen, Juntao; Fang, Lijing; Su, Wu; Hong, Yang; Li, Huashun; Li, Hongchang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with higher rates of early relapse and metastasis, is frequently associated with aberrant activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Nonetheless, how EMT is initiated and regulated during TNBC progression is not well understood. Here, we report that NUMB is a negative regulator of EMT in both human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Reduced NUMB expression was significantly associated with elevated EMT in TNBC. Conversely, overexpression of NUMB strongly attenuated the EMT program and metastasis of TNBC cell lines. Interestingly, we showed that NUMB employs different molecular mechanisms to regulate EMT. In normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells expressing wild-type p53, NUMB suppressed EMT by stabilizing p53. However, in TNBC cells, loss of NUMB facilitated the EMT program by activating Notch signaling. Consistent with these findings, low NUMB expression and high Notch activity were significantly correlated with the TNBC subtype in patients. Collectively, these findings reveal novel molecular mechanisms of NUMB in the regulation of breast tumor EMT, especially in TNBC. PMID:27506933
García-Castillo, Verónica; López-Urrutia, Eduardo; Villanueva-Sánchez, Octavio; Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel Á.; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Cortés-González, Carlo; López-Camarillo, César; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos
Background: Chemotherapy is the backbone of systemic treatment for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is one of the most relevant breast cancers molecular types due to the ability of tumor cells to develop drug resistance, highlighting the urgent need to design newer and safer drug combinations for treatment. In this context, to overcome tumor cell drug resistance, we employed a novel combinatorial treatment including Doxorubicin, Metformin, and Sodium Oxamate (DoxMetOx). Such pharmacological combination targets indispensable hallmarks of cancer-related to aerobic glycolysis and DNA synthesis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five female nude mice were transplanted subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231 triple negative human cancer cell line. Once tumors were visible, mice were treated with doxorubicin, metformin, oxamate or all possible pharmacologic combinations. Treatments were administered daily for 15 days and tumors were measured by calipers every day. MicroPET images were taken in three different occasions, basal state, in the middle of the treatment, and at the end of treatment. Western blot analyses, qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity assays were performed to elucidate the mechanism of cell death promoted by the drugs in vitro. Results: In this work we assessed the proof of concept of metabolic correction in solid tumors as an effective drug treatment; hence, mice bearing tumors treated with the DoxMetOx therapy showed a complete inhibition of the tumor mass growing in 15 days of treatment depicted by the micro PET images. In vitro studies displayed that the three drugs together act by inhibiting both, mTOR-phosphorylation and expression of LDH-A gene, promoting apoptosis via dependent on the caspase-3 pathway, accompanied by cleavage of PARP. Moreover, induction of autophagy process was observed by the accumulation of LC3-II, a primordial protein implicated in the conformation and elongation of the autophagolysosome. Conclusions: The lack of
Chiche, A; Moumen, M; Romagnoli, M; Petit, V; Lasla, H; Jézéquel, P; de la Grange, P; Jonkers, J; Deugnier, M-A; Glukhova, M A; Faraldo, M M
Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the expression of basal cell markers, no estrogen or progesterone receptor expression and a lack of HER2 overexpression. Triple-negative tumors often display activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and most have impaired p53 function. We studied the interplay between p53 loss and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in stem cell function and tumorigenesis, by deleting p53 from the mammary epithelium of K5ΔNβcat mice displaying a constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in basal cells. K5ΔNβcat transgenic mice present amplification of the basal stem cell pool and develop triple-negative mammary carcinomas. The loss of p53 in K5ΔNβcat mice led to an early expansion of mammary stem/progenitor cells and accelerated the formation of triple-negative tumors. In particular, p53-deficient tumors expressed high levels of integrins and extracellular matrix components and were enriched in cancer stem cells. They also overexpressed the tyrosine kinase receptor Met, a feature characteristic of human triple-negative breast tumors. The inhibition of Met kinase activity impaired tumorsphere formation, demonstrating the requirement of Met signaling for cancer stem cell growth in this model. Human basal-like breast cancers with predicted mutated p53 status had higher levels of MET expression than tumors with wild-type p53. These results connect p53 loss and β-catenin activation to stem cell regulation and tumorigenesis in triple-negative cancer and highlight the role of Met signaling in maintaining cancer stem cell properties, revealing new cues for targeted therapies.Oncogene advance online publication, 24 October 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.396.
Zhu, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Wen
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) signals vascular development and angiogenesis mainly by binding to VEGF receptor family member 2 (VEGFR-2). Adaptor proteins mediate many VEGFR-2’s functions in the development of blood vessels. Cancer cells secrete VEGF to activate VEGFR-2 pathway in their neighboring endothelial cells in the process of cancer-related angiogenesis. Interestingly, activation of VEGFR-2 signaling is found in breast cancer cells, but its role and regulation are not clear. We highlighted research advances of VEGFR-2, with a focus on VEGFR-2’s regulation by mutant p53 in breast cancer. In addition, we reviewed recent Food and Drug Administration-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs that can inhibit the function of VEGFR-2. Ongoing preclinical and clinical studies might prove that pharmaceutically targeting VEGFR-2 could be an effective therapeutic strategy in treating triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:26500608
Collina, Francesca; Cerrone, Margherita; Peluso, Valentina; Laurentiis, Michelino De; Caputo, Roberta; Cecio, Rossella De; Liguori, Giuseppina; Botti, Gerardo; Cantile, Monica; Bonito, Maurizio Di
Developing of personalized therapies for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) requires a more detailed knowledge of its biology and a correct stratification of molecular subtypes. Androgen Receptor (AR) is expressed in a large part of TNBCs but its prognostic role in this Breast Cancer (BC) subtype is highly debated. In this study, we analyzed AR expression in a series of 238 TNBCs and correlated its expression with clinical-pathological features, survival, and metabolic profile. We showed a consistent association between AR expression and a better prognosis of TNBC patients, while its downregulation appeared strongly associated with diabetic disease. Since a recent prospective study reported a lower BC risk in diabetic women treated with drugs able to reduce circulating levels of glucose compared with non-diabetic woman, and in vitro studies showed that AR level are regulated directly by hyperglycemia, we speculate on the perspective of new integrated therapies for TNBC. PMID:27648143
Garcia, Jeison; Lizcano, Fernando
The Jumonji-containing domain protein, KDM4C, is a histone demethylase associated with the development of several forms of human cancer. However, its specific function in the viability of tumoral lineages is yet to be determined. This work investigates the importance of KDM4C activity in cell proliferation and chromosome segregation of three triple-negative breast cancer cell lines using a specific demethylase inhibitor. Immunofluorescence assays show that KDM4C is recruited to mitotic chromosomes and that the modulation of its activity increases the number of mitotic segregation errors. However, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assays demonstrate that the demethylase activity is required for cell viability. These results suggest that the histone demethylase activity of KDM4C is essential for breast cancer progression given its role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability and cell growth, thus highlighting it as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27840577
Fernandez-Gallardo, Miriam; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Sandoval, Alejandro; Felix, Ricardo; Monjaraz, Eduardo
Emerging evidence suggests that the adenosine (Ado) receptors may play crucial roles in tumor progression. Here, we show that Ado increases proliferation and migration in a triple negative breast cancer model, the MDA-MB 231 cell line. The use of specific agonists and antagonists evidenced that these effects depend on the activation of the A2B receptor, which then triggers an intracellular response mediated by the adenylate cyclase/PKA/cAMP signaling pathway. Ado also increases the expression of NaV1.5 channels, a potential biomarker in breast cancer. Together, these data suggest important roles of the A2B receptors and NaV1.5 channels in the Ado-induced increase in proliferation and migration of the MDA-MB 231 cells.
Trinca, Francisco; Inácio, Mariana; Timóteo, Teresa; Dinis, Rui
A woman aged 35 years was diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer in October 2012. During the investigation, it was discovered that she was pregnant, the patient decided to have an abortion. She was submitted to a radical modified mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy followed by adjuvant breast radiotherapy of the left breast. 2 months after the adjuvant treatment, she began to have headaches and dizziness. The cranial MRI (head MRI) showed brain metastasis. She was then treated with whole brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and concomitant temozolomide which resulted in complete response. 1.5 year later, she was able to get pregnant and gave birth to a baby without complications. The previous imaging reassessment performed in September 2016 shows no evidence of recurrent breast cancer.
Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M
There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751
Lawrence, Cortney L.; Baldwin, Albert S.
Enhancer of zeste homology 2 (EZH2) is the methyltransferase component of the polycomb repressive complex (PRC2) which represses gene transcription via histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 23 (H3K27me3). EZH2 activity has been linked with oncogenesis where it is thought to block expression of certain tumor suppressors. Relative to a role in cancer, EZH2 functions to promote self-renewal and has been shown to be important for the tumor-initiating cell (TIC) phenotype in breast cancer. Recently a non-canonical role for EZH2 has been identified where it promotes transcriptional activation of certain genes. Here we show that EZH2, through a methyltransferase-independent mechanism, promotes the transcriptional activation of the non-canonical NF-κB subunit RelB to drive self-renewal and the TIC phenotype of triple-negative breast cancer cells. PMID:27764181
Chang, S-S; Yamaguchi, H; Xia, W; Lim, S-O; Khotskaya, Y; Wu, Y; Chang, W-C; Liu, Q; Hung, M-C
The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the functional relevance of this newly discovered regulatory axis in TNBC.
Gao, Ruli; Davis, Alexander; McDonald, Thomas O.; Sei, Emi; Shi, Xiuqing; Wang, Yong; Tsai, Pei-Ching; Casasent, Anna; Waters, Jill; Zhang, Hong; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Michor, Franziska; Navin, Nicholas E.
Aneuploidy is a hallmark of breast cancer; however, our knowledge of how these complex genomic rearrangements evolve during tumorigenesis is limited. In this study we developed a highly multiplexed single-nucleus-sequencing method to investigate copy number evolution in triple-negative breast cancer patients. We sequenced 1000 single cells from 12 patients and identified 1–3 major clonal subpopulations in each tumor that shared a common evolutionary lineage. We also identified a minor subpopulation of non-clonal cells that were classified as: 1) metastable, 2) pseudo-diploid, or 3) chromazemic. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling suggest that these data are unlikely to be explained by the gradual accumulation of copy number events over time. In contrast, our data challenge the paradigm of gradual evolution, showing that the majority of copy number aberrations are acquired at the earliest stages of tumor evolution, in short punctuated bursts, followed by stable clonal expansions that form the tumor mass. PMID:27526321
Dietze, Eric C; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miranda-Carboni, Gustavo; O'Regan, Ruth; Seewaldt, Victoria L
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that disproportionately affects BRCA1 mutation carriers and young women of African origin. There is evidence that African-American women with TNBC have worse clinical outcomes than women of European descent. However, it is unclear whether survival differences persist after adjusting for disparities in access to health-care treatment, co-morbid disease and income. It remains controversial whether TNBC in African-American women is a molecularly distinct disease or whether African-American women have a higher incidence of aggressive biology driven by disparities: there is evidence in support of both. Understanding the relative contributions of biology and disparities is essential for improving the poor survival rate of African-American women with TNBC.
ElShmay, Wael M.
Parity associated breast cancer (PABC) often diagnosed within the 2-5 years after a full term pregnancy. PABC is usually present with more advanced, poorly differentiated, high-grade cancers that show shorter time to progression and often of the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. Data from around the world show that pregnancy-associated TNBC is independently associated with poor survival, underscoring the impact of the pregnant breast microenvironment on the biology and consequently the prognosis of these tumors. Although it is not yet clear, a link between pregnancy-associated TNBCs and lack or shorter duration of breastfeeding (not pregnancy per se) has been proposed. Here, we present epidemiological and experimental evidence for the protective effect of longer duration of lactation against pregnancy-associated TNBCs, and propose a putative molecular mechanism for this protective effect and its effect in eliminating any potential TNBC precursors from the breast by the end of the natural breast involution. PMID:27248476
Langabeer, Stephen E
The majority of patients with classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis harbor distinct disease-driving mutations within the JAK2, CALR, or MPL genes. The term triple-negative has been recently applied to those MPN without evidence of these consistent mutations, prompting whole or targeted exome sequencing approaches to determine the driver mutational status of this subgroup. These strategies have identified numerous novel mutations that occur in alternative exons of both JAK2 and MPL, the majority of which result in functional activation. Current molecular diagnostic approaches may possess insufficient coverage to detect these alternative mutations, prompting further consideration of targeted exon sequencing into routine diagnostic practice. How to incorporate these illuminating findings into the expanding molecular diagnostic algorithm for MPN requires continual attention.
Zhang, Youyou; He, Qun; Hu, Zhongyi; Feng, Yi; Fan, Lingling; Tang, Zhaoqing; Yuan, Jiao; Shan, Weiwei; Li, Chunsheng; Hu, Xiaowen; Tanyi, Janos L; Fan, Yi; Huang, Qihong; Montone, Kathleen; Dang, Chi V; Zhang, Lin
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are transcripts that are larger than 200 nucleotides but do not appear to have protein-coding potential, play critical roles during tumorigenesis by functioning as scaffolds to regulate protein-protein, protein-DNA or protein-RNA interactions. Using a clinically guided genetic screening approach, we identified (lncRNA in Non-homologous end joining [NHEJ] pathway 1) as a lncRNA that is overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancer. We found that LINP1 enhances double-strand DNA break repair by serving as a scaffold that links Ku80 and DNA-PKcs, thereby coordinating the NHEJ pathway. Importantly, blocking LINP1, which is regulated by the p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, increases sensitivity of tumor cell response to radiotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27111890
Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B.; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna
DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects. PMID:23825533
Feng, Tingting; Cao, Wei; Shen, Wanxiang; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Xinsheng; Guo, Yang; Tsai, Hsiang-I; Liu, Xuewen; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jingxuan; Li, Shan; Wu, Fuyun; Liu, Ying
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are the most aggressive and hard-to-treat breast tumors with poor prognosis, and exploration for novel therapeutic drugs is impending. Arctigenin (Atn), a bioactive lignan isolated from seeds of Arctium lappa L, has been reported to inhibit many cancer types; however, the effect of Atn on TNBC remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Atn decreased proliferation, and induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism of Atn inhibition on TNBC cells. Computational docking and affinity assay showed that Atn bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3. Atn inhibited STAT3 binding to genomic DNA by disrupting hydrogen bond linking between DNA and STAT3. In addition, Atn augmented Taxotere®-induced TNBC cell cytotoxicity. TNBC xenograft tests also confirmed the antitumor effect of Atn in vivo. These characteristics render Atn as a promising candidate drug for further development and for designing new effective STAT3 inhibitors.
Fernandez-Gallardo, Miriam; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Sandoval, Alejandro; Monjaraz, Eduardo
Emerging evidence suggests that the adenosine (Ado) receptors may play crucial roles in tumor progression. Here, we show that Ado increases proliferation and migration in a triple negative breast cancer model, the MDA-MB 231 cell line. The use of specific agonists and antagonists evidenced that these effects depend on the activation of the A2B receptor, which then triggers an intracellular response mediated by the adenylate cyclase/PKA/cAMP signaling pathway. Ado also increases the expression of NaV1.5 channels, a potential biomarker in breast cancer. Together, these data suggest important roles of the A2B receptors and NaV1.5 channels in the Ado-induced increase in proliferation and migration of the MDA-MB 231 cells. PMID:27911956
De Laurentiis, M; Cianniello, D; Caputo, R; Stanzione, B; Arpino, G; Cinieri, S; Lorusso, V; De Placido, S
Breast cancer is not considered anymore a unique disease. Microarray gene expression analysis led to the identification of 4 major breast cancer "intrinsic" subtypes, including hormone receptor (HR)-positive luminal A and B, human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). These subtypes have distinct phenotypes, molecular profiles, clinical behaviour and response to therapy, with the BLBC carrying the worst outcome. Microarray analysis is not feasible in routine practice and therefore oncologists rely on a simpler immunohistochemical (IHC) classification to identify relevant breast cancer subtypes. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 expression at IHC analysis. TNBC is strictly related to BLBC and, given the lack of common therapeutic targets, represent a major challenge for breast oncologist. In this review we will summarize the updated knowledge on TNBC, with emphasis on its current treatment and on the new therapeutic options under development.
Makvandi, Mehran; Tilahun, Estifanos D.; Lieberman, Brian P.; Anderson, Redmond-Craig; Zeng, Chenbo; Xu, Kuiying; Hou, Catherine; McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Pryma, Daniel A.; Mach, Robert H.
Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high relapse rates and increased mortality when compared with other breast cancer subtypes. In contrast to receptor positive breast cancers, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. Identifying biomarkers for TNBC is of high importance for the advancement of patient care. The sigma-2 receptor has been shown to be overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer in vivo and has been characterized as a marker of proliferation. The aim of the present study was to define the sigma-2 receptor as a target for therapeutic drug delivery and biomarker in TNBC. Methods Three TNBC cell lines were evaluated: MDA-MB-231, HCC1937 and HCC1806. Sigma-2 compounds were tested for pharmacological properties specific to the sigma-2 receptor through competitive inhibition assays. Sigma-2 receptor expression was measured through radioligand receptor saturation studies. Drug sensitivity for taxol was compared to a sigma-2 targeting compound conjugated to a cytotoxic payload, SW IV-134. Cell viability was assessed after treatments for 2 or 48 hours. Sigma-2 blockade was assessed to define sigma-2 mediated cytotoxicity of SW IV-134. Caspase 3/7 activation induced by SW IV-134 was measured at corresponding treatment time points. Results: SW IV-134 was the most potent compound tested in two of the three cell lines and was similarly effective in all three. MDA-MB-231 displayed a statistically significant higher sigma-2 receptor expression and also was the most sensitive cell line evaluated to SW IV-134. Conclusion Targeting the sigma-2 receptor with a cytotoxic payload was effective in all the three cell lines evaluated and provides the proof of concept for future development of a therapeutic platform for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:26453012
Robles-Escajeda, Elisa; Das, Umashankar; Ortega, Nora M.; Parra, Karla; Francia, Giulio; Dimmock, Jonathan R.; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J.
Purpose According to the World Health Organization (WHO), breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. In the USA ~12.3 % of all women are expected to be diagnosed with various types of breast cancer, exhibiting varying degrees of therapeutic response rates. Therefore, the identification of novel anti-breast cancer drugs is of paramount importance. Methods The 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadienyl pharmacophore was incorporated into a number of cytotoxins. Three of the resulting dienones, 2a, 2b and 2c, were tested for their antineoplastic potencies in a variety of human breast cancer-derived cell lines, including the triple negative MDA-MB-231 cell line and its metastatic variant, using a live-cell bio-imaging method. Special emphasis was put on dienone 2c, since its anti-cancer activity and its mode of inflicting cell death have so far not been reported. Results We found that all three dienones exhibited potent cytotoxicities towards the breast cancer-derived cell lines tested, whereas significantly lower toxicities were observed towards the non-cancerous human breast cell line MCF-10A. The dienones 2b and 2c exhibited the greatest selective cytotoxicity at submicromolar concentration levels. We found that these two dienones induced phosphatidylserine externalization in MDA-MB-231 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that their cytotoxic effect might be mediated by apoptosis. This possibility was confirmed by our observation that the dienone 2c can induce mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation, cell cycle disruption and DNA fragmentation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusion Our findings indicate that dienone 2c uses the mitochondrial/intrinsic pathway to inflict apoptosis in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer-derived cells. This observation warrants further assessment of dienone 2c as a potential anti-breast cancer drug. PMID:26920032
Zhu, X; Shan, L; Wang, F; Wang, J; Wang, F; Shen, G; Liu, X; Wang, B; Yuan, Y; Ying, J; Yang, H
Paraffin sections from 239 cases of surgical resected mammary gland carcinomas were assessed to determine the role of BRCA1 gene methylation in sporadic triple-negative breast cancer and to evaluate the relationship between BRCA1 gene methylation and clinicopathologic features of triple-negative breast cancer in the National Cancer Center, China. Diagnostic tissues collected from patients received mastectomy in the National Cancer Center from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2008 were reviewed. Tissue microarrays were constructed using 239 triple-negative breast cancer cases and stained with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, cytokeratin 5/6, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Methylation status of the BRCA1 promoter was measured by methylation-specific PCR and analyzed against clinicopathologic characteristics, subtypes, and prognosis using standard statistical methods. Among the 239 triple-negative breast cancer cases, 137 (57.3 %) showed methylation of the BRCA1. According to the immunohistochemistry results, triple-negative breast cancer cases were classified into basal-like breast cancer (60.7 %) and non-basal-like breast cancer (39.3 %). The frequency of BRCA1 methylation was significantly higher in basal-like breast cancer subtype (71.7 %) than the non-basal subtype (35.1 %). Thus, BRCA1 methylation is statistically significantly correlated with basal-like breast cancer subtype (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses further showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation is an independently predictor of overall survival (p = 0.023; HR 2.32; 95 % CI 1.12-4.81) and disease-free survival (p = 0.022; HR 2.36; 95 % CI 1.13-4.90) in triple-negative breast cancer. Here we demonstrated that epigenetic alteration of key tumor suppressor gene can be a promising biomarker for the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer/basal-like breast cancer. Specifically our finding revealed that BRCA1 methylation is closely associated with a
Suárez-Cabrera, Cristian; Quintana, Rita M; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Page, Angustias; Alameda, Josefa P; Paramio, Jesús M; Maroto, Alicia; Salamanca, Javier; Dupuy, Adam J; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel
RAS genes are mutated in 20% of human tumors, but these mutations are very rare in breast cancer. Here, we used a mouse model to generate tumors upon activation of a mutagenic T2Onc2 transposon via expression of a transposase driven by the keratin K5 promoter in a p53(+/-) background. These animals mainly developed mammary tumors, most of which had transposon insertions in one of two RASGAP genes, neurofibromin1 (Nf1) and RAS p21 protein activator (Rasa1). Immunohistochemical analysis of a collection of human breast tumors confirmed that low expression of RASA1 is frequent in basal (triple-negative) and estrogen receptor negative tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of human breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas database showed that although RASA1 mutations are rare, allelic loss is frequent, particularly in basal tumors (80%) and in association with TP53 mutation. Inactivation of RASA1 in MCF10A cells resulted in the appearance of a malignant phenotype in the context of mutated p53. Our results suggest that alterations in the Ras pathway due to the loss of negative regulators of RAS may be a common event in basal breast cancer. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1357-68. ©2017 AACR.
Liu, Man; Xing, Lu-Qi; Liu, Yi-Jing
Abstract Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer with unfavorable outcome and it is useful to explore noninvasive biomarkers for its early diagnosis. Here, we identified differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in blood samples of patients with TNBC to assess their diagnostic value. Methods: Differential expression of lncRNAs in plasma of patients with TNBC (n = 25) and non-TNBC (NTNBC; n = 35) and in healthy controls was compared by microarray analysis and validated by real-time PCR. lncRNA expression between plasma and BC tissues was compared using Pearson correlation test. Logit model was used to obtain a new lncRNA-based score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of the selected lncRNAs. Results: Microarray data showed that 41 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed. Among these, antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha antisense RNA-2 (HIF1A-AS2), and urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) were markedly upregulated in plasma of patients with TNBC compared with patients with NTNBC (P < 0.01). HIF1A-AS2 expression was positively associated with its tissue levels (r = 0.670, P < 0.01). AUC (95% CI) of ANRIL, HIF1A-AS2, and UCA1 was 0.785 (0.660–0.881), 0.739 (0.610–0.844), and 0.817 (0.696–0.905), respectively. TNBCSigLnc-3, a new score obtained using the logit model, showed excellent diagnostic performance, with AUC of 0.934 (0.839–0.982), sensitivity of 76.0%, and specificity of 97.1%. Conclusion: ANRIL, HIF1A-AS2, and UCA1 expression was significantly increased in plasma of patients with TNBC, suggesting their use as TNBC-specific diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:28248879
D’Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Collina, Francesca; Cantile, Monica; Spinelli, Rosa; Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Miele, Claudia; Valentino, Rossella; Campiglia, Pietro; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro
Growing evidence indicates that adiposity is associated with raised cancer incidence, morbidity and mortality. In a subset of tumors, cancer cell growth and/or metastasis predominantly occur in adipocyte-rich microenvironment. Indeed, adipocytes represent the most abundant cell types surrounding breast cancer cells. We have studied the mechanisms by which peritumoral human adipose tissue contributes to Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cell invasiveness and dissemination. Co-culture with human adipocytes enhanced MDA-MB231 cancer cell invasiveness. Adipocytes cultured in high glucose were 2-fold more active in promoting cell invasion and motility compared to those cultured in low glucose. This effect is induced, at least in part, by the CC-chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5). Indeed, CCL5 inhibition by specific peptides and antibodies reduced adipocyte-induced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. CCL5 immuno-detection in peritumoral adipose tissue of women with TNBC correlated with lymph node (p-value = 0.04) and distant metastases (p-value = 0.001). A positive trend was also observed between CCL5 expression and glycaemia. Finally, Kaplan-Meier curves showed a negative correlation between CCL5 staining in the peritumoral adipose tissue and overall survival of patients (p-value = 0.039). Thus, inhibition of CCL5 in adipose microenvironment may represent a novel approach for the therapy of highly malignant TNBC. PMID:27027351
Stirzaker, Clare; Zotenko, Elena; Song, Jenny Z; Qu, Wenjia; Nair, Shalima S; Locke, Warwick J; Stone, Andrew; Armstong, Nicola J; Robinson, Mark D; Dobrovic, Alexander; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Peters, Kate M; French, Juliet D; Stein, Sandra; Korbie, Darren J; Trau, Matt; Forbes, John F; Scott, Rodney J; Brown, Melissa A; Francis, Glenn D; Clark, Susan J
Epigenetic alterations in the cancer methylome are common in breast cancer and provide novel options for tumour stratification. Here, we perform whole-genome methylation capture sequencing on small amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and matched normal samples. We identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) enriched with promoters associated with transcription factor binding sites and DNA hypersensitive sites. Importantly, we stratify TNBCs into three distinct methylation clusters associated with better or worse prognosis and identify 17 DMRs that show a strong association with overall survival, including DMRs located in the Wilms tumour 1 (WT1) gene, bi-directional-promoter and antisense WT1-AS. Our data reveal that coordinated hypermethylation can occur in oestrogen receptor-negative disease, and that characterizing the epigenetic framework provides a potential signature to stratify TNBCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the feasibility of profiling the cancer methylome with limited archival tissue to identify regulatory regions associated with cancer.
Luo, Jiayan; Jin, Juan; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Shi, Yaqin; Xu, Jing; Guan, Xiaoxiang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression and thus cannot benefit from conventional hormonal or anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Anti-androgen therapy has shown a certain effect on androgen receptor (AR) positive TNBC. The emerging researches have proved that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor is effective in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. We demonstrated that combination of AR antagonist (bicalutamide) and PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) could inhibit cell viability and induce cell apoptosis significantly whatever in vitro or in vivo setting in AR-positive TNBC. Previous studies have proved that both BRCA1 and PARP1 have close connections with AR in prostate cancer. We explored the correlation among AR, PARP1 and BRCA1 in TNBC for the first time. After BRCA1 overexpression, the expression of AR and PARP1 were decreased in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, AR positively regulated PARP1 while PARP1 also up-regulated AR expression in vitro. We also confirmed BRCA1 expression was negatively correlated with AR and PARP1 in TNBC patients using a tissue microarray with TNBC patient samples. These results suggest that the combination of bicalutamide and PARP inhibitor may be a potential strategy for TNBC patients and merits further evaluation. PMID:27994514
Asano, Yuka; Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Goto, Wataru; Tanaka, Sayaka; Morisaki, Tamami; Takashima, Tsutomu; Noda, Satoru; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor prognosis because of frequent recurrence. Androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, but its role is not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of AR and its relationship with clinicopathologic features in TNBC. Methods: This study investigated 1036 cases of sporadic invasive breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemical assays were performed to determine the expression of AR in 190 TNBC samples. The relationships between AR expression and clinicopathologic data and prognosis were analyzed. Results: In 190 TNBC cases, the prognosis of AR-positive patients was significantly better (p = 0.019, log-rank) than AR-negative patients, and in multivariate analysis, AR expression was an independent indicator of good prognosis (p = 0.039, hazard ratio = 0.36). In patients with disease relapse, AR positivity was significantly correlated with better prognosis (p = 0.034, log-rank). Conclusions: AR expression may be useful as a subclassification marker for prognosis in TNBC. PMID:28067809
Manna, Subrata; Bostner, Josefine; Sun, Yang; Miller, Lance D.; Alayev, Anya; Schwartz, Naomi S.; Lager, Elin; Fornander, Tommy; Nordenskjöld, Bo; Yu, Jane J.; Stål, Olle; Holz, Marina K.
Purpose Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) signaling has recently been implicated in breast cancer. We investigated the clinical value of ERRα in randomized cohorts of tamoxifen-treated and adjuvant-untreated patients. Experimental design Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the significance of associations between ERRα gene expression levels and patient DMFS in a previously published microarray dataset representing two thousand breast tumor cases derived from multiple medical centers worldwide. The 912 tumors used for immunostaining were from a tamoxifen-randomized primary breast cancer trial conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, during 1976–1990. Mouse model was used to study the effect of tamoxifen treatment on lung colonization of MDA-MB-231 control cells and MDA-MB-231 cells with stable knockdown of ERRα. The phenotypic effects associated with ERRα modulation were studied using immunoblotting analyses and wound healing assay. Results We found that in ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) adjuvant-untreated patients, ERRα expression indicated worse prognosis and correlated with poor outcome predictors. However, in tamoxifen-treated patients, an improved outcome was observed with high ERRα gene and protein expression. Reduced ERRα expression was oncogenic in the presence of tamoxifen, measured by in vitro proliferation and migration assays and in vivo metastasis studies. Conclusion Taken together, these data show that ERRα expression predicts response to tamoxifen treatment, and ERRα could be a biomarker of tamoxifen sensitivity and a prognostic factor in TNBC. PMID:26542058
Wong-Brown, Michelle W; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Bowden, Nikola A; Scott, Rodney J
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a tumour classification that is defined by oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptor negativity. TNBCs share a similar gene expression profile to BRCA-mutated tumours, have been shown to carry a high proportion of BRCA mutations and have a more adverse prognosis compared to other types of breast tumours. PALB2 has been shown to be a moderate-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene and is involved in the same DNA damage repair pathway as BRCA1 and BRCA2; this raises the possibility that germline PALB2 mutations may be involved in the pathogenesis of TNBCs. In our study, we sequenced the coding regions of PALB2 (including intron/exon boundaries) in genomic DNA from 347 patients diagnosed with TNBC to determine the prevalence of deleterious mutations in this population. Two novel truncating mutations (c.758dup and c.2390del) and one previously detected truncating mutation (c.3113+5G>C) were found. In addition, five variants predicted to be protein-affecting were also identified. Our study shows that the prevalence of PALB2 germline mutations in individuals with TNBC is ∼1%, similar to the prevalence of PALB2 germline mutation of 1% in familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cohorts.
Luo, Jiayan; Jin, Juan; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Shi, Yaqin; Xu, Jing; Guan, Xiaoxiang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression and thus cannot benefit from conventional hormonal or anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Anti-androgen therapy has shown a certain effect on androgen receptor (AR) positive TNBC. The emerging researches have proved that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor is effective in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. We demonstrated that combination of AR antagonist (bicalutamide) and PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) could inhibit cell viability and induce cell apoptosis significantly whatever in vitro or in vivo setting in AR-positive TNBC. Previous studies have proved that both BRCA1 and PARP1 have close connections with AR in prostate cancer. We explored the correlation among AR, PARP1 and BRCA1 in TNBC for the first time. After BRCA1 overexpression, the expression of AR and PARP1 were decreased in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, AR positively regulated PARP1 while PARP1 also up-regulated AR expression in vitro. We also confirmed BRCA1 expression was negatively correlated with AR and PARP1 in TNBC patients using a tissue microarray with TNBC patient samples. These results suggest that the combination of bicalutamide and PARP inhibitor may be a potential strategy for TNBC patients and merits further evaluation.
Caiazza, Francesco; Murray, Alyson; Madden, Stephen F; Synnott, Naoise C; Ryan, Elizabeth J; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John; Duffy, Michael J
The androgen receptor (AR) is present in approximately 80% of invasive breast cancer patients and in up to 30% of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, our aim was to investigate the targeting of AR as a possible hormonal approach to the treatment of TNBC. Analysis of 2091 patients revealed an association between AR expression and poor overall survival, selectively in patients with the basal subtype of breast cancer, the vast majority of which are TNBC. IC50 values for the second-generation anti-androgen enzalutamide across 11 breast cancer cell lines varied from 4 µM to >50 µM. The activity of enzalutamide was similar in TN and non-TN cell lines but was dependent on the presence of AR. Enzalutamide reduced clonogenic potential and cell growth in a 3D matrix in AR-positive cells. In addition, enzalutamide also inhibited cell migration and invasion in an AR-dependent manner. Enzalutamide appeared to mediate these processes through down-regulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and SP-1. The first-generation anti-androgen flutamide similarly blocked cell growth, migration and invasion. AR-positive TNBC cells clustered separately from AR-negative cells based on an androgen-related gene expression signature, independently of TNBC subtype. We conclude that targeting of the AR with drugs such as enzalutamide may provide an alternative treatment strategy for patients with AR-positive TNBC.
Elbaz, Mohamad; Ahirwar, Dinesh; Xiaoli, Zhang; Zhou, Xinyu; Lustberg, Maryam; Nasser, Mohd W; Shilo, Konstantin; Ganju, Ramesh K
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2 (TRPV2) is an ion channel that is triggered by agonists like cannabidiol (CBD). Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Chemotherapy is still the first line for the treatment of TNBC patients; however, TNBC usually gains rapid resistance and unresponsiveness to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that TRPV2 protein is highly up-regulated in TNBC tissues compared to normal breast tissues. We also observed that TNBC and estrogen receptor alpha negative (ERα-) patients with higher TRPV2 expression have significantly higher recurrence free survival compared to patients with lower TRPV2 expression especially those who were treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we showed that TRPV2 overexpression or activation by CBD significantly increased doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and apoptosis in TNBC cells. The induction of DOX uptake was abrogated by TRPV2 blocking or downregulation. In vivo mouse model studies showed that the TNBC tumors derived from CBD+DOX treated mice have significantly reduced weight and increased apoptosis compared to those treated with CBD or DOX alone. Overall, our studies for the first time revealed that TRPV2 might be a good prognostic marker for TNBC and ERα- breast cancer patient especially for those who are treated with chemotherapy. In addition, TRPV2 activation could be a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the uptake and efficacy of chemotherapy in TNBC patients.
Dai, Meiou; Zhang, Chenjing; Ali, Ayad; Hong, Xinyuan; Tian, Jun; Lo, Chieh; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Burgos, Sergio A.; Ali, Suhad; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques
Triple negative breast cancers exhibit very aggressive features and poor patient outcomes. These tumors are enriched in cancer stem cells and exhibit resistance to most treatments and chemotherapy. In this study, we found the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) to act as a cancer stem cell regulator and novel prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancers. We found CDK4 to be highly expressed in these tumors and its expression to correlate with poor overall and relapse free survival outcomes, high tumor grade and poor prognostic features of triple negative breast cancer patients. Moreover, we found that blocking CDK4 expression or kinase activity, using a pharmacological inhibitor prevented breast cancer stem cell self-renewal. Interestingly, suppression of CDK4 expression or kinase activity reversed the basal-B TNBC mesenchymal phenotype to an epithelial- and luminal-like phenotype which correlates with better clinical prognosis. Finally, blocking CDK4 activity efficiently eliminated both normal and chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells in triple negative breast cancers, highlighting CDK4 as a promising novel therapeutic target for these aggressive breast tumors. PMID:27759034
Zhao, Tiejun; Sun, Qiang; del Rincon, Sonia V; Lovato, Amanda; Marques, Maud; Witcher, Michael
Triple-negative breast cancers are associated with poor clinical outcomes and new therapeutic strategies are clearly needed. Gallotannin (Gltn) has been previously demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor properties against cholangiocarcinoma in mice, but little is known regarding its capacity to suppress tumor outgrowth in breast cancer models. We tested Gltn for potential growth inhibitory properties against a variety of breast cancer cell lines in vitro. In particular, triple-negative breast cancer cells display higher levels of sensitivity to Gltn. The loss of proliferative capacity in Gltn exposed cells is associated with slowed cell cycle progression and S phase arrest, dependent on Chk2 phosphorylation and further characterized by changes to proliferation related genes, such as cyclin D1 (CcnD1) as determined by Nanostring technology. Importantly, Gltn administered orally or via intraperitoneal (IP) injections greatly reduced tumor outgrowth of triple-negative breast cells from mammary fat pads without signs of toxicity. In conclusion, these data strongly suggest that Gltn represents a novel approach to treat triple-negative breast carcinomas.
Wang, Zidan; Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Xuezhong
For cylindrical shell gyroscopes, node position of their operating eigenmodes has an important influence on the gyroscopes’ performance. It is considered that the nodes are equally separated from each other by 90° when the resonator vibrates in the standing wave eigenmode. However, we found that, due to manufacturing errors and trimming, the nodes may not be equally distributed. This paper mainly analyzes the influences of unbalanced masses on the cylindrical resonators’ node position, by using FEM simulation and experimental measurement. PMID:27483284
Milosevic Feenstra, Jelena D.; Nivarthi, Harini; Gisslinger, Heinz; Leroy, Emilie; Rumi, Elisa; Chachoua, Ilyas; Bagienski, Klaudia; Kubesova, Blanka; Pietra, Daniela; Gisslinger, Bettina; Milanesi, Chiara; Jäger, Roland; Chen, Doris; Berg, Tiina; Schalling, Martin; Schuster, Michael; Bock, Christoph; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Cazzola, Mario
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are chronic diseases characterized by clonal hematopoiesis and hyperproliferation of terminally differentiated myeloid cells. The disease is driven by somatic mutations in exon 9 of CALR or exon 10 of MPL or JAK2-V617F in >90% of the cases, whereas the remaining cases are termed “triple negative.” We aimed to identify the disease-causing mutations in the triple-negative cases of ET and PMF by applying whole-exome sequencing (WES) on paired tumor and control samples from 8 patients. We found evidence of clonal hematopoiesis in 5 of 8 studied cases based on clonality analysis and presence of somatic genetic aberrations. WES identified somatic mutations in 3 of 8 cases. We did not detect any novel recurrent somatic mutations. In 3 patients with clonal hematopoiesis analyzed by WES, we identified a somatic MPL-S204P, a germline MPL-V285E mutation, and a germline JAK2-G571S variant. We performed Sanger sequencing of the entire coding region of MPL in 62, and of JAK2 in 49 additional triple-negative cases of ET or PMF. New somatic (T119I, S204F, E230G, Y591D) and 1 germline (R321W) MPL mutation were detected. All of the identified MPL mutations were gain-of-function when analyzed in functional assays. JAK2 variants were identified in 5 of 57 triple-negative cases analyzed by WES and Sanger sequencing combined. We could demonstrate that JAK2-V625F and JAK2-F556V are gain-of-function mutations. Our results suggest that triple-negative cases of ET and PMF do not represent a homogenous disease entity. Cases with polyclonal hematopoiesis might represent hereditary disorders. PMID:26423830
Erturk, Elif; Cecener, Gulsah; Tezcan, Gulcin; Egeli, Unal; Tunca, Berrin; Gokgoz, Sehsuvar; Tolunay, Sahsine; Tasdelen, Ismet
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and poorly understood subclass of breast cancer (BC). Over the recent years, miRNA expression studies have been providing certain detailed overview that aberrant expression of miRNAs is associated with TNBC. Although TNBC tumors are strongly connected with loss of function of BRCA genes, there is no knowledge about the effect of BRCA mutation status on miRNA expressions in TNBC cases. The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression profile of miRNAs that plays role in TNBC progression and the role of BRCA mutations in their regulation. The expression level of BC associated 13 miRNAs was analyzed in 7 BRCA mutations positive, 6 BRCA mutations negative TNBC cases and 20 non-tumoral tissues using RT-PCR. According to RT2 Profiler PCR Array Data Analysis, let-7a expression was 4.67 fold reduced in TNBCs as compared to normal tissues (P=0.031). In addition, miR-200c expression was 5.75 fold reduced in BRCA mutation positive TNBC tumors (P=0.005). Analysis revealed a negative correlation between miR-200c and VEGFA expressions (r=-468). Thus, miR-200c may be involved in invasion and metastasis in TNBC cases with BRCA mutation. In this study we provide the knowledge on the first report of association between microRNA-200c and BRCA mutations in TNBC. Further studies and evaluations are required, but this miRNA may provide novel therapeutic molecular targets for TNBC treatment and new directions for the development of anticancer drugs.
Singel, Stina M.; Cornelius, Crystal; Zaganjor, Elma; Batten, Kimberly; Sarode, Venetia R.; Buckley, Dennis L.; Peng, Yan; John, George B.; Li, Hsiao C.; Sadeghi, Navid; Wright, Woodring E.; Lum, Lawrence; Corson, Timothy W.; Shay, Jerry W.
Despite evidence that kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) can serve as a prognostic biomarker in various solid tumors, how it contributes to tumorigenesis remains unclear. We observed that experimental decrease in KIF14 expression increases docetaxel chemosensitivity in estrogen receptor–negative/progesterone receptor–negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, “triple-negative” breast cancers (TNBC). To investigate the oncogenic role of KIF14, we used noncancerous human mammary epithelial cells and ectopically expressed KIF14 and found increased proliferative capacity, increased anchorage-independent grown in vitro, and increased resistance to docetaxel but not to doxorubicin, carboplatin, or gemcitabine. Seventeen benign breast biopsies of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers showed increased KIF14 mRNA expression by fluorescence in situ hybridization compared to controls with no known mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, suggesting increased KIF14 expression as a biomarker of high-risk breast tissue. Evaluation of 34 cases of locally advanced TNBC showed that KIF14 expression significantly correlates with chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer. KIF14 knockdown also correlates with decreased AKT phosphorylation and activity. Live-cell imaging confirmed an insulin-induced temporal colocalization of KIF14 and AKT at the plasma membrane, suggesting a potential role of KIF14 in promoting activation of AKT. An experimental small-molecule inhibitor of KIF14 was then used to evaluate the potential anticancer benefits of downregulating KIF14 activity. Inhibition of KIF14 shows a chemosensitizing effect and correlates with decreasing activation of AKT. Together, these findings show an early and critical role for KIF14 in the tumorigenic potential of TNBC, and therapeutic targeting of KIF14 is feasible and effective for TNBC. PMID:24784001
Shen, Wanxiang; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Xinsheng; Guo, Yang; Tsai, Hsiang-i; Liu, Xuewen; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jingxuan; Li, Shan; Wu, Fuyun; Liu, Ying
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are the most aggressive and hard-to-treat breast tumors with poor prognosis, and exploration for novel therapeutic drugs is impending. Arctigenin (Atn), a bioactive lignan isolated from seeds of Arctium lappa L, has been reported to inhibit many cancer types; however, the effect of Atn on TNBC remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Atn decreased proliferation, and induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanism of Atn inhibition on TNBC cells. Computational docking and affinity assay showed that Atn bound to the SH2 domain of STAT3. Atn inhibited STAT3 binding to genomic DNA by disrupting hydrogen bond linking between DNA and STAT3. In addition, Atn augmented Taxotere®-induced TNBC cell cytotoxicity. TNBC xenograft tests also confirmed the antitumor effect of Atn in vivo. These characteristics render Atn as a promising candidate drug for further development and for designing new effective STAT3 inhibitors. PMID:27861147
Xu Zhiyuan; Schlesinger, David; Toulmin, Sushila; Rich, Tyvin; Sheehan, Jason
Purpose: To elucidate survival times and identify potential prognostic factors in patients with triple-negative (TN) phenotype who harbored brain metastases arising from breast cancer and who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 breast cancer patients with brain metastases were treated with SRS and then studied retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) were TN. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a log-rank test computing the survival time difference between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses to predict potential prognostic factors were performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The presence of TN phenotype was associated with worse survival times, including overall survival after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer (43 months vs. 82 months), neurologic survival after the diagnosis of intracranial metastases, and radiosurgical survival after SRS, with median survival times being 13 months vs. 25 months and 6 months vs. 16 months, respectively (p < 0.002 in all three comparisons). On multivariate analysis, radiosurgical survival benefit was associated with non-TN status and lower recursive partitioning analysis class at the initial SRS. Conclusion: The TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to overall survival, neurologic survival, and radiosurgical survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis. Recursive partitioning analysis class also served as an important and independent prognostic factor.
Basso, Stefano M M; Santeufemia, Davide A; Fadda, Giovanni M; Tozzoli, Renato; D'Aurizio, Federica; Lumachi, Franco
Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 10-20% of all breast cancers and is associated with worse prognosis than other subtypes, with a higher risk of recurrence and death than other breast cancer types. This cancer is considered a heterogeneous disease comprising a spectrum of cancers with distinct activated biological pathways, various levels of chemosensitivity and different propensity for metastasis. Currently, chemotherapy represents the mainstay of medical treatment of these patients, because of the absence of well-defined molecular target agent, and we cannot use investigational classifications to determine appropriate systemic therapy outside of clinical trials. The specific adjuvant chemotherapy that may be most effective is still being determined but there is general consensus that regimens containing anthracyclines and taxanes are the standard approach for patient after surgery. Unfortunately, although some patients respond to treatment, other women have a high degree of intrinsic resistance to the same therapy. Moreover, in some studies, the pathological complete response was significantly higher in women treated with platinum-based regimen with respect to those treated with other chemotherapy regimen. The systematic evaluation of the predictive value of genomic alterations is critically important for a better comprehension of this entity and to develop new effective therapeutic strategies. In the future, a personalized therapeutic approach based on biology-oriented characteristics and molecular profiling may be effective for the patients.
Spugnesi, Laura; Gabriele, Michele; Scarpitta, Rosa; Tancredi, Mariella; Maresca, Luisa; Gambino, Gaetana; Collavoli, Anita; Aretini, Paolo; Bertolini, Ilaria; Salvadori, Barbara; Landucci, Elisabetta; Fontana, Andrea; Rossetti, Elena; Roncella, Manuela; Naccarato, Giuseppe Antonio; Caligo, Maria Adelaide
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) represent about 15-20% of all breast cancer cases and are characterized by a complex molecular heterogeneity. Some TNBCs exhibit clinical and pathological properties similar to BRCA-mutated tumors, without actually bearing a mutation in BRCA genes. This "BRCAness" phenotype may be explained by germline mutations in other genes involved in DNA repair. Although respond to chemotherapy with alkylating agents, they have a high risk of recurrence and progression. Some studies have shown the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy in TNBC patients with DNA repair defects, but proper biomarkers of DNA repair deficiency are still needed. Here, we investigated if mutations in DNA repair genes may be correlated with anthracyclines/taxanes neoadjuvant therapy response. DNA from 19 TNBC patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy were subjected to next generation sequencing of a panel of 24 genes in DNA repair and breast cancer predisposition. In this study, 5 of 19 patients (26%) carried a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1, PALB2, RAD51C and two patients carried a probable pathogenic missense variant. Moreover, VUS (Variants of Unknown Significance) in other genes, predicted to be deleterious by in silico tools, were detected in five patients. Germline mutations in DNA repair genes were found to be associated with the group of TNBC patients who responded to therapy. We conclude that a subgroup of TNBC patients have defects in DNA repair genes, other than BRCA1, and such patients respond favourably to neoadjuvant anthracyclines/taxanes therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zheng, Hongping; Shao, Fangyuan; Martin, Scots; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia
Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used therapeutic drugs for cancer therapy, yet prolonged cisplatin treatment frequently results in drug resistance. To enhance therapeutic effect of cisplatin, we conducted a high throughput screening using a kinase library containing 704 kinases against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We demonstrated that cisplatin activates ATR, CHK1 and WEE1, which shut down DNA replication and attenuate cisplatin induced-lethality. WEE1 inhibition sensitizes TNBCs and cisplatin resistant cancer cells to cisplatin-induced lethality, because it not only impairs DNA replication checkpoint more profoundly than inhibition of ATR or CHK1, but also defects G2-M cell cycle checkpoint. Finally, we demonstrated that combined cisplatin treatment and WEE1 inhibition synergistically inhibits xenograft cancer growth accompanied by markedly reduced expression of TNBC signature genes. Thus targeting DNA replication and G2-M cell cycle checkpoint simultaneously by cisplatin and WEE1 inhibition is promising for TNBCs treatment, and for overcoming their cisplatin resistance. PMID:28262781
Brewster, Abenaa M; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Brown, Powel
Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, and breast cancer-related mortality is highest in women of African ancestry, who are more likely to have basal-like or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) than are women of European ancestry. Identification of cultural, epidemiological, and genetic risk factors that predispose women of African ancestry to TNBC is an active area of research. Despite the aggressive behaviour of TNBC, achievement of a pathological complete response with chemotherapy is associated with good long-term survival outcomes, and sensitivity to chemotherapy does not seem to differ according to ethnic origin. Discovery of the molecular signalling molecules that define TNBC heterogeneity has led to the development of targeted agents such as inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and mTOR and immunomodulatory drugs that are in the early stages of clinical testing. First, we summarise the existing published work on the differences reported on the epidemiology, biology, and response to systemic treatment of TNBC between women of African ancestry and white women, and identify some gaps in knowledge. Second, we review the opportunities for development of new therapeutic agents in view of the potential high clinical relevance for patients with TNBC irrespective of race or ethnic origin. PMID:25456381
Lee, Hye Min; Moon, Aree
Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside-6-β-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen receptors (ER)-positive MCF7 cells, and MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Amygdalin induced apoptosis of Hs578T TNBC cells. Amygdalin downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), activated of caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Amygdalin activated a pro-apoptotic signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) in Hs578T cells. Treatment of amygdalin significantly inhibited the adhesion of Hs578T cells, in which integrin α5 may be involved. Taken together, this study demonstrates that amygdalin induces apoptosis and inhibits adhesion of breast cancer cells. The results suggest a potential application of amygdalin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate progression of breast cancer, especially TNBC.
Mancini, Patrizia; Angeloni, Antonio; Risi, Emanuela; Orsi, Errico; Mezi, Silvia
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a cluster of heterogeneous diseases, all of them sharing the lack of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2 protein. They are characterized by different biological, molecular and clinical features, including a poor prognosis despite the increased sensitivity to the current cytotoxic therapies. Several studies have identified important molecular features which enable further subdivision of this type of tumor. We are drawing from genomics, transcription and translation analysis at different levels, to improve our knowledge of the molecular alterations along the pathways which are activated during carcinogenesis and tumor progression. How this information should be used for the rational selection of therapy is an ongoing challenge and the subject of numerous research studies in progress. Currently, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), HSP90 and Aurora inhibitors are most used as targeting agents in metastatic setting clinical trials. In this paper we will review the current knowledge about the genetic subtypes of TNBC and their different responses to conventional therapeutic strategies, as well as to some new promising molecular target agents, aimed to achieve more tailored therapies. PMID:25347122
Bhola, Neil E.; Balko, Justin M.; Dugger, Teresa C.; Kuba, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Violeta; Sanders, Melinda; Stanford, Jamie; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.
After an initial response to chemotherapy, many patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have recurrence of drug-resistant metastatic disease. Studies with TNBC cells suggest that chemotherapy-resistant populations of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) with self-renewing and tumor-initiating capacities are responsible for these relapses. TGF-β has been shown to increase stem-like properties in human breast cancer cells. We analyzed RNA expression in matched pairs of primary breast cancer biopsies before and after chemotherapy. Biopsies after chemotherapy displayed increased RNA transcripts of genes associated with CSCs and TGF-β signaling. In TNBC cell lines and mouse xenografts, the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel increased autocrine TGF-β signaling and IL-8 expression and enriched for CSCs, as indicated by mammosphere formation and CSC markers. The TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor LY2157299, a neutralizing TGF-β type II receptor antibody, and SMAD4 siRNA all blocked paclitaxel-induced IL8 transcription and CSC expansion. Moreover, treatment of TNBC xenografts with LY2157299 prevented reestablishment of tumors after paclitaxel treatment. These data suggest that chemotherapy-induced TGF-β signaling enhances tumor recurrence through IL-8–dependent expansion of CSCs and that TGF-β pathway inhibitors prevent the development of drug-resistant CSCs. These findings support testing a combination of TGF-β inhibitors and anticancer chemotherapy in patients with TNBC. PMID:23391723
Singh, Balraj; Shamsnia, Anna; Raythatha, Milan R.; Milligan, Ryan D.; Cady, Amanda M.; Madan, Simran; Lucci, Anthony
A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance. PMID:25279830
Ferraro, Daniela A.; Gaborit, Nadège; Maron, Ruth; Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Porat, Ziv; Pareja, Fresia; Lavi, Sara; Lindzen, Moshit; Ben-Chetrit, Nir; Sela, Michael; Yarden, Yosef
Breast tumors lacking expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and the estrogen and the progesterone receptors (triple negative; TNBC) are more aggressive than other disease subtypes, and no molecular targeted agents are currently available for their treatment. Because TNBC commonly displays EGF receptor (EGFR) expression, and combinations of monoclonal antibodies to EGFR effectively inhibit other tumor models, we addressed the relevance of this strategy to treatment of TNBC. Unlike a combination of the clinically approved monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab, which displaced each other and displayed no cooperative effects, several other combinations resulted in enhanced inhibition of TNBC’s cell growth both in vitro and in animals. The ability of certain antibody mixtures to remove EGFR from the cell surface and to promote its intracellular degradation correlated with the inhibitory potential. However, unlike EGF-induced sorting of EGFR to lysosomal degradation, the antibody-induced pathway displayed independence from the intrinsic kinase activity and dimer formation ability of EGFR, and it largely avoided the recycling route. In conclusion, although TNBC clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors reported lack of benefit, our results offer an alternative strategy that combines noncompetitive antibodies to achieve robust degradation of EGFR and tumor inhibition. PMID:23319610
Datta, Arpita; Loo, Ser Yue; Huang, Baohua; Wong, Lingkai; Tan, Sheryl S L; Tan, Tuan Zea; Lee, Soo-Chin; Thiery, Jean Paul; Lim, Yaw Chyn; Yong, Wei Peng; Lam, Yulin; Kumar, Alan Prem; Yap, Celestial T
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by unique aggressive behavior and lack of targeted therapies. Among the various molecular subtypes of breast cancer, it was observed that TNBCs express elevated levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) compared to other breast tumor subtypes. High levels of SPHK1 gene expression correlated with poor overall and progression- free survival, as well as poor response to Doxorubicin-based treatment. Inhibition of SPHK1 was found to attenuate ERK1/2 and AKT signaling and reduce growth of TNBC cells in vitro and in a xenograft SCID mouse model. Moreover, SPHK1 inhibition by siRNA knockdown or treatment with SKI-5C sensitizes TNBCs to chemotherapeutic drugs. Our findings suggest that SPHK1 inhibition, which effectively counteracts oncogenic signaling through ERK1/2 and AKT pathways, is a potentially important anti-tumor strategy in TNBC. A combination of SPHK1 inhibitors with chemotherapeutic agents may be effective against this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.
Datta, Arpita; Loo, Ser Yue; Huang, Baohua; Wong, Lingkai; Tan, Sheryl S L; Tan, Tuan Zea; Lee, Soo-Chin; Thiery, Jean Paul; Lim, Yaw Chyn; Yong, Wei Peng; Lam, Yulin; Kumar, Alan Prem; Yap, Celestial T
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by unique aggressive behavior and lack of targeted therapies. Among the various molecular subtypes of breast cancer, it was observed that TNBCs express elevated levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) compared to other breast tumor subtypes. High levels of SPHK1 gene expression correlated with poor overall and progression- free survival, as well as poor response to Doxorubicin-based treatment. Inhibition of SPHK1 was found to attenuate ERK1/2 and AKT signaling and reduce growth of TNBC cells in vitro and in a xenograft SCID mouse model. Moreover, SPHK1 inhibition by siRNA knockdown or treatment with SKI-5C sensitizes TNBCs to chemotherapeutic drugs. Our findings suggest that SPHK1 inhibition, which effectively counteracts oncogenic signaling through ERK1/2 and AKT pathways, is a potentially important anti-tumor strategy in TNBC. A combination of SPHK1 inhibitors with chemotherapeutic agents may be effective against this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.
Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Ik-Soo; Moon, Aree
Breast cancer is estimated as one of the most common causes of cancer death among women. In particular, triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), which do not express the genes for estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), have been associated with poor prognosis and metastasis. Chalcones, the biosynthetic precursors of flavonoids present in edible plants, exert cytotoxic and chemopreventive activities. Although mounting evidence suggests the anticancer properties of chalcones, limited information is available regarding the inhibitory effects of chalcones on the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chalcone and its derivatives on the growth and the invasiveness of TNBC cells. Here, we showed that treatment with chalcone, 2-hydroxychalcone, and xanthohumol for 24h inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 18.1, 4.6, and 6.7 μM, respectively. Similarly, Chalcone, 2-hydroxychalcone, and xanthohumol also exerted cytotoxicity in another TNBC cell line, Hs578T. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-methoxychalcone, and hesperidin methylchalcone did not show the cytotoxicity on the MDA-MB-231 cells. Xanthohumol and 2-hydroxychalcone induced apoptosis by Bcl-2 downregulation. Importantly, 2-hydroxychalcone and xanthohumol exerted more potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation, MMP-9 expression and invasive phenotype of MDA-MB-231 than chalcone. These results suggest a potential application of these chalcones as anticancer agents that can alleviate malignant progression of TNBC.
Prat, A; Lluch, A; Albanell, J; Barry, W T; Fan, C; Chacón, J I; Parker, J S; Calvo, L; Plazaola, A; Arcusa, A; Seguí-Palmer, M A; Burgues, O; Ribelles, N; Rodriguez-Lescure, A; Guerrero, A; Ruiz-Borrego, M; Munarriz, B; López, J A; Adamo, B; Cheang, M C U; Li, Y; Hu, Z; Gulley, M L; Vidal, M J; Pitcher, B N; Liu, M C; Citron, M L; Ellis, M J; Mardis, E; Vickery, T; Hudis, C A; Winer, E P; Carey, L A; Caballero, R; Carrasco, E; Martín, M; Perou, C M; Alba, E
Background: In this study, we evaluated the ability of gene expression profiles to predict chemotherapy response and survival in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods: Gene expression and clinical–pathological data were evaluated in five independent cohorts, including three randomised clinical trials for a total of 1055 patients with TNBC, basal-like disease (BLBC) or both. Previously defined intrinsic molecular subtype and a proliferation signature were determined and tested. Each signature was tested using multivariable logistic regression models (for pCR (pathological complete response)) and Cox models (for survival). Within TNBC, interactions between each signature and the basal-like subtype (vs other subtypes) for predicting either pCR or survival were investigated. Results: Within TNBC, all intrinsic subtypes were identified but BLBC predominated (55–81%). Significant associations between genomic signatures and response and survival after chemotherapy were only identified within BLBC and not within TNBC as a whole. In particular, high expression of a previously identified proliferation signature, or low expression of the luminal A signature, was found independently associated with pCR and improved survival following chemotherapy across different cohorts. Significant interaction tests were only obtained between each signature and the BLBC subtype for prediction of chemotherapy response or survival. Conclusions: The proliferation signature predicts response and improved survival after chemotherapy, but only within BLBC. This highlights the clinical implications of TNBC heterogeneity, and suggests that future clinical trials focused on this phenotypic subtype should consider stratifying patients as having BLBC or not. PMID:25101563
Chen, Zhong; Lan, Xun; Wu, Dayong; Sunkel, Benjamin; Ye, Zhenqing; Huang, Jiaoti; Liu, Zhihua; Clinton, Steven K; Jin, Victor X; Wang, Qianben
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been widely used as coadjuvants in the treatment of solid tumours, but GC treatment may be associated with poor pharmacotherapeutic response or prognosis. The genomic action of GC in these tumours is largely unknown. Here we find that dexamethasone (Dex, a synthetic GC)-regulated genes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are associated with drug resistance. Importantly, these GC-regulated genes are aberrantly expressed in TNBC patients and are associated with unfavourable clinical outcomes. Interestingly, in TNBC cells, Compound A (CpdA, a selective GR modulator) only regulates a small number of genes not involved in carcinogenesis and therapy resistance. Mechanistic studies using a ChIP-exo approach reveal that Dex- but not CpdA-liganded glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binds to a single glucocorticoid response element (GRE), which drives the expression of pro-tumorigenic genes. Our data suggest that development of safe coadjuvant therapy should consider the distinct genomic function between Dex- and CpdA-liganded GR.
Yao, Hui; He, Guangchun; Yan, Shichao; Chen, Chao; Song, Liujiang; Rosol, Thomas J.; Deng, Xiyun
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which accounts for 15–20% of all breast cancers, does not express estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) and lacks human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or amplification. These tumors have a more aggressive phenotype and a poorer prognosis due to the high propensity for metastatic progression and absence of specific targeted treatments. Patients with TNBC do not benefit from hormonal or trastuzumab-based targeted therapies because of the loss of target receptors. Although these patients respond to chemotherapeutic agents such as taxanes and anthracyclines better than other subtypes of breast cancer, prognosis remains poor. A group of targeted therapies under investigation showed favorable results in TNBC, especially in cancers with BRCA mutation. The lipid-lowering statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors), including lovastatin and simvastatin, have been shown to preferentially target TNBC compared with non-TNBC. These statins hold great promise for the management of TNBC. Only with the understanding of the molecular basis for the preference of statins for TNBC and more investigations in clinical trials can they be reformulated into a clinically approved drug against TNBC. PMID:27765921
Pan, Yunbao; Yuan, Yufen; Liu, Guoshi; Wei, Yongchang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subgroup of breast cancer lack of effective target therapy. This study was to investigate the prognostic role of p53 and Ki-67 in 156 cases of TNBC patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical parameters and recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the association between clinical characteristics and disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). Survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method were performed to examine the association between p53/Ki-67 and DFS and OS. Our data showed that p53 was positive in 71.3% and the Ki-67 high index was in 82.8% of TNBC. Elevated p53 and Ki-67 were associated with histological grade. The tumor size, lymph node involvement, and p53 expression are associated with risk of recurrence. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, family history, Ki-67 and p53 are independent variables associated with either DFS or OS. TNBC patients with positive p53 or Ki-67 high index or family history of cancer have a significant association with worse prognosis. This study suggests that p53, Ki-67 and family history are useful prognostic markers in TNBC. PMID:28235003
Tabassum, Doris P.; Roberts, Justin M.; Janiszewska, Michalina; Huh, Sung Jin; Liang, Yi; Ryan, Jeremy; Doherty, Ernest; Mohammed, Hisham; Guo, Hao; Stover, Daniel G.; Ekram, Muhammad B.; Brown, Jonathan; D'Santos, Clive; Krop, Ian E.; Dillon, Deborah; McKeown, Michael; Ott, Christopher; Qi, Jun; Ni, Min; Rao, Prakash K.; Duarte, Melissa; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Anders, Lars; Young, Richard A.; Winer, Eric; Letai, Antony; Barry, William T.; Carroll, Jason S.; Long, Henry; Brown, Myles; Liu, X. Shirley; Meyer, Clifford A.; Bradner, James E.; Polyak, Kornelia
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and clinically aggressive disease for which there is no targeted therapy1-3. BET bromodomain inhibitors, which have shown efficacy in several models of cancer4-6, have not been evaluated in TNBC. These inhibitors displace BET bromodomain proteins such as BRD4 from chromatin by competing with their acetyllysine recognition modules, leading to inhibition of oncogenic transcriptional programs7-9. Here we report the preferential sensitivity of TNBCs to BET bromodomain inhibition in vitro and in vivo, establishing a rationale for clinical investigation and further motivation to understand mechanisms of resistance. In paired cell lines selected for acquired resistance to BET inhibition from previously sensitive TNBCs, we failed to identify gatekeeper mutations, new driver events or drug pump activation. BET-resistant TNBC cells remain dependent on wild-type BRD4, which supports transcription and cell proliferation in a bromodomain-independent manner. Proteomic studies of resistant TNBC identify strong association with MED1 and hyper-phosphorylation of BRD4 attributable to decreased activity of PP2A, identified here as a principal BRD4 serine phosphatase. Together, these studies provide a rationale for BET inhibition in TNBC and present mechanism-based combination strategies to anticipate clinical drug resistance. PMID:26735014
García-Teijido, Paula; Cabal, María Luque; Fernández, Ignacio Peláez; Pérez, Yolanda Fernández
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments. High numbers of TILs correlate with increased pathological complete responses (pCR) in TNBC. TILs are prognostic and predictive of response to standard therapies; thus, the immune system appears to play an active role in a subgroup of breast cancer. There is an increasing interest in directly targeting the immune system as part of breast cancer therapy, mainly in patients with TNBC. New immune modulatory agents, including immune checkpoints inhibitors, have shown promising activity in a subgroup of metastatic TNBC. Increased programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1) expression on the surface of TNBC provides the rationale for implementing therapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in TNBC. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab, and the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab have shown promising results in clinical trials.
Elsamany, Shereef; Abdullah, Sakher
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype comprising about 10-20 % of breast cancer patients with an overall poor prognosis. Recently, it was found to be a heterogeneous disease that has been classified into six subtypes based on molecular signature. In preclinical trials, these subtypes have different active signaling pathways with variable response to chemotherapy. To improve treatment outcome of TNBC, therapy should be tailored according to the active driving signaling aberration. Molecular testing represents the optimal way to stratify patients, but it has some difficulties to be implemented in routine clinical practice. This article provides an assumption for stepped diagnostic algorithm of TNBC based on immunohistochemistry markers in addition to a suggested tailored therapeutic strategy for advanced TNBC based on the driving aberrations. Furthermore, most TNBC patients develop early relapse despite adjuvant chemotherapy. We provide a design for future adjuvant therapy for the disease. This design is based on targeting proposed active pathways in breast cancer stem cells responsible for regenerating the tumor and disease relapse. Finally, we provide a proposed design for future clinical trials in TNBC to allow for investigation of different medications in this heterogeneous disease based on upfront patient stratification and then allocation to the suitable treatment arms.
Jung, Yoon Yang; Hyun, Chang Lim; Jin, Min-Sun; Park, In Ae; Chung, Yul Ri; Shim, Bobae; Lee, Kyu Ho
Purpose There is no standard targeted therapy for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, its management heavily depends on adjuvant chemotherapy. Using core needle biopsy, this study evaluated the histological factors of TNBC predicting the response to chemotherapy. Methods One hundred forty-three TNBC patients who received single-regimen neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the combination of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel were enrolled. The core needle biopsy specimens acquired before NAC were used to analyze the clinicopathologic variables and overall performance of the predictive model for therapeutic response. Results Independent predictors of pathologic complete response after NAC were found to be higher number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (p=0.007), absence of clear cytoplasm (p=0.008), low necrosis (p=0.018), and high histologic grade (p=0.039). In the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the area under curve for the combination of these four variables was 0.777. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that a predictive model using the above four variables can predict therapeutic response to single-regimen NAC with the combination of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel in TNBC. Therefore, adding these morphologic variables to clinical and genomic signatures might enhance the ability to predict the therapeutic response to NAC in TNBC. PMID:27721875
Nakai, Katsuya; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yamaguchi, Hirohito
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), accounts for about 15-20% of breast cancers and is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. There are currently no effective therapies against metastatic TNBC. Compared with other breast cancer subtypes, EGFR is frequently overexpressed in TNBC and a potential therapeutic target for this disease. There are two types of EGFR inhibitors, small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and monoclonal antibody (mAb), for the treatment of cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer, however, the clinical trials of EGFR inhibitors have failed due to low response rates. Because a small portion of patients do demonstrate response to EGFR inhibitors, it may be necessary to stratify patients to enhance the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in TNBC and to develop the effective combination therapy for this patient population. In this review, we describe some of the molecular mechanisms underlying EGFR inhibitor sensitivity and further discuss the possible therapeutic strategies to increase the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in TNBC. PMID:27648353
Anders, Carey K.; Zagar, Timothy M.; Carey, Lisa A.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) defined as lacking expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2, comprises approximately 15% of incident breast cancers and is over-represented among those with metastatic disease. It is increasingly clear that TNBC is heterogeneous and that there are several biologically distinct subtypes within TNBC, in particular the basal-like subtype but also the claudin-low, among others. While the incidence of BRCA mutations across all subsets of breast cancer is quite low (~5%), BRCA mutations are more common among those with TNBC (~20%) and may have therapeutic implications. The general principles guiding the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy do not differ dramatically between early stage TNBC and non-TNBC. There is a trend, however, to treat TNBC at a lower stage with chemotherapy as this is the only way to systemically reduce recurrence risk. In the metastatic setting, while cytotoxic chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced TNBC, there are many promising targeted therapies in development in both the preclinical and early phase clinical trial settings. While the treatment of TNBC remains a challenge, coordinated efforts between clinician/scientist partnerships providing a comprehensive understanding of TNBC genomic, proteomic and other biologic processes may result in individualized therapy for TNBC faster than other subtypes -- driven by both the heterogeneity we know exists within this clinical entity and the intense need for improved treatment. PMID:23915742
Iorio, Egidio; Caramujo, Maria José; Cecchetti, Serena; Spadaro, Francesca; Carpinelli, Giulia; Canese, Rossella; Podo, Franca
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined as lack of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the absence of protein overexpression/gene amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, is still a clinical challenge despite progress in breast cancer care. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows identification and non-invasive monitoring of TNBC metabolic aberrations and elucidation of some key mechanisms underlying tumor progression. Thus, it has the potential to improve in vivo diagnosis and follow-up and also to identify new targets for treatment. Several studies have shown an altered phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism in TNBCs, both in patients and in experimental models. Upregulation of choline kinase-alpha, an enzyme of the Kennedy pathway that phosphorylates free choline (Cho) to phosphocholine (PCho), is a major contributor to the increased PCho content detected in TNBCs. Phospholipase-mediated PtdCho headgroup hydrolysis also contributes to the build-up of a PCho pool in TNBC cells. The oncogene-driven PtdCho cycle appears to be fine tuned in TNBC cells in at least three ways: by modulating the choline import, by regulating the activity or expression of specific metabolic enzymes, and by contributing to the rewiring of the entire metabolic network. Thus, only by thoroughly dissecting these mechanisms, it will be possible to effectively translate this basic knowledge into further development and implementation of Cho-based imaging techniques and novel classes of therapeutics. PMID:27747192
Carbognin, Luisa; Furlanetto, Jenny; Vicentini, Cecilia; Nortilli, Rolando; Pilotto, Sara; Brunelli, Matteo; Pellini, Francesca; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Bria, Emilio; Tortora, Giampaolo
Neoadjuvant therapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has recently generated growing interest given the more aggressive biologic characteristics of such subtype and the lack of approved targeted therapies. Systemic chemotherapy represents the mainstay of treatment for TNBC. Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy has consistently demonstrated higher response rates for TNBC compared to non-TNBC, and the pathological complete response predicts long-term outcome, most patient display residual disease with a higher risk of relapse. In order to improve the outcome of TNBC new chemotherapic combinations, including platinum agents, and different targeted agents such as antiangiogenetics, poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and other small molecule inhibitors are being evaluated in neoadjuvant setting. Currently, the research is ongoing to further characterize TNBC from a phenotypical and molecular perspective, in order to identify potential new target agents and to individualize the treatment. In this regard, the neoadjuvant setting may represent the best potential scenario to assess the activity and the sensitivity of novel agents.
Willis, Scooter; De, Pradip; Dey, Nandini; Long, Bradley; Young, Brandon; Sparano, Joseph A.; Wang, Victoria; Davidson, Nancy E.; Leyland-Jones, Brian R.
Purpose Triple negative (TN) breast cancers which lack expression of the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors convey a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of targeted therapies. Methods To identify viable targets for the treatment of TN disease, we have conducted a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on seven different breast cancer whole genome gene expression cohorts comparing TN vs. ER + HER2 − to identify consistently enriched genes that share a common promoter motif. The seven cohorts were profiled on three different genome expression platforms (Affymetrix, Illumina and RNAseq) consisting in total of 2088 samples with IHC metadata. Results GSEA identified enriched gene expression patterns in TN samples that share common promoter motifs associated with SOX9, E2F1, HIF1A, HMGA1, MYC BACH2, CEBPB, and GCNF/NR6A1. Unexpectedly, NR6A1 an orphan nuclear receptor normally expressed in germ cells of gonads is highly expressed in TN and ER + HER2 − samples making it an ideal drug target. Conclusion With the increasing number of large sample size breast cancer cohorts, an exploratory analysis of genes that are consistently enriched in TN sharing common promoter motifs allows for the identification of possible therapeutic targets with extensive validation in patient derived data sets. PMID:26005638
Rampurwala, Murtuza; Wisinski, Kari B.; O’Regan, Ruth
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with outcomes inferior to those of other breast cancer subtypes. No targeted therapies are currently approved for TNBC, and newer treatment approaches are critically needed. It is increasingly recognized that TNBC is a heterogeneous disease, and the role of androgen signaling in a subset of TNBC is emerging. Although the degree of androgen receptor (AR) expression in TNBC varies widely depending on the assay methodology, cutoff for positivity, and patient population, existing evidence suggests an association between a higher level of AR expression and improved outcomes. Despite lower pathologic complete response (pCR) rates with neoadjuvant therapy, patients with AR-dependent TNBCs have a better prognosis than those with TNBCs that are not AR-dependent. Furthermore, gene expression profiling has been used to identify a luminal androgen receptor subtype of TNBC that is dependent on AR signaling. Early clinical studies investigating agents targeting AR in advanced TNBC have produced promising results. We review herein the literature on the biology of AR in breast cancer and its prognostic and predictive role in TNBC, and we describe the results of early clinical trials with antiandrogens in this population. We also present our vision of the future development of newer therapeutic strategies in AR-dependent TNBC. PMID:27058032
Ma, Jessica; Yang, Qin; Berek, Jonathan S.; Hu, Mickey C-T.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal form of breast cancer. Lacking effective therapeutic options hinders treatment of TNBC. Here, we show that bepridil (BPD) and trifluoperazine (TFP), which are FDA-approved drugs for treatment of schizophrenia and angina respectively, inhibit Akt-pS473 phosphorylation and promote FOXO3 nuclear localization and activation in TNBC cells. BPD and TFP inhibit survival and proliferation in TNBC cells and suppress the growth of TNBC tumors, whereas silencing FOXO3 reduces the BPD- and TFP-mediated suppression of survival in TNBC cells. While BPD and TFP decrease the expression of oncogenic c-Myc, KLF5, and dopamine receptor DRD2 in TNBC cells, silencing FOXO3 diminishes BPD- and TFP-mediated repression of the expression of these proteins in TNBC cells. Since c-Myc, KLF5, and DRD2 have been suggested to increase cancer stem cell-like populations in various tumors, reducing these proteins in response to BPD and TFP suggests a novel FOXO3-dependent mechanism underlying BPD- and TFP-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. PMID:27283899
Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Johnson, Sara E.; Swindell, Elden P.; Napier, Dana; Sethi, Pallavi; Chan, Ryan; Feddock, Jonathan M.; Weiss, Heidi L.; O'Halloran, Thomas V.; Mark Evers, B.
Currently there are no FDA approved targeted therapies for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Ongoing clinical trials for TNBC have focused primarily on targeting the epithelial cancer cells. However, targeted delivery of cytotoxic payloads to the non-transformed tumor associated-endothelium can prove to be an alternate approach that is currently unexplored. The present study is supported by recent findings on elevated expression of stromal galectin-1 in clinical samples of TNBC and our ongoing findings on stromal targeting of radiation induced galectin-1 by the anginex-conjugated arsenic-cisplatin loaded liposomes using a novel murine tumor model. We demonstrate inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in response to the multimodal nanotherapeutic strategy using a TNBC model with orthotopic tumors originating from 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) comprised of tumor cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The ‘rigorous’ combined treatment regimen of radiation and targeted liposomes is also shown to be well tolerated. More importantly, the results presented provide a means to exploit clinically relevant radiation dose for concurrent receptor mediated enhanced delivery of chemotherapy while limiting overall toxicity. The proposed study is significant as it falls in line with developing combinatorial therapeutic approaches for stroma-directed tumor targeting using tumor models that have an appropriate representation of the TNBC microenvironment. PMID:27223428
Xu, Qianqian; Xu, Yali; Pan, Bo; Wu, Liangcai; Ren, Xinyu; Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jinghong; Shen, Songjie; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Changjun; Zhong, Ying; Zhou, Liangrui; Liang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haitao; Sun, Qiang
Purpose Previous studies demonstrate that threonine and tyrosine kinase (TTK) is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but there are conflicting results regarding its effect on TNBC survival. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of TTK expression in primary TNBC. Results Of 169 consecutive cases eligible for this study, 164 included follow-up information. Cytoplasm and membrane TTK staining was observed in 99.4% of cases, while 5.9% displayed whole cell immunostaining. At a discriminating threshold of 55, elevated TTK expression was associated with prolonged disease free survival (DFS) (p < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.024) in primary TNBC and prolonged DFS in individual basal-like (p = 0.001) and non-basal-like (p = 0.001) TNBC subtypes. In addition, Cox regression analysis demonstrated that elevated TTK expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS in TNBC (p < 0.001). Methods TTK expression of 169 samples was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify a cutpoint for TTK expression, which was analyzed for its association with patients' clinicopathological factors and survival using Chi-square, log-rank, and Cox regression analyses. Conclusions TTK is a favorable prognostic biomarker associated with TNBC survival. PMID:27833085
Euceda, Leslie R; Hill, Deborah K; Stokke, Endre; Hatem, Rana; Botty, Rania El; Bièche, Ivan; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Bathen, Tone F; Moestue, Siver A
Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are unresponsive to endocrine and anti-HER2 pharmacotherapy, limiting their therapeutic options to chemotherapy. TNBC is frequently associated with abnormalities in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; drugs targeting this pathway are currently being evaluated in these patients. However, response is variable, partly due to heterogeneity within TNBC, conferring a need to identify biomarkers predicting response and resistance to targeted therapy. In this study, we used a metabolomics approach to assess response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in a panel of TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) (n=103 animals). Tumor metabolic profiles were acquired using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis on relative metabolite concentrations discriminated treated xenografts from untreated controls with an accuracy of 67% (p=0.003). Multilevel linear mixed-effects models (LMM) indicated reduced glycolytic lactate production and glutaminolysis after treatment, consistent with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition. Although inherent metabolic heterogeneity between different PDX models seemed to hinder prediction of treatment response, the metabolic effects following treatment were more pronounced in responding xenografts compared to non-responders. Additionally, the metabolic information predicted p53 mutation status, which may provide complimentary insight into the interplay between PI3K signaling and other drivers of disease progression.
Tian, Jun; Hachim, Mahmood Y.; Hachim, Ibrahim Y.; Dai, Meiou; Lo, Chieh; Raffa, Fatmah Al; Ali, Suhad; Lebrun, Jean Jacques
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive subtype of breast cancer, display poor prognosis and exhibit resistance to conventional therapies, partly due to an enrichment in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Here, we investigated the role of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream target of TGFβ, in regulating BCSCs in TNBC. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that COX-2 is highly expressed in TNBC and that its expression correlated with poor survival outcome in basal subtype of breast cancer. We also found TGFβ-mediated COX-2 expression to be Smad3-dependent and to be required for BCSC self-renewal and expansion in TNBCs. Knocking down COX-2 expression strikingly blocked TGFβ-induced tumorsphere formation and TGFβ-induced enrichment of the two stem-like cell populations, CD24lowCD44high and ALDH+ BCSCs. Blocking COX-2 activity, using a pharmacological inhibitor also prevented TGFβ-induced BCSC self-renewal. Moreover, we found COX-2 to be required for TGFβ-induced expression of mesenchymal and basal breast cancer markers. In particular, we found that TGFβ-induced expression of fibronectin plays a central role in TGFβ-mediated breast cancer stemness. Together, our results describe a novel role for COX-2 in mediating the TGFβ effects on BCSC properties and imply that targeting the COX-2 pathway may prove useful for the treatment of TNBC by eliminating BCSCs. PMID:28054666
Hou, Lingmi; Chen, Maoshan; Yang, Hongwei; Xing, Tianyong; Li, Jingdong; Li, Guangwu; Zhang, Lina; Deng, Shishan; Hu, Jiani; Zhao, Xiaobo; Jiang, Jun
Background Breast cancer is the main type of cancer in women, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a unique subtype of breast cancer. The expression of miR-940 has been shown to play an important role in various cancers; however, the role of miR-940 in TNBC remains unknown. Material/Methods The expression of miR-940 in TNBC tissues or cells were tested by qRT-PCR; the expression of miR-940 in cells were overexpressed by miR-940 mimics, and suppressed by anti-miR-940. Bioinformatics algorithms from TargetScanHuman were used to predict the target genes of miR-940. The interaction between miR-940 and ZNF24 was confirmed by dual luciferase assays. The protein level was assayed by Western blot. Results TNBC tissues and cells showed lower miR-940 levels. Conclusions MiR-940 inhibited cellular proliferation and migration in TNBC. PMID:27731867
Zheng, Hongping; Shao, Fangyuan; Martin, Scots; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia
Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used therapeutic drugs for cancer therapy, yet prolonged cisplatin treatment frequently results in drug resistance. To enhance therapeutic effect of cisplatin, we conducted a high throughput screening using a kinase library containing 704 kinases against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We demonstrated that cisplatin activates ATR, CHK1 and WEE1, which shut down DNA replication and attenuate cisplatin induced-lethality. WEE1 inhibition sensitizes TNBCs and cisplatin resistant cancer cells to cisplatin-induced lethality, because it not only impairs DNA replication checkpoint more profoundly than inhibition of ATR or CHK1, but also defects G2-M cell cycle checkpoint. Finally, we demonstrated that combined cisplatin treatment and WEE1 inhibition synergistically inhibits xenograft cancer growth accompanied by markedly reduced expression of TNBC signature genes. Thus targeting DNA replication and G2-M cell cycle checkpoint simultaneously by cisplatin and WEE1 inhibition is promising for TNBCs treatment, and for overcoming their cisplatin resistance.
Goswami, Ishan; Coutermarsh-Ott, Sheryl; Morrison, Ryan G; Allen, Irving C; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S; Bickford, Lissett R
Low-level electric fields have been demonstrated to induce spatial re-distribution of cell membrane receptors when applied for minutes or hours. However, there is limited literature on the influence on cell signaling with short transient high-amplitude pulses typically used in irreversible electroporation (IRE) for cancer treatment. Moreover, literature on signaling pertaining to immune cell trafficking after IRE is conflicting. We hypothesized that pulse parameters (field strength and exposure time) influence cell signaling and subsequently impact immune-cell trafficking. This hypothesis was tested in-vitro on triple negative breast cancer cells treated with IRE, where the effects of pulse parameters on key cell signaling factors were investigated. Importantly, real time PCR mRNA measurements and ELISA protein analyses revealed that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) signaling was down regulated by electric field strengths above a critical threshold, irrespective of exposure times spanning those typically used clinically. Comparison with other treatments (thermal shock, chemical poration, kinase inhibitors) revealed that IRE has a unique effect on TSLP. Because TSLP signaling has been demonstrated to drive pro-cancerous immune cell phenotypes in breast and pancreatic cancers, our finding motivates further investigation into the potential use of IRE for induction of an anti-tumor immune response in vivo.
Parvani, Jenny G; Jackson, Mark W
Over the past decade, RNA interference (RNAi) has been ubiquitously utilized to study biological function in vitro; however, limitations were associated with its utility in vivo More recently, small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles with improved biocompatibility have gained prevalence as a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of various diseases. The adaptability of siRNA nanoparticles enables the delivery of virtually any siRNA, which is especially advantageous for therapeutic applications in heterogeneous diseases that lack unifying molecular features, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is stratified by the lack of estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor expression and HER2 amplification. There are currently no FDA-approved targeted therapies for the treatment of TNBCs, making cytotoxic chemotherapy the only treatment option available to these patients. In this review, we outline the current status of siRNA nanoparticles in clinical trials for cancer treatment and discuss the promising preclinical approaches that have utilized siRNA nanoparticles for TNBC treatment. Next, we address TNBC subtype-specific therapeutic interventions and highlight where and how siRNA nanoparticles fit into these strategies. Lastly, we point out ongoing challenges in the field of siRNA nanoparticle research that, if addressed, would significantly improve the efficacy of siRNA nanoparticles as a therapeutic option for cancer treatment.
Godugu, Chandraiah; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Singh, Mandip
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), owing to its aggressive behavior and toxicity associated with available chemotherapy; currently no suitable therapy is available. Honokiol (HNK) is a promising anticancer drug but has poor bioavailability. In the current study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of an oral Honokiol nanomicellar (NM) formulation (size range of 20-40nm) in vitro against various TNBC cells lines. Cytotoxicity, clonogenic and wound healing assays demonstrated the promising anticancer effects. In vitro Caco-2 permeability studies suggested increased absorption of Honokiol. Compared to HNK-FD, nanomicellar formulations resulted in significant increase in the oral bioavailability. Cmax (4.06 and 3.60-fold) and AUC (6.26 and 5.83-fold) were significantly increased in comparison to oral 40 and 80mg/kg free drug respectively. Further, anticancer effects of these formulations were studied in BALB/c nude mice transplanted with orthotopic MDA-MB-231 cell induced xenografts. After 4 weeks of daily administration of HNK-NM formulation, significant reduction in the tumor volumes and weights compared to free drug (p<0.001) treated groups was observed. Surprisingly, in some of the animals (25%), the treatment resulted in complete eradication of tumors. Increased apoptosis and antiangiogenic effect was observed in HNK-NM groups compared to free drug and untreated control animals. This is the first report demonstrating that HNK-FD possesses anticancer effects against TNBC.
Zeng, Qiqun; Li, Weidong; Lu, Di; Wu, Zhenzhen; Duan, Hongxia; Luo, Yongting; Feng, Jing; Yang, Dongling; Fu, Li; Yan, Xiyun
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in breast cancer metastasis, especially in the most aggressive and lethal subtype, "triple-negative breast cancer" (TNBC). Here, we report that CD146 is a unique activator of EMTs and significantly correlates with TNBC. In epithelial breast cancer cells, overexpression of CD146 down-regulated epithelial markers and up-regulated mesenchymal markers, significantly promoted cell migration and invasion, and induced cancer stem cell-like properties. We further found that RhoA pathways positively regulated CD146-induced EMTs via the key EMT transcriptional factor Slug. An orthotopic breast tumor model demonstrated that CD146-overexpressing breast tumors showed a poorly differentiated phenotype and displayed increased tumor invasion and metastasis. We confirmed these findings by conducting an immunohistochemical analysis of 505 human primary breast tumor tissues and found that CD146 expression was significantly associated with high tumor stage, poor prognosis, and TNBC. CD146 was expressed at abnormally high levels (68.9%), and was strongly associated with E-cadherin down-regulation in TNBC samples. Taken together, these findings provide unique evidence that CD146 promotes breast cancer progression by induction of EMTs via the activation of RhoA and up-regulation of Slug. Thus, CD146 could be a therapeutic target for breast cancer, especially for TNBC.
Rai, Girish; Suman, Shankar; Mishra, Sanjay; Shukla, Yogeshwer
Resveratrol (RSVL) a dietary phytochemical showed to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Recently, Salinomycin (SAL) has gained importance as cancer therapeutic value for breast cancer (BC), however, its superfluxious toxicity delimits the utility. Taking the advantage of RSVL, the therapeutic efficacy of RSVL and SAL combination was studied in vitro and in vivo system. Firstly, the synergistic combination dose of RSVL and SAL was calculated and further, the efficacy was examined by wound healing, and Western blots analysis. Further, in vivo study was performed to confirm the effect of colony formation and apoptosis detection by flow cytometry based assays. Further, the molecular mode of action was determined at both transcript and translational level by quantitative Real Time PCR combination in Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma model.The combination of IC20 (R20) of RSVL and IC10 (S10) dose of SAL showed best synergism (CI<1) with ∼5 fold dose advantage of SAL. Gene expression results at mRNA and protein level revealed that the unique combination of RSVL and SAL significantly inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (Fibronectin, Vimentin, N-Cadherin, and Slug); chronic inflammation (Cox2, NF-kB, p53), autophagy (Beclin and LC3) and apoptotic (Bax, Bcl-2) markers. Further, i n vivo study showed that low dose of SAL in combination with RSVL increased life span of Ehrlich ascitic mice. Overall, our study revealed that RSVL synergistically potentiated the anticancer potential of SAL against triple negative BC.
Patel, Ketan; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Boakye, Cedar H. A.; Singh, Mandip
Very low oral bioavailability due to extensive pre-systemic metabolism and P-gp efflux has constrained the oral metronomic chemotherapy of docetaxel (DTX). There is tremendous need of compounds facilitating oral delivery of DTX. The research was aimed to investigate the effect of piperlongumine (PPL) on human liver microsomal metabolism, Caco-2 permeability and cytotoxicity of DTX in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Reduction in testosterone and DTX metabolism (2-fold increase in half-life) by piperlongumine was comparable to the standard CYP3A4 inhibitor, Cyclosporine A. P-gp efflux ratio of DTX across caco-2 monolayer was reduced from 2.37 to 1.52 on co-incubation with piperlongumine. The IC50 value of DTX was reduced 3-5 times and combination index values in all the cell lines were below 0.6. PPL at non-cytotoxic concentration showed significant enhancement of the anti-migration effect of DTX. Expression of tumor markers such as survivin, bcl2, C-myc and cyclin D1 were down regulated to a great extent with enhanced p53 expression when treated with combination instead of individual drug. Co-treatment with PPL led to 1.68 fold enhancement in DTX bioavailability in SD rats. Piperlongumine could be a potential candidate in overcoming the obstacles associated with oral docetaxel delivery with synergistic anticancer activity. PMID:26372815
Jin, Jiefu; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Mironchik, Yelena; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most lethal subtypes of breast cancer that has limited treatment options. Its high rates of recurrence and metastasis have been associated, in part, with a subpopulation of breast cancer stem-like cells that are resistant to conventional therapies. A compendium of markers such as CD44high/CD24low, and increased expression of the ABCG2 transporter and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), have been associated with these cells. We developed a CD44-targeted monoclonal antibody photosensitizer conjugate for combined fluorescent detection and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of CD44 expressing cells in TNBC. The CD44-targeted conjugate demonstrated acute cell killing of breast cancer cells with high CD44 expression. This cell death process was dependent upon CD44-specific cell membrane binding combined with near-infrared irradiation. The conjugate selectively accumulated in CD44-positive tumors and caused dramatic tumor shrinkage and efficient elimination of CD44-positive cell populations following irradiation. This novel phototheranostic strategy provides a promising opportunity for the destruction of CD44-positive populations that include cancer stem-like cells, in locally advanced primary and metastatic TNBC. PMID:27302409
Lee, Hye Min; Moon, Aree
Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside-6-β-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen receptors (ER)-positive MCF7 cells, and MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Amygdalin induced apoptosis of Hs578T TNBC cells. Amygdalin downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), activated of caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Amygdalin activated a pro-apoptotic signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) in Hs578T cells. Treatment of amygdalin significantly inhibited the adhesion of Hs578T cells, in which integrin α5 may be involved. Taken together, this study demonstrates that amygdalin induces apoptosis and inhibits adhesion of breast cancer cells. The results suggest a potential application of amygdalin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate progression of breast cancer, especially TNBC. PMID:26759703
Bhola, Neil E; Balko, Justin M; Dugger, Teresa C; Kuba, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Violeta; Sanders, Melinda; Stanford, Jamie; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L
After an initial response to chemotherapy, many patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have recurrence of drug-resistant metastatic disease. Studies with TNBC cells suggest that chemotherapy-resistant populations of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) with self-renewing and tumor-initiating capacities are responsible for these relapses. TGF-β has been shown to increase stem-like properties in human breast cancer cells. We analyzed RNA expression in matched pairs of primary breast cancer biopsies before and after chemotherapy. Biopsies after chemotherapy displayed increased RNA transcripts of genes associated with CSCs and TGF-β signaling. In TNBC cell lines and mouse xenografts, the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel increased autocrine TGF-β signaling and IL-8 expression and enriched for CSCs, as indicated by mammosphere formation and CSC markers. The TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor LY2157299, a neutralizing TGF-β type II receptor antibody, and SMAD4 siRNA all blocked paclitaxel-induced IL8 transcription and CSC expansion. Moreover, treatment of TNBC xenografts with LY2157299 prevented reestablishment of tumors after paclitaxel treatment. These data suggest that chemotherapy-induced TGF-β signaling enhances tumor recurrence through IL-8-dependent expansion of CSCs and that TGF-β pathway inhibitors prevent the development of drug-resistant CSCs. These findings support testing a combination of TGF-β inhibitors and anticancer chemotherapy in patients with TNBC.
Oudin, Madeleine J; Barbier, Lucie; Schäfer, Claudia; Kosciuk, Tatsiana; Miller, Miles A; Han, Sangyoon; Jonas, Oliver; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B
Taxane therapy remains the standard of care for triple-negative breast cancer. However, high frequencies of recurrence and progression in treated patients indicate that metastatic breast cancer cells can acquire resistance to this drug. The actin regulatory protein MENA and particularly its invasive isoform, MENA(INV), are established drivers of metastasis. MENA(INV) expression is significantly correlated with metastasis and poor outcome in human patients with breast cancer. We investigated whether MENA isoforms might play a role in driving resistance to chemotherapeutics. We find that both MENA and MENA(INV) confer resistance to the taxane paclitaxel, but not to the widely used DNA-damaging agents doxorubicin or cisplatin. Furthermore, paclitaxel treatment does not attenuate growth of MENA(INV)-driven metastatic lesions. Mechanistically, MENA isoform expression alters the ratio of dynamic and stable microtubule populations in paclitaxel-treated cells. MENA expression also increases MAPK signaling in response to paclitaxel treatment. Decreasing ERK phosphorylation by co-treatment with MEK inhibitor restored paclitaxel sensitivity by driving microtubule stabilization in MENA isoform-expressing cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of taxane resistance in highly metastatic breast cancer cells and identify a combination therapy to overcome such resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 143-55. ©2016 AACR.
Jang, Young Jin; Son, Joe Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Lim, Tae-gyu; Kim, Sunghoon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won
Nutrient deprivation strategies have been proposed as an adjuvant therapy for cancer cells due to their increased metabolic demand. We examined the specific inhibitory effects of amino acid deprivation on the metastatic phenotypes of the human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T, as well as the orthotopic 4T1 mouse TNBC tumor model. Among the 10 essential amino acids tested, methionine deprivation elicited the strongest inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of these cancer cells. Methionine deprivation reduced the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, as well as the activity and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, two major markers of metastasis, while increasing the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, methionine restriction downregulated the metastasis-related factor urokinase plasminogen activatior and upregulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mRNA expression. Animals on the methionine-deprived diet showed lower lung metastasis rates compared to mice on the control diet. Taken together, these results suggest that methionine restriction could provide a potential nutritional strategy for more effective cancer therapy. PMID:27579534
Mathe, Andrea; Scott, Rodney J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterised by the lack of receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). Since it cannot be treated by current endocrine therapies which target these receptors and due to its aggressive nature, it has one of the worst prognoses of all breast cancer subtypes. The only treatments remain chemo- and/or radio-therapy and surgery and because of this, novel biomarkers or treatment targets are urgently required to improve disease outcomes. MicroRNAs represent an attractive candidate for targeted therapies against TNBC, due to their natural ability to act as antisense interactors and regulators of entire gene sets involved in malignancy and their superiority over mRNA profiling to accurately classify disease. Here we review the current knowledge regarding miRNAs as biomarkers in TNBC and their potential use as therapeutic targets in this disease. Further, we review other epigenetic changes and interactions of these changes with microRNAs in this breast cancer subtype, which may lead to the discovery of new treatment targets for TNBC. PMID:26633365
García-Teijido, Paula; Cabal, María Luque; Fernández, Ignacio Peláez; Pérez, Yolanda Fernández
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments. High numbers of TILs correlate with increased pathological complete responses (pCR) in TNBC. TILs are prognostic and predictive of response to standard therapies; thus, the immune system appears to play an active role in a subgroup of breast cancer. There is an increasing interest in directly targeting the immune system as part of breast cancer therapy, mainly in patients with TNBC. New immune modulatory agents, including immune checkpoints inhibitors, have shown promising activity in a subgroup of metastatic TNBC. Increased programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1) expression on the surface of TNBC provides the rationale for implementing therapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in TNBC. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab, and the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab have shown promising results in clinical trials. PMID:27081325
Brouckaert, Olivier; Wildiers, Hans; Floris, Giuseppe; Neven, Patrick
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease comprehending different orphan breast cancers simply defined by the absence of ER/PR/HER-2. Approximately 15%–20% of all breast cancers belong to this phenotype that has distinct risk factors, distinct molecular features, and a particular clinical presentation and outcome. All these features will be discussed in this review. The risk of developing TNBC varies with age, race, genetics, breastfeeding patterns, and parity. Some TNBC are very chemo-sensitive and the majority of patients confronted with and treated for TNBC will never relapse. Some (histological) subgroups of TNBC may have good prognosis even in the absence of chemotherapy. Distinct molecular subgroups within TNBC have been defined now as well. In case metastatic relapse occurs, this is usually within 5 years following surgery, and survival following metastatic relapse is shorter compared to other breast cancer subtypes; treatment options are few and responses lack durability. Novel drug targets and new biomarkers are needed to improve breast cancer care for patients presenting with TNBC. Further molecular/biological unraveling of TNBC is needed. PMID:23071421
Hou, Lingmi; Chen, Maoshan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Jingdong; Deng, Shishan; Hu, Jiani; Yang, Hongwei; Jiang, Jun
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is often associated with biologic behavior with frequent distant metastasis. FAT tumor suppressor homolog 4 (FAT4), a cadherin-related protein, is involved in a variety of biological processes as a tumor suppressor; however, the role of FAT4 in TNBC is still unclear. The aim of our study was to identify the role of FAT4 in TNBC and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression of FAT4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and qRT-PCR in a series of TNBC tissues. The effects of FAT4 on the ability of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed by MTT assay and migration and invasion assays. We demonstrated that the repression of FAT4 by shRNA could promote TNBC progression. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for a role of the FAT4 cluster as a tumor suppressor in TNBC patients and may serve as potential novel targets for the treatment of TNBC.
Woo, Sang-Mi; Kim, Ah Jeong; Choi, Youn Kyung; Shin, Young Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly aggressive, resulting in poor prognosis. Chemotherapy of TNBC relies on anti-cancer agents with strong cytotoxicity, but it causes several side effects with recurrence. While combinational approaches of chemotherapeutics have been highlighted as a new treatment strategy for TNBC to reduce side effects, combinations of anti-cancer agents with herbal medicines have not been reported. We recently reported that newly modified traditional Chinese medicine named SH003 inhibited TNBC growth. Considering a combinational strategy for TNBC treatment, we further studied synergistic effects of SH003 with various anti-cancer drugs in TNBC treatment. Here, we demonstrate that SH003 shows a synergistic effect with doxorubicin on TNBC treatment. Our in vitro cell viability assays revealed that SH003 and doxorubicin showed a synergistic effect in the well-defined TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231. Moreover, we found that the combinational treatment caused Caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Our in vivo mouse xenograft tumor growth assays confirmed that combinational treatment of SH003 with doxorubicin repressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth with no weight loss. Therefore, we conclude that the combinational treatment of SH003 with doxorubicin shows the synergism in TNBC treatment, and suggest that SH003 can be used together with conventional anti-cancer drugs in chemotherapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McDaniel, Joy M; Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Savic, Daniel S; Roberts, Brian S; Bailey, Sarah K; Shevde, Lalita A; Ramaker, Ryne C; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Kirby, Marie K; Newberry, Kimberly M; Partridge, E Christopher; Jones, Angela L; Boone, Braden; Levy, Shawn E; Oliver, Patsy G; Sexton, Katherine C; Grizzle, William E; Forero, Andres; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Cooper, Sara J; Myers, Richard M
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of four molecular subtypes defined by whether the tumor-originating cells are luminal or basal epithelial cells. Breast cancers arising from the luminal mammary duct often express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors expressing ER and/or PR are treated with anti-hormonal therapies, while tumors overexpressing HER2 are targeted with monoclonal antibodies. Immunohistochemical detection of ER, PR, and HER2 receptors/proteins is a critical step in breast cancer diagnosis and guided treatment. Breast tumors that do not express these proteins are known as "triple negative breast cancer" (TNBC) and are typically basal-like. TNBCs are the most aggressive subtype, with the highest mortality rates and no targeted therapy, so there is a pressing need to identify important TNBC tumor regulators. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor has been previously implicated as a constitutively active oncogene in TNBC. However, its direct regulatory gene targets and tumorigenic properties have not been well characterized. By integrating RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data from 2 TNBC tumors and 5 cell lines, we discovered novel gene signatures directly regulated by STAT3 that were enriched for processes involving inflammation, immunity, and invasion in TNBC. Functional analysis revealed that STAT3 has a key role regulating invasion and metastasis, a characteristic often associated with TNBC. Our findings suggest therapies targeting STAT3 may be important for preventing TNBC metastasis.
Fayaz, Mohammed S.; El-Sherify, Mustafa S.; El-Basmy, Amany; Zlouf, Sadeq A.; Nazmy, Nashwa; George, Thomas; Samir, Susan; Attia, Gerges; Eissa, Heba
Aim The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of TNBC in Kuwait, to analyze the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of this type of breast cancer, and compare it with reports from other regions of the world. Background Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a subtype that is negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). There is a growing evidence of the heterogeneity of such entity on the molecular level that may cause discrete outcomes. Methods We analyzed the clinicopathologic features of 363 TNBC cases which were diagnosed in Kuwait from July 1999 to June 2009. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by Kaplan–Meier method. Comparison was done with reports from USA, Europe, Middle and Far East. Results Among 2986 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in Kuwait, 363 patients (12.2%) were TNBC. The median age was 48 years, 57.2% had lymph nodes (LN) metastasis, 56.9% were of grade III tumor and 41.9% had stage II disease. 81% developed recurrences and 75% of deaths occurred by 2.5 years after treatment. There is marked variation of clinicopathologic features according to country of patients’ cohort. Conclusion The incidence of TNBC in our study is similar to other studies. TNBC patients showed an early major recurrence surge peaking at approximately year 2.5. Regional variation of clinicopathologic features indicates a need for molecular studies to define underlying molecular features and its impact on survival. PMID:24936335
Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano
Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target. PMID:24978437
Cheng, Chee Leong; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Sie Yong Jane; Chua, Pei Jou; Bay, Boon Huat; Tan, Puay Hoon
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are clinically aggressive tumors with limited treatment options. We examined the clinicopathological associations and prognostic implications of FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression in TNBCs. Tissue microarrays constructed from TNBCs were immunostained with FGFR1 and FGFR2, and scored by intensity and percentage of tumor cells stained per intensity for each subcellular compartment, which were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and survival. Cell migration following siRNA-mediated silencing of the FGFR1 gene in TNBC cell lines was also performed. 714 cases were informative for FGFR1 and FGFR2 immunostaining. Thresholds were defined as at least 1 % of cells stained and H-score of 100 or more. Proportions positive by each threshold were, respectively, 89.9 %, 7.1 % for FGFR1 (cytoplasm); 36.8 %, 7.8 % for FGFR2 (cytoplasm); and 33.5 %, 5.2 % for FGFR2 (membrane). Significant associations included FGFR1 and FGFR2 immunostaining for lobular subtype, FGFR2 immunostaining with lower grade, and more basal-like cancers with H-scores of 100 or more FGFR1 immunostaining. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed FGFR1 expression in TNBCs to be independently prognostic for overall survival (OS) at both thresholds. Cases completely negative (less than 1 % staining) for FGFR1 immunostaining showed improved OS, while those with H-score of 100 or more immunostaining had the worst OS. Cell line studies revealed up-regulation of the FGFR1 gene in the MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T TNBC cells, and specific knockdown of FGFR1 expression significantly reduced cell migration in MDA-MB-231 cell line. In conclusion, FGFR1 expression in TNBCs is independently prognostic of OS, and H-score of 100 or more FGFR1 immunostaining may define tumors that have treatment potential via FGFR signaling inhibition.
Molinari, Agnese; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Losada, Jesús Pérez; Ciordia, Sergio; Albar, Juan Pablo; Martín-Pérez, Jorge
SFKs are involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we analyzed c-Src contribution to initial steps of metastasis by tetracycline-dependent expression of a specific shRNA-c-Src, which suppressed c-Src mRNA and protein levels in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. c-Src suppression did not alter cell proliferation or survival, but it significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth. Concomitantly with diminished tyrosine-phosphorylation/activation of Fak, caveolin-1, paxillin and p130CAS, c-Src depletion also inhibited cellular migration, invasion and transendothelial migration. Quantitative proteomic analyses of the secretome showed that Cyr61 levels, which were detected in the exosomal fraction, were diminished upon shRNA-c-Src expression. In contrast, Cyr61 expression was unaltered inside cells. Cyr61 partially colocalized with cis-Golgi gp74 marker and with exosomal marker CD63, but c-Src depletion did not alter their cellular distribution. In SUM159PT cells, transient c-Src suppression also reduced secreted exosomal Cyr61 levels. Furthermore, conditional expression of a c-Src dominant negative mutant (SrcDN, c-Src-K295M/Y527F) in MDA-MB-231 and in SUM159PT diminished secreted Cyr61 as well. Cyr61 transient suppression in MDA-MB-231 inhibited invasion and transendothelial migration. Finally, in both MDA-MB-231 and SUM159PT, a neutralizing Cyr61 antibody restrained migration. Collectively, these results suggest that c-Src regulates secreted proteins, including the exosomal Cyr61, which are involved in modulating the metastatic potential of triple negative breast cancer cells. PMID:25980494
Wilkinson, J. Ben; Reid, Robert E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Chen, Peter Y.; Mitchell, Christine K.; Wallace, Michelle F.; Marvin, Kimberly S.; Grills, Inga S.; Margolis, Jeffrey M.; Vicini, Frank A.
Purpose: Triple negative receptor status (TNRS) of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy treated with whole-breast irradiation has been associated with increased distant metastasis and decreased disease-free and overall survival. This paper reports the outcomes of TNRS patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: We studied 455 patients who received APBI at our institution, using interstitial, intracavitary, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. TNRS was assigned if a patient tested negative for all three (ER [estrogen receptor], PR [progesterone receptor], and HER2/neu) receptors. Of 202 patients with all receptor results available, 20 patients were designated TNRS, and 182 patients had at least one receptor positive (RP). We analyzed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Results: Mean follow-up was 4.1 years for the TNRS group and 5.1 years for the RP cohort (p = 0.11). TNRS patients had a higher histologic grade (59% TNRS vs. 13% RP; p < 0.001). Mean tumor size, stage N1 disease, and margin status were similar. Based on a 5-year actuarial analysis, the TNRS cohort experienced no IBTR, RNF, or DM, with an OS of 100% versus rates of 1.4% IBTR, 1.5% RNF, and 2.8% DM in the RP cohort (p > 0.52). OS for the RP cohort was 93% at 5 years (p > 0.28). Conclusions: In our patient population, TNRS conferred a clinical outcome similar to that of patients with RP disease treated with APBI. Further investigation with larger patient populations and longer follow-up periods is warranted to confirm that APBI is a safe and effective treatment for patients with localized TNRS breast cancer.
Plantamura, Ilaria; Casalini, Patrizia; Dugnani, Erica; Sasso, Marianna; D'Ippolito, Elvira; Tortoreto, Monica; Cacciatore, Matilde; Guarnotta, Carla; Ghirelli, Cristina; Barajon, Isabella; Bianchi, Francesca; Triulzi, Tiziana; Agresti, Roberto; Balsari, Andrea; Campiglio, Manuela; Tripodo, Claudio; Iorio, Marilena V; Tagliabue, Elda
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a very aggressive subgroup of breast carcinoma, still lacking specific markers for an effective targeted therapy and with a poorer prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. In this study we investigated the possibility that TNBC cells contribute to the establishment of tumor vascular network by the process known as vasculogenic mimicry, through endothelial cell differentiation. Vascular-like functional properties of breast cancer cell lines were investigated in vitro by tube formation assay and in vivo by confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry on frozen tumor sections. TNBCs express endothelial markers and acquire the ability to form vascular-like channels in vitro and in vivo, both in xenograft models and in human specimens, generating blood lacunae surrounded by tumor cells. Notably this feature is significantly associated with reduced disease free survival. The impairment of the main pathways involved in vessel formation, by treatment with inhibitors (i.e. Sunitinib and Bevacizumab) or by siRNA-mediating silencing, allowed the identification of PDGFRβ and FGFR2 as relevant players in this phenomenon. Inhibition of these tyrosine kinase receptors negatively affects vascular lacunae formation and significantly inhibits TNBC growth in vivo. In summary, we demonstrated that TNBCs have the ability to form vascular-like channels in vitro and to generate blood lacunae lined by tumor cells in vivo. Moreover, this feature is associated with poor outcome, probably contributing to the aggressiveness of this breast cancer subgroup. Finally, PDGFRβ and FGFR2-mediated pathways, identified as relevant in mediating this characteristic, potentially represent valid targets for a specific therapy of this breast cancer subgroup.
Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Chuang; Chen, Jian; Sun, Jinzhong; Sun, Si; Jin, Liting; Li, Juanjuan; Sun, Shengrong; Wu, Xinhong
Background Topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A) is a key enzyme in DNA replication and a target of various cytotoxic agents including anthracyclines. Previous studies evaluating the predictive and prognostic values of TOP2A in breast cancer are contradictory, likely secondary to the use of both different detection methods and different cutoff thresholds for positive status. Our own studies have previously confirmed the advantages of quantum dot-based nanotechnology for quantitative analysis of biomarkers relative to conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC). This study was designed to 1) assess the expression of TOP2A, 2) investigate the relationship between TOP2A expression and major clinical pathological parameters, and 3) evaluate the prognostic value of TOP2A by quantum dot-based immunofluorescent imaging and quantitative analytical system (QD-IIQAS) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Patients and methods TOP2A expression in 145 TNBC specimens was detected using IHC and QD-IIQAS, and a comparative analysis of the two methods was conducted, including an exploration of the relationship between TOP2A expression and major clinical pathological parameters in TNBC. The prognostic value of TOP2A in TNBC was assessed. Results A similar antigen localization, a high correlation of staining rates (r=0.79), and a high agreement of measurements (κ=0.763) of TOP2A expression in TNBC were found by QD-IIQAS and conventional IHC (cutoff: 45.0 and 0.45, respectively). TOP2A was significantly higher in larger tumors (P=0.002), higher grade tumors (P=0.005), and lymph node positive patients (P<0.001). The 5-year disease-free survival (5-DFS) of the high and low TOP2A subgroups was significantly different for both QD-IIQAS and IHC (P<0.001, log-rank test for both). TOP2A expression was an independent predictor of survival in TNBC (P=0.001). Conclusion QD-IIQAS was an easy and accurate method for detecting and assessing TOP2A. The TOP2A expression was an independent prognostic
Estrogen Receptor Negative (ER-Negative) Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Negative (PR-Negative) Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Negative (HER2-Negative) Breast Cancer; Brain Metastases
Bramante, Simona; Koski, Anniina; Liikanen, Ilkka; Vassilev, Lotta; Oksanen, Minna; Siurala, Mikko; Heiskanen, Raita; Hakonen, Tiina; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by several distinct biological subtypes, among which triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one associated with a poor prognosis. Oncolytic virus replication is an immunogenic phenomenon, and viruses can be armed with immunostimulatory molecules to boost virus triggered antitumoral immune responses. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a chemotherapy drug that is associated with cytotoxicity and immunosuppression at higher doses, whereas immunostimulatory and anti-angiogenic properties are observed at low continuous dosage. Therefore, the combination of oncolytic immuno-virotherapy with low-dose CP is an appealing approach. We investigated the potency of oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF on a TNBC cell line and in vivo in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, in combination with low-dose CP or its main active metabolite 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HP-CP). Furthermore, we summarized the breast cancer-specific human data on this virus from the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP). Low-dose CP increased the efficacy of Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF in vitro and in a TNBC mouse model. In ATAP, treatments appeared safe and well-tolerated. Thirteen out of 16 breast cancer patients treated were evaluable for possible benefits with modified RECIST 1.1 criteria: 1 patient had a minor response, 2 had stable disease (SD), and 10 had progressive disease (PD). One patient is alive at 1,771 d after treatment. Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF in combination with low-dose CP showed promising efficacy in preclinical studies and possible antitumor activity in breast cancer patients refractory to other forms of therapy. This preliminary data supports continuing the clinical development of oncolytic adenoviruses for treatment of breast cancer, including TNBC.
Smart, DeeDee; Garcia-Glaessner, Alejandra; Palmieri, Diane; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J; Kramp, Tamalee; Gril, Brunilde; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Lyle, Tiffany; Hua, Emily; Cameron, Heather A; Camphausen, Kevin; Steeg, Patricia S
Most cancer patients with brain metastases are treated with radiation therapy, yet this modality has not yet been meaningfully incorporated into preclinical experimental brain metastasis models. We applied two forms of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to the brain-tropic 231-BR experimental brain metastasis model of triple-negative breast cancer. When compared to sham controls, WBRT as 3 Gy × 10 fractions (3 × 10) reduced the number of micrometastases and large metastases by 87.7 and 54.5 %, respectively (both p < 0.01); whereas a single radiation dose of 15 Gy × 1 (15 × 1) was less effective, reducing metastases by 58.4 % (p < 0.01) and 47.1 % (p = 0.41), respectively. Neuroinflammation in the adjacent brain parenchyma was due solely to a reaction from metastases, and not radiotherapy, while adult neurogenesis in brains was adversely affected following both radiation regimens. The nature of radiation resistance was investigated by ex vivo culture of tumor cells that survived initial WBRT ("Surviving" cultures). The Surviving cultures surprisingly demonstrated increased radiosensitivity ex vivo. In contrast, re-injection of Surviving cultures and re-treatment with a 3 × 10 WBRT regimen significantly reduced the number of large and micrometastases that developed in vivo, suggesting a role for the microenvironment. Micrometastases derived from tumor cells surviving initial 3 × 10 WBRT demonstrated a trend toward radioresistance upon repeat treatment (p = 0.09). The data confirm the potency of a fractionated 3 × 10 WBRT regimen and identify the brain microenvironment as a potential determinant of radiation efficacy. The data also nominate the Surviving cultures as a potential new translational model for radiotherapy.
Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng
Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769
Kim, Sangmin; Han, Jeonghun; Jeon, Myeongjin; You, Daeun; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Hee Jung; Bae, Sarang; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates many biological events including cell motility and angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of elevated TGF-β2 level in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and the inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGF-β2 action in TNBC cells. Breast cancer patients with high TGF-β2 expression have a poor prognosis. The levels of TGF-β2 expression increased significantly in TNBC cells compared with those in non-TNBC cells. In addition, cell motility-related genes such as fibronectin (FN) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression also increased in TNBC cells. Basal FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels decreased in response to LY2109761, a dual TGF-β receptor I/II inhibitor, in TNBC cells. TNBC cell migration also decreased in response to LY2109761. Furthermore, we observed that TGF-β2 augmented the FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, TGF-β2-induced FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels decreased significantly in response to LY2109761. Interestingly, we found that silibinin decreased TGF-β2 mRNA expression level but not that of TGF-β1 in TNBC cells. Cell migration as well as basal FN and MMP-2 expression levels decreased in response to silibinin. Furthermore, silibinin significantly decreased TGF-β2-induced FN, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression levels and suppressed the lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Taken together, these results suggest that silibinin suppresses metastatic potential of TNBC cells by inhibiting TGF-β2 expression in TNBC cells. Thus, silibinin may be a promising therapeutic drug to treat TNBC.
Takai, Ken; Le, Annie; Weaver, Valerie M.; Werb, Zena
Increased collagen expression in tumors is associated with increased risk of metastasis, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the highest propensity to develop distant metastases when there is evidence of central fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands regulated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote accumulation of fibrosis and cancer progression. In the present study, we have evaluated TNBC tumors with enhanced collagen to determine whether we can reduce metastasis by targeting the CAFs with Pirfenidone (PFD), an anti-fibrotic agent as well as a TGF-β antagonist. In patient-derived xenograft models, TNBC tumors exhibited accumulated collagen and activated TGF-β signaling, and developed lung metastasis. Next, primary CAFs were established from 4T1 TNBC homograft tumors, TNBC xenograft tumors and tumor specimens of breast cancer patients. CAFs promoted primary tumor growth with more fibrosis and TGF-β activation and lung metastasis in 4T1 mouse model. We then examined the effects of PFD in vitro and in vivo. We found that PFD had inhibitory effects on cell viability and collagen production of CAFs in 2D culture. Furthermore, CAFs enhanced tumor growth and PFD inhibited the tumor growth induced by CAFs by causing apoptosis in the 3D co-culture assay of 4T1 tumor cells and CAFs. In vivo, PFD alone inhibited tumor fibrosis and TGF-β signaling but did not inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis. However, PFD inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis synergistically in combination with doxorubicin. Thus, PFD has great potential for a novel clinically applicable TNBC therapy that targets tumor-stromal interaction. PMID:27756881
Peng, Cancan; Ma, Wenli; Xia, Wei; Zheng, Wenling
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by an aggressive phenotype and reduced survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis of TNBC and to identify novel target molecules for therapy. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in TNBC and normal adjacent tissue were assessed by analyzing the GSE41970 microarray data using Qlucore Omics Explorer, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Pathway enrichment analyses for DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online resource. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and subnetworks were analyzed by ClusterONE. The PPI network and subnetworks were visualized using Cytoscape software. A total of 121 DEGs were obtained, of which 101 were upregulated and 20 were downregulated. The upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in 14 pathways and 83 GO biological processes, while the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in 18 GO biological processes. The PPI network with 118 nodes and 1,264 edges was constructed and three subnetworks were extracted from the entire network. The significant hub DEGs with high degrees were identified, including TP53, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, cyclin D1, HRAS and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which were predominantly enriched in the cell cycle pathway and pathways in cancer. A number of critical genes and pathways were revealed to be associated with TNBC. The present study may provide an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of TNBC and contribute to the development of therapeutic targets for TNBC. PMID:28075450
Fleisher, Brett; Clarke, Charlotte; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by the absence of three hallmark receptors: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Compared to other breast cancer subtypes, TNBC is more aggressive, has a higher prevalence in African-Americans, and more frequently affects younger patients. Currently, TNBC lacks clinically accepted targets for tailored therapy, warranting the need for candidate biomarkers. BiomarkerBase, an online platform used to find biomarkers reported in clinical trials, was utilized to screen all potential biomarkers for TNBC and select only the ones registered in completed TNBC trials through clinicaltrials.gov. The selected candidate biomarkers were classified as surrogate, prognostic, predictive, or pharmacodynamic (PD) and organized by location in the blood, on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. Blood biomarkers include vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and interleukin-8 (IL-8); cell surface biomarkers include EGFR, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, c-Kit, c-Met, and PD-L1; cytoplasm biomarkers include PIK3CA, pAKT/S6/p4E-BP1, PTEN, ALDH1, and the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR-related metabolites; and nucleus biomarkers include BRCA1, the gluco-corticoid receptor, TP53, and Ki67. Candidate biomarkers were further organized into a “cellular protein network” that demonstrates potential connectivity. This review provides an inventory and reference point for promising biomarkers for breakthrough targeted therapies in TNBC. PMID:27785100
Cook, Matthew T; Liang, Yayun; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Hyder, Salman M
Most breast cancer-related deaths from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occur following metastasis of cancer cells and development of tumors at secondary sites. Because TNBCs lack the three receptors targeted by current chemotherapeutic regimens, they are typically treated with extremely aggressive and highly toxic non-targeted treatment strategies. Women with TNBC frequently develop metastatic lesions originating from drug-resistant residual cells and have poor prognosis. For this reason, novel therapeutic strategies that are safer and more effective are sought. Luteolin (LU) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic plant compound that has proven effective against several types of cancer. With this in mind, we conducted in vivo and in vitro studies to determine whether LU might suppress metastasis of TNBC. In an in vivo mouse metastasis model, LU suppressed metastasis of human MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 TNBC cells to the lungs. In in vitro assays, LU inhibited cell migration and viability of MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells. Further, LU induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells. Relatively low levels (10 µM) of LU significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells, suggesting that it has the ability to suppress a potent angiogenic and cell survival factor. In addition, migration of MDA-MB-231 (4175) LM2 cells was inhibited upon exposure to an antibody against the VEGF receptor, KDR, but not by exposure to a VEGF165 antibody. Collectively, these data suggest that the anti-metastatic properties of LU may, in part, be due to its ability to block VEGF production and KDR-mediated activity, thereby inhibiting tumor cell migration. These studies suggest that LU deserves further investigation as a potential treatment option for women with TNBC. PMID:28096694
Anders, Carey K; Abramson, Vandana; Tan, Tira; Dent, Rebecca
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is clinically defined as lacking expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (ER), and HER2. Historically, TNBC has been characterized by an aggressive natural history and worse disease-specific outcomes compared with other breast cancer subtypes. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed for the dissection of TNBC into molecular subtypes (i.e., basal-like, claudin-low). Within TNBC, several subtypes have emerged as "immune-activated," consistently illustrating better disease outcome. In addition, NGS has revealed a host of molecular features characteristic of TNBC, including high rates of TP53 mutations, PI3K and MEK pathway activation, and genetic similarities to serous ovarian cancers, including inactivation of the BRCA pathway. Identified genetic vulnerabilities of TNBC have led to promising therapeutic approaches, including DNA-damaging agents (i.e., platinum salts and PARP inhibitors), as well as immunotherapy. Platinum salts are routinely incorporated into the treatment of metastatic TNBC; however, best outcomes are observed among those with deficiencies in the BRCA pathway. Although the incorporation of platinum in the neoadjuvant care of patients with TNBC yields higher pathologic complete response (pCR) rates, the impact on longer-term outcome is less clear. The presence of immune infiltrate in TNBC has shown both a predictive and prognostic role. Checkpoint inhibitors, including PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, are under investigation in the setting of metastatic TNBC and have shown responses in initial clinical trials. Finally, matching emerging therapeutic strategies to optimal subtype of TNBC is of utmost importance as we design future research strategies to improve patient outcome.
Bayraktar, Soley; Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Liu, Diane; Tasbas, Tunc; Akar, Ugur; Litton, Jennifer K.; Lin, E.; Albarracin, Constance T.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.
More than 75% of breast cancers that develop in BRCA1 mutation carriers are triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). The aim of this study was to compare the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in high-risk patients with TNBC with and without deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations. A total of 227 women with TNBC who were referred for genetic counseling and underwent BRCA genetic testing between 1997 and 2010 were included in the study. The relationships between clinical variables and outcomes were evaluated using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models. Of 227 high-risk women with TNBC, 50% (n = 114) tested positive for BRCA1/2 mutations. Age, race, and tumor characteristics did not differ between BRCA non-carriers and carriers. At a median follow-up of 3.4 years, the 5-year RFS rates were 74 and 81% (P = 0.21), and 5-year OS rates were 85 and 93% in BRCA non-carriers and BRCA carriers, respectively (P = 0.11). In a multivariate model, after adjusting for age and disease stage, BRCA carriers tended to have a decreased risk of recurrence (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.38–1.19; P = 0.17) or death (HR = 0.51; 95% CI:0.23–1.17; P = 0.11) compared to non-carriers. Our data indicate a 50% prevalence of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations in high-risk women diagnosed with TNBC. Overall prognosis of TNBC in BRCA carriers and non-carriers is not significantly different within the first 5 years following an initial diagnosis. Further studies need to evaluate whether different therapies will change the outcome in these subgroups of TNBC. PMID:21830012
Frasci, Giuseppe; Chirico, Andrea; Esposito, Emanuela; Siani, Claudio; Saturnino, Carmela; Arra, Claudio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Giordano, Antonio
The so called “Triple Negative Breast Cancer” (TNBC) represents approximately 15-20% of breast cancers. This acronym simply means that the tumour does not express oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and does not exhibit amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene. Despite this unambiguous definition, TNBCs are an heterogeneous group of tumours with just one common clinical feature: a distinctly aggressive nature with higher rates of relapse and shorter overall survival in the metastatic setting compared with other subtypes of breast cancer. Because of the absence of well-defined molecular targets, cytotoxic chemotherapy is currently the only treatment option for TNBC. In the last decades, the use of more aggressive chemotherapy has produced a clear improvement of the prognosis in women with TNBC, but this approach results in an unacceptable deterioration in the quality of life, also if some support therapies try to relieve patients from distress. In addition, there is the general belief that it is impossible to further improve the prognosis of TNBC patients with chemotherapy alone. In view of that, there is a feverish search for new “clever drugs” able both to rescue chemo-resistant, and to reduce the burden of chemotherapy in chemo-responsive TNBC patients. A major obstacle to identifying actionable targets in TNBC is the vast disease heterogeneity both inter-tumour and intra-tumour and years of study have failed to demonstrate a single unifying alteration that is targetable in TNBC. TNBC is considered the subtype that best benefits from the neoadjuvant model, since the strong correlation between pathological Complete Response and long-term Disease-Free-Survival in these patients. In this review, we discuss the recent discoveries that have furthered our understanding of TNBC, with a focus on the subtyping of TNBC. We also explore the implications of these discoveries for future treatments and highlight the
Jones, Robert A.; Robinson, Tyler J.; Liu, Jeff C.; Shrestha, Mariusz; Voisin, Veronique; Ju, YoungJun; Chung, Philip E.D.; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Fell, Victoria L.; Bae, SooIn; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Egan, Sean E.; Jiang, Zhe; Leone, Gustavo; Bader, Gary D.; Schimmer, Aaron
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low–like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration–approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC. PMID:27571409
Chandra, Dinesh; Jahangir, Arthee; Cornelis, Francois; Rombauts, Klara; Meheus, Lydie; Jorcyk, Cheryl L; Gravekamp, Claudia
Interleukin-6, a cytokine produced particularly by triple-negative breast cancers, strongly inhibits T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment. Here we tested cryoablation combined with Meriva (a lecithin delivery system of curcumin with improved bioavailability) in mice with metastatic breast cancer (4T1). Cryoablation involves killing of tumor cells through freezing and thawing, resulting in recruitment of tumor-specific T cells, while curcumin stimulates T cells through the reduction of IL-6 in the TME. Cryoablation plus Meriva accumulated and activated CD8+ T cells to multiple tumor-associated antigens such as Mage-b and Survivin (both expressed by 4T1 tumors). This correlated with a nearly complete reduction of 4T1 primary tumors and lung metastases while little effect was observed from saline or Meriva alone (28 d after tumor cell injection). The survival rate in the group of cryoablation plus Meriva was significantly improved compared to all control groups. Using a less aggressive 4T1 model expressing luciferase (4T1.2luc3), we demonstrated that all mice receiving saline or Meriva developed metastases in the lungs and a primary tumor (38 d after tumor cell injection; and died soon after that), but not the mice receiving cryoablation or cryoablation plus Meriva. However, on day 58 the mice receiving cryoablation developed 4T1.2luc3 metastases in the lungs, while mice receiving cryoablation plus Meriva were free of metastases. These results strongly suggest that cryoablation delayed the development of lung metastases on the short-term, but Meriva administered after cryoablation was significantly better in delaying the development of lung metastases and survival on the long-term. PMID:26942057
Rapiti, Elisabetta; Pinaud, Kim; Chappuis, Pierre O; Viassolo, Valeria; Ayme, Aurélie; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Usel, Massimo; Bouchardy, Christine
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and referral for genetic counseling are the standard of care. We assessed TNBC prevalence, management, and outcome using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry. 2591 women had a first invasive stage I-III breast cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2011. We compared TNBC to other breast cancers (OBC) by χ(2) -test and logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, up to 31-12-2014, were compared using log-rank test. TNBC risk of mortality overall (OS) and for breast cancer (BCSS) was evaluated through Cox models. Linkage with the Oncogenetics and Cancer Prevention Unit (OCPU) database of the Geneva University Hospitals provided genetic counseling information. TNBC patients (n = 192, 7.4%) were younger, more often born in Africa or Central-South America than OBC, had larger and more advanced tumors. 18% of TNBC patients did not receive chemotherapy. Thirty-one (17%) TNBC women consulted the OCPU, 39% among those aged <40 years. Ten-year survival was lower in TNBC than OBC (72% vs. 82% for BCSS; P < 0.001; 80% vs. 91% for OS; P < 0.001). The mortality risks remained significant after adjustment for other prognostic variables. The strongest determinants of mortality were age, place of birth, and lymph node status. A substantial proportion of TNBC patients in Geneva did not receive optimal care. Over 60% of eligible women did not receive genetic counseling and 18% did not receive chemotherapy. To improve TNBC prognosis, comprehensive care as recommended by standard guidelines should be offered to all patients.
Wang, Li-Yang; Xie, Hua; Zhou, Hang; Yao, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yi
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of carboplatin-based preoperative chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients (TNBC). Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, major clinical trial registries, and abstract collections from major international meetings were systematically searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Endpoints included rates of pathologic complete response (pCR), overall response (ORR), breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and toxicity. Pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated for each endpoint using a fixed- or random-effect model depending on the heterogeneity among included studies. Results: A total of 5 randomized controlled trials involving 1007 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with a pooled pCR rate of 53.3%, which was significantly higher than the rate associated with non-carboplatin therapy (37.8%, RR: 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 1.62, p<0.00001). Compared with non-carboplatin therapy (48.1%), carboplatin-based chemotherapy increased BCS rate (59.7%, RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.46, p=0.007). Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with similar ORR as non-carboplatin therapy. Carboplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with higher incidence of grade 3 or 4 anemia, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than non-carboplatin therapy, while the 2 regimens were associated with similar incidence of fatigue, leucopenia, and nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: The available evidence suggests that carboplatin-based preoperative chemotherapy is associated with significantly better pCR and BCS rates than non-carboplatin-based therapy in TNBC patients. PMID:28042625
Gangapuram, Madhavi; Jean, Riccardo; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Badisa, Ramesh; Eyunni, Suresh; Goodman, Carl B.; Redda, Kinfe K.; Soliman, Karam F.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in greater frequency amongst African-Americans, and is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2). TNBC is often invasive and typically treated with cytostatic agents such as taxanes in combination with anthracyclines or platinum-based drugs. In this study, we synthesized a number of tetrahydroisoquinoline moieties by N-amination of substituted isoquinolines by O-mesytelene sulfonylhydroxylamine followed by ylide formation and reduction, which yielded the desired, substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) in moderate to good yield. Using a differential scatter plot to identify potential selective ER-modulating drugs in ER-positive control cells (MCF-7) driven by estradiol vs. TNBC (MDA-MB-231) cells, the in vitro data showed an absence of effects on the ER (compared to 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and raloxifene). In contrast, two lead compounds halted proliferation (cytostatic) in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells at a potency level below 2.5 µM concomitant with mitotic arrest, attenuated replicative DNA synthesis, halted microtubule nucleation/stunted tubulin polymerization, abnormal expansive cytoskeletal tubulin and actin morphologies with multinucleation of cells. The most effective cytostatic compounds GM-4-53 and GM-3-121 blocked replicative processes at the G2 growth phase. These findings suggest that specific THIQs work independently of the ER, by holding static the microtubule network thereby preventing mitosis. Future work will be required to establish the safety and efficacy of these drugs and their potential adjunct therapeutic gain in the presence of taxanes in TNBC. PMID:27798863
Liao, Liqiu; Song, Mei; Li, Xin; Tang, Lili; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Lixing; Pan, Yihang; Chouchane, Lotfi; Ma, Xiaojing
Patients with triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are at high risk for recurrence and metastasis at an early time despite standard treatment, underscoring the need for novel therapeutic modalities. Here we report for the first time a distinctive and profound role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 in the growth and metastasis of TNBC. An analysis of primary TNBC specimen by whole exon sequencing revealed strong gene amplifications of UBR5 associated with the disease. UBR5 overexpression in TNBC tissues was confirmed at mRNA and protein levels. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of ubr5 in an experimental murine mammary carcinoma model of TNBC dramatically abrogated tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, which could be reversed completely via reconstitution with wild type UBR5 but not a catalytically inactive mutant. Loss of UBR5 caused an impairment in angiogenesis within the tumor, associated with increased apoptosis, necrosis, and growth arrest. Absence of UBR5 in the tumor triggered aberrant epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), principally via abrogated expression of E-cadherin, which resulted in severely reduced tumor metastasis to secondary organs. Use of NOD/SCID mice revealed that tumor-derived UBR5 facilitated tumor growth in a manner completely dependent upon immune cells in the microenvironment, whereas it promoted metastasis in a tumor cell-autonomous fashion. Our findings unveil UBR5 as a novel and critical regulator of tumor growth, metastasis, and immune response, and highlight the potential for UBR5 as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of highly aggressive breast and ovarian cancers that fail conventional therapy.
Knudsen, Erik S; McClendon, A Kathleen; Franco, Jorge; Ertel, Adam; Fortina, Paolo; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by multiple genetic events occurring in concert to drive pathogenic features of the disease. Here we interrogated the coordinate impact of p53, RB, and MYC in a genetic model of TNBC, in parallel with the analysis of clinical specimens. Primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMEC) with defined genetic features were used to delineate the combined action of RB and/or p53 in the genesis of TNBC. In this context, the deletion of either RB or p53 alone and in combination increased the proliferation of mMEC; however, the cells did not have the capacity to invade in matrigel. Gene expression profiling revealed that loss of each tumor suppressor has effects related to proliferation, but RB loss in particular leads to alterations in gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The overexpression of MYC in combination with p53 loss or combined RB/p53 loss drove rapid cell growth. While the effects of MYC overexpression had a dominant impact on gene expression, loss of RB further enhanced the deregulation of a gene expression signature associated with invasion. Specific RB loss lead to enhanced invasion in boyden chambers assays and gave rise to tumors with minimal epithelial characteristics relative to RB-proficient models. Therapeutic screening revealed that RB-deficient cells were particularly resistant to agents targeting PI3K and MEK pathway. Consistent with the aggressive behavior of the preclinical models of MYC overexpression and RB loss, human TNBC tumors that express high levels of MYC and are devoid of RB have a particularly poor outcome. Together these results underscore the potency of tumor suppressor pathways in specifying the biology of breast cancer. Further, they demonstrate that MYC overexpression in concert with RB can promote a particularly aggressive form of TNBC.
Doddapaneni, Ravi; Patel, Ketan; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Singh, Mandip
Chemosensitization and enhanced delivery to solid tumor are widely explored strategies to augment the anticancer efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics agents. The aim of current research was to investigate the role of low dose Noscapine (Nos) in potentiating docetaxel cytotoxicity and enhancing tumor penetration of nanocarriers. The objectives are; (1) To evaluate the chemo-sensitizing effect of Nos in combination with docetaxel (DTX), and to elucidate the possible mechanism (2) To investigate the effect of low dose Nos on tumor stroma and enhancing nanocarrier uptake in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) bearing nude mice. Cytotoxicity and flow cytometry analysis of DTX in Nos (4 µM) pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells showed 3.0-fold increase in cell killing and 30% increase in number of late apoptotic cells, respectively. Stress transducer p38 phosphorylation was significantly upregulated with Nos exposure. DTX showed remarkable downregulation in expression of bcl-2, survivin and pAKT in Nos pre-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Nos pre-sensitization significantly (p < 0.02) enhanced the anti-migration effect of DTX. In vivo studies in orthotopic TNBC tumor bearing mice showed marked reduction in tumor collagen-I levels and significantly (p < 0.03) higher intra-tumoral uptake of coumarin-6 loaded PEGylated liposomes (7-fold) in Nos treated group. Chemo-sensitization and anti-fibrotic effect of Nos could be a promising approach to increase anticancer efficacy of DTX which can be used for other nanomedicinal products. PMID:27177833
Gross, Matt I; Demo, Susan D; Dennison, Jennifer B; Chen, Lijing; Chernov-Rogan, Tania; Goyal, Bindu; Janes, Julie R; Laidig, Guy J; Lewis, Evan R; Li, Jim; Mackinnon, Andrew L; Parlati, Francesco; Rodriguez, Mirna L M; Shwonek, Peter J; Sjogren, Eric B; Stanton, Timothy F; Wang, Taotao; Yang, Jinfu; Zhao, Frances; Bennett, Mark K
Glutamine serves as an important source of energy and building blocks for many tumor cells. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase. CB-839 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of both splice variants of glutaminase (KGA and GAC). CB-839 had antiproliferative activity in a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, HCC-1806, that was associated with a marked decrease in glutamine consumption, glutamate production, oxygen consumption, and the steady-state levels of glutathione and several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast, no antiproliferative activity was observed in an estrogen receptor-positive cell line, T47D, and only modest effects on glutamine consumption and downstream metabolites were observed. Across a panel of breast cancer cell lines, GAC protein expression and glutaminase activity were elevated in the majority of TNBC cell lines relative to receptor positive cells. Furthermore, the TNBC subtype displayed the greatest sensitivity to CB-839 treatment and this sensitivity was correlated with (i) dependence on extracellular glutamine for growth, (ii) intracellular glutamate and glutamine levels, and (iii) GAC (but not KGA) expression, a potential biomarker for sensitivity. CB-839 displayed significant antitumor activity in two xenograft models: as a single agent in a patient-derived TNBC model and in a basal like HER2(+) cell line model, JIMT-1, both as a single agent and in combination with paclitaxel. Together, these data provide a strong rationale for the clinical investigation of CB-839 as a targeted therapeutic in patients with TNBC and other glutamine-dependent tumors.
Tian, Tian; Ruan, Miao; Yang, Wentao; Shui, Ruohong
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may be associated with clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). However, lacking of standardized methodologies in TILs evaluation has hindered its application in clinical practice. To evaluate the prognostic role of TILs scored by methods recommended by International TILs Working Group 2014, we performed a retrospective study of TILs in 425 primary invasive TNBCs in a Chinese population with a median follow-up of 4 years. Intratumoral TILs (iTILs) and stromal TILs (sTILs) were scored respectively. The associations between TILs and disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with COX models. ITILs were not associated with prognosis. Higher sTILs were associated with better prognosis; for every 10% increase in sTILs, a 5% reduction of risk of recurrence or death (P < 0.001), 5% reduction of risk of distant recurrence (P < 0.001), and 4% reduction of risk of death (P = 0.002) were observed. Multivariate analysis confirmed sTILs to be an independent prognostic marker. 3.5% of TNBCs had more than 50% lymphocytes (lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer, LPBC), and associations between LPBC status and prognosis were observed but did not reach statistical significance. TNBCs with more than 20% sTILs had a significantly better prognosis than the patients with no more than 20% sTILs. In conclusion, our study indicated that sTILs scored by methods recommended by International TILs Working Group 2014 were associated with the prognosis of TNBCs. STILs could be an independent prognostic biomarker in TNBCs, increasing sTILs predicting better prognosis. PMID:27323808
Paul, A; Gunewardena, S; Stecklein, S R; Saha, B; Parelkar, N; Danley, M; Rajendran, G; Home, P; Ray, S; Jokar, I; Vielhauer, G A; Jensen, R A; Tawfik, O; Paul, S
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a distinct breast cancer subtype defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), and the patients with TNBC are often diagnosed with higher rates of recurrence and metastasis. Because of the absence of ER, PR and HER2/neu expressions, TNBC patients are insensitive to HER2-directed and endocrine therapies available for breast cancer treatment. Here, we report that expression of atypical protein kinase C isoform, PKCλ/ι, significantly increased and activated in all invasive breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma or IDC) subtypes including the TNBC subtype. Because of the lack of targeted therapies for TNBC, we choose to study PKCλ/ι signaling as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. Our observations indicated that PKCλ/ι signaling is highly active during breast cancer invasive progression, and metastatic breast cancers, the advanced stages of breast cancer disease that developed more frequently in TNBC patients, are also characterized with high levels of PKCλ/ι expression and activation. Functional analysis in experimental mouse models revealed that depletion of PKCλ/ι significantly reduces TNBC growth as well as lung metastatic colonization. Furthermore, we have identified a PKCλ/ι-regulated gene signature consisting of 110 genes, which are significantly associated with indolent to invasive progression of human breast cancer and poor prognosis. Mechanistically, cytokines such as TGFβ and IL1β could activate PKCλ/ι signaling in TNBC cells and depletion of PKCλ/ι impairs NF-κB p65 (RelA) nuclear localization. We observed that cytokine-PKCλ/ι-RelA signaling axis, at least in part, involved in modulating gene expression to regulate invasion of TNBC cells. Overall, our results indicate that induction and activation of PKCλ/ι promote TNBC growth, invasion and metastasis. Thus, targeting PKCλ/ι signaling could be a
Qu, Qing; Mao, Yan; Xiao, Gang; Fei, Xiaochun; Wang, Jinglong; Zhang, Yuzi; Liu, Junjun; Cheng, Guangcun; Chen, Xiaosong; Wang, Jianhua; Shen, Kunwei
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is often associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to identify biomarkers predictive of TNBC progression. Primary TNBC breast tissue samples including four with metastasis and six without metastasis were subjected to Affymetrix GeneChip® analysis (human genome U133). Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) was identified as an upregulated gene in the metastatic group, and its expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 121 primary breast cancers, 13 paired normal tissues, and 13 paired metastatic lesions. Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Cox regression hazard model. Matrigel migration and invasion assays in USP2-silenced and USP2-overexpressed breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the mechanisms of USP2 in vitro. Positive immunostaining for USP2 was detected in breast tumors and was correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses and TNBC subtype. USP2 was overexpressed in distant metastatic lesions compared with primary breast cancers. Survival analyses demonstrated that positive USP2 is a poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Silencing of USP2 expression decreased migration and invasion in LM2-4175 and SCP46 cells in association with the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression, whereas overexpression of USP2 in MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced migration and invasion and upregulated the expression of MMP2. The present study showed that USP2 expression is associated with TNBC cell line's invasiveness and poor survival of breast cancer patients and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for TNBC.
Madic, Jordan; Kiialainen, Anna; Bidard, Francois-Clement; Birzele, Fabian; Ramey, Guillemette; Leroy, Quentin; Rio Frio, Thomas; Vaucher, Isabelle; Raynal, Virginie; Bernard, Virginie; Lermine, Alban; Clausen, Inga; Giroud, Nicolas; Schmucki, Roland; Milder, Maud; Horn, Carsten; Spleiss, Olivia; Lantz, Olivier; Stern, Marc-Henri; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Weisser, Martin; Lebofsky, Ronald
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a new circulating tumor biomarker which might be used as a prognostic biomarker in a way similar to circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Here, we used the high prevalence of TP53 mutations in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) to compare ctDNA and CTC detection rates and prognostic value in metastatic TNBC patients. Forty patients were enrolled before starting a new line of treatment. TP53 mutations were characterized in archived tumor tissues and in plasma DNA using two next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in parallel. Archived tumor tissue was sequenced successfully for 31/40 patients. TP53 mutations were found in 26/31 (84%) of tumor samples. The same mutation was detected in the matched plasma of 21/26 (81%) patients with an additional mutation found only in the plasma for one patient. Mutated allele fractions ranged from 2 to 70% (median 5%). The observed correlation between the two NGS approaches (R(2) = 0.903) suggested that ctDNA levels data were quantitative. Among the 27 patients with TP53 mutations, CTC count was ≥1 in 19 patients (70%) and ≥5 in 14 patients (52%). ctDNA levels had no prognostic impact on time to progression (TTP) or overall survival (OS), whereas CTC numbers were correlated with OS (p = 0.04) and marginally with TTP (p = 0.06). Performance status and elevated LDH also had significant prognostic impact. Here, absence of prognostic impact of baseline ctDNA level suggests that mechanisms of ctDNA release in metastatic TNBC may involve, beyond tumor burden, biological features that do not dramatically affect patient outcome.
Moran, Meena S
The more aggressive biologic characteristics and the current lack of targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) make local-regional management decisions challenging for physicians. TNBC is associated with patients of younger age, black race and BRCA1 mutation carriers. Distinctions between BRCA1-associated and sporadic TNBC include increased lifetime risk of ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer after breast cancer therapy (BCT) for BRCA carriers, which is not shared by sporadic TNBC. However, the presence of a BRCA mutation should not preclude a breast-conservation approach in patients who are otherwise appropriate candidates for BCT. Data suggest that local-regional relapse (LRR) at baseline after BCT appears to be comparable for TNBC and the HER2-positive subgroups, but is about 50% greater than luminal tumors. LRR appears to be similarly increased after mastectomy; thus, TNBC should not be a contra-indication for BCT. Recent hypothesis-generating data suggest less LRR after BCT (where radiation is routinely delivered) than with mastectomy for early-stage TNBC. To date, no specific local-regional guideline recommendations for TNBC exist. Level I outcome data for TNBC using accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (hWBRT) are lacking. TNBC should be treated with APBI only on clinical trials. Although hWBRT may be considered in TNBC, its association with younger age, advanced disease and use of systemic chemotherapy often precludes its use for this subtype. Until definitive treatment strategies are validated in large datasets and confirmed in randomized trials, TNBC subtype, in and of itself, should not direct local-regional management treatment decisions.
Maire, Virginie; Baldeyron, Céline; Richardson, Marion; Tesson, Bruno; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Gravier, Eléonore; Marty-Prouvost, Bérengère; De Koning, Leanne; Rigaill, Guillem; Dumont, Aurélie; Gentien, David; Barillot, Emmanuel; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Depil, Stéphane; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Pierré, Alain; Tucker, Gordon C.; Dubois, Thierry
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a subgroup of breast cancers (BC) associated with the most aggressive clinical behavior. No targeted therapy is currently available for the treatment of patients with TNBC. In order to discover potential therapeutic targets, we searched for protein kinases that are overexpressed in human TNBC biopsies and whose silencing in TNBC cell lines causes cell death. A cohort including human BC biopsies obtained at Institut Curie as well as normal tissues has been analyzed at a gene-expression level. The data revealed that the human protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 (hMPS1), also known as TTK and involved in mitotic checkpoint, is specifically overexpressed in TNBC, compared to the other BC subgroups and healthy tissues. We confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse phase protein array that TNBC expressed higher levels of TTK protein compared to the other BC subgroups. We then determined the biological effects of TTK depletion by RNA interference, through analyses of tumorigenic capacity and cell viability in different human TNBC cell lines. We found that RNAi-mediated depletion of TTK in various TNBC cell lines severely compromised their viability and their ability to form colonies in an anchorage-independent manner. Moreover, we observed that TTK silencing led to an increase in H2AX phosphorylation, activation of caspases 3/7, sub-G1 cell population accumulation and high annexin V staining, as well as to a decrease in G1 phase cell population and an increased aneuploidy. Altogether, these data indicate that TTK depletion in TNBC cells induces apoptosis. These results point out TTK as a protein kinase overexpressed in TNBC that may represent an attractive therapeutic target specifically for this poor prognosis associated subgroup of breast cancer. PMID:23700430
Maubant, Sylvie; Tesson, Bruno; Maire, Virginie; Ye, Mengliang; Rigaill, Guillem; Gentien, David; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Tucker, Gordon C.; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Dubois, Thierry
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is activated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The activation of this pathway leads to the expression of specific target genes depending on the cell/tissue context. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of two different TNBC cell lines to define a comprehensive list of Wnt target genes. The treatment of cells with Wnt3a for 6h up-regulated the expression (fold change > 1.3) of 59 genes in MDA-MB-468 cells and 241 genes in HCC38 cells. Thirty genes were common to both cell lines. Beta-catenin may also be a transcriptional repressor and we found that 18 and 166 genes were down-regulated in response to Wnt3a treatment for 6h in MDA-MB-468 and HCC38 cells, respectively, of which six were common to both cell lines. Only half of the activated and the repressed transcripts have been previously described as Wnt target genes. Therefore, our study reveals 137 novel genes that may be positively regulated by Wnt3a and 104 novel genes that may be negatively regulated by Wnt3a. These genes are involved in the Wnt pathway itself, and also in TGFβ, p53 and Hedgehog pathways. Thorough characterization of these novel potential Wnt target genes may reveal new regulators of the canonical Wnt pathway. The comparison of our list of Wnt target genes with those published in other cellular contexts confirms the notion that Wnt target genes are tissue-, cell line- and treatment-specific. Genes up-regulated in Wnt3a-stimulated cell lines were more strongly expressed in TNBC than in luminal A breast cancer samples. These genes were also overexpressed, but to a much lesser extent, in HER2+ and luminal B tumors. We identified 72 Wnt target genes higher expressed in TNBCs (17 with a fold change >1.3) which may reflect the chronic activation of the canonical Wnt pathway that occurs in TNBC tumors. PMID:25848952
Wei, Zhengxi; Song, Xiulong; Shaikh, Zahir A
Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic metal which is implicated in breast cancer by epidemiological studies. It is reported to promote breast cancer cell growth in vitro through membrane receptors. The study described here examined Cd-mediated growth of non-metastatic human breast cancer derived cells that lack receptors for estrogen, progesterone, and HER2. Treatment of triple-negative HCC 1937 cells with 0.1-0.5 μM Cd increased cell growth by activation of AKT and ERK. Accelerated cell cycle progression was achieved by increasing the levels of cyclins A, B, and E, as well as those of CDKs 1 and 2. Although triple negative cells lack estrogen receptor, they express high levels of EGFR. Therefore, further studies on HCC 1937 and another triple-negative cell line, HCC 38, were conducted using specific siRNA and an inhibitor of EGFR to determine whether EGFR was responsible for mediating the effect of Cd. The results revealed that in both cell types EGFR was not only activated upon Cd treatment, but was also essential for the downstream activation of AKT and ERK. Based on these observations, it is concluded that, in breast cancer cells lacking estrogen receptor, sub-micromolar concentration of Cd can promote cell proliferation. Furthermore, that EGFR plays a critical role in this process.
Ollier, Marie; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Ponelle, Flora; Viala, Sandrine; Privat, Maud; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bidet, Yannick
Among breast cancers, 10 to 15% of cases would be due to hereditary risk. In these familial cases, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are found in only 15% to 20%, meaning that new susceptibility genes remain to be found. Triple-negative breast cancers represent 15% of all breast cancers, and are generally aggressive tumours without targeted therapies available. Our hypothesis is that some patients with triple negative breast cancer could share a genetic susceptibility different from other types of breast cancers. We screened 36 candidate genes, using pyrosequencing, in all the 50 triple negative breast cancer patients with familial history of cancer but no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation of a population of 3000 families who had consulted for a familial breast cancer between 2005 and 2013. Any mutations were also sequenced in available relatives of cases. Protein expression and loss of heterozygosity were explored in tumours. Seven deleterious mutations in 6 different genes (RAD51D, MRE11A, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH6, PALB2) were observed in one patient each, except the RAD51D mutation found in two cases. Loss of heterozygosity in the tumour was found for 2 of the 7 mutations. Protein expression was absent in tumour tissue for 5 mutations. Taking into consideration a specific subtype of tumour has revealed susceptibility genes, most of them in the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. This may provide new possibilities for targeted therapies, along with better screening and care of patients.
Ollier, Marie; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Ponelle, Flora; Viala, Sandrine; Privat, Maud; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bidet, Yannick
Among breast cancers, 10 to 15% of cases would be due to hereditary risk. In these familial cases, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are found in only 15% to 20%, meaning that new susceptibility genes remain to be found. Triple-negative breast cancers represent 15% of all breast cancers, and are generally aggressive tumours without targeted therapies available. Our hypothesis is that some patients with triple negative breast cancer could share a genetic susceptibility different from other types of breast cancers. We screened 36 candidate genes, using pyrosequencing, in all the 50 triple negative breast cancer patients with familial history of cancer but no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation of a population of 3000 families who had consulted for a familial breast cancer between 2005 and 2013. Any mutations were also sequenced in available relatives of cases. Protein expression and loss of heterozygosity were explored in tumours. Seven deleterious mutations in 6 different genes (RAD51D, MRE11A, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH6, PALB2) were observed in one patient each, except the RAD51D mutation found in two cases. Loss of heterozygosity in the tumour was found for 2 of the 7 mutations. Protein expression was absent in tumour tissue for 5 mutations. Taking into consideration a specific subtype of tumour has revealed susceptibility genes, most of them in the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. This may provide new possibilities for targeted therapies, along with better screening and care of patients. PMID:26328243
Barbieri, Antonio; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Del Vecchio, Vitale; Falco, Michela; Luciano, Antonio; Amruthraj, Nagoth Joseph; Nasti, Guglielmo; Ottaiano, Alessandro; Berretta, Massimiliano; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Arra, Claudio
Among the most important traditional medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases, including cancer, in Oriental countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-metastatic activities of Ganoderma lucidum extracts in melanoma and triple-negative breast cancer cells. Ganoderma lucidum extracts were prepared by using common organic solvents; MDA-MB 231 and B16-F10 cell lines were adopted as cellular models for triple-negative breast cancer and melanoma and characterized for cell viability, wound-healing assay and measurement of cytokines secreted by cancer cells under pro-inflammatory conditions (incubation with lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and pretreatment with Ganoderma lucidum extract at different concentrations. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, how Ganoderma lucidum extracts can significantly inhibit the release of IL-8, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cancer cells under pro-inflammatory condition. Interestingly, Ganoderma lucidum extracts significantly also decrease the viability of both cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with abilities to reduce cell migration over time, which is correlated with a lower release of matrix metalloproteases. Taken together, these results indicate the possible use of Ganoderma lucidum extract for the therapeutic management of melanoma and human triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:28264501
Nechushtan, Hovav; Vainer, Gilad; Stainberg, Hana; Salmon, Asher Y; Hamburger, Tamar; Peretz, Tamar
50-70% of tumors of the so called "triple negative" subtype of breast cancer express EGFR. We hypothesized that addition of anti EGFR to Taxanes will result in increased effectiveness in EGFR expressing tumors. Here we set out to obtain data regarding the safety, tolerability and also the effectivity of the combination of weekly Taxane treatments with Cetuximab -an anti EGFR antibody in this subgroup of breast cancer. 18 triple negative breast cancer patients were treated with weekly Cetuximab and Taxane therapy. Addition of Cetuximab resulted in controllable Dermatologic toxicity in most patients -with grade 3 in two patients. Some impressive results were noted including one CR, one near CR and regression of chemotherapy and radiation resistance skin metastasis. Median TTF -and overall survival -6 and 12 months. Administration of Taxane Cetuximab weekly therapy for triple negative breast cancer patients is feasible. Use of anti EGFR-Taxane combinations should be assessed in larger clinical trials in this patient population perhaps in a similar manner to the lung cancer patients only in those with strong EGFR expression.
Anantaraju, Hasitha Shilpa; Battu, Madhu Babu; Viswanadha, Srikant; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal
The main aim of this study was to discover small molecule inhibitors against Cathepsin D (CatD) (EC.18.104.22.168), a clinically proven prognostic marker for breast cancer, and to explore the mechanisms by which CatD could be a useful therapeutic target for triple-positive and triple-negative breast cancers (TPBC & TNBC). The crystal structure of CatD at 2.5 Å resolution (PDB: 1LYB), which was complexed with Pepstatin A, was selected for computer-aided molecular modeling. The methods used in our study were pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking. Virtual screening was performed to identify small molecules from an in-house database and a large commercial chemical library. Cytotoxicity studies were performed on human normal cell line HEK293T and growth inhibition studies on breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-468. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis, in vitro enzyme assay, and cell cycle analysis ascertained the validity of the selected molecules. A set of 28 molecules was subjected to an in vitro fluorescence-based inhibitory activity assay, and among them six molecules exhibited >50 % inhibition at 25μM. These molecules also exhibited good growth inhibition against TPBC and TNBC cancer types. Among them, molecules 1 and 17 showed single-digit micromolar GI50 values against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines.
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Adult Solid Neoplasm; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; HER2/Neu Negative; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Tumor; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Jiao, Qingli; Wu, Aiguo; Shao, Guoli; Peng, Haoyu; Wang, Mengchuan; Ji, Shufeng; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jian
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one type of breast cancer (BC), which is defined as negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2). Its origins and development seem to be elusive. And for now, drugs like tamoxifen or trastuzumab which specifically apply to ER, PR or Her2 positive BC seem unforeseeable in TNBC clinical treatment. Due to its extreme malignancy, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, a lot of work on the research of TNBC is needed. This review aims to summarize the latest findings in TNBC in risk factors, possible therapeutic targets and possible prognostic makers.
Li, Jing; Chen, Yanbo; Yu, Hongyuan; Tian, Jingshen; Yuan, Fengshun; Fan, Jialong; Liu, Yupeng; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Yashuang; Pang, Da
DNA methylation is one of the most common epigenetic alterations, providing important information regarding cancer risk and prognosis. A case-control study (423 breast cancer cases, 509 controls) and a case-only study (326 cases) were conducted to evaluate the association of DUSP1 promoter methylation with breast cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. No significant association between DUSP1 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA and breast cancer risk was observed. DUSP1 methylation was significantly associated with ER/PR-negative status; in particular, triple-negative breast cancer patients showed the highest frequency of DUSP1 methylation in both tumour DNA and PBL DNA. Soybean intake was significantly correlated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-negative (OR 2.978; 95% CI 1.245-7.124) and PR negative (OR 2.735; 95% CI 1.315-5.692) patients. Irregular menstruation was significantly associated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-positive (OR 3.564; 95% CI 1.691-7.511) and PR-positive (OR 3.902, 95% CI 1.656-9.194) patients. Thus, DUSP1 methylation is a cancer-associated hypermethylation event that is closely linked with triple-negative status. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association of environmental factors, including fruit and soybean intake, irregular menstruation, and ER/PR status, with DUSP1 methylation in breast tumour DNA.
Li, Jing; Chen, Yanbo; Yu, Hongyuan; Tian, Jingshen; Yuan, Fengshun; Fan, Jialong; Liu, Yupeng; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Yashuang; Pang, Da
DNA methylation is one of the most common epigenetic alterations, providing important information regarding cancer risk and prognosis. A case-control study (423 breast cancer cases, 509 controls) and a case-only study (326 cases) were conducted to evaluate the association of DUSP1 promoter methylation with breast cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. No significant association between DUSP1 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA and breast cancer risk was observed. DUSP1 methylation was significantly associated with ER/PR-negative status; in particular, triple-negative breast cancer patients showed the highest frequency of DUSP1 methylation in both tumour DNA and PBL DNA. Soybean intake was significantly correlated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-negative (OR 2.978; 95% CI 1.245–7.124) and PR negative (OR 2.735; 95% CI 1.315–5.692) patients. Irregular menstruation was significantly associated with methylated DUSP1 only in ER-positive (OR 3.564; 95% CI 1.691–7.511) and PR-positive (OR 3.902, 95% CI 1.656–9.194) patients. Thus, DUSP1 methylation is a cancer-associated hypermethylation event that is closely linked with triple-negative status. Further investigations are warranted to confirm the association of environmental factors, including fruit and soybean intake, irregular menstruation, and ER/PR status, with DUSP1 methylation in breast tumour DNA. PMID:28220843
Cheriyan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Patel, Ketan; Sekhar, Sreeja; Rajeswaran, Walajapet; Larsen, Scott D.; Polin, Lisa; Levi, Edi; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.
Doxorubicin and Cisplatin are the frontline therapeutics for treatment of the triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Emergence of drug-resistance often contributes to failure of drugs and poor prognosis, and thus necessitates development of new and improved modalities to treat TNBCs. We generated and characterized chemotherapy-resistant TNBC cells following their culture in chronic presence of Doxorubicin or Cisplatin, and tested whether their viabilities were inhibited by a novel class of CARP- 1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds. Analogs of parent compound CFM-4 were obtained through structure-activity based medicinal chemistry studies. CFM-4.16, a novel analog of CFM-4, caused superior inhibition of viability of TNBC cells when used in combination with doxorubicin. Doxorubicin and cisplatin inhibited viabilities of parental cells with GI50 dose of 0.02–0.1 μM and 1.65 μM, respectively. The GI50 dose of doxorubicin for doxorubicin-resistant TNBC cells was ≥ 10.0 μM. For Cisplatin-resistant cells, the GI50 dose of Cisplatin was ≥ 6–15.0 μM for MDA-MB-468 sublines and ≥ 150.0 μM for MDA-MB-231 sublines. CFM-4.16 inhibited viability of chemotherapy-resistant TNBC cells, in part by inhibiting oncogenic cMet activation and expression, stimulating CARP-1 expression, caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. CFM-4.16 pretreatment enhanced anti-TNBC efficacies of inhibitors of cMET (Tevatinib) or cSrc (Dasatinib). CFM-4.16 suppressed growth of resistant TNBC cells in soft agar as well as in three-dimensional suspension cultures derived from enriched, stem-like cells. Finally, a nanolipid formulation of CFM-4.16 in combination with doxorubicin had superior efficacy in inhibiting TNBC xenograft growth. Our findings collectively demonstrate therapeutic potential of CFM-4.16 for parental and drug-resistant TNBCs. PMID:27687593
Inoue, Satoshi; Patil, Rameshwar; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Ding, Hui; Konda, Bindu; Espinoza, Andres; Mongayt, Dmitriy; Markman, Janet L.; Elramsisy, Adam; Phillips, H. Westley; Black, Keith L.; Holler, Eggehard; Ljubimova, Julia Y.
Treatment options for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are generally limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy has been introduced for TNBC patients. We engineered a novel nanobioconjugate based on a poly(β-L-malic acid) (PMLA) nanoplatform for TNBC treatment. The nanobioconjugate carries anti-tumor nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C5 to target breast cancer cells, anti-mouse transferrin receptor (TfR) antibody for drug delivery through the host endothelial system, and Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (AON) to inhibit EGFR synthesis. The nanobioconjugates variants were: (1) P (BioPolymer) with AON, 2C5 and anti-TfR for tumor endothelial and cancer cell targeting, and EGFR suppression (P/AON/2C5/TfR), and (2) P with AON and 2C5 (P/AON/2C5). Controls included (3) P with 2C5 but without AON (P/2C5), (4) PBS, and (5) P with PEG and leucine ester (LOEt) for endosomal escape (P/mPEG/LOEt). Drugs were injected intravenously to MDA-MB-468 TNBC bearing mice. Tissue accumulation of injected nanobioconjugates labeled with Alexa Fluor 680 was examined by Xenogen IVIS 200 (live imaging) and confocal microscopy of tissue sections. Levels of EGFR, phosphorylated and total Akt in tumor samples were detected by western blotting. In vitro western blot showed that the leading nanobioconjugate P/AON/2C5/TfR inhibited EGFR synthesis significantly better than naked AON. In vivo imaging revealed that 2C5 increased drug-tumor accumulation. Significant tumor growth inhibition was observed in mice treated with the lead nanobioconjugate (1) [P = 0.03 vs. controls; P<0.05 vs. nanobioconjugate variant (2)]. Lead nanobioconjugate (1) also showed stronger inhibition of EGFR expression and Akt phosphorylation than other treatments. Treatment of TNBC with the new nanobioconjugate results in tumor growth arrest by inhibiting EGFR and its downstream signaling intermediate, phosphorylated Akt. The nanobioconjugate
Castaneda, Carlos A; Mittendorf, Elizabeth; Casavilca, Sandro; Wu, Yun; Castillo, Miluska; Arboleda, Patricia; Nunez, Teresa; Guerra, Henry; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Dolores-Cerna, Ketty; Belmar-Lopez, Carolina; Abugattas, Julio; Calderon, Gabriela; De La Cruz, Miguel; Cotrina, Manuel; Dunstan, Jorge; Gomez, Henry L; Vidaurre, Tatiana
AIM To determine influence of neoadjuvant-chemotherapy (NAC) over tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes (TIL) in triple-negative-breast-cancer (TNBC). METHODS TILs were evaluated in 98 TNBC cases who came to Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas from 2005 to 2010. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 was performed in tissue microarrays (TMA) sections. Evaluation of H/E in full-face and immunohistochemistry in TMA sections was performed in pre and post-NAC samples. STATA software was used and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Higher TIL evaluated in full-face sections from pre-NAC tumors was associated to pathologic-complete-response (pCR) (P = 0.0251) and outcome (P = 0.0334). TIL evaluated in TMA sections showed low level of agreement with full-face sections (ICC = 0.017-0.20) and was not associated to pCR or outcome. TIL in post-NAC samples were not associated to response or outcome. Post-NAC lesions with pCR had similar TIL levels than those without pCR (P = 0.6331). NAC produced a TIL decrease in full-face sections (P < 0.0001). Percentage of TIL subpopulations was correlated with their absolute counts. Higher counts of CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 in pre-NAC samples had longer disease-free-survival (DFS). Higher counts of CD3 in pre-NAC samples had longer overall-survival. Higher ratio of CD8/CD4 counts in pre-NAC was associated with pCR. Higher ratio of CD4/FOXP3 counts in pre-NAC was associated with longer DFS. Higher counts of CD4 in post-NAC samples were associated with pCR. CONCLUSION TIL in pre-NAC full-face sections in TNBC are correlated to longer survival. TIL in full-face differ from TMA sections, absolute count and percentage analysis of TIL subpopulation closely related. PMID:27777881
Jiang, Tingting; Shi, Weiwei; Wali, Vikram B.; Pongor, Lőrinc S.; Li, Charles; Lau, Rosanna; Győrffy, Balázs; Lifton, Richard P.; Symmans, William F.; Pusztai, Lajos
Background Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive disease, and although no effective targeted therapies are available to date, about one-third of patients with TNBC achieve pathologic complete response (pCR) from standard-of-care anthracycline/taxane (ACT) chemotherapy. The heterogeneity of these tumors, however, has hindered the discovery of effective biomarkers to identify such patients. Methods and Findings We performed whole exome sequencing on 29 TNBC cases from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) selected because they had either pCR (n = 18) or extensive residual disease (n = 11) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 144) and METABRIC (n = 278) cohorts serving as validation cohorts. Our analysis revealed that mutations in the AR- and FOXA1-regulated networks, in which BRCA1 plays a key role, are associated with significantly higher sensitivity to ACT chemotherapy in the MDACC cohort (pCR rate of 94.1% compared to 16.6% in tumors without mutations in AR/FOXA1 pathway, adjusted p = 0.02) and significantly better survival outcome in the TCGA TNBC cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.05). Combined analysis of DNA sequencing, DNA methylation, and RNA sequencing identified tumors of a distinct BRCA-deficient (BRCA-D) TNBC subtype characterized by low levels of wild-type BRCA1/2 expression. Patients with functionally BRCA-D tumors had significantly better survival with standard-of-care chemotherapy than patients whose tumors were not BRCA-D (log-rank test, p = 0.021), and they had significantly higher mutation burden (p < 0.001) and presented clonal neoantigens that were associated with increased immune cell activity. A transcriptional signature of BRCA-D TNBC tumors was independently validated to be significantly associated with improved survival in the METABRIC dataset (log-rank test, p = 0.009). As a retrospective study, limitations include the small size and potential selection bias in
Badana, Anil; Chintala, Madhuri; Varikuti, Gayathri; Pudi, Nagaseshu; Kumari, Seema; Kappala, Vijaya Rachel
Purpose Lipid rafts are cholesterol enriched microdomains that colocalize signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. We examined the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD)-mediated cholesterol extraction on the proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and angiogenesis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Methods We measured cholesterol and estimated cell toxicity. Detergent resistant membrane (DRM) and non-DRM fractions were separated using the OptiPrep gradient method. Cell cycles stages were analyzed by flow cytometry, apoptosis was assessed using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and metastasis was determined using a Matrigel invasion assay. Neo-vessel pattern and levels of angiogenic modulators were determined using an in vitro angiogenesis assay and an angiogenesis array, respectively. Results The present study found that the cholesterol-depleting agent MβCD, efficiently depleted membrane cholesterol and caused concentration dependent (0.1–0.5 mM) cytotoxicity compared to nystatin and filipin III in TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468. A reduced proportion of caveolin-1 found in DRM fractions indicated a cholesterol extraction-induced disruption of lipid raft integrity. MβCD inhibited 52% of MDA-MB 231 cell adhesion on fibronectin and 56% of MDA-MB 468 cell adhesion on vitronectin, while invasiveness of these cells was decreased by 48% and 52% respectively, following MβCD treatment (48 hours). MβCD also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2M phase and apoptosis in MDA-MB 231 cells (25% and 58% cells, respectively) and in MDA-MB 468 cells (30% and 38% cells, respectively). We found that MβCD treated cells caused a 52% and 58% depletion of neovessel formation in both MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468 cell lines, respectively. This study also demonstrated that MβCD treatment caused a respective 2.6- and 2.5-fold depletion of tyrosine protein kinase receptor (TEK) receptor tyrosine kinase levels in both
Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Youko; Minatani, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mariko; Shida, Akiko; Waraya, Mina; Katoh, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Takumo; Sengoku, Norihiko; Kajita, Sabine; Hoffman, Robert M.; Watanabe, Masahiko
BRCAness is defined as the set of traits in which BRCA1 dysfunction, arising from gene mutation, methylation or deletion, results in DNA repair deficiency. In the present study, we addressed BRCAness, therapeutic efficacy, recurrence, and survival in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Kitasato University Hospital, Japan, between April 2006 and October 2012. BRCAness was determined by preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens and surgical specimens. Assay was performed using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) with P376-B2 BRCA1ness probemix (MRC-Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The relative copy number ratio of each sample was compared to Human Genomic DNA (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) as reference samples was calculated with Coffalyser.NET default settings. The BRCAness score was calculated with the relative copy number ratio of various DNA sequences. Values of 0.5 or more were determined as the BRCA1-like Type (BRCAness) and those of less than 0.5 as the Sporadic Type to analyze pathological complete response (pCR) rate, recurrence, and survival. pCR (ypT0/Tis/N0) was observed in 15 patients (pCR rate: 37.5%). These patients had no recurrence. Twelve patients recurred, 8 died from breast cancer. The BRCA1-like Type were 22 and Sporadic Type were 18 in CNB specimens. No major differences were observed between the BRCA1-like Type and Sporadic Type with pCR rate, recurrence rate and survival. Twenty four surgical specimens of non-pCR patients were available and 9 were BRCA1-like Type, who had more recurrences (7/9 vs. 5/15), and their relapse-free survival was also lower (p<0.05) than that of Sporadic Type. Seven BRCA1-like Type patients remained BRCA1-like Type in surgical specimens, were worse in recurrence (p<0.01) and survival (p<0.05) compared with 6 patients whose BRCA status in surgical specimens turned to Sporadic Type. New clinical trials assessing the true
Kotoula, Vassiliki; Fostira, Florentia; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Apostolou, Paraskevi; Tsolaki, Eleftheria; Lazaridis, Georgios; Manoussou, Kyriaki; Zagouri, Flora; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Ioannis; Tikas, Ioannis; Lakis, Sotiris; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Papakostas, Pavlos; Christodoulou, Christos; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Razis, Evangelia; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Bamias, Christina; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fountzilas, George
The preservation of pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline mutations in tumor tissues is usually not questioned, while it remains unknown whether these interact with somatic genotypes for patient outcome. Herein we compared germline and tumor genotypes in operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and evaluated their combined effects on prognosis. We analyzed baseline germline and primary tumor genotype data obtained by Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing in 194 TNBC patients. We also performed multiple tests interrogating the preservation of germline mutations in matched tumors and breast tissue from carriers with available material. Patients had been treated within clinical trials with adjuvant anthracyclines-taxanes based chemotherapy. We identified 50 (26%) germline mutation carriers (78% in BRCA1) and 136 (71%) tumors with somatic mutations (83% in TP53). Tumor mutation patterns differed between carriers and non-carriers (P<0.001); PIK3CA mutations were exclusively present in non-carriers (P=0.007). Germline BRCA1/2 mutations were not detected in matched tumors and breast tissues from 14 out of 33 (42%) evaluable carriers. Microsatellite markers revealed tumor loss of the germline mutant allele in one case only. Tumors that had lost the germline mutation demonstrated a higher incidence of somatic TP53 mutations as compared to tumors with preserved germline mutations (P=0.036). Germline mutation status significantly interacted with tumor TP53 mutations for patient disease-free survival (interaction P=0.026): In non-carriers, tumor TP53 mutations did not affect outcome; In carriers, those with mutated TP53 tumors experienced more relapses compared to those with wild-type TP53 tumors (36% vs. 9% relapse rate, respectively). In conclusion, we show that loss of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is not a rare event in TNBC. This finding, the observed differences in tumor genotypes with respect to germline status and the prognostic interaction between germline BRCA1-related and
Kotoula, Vassiliki; Fostira, Florentia; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Apostolou, Paraskevi; Tsolaki, Eleftheria; Lazaridis, Georgios; Manoussou, Kyriaki; Zagouri, Flora; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Vlachos, Ioannis; Tikas, Ioannis; Lakis, Sotiris; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Papakostas, Pavlos; Christodoulou, Christos; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Razis, Evangelia; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Bamias, Christina; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fountzilas, George
The preservation of pathogenic BRCA1/2 germline mutations in tumor tissues is usually not questioned, while it remains unknown whether these interact with somatic genotypes for patient outcome. Herein we compared germline and tumor genotypes in operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and evaluated their combined effects on prognosis. We analyzed baseline germline and primary tumor genotype data obtained by Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing in 194 TNBC patients. We also performed multiple tests interrogating the preservation of germline mutations in matched tumors and breast tissue from carriers with available material. Patients had been treated within clinical trials with adjuvant anthracyclines-taxanes based chemotherapy. We identified 50 (26%) germline mutation carriers (78% in BRCA1) and 136 (71%) tumors with somatic mutations (83% in TP53). Tumor mutation patterns differed between carriers and non-carriers (P<0.001); PIK3CA mutations were exclusively present in non-carriers (P=0.007). Germline BRCA1/2 mutations were not detected in matched tumors and breast tissues from 14 out of 33 (42%) evaluable carriers. Microsatellite markers revealed tumor loss of the germline mutant allele in one case only. Tumors that had lost the germline mutation demonstrated a higher incidence of somatic TP53 mutations as compared to tumors with preserved germline mutations (P=0.036). Germline mutation status significantly interacted with tumor TP53 mutations for patient disease-free survival (interaction P=0.026): In non-carriers, tumor TP53 mutations did not affect outcome; In carriers, those with mutated TP53 tumors experienced more relapses compared to those with wild-type TP53 tumors (36% vs. 9% relapse rate, respectively). In conclusion, we show that loss of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is not a rare event in TNBC. This finding, the observed differences in tumor genotypes with respect to germline status and the prognostic interaction between germline BRCA1-related and
Wang, Xiaosheng; Guda, Chittibabu
Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is high-risk due to its rapid drug resistance and recurrence, metastasis, and lack of targeted therapy. So far, no molecularly targeted therapeutic agents have been clinically approved for TNBC. It is imperative that we discover new targets for TNBC therapy. Objectives: A large volume of cancer genomics data are emerging and advancing breast cancer research. We may integrate different types of TNBC genomic data to discover molecular targets for TNBC therapy. Data sources: We used publicly available TNBC tumor tissue genomic data in the Cancer Genome Atlas database in this study. Methods: We integratively explored genomic profiles (gene expression, copy number, methylation, microRNA [miRNA], and gene mutation) in TNBC and identified hyperactivated genes that have higher expression, more copy numbers, lower methylation level, or are targets of miRNAs with lower expression in TNBC than in normal samples. We ranked the hyperactivated genes into different levels based on all the genomic evidence and performed functional analyses of the sets of genes identified. More importantly, we proposed potential molecular targets for TNBC therapy based on the hyperactivated genes. Results: Some of the genes we identified such as FGFR2, MAPK13, TP53, SRC family, MUC family, and BCL2 family have been suggested to be potential targets for TNBC treatment. Others such as CSF1R, EPHB3, TRIB1, and LAD1 could be promising new targets for TNBC treatment. By utilizing this integrative analysis of genomic profiles for TNBC, we hypothesized that some of the targeted treatment strategies for TNBC currently in development are more likely to be promising, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, while the others are more likely to be discouraging, such as angiogenesis inhibitors. Limitations: The findings in this study need to be experimentally validated in the future. Conclusion: This is a systematic study that combined 5
Sun, Huizhi; Zhang, Danfang; Yao, Zhi; Lin, Xian; Liu, Jiameng; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yi; Yao, Nan; Cheng, Siqi; Li, Linqi; Sun, Shuya
Agents that target angiogenesis have shown limited efficacy for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in clinical trials. Along with endothelium-dependent vessels, there is also vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in the microcirculation of malignant tumors. The role of VM is not completely understood regarding anti-angiogenic treatment. In this study, human TNBC MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T and non-TNBC MCF-7 and BT474 tumor-bearing mice were treated with sunitinib, an anti-angiogenic drug, using a clinically relevant schedule. The drug was administered for one week and then discontinued. Tumor growth and invasion were observed, and the microcirculation patterns were detected with PAS/endomucin staining. Moreover, hypoxia and VM-associated proteins were evaluated with Hypoxyprobe kits and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Sunitinib significantly inhibited tumor growth in the TNBC and non-TNBC tumors. However, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T tumors regrew and were more aggressive when the treatment was stopped. The discontinuation had no significant effect on the behavior of the non-TNBC MCF-7 and BT474 tumors. The growth of endothelium-dependent vessels in the TNBC MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T tumors were blocked by sunitinib, during which the number of VM channels significantly increased and resulted in a rebound of endothelium-dependent vessels after sunitinib discontinuation. Moreover, the VM-associated proteins VE-cadherin and Twist1 upregulated in the sunitinib-treated MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T tumors. Furthermore, the clinical significance of this upregulation was validated in 174 human breast cancers. The results from human breast cancer specimens indicated that there were more VM-positive TNBC cases than those in non-TNBC cases. HIF-1α, MMP2, VE-cadherin, and Twist1 were also expressed in a higher level in human TNBC compared with non-TNBC. In aconclusion, sunitinib promoted TNBC invasion by VM. The VM status could be helpful to predict the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy in
Guimarães, Erika; Machado, Rodrigo; Fonseca, Matheus de Castro; França, Andressa; Carvalho, Clarissa; Araújo E Silva, Ana Cândida; Almeida, Brígida; Cassini, Puebla; Hissa, Bárbara; Drumond, Luciana; Gonçalves, Carlos; Fernandes, Gabriel; De Brot, Marina; Moraes, Márcio; Barcelos, Lucíola; Ortega, José Miguel; Oliveira, André; Leite, M Fátima
Increases in nuclear calcium concentration generate specific biological outcomes that differ from those resulting from increased cytoplasmic calcium. Nuclear calcium effects on tumor cell proliferation are widely appreciated; nevertheless, its involvement in other steps of tumor progression is not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated whether nuclear calcium is essential in other additional stages of tumor progression, including key steps associated with the formation of the primary tumor or with the metastatic cascade. We found that nuclear calcium buffering impaired 4T1 triple negative breast cancer growth not just by decreasing tumor cell proliferation, but also by enhancing tumor necrosis. Moreover, nuclear calcium regulates tumor angiogenesis through a mechanism that involves the upregulation of the anti-angiogenic C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10-IP10). In addition, nuclear calcium buffering regulates breast tumor cell motility, culminating in less cell invasion, likely due to enhanced vinculin expression, a focal adhesion structural protein. Together, our results show that nuclear calcium is essential for triple breast cancer angiogenesis and cell migration and can be considered as a promising strategic target for triple negative breast cancer therapy.
Classical Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, and Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Is More Effective in Triple-Negative, Node-Negative Breast Cancer: Results From Two Randomized Trials of Adjuvant Chemoendocrine Therapy for Node-Negative Breast Cancer
Colleoni, Marco; Cole, Bernard F.; Viale, Giuseppe; Regan, Meredith M.; Price, Karen N.; Maiorano, Eugenio; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Crivellari, Diana; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.; Gusterson, Barry A.
Purpose Retrospective studies suggest that primary breast cancers lacking estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and not overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; triple-negative tumors) are particularly sensitive to DNA-damaging chemotherapy with alkylating agents. Patients and Methods Patients enrolled in International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VIII and IX with node-negative, operable breast cancer and centrally assessed ER, PR, and HER2 were included (n = 2,257). The trials compared three or six courses of adjuvant classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) with or without endocrine therapy versus endocrine therapy alone. We explored patterns of recurrence by treatment according to three immunohistochemically defined tumor subtypes: triple negative, HER2 positive and endocrine receptor absent, and endocrine receptor present. Results Patients with triple-negative tumors (303 patients; 13%) were significantly more likely to have tumors > 2 cm and grade 3 compared with those in the HER2-positive, endocrine receptor–absent, and endocrine receptor–present subtypes. No clear chemotherapy benefit was observed in endocrine receptor–present disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.11). A statistically significantly greater benefit for chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy was observed in triple-negative breast cancer (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.73; interaction P = .009 v endocrine receptor–present disease). The magnitude of the chemotherapy effect was lower in HER2-positive endocrine receptor–absent disease (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.17; interaction P = .24 v endocrine receptor–present disease). Conclusion The magnitude of benefit of CMF chemotherapy is largest in patients with triple-negative, node-negative breast cancer. PMID:20458051
Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Xiaosan; Zhao, Shu; Wang, Yan; Di, Wenyu; Zhao, Gangling; Yang, Maopeng; Zhang, Qingyuan
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a particular type of breast cancer which is characterized by its biological aggressiveness, worse prognosis, and lack of prognostic markers or therapeutic targets in contrast with hormonal receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers. We aimed to evaluate survivin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and their prognostic value and determine their relationships with the clinicopathological parameters of TNBC. A total of 136 patients who had undergone a resection of primary TNBC were enrolled at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from March 2003 to September 2005. Expression of ER, PR, HER2, EGFR, and survivin was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The association of TNBC and other clinicopathological variables and the prognostic value of survivin and EGFR expression were evaluated. Survivin was expressed in 62 (45.6 %) cases and EGFR was expressed in 82 (60.3 %) cases. Survivin expression was associated with menopausal status (P = 0.011), tumor size (P = 0.037), and lymph node status (P = 0.001). EGFR expression was associated with menopausal status (P = 0.029), lymph node status (P = 0.004), P53 expression (P = 0.001), Ki-67 expression (P = 0.028), and lymphatic vascular invasion (P = 0.037). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size (hazard ratio (HR) 1.587, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.081–2.330, P = 0.018 for disease-free survival (DFS); HR 1.606, 95%CI 1.096–2.354, P = 0.015 for overall survival (OS)), lymph node status (HR 2.873, 95%CI 1.544–5.344, P = 0.001 for DFS; HR 2.915, 95%CI 1.553–5.471, P = 0.001 for OS), tumor grade (HR 1.914, 95%CI 1.218–3.007, P = 0.005 for DFS; HR 1.983, 95%CI 1.228–3.203, P = 0.005 for OS), EGFR (HR 3.008, 95%CI 1.331–6.792, P = 0.008 for DFS; HR 3.151, 95%CI 1.374–7.226, P = 0.007 for OS), and survivin (HR 1
Kim, Gwangil; Ouzounova, Maria; Quraishi, Ahmed A.; Davis, April; Tawakkol, Nader; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Malik, Fayaz; Paulson, Amanda K.; D’Angelo, Rosemarie C.; Korkaya, Sumeyye; Baker, Trenton L.; Esen, Elif S.; Prat, Aleix; Liu, Suling; Kleer, Celina G.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Wicha, Max S.; Korkaya, Hasan
Somatic mutations or deletions of TP53 and PTEN in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions have been implicated in progression to invasive ductal carcinomas. A recent molecular and mutational analysis of breast cancers revealed that inactivation of tumor suppressors, p53 and PTEN are strongly associated with triple negative breast cancer. In addition, these tumor suppressors play important roles in regulating self-renewal in normal and malignant stem cells. To investigate their role in breast carcinogenesis, we knocked down these genes in human mammary cells and in non-transformed MCF10A cells. p53 and PTEN knockdown synergized to activate pro-inflammatory IL6/Stat3/NF-κB signaling. This resulted in generation of highly metastatic EMT-like cancer stem cells (CSCs) resulting in tumors whose gene expression profile mimicked that found in basal/claudin-low molecular subtype within the triple negative breast tumors. Constitutive activation of this loop in transformed cells was dependent on proteolytic degradation of SOCS3 resulting in low levels of this protein in basal/claudin low cell lines and primary tumors. In non-transformed cells, transient activation of the IL6 inflammatory loop induced SOCS3 expression leading to pathway inactivation. In transformed cells, enforced expression of SOCS3 or interfering with IL6 pathway via IL6R blockade inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in mouse xenograft models. Furthermore, circulating tumor cells were significantly reduced in tumor bearing animals when treated with anti-IL6R antibodies. These studies uncover important connections between inflammation and carcinogenesis and suggest that blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines may be utilized as an attractive strategy to target triple negative breast tumors which currently lacks molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24531711
Miles, Wayne O; Lembo, Antonio; Volorio, Angela; Brachtel, Elena; Tian, Bin; Sgroi, Dennis; Provero, Paolo; Dyson, Nicholas
Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a process that changes the posttranscriptional regulation and translation potential of mRNAs via addition or deletion of 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) sequences. To identify posttranscriptional-regulatory events affected by APA in breast tumors, tumor datasets were analyzed for recurrent APA events. Motif mapping of the changed 3' UTR regions found that APA-mediated removal of Pumilio regulatory elements (PRE) was unusually common. Breast tumor subtype-specific APA profiling identified triple-negative breast tumors as having the highest levels of APA. To determine the frequency of these events, an independent cohort of triple-negative breast tumors and normal breast tissue was analyzed for APA. APA-mediated shortening of NRAS and c-JUN was seen frequently, and this correlated with changes in the expression of downstream targets. mRNA stability and luciferase assays demonstrated APA-dependent alterations in RNA and protein levels of affected candidate genes. Examination of clinical parameters of these tumors found those with APA of NRAS and c-JUN to be smaller and less proliferative, but more invasive than non-APA tumors. RT-PCR profiling identified elevated levels of polyadenylation factor CSTF3 in tumors with APA. Overexpression of CSTF3 was common in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, and elevated CSTF3 levels were sufficient to induce APA of NRAS and c-JUN. Our results support the hypothesis that PRE-containing mRNAs are disproportionately affected by APA, primarily due to high sequence similarity in the motifs utilized by polyadenylation machinery and the PUM complex. Cancer Res; 76(24); 7231-41. ©2016 AACR.
Perez-Balaguer, Ariadna; Ortiz-Martínez, Fernando; García-Martínez, Araceli; Pomares-Navarro, Critina; Lerma, Enrique; Peiró, Gloria
The FOXA family of transcription factors regulates chromatin structure and gene expression especially during embryonic development. In normal breast tissue FOXA1 acts throughout mammary development; whereas in breast carcinoma its expression promotes luminal phenotype and correlates with good prognosis. However, the role of FOXA2 has not been previously studied in breast cancer. Our purpose was to analyze the expression of FOXA2 in breast cancer cells, to explore its role in breast cancer stem cells, and to correlate its mRNA expression with clinicopathological features and outcome in a series of patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma. We analyzed FOXA2 mRNA expression in a retrospective cohort of 230 breast cancer patients and in cell lines. We also knocked down FOXA2 mRNA expression by siRNA to determine the impact on cell proliferation and mammospheres formation using a cancer stem cells culture assay. In vitro studies demonstrated higher FOXA2 mRNA expression in Triple-Negative/Basal-like cells. Further, when it was knocked down, cells decreased proliferation and its capability of forming mammospheres. Similarly, FOXA2 mRNA expression was detected in 10% (23/230) of the tumors, especially in Triple-Negative/Basal-like phenotype (p < 0.001, Fisher's test). Patients whose tumors expressed FOXA2 had increased relapses (59 vs. 79%, p = 0.024, log-rank test) that revealed an independent prognostic value (HR = 3.29, C.I.95% = 1.45-7.45, p = 0.004, Cox regression). Our results suggest that FOXA2 promotes cell proliferation, maintains cancer stem cells, favors the development of Triple-Negative/Basal-like tumors, and is associated with increase relapses.
Horiuchi, Dai; Camarda, Roman; Zhou, Alicia Y.; Yau, Christina; Momcilovic, Olga; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Corella, Alexandra N.; Eyob, Henok; Kessenbrock, Kai; Lawson, Devon A.; Marsh, Lindsey A.; Anderton, Brittany N.; Rohrberg, Julia; Kunder, Ratika; Bazarov, Alexey V.; Yaswen, Paul; McManus, Michael T.; Rugo, Hope S.; Werb, Zena; Goga, Andrei
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks the expression of the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors, represents the breast cancer subtype with the poorest outcome1. No targeted therapy is available against this subtype due to lack of validated molecular targets. We previously reported that MYC signaling is disproportionally elevated in triple-negative (TN) tumors compared to receptor-positive (RP) tumors2. MYC is an essential, pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes3. Direct inhibition of oncogenic MYC transcriptional activity has remained challenging4,5. The present study conducted an shRNA screen against all kinases to uncover novel MYC-dependent synthetic lethal combinations, and identified PIM1, a non-essential kinase. Here we demonstrate that PIM1 expression was elevated in TN tumors and was associated with poor prognosis in patients with hormone and HER2 receptor-negative tumors. Small molecule PIM kinase inhibitors halted the growth of human TN tumors with elevated MYC expression in patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) and MYC-driven transgenic breast cancer models by inhibiting oncogenic transcriptional activity of MYC while simultaneously restoring the function of the endogenous cell cycle inhibitor, p27. Our findings warrant clinical evaluation of PIM kinase inhibitors in patients with TN tumors that exhibit elevated MYC expression. PMID:27775705
Guo, Liang; Chi, Yayun; Xue, Jingyan; Ma, Linxiaoxi; Shao, Zhiming; Wu, Jiong
Phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), which functions as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, has been reported to be associated with patient prognosis in various cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of p-eIF2α in breast cancer, particularly in different breast cancer subtypes. An immunohistochemistry screen for p-eIF2α was performed using a tissue microarray containing 233 tumors and paired peritumoral tissues from female patients diagnosed with breast cancer. The staining results were scored semiquantitatively, and the p-eIF2α expression level in breast cancer and its potential prognostic value were investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, we found that p-eIF2α levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer (P < 0.001). p-eIF2α level was negatively correlated with lymph node status (P = 0.039). Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression showed that p-eIF2α level was correlated with better disease free survival (P = 0.026) and served as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.046) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Our study revealed that p-eIF2α was upregulated in breast cancer and represented a novel predictor of prognosis in patients with triple-negative subtype.
Guo, Liang; Chi, Yayun; Xue, Jingyan; Ma, Linxiaoxi; Shao, Zhiming; Wu, Jiong
Phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), which functions as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress, has been reported to be associated with patient prognosis in various cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of p-eIF2α in breast cancer, particularly in different breast cancer subtypes. An immunohistochemistry screen for p-eIF2α was performed using a tissue microarray containing 233 tumors and paired peritumoral tissues from female patients diagnosed with breast cancer. The staining results were scored semiquantitatively, and the p-eIF2α expression level in breast cancer and its potential prognostic value were investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, we found that p-eIF2α levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer (P < 0.001). p-eIF2α level was negatively correlated with lymph node status (P = 0.039). Survival analysis by Kaplan–Meier estimation and Cox regression showed that p-eIF2α level was correlated with better disease free survival (P = 0.026) and served as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.046) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Our study revealed that p-eIF2α was upregulated in breast cancer and represented a novel predictor of prognosis in patients with triple-negative subtype. PMID:28294178
Maiti, Aparna; Takabe, Kazuaki; Hait, Nitai C
About 40,000 American women die from metastatic breast cancer each year despite advancements in treatment. Approximately, 15% of breast cancers are triple-negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2. Triple-negative cancer is characterized by more aggressive, harder to treat with conventional approaches and having a greater possibility of recurrence. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid signaling mediator has emerged as a key regulatory molecule in breast cancer progression. Therefore, we investigated whether cytosolic sphingosine kinase type 1 (SphK1) and nuclear sphingosine kinase type 2 (SphK2), the enzymes that make S1P are critical for growth and PI3K/AKT, ERK-MAP kinase mediated survival signaling of lung metastatic variant LM2-4 breast cancer cells, generated from the parental triple-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Similar with previous report, SphKs/S1P signaling is critical for the growth and survival of estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, was used as our study control. MDA-MB-231 did not show a significant effect of SphKs/S1P signaling on AKT, ERK, and p38 pathways. In contrast, LM2-4 cells that gained lung metastatic phenotype from primary MDA-MB-231 cells show a significant effect of SphKs/S1P signaling requirement on cell growth, survival, and cell motility. PF-543, a selective potent inhibitor of SphK1, attenuated epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated cell growth and survival signaling through inhibition of AKT, ERK, and p38 MAP kinase pathways mainly in LM2-4 cells but not in parental MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Moreover, K-145, a selective inhibitor of SphK2, markedly attenuated EGF-mediated cell growth and survival of LM2-4 cells. We believe this study highlights the importance of SphKs/S1P signaling in metastatic triple-negative breast cancers and targeted therapies.
Afrasiabi, Zahra; Stovall, Preston; Finley, Kristen; Choudhury, Amitava; Barnes, Charles; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul; Vyas, Alok; Padhye, Subhash
Novel N3-substituted 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone thiosemicarbazones and their copper, nickel and palladium complexes are structurally characterized and reported along with the single crystal X-ray structures of three ligands and one nickel complex. All compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative potential against Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells which have poor prognosis and no effective drugs to treat with. All compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity against these cells. Among the metal complexes evaluated, redox active copper complexes were found to be more potent. The possible mechanism for such enhanced activity can be attributed to the generation of oxidative stress, which was amenable for targeting through metal complexation.
Costa, Ricardo; Shah, Ami N; Santa-Maria, Cesar A; Cruz, Marcelo R; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Carneiro, Benedito A; Chae, Young Kwang; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Gradishar, William J; Giles, Francis J
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-20% of cases in breast cancer. Despite recent advances in the treatment of hormonal receptor+ and HER2+ breast cancers, there are no targeted therapies available for TNBC. Evidence supports that most patients with TNBC express the transmembrane Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). However, early phase clinical trials failed to demonstrate significant activity of EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we review the recent discoveries related to the underlying biology of the EGFR pathway in TNBC, clinical progress to date and suggest rational future approaches for investigational therapies in TNBC.
Ma, Fei; Li, Huihui; Wang, Haijuan; Shi, Xiuqing; Fan, Ying; Ding, Xiaoyan; Lin, Chen; Zhan, Qimin; Qian, Haili; Xu, Binghe
The mechanism underlying the aggressive behaviors of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not well characterized yet. The association between cancer stem cell (CSC) population and the aggressive behaviors of TNBC has not been established. We found the CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population was enriched in TNBC tissues and cell lines, with a higher capacity of proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenicity as well as lower adhesion ability. The CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population with cancer stem cell-like properties may play an important role in the aggressive behaviors of TNBC. This discovery may lead to new therapeutic strategies targeting CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population in TNBC.
Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu
We propose to aid the interactive visualization of time-varying spatial datasets by simplifying node position data over the entire simulation as opposed to over individual states. Our approach is based on two observations. The first observation is that the trajectory of some nodes can be approximated well without recording the position of the node for every state. The second observation is that there are groups of nodes whose motion from one state to the next can be approximated well with a single transformation. We present dataset simplification techniques that take advantage of this node data redundancy. Our techniques are general, supporting many types of simulations, they achieve good compression factors, and they allow rigorous control of the maximum node position approximation error. We demonstrate our approach in the context of finite element analysis data, of liquid flow simulation data, and of fusion simulation data. PMID:22025753
Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang
Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.
Robles, Andrew J; Du, Lin; Cichewicz, Robert H; Mooberry, Susan L
Triple-negative breast cancers are highly aggressive, and patients with these types of tumors have poor long-term survival. These breast cancers do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors and do not have gene amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; therefore, they do not respond to available targeted therapies. The lack of targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancers stems from their heterogeneous nature and lack of a clear definition of driver defects. Studies have recently identified triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes based on gene expression profiling and representative cell lines, allowing for the identification of subtype-specific drug leads and molecular targets. We previously reported the identification of a new fungal metabolite named maximiscin (1) identified through a crowdsourcing program. New results show that 1 has selective cytotoxic efficacy against basal-like 1 MDA-MB-468 cells compared to cell lines modeling other triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtypes. This compound also exhibited antitumor efficacy in a xenograft mouse model. The mechanisms of action of 1 in MDA-MB-468 cells were investigated to identify potential molecular targets and affected pathways. Compound 1 caused accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, suggesting induction of DNA damage. Indeed, treatment with 1 caused DNA double-strand breaks with concomitant activation of the DNA damage response pathways, indicated by phosphorylation of p53, Chk1, and Chk2. Collectively, these results suggest basal-like triple-negative breast cancer may be inherently sensitive to DNA-damaging agents relative to other triple-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results also demonstrate the potential of our citizen crowdsourcing program to identify new lead molecules for treating the subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer.
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843
Xiao, Wei; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chuan; Huang, Yuan; He, Qin; Gao, Huile
Carbonaceous dots exhibit increasing applications in diagnosis and drug delivery due to excellent photostability and biocompatibility properties. However, relative short excitation and emission of melanin carbonaceous dots (MCDs) limit the applicability in fluorescence bioimaging. Furthermore, the generally poor spatial resolution of fluorescence imaging limits potential in vivo applications. Due to a variety of beneficial properties, in this study, MCDs were prepared exhibiting great potential in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode bioimaging. The MCDs exhibited a long excitation peak at 615nm and emission peak at 650nm, further highlighting the applicability in fluorescence imaging, while the absorbance peak at 633nm renders MCDs suitable for photoacoustic imaging. In vivo, the photoacoustic signal of MCDs was linearly correlated with the concentration of MCDs. Moreover, the MCDs were shown to be taken up into triple negative breast cancer cell line 4T1 in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of subcutaneous 4T1 tumor demonstrated that MCDs could passively target triple negative breast cancer tissue by enhanced permeability and retention effects and may therefore be used for tumor dual-mode imaging. Furthermore, fluorescence distribution in tissue slices suggested that MCDs may distribute in 4T1 tumor with high efficacy. In conclusion, the MCDs studied offer potential application in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging.
Pénzes, Kinga; Baumann, Christine; Szabadkai, István; Őrfi, László; Kéri, György; Ullrich, Axel; Torka, Robert
Blocking the migration of metastatic cancer cells is a major goal in the therapy of cancer. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is one of the main triggers for cancer cell migration in neoplasia of breast, colon, skin, thyroid and prostate. In our study we analyzed the effect of AXL inhibition on cell motility and viability in triple negative breast cancer cell lines overexpressing AXL. Thereby we reveal that the compound BMS777607, exhibiting the lowest IC50 values for inhibition of AXL kinase activity in the studied cell lines, attenuates cell motility to a lower extent than the kinase inhibitors MPCD84111 and SKI606. By analyzing the target kinases of MPCD84111 and SKI606 with kinase profiling assays we identified Lyn, a Src family kinase, as a target of both compounds. Knockdown of Lyn and the migration-related CRK-associated substrate (p130Cas), had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of combinatorial or multikinase inhibition of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase in the therapy of triple negative breast cancer. PMID:25482942
Bishnoi, Sandra; Urban, Alexander; Charron, Heather; Mitchell, Tamika; Shea, Martin; Nanda, Sarmistha; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi; Joshi, Amit
There is an unmet need for efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers and large tumors where the penetration of light can be substantially reduced, and the intra-tumoral nanoparticle transport is restricted due to the presence of hypoxic or nectrotic regions. We report the performance advantages obtained by sub 100 nm gold nanomatryushkas, comprising of concentric gold-silica-gold layers compared to conventional ~150 nm silica core gold nanoshells for photothermal therapy of triple negative breast cancer. We demonstrate that a 33% reduction in silica-core-gold-shell nanoparticle size, while retaining near-infrared plasmon resonance, and keeping the nanoparticle surface charge constant, results in a four to five fold tumor accumulation of nanoparticles following equal dose of injected gold for both sizes. The survival time of mice bearing large (>1000 mm3) and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors is doubled for the nanomatryushka treatment group under identical photo-thermal therapy conditions. The higher absorption cross-section of a nanomatryoshka results in a higher efficiency of photonic to thermal energy conversion and coupled with 4-5X accumulation within large tumors results in superior therapy efficacy. PMID:25051221
Katayama, Hiroyuki; Boldt, Clayton; Ladd, Jon J.; Johnson, Melissa M.; Chao, Timothy; Capello, Michela; Suo, Jinfeng; Mao, Jianning; Manson, JoAnn E.; Prentice, Ross; Esteva, Francisco; Wang, Hong; Disis, Mary L.; Hanash, Samir
The repertoire of antigens associated with the development of an autoimmune response in breast cancer has relevance to detection and treatment strategies. We have investigated the occurrence of autoantibodies associated with the development of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in the before diagnosis setting and in samples collected at the time of diagnosis of TNBC. Lysate arrays containing protein fractions from the TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line were hybridized with TNBC plasmas from the Women's Health Initiative cohort, collected before clinical diagnosis and with plasmas from matched controls. An immune response directed against spliceosome and glycolysis proteins was observed with case plasmas as previously reported in estrogen receptor+ breast cancer. Importantly, autoantibodies directed against networks involving BRCA1, TP53, and cytokeratin proteins associated with a mesenchymal/basal phenotype were distinct to TNBC before diagnosis samples. Concordant autoantibody findings were observed with mouse plasma samples collected before occurrence of palpable tumors from a C3(1)-T triple negative mouse model. Plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis of stage II TNBC and from matched healthy controls were subjected to proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry to identify Ig-bound proteins yielding a predominance of cytokeratins, including several associated with a mesenchymal/basal phenotype among cases compared with controls. Our data provide evidence indicative of a dynamic repertoire of antigens associated with a humoral immune response reflecting disease pathogenesis in TNBC. PMID:26088128
Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Urban, Cordula; Bishnoi, Sandra; Urban, Alexander; Charron, Heather; Mitchell, Tamika; Shea, Martin; Nanda, Sarmistha; Schiff, Rachel; Halas, Naomi; Joshi, Amit
There is an unmet need for efficient near-infrared photothermal transducers for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers and large tumors where the penetration of light can be substantially reduced, and the intra-tumoral nanoparticle transport is restricted due to the presence of hypoxic or necrotic regions. We report the performance advantages obtained by sub 100nm gold nanomatryushkas, comprising concentric gold-silica-gold layers compared to conventional ~150nm silica core gold nanoshells for photothermal therapy of triple negative breast cancer. We demonstrate that a 33% reduction in silica-core-gold-shell nanoparticle size, while retaining near-infrared plasmon resonance, and keeping the nanoparticle surface charge constant, results in a four to five fold tumor accumulation of nanoparticles following equal dose of injected gold for both sizes. The survival time of mice bearing large (>1000mm(3)) and highly aggressive triple negative breast tumors is doubled for the nanomatryushka treatment group under identical photo-thermal therapy conditions. The higher absorption cross-section of a nanomatryoshka results in a higher efficiency of photonic to thermal energy conversion and coupled with 4-5× accumulation within large tumors results in superior therapy efficacy.
Kannadorai, Ravi Kumar; Udumala, Sunil Kumar; Sidney, Yu Wing Kwong
Noninvasive and nonradioactive imaging modality to track and image apoptosis during chemotherapy of triple negative breast cancer is much needed for an effective treatment plan. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a biomarker transiently exposed on the outer surface of the cells during apoptosis. Its externalization occurs within a few hours of an apoptotic stimulus by a chemotherapy drug and leads to presentation of millions of phospholipid molecules per apoptotic cell on the cell surface. This makes PS an abundant and accessible target for apoptosis imaging. In the current work, we show that PS monoclonal antibody tagged with indocyanine green (ICG) can help to track and image apoptosis using multispectral optoacoustic tomography in vivo. When compared to saline control, the doxorubicin treated group showed a significant increase in uptake of ICG-PS monoclonal antibody in triple negative breast tumor xenografted in NCr nude female mice. Day 5 posttreatment had the highest optoacoustic signal in the tumor region, indicating maximum apoptosis and the tumor subsequently shrank. Since multispectral optoacoustic imaging does not involve the use of radioactivity, the longer the circulatory time of the PS antibody can be exploited to monitor apoptosis over a period of time without multiple injections of commonly used imaging probes such as Tc-99m Annexin V or F-18 ML10. The proposed apoptosis imaging technique involving multispectral optoacoustic tomography, monoclonal antibody, and near-infrared absorbing fluorescent marker can be an effective tool for imaging apoptosis and treatment planning.
Xu, Hui; Qian, Mingping; Zhao, Bingkun; Wu, Chenyang; Maskey, Niraj; Song, Hongming; Li, Dengfeng; Song, Jialu; Hua, Kaiyao; Fang, Lin
RAB1A acts as an oncogene in various cancers, and emerging evidence has verified that RAB1A is an mTORC1 activator in hepatocellular and colorectal cancer, but the role of RAB1A in breast cancer remains unclear. In this investigation, RAB1A siRNA was successfully transfected in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and verified by real‑time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Then, MTT cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to characterize the function of RAB1A in the breast cancer cell lines. Downregulation of RAB1A inhibited cellular growth, cell migration, cell invasion and cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, compared with NC siRNA transfected cells, RAB1A siRNA transfected breast cancer cells inhibited the phosphorylation of S6K1, the effector molecular of mTORC1. Collectively, our data suggested that RAB1A acts as an oncogene by regulating cellular proliferation, growth, invasion and metastasis via activation of mTORC1 pathway in triple-negative breast cancer.
Liu, Yang; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Mao, Cheng-Qiong; Dou, Shuang; Shen, Song; Tan, Zi-Bin; Wang, Jun
There is no effective clinical therapy yet for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) without particular human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In this study, we report a molecularly targeted and synthetic lethality-based siRNA therapy for TNBC treatment, using cationic lipid assisted poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles as the siRNA carrier. It is demonstrated that only in c-Myc overexpressed TNBC cells, while not in normal mammary epithelial cells, delivery of siRNA targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) with the nanoparticle carrier (NPsiCDK1) induces cell viability decreasing and cell apoptosis through RNAi-mediated CDK1 expression inhibition, indicating the synthetic lethality between c-Myc with CDK1 in TNBC cells. Moreover, systemic delivery of NPsiCDK1 is able to suppress tumor growth in mice bearing SUM149 and BT549 xenograft and cause no systemic toxicity or activate the innate immune response, suggesting the therapeutic promise with such nanoparticles carrying siCDK1 for c-Myc overexpressed triple negative breast cancer.
Zhu, Anjie; Yuan, Peng; Du, Feng; Hong, Ruoxi; Ding, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xiuqing; Fan, Ying; Wang, Jiayu; Luo, Yang; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Pin; Li, Qing; Xu, Binghe
SPARC/osteonectin expression is reportedly altered in various malignancies. However, little is known regarding to the prognostic value of SPARC in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. In this study, immunohistochemistry and immunoreactive scores (IRSs) were used to evaluate SPARC protein expression in primary tumors from 211 TNBC patients with up to 10 years of clinical follow-up data. High SPARC expression (IRS ≥3) was detected in 52.1% of primary tumors. Patients expressing high SPARC levels had worse disease-free survival (DFS) (HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.01-2.47, P=0.044) and overall survival (OS) (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.06-2.85, P=0.029) than patients with lower SPARC levels. Furthermore, high SPARC expression was an independent prognostic factor for both DFS (HR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.10-2.73, P=0.018) and OS (HR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.14-3.16, P=0.014) in TNBC patients. These results suggest that increased SPARC expression may be an indicator of greater aggressiveness, and may serve as a prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:27421134
Andradas, Clara; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; Dillenburg-Pilla, Patricia; Diez-Alarcia, Rebeca; Juanes-García, Alba; García-Taboada, Elena; Hernando-Llorente, Rodrigo; Soriano, Joaquim; Hamann, Sigrid; Wenners, Antonia; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Klapper, Wolfram; Rocken, Christoph; Bauer, Maret; Arnold, Norbert; Quintanilla, Miguel; Megías, Diego; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Urigüen, Leyre; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Guzmán, Manuel; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Sánchez, Cristina
The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been directly or indirectly related to basic alterations that drive malignant growth: uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, and cancer cell adhesion and migration. However, little is known about the involvement of this receptor in metastasis. Here, we show that elevated GPR55 expression in human tumors is associated with the aggressive basal/triple-negative breast cancer population, higher probability to develop metastases, and therefore poor patient prognosis. Activation of GPR55 by its proposed endogenous ligand lysophosphatidylinositol confers pro-invasive features on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this effect is elicited by coupling to Gq/11 heterotrimeric proteins and the subsequent activation, through ERK, of the transcription factor ETV4/PEA3. Together, these data show that GPR55 promotes breast cancer metastasis, and supports the notion that this orphan receptor may constitute a new therapeutic target and potential biomarker in the highly aggressive triple-negative subtype. PMID:27340777
Kolacinska, A; Chalubinska, J; Zawlik, I; Szymanska, B; Borowska-Garganisz, E; Nowik, M; Fendler, W; Kubiak, R; Pawlowska, Z; Morawiec, Z; Szemraj, J
The aim of our study was to examine an association between gene expression assessed using a 23-gene microarray and receptor status of breast cancer samples categorized as ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative subtypes. The ER positive cohort was subsequently divided into Luminal A, Luminal B HER2 negative and Luminal B HER2 positive subtypes. Core- needle biopsies were collected from 78 female patients with inoperable locally advanced breast cancer or resectable tumors suitable for downstaging, before any treatment. Expressions of 23 genes were determined by means of TagMan Low Density Arrays. Analysis of variance was used to select genes with discriminatory potential between receptor subtypes. We introduced a correction for false discovery rates (presented as q values) due to testing multiple hypothesis. Pairwise post-hoc comparisons of receptor subtypes were performed using Tukey 's HSD test. Five genes out of a 23-gene microarray differed significantly in relation to breast cancer receptor-based subtypes. Among these five genes, we identified: BCL2 (p=0.0002, q=0.0009), MKI67 (p=0.0037, q=0.0064), IGF1R (p=0.0040, q=0.0064), FOXC1 (p=0.0113, q=0.0135) and IRF1 (p=0.0435, q=0.0416) as ones showing ER positive, HER2 positive and triple negative -subtype specific expression profiles. When incorporating Luminal A, Luminal B HER2 negative, Luminal B HER2 positive subtypes into analysis, four genes: BCL2 (p=0.0006, q=0.0034), MKI67 (p=0.0078, q=0.0198), FOXC1 (p=0.0102, q=0.0198) and IGF1R (p=0.0174, q=0.0254) were selected. Elevated levels of IGF1R and BCL2 were significantly linked with Luminal A subtype. Triple negative breast cancer subtype was associated with higher expression of IRF1, FOXC1 and MKI67. In HER2 positive cohort lower expression of all five analyzed genes was noted.
Ting, Chen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chun; Wu, Chang-Jer; Chen, Jyh-Yih
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) currently lacks a suitable therapeutic candidate and is thus difficult to treat. Here, we report that a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP), tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4), which was derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is selectively toxic to TNBC. TP4 acts by inducing an AP-1 protein called FOSB, the expression of which is negatively associated with the pathological grade of TNBC. We show that TP4 is bound to the mitochondria where it disrupts calcium homeostasis and activates FOSB. FOSB overexpression results in TNBC cell death, whereas inhibition of calcium signaling eliminates FOSB induction and blocks TP4-induced TNBC cell death. Both TP4 and anthracyclines strongly induced FOSB, particularly in TNBC, indicating that FOSB may be suitable as a biomarker of drug responses. This study thus provides a novel therapeutic approach toward TNBC through FOSB induction. PMID:27248170
Coradini, Danila; Biganzoli, Elia; Ardoino, Ilaria; Ambrogi, Federico; Boracchi, Patrizia; Demicheli, Romano; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Moliterni, Angela
Genomic analysis and protein expression assimilate triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) with basal-like breast tumors. TNBCs, however, have proved to encompass also tumors with normal-like phenotype and known to have favorable prognosis and to respond to chemotherapy. In a recent paper, we have provided evidence that p53 status is able to subdivide TNBCs into two distinct subgroups with different outcome, and consistent with basal- and normal-like phenotypes. Based on this finding, we explored the contribution of p53 status in predicting the response to adjuvant CMF or CMF followed doxorubicin chemotherapy of a group of TNBC patients. Results indicated that TNBC patients with a p53-positive tumor had a shorter relapse-free and overall survival than patients carrying a p53-negative TNBC, corroborating our hypothesis about the relationship between TNBC phenotype (basal-like versus normal-like) and p53 status as predictor of response to anthracycline/CMF-based chemotherapy.
van Kessel, Kim E. M.; van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Lurkin, Irene; Ziel – van der Made, Angelique C. J.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Boormans, Joost L.
Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) provides a small but significant survival benefit. Nevertheless, controversies on applying NAC remain because the limited benefit must be weight against chemotherapy-related toxicity and the delay of definitive local treatment. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for tools to guide treatment decisions on NAC in MIBC. Here, we aimed to validate a previously reported 20-gene expression signature that predicted lymph node-positive disease at radical cystectomy in clinically node-negative MIBC patients, which would be a justification for upfront chemotherapy. Methods We studied diagnostic transurethral resection of bladder tumors (dTURBT) of 150 MIBC patients (urothelial carcinoma) who were subsequently treated by radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. RNA was isolated and the expression level of the 20 genes was determined on a qRT-PCR platform. Normalized Ct values were used to calculate a risk score to predict the presence of node-positive disease. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA expression data was analyzed to subsequently validate the results. Results In a univariate regression analysis, none of the 20 genes significantly correlated with node-positive disease. The area under the curve of the risk score calculated by the 20-gene expression signature was 0.54 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.44-0.65) versus 0.67 for the model published by Smith et al. Node-negative patients had a significantly lower tumor grade at TURBT (p = 0.03), a lower pT stage (p<0.01) and less frequent lymphovascular invasion (13% versus 38%, p<0.01) at radical cystectomy than node-positive patients. In addition, in the TCGA data, none of the 20 genes was differentially expressed in node-negative versus node-positive patients. Conclusions We conclude that a 20-gene expression signature developed for nodal staging of MIBC at radical cystectomy could not be validated on a qRT-PCR platform in a
Fusco, Nicola; Geyer, Felipe C; De Filippo, Maria R; Martelotto, Luciano G; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Schultheis, Anne M; Fuhrmann, Laetitia; Wang, Lu; Jungbluth, Achim A; Burke, Kathleen A; Lim, Raymond S; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Bamba, Masamichi; Moritani, Suzuko; Badve, Sunil S; Ichihara, Shu; Ellis, Ian O; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare histologic type of triple-negative breast cancer with an indolent clinical behavior, often driven by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Here we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in two adenoid cystic carcinomas associated with high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. The different components of each case were subjected to copy number profiling and massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons and selected regulatory and intronic regions of 488 genes. Reverse transcription PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization were employed to investigate the presence of the MYB-NFIB translocation. The MYB-NFIB fusion gene was detected in both adenoid cystic carcinomas and their associated high-grade triple-negative breast cancer components. Whilst the distinct components of both cases displayed similar patterns of gene copy number alterations, massively parallel sequencing analysis revealed intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity. In case 1, progression from the trabecular adenoid cystic carcinoma to the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer was found to involve clonal shifts with enrichment of mutations affecting EP300, NOTCH1, ERBB2 and FGFR1 in the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. In case 2, a clonal KMT2C mutation was present in the cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma, solid adenoid cystic carcinoma and high-grade triple-negative breast cancer components, whereas a mutation affecting MYB was present only in the solid and high-grade triple-negative breast cancer areas and additional three mutations targeting STAG2, KDM6A and CDK12 were restricted to the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. In conclusion, adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast with high-grade transformation are underpinned by MYB-NFIB fusion gene, and, akin to other forms of cancer, may be constituted by a mosaic of cancer cell clones at diagnosis. The progression from adenoid cystic carcinoma to high-grade triple-negative
Fusco, Nicola; Geyer, Felipe C; De Filippo, Maria R; Martelotto, Luciano G; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Schultheis, Anne M; Fuhrmann, Laetitia; Wang, Lu; Jungbluth, Achim A; Burke, Kathleen A; Lim, Raymond S; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Bamba, Masamichi; Moritani, Suzuko; Badve, Sunil S; Ichihara, Shu; Ellis, Ian O; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare histological type of triple-negative breast cancer with an indolent clinical behavior, often driven by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Here we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in two adenoid cystic carcinomas associated with high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. The different components of each case were subjected to copy number profiling and massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons and selected regulatory and intronic regions of 488 genes. Reverse transcription PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization were employed to investigate the presence of the MYB-NFIB translocation. The MYB-NFIB fusion gene was detected in both adenoid cystic carcinomas and their associated high-grade triple-negative breast cancer components. Although the distinct components of both cases displayed similar patterns of gene copy number alterations, massively parallel sequencing analysis revealed intratumor genetic heterogeneity. In case 1, progression from the trabecular adenoid cystic carcinoma to the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer was found to involve clonal shifts with enrichment of mutations affecting EP300, NOTCH1, ERBB2 and FGFR1 in the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. In case 2, a clonal KMT2C mutation was present in the cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma, solid adenoid cystic carcinoma and high-grade triple-negative breast cancer components, whereas a mutation affecting MYB was present only in the solid and high-grade triple-negative breast cancer areas and additional three mutations targeting STAG2, KDM6A and CDK12 were restricted to the high-grade triple-negative breast cancer. In conclusion, adenoid cystic carcinomas of the breast with high-grade transformation are underpinned by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene and, akin to other forms of cancer, may be constituted by a mosaic of cancer cell clones at diagnosis. The progression from adenoid cystic carcinoma to high-grade triple-negative
Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Methods Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. Results IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Conclusion FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required
Zhu, Zhengzhi; Wang, Shengying; Zhu, Jinhai; Yang, Qifeng; Dong, Huiming; Huang, Jiankang
Triple negative breast cancer lacking estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor and Her2 account for account for the majority of the breast cancer deaths, due to the lack of specific gene targeted therapy. Our current study aimed to investigate the role of miR-544 in triple negative breast cancer. Endogenous levels of miR-544 were significantly lower in breast cancer cell lines than in human breast non-tumorigenic and mammary epithelial cell lines. We found that miR-544 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) on both Bcl6 and Stat3 mRNAs, and overexpression of miR-544 in triple negative breast cancer cells significantly down-regulated expressions of Bcl6 and Stat3, which in turn severely inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Employing a mouse xenograft model to examine the in vivo function of miR-544, we found that expression of miR-544 significantly repressed the growth of xenograft tumors. Our current study reported miR-544 as a tumor-suppressor microRNA particularly in triple negative breast cancer. Our data supported the role of miR-544 as a potential biomarker in developing gene targeted therapies in the clinical treatment of triple negative breast cancer.
Dong, Tieying; Kang, Xinmei; Liu, Zhaoliang; Zhao, Shu; Ma, Wenjie; Xuan, Qijia; Liu, Hang; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qingyuan
Glycometabolism is a distinctive aspect of energy metabolism in breast cancer, and key glycometabolism enzymes/pathways (glycolysis, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway) may directly or indirectly affect the clinical features. In this study, we analyzed the particular correlation between the altered glycometabolism and clinical features of breast cancer to instruct research and clinical treatment. Tissue microarrays containing 189 hollow needle aspiration samples and 295 triple-negative breast cancer tissues were used to test the expression of M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and p53 by immunohistochemistry and the intensity of these glycometabolism-related protein was evaluated. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the relationship between the expression of these factors and major clinical features. PKM2, GFPT1, and G6PD affect the pathologic complete response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients in different ways; pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) and G6PD are closely associated with the molecular subtypes, whereas GFPT1 is correlated with cancer size. All these three factors as well as p53 have impacts on the progression-free survival and overall survival of triple-negative breast cancer patients. Cancer size shows significant association with PKM2 and GFPT1 expression, while the pN stage and grade are associated with PKM2 and G6PD expression. Our study support that clinical characteristics are reflections of specific glycometabolism pathways, so their relationships may shed light on the orientation of research or clinical treatment. The expression of PKM2, GFPT1, and G6PD are hazardous factors for prognosis: high expression of these proteins predict worse progression-free survival and overall survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as worse pathologic
Wang, Jeff; Kato, Fumi; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Li, Ruijiang; Cui, Yi; Tha, Khin Khin; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki
Objectives To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying “triple-negative" breast cancers. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using cross-validation. Results Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01). Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement. Conclusions Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly
Schubert, Antje; Hawighorst, Thomas; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten
Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about 74% of triple-negative breast cancers express receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which might be used as a therapeutic target. Recently, we could show that bone-directed invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro is time- and dose-dependently reduced by GnRH analogs. In the present study, we have analyzed whether GnRH analogs are able to reduce metastases of triple-negative breast cancers in vivo. In addition, we have evaluated the effects of GnRH analogs on tumor growth. To quantify formation of metastasis by triple-negative MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancers, we used a real-time PCR method based on detection of human-specific alu sequences measuring accurately the amount of human tumor DNA in athymic mouse organs. To analyze tumor growth, the volumes of breast cancer xenotransplants into nude mice were measured. We could demonstrate that GnRH analogs significantly reduced metastasis formation by triple-negative breast cancer in vivo. In addition, we could show that GnRH analogs significantly inhibited the growth of breast cancer into nude mice. Side effects were not detectable. In conclusion, GnRH analogs seem to be suitable drugs for an efficacious therapy for triple-negative, GnRH receptor-positive human breast cancers to prevent metastasis formation.
Yang, Shiping; Ma, Wenqiang; Liu, Mei; Guo, Shichao; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Tsang, Suk Ying; Zhang, Ziding; Wang, Zhaoyi; Li, Xiru; Guo, Yang-Dong; Li, Xiangdong
Anthocyanins have been shown to inhibit the growth and metastatic potential of breast cancer (BC) cells. However, the effects of individual anthocyanins on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have not yet been studied. In this study, we found that cyanidin-3-o-glucoside (Cy-3-glu) preferentially promotes the apoptosis of TNBC cells, which co-express the estrogen receptor alpha 36 (ERα36) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We demonstrated that Cy-3-glu directly binds to the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of ERα36, inhibits EGFR/AKT signaling, and promotes EGFR degradation. We also confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of Cy-3-glu on TNBC in the xenograft mouse model. Our data indicates that Cy-3-glu could be a novel preventive/therapeutic agent against the TNBC co-expressed ERα36/EGFR. PMID:27655695
Park, Dongjin; Ahn, Kyung-Ohk; Jeong, Kyung-Chae; Choi, Yongdoo
Here, we fabricated polypyrrole nanoparticles (PPys) (termed HA10-PPy, HA20-PPy, and HA40-PPy) doped with different average molecular weight hyaluronic acids (HAs) (10, 20, and 40 kDa, respectively), and evaluated the effect of molecular weight of doped HA on photothermal induction, fluorescence quenching, and drug loading efficiencies. Doxorubicin-loaded HA-doped PPys (DOX@HA-PPys) could be used for imaging and therapy of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Fluorescence turn-on, stimuli-responsive drug release, and photo-induced heating of DOX@HA-PPys enabled not only activatable fluorescence imaging but also subsequent chemo/photothermal dual therapy for TNBC. In particular, we illustrated the potential usefulness of the photothermal effect of the nanoparticles for overcoming chemoresistance in TNBC.
Alsharedi, Mohamed; Khelfa, Yousef; Tirona, Maria
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in North America. Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adults. The majority of hereditary breast cancers are associated with deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Although few case reports have described the incidence of glioblastoma in patients previously diagnosed with breast cancer, any association between BRCA2 mutations and glioblastoma has not been demonstrated to date. Herein, we report a woman who is a carrier of a familial BRCA2 mutation, and was previously diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and subsequently with a second primary TNBC and glioblastoma. Further investigation is required to define the possible relationship between these two aggressive malignances and the BRCA2 mutation, which might be critical for the proper management and treatment of this disease. PMID:28382102
Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. PMID:26400608
Park, Jun Hyoung; Vithayathil, Sajna; Kumar, Santosh; Sung, Pi-Lin; Dobrolecki, Lacey Elizabeth; Putluri, Vasanta; Bhat, Vadiraja B.; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Gupta, Vineet; Arora, Kavisha; Wu, Danli; Tsouko, Efrosini; Zhang, Yiqun; Maity, Suman; Donti, Taraka R.; Graham, Brett H.; Frigo, Daniel E.; Coarfa, Cristian; Yotnda, Patricia; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Lewis, Michael T.; Creighton, Chad J.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham
Summary Transmitochondrial cybrids and multiple OMICs approaches were used to understand mitochondrial reprogramming and mitochondria-regulated cancer pathways in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Analysis of cybrids and established breast cancer (BC) cell lines showed that metastatic TNBC maintains high levels of ATP through fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and activates Src oncoprotein through autophosphorylation at Y419. Manipulation of FAO including the knocking down of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) and 2 (CPT2), the rate-limiting proteins of FAO, and analysis of patient-derived xenograft models, confirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO in Src activation and metastasis. Analysis of TCGA and other independent BC clinical data further reaffirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO and CPT genes in Src regulation and their significance in BC metastasis. PMID:26923594
Wei Poh, Zhong; Heng Gan, Chin; Lee, Eric J.; Guo, Suxian; Yip, George W.; Lam, Yulin
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulate many important physiological processes. A pertinent issue to address is whether GAGs encode important functional information via introduction of position specific sulfate groups in the GAG structure. However, procurement of pure, homogenous GAG motifs to probe the “sulfation code” is a challenging task due to isolation difficulty and structural complexity. To this end, we devised a versatile synthetic strategy to obtain all the 16 theoretically possible sulfation patterns in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) repeating unit; these include rare but potentially important sulfated motifs which have not been isolated earlier. Biological evaluation indicated that CS sulfation patterns had differing effects for different breast cancer cell types, and the greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the most aggressive, triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
Allaoui, Roni; Bergenfelz, Caroline; Mohlin, Sofie; Hagerling, Catharina; Salari, Kiarash; Werb, Zena; Anderson, Robin L.; Ethier, Stephen P.; Jirström, Karin; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel; Tahin, Balázs; Johansson, Martin E.; Larsson, Christer; Leandersson, Karin
Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers (ER−PR−HER2−) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. Within this subtype, invasive, stroma-rich tumours with infiltration of inflammatory cells are even more aggressive. The effect of myeloid cells on reactive stroma formation in TN breast cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that primary human monocytes have a survival advantage, proliferate in vivo and develop into immunosuppressive myeloid cells expressing the myeloid-derived suppressor cell marker S100A9 only in a TN breast cancer environment. This results in activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts and expression of CXCL16, which we show to be a monocyte chemoattractant. We propose that this migratory feedback loop amplifies the formation of a reactive stroma, contributing to the aggressive phenotype of TN breast tumours. These insights could help select more suitable therapies targeting the stromal component of these tumours, and could aid prediction of drug resistance. PMID:27725631
Park, Jun Hyoung; Vithayathil, Sajna; Kumar, Santosh; Sung, Pi-Lin; Dobrolecki, Lacey Elizabeth; Putluri, Vasanta; Bhat, Vadiraja B; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Gupta, Vineet; Arora, Kavisha; Wu, Danli; Tsouko, Efrosini; Zhang, Yiqun; Maity, Suman; Donti, Taraka R; Graham, Brett H; Frigo, Daniel E; Coarfa, Cristian; Yotnda, Patricia; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Lewis, Michael T; Creighton, Chad J; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham
Transmitochondrial cybrids and multiple OMICs approaches were used to understand mitochondrial reprogramming and mitochondria-regulated cancer pathways in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Analysis of cybrids and established breast cancer (BC) cell lines showed that metastatic TNBC maintains high levels of ATP through fatty acid β oxidation (FAO) and activates Src oncoprotein through autophosphorylation at Y419. Manipulation of FAO including the knocking down of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1) and 2 (CPT2), the rate-limiting proteins of FAO, and analysis of patient-derived xenograft models confirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO in Src activation and metastasis. Analysis of TCGA and other independent BC clinical data further reaffirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO and CPT genes in Src regulation and their significance in BC metastasis.
Morales, Paula; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Andradas, Clara; Gómez-Cañas, María; Flores, Juana María; Goya, Pilar; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Sánchez, Cristina; Jagerovic, Nadine
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a subtype of breast cancer characterized by high aggressiveness. There is no current targeted therapy for these patients whose prognosis, as a group, is very poor. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a potent antitumor agent in vivo for this type of breast cancer designed as a combination of quinone/cannabinoid pharmacophores. This new compound (10) has been selected from a series of chromenopyrazolediones with full selectivity for the nonpsychotropic CB2 cannabinoid receptor and with efficacy in inducing death of human TNBC cell lines. The dual concept quinone/cannabinoid was supported by the fact that compound 10 exerts antitumor effect by inducing cell apoptosis through activation of CB2 receptors and through oxidative stress. Notably, it did not show either cytotoxicity on noncancerous human mammary epithelial cells nor toxic effects in vivo, suggesting that it may be a new therapeutic tool for the management of TNBC.
Shindikar, Amol; Singh, Akshita; Nobre, Malcolm; Kirolikar, Saurabh
Researchers have made considerable progress in last few decades in understanding mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of breast cancer, its phenotypes, its molecular and genetic changes, its physiology, and its prognosis. This has allowed us to identify specific targets and design appropriate chemical entities for effective treatment of most breast cancer phenotypes, resulting in increased patient survivability. Unfortunately, these strategies have been largely ineffective in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hormonal receptors lacking render the conventional breast cancer drugs redundant, forcing scientists to identify novel targets for treatment of TNBC. Two natural compounds, curcumin and resveratrol, have been widely reported to have anticancer properties. In vitro and in vivo studies show promising results, though their effectiveness in clinical settings has been less than satisfactory, owing to their feeble pharmacokinetics. Here we discuss these naturally occurring compounds, their mechanism as anticancer agents, their shortcomings in translational research, and possible methodology to improve their pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:27242900
Silva, Vera L; Ferreira, Debora; Nobrega, Franklin L; Martins, Ivone M; Kluskens, Leon D; Rodrigues, Ligia R
The use of bacteriophages to select novel ligands has been widely explored for cancer therapy. Their application is most warranted in cancer subtypes lacking knowledge on how to target the cancer cells in question, such as the triple negative breast cancer, eventually leading to the development of alternative nanomedicines for cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the following study aimed to select and characterize novel peptides for a triple negative breast cancer murine mammary carcinoma cell line- 4T1. Using phage display, 7 and 12 amino acid random peptide libraries were screened against the 4T1 cell line. A total of four rounds, plus a counter-selection round using the 3T3 murine fibroblast cell line, was performed. The enriched selective peptides were characterized and their binding capacity towards 4T1 tissue samples was confirmed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. The selected peptides (4T1pep1 -CPTASNTSC and 4T1pep2-EVQSSKFPAHVS) were enriched over few rounds of selection and exhibited specific binding to the 4T1 cell line. Interestingly, affinity to the human MDA-MB-231 cell line was also observed for both peptides, promoting the translational application of these novel ligands between species. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis suggested that both peptides target human Mucin-16. This protein has been implicated in different types of cancer, as it is involved in many important cellular functions. This study strongly supports the need of finding alternative targeting systems for TNBC and the peptides herein selected exhibit promising future application as novel homing peptides for breast cancer therapy.
Nobrega, Franklin L.; Martins, Ivone M.
The use of bacteriophages to select novel ligands has been widely explored for cancer therapy. Their application is most warranted in cancer subtypes lacking knowledge on how to target the cancer cells in question, such as the triple negative breast cancer, eventually leading to the development of alternative nanomedicines for cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the following study aimed to select and characterize novel peptides for a triple negative breast cancer murine mammary carcinoma cell line– 4T1. Using phage display, 7 and 12 amino acid random peptide libraries were screened against the 4T1 cell line. A total of four rounds, plus a counter-selection round using the 3T3 murine fibroblast cell line, was performed. The enriched selective peptides were characterized and their binding capacity towards 4T1 tissue samples was confirmed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. The selected peptides (4T1pep1 –CPTASNTSC and 4T1pep2—EVQSSKFPAHVS) were enriched over few rounds of selection and exhibited specific binding to the 4T1 cell line. Interestingly, affinity to the human MDA-MB-231 cell line was also observed for both peptides, promoting the translational application of these novel ligands between species. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis suggested that both peptides target human Mucin-16. This protein has been implicated in different types of cancer, as it is involved in many important cellular functions. This study strongly supports the need of finding alternative targeting systems for TNBC and the peptides herein selected exhibit promising future application as novel homing peptides for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27548261
Gupta, Satish; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Jakubowska, Anna
It has been proposed that methylation signatures in blood-derived DNA may correlate with cancer risk. In this study, we evaluated whether methylation of the promoter region of the BRCA1 gene detectable in DNA from peripheral blood cells is a risk factor for breast cancer, in particular for tumors with pathologic features characteristic for cancers with BRCA1 gene mutations. We conducted a case-control study of 66 breast cancer cases and 36 unaffected controls. Cases were triple-negative or of medullary histology, or both; 30 carried a constitutional BRCA1 mutation and 36 did not carry a mutation. Blood for DNA methylation analysis was taken within three months of diagnosis. Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene was measured in cases and controls using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). A sample with any detectable level of methylation was considered to be positive. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 15 of 66 cases and in 2 of 36 controls (OR 5.0, p = 0.03). Methylation was present in 15 of 36 women with breast cancer and without germline BRCA1 mutation, but in none of 30 women with breast cancer and a germline mutation (p < 0.01). The association between methylation and breast cancer was restricted to women with no constitutional BRCA1 mutation (OR 12.1, p = 0.0006). Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene detectable in peripheral blood DNA may be a marker of increased susceptibility to triple-negative or medullary breast cancer.
Baseta, J G; Stutman, O
TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine with opposing death/no-death effects in vivo and in vitro. Our studies showed that TNF regulates mouse thymocyte production, inducing both apoptosis and proliferation of the most immature CD3(-)CD4(-)CD8(-) triple negative (TN) subset within a broad range of dosages (10(1)-10(5) pg/ml) in the presence of IL-7. TNF apoptosis affected only the TN3 (CD44(-)CD25(+)) and TN4 (CD44(-)CD25(-)) subsets that expressed both TNFR-p55 and -p75. Although each TNFR alone could mediate TNF apoptosis, maximal apoptosis was seen in C57BL/6J wild type, which expressed both TNFRs. TNF also induced proliferation of TN3 cells at higher doses (10(4)-10(5) pg/ml) mediated only by TNFR-p75. Both anti-TNFR-p55 and -TNFR-p75 mAb inhibited apoptosis but only anti-p75 inhibited proliferation. TNF also regulated TN proliferation to IL-7 because TNFR knockout (KO), TNF KO, and TNF/lymphotoxin alpha and beta triple KO mice showed 2- to 3-fold increased responses not seen in C57BL/6J wild type. In vivo, TNFR KO mice showed thymic hypertrophy with a 60% increase in total thymocytes, with no effect on the CD4/CD8 subsets. We conclude that TNF maintains homeostatic control of total thymocyte production by negative selection of TN3 and TN4 prothymocytes and down-regulation of their proliferation to endogenous IL-7.
Szarc vel Szic, Katarzyna; Op de Beeck, Ken; Ratman, Dariusz; Wouters, An; Beck, Ilse M.; Declerck, Ken; Heyninck, Karen; Fransen, Erik; Bracke, Marc; De Bosscher, Karolien; Lardon, Filip; Van Camp, Guy; Berghe, Wim Vanden
Withaferin A (WA) isolated from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) has recently become an attractive phytochemical under investigation in various preclinical studies for treatment of different cancer types. In the present study, a comparative pathway-based transcriptome analysis was applied in epithelial-like MCF-7 and triple negative mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exposed to different concentrations of WA which can be detected systemically in in vivo experiments. Whereas WA treatment demonstrated attenuation of multiple cancer hallmarks, the withanolide analogue Withanone (WN) did not exert any of the described effects at comparable concentrations. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that WA targets specific cancer processes related to cell death, cell cycle and proliferation, which could be functionally validated by flow cytometry and real-time cell proliferation assays. WA also strongly decreased MDA-MB-231 invasion as determined by single-cell collagen invasion assay. This was further supported by decreased gene expression of extracellular matrix-degrading proteases (uPA, PLAT, ADAM8), cell adhesion molecules (integrins, laminins), pro-inflammatory mediators of the metastasis-promoting tumor microenvironment (TNFSF12, IL6, ANGPTL2, CSF1R) and concomitant increased expression of the validated breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene (BRMS1). In line with the transcriptional changes, nanomolar concentrations of WA significantly decreased protein levels and corresponding activity of uPA in MDA-MB-231 cell supernatant, further supporting its anti-metastatic properties. Finally, hierarchical clustering analysis of 84 chromatin writer-reader-eraser enzymes revealed that WA treatment of invasive mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells reprogrammed their transcription levels more similarly towards the pattern observed in non-invasive MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, taking into account that sub-cytotoxic concentrations of WA target multiple metastatic effectors in therapy
Petrelli, Fausto; Cabiddu, Mary; Ghilardi, Mara; Barni, Sandro
Approximately 10 - 15% of breast carcinomas (BCs) are known to be 'triple-negative (TN) receptor' (i.e., not expressing ER or PR and not exhibiting overexpression and/or gene amplification of HER2-neu). Triple-negative BCs comprise approximately 85% of all basal-type tumours. Classically, basal-like BCs have been characterised by low expression of ER, PR, and HER2 neu and high expression of CK5, CK14, caveolin-1, CAIX, p63, and EGFR (HER1), which reflects the mammary gland basal/myoepithelial cell component. Although there is no standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic TN BCs, anthracycline- and taxane-containing regimens are acceptable treatments. A large number of agents, including DNA-damaging agents, EGFR inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents and novel taxane formulations are currently being tested in clinical trials for first-line and pretreated patients. Limited experiences with platinum salts, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, cetuximab, bevacizumab and ixabepilone have been published in recent years and will be reported. Novel immunohistochemistry analysis for identification of basal like/TN phenotype are awaited to correctly select this population. The clinical trials investigating new agents have to be designed for a specific (and possibly large) subset of patients with BC. In the future, a gene array platform with greater sensitivity for distinguishing the various BC subtypes, as well as having the power to predict the molecular biology of the disease, will be an indispensible tool for treatment selection. Currently, treatment of TN BC is more empirical than evidence-based. The cornerstone of treatment is chemotherapy, but in the near future, novel target agents will emerge as possible partners.
Qiu, Wei-Gang; Polotskaia, Alla; Xiao, Gu; Di, Lia; Zhao, Yuhan; Hu, Wenwei; Philip, John; Hendrickson, Ronald C; Bargonetti, Jill
Over 80% of triple negative breast cancers express mutant p53. Mutant p53 often gains oncogenic function suggesting that triple negative breast cancers may be driven by p53 protein type. To determine the chromatin targets of this gain-of-function mutant p53 we used inducible knockdown of endogenous gain-of-function mtp53 in MDA-MB-468 cells in conjunction with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation. We sequenced over 70,000 total peptides for each corresponding reciprocal data set and were able to identify 3010 unique cytoplasmic fraction proteins and 3403 unique chromatin fraction proteins. The present proteomics experiment corroborated our previous experiment-based results that poly ADP-ribose polymerase has a positive association with mutant p53 on the chromatin. Here, for the first time we report that the heterohexomeric minichromosome maintenance complex that participates in DNA replication initiation ranked as a high mutant p53-chromatin associated pathway. Enrichment analysis identified the minichromosome maintenance members 2-7. To validate this mutant p53- poly ADP-ribose polymerase-minichromosome maintenance functional axis, we experimentally depleted R273H mutant p53 and found a large reduction of the amount of minichromosome maintenance complex proteins on the chromatin. Furthermore a mutant p53-minichromosome maintenance 2 direct interaction was detected. Overexpressed mutant p53, but not wild type p53, showed a protein-protein interaction with minichromosome maintenance 2 and minichromosome maintenance 4. To target the mutant p53- poly ADP-ribose polymerase-minichromosome maintenance axis we treated cells with the poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor talazoparib and the alkylating agent temozolomide and detected synergistic activation of apoptosis only in the presence of mutant p53. Furthermore when minichromosome maintenance 2-7 activity was inhibited the synergistic activation of apoptosis was blocked
Liu, Yanli; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Qingfu; Li, Junfang; Ma, Xiaotian; Xing, Jinfang; Rong, Shouhua; Wu, Zhong; Tian, Yuan; Li, Jing; Jia, Liting
Purpose miRNAs are stable and can be extracted from tissues, blood and other body fluid without degradation. miRNAs are abnormally expressed in the presence of a pathological status, including cancer. Therefore, miRNAs are ideal biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) suffer the worst prognosis, although great efforts have been made. Many studies have investigated the role of miRNAs in predicting the outcomes of TNBC patients for better adjustment of treatment. However, results were inconsistent. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the published studies for conclusive results. Methods Eligible studies from different database were retrieved from the online databases, and we used STSTA 12.0 to analysis the prognostic role of miRNAs in triple negative breast cancer. Results Overall high miRNA expression indicated a worse survival with HR value of 1.78 (95% CI: 0.97–3.25). However, subtotal HRs of oncogenic miRNAs and tumor suppressive miRNAs were 2.73 (95% CI: 2.08–3.57; P<0.001) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21–0.90; P = 0.024), respectively, and no heterogeneity was observed within the subgroups. Conclusions The miRNAs showed a slightly stronger prognostic value for disease-free survival, relapse-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival compared to the overall survival of TNBC patients. Circulating miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers for the prognosis of TNBC patients and need further investigation. PMID:28085956
Tiang, Jacky M; Butcher, Neville J; Minchin, Rodney F
Expression of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase I (NAT1) has been associated with various cancer subtypes and inhibition of this enzyme with small molecule inhibitors or siRNA affects cell growth and survival. Here, we have investigated the role of NAT1 in the invasiveness of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. We knocked down NAT1 using a lentivirus-based shRNA approach and observed marked changes in cell morphology in the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, and BT-549. Most notable was a reduction in the number and size of the filopodia protrusions on the surface of the cells. The loss of filopodia could be rescued by the reintroduction of NAT1 into the knockdown cells. NAT1 expression was localized to the lamellipodia and extended into the filopodia protrusions. In vitro invasion through Geltrex was significantly inhibited in both the MDA cell lines but not in the BT-549 cells. The expression of Snail increased when NAT1 was knocked down, while other genes associated with mesenchymal to epithelial transition (vimentin, cytokeratin-18, and Twist) did not show any changes. By contrast, both N-cadherin and β-catenin were significantly reduced. When MDA-MB-231 cells expressing shRNA were injected in vivo into BALB/c nu/nu nude mice, a significant reduction in the number of colonies that formed in the lungs was observed. Taken together, the results show that NAT1 can alter the invasion and metastatic properties of some triple-negative breast cancer cells but not all. The study suggests that NAT1 may be a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers. PMID:25627111
Kwok, C W; Treeck, O; Buchholz, S; Seitz, S; Ortmann, O; Engel, J B
Triple negative breast cancers express receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in more than 50% of the cases, which can be targeted with peptidic analogs of GnRH, such as triptorelin. The current study investigates cytotoxic activity of triptorelin as a monotherapy and in treatment combinations with chemotherapeutic agents and inhibitors of the PI3K and the ERK pathways in in vitro models of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). GnRH receptor expression of TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 was investigated. Cells were treated with triptorelin, chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, docetaxel, AEZS-112), PI3K/AKT inhibitors (perifosine, AEZS-129), an ERK inhibitor (AEZS-134), and dual PI3K/ERK inhibitor AEZS-136 applied as single agent therapies and in combinations. MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 TNBC cells both expressed receptors for GnRH on messenger (m)RNA and protein level and were found sensitive to triptorelin with a respective median effective concentration (EC50) of 31.21 ± 0.21 and 58.50 ± 19.50. Synergistic effects occurred when triptorelin was combined with cisplatin. In HCC1806 cells, synergy occurred when triptorelin was applied with PI3K/AKT inhibitors perifosine and AEZS-129. In MDA-MB-231 cells, synergy was observed after co-treatment with triptorelin and ERK inhibitor AEZS-134 and dual PI3K/ERK inhibitor AEZS-136. GnRH receptors on TNBC cells can be used for targeted therapy of these cancers with GnRH agonist triptorelin. Treatment combinations based on triptorelin and PI3K and ERK inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin have synergistic effects in in vitro models of TNBC. If confirmed in vivo, clinical trials based on triptorelin and cisplatin could be quickly carried out, as triptorelin is FDA approved for other indications and known to be well tolerated.
Chi, Jun-Lin; Li, Yuan; Yang, Lie; Yu, Yong-Yang; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Zong-Guang
The lymph node ratio (LNR) (i.e. the number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by the number of totally resected lymph nodes) has recently emerged as an important prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system for colorectal cancer does not consider it as a prognostic parameter. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of the LNR in node positive CRC. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies up to November 2015. As a result, a total of 75,838 node positive patients in 33 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Higher LNR was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.71–2.14; P = 0.0000) and disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14–3.53; P = 0.0000). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. Based on these results, LNR was an independent predictor of survival in colorectal cancer patients and should be considered as a parameter in future oncologic staging systems. PMID:27662659
Garden, Adam S.; Gunn, Gary B.; Hessel, Amy; Beadle, Beth M.; Ahmed, Salmaan; El-naggar, Adel; Fuller, Clifton D.; Byers, Lauren A.; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J.; Morrison, William H.; Kies, Merill S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Sturgis, Erich M.
Background The goal of this study was to assess the rates of recurrence in the neck for node-positive patients with HPV-associated oropharynx cancer treated with definitive radiation (with or without chemotherapy). Methods This is a single institutional retrospective study. Methodology included database search, and statistical testing including frequency analysis, Kaplan-Meier tests, and comparative tests including chi-square, logistic regression and log-rank. Results The cohort consisted of 401 node-positive patients irradiated between 2006 – June 2012. Three hundred eighty eight patients had CT restaging, and 251 had PET and/or US as a component of their post radiation staging. Eighty patients (20%) underwent neck dissection, and 21 (26%) had a positive specimen. The rate of neck dissection increased with increasing nodal stage, and was lower in patients who had PET scans or ultrasound in addition to CT restaging. The median follow-up was 30 months. The 2-year actuarial neck recurrence rate was 7% and 5% in all patients and those with local control, respectively. Nodal recurrence rates were greater in current smokers (p=.008). There was no difference in nodal recurrences rates in patients who did or did not have a neck dissection (p = .4) Conclusions A treatment strategy of (chemo)radiation with neck dissection performed based on response resulted in high rates of regional disease control in patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:24898672
Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Haus, Erhard; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda; Liu, Yuan; McLendon, Lauren; Busch, Robert; Adams, Amy; Cohen, Cynthia
In the normal rodent breast, the pineal hormone melatonin controls the development of ductal and alveolar tissue. Melatonin counteracts tumor occurrence and tumor cell progression in vivo and in vitro in animal and human breast cancer cell cultures. It acts predominantly through its melatonin MT1 receptor. Our aim was to investigate the presence or absence of the MT1 melatonin receptor in the aggressive triple negative group of human breast carcinoma (TNBC) and its possible relationship to the course of the disease. A total of 167 patients with a ER-, PR-, Her-2/neu- phenotype in which tissue for receptor studies was available were examined. The MT1 receptor immunostain was evaluated semiquantitatively as staining intensity (0, 1, 2, 3), percentage of stained cells and the weighted index (WI) (staining intensity times percentage of stained cells). A score of WI < 60 was regarded as "negative". There was a striking difference in incidence of MT1 positivity and staining intensity between carcinomas in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. The AA showed a higher incidence of MT1 negative tumors (41/84 = 48.8 % in AA, 6/51 = 11.8 % in C) and a lower average WI. MT1 positivity in TNBC was associated with a lower stage and a smaller tumor size at time of diagnosis. In multivariable survival analysis, MT1 negative TNBC in all cases regardless of race showed a significantly higher hazard ratio for disease progression, shorter progression free survival, and disease-related death, and shorter OS. This was especially pronounced in the AA group but did not reach statistical significance in the smaller group of C alone. These results suggest that melatonin or a melatonin receptor agonist may be useful biologic additions in the treatment of some forms of TNBC, especially in AA who generally show a more aggressive course of their disease.
Leconet, Wilhem; Chentouf, Myriam; du Manoir, Stanislas; Chevalier, Clément; Sirvent, Audrey; Aït-Arsa, Imade; Busson, Muriel; Jarlier, Marta; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Theillet, Charles; Chalbos, Dany; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Pèlegrin, André; Larbouret, Christel; Robert, Bruno
Purpose: AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been described as a relevant molecular marker and a key player in invasiveness, especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).Experimental Design: We evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the anti-AXL monoclonal antibody 20G7-D9 in several TNBC cell xenografts or patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and decipher the underlying mechanisms. In a dataset of 254 basal-like breast cancer samples, genes correlated with AXL expression are enriched in EMT, migration, and invasion signaling pathways.Results: Treatment with 20G7-D9 inhibited tumor growth and bone metastasis formation in AXL-positive TNBC cell xenografts or PDX, but not in AXL-negative PDX, highlighting AXL role in cancer growth and invasion. In vitro stimulation of AXL-positive cancer cells by its ligand GAS6 induced the expression of several EMT-associated genes (SNAIL, SLUG, and VIM) through an intracellular signaling implicating the transcription factor FRA-1, important in cell invasion and plasticity, and increased their migration/invasion capacity. 20G7-D9 induced AXL degradation and inhibited all AXL/GAS6-dependent cell signaling implicated in EMT and in cell migration/invasion.Conclusions: The anti-AXL antibody 20G7-D9 represents a promising therapeutic strategy in TNBC with mesenchymal features by inhibiting AXL-dependent EMT, tumor growth, and metastasis formation. Clin Cancer Res; 1-11. ©2016 AACR.
Choi, Yunseon; Park, Sung Kwang; Ahn, Ki Jung; Cho, Heunglae; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Yun-Han
This study aimed to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and progression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients with TNBC who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy between 2007 and 2014. All patients were classified according to BMI (median 23.5 kg/m(2), range 17.2-31.6 kg/m(2)): 31 patients (62%) were classified as being overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2)) and 19 patients (38%) were classified as having a normal body weight (BMI < 23 kg/m(2)). The median follow-up for patients was 31.1 months (range, 6.7-101.9 months). Progression occurred in 7 patients (14%), including 5 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences, 2 regional lymph node metastases, and 5 distant metastases. Progression was significantly correlated with overweight or obese patients (P = 0.035), while none of the normal weight patients showed progression. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 85.0% and 87.7%, respectively. DFS was significantly reduced in overweight or obese patients compared to that in normal weight patients (P = 0.035). However, OS was not significantly compromised by being overweight or obese (P = 0.134). In conclusion, being overweight or obese negatively affects DFS in TNBC patients.
Guerrab, Abderrahim El; Bamdad, Mahchid; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Aubel, Corinne
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and activation of its downstream signaling pathways. Dual targeting of EGFR using one monoclonal antibody (mAb; cetuximab or panitumumab) and one tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI; gefitinib or erlotinib) is a potential therapeutic approach. We investigated the effect of these therapies in EGFR-expressing TNBC cell lines that do or do not harbor the main activating mutations of EGFR pathways. Cell lines were sensitive to EGFR-TKIs, whereas mAbs were active only in MDA-MB-468 (EGFR amplification) and SUM-1315 (KRAS and PTEN wild-type) cells. MDA-MB-231 (KRAS mutated) and HCC-1937 (PTEN deletion) cells were resistant to mAbs. The combined treatment resulted in a synergistic effect on cell proliferation and superior inhibition of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway in mAb-sensitive cells. The anti-proliferative effect was associated with G1 cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. Sensitivity to therapies was characterized by induction of positive regulators and inactivation of negative regulators of cell cycle. These results suggest that dual EGFR inhibition might result in an enhanced antitumor effect in a subgroup of TNBC. The status of EGFR, KRAS and PTEN could be used as a molecular marker for predicting the response to this therapeutic strategy. PMID:27655662
Qian, Jun; Chen, Heidi; Ji, Xiangming; Eisenberg, Rosana; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Massion, Pierre P.
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are aggressive tumors, with high rates of metastatic spread and targeted therapies are critically needed. We aimed to assess the prognostic and predictive value of a 3q 19-gene signature identified previously from lung cancer in a collection of 4,801 breast tumor gene expression data. The 3q gene signature had a strong association with features of aggressiveness such as high grade, hormone receptor negativity, presence of a basal-like or TNBC phenotype and reduced distant metastasis free survival. The 3q gene signature was strongly associated with lung metastasis only in TNBC (P < 0.0001, Hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31–1.60), significantly associated with brain but not bone metastasis regardless of TNBC status. The association of one 3q driver gene FXR1 with distant metastasis in TNBC (P = 0.01) was further validated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the 3q gene signature was associated with better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TNBC (P < 0.0001) but not in non-TNBC patients. Our study suggests that the 3q gene signature is a novel prognostic marker for lung and/or brain metastasis and a predictive marker for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in TNBC, implying a potential role for 3q genes in the mechanism of organ-specific metastasis. PMID:28387221
Comănescu, Maria; Bussolati, Giovanni
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) [negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) and HER2÷neu protein] represent a subtype of breast cancer associated with poor prognosis and highly aggressive behavior. The characterization of stem cell in this type of carcinoma could determine the appearance of new ideas concerning origin and evolution. There is an impressive amount of data in the literature related to TNBC and a growing interest for stem cell research during the past years, but there are no data concerning the genetic characterization of stem cells in the context of cell biology of TNBC as compared with associated DCIS. We performed immunohistochemical studies for the expression and distribution of several stem cell-related antigens, focusing on the association of TNBC with DCIS and comparing the presence of stem cells in the invasive and in the in situ component. Optimization of detection, identification and characterization of tumorigenic breast cancer stem cells might permit further identification of targeted treatment.
Roberts, Lindsay S; Yan, Peter; Bateman, Leslie A; Nomura, Daniel K
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 receptor-negative subtypes of breast cancers that show the worst prognoses and lack targeted therapies. Here, we have coupled the screening of ∼400 anticancer agents that are under development or in the clinic with chemoproteomic and metabolomic profiling to identify novel metabolic mechanisms for agents that impair TNBC pathogenicity. We identify 20 anticancer compounds that significantly impaired cell survival across multiple types of TNBC cells. Among these 20 leads, the phytoestrogenic natural product licochalcone A was of interest, since TNBCs are unresponsive to estrogenic therapies, indicating that licochalcone A was likely acting through another target. Using chemoproteomic profiling approaches, we reveal that licochalcone A impairs TNBC pathogenicity, not through modulating estrogen receptor activity but rather through inhibiting prostaglandin reductase 1, a metabolic enzyme involved in leukotriene B4 inactivation. We also more broadly performed metabolomic profiling to map additional metabolic mechanisms of compounds that impair TNBC pathogenicity. Overlaying lipidomic profiling with drug responses, we find that deubiquitinase inhibitors cause dramatic elevations in acyl carnitine levels, which impair mitochondrial respiration and contribute to TNBC pathogenic impairments. We thus put forth two unique metabolic nodes that are targeted by drugs or drug candidates that impair TNBC pathogenicity. Our results also showcase the utility of coupling drug screens with chemoproteomic and metabolomic profiling to uncover unique metabolic drivers of TNBC pathogenicity.
De Brakeleer, S; De Grève, J; Desmedt, C; Joris, S; Sotiriou, C; Piccart, M; Pauwels, I; Teugels, E
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-20% of all breast cancers (BCs), and conventional chemotherapy is the only effective systemic treatment. Germline BRCA1/2 mutations are found in approximately 15% of TNBC patients. In the past, we have documented pathogenic mutations in BARD1, a BRCA1 interacting protein, in families at high risk for BC. In this study, we have analyzed germline DNA from 61 estrogen receptor negative patients (of which 42 were TNBC) for the presence of mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2 and BARD1 gene. BRCA1/2 mutations were found in 8 out of 42 (19%) TNBC patients, but not in the ER-/HER2+ cohort. We also found four good candidate pathogenic BARD1 mutations in the TNBC cohort, including two protein-truncating mutations (p.Gln564Ter and p.Arg641Ter). Our data suggest that TNBC patients are enriched for pathogenic BARD1 germline mutations as compared to control samples and high BC risk families. Ten of the 42 investigated TNBC patients carry a BRCA pathway mutation (in BRCA1, BRCA2 or BARD1) rendering them susceptible to homologous recombination deficiency. These patients should become eligible for exploring the efficacy of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.
Radovich, Milan; Clare, Susan E; Atale, Rutuja; Pardo, Ivanesa; Hancock, Bradley A; Solzak, Jeffrey P; Kassem, Nawal; Mathieson, Theresa; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Rufenbarger, Connie; Lillemoe, Heather A; Blosser, Rachel J; Choi, Mi Ran; Sauder, Candice A; Doxey, Diane; Henry, Jill E; Hilligoss, Eric E; Sakarya, Onur; Hyland, Fiona C; Hickenbotham, Matthew; Zhu, Jin; Glasscock, Jarret; Badve, Sunil; Ivan, Mircea; Liu, Yunlong; Sledge, George W; Schneider, Bryan P
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a heterogeneous set of tumors defined by an absence of actionable therapeutic targets (ER, PR, and HER-2). Microdissected normal ductal epithelium from healthy volunteers represents a novel comparator to reveal insights into TNBC heterogeneity and to inform drug development. Using RNA-sequencing data from our institution and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) we compared the transcriptomes of 94 TNBCs, 20 microdissected normal breast tissues from healthy volunteers from the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank, and 10 histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumor. Pathway analysis comparing TNBCs to optimized normal controls of microdissected normal epithelium versus classic controls composed of adjacent normal tissue revealed distinct molecular signatures. Differential gene expression of TNBC compared with normal comparators demonstrated important findings for TNBC-specific clinical trials testing targeted agents; lack of over-expression for negative studies and over-expression in studies with drug activity. Next, by comparing each individual TNBC to the set of microdissected normals, we demonstrate that TNBC heterogeneity is attributable to transcriptional chaos, is associated with non-silent DNA mutational load, and explains transcriptional heterogeneity in addition to known molecular subtypes. Finally, chaos analysis identified 146 core genes dysregulated in >90 % of TNBCs revealing an over-expressed central network. In conclusion, use of microdissected normal ductal epithelium from healthy volunteers enables an optimized approach for studying TNBC and uncovers biological heterogeneity mediated by transcriptional chaos.
Orr, Katy; Buckley, Niamh E.; Haddock, Paula; James, Colin; Parent, Jean-Luc; McQuaid, Stephen; Mullan, Paul B.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is defined by the lack of ERα, PR expression and HER2 overexpression and is the breast cancer subtype with the poorest clinical outcomes. Our aim was to identify genes driving TNBC proliferation and/or survival which could represent novel therapeutic targets. We performed microarray profiling of primary TNBCs and generated differential genelists based on clinical outcomes following the chemotherapy regimen FEC (5-Fluorouracil/Epirubicin/Cyclophosphamide -‘good’ outcome no relapse > 3 years; ‘poor’ outcome relapse < 3 years). Elevated expression of thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) was observed in ‘good’ outcome TNBCs. TBXA2R expression was higher specifically in TNBC cell lines and TBXA2R knockdowns consistently showed dramatic cell killing in TNBC cells. TBXA2R mRNA and promoter activities were up-regulated following BRCA1 knockdown, with c-Myc being required for BRCA1-mediated transcriptional repression. We demonstrated that TBXA2R enhanced TNBC cell migration, invasion and activated Rho signalling, phenotypes which could be reversed using Rho-associated Kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. TBXA2R also protected TNBC cells from DNA damage by negatively regulating reactive oxygen species levels. In summary, TBXA2R is a novel breast cancer-associated gene required for the survival and migratory behaviour of a subset of TNBCs and could provide opportunities to develop novel, more effective treatments. PMID:27487152
Fang, Hong; Xie, Jiping; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Ziwei; Wan, Yi; Yao, Yongqiang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded RNAs that bind to the 3’UTR of the mRNAs of target genes. They can target multiple genes and regulate translation or degradation of the mRNA. miRNAs target genes in a tissue-specific manner, and the role of a particular miRNA varies according to tumor origin or even subtype within the same cancer. This study evaluated the effect of miR-21 expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tissues and MDA-MB-468, a cell line derived from TNBC tissues. miR-21 was consistently upregulated in TNBC and MDA-MB-468 cells compared to normal tissues. Inhibition of miR-21 by miR-21 antisense oligonucleotides decreased the proliferation, viability, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-468 cells and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, we confirmed that PTEN was downregulated by miR-21 in MDA-MB-468 cells. The results indicated that PTEN may mediate the oncogenic properties of miR-21 in TNBC. In summary, miR-21 was upregulated in TNBC tissues and cells, and promoted the proliferation and invasion of MDA-MB-468 cells, but negatively regulated the expression of PTEN protein. Inhibition of miR-21 or overexpression of PTEN protein could be promising strategies for the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:28386324
Bevacizumab Addition in Neoadjuvant Treatment Increases the Pathological Complete Response Rates in Patients with HER-2 Negative Breast Cancer Especially Triple Negative Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Binglan; Shi, Changle; Liu, Lei
Background Neoadjuvant therapy is administered to breast cancer patients as an induction process before surgery or radiotherapy to reduce tumor size. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) negative breast cancer lacks effective standard target therapy. Bevacizumab has a controversial role in the treatment of breast cancer and we conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the value of adding bevacizumab in neoadjuvant regimen. Methods Potentially eligible studies were retrieved using PubMed, EMBASE and Medline. Clinical characteristics of patients and statistical data with pathological complete response (pCR) data were collected. Then a meta-analysis model was established to investigate the correlation between administration of bevacizumab in neoadjuvant therapy and pCR rates in HER-2 negative breast cancer. Results Seven eligible studies and 5408 patients were yielded. The pCR rates for “breast” or “breast plus lymph node” were similar. In subgroup analysis, we emphasized on patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In the criterion of “lesions in breast” the pooled ORs was 1.55 [1.29, 1.86], P<0.00001 and regarding to the evaluation criterion of “lesions in breast and lymph nodes”, the pooled ORs was 1.48 [1.23, 1.78], P<0.0001, in favor of bevacizumab administration. Conclusion According to our pooled results, we finally find that bevacizumab addition as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy component, for induction use with limited cycle to improve the pCR rates and patients may avoid long-term adverse event and long-term invalid survival improvement. Especially in subgroup analysis, pCR rates could be improved significantly and physicians could consider bevacizumab with caution. As patients could avoid the adverse event caused by long-term using of bevacizumab, long-term quality of life improvement may be achieved, especially in TNBC. PMID:27579484
Aziz, Sura; Wik, Elisabeth; Davidsen, Benedicte; Aas, Hans; Aas, Turid; Akslen, Lars A.
Presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218), as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996–2009). Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET), nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI), extra-nodal extension (ENE), number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE) and perpendicular (PD-ENE) diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT) diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS) or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS). Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value) in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively). To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer. PMID:28199370
Goenka, Anuj; Morris, Luc G.T.; Rao, Shyam S.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Wong, Richard J.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Ohri, Nisha; Setton, Jeremy; Lok, Benjamin H.; Riaz, Nadeem; Mychalczak, Borys R.; Schoder, Heiko; Ganly, Ian; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Lee, Nancy Y.
Traditionally, patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for node-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (N+ OPSCC) have undergone a planned neck dissection (ND) after treatment. Recently, negative post-treatment positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has been found to have a high negative predictive value for the presence of residual disease in the neck. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of a large, uniform cohort of N+ OPSCC patients achieving a PET/CT-based complete response (CR) after chemoradiotherapy, and undergoing observation, rather than ND. From 2002 to 2009, 302 patients with N+ OPSCC treated with 70 Gy intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy underwent post-treatment clinical assessment including PET/CT. CR was defined as no evidence of disease on clinical examination and post-treatment PET/CT. ND was reserved for patients with
Roll, J Devon; Rivenbark, Ashley G; Sandhu, Rupninder; Parker, Joel S; Jones, Wendell D; Carey, Lisa A; Livasy, Chad A; Coleman, William B
A subset of human breast cancer cell lines exhibits aberrant DNA hypermethylation that is characterized by hyperactivity of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes, overexpression of DNMT3b, and concurrent methylation-dependent silencing of numerous epigenetic biomarker genes. The objective of this study was to determine if this aberrant DNA hypermethylation (i) is found in primary breast cancers, (ii) is associated with specific breast cancer molecular subtypes, and (iii) influences patient outcomes. Analysis of epigenetic biomarker genes (CDH1, CEACAM6, CST6, ESR1, GNA11, MUC1, MYB, SCNN1A, and TFF3) identified a gene expression signature characterized by reduced expression levels or loss of expression among a cohort of primary breast cancers. The breast cancers that express this gene expression signature are enriched for triple-negative subtypes - basal-like and claudin-low breast cancers. Methylation analysis of primary breast cancers showed extensive promoter hypermethylation of epigenetic biomarker genes among triple-negative breast cancers, compared to other breast cancer subclasses where promoter hypermethylation events were less frequent. Furthermore, triple-negative breast cancers either did not express or expressed significantly reduced levels of protein corresponding to methylation-sensitive biomarker gene products. Together, these findings suggest strongly that loss of epigenetic biomarker gene expression is frequently associated with gene promoter hypermethylation events. We propose that aberrant DNA hypermethylation is a common characteristic of triple-negative breast cancers and may represent a fundamental biological property of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancers. Kaplan-Meier analysis of relapse-free survival revealed a survival disadvantage for patients with breast cancers that exhibit aberrant DNA hypermethylation. Identification of this distinguishing trait among triple-negative breast cancers forms the basis for development of new rational
Sable, Mukund; Pai, Trupti D; Shet, Tanuja; Patil, Asawari; Dhanavade, Sandeep; Desai, Sangeeta B
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are characterized by negative expression for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. Although the majority of basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) diagnosed based on gene expression profiling belong to the TNBC group, both entities are not synonymous. Core BLBCs are TNBCs, which are positive for basal cytokeratin (CK) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We aimed to study and correlate a TNBC cohort for various histomorphological features and immunohistochemical (IHC) profile in Indian patients. We studied 205 naïve TNBCs for histopathological features, which were further evaluated for basal CKs-namely, CK5/6, CK14, CK17-and EGFR expression to classify them as core BLBCs, using criteria of any basal CK and/or EGFR positivity and 7-negative phenotype (7NP). Among 205 TNBCs, 91% of cases were core BLBCs, and absence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was significantly associated (P = .014) with core BLBC. Geographic necrosis was correlated with expression of CK17 (P = .002) and EGFR (P = .038). A ribbon-like trabecular pattern and absence of DCIS were associated with CK17 (P = .0002 and P = .043, respectively) and CK14 (P = .04 and P = .0008, respectively). TNBC is a heterogeneous subgroup with adverse clinicopathological features, and many of them show significant correlation with basal CKs. TNBCs cannot be classified as core BLBC or 7NP based on morphological features, except absence of DCIS. However, this study illustrates the heterogeneity in TNBCs on the basis of IHC markers.
Xie, Hui; Xia, Kai; Rong, Hui; Chen, Xiaoxiang
8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG), a typical product of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, can cause a G-T transversion during DNA replication if it is not removed. Human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), a key DNA repair gene, recognizes and excises 8-OHdG from damaged DNA accurately; however, a c.977C>G (Ser326Cys) polymorphism in hOGG1 can inhibit the gene's ability to remove 8-OHdG. The aim of present study was to investigate the association between the c.977C>G polymorphism in hOGG1 and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese Han women. We used high-resolution melting and sequencing to analyze the genotypes of 630 patients with sporadic breast cancer patients and 777 healthy controls. We also performed risk-stratified subgroup analyses to determine the association between the c.977C>G polymorphism and other characteristics of breast cancer subgroups. Breast cancer patients and healthy controls did not have significantly different of c.977C/G genotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.49, p = 0.57) and c.977G/G genotypes (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.97-1.84, p = 0.09). However, the c.977G/G genotype was especially prevalent in breast cancer patients who were younger than 55 years (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.05-2.39, p = 0.04), were premenopausal status (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.14-3.06, p = 0.02), had triple-negative disease (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.06-4.29, p = 0.04), or p53-positive disease (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.14-2.12, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that the c.977C>G polymorphism in hOGG1 is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Chinese Han women who are younger than 55 years, premenopausal, triple-negative, or p53-positive subgroups.
Feng, Bing; Xu, Zhiai; Zhou, Fangyuan; Yu, Haijun; Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Dangge; Tang, Zhaohui; Yu, Haiyang; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping
Despite considerable progress being made in breast cancer therapy, the complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. We herein report on the fabrication of novel gold nanorods (GNRs) with covalent cisplatin-polypeptide wrapping and folic acid (FA) conjugation (FA-GNR@Pt) for the targeted photothermal (PT) therapy and chemotherapy of TNBC. The FA-GNR@Pt hybrid nanoparticles are designed to integrate the photothermal conversion property of GNRs, the superior biocompatibility of polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (PGA), the chemotoxicity of cisplatin, and the tumor targeting ability of FA into one single nanoplatform. In combination with localized near infrared (NIR) laser illumination, the resulting FA-GNR@Pt hybrid nanoparticles are able to significantly inhibit the growth of the TNBC tumor when administered systemically. In particular, they can extensively suppress the dissemination of TNBC cells from the primary tumor to the lung by eliminating the peripheral tumor blood vessels. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the combined PT therapy and chemotherapy using cisplatin-loaded GNRs with FA conjugation might imply a promising strategy for targeted treatment of TNBC.Despite considerable progress being made in breast cancer therapy, the complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. We herein report on the fabrication of novel gold nanorods (GNRs) with covalent cisplatin-polypeptide wrapping and folic acid (FA) conjugation (FA-GNR@Pt) for the targeted photothermal (PT) therapy and chemotherapy of TNBC. The FA-GNR@Pt hybrid nanoparticles are designed to integrate the photothermal conversion property of GNRs, the superior biocompatibility of polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (PGA), the chemotoxicity of cisplatin, and the tumor targeting ability of FA into one single nanoplatform. In combination with localized near infrared (NIR
Qiu, Wei-Gang; Polotskaia, Alla; Xiao, Gu; Di, Lia; Zhao, Yuhan; Hu, Wenwei; Philip, John; Hendrickson, Ronald C.; Bargonetti, Jill
Over 80% of triple negative breast cancers express mutant p53. Mutant p53 often gains oncogenic function suggesting that triple negative breast cancers may be driven by p53 protein type. To determine the chromatin targets of this gain-of-function mutant p53 we used inducible knockdown of endogenous gain-of-function mtp53 in MDA-MB-468 cells in conjunction with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation. We sequenced over 70,000 total peptides for each corresponding reciprocal data set and were able to identify 3010 unique cytoplasmic fraction proteins and 3403 unique chromatin fraction proteins. The present proteomics experiment corroborated our previous experiment-based results that poly ADP-ribose polymerase has a positive association with mutant p53 on the chromatin. Here, for the first time we report that the heterohexomeric minichromosome maintenance complex that participates in DNA replication initiation ranked as a high mutant p53-chromatin associated pathway. Enrichment analysis identified the minichromosome maintenance members 2–7. To validate this mutant p53- poly ADP-ribose polymerase-minichromosome maintenance functional axis, we experimentally depleted R273H mutant p53 and found a large reduction of the amount of minichromosome maintenance complex proteins on the chromatin. Furthermore a mutant p53-minichromosome maintenance 2 direct interaction was detected. Overexpressed mutant p53, but not wild type p53, showed a protein-protein interaction with minichromosome maintenance 2 and minichromosome maintenance 4. To target the mutant p53- poly ADP-ribose polymerase-minichromosome maintenance axis we treated cells with the poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor talazoparib and the alkylating agent temozolomide and detected synergistic activation of apoptosis only in the presence of mutant p53. Furthermore when minichromosome maintenance 2–7 activity was inhibited the synergistic activation of apoptosis was
Noman, A S; Uddin, M; Rahman, M Z; Nayeem, M J; Alam, S S; Khatun, Z; Wahiduzzaman, M; Sultana, A; Rahman, M L; Ali, M Y; Barua, D; Ahmed, I; Islam, M S; Aboussekhra, A; Yeger, H; Farhat, W A; Islam, S S
Dysregulation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been documented in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BC) progression. Despite the remarkable progress in therapeutic interventions, BC related mortality in Bangladesh increased in the last decade. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) still presents a critical therapeutic challenge. Thus effective targeted therapy is urgently needed. In this study, we report the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of BC patients from Bangladesh. Routine immunohistochemical analysis and high throughput RNA-Seq data from the TCGA library were used to analyze the expression pattern and association of high and low level of Shh expression in a collection of BC patients with a long-term follow-up. High levels of Shh were observed in a subset of BC tumors with poor prognostic pathological features. Higher level of Shh expression correlated with a significantly poorer overall survival of patients compared with patients whose tumors expressed a low level of Shh. These data support the contention that Shh could be a novel biomarker for breast cancer that is involved in mediating the aggressive phenotype of BC. We propose that BC patients exhibiting a higher level of Shh expression, representing a subset of BC patients, would be amenable to Shh targeted therapy.
D'Avino, Chiara; Palmieri, Dario; Braddom, Ashley; Zanesi, Nicola; James, Cindy; Cole, Sara; Salvatore, Francesco; Croce, Carlo M.; De Lorenzo, Claudia
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. A new promising anti-cancer therapy involves the use of monoclonal antibodies specific for target tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). A TAA of interest for immunotherapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is nucleolin (NCL), a multifunctional protein, selectively expressed on the surface of cancer cells, which regulates the biogenesis of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in tumor development and drug-resistance. We previously isolated a novel human anti-NCL scFv, called 4LB5, that is endowed with selective anti-tumor effects. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel immunoRNase constituted by 4LB5 and a human pancreatic RNase (HP-RNase) called “4LB5-HP-RNase”. This immunoRNase retains both the enzymatic activity of human pancreatic RNase and the specific binding of the parental scFv to a panel of surface NCL-positive breast cancer cells. Notably, 4LB5-HP-RNase dramatically and selectively reduced the viability and proliferation of NCL-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, it induced apoptosis and reduced the levels of the tumorigenic miRNAs miR-21, -221 and -222. Thus, this novel immunoagent could be a valuable tool for the treatment of TNBC patients ineligible for currently available targeted treatments. PMID:27894092
Pascual-Vargas, Patricia; Cooper, Samuel; Sero, Julia; Bousgouni, Vicky; Arias-Garcia, Mar; Bakal, Chris
In order to metastasise, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) must make dynamic changes in cell shape. The shape of all eukaryotic cells is regulated by Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (RhoGEFs), which activate Rho-family GTPases in response to mechanical and informational cues. In contrast, Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) inhibit Rho GTPases. However, which RhoGEFs and RhoGAPS couple TNBC cell shape to changes in their environment is very poorly understood. Moreover, whether the activity of particular RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs become dysregulated as cells evolve the ability to metastasise is not clear. Towards the ultimate goal of identifying RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs that are essential for TNBC metastasis, we performed an RNAi screen to isolate RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs that contribute to the morphogenesis of the highly metastatic TNBC cell line LM2, and its less-metastatic parental cell line MDA-MB-231. For ~6 million cells from each cell line, we measured 127 different features following the depletion of 142 genes. Using a linear classifier scheme we also describe the morphological heterogeneity of each gene-depleted population. PMID:28248929
Bao, Bin; Mitrea, Cristina; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Marchetti, Luca; Girsch, Emily; Farr, Rebecca L.; Boerner, Julie L; Mohammad, Ramzi; Dyson, Greg; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia
Among breast cancer patients, those diagnosed with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype have the worst prog-nosis. TNBC does not express estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, or the HER2 oncogene; therefore, TNBC lacks targets for molecularly-guided therapies. The concept that EGFR oncogene inhibitor drugs could be used as targeted treatment against TNBC has been put forth based on estimates that 30–60% of TNBC express high levels of EGFR. However, results from clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, did not improve patient outcomes. Results herein offer an explanation as to why EGFR inhibitors failed TNBC patients and support how combining a select antioxidant and an EGFR-specific small molecule kinase inhibitor (SMKI) could be an effective, novel therapeutic strategy. Treatment with CAT-SKL—a re-engineered protein form of the antioxidant enzyme catalase—inhibited cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and treatment with the EGFR-specific SMKI erlotinib inhibited non-CSCs. Thus, combining the antioxidant CAT-SKL with erlotinib targeted both CSCs and bulk cancer cells in cultures of EGFR-expressing TNBC-derived cells. We also report evidence that the mechanism for CAT-SKL inhibition of CSCs may depend on antioxidant-induced downregulation of a short alternative mRNA splicing variant of the methyl-CpG binding domain 2 gene, isoform MBD2c. PMID:28281569
Wang, Xiong; Peng, Jing; Zhu, Yao-wu; Shen, Na
Background The clinical validity of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is still controversial in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Embase databases through September 2015. The outcomes of interest were disease progression and overall survival. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were considered the effect indicators and were pooled in meta-analyses under a fixed- or random-effect model according to heterogeneity. Results Ten of the eligible studies were included for a total of 642 enrolled TNBC patients. Overall analyses revealed that the presence of CTCs predicted aggressive disease progression (HR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.59-2.99, Pheterogeneity = 0.010, I2 = 52.2%) and reduced overall survival (HR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.59-2.57, Pheterogeneity = 0.169, I2 = 26.6%). Further subgroup analyses demonstrated that CTC-positive patients also had poor disease progression and overall survival in different subsets, including cancer stage. Conclusion Our meta-analysis provides strong evidence that detection of CTC in the peripheral blood is an independent prognosticator of poor survival outcomes for TNBC patients. PMID:27008698
Trošt, Nuša; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Koirala, Sajjan; Stojan, Jurij; Potts, Patrick Ryan; Tacer, Klementina Fon; Martinez, Elisabeth D.
Over the last decade, breast cancer mortality has declined. However, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenging problem mostly due to early recurrence and lack of molecularly driven treatments. There is a critical need to identify subgroups of TNBC with common molecular features that can be therapeutically targeted. Here we show that in contrast to Klotho and βKlotho, the third member of the Klotho protein family, γKlotho, is overexpressed in more than 60% of TNBCs and correlates with poorer disease progression. Furthermore, we find that γKlotho is expressed in a subset of TNBC cell lines promoting cell growth. Importantly, we demonstrate that in these cells γKlotho is necessary for cell survival and that its depletion leads to constitutive ERK activation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, we observe increased oxidative stress in γKlotho-depleted cells suggesting that γKlotho enables cancer cells to cope with an oxidative environment and that cells become dependent on its expression to maintain this survival advantage. These findings indicate that γKlotho might be a potential marker for patients that would benefit from treatments that alter oxidative stress and constitutes a novel drug target for a subset of TN breast cancers. PMID:26556877
Nair, Rakesh Sathish; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Jose, Jedy; Somasundaram, Veena; Hemalatha, Sreelatha K.; Sengodan, Satheesh Kumar; Nadhan, Revathy; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu V.; Srinivas, Priya
We have earlier shown that Plumbagin (PB) can induce selective cytotoxicity to BRCA1 defective ovarian cancer cells; however, the effect of this molecule in BRCA1 mutated breast cancers has not been analyzed yet. Here, we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PB resulted in DNA DSB and activates downstream signaling by ATR/ATM kinases and subsequent apoptosis. PB reduces DNA- dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) expression and inhibits NHEJ (Non Homologous End Joining) activity in BRCA1 defective breast cancer cells. Also, PB induces apoptosis in two different BRCA1 conditional knock out murine models: MMTV-Cre; BRCA1Co/Co and WAP-Cre; BRCA1Co/Co, at 2 mg/kg body weight, but 32 mg/kg of carboplatin (CN) was needed to induce apoptosis in them. This is the first study where two different tissue specific promoter driven transgenic mice models with BRCA1 exon 11 deletions are used for preclinical drug testing. The apoptosis induced by PB in HR (Homologous Recombination) defective triple negative BRCA1 mutant cell lines and in mouse models occur by inducing ROS mediated DNA DSB. The toxicity profile as compared with CN in transgenic mice provides evidence for PB’s safer disposition as a therapeutic lead in breast cancer drug development. PMID:27220670
Nair, Rakesh Sathish; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Jose, Jedy; Somasundaram, Veena; Hemalatha, Sreelatha K; Sengodan, Satheesh Kumar; Nadhan, Revathy; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu V; Srinivas, Priya
We have earlier shown that Plumbagin (PB) can induce selective cytotoxicity to BRCA1 defective ovarian cancer cells; however, the effect of this molecule in BRCA1 mutated breast cancers has not been analyzed yet. Here, we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PB resulted in DNA DSB and activates downstream signaling by ATR/ATM kinases and subsequent apoptosis. PB reduces DNA- dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) expression and inhibits NHEJ (Non Homologous End Joining) activity in BRCA1 defective breast cancer cells. Also, PB induces apoptosis in two different BRCA1 conditional knock out murine models: MMTV-Cre; BRCA1(Co/Co) and WAP-Cre; BRCA1(Co/Co), at 2 mg/kg body weight, but 32 mg/kg of carboplatin (CN) was needed to induce apoptosis in them. This is the first study where two different tissue specific promoter driven transgenic mice models with BRCA1 exon 11 deletions are used for preclinical drug testing. The apoptosis induced by PB in HR (Homologous Recombination) defective triple negative BRCA1 mutant cell lines and in mouse models occur by inducing ROS mediated DNA DSB. The toxicity profile as compared with CN in transgenic mice provides evidence for PB's safer disposition as a therapeutic lead in breast cancer drug development.
Ponente, Manfredi; Campanini, Letizia; Cuttano, Roberto; Piunti, Andrea; Delledonne, Giacomo A.; Coltella, Nadia; Valsecchi, Roberta; Villa, Alessandra
Elucidating the molecular basis of tumor metastasis is pivotal for eradicating cancer-related mortality. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) encompasses a class of aggressive tumors characterized by high rates of recurrence and metastasis, as well as poor overall survival. Here, we find that the promyelocytic leukemia protein PML exerts a prometastatic function in TNBC that can be targeted by arsenic trioxide. We found that, in TNBC patients, constitutive HIF1A activity induces high expression of PML, along with a number of HIF1A target genes that promote metastasis at multiple levels. Intriguingly, PML controls the expression of these genes by binding to their regulatory regions along with HIF1A. This mechanism is specific to TNBC cells and does not occur in other subtypes of breast cancer where PML and prometastatic HIF1A target genes are underexpressed. As a consequence, PML promotes cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in TNBC cell and mouse models. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PML with arsenic trioxide, a PML-degrading agent used to treat promyelocytic leukemia patients, delays tumor growth, impairs TNBC metastasis, and cooperates with chemotherapy by preventing metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, we report identification of a prometastatic pathway in TNBC and suggest clinical development toward the use of arsenic trioxide for TNBC patients. PMID:28239645
Bhargava-Shah, Aarohi; Foygel, Kira; Devulapally, Rammohan; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy
Background: This study explores the use of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) as delivery system to improve the antitumor effect of antiobesity drug orlistat for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) therapy by improving its bioavailability. Materials & methods: PLGA-PEG-NPs were synthesized by emulsion-diffusion-evaporation method, and the experiments were conducted in vitro in MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 TNBC and normal breast fibroblast cells. Results: Delivery of orlistat via PLGA-PEG-NPs reduced its IC50 compared with free orlistat. Combined treatment of orlistat-loaded NPs and doxorubicin or antisense-miR-21-loaded NPs significantly enhanced apoptotic effect compared with independent doxorubicin, anti-miR-21-loaded NPs, orlistat-loaded NPs or free orlistat treatments. Conclusion: We demonstrate that orlistat in combination with antisense-miR-21 or current chemotherapy holds great promise as a novel and versatile treatment agent for TNBC. PMID:26787319
Chen, Lian; Cui, Hengmin; Fang, Jing; Deng, Huidan; Kuang, Ping; Guo, Hongrui; Wang, Xun; Zhao, Ling
Glutamine provides cancer cells with the energy required to synthesize macromolecules. Methods which block glutamine metabolism in treatment of breast cancer inhibit oncogenic transformation and tumor growth. We investigated whether inhibiting glutamine metabolism produces effects that are synergistic with those produced by drugs which damage DNA in triple-negative breast cancer cells. HCC1937 and BT-549 breast cancer cells were co-treated with either cisplatin or etoposide in combination with BPTES (a specific inhibitor of glutaminase 1) or exposure to a glutamine-free medium, and the cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, immunoblotting studies, and CCK-8 assays. The results showed that both glutamine deprivation and BPTES pretreatments increased the toxic effects of cisplatin and etoposide on HCC1937 cells, as demonstrated by their reduced proliferation, increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 9, and cleaved-caspase 3) and decreased Bcl-2/BAX ratio. However, in BT-549 cells, glutamine deprivation and BPTES treatment increased etoposide-induced apoptosis only when used with higher concentrations of etoposide, and the effect on cisplatin-induced apoptosis was minimal. These results suggest that the anti-cancer effects produced by a combined approach of inhibiting glutamine metabolism and administering common chemotherapeutic agents correlate with the tumor cell type and specific drugs being administered. PMID:27419628
Yang, L; Feng, Y; Qi, P; Xu, S; Zhou, Y
The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of miR-21 in familial and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) by exploring the expression of serum miR-21. The sera were collected from healthy women at high risk of breast cancer. miR-39 was employed as the external reference, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of serum miR-21 in 77 subjects. The miR-21 expression of the familial breast cancer group, TNBC group, and breast cancer high risk group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group and other breast cancer groups (P less than 0.01). A high serum miR-21 expression level was associated with lymph node metastasis and Ki67 expression (P less than 0.01). Serum miR-21 was closely associated with TNBC and familial breast cancer, and its expression was associated with genetic expression, degree of malignancy, and prognosis.
Amoury, Manal; Bauerschlag, Dirk; Zeppernick, Felix; von Felbert, Verena; Berges, Nina; Di Fiore, Stefano; Mintert, Isabell; Bleilevens, Andreas; Maass, Nicolai; Bräutigam, Karen; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Stickeler, Elmar; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Hussain, Ahmad Fawzi
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease in which the tumors do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Classical receptor-targeted therapies such as tamoxifen or trastuzumab are therefore unsuitable and combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are required. Photoimmunotheranostics is a minimally invasive approach in which antibodies deliver nontoxic photosensitizers that emit light to facilitate diagnosis and produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in cancer cells. We developed a panel of photoimmunotheranostic agents against three TNBC-associated cell surface antigens. Antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were conjugated to the highly potent near-infrared imaging agent/photosensitizer IRDye®700DX phthalocyanine using SNAP-tag technology achieving clear imaging in both breast cancer cell lines and human biopsies and highly potent phototherapeutic activity with IC50values of 62-165 nM against five different cell lines expressing different levels of EGFR, EpCAM and CSPG4. A combination of all three reagents increased the therapeutic activity against TNBC cells by up to 40%.
Zeppernick, Felix; von Felbert, Verena; Berges, Nina; Di Fiore, Stefano; Mintert, Isabell; Bleilevens, Andreas; Maass, Nicolai; Bräutigam, Karen; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Stickeler, Elmar
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease in which the tumors do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Classical receptor-targeted therapies such as tamoxifen or trastuzumab are therefore unsuitable and combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are required. Photoimmunotheranostics is a minimally invasive approach in which antibodies deliver nontoxic photosensitizers that emit light to facilitate diagnosis and produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species to induce apoptosis and/or necrosis in cancer cells. We developed a panel of photoimmunotheranostic agents against three TNBC-associated cell surface antigens. Antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were conjugated to the highly potent near-infrared imaging agent/photosensitizer IRDye®700DX phthalocyanine using SNAP-tag technology achieving clear imaging in both breast cancer cell lines and human biopsies and highly potent phototherapeutic activity with IC50values of 62–165 nM against five different cell lines expressing different levels of EGFR, EpCAM and CSPG4. A combination of all three reagents increased the therapeutic activity against TNBC cells by up to 40%. PMID:27448975
Newman, Lisa A; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Morrow, Monica; Carey, Lisa A; King, Tari A
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an operational term that refers to a heterogeneous collection of breast cancers lacking expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and HER2. These tumors account for 12-17 % of all breast cancers, preferentially affect young women, are more frequent in women of African and Hispanic descent, and are enriched in the population of patients diagnosed with "interval cancers." TNBCs account for the majority of breast cancers arising in BRCA1 germline mutation carriers (approximately 80%), and approximately 11-16% of all TNBCs harbor BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutations. Well-known risk factors for ER-positive cancers, such as reproductive history and hormonal factors, do not appear to have the same correlations for TNBC, and histologic risk factors for TNBC have not been identified. Patients with TNBC have a higher risk of both local and distant recurrence, but this is not mitigated by bigger surgery, and standard criteria should be used to select the approach to local therapy in these patients. Although platinum drugs have shown promise in the treatment of TNBC, standard chemotherapy remains the standard of care outside of a clinical trial.
Yang, Cheng-Chieh; LaBaff, Adam; Wei, Yongkun; Nie, Lei; Xia, Weiya; Huo, Longfei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Jennifer L; Liu, Dongping; Lang, Jingyu; Du, Yi; Lien, Huang-Chun; Li, Long-Yuan; Deng, Rong; Chan, Li-Chuan; Yao, Jun; Kleer, Celina G; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hung, Mien-Chie
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is closely related to basal-like breast cancer, is a highly aggressive subtype of breast cancer that initially responds to chemotherapy but eventually develops resistance. This presents a major clinical challenge as there are currently no effective targeted therapies available due to its lack of HER2 and estrogen receptor expression. Here, we show that cyclin E and the enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) are closely co-expressed in TNBC patients, and cyclin E/CDK2 phosphorylates EZH2 at T416 (pT416-EZH2) in vivo. Phosphorylation of EZH2 at T416 enhances the ability of EZH2 to promote TNBC cell migration/invasion, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo tumor growth. In addition, high pT416-EZH2 correlates with poorer survival in TNBC patients. These findings suggest that pT416 has the potential to serve as a therapeutic biomarker for the aggressive forms of breast cancer and provide a rationale for the use of CDK2 inhibitors to treat TNBC. PMID:26279746
Xu, Liping; Yin, Shuping; Reddy, Kaladhar B
Women with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a worse prognosis compared with other breast cancer subtypes. Hormonal or Herceptin-based therapies were found to be ineffective because of the loss of target receptors such as ER, PR and HER-2 amplification. Conventional chemo- and/ or radiation therapy also seems to have limited efficacy in TNBC patients. We studied the effects of cisplatin plus TRAIL on one normal and two TNBC cells in vitro. The in vitro studies indicate that cisplatin plus TRAIL significantly enhanced cell death in TNBC cell lines CRL2335 and MDA-MB-468 by ~60–70% compared to ~ 10–15% in CRL8799 normal breast cell line. Treatment with cisplatin/TRAIL also inhibited the expression of EGFR, p63, survivin, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in TNBC cells. Specific inhibition of EGFR and/or p63 protein in TNBC cells by siRNA does not increase TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, inhibition of survivin by siRNA enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These observations suggested the possibility that Survivin played an important role in cisplatin plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. In vivo experiments, treatment of mice with cisplatin plus TRAIL resulted in a significant inhibition of CRL2335 xenograft tumors compared to untreated control tumors. Taken together the data suggests that cisplatin plus TRAIL treatment have the potential of providing a new strategy for improving the therapeutic outcome in TNBC patients. PMID:21252285
Bansal, Nidhi; Pereira, Lutecia; Cubedo, Elena; Yu, Jianshi; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W.; Fishel, Melissa; Kane, Maureen; Zelent, Arthur; Waxman, Samuel; Farias, Eduardo
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) frequently relapses locally, regionally or as systemic metastases. Development of targeted therapy that offers significant survival benefit in TNBC is an unmet clinical need. We have previously reported that blocking interactions between PAH2 domain of chromatin regulator Sin3A and the Sin3 interaction domain (SID) containing proteins by SID decoys result in EMT reversal, and re-expression of genes associated with differentiation. Here we report a novel and therapeutically relevant combinatorial use of SID decoys. SID decoys activate RARα/β pathways that are enhanced in combination with RARα-selective agonist AM80 to induce morphogenesis and inhibit tumorsphere formation. These findings correlate with inhibition of mammary hyperplasia and a significant increase in tumor-free survival in MMTV-Myc oncomice treated with a small molecule mimetic of SID (C16). Further, in two well-established mouse TNBC models we show that treatment with C16-AM80 combination has marked anti-tumor effects, prevents lung metastases and seeding of tumor cells to bone marrow. This correlated to a remarkable 100% increase in disease-free survival with a possibility of “cure” in mice bearing a TNBC-like tumor. Targeting Sin3A by C16 alone or in combination with AM80 may thus be a promising adjuvant therapy for treating or preventing metastatic TNBC. PMID:27286261
Hatem, Rana; Botty, Rania El; Chateau-Joubert, Sophie; Servely, Jean-Luc; Labiod, Dalila; de Plater, Ludmilla; Assayag, Franck; Coussy, Florence; Callens, Céline; Vacher, Sophie; Reyal, Fabien; Cosulich, Sabina; Diéras, Véronique
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by frequent alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In this study, we analyzed PI3K pathway activation in 67 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of breast cancer and investigated the anti-tumor activity of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in 15 TNBC PDX with different expression and mutational status of PI3K pathway markers. Expression of the tumor suppressors PTEN and INPP4B was lost in 55% and 76% of TNBC PDX, respectively, while mutations in PIK3CA and AKT1 genes were rare. In 7 PDX treatment with everolimus resulted in a tumor growth inhibition higher than 50%, while 8 models were classified as low responder or resistant. Basal-like, LAR (Luminal AR), mesenchymal and HER2-enriched tumors were present in both responder and resistant groups, suggesting that tumor response to everolimus is not restricted to a specific TNBC subtype. Analysis of treated tumors showed a correlation between tumor response and post-treatment phosphorylation of AKT, increased in responder PDX, while PI3K pathway markers at baseline were not sufficient to predict everolimus response. In conclusion, targeting mTOR decreased tumor growth in 7 out of 15 TNBC PDX tested. Response to everolimus occurred in different TNBC subtypes and was associated with post-treatment increase of P-AKT. PMID:27374081
Xu, Jie; Wu, Xing; Zhou, Wei-hua; Liu, An-wen; Wu, Jian-bing; Deng, Jin-yun; Yue, Cai-feng; Yang, Shao-bing; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhong-yu; Liu, Quentin
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) acquires an unfavorable prognosis, emerging as a major challenge for the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, 122 TNBC patients were subjected to analysis of Aurora-A (Aur-A) expression and survival prognosis. We found that Aur-A high expression was positively associated with initial clinical stage (P = 0.025), the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P = 0.001), and the recurrence rate of TNBC patients (P<0.001). In TNBC patients with Aur-A high expression, the risk of distant recurrence peaked at the first 3 years and declined rapidly thereafter, whereas patients with Aur-A low expression showed a relatively constant risk of recurrence during the entire follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that overexpression of Aur-A predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.002) and progression-free survival (P = 0.012) in TNBC. Furthermore, overexpression of Aur-A, associated with high Ki-67, predicted an inferior prognosis compared with low expression of both Aur-A and Ki-67. Importantly, we further found that Aur-A was overexpressed in TNBC cells, and inhibition of this kinase inhibited cell proliferation and prevented cell migration in TNBC. Our findings demonstrated that Aur-A was a potential therapeutic target for TNBC and inhibition of Aur-A kinase was a promising regimen for TNBC cancer therapy.
Camarda, Roman; Zhou, Zhou; Kohnz, Rebecca A.; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Mahieu, Celine; Anderton, Brittany; Eyob, Henok; Kajimura, Shingo; Tward, Aaron; Krings, Gregor; Nomura, Daniel K.; Goga, Andrei
Expression of the oncogenic transcription factor MYC is disproportionately elevated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor-positive (RP) breast tumors1,2. We and others have shown that MYC alters metabolism during tumorigenesis3,4. However, the role of MYC in TNBC metabolism remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that MYC-dependent metabolic dysregulation is essential for MYC-overexpressing (MO) TNBC and may thus identify novel therapeutic targets for this clinically challenging subset of breast cancer. Using a targeted metabolomics approach, we identified fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates as being dramatically upregulated in a MYC-driven model of TNBC. A lipid metabolism gene signature was identified in patients with TNBC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and multiple other clinical datasets, implicating FAO as a dysregulated pathway critical for TNBC metabolism. We find that MO-TNBC displays increased bioenergetic reliance upon fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and that pharmacologic inhibition of FAO catastrophically decreases energy metabolism of MO-TNBC, blocks growth of a MYC-driven transgenic TNBC model and that of MO-TNBC patient-derived xenografts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of FAO is a novel therapeutic strategy against MO-TNBC. PMID:26950360
Thummuri, Dinesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Shrivastava, Shweta; Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Yamjala, Samyuktha; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Naidu, V G M; Kumar, Ashutosh; Sistla, Ramakrishna
The present study was aimed to evaluvate the apoptogenic potential of ethanolic extract of leaves from Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BL EthOH) and to unravel the molecular mechanisms implicated in apoptosis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells. BL EthOH was cytotoxic against TNBC cells like MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 with IC₅₀ concentrations 67.48 ± 5.45 and 70.03 ± 4.76 μg/ml, respectively. Apoptotic studies showed that BL EthOH was able to induce apoptosis and western blot studies demonstrated that BL EthOH significantly decreased the Phospho-NF-κB (ser536), PCNA, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines when compared with untreated cells. Besides, BL EthOH has synergistic chemosensitizing effects on TNBC cells and increased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and cisplatin.
Huang, Yan-Ni; Liu, Yi-Rong; Hu, Xin; Song, Chuan-Gui; Shao, Zhi-Ming
MicroRNA-454 (miR-454) has been reported to play an oncogenic or tumor suppressor role in most cancers. However, the clinical relevance of miR-454 in breast cancer remains unclear. We examined the expression of miR-454 in a tissue microarray containing 534 breast cancer specimens from female patients at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center using in situ hybridization (ISH). Of these, 250 patients formed the training set and the other 284 were the validation set. The relationship between miR-454 and clinical outcome was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. High expression of miR-454 indicated worse disease-free survival (DFS) in both cohorts (P = 0.006 for training set; P = 0.010 for validation set). Furthermore, in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, miR-454 was positively correlated with worse clinical outcome (P = 0.013 for training set, P = 0.014 for validation set). In addition, patients in the low miR-454 expression cohort had better response to anthracycline compared to non-anthracycline chemotherapy (P = 0.056), but this difference was not observed in the high miR-454 expression cohort. Our findings indicated that miR-454 is a potential predictor of prognosis and chemotherapy response in TNBC. PMID:27588500
Kang, Weiling; Chen, Yijian
A hybrid self-aligned triple and negative-tone double patterning (HTDP) technique is proposed to achieve improved resolution and quasi-2D IC design flexibility at lower cost. Critical challenges of HTDP process and its key design issues such as overlay, layout decomposition and synthesis are investigated, and possible design solutions are discussed. It is shown that using mandrel (including assisting mandrel) and spacer engineering, HTDP on-grid layout design is a promising approach to break the limitation of 1-D gridded design. Efficient formulation of HTDP layout decomposition/synthesis into a Boolean satisfactory problem is demonstrated. Moreover, by considering geometric constraints of HTDP layout and several process related assumptions, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of layout features and Boolean input variables. Several examples of 2-D layout are used to demonstrate the process of HTDP decomposition/synthesis, as well as the simplification of its algorithm to reduce runtime. Specifically, preliminary results from implementation of a 2-mask HTDP design for patterning a 2-D dense line/space array with pads are reported.
Ma, Jinlu; Lu, Wenyan; Chen, Dongquan; Xu, Bo; Li, Yonghe
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Although studies have shown an increased expression of LRP6 in several types of cancer, its function in tumor development and progression remains to be elucidated. We herein demonstrated that LRP6 expression is up-regulated in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients and human TNBC cell lines, and that knockdown of LRP6 expression and treatment of recombinant Mesd protein (a specific inhibitor of LRP6) significantly decreased cell migration and invasion of TNBC MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. Interestingly, the effects of LRP6 knockdown and Mesd treatment on TNBC cell migration and invasion were more prominent than on TNBC cell proliferation/viability. Mechanistically, LRP6 knockdown and Mesd treatment inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling and decreased the expression of S100A4, a mediator of cancer metastasis and a specific target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, in TNBC cells. Together, our data suggest that LRP6 promotes TNBC cell migration and invasion by regulating the expression and function of S100A4 via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Ponente, Manfredi; Campanini, Letizia; Cuttano, Roberto; Piunti, Andrea; Delledonne, Giacomo A; Coltella, Nadia; Valsecchi, Roberta; Villa, Alessandra; Cavallaro, Ugo; Pattini, Linda; Doglioni, Claudio; Bernardi, Rosa
Elucidating the molecular basis of tumor metastasis is pivotal for eradicating cancer-related mortality. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) encompasses a class of aggressive tumors characterized by high rates of recurrence and metastasis, as well as poor overall survival. Here, we find that the promyelocytic leukemia protein PML exerts a prometastatic function in TNBC that can be targeted by arsenic trioxide. We found that, in TNBC patients, constitutive HIF1A activity induces high expression of PML, along with a number of HIF1A target genes that promote metastasis at multiple levels. Intriguingly, PML controls the expression of these genes by binding to their regulatory regions along with HIF1A. This mechanism is specific to TNBC cells and does not occur in other subtypes of breast cancer where PML and prometastatic HIF1A target genes are underexpressed. As a consequence, PML promotes cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in TNBC cell and mouse models. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PML with arsenic trioxide, a PML-degrading agent used to treat promyelocytic leukemia patients, delays tumor growth, impairs TNBC metastasis, and cooperates with chemotherapy by preventing metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, we report identification of a prometastatic pathway in TNBC and suggest clinical development toward the use of arsenic trioxide for TNBC patients.
Hamilton, Amanda M; Foster, Paula J
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), when associated with poor outcome, is aggressive in nature with a high incidence of brain metastasis and the shortest median overall patient survival after brain metastasis development compared to all other breast cancer subtypes. As therapies that control primary cancer and extracranial metastatic sites improve, the incidence of brain metastases is increasing and the management of patients with breast cancer brain metastases continues to be a significant clinical challenge. Mouse models have been developed to permit in depth evaluation of breast cancer metastasis to the brain. In this study, we compare the efficiency and metastatic potential of two experimental mouse models of TNBC. Longitudinal MRI analysis and end point histology were used to quantify initial cell arrest as well as the number and volume of metastases that developed in mouse brain over time. We showed significant differences in MRI appearance, tumor progression and model efficiency between the syngeneic 4T1-BR5 model and the xenogeneic 231-BR model. Since TNBC does not respond to many standard breast cancer treatments and TNBC brain metastases lack effective targeted therapies, these preclinical TNBC models represent invaluable tools for the assessment of novel systemic therapeutic approaches. Further pursuits of therapeutics designed to bypass the blood tumor barrier and permit access to the brain parenchyma and metastatic cells within the brain will be paramount in the fight to control and treat lethal metastatic cancer.
Pascual-Vargas, Patricia; Cooper, Samuel; Sero, Julia; Bousgouni, Vicky; Arias-Garcia, Mar; Bakal, Chris
In order to metastasise, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) must make dynamic changes in cell shape. The shape of all eukaryotic cells is regulated by Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (RhoGEFs), which activate Rho-family GTPases in response to mechanical and informational cues. In contrast, Rho GTPase-activating proteins (RhoGAPs) inhibit Rho GTPases. However, which RhoGEFs and RhoGAPS couple TNBC cell shape to changes in their environment is very poorly understood. Moreover, whether the activity of particular RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs become dysregulated as cells evolve the ability to metastasise is not clear. Towards the ultimate goal of identifying RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs that are essential for TNBC metastasis, we performed an RNAi screen to isolate RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs that contribute to the morphogenesis of the highly metastatic TNBC cell line LM2, and its less-metastatic parental cell line MDA-MB-231. For ~6 million cells from each cell line, we measured 127 different features following the depletion of 142 genes. Using a linear classifier scheme we also describe the morphological heterogeneity of each gene-depleted population.
Oh, Nuri; Park, Ji-In; Park, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Dong Ryul; Park, Kyung-Soon
Tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, a major conduit for cancer cell dissemination from the primary tumor site to lymph nodes and beyond, eventually leads to metastasis in cancer patients. Given the recent evidence revealing that the suppression of ELK3 inhibits the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer cells, we aimed to study the underlying mechanism of impaired metastasis in ELK3-suppressed MDA-MB-231 cells (ELK3 KD) with regard to lymphangiogenesis. We found that the secretome of ELK3 KD cells inhibited tube formation, whereas it promoted the migration and invasion of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro. In vivo analysis revealed that peritumoral lymphatic vessels were not developed around the xenografted tumors of ELK3 KD. We further revealed that the suppression of NF-κB signaling in ELK3 KD was the primary cause of the reduced VEGFC expression. Taken together, we suggest that ELK3 is an upstream regulator of the NF-κB signaling pathway, the inhibition of which leads to the suppression of peritumoral lymphatic vessel development, possibly due to a low VEGFC expression.
Burnett, Joseph P; Lim, Gi; Li, Yanyan; Shah, Ronak B; Lim, Rebekah; Paholak, Hayley J; McDermott, Sean P; Sun, Lichao; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Bai, Shuhua; Wicha, Max S; Sun, Duxin; Zhang, Tao
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) typically exhibits rapid progression, high mortality and faster relapse rates relative to other breast cancer subtypes. In this report we examine the combination of taxanes (paclitaxel or docetaxel) with a breast cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeting agent sulforaphane for use against TNBC. We demonstrate that paclitaxel or docetaxel treatment induces IL-6 secretion and results in expansion of CSCs in TNBC cell lines. Conversely, sulforaphane is capable of preferentially eliminating CSCs, by inhibiting NF-κB p65 subunit translocation, downregulating p52 and consequent downstream transcriptional activity. Sulforaphane also reverses taxane-induced aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive (ALDH+) cell enrichment, and dramatically reduces the size and number of primary and secondary mammospheres formed. In vivo in an advanced treatment orthotopic mouse xenograft model together with extreme limiting dilution analysis (ELDA), the combination of docetaxel and sulforaphane exhibits a greater reduction in primary tumor volume and significantly reduces secondary tumor formation relative to either treatment alone. These results suggest that treatment of TNBCs with cytotoxic chemotherapy would be greatly benefited by the addition of sulforaphane to prevent expansion of and eliminate breast CSCs.
Yang, Fang; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Jin, Juan; Fang, Hehui; Zhang, Wenwen; Guan, Xiaoxiang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a tumor subtype with aggressive behavior and poor clinical outcome for lacking effective therapies. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been suggested to have tumor-initiating properties, but it remains unclear whether their presence contributes to the increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis of TNBC. Also, the breast cancers display frequent inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, which adds the complexity in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. Here we investigated the clinical relevance and prognostic value of the BCSC markers, CD44+/CD24-, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD133 in 88 TNBC cases. We found that a few patients displayed spatial heterogeneity of the BCSC markers in expression, which was defined as intratumor stemness heterogeneity (ITSH) below. There was no significant correlation between any BCSC marker alone or ITSH and progression-free survival (PFS). Interestingly, the combined BCSC phenotype by CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1A1 was significantly associated with worse PFS (P = 0.009). Further stratification analysis revealed that this combined BCSC phenotype was an independent prognostic factor for PFS in some subgroups. In conclusion, we demonstrated the existence of ITSH in TNBC and found that the ITSH as well as a single BCSC marker was not significantly associated with survival, whereas combing the analysis of BCSC markers could improve prognostic value. Our findings may lead to an improvement of prognostic indicators in TNBC. PMID:27994520
Zhao, Qian; Xu, Wen-ting
Objective. In the current study, we measured the expression status of melanoma antigen gene c2 (MAGE-C2) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and analyzed its prognostic with the clinical pathological features of patients with TNBC. Methods. The expressions statuses of MAGE-C2 were detected in TNBC tissues and paracarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blotting. Then, we investigated the relationship of MAGE-C2 expression status and clinicopathological parameters of TNBC patients by the chi-squared test. Finally, we discussed the relations of MAGE-C2 expression state and prognosis of patients with TNBC by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results. High MAGE-C2 expression was found in 38.18% (42/110) of TNBC tissues. In adjacent tissues it was 9.09% (10/110). High MAGE-C2 expression in TNBC patients was closely associated with lymph node status, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001). TNBC patients with high MAGE-C2 expression had significantly shorter survival time than low expression patients. We also found that age, lymph node status, TNM stage, lymphovascular invasion, and MAGE-C2 expression status were closely associated with overall survival of TNBC patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion. High MAGE-C2 expression may serve as an independent prognostic factor for TNBC patients. PMID:27843173
Liu, Xiaoran; Li, Huiping; Shao, Bin; Wu, Jianmin; Kong, Weiyao; Song, Guohong; Jiang, Hanfang; Wang, Jing; Wan, Fengling
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, and is enriched for germline mutation of BRCA. In Asian patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 268 deleterious mutations of BRCA1 and 242 of BRCA2 have been identified so far, including a reported BRCA1 frameshift mutation (rs80350973), apparently found only in Asian people, with a low prevalence of 0.3-1.7% in different breast cancer cohorts. Here, we reported the high prevalence (7.2%) of rs80350973 among 125 Chinese patients with TNBC, which implies its mutational predilection for certain breast cancer subtypes. Although its low prevalence had not indicated any particular clinical significance in previous studies, our results associated rs80350973 mutation with cell checkpoint malfunction, and was found to be more common in TNBC patients with high Ki-67 indices (P = 0.004). As Ki-67 overexpression is a predictor of poor prognosis in TNBC, inclusion of this mutation into genetic assessments may improve the clinical management of Chinese patients with TNBC.
Lefort, S; Thuleau, A; Kieffer, Y; Sirven, P; Bieche, I; Marangoni, E; Vincent-Salomon, A; Mechta-Grigoriou, F
The CXCR4 receptor and its ligand CXCL12 (also named stromal cell-derived factor 1, SDF1) have a critical role in chemotaxis and homing, key steps in cancer metastasis. Although myofibroblasts expressing CXCL12 are associated with the presence of axillary metastases in HER2 breast cancers (BC), the therapeutic interest of targeting CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in the different BC subtypes remains unclear. Here, we investigate this question by testing antitumor activity of CXCR4 inhibitors in patient-derived xenografts (PDX), which faithfully reproduce human tumor properties. We observed that two CXCR4 inhibitors, AMD3100 and TN14003, efficiently impair tumor growth and metastasis dissemination in both Herceptin-sensitive and Herceptin-resistant HER2 BC. Conversely, blocking CXCR4/CXCL12 pathway in triple-negative (TN) BC does not reduce tumor growth, and can even increase metastatic spread. Moreover, although CXCR4 inhibitors significantly reduce myofibroblast content in all BC subtypes, they decrease angiogenesis only in HER2 BC. Thus, our findings suggest that targeting CXCR4 could provide some therapeutic interest for HER2 BC patients, whereas it has no impact or could even be detrimental for TN BC patients.
Elshimali, Yahya; Garbán, Hermes; Elashoff, David; Vadgama, Jaydutt; Goodglick, Lee
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in 10–15% of patients yet accounts for almost half of all breast cancer deaths. TNBCs lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER-2 overexpression and cannot be treated with current targeted therapies. TNBCs often occur in African American and younger women. Although initially responsive to some chemotherapies, TNBCs tend to relapse and metastasize. Thus, it is critical to find new therapeutic targets. A second ER gene product, termed ERβ, in the absence of ERα may be such a target. Using human TNBC specimens with known clinical outcomes to assess ERβ expression, we find that ERβ1 associates with significantly worse 5-year overall survival. Further, a panel of TNBC cell lines exhibit significant levels of ERβ protein. To assess ERβ effects on proliferation, ERβ expression in TNBC cells was silenced using shRNA, resulting in a significant reduction in TNBC proliferation. ERβ-specific antagonists similarly suppressed TNBC growth. Growth-stimulating effects of ERβ may be due in part to downstream actions that promote VEGF, amphiregulin, and Wnt-10b secretion, other factors associated with tumor promotion. In vivo, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), along with ERβ1, is significantly expressed in TNBC and stimulates high ERβ mRNA in TNBC cells. This work may help elucidate the interplay of metabolic and growth factors in TNBC. PMID:25874233
Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Chen, Yung-Chan; Lin, Ying-Chao; Lin, Jia-Ni; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yang-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der
Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), curcumin (Cur), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are major forms of curcuminoids found in the rhizomes of turmeric. This study examined the effects of three curcuminoid analogues on breast cancer cells. The results revealed that DMC demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Compared with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, DMC demonstrated the most efficient cytotoxic effects on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. However, nonmalignant MCF-10A cells were unaffected by DMC treatment. The study showed that DMC activated AMPK in TNBC cells. Once activated, AMPK inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) signaling and mRNA translation via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decreased the activity and/or expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). DMC also targeted multiple AMPK downstream pathways. Among these, the dephosphorylation of Akt is noteworthy because it circumvents the feedback activation of Akt that results from mTOR inhibition. Moreover, DMC suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production, thereby blocking subsequent Stat3 activation. In addition, DMC also sustained epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by suppressing the phosphatases, PP2a and SHP-2. These results suggest that DMC is a potent AMPK activator that acts through a broad spectrum of anti-TNBC activities.
Cerqueira, Otto L D; Truesdell, Peter; Baldassarre, Tomas; Vilella-Arias, Santiago A; Watt, Kathleen; Meens, Jalna; Chander, Harish; Osório, Cynthia A B; Soares, Fernando A; Reis, Eduardo M; Craig, Andrew W B
Signaling via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src kinase pathways promote triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell invasion and tumor metastasis. Here, we address the role of Cdc42-interacting protein-4 (CIP4) in TNBC metastasis in vivo, and profile CIP4 expression in human breast cancer patients. In human TNBC cells, CIP4 knock-down (KD) led to less sustained activation of Erk kinase and impaired cell motility compared to control cells. This correlated with significant defects in 3D invasion of surrounding extracellular matrix by CIP4 KD TNBC cells when grown as spheroid colonies. In mammary orthotopic xenograft assays using both human TNBC cells (MDA-MB-231, HCC 1806) and rat MTLn3 cells, CIP4 silencing had no overt effect on tumor growth, but significantly reduced the incidence of lung metastases in each tumor model. In human invasive breast cancers, high CIP4 levels was significantly associated with high tumor stage, TNBC and HER2 subtypes, and risk of progression to metastatic disease. Together, these results implicate CIP4 in promoting metastasis in TNBCs.
Tao, Yu; Auguste, Debra T
Early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer holds great promise to improve treatability and curability. Here, we report the usage of six luminescent nanodot-graphene oxide complexes as novel fluorescent nanoprobes in a sensing array capable of effectively identifying healthy, cancerous, and metastatic human breast cells. The sensory system is based on the utilization of nanoprobe-graphene oxide sensor elements that can be disrupted in the presence of breast cells to give fluorescent readouts. Using this multichannel sensor, we have successfully identified breast cancer cells and distinguished between estrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive, and triple negative phenotypes. This approach also allows cell identification at high sensitivity (200 cells) with high reproducibility. The unknown cell sample analysis indicates that the sensor is able to identify 49 out of 50 breast cell samples correctly, with a detection accuracy of 98%. Taken together, this array-based luminescent nanoprobe-graphene oxide sensing platform presents a useful cell screening tool with potential applications in biomedical diagnostics.
Zhao, Pengxin; Ma, Weiyuan; Hu, Zhigang; Zang, Leilei; Tian, Zhisheng; Zhang, Kaili
A previous RNA interference (RNAi) screen identified filamin A (FLNA) as a potential biomarker to predict chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, its ability to modulate chemosensitivity and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Genetic manipulation of FLNA expression has been performed in an immortalized noncancerous human mammary epithelial cell line and four TNBC cell lines to investigate its effect on chemosensitivity. Western blot analysis was performed to identify the potential signaling pathway involved. Xenograft mouse model was used to examine the in vivo role of FLNA in modulating chemosensitivity. Overexpression of FLNA conferred chemoresistance to docetaxel in noncancerous human mammary epithelial cells. Knockdown of FLNA sensitized four TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231, HCC38, Htb126, and HCC1937 to docetaxel which was reversed by reconstituted FLNA expression. Decreased FLNA expression correlated with decreased activation of ERK. Constitutive activation of ERK2 reversed siFLNA-induced chemosensitization. Inhibition of MEK1 recapitulates the effect of FLNA knockdown. MDA-MB-231 xenograft with FLNA knockdown showed enhanced response to docetaxel compared with control xenograft with increased apoptosis. FLNA can function as a modulator of chemosensitivity to docetaxel in TNBC cells through regulation of the MAPK/ERK pathway both in vitro and in vivo. FLNA may serve as a novel therapeutic target for improvement of chemotherapy efficacy in TNBC.
Khaled, Walid T; Choon Lee, Song; Stingl, John; Chen, Xiongfeng; Raza Ali, H; Rueda, Oscar M; Hadi, Fazal; Wang, Juexuan; Yu, Yong; Chin, Suet-Feung; Stratton, Mike; Futreal, Andy; Jenkins, Nancy A; Aparicio, Sam; Copeland, Neal G; Watson, Christine J; Caldas, Carlos; Liu, Pentao
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has poor prognostic outcome compared with other types of breast cancer. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying TNBC pathology are not fully understood. Here, we report that the transcription factor BCL11A is overexpressed in TNBC including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) and that its genomic locus is amplified in up to 38% of BLBC tumours. Exogenous BCL11A overexpression promotes tumour formation, whereas its knockdown in TNBC cell lines suppresses their tumourigenic potential in xenograft models. In the DMBA-induced tumour model, Bcl11a deletion substantially decreases tumour formation, even in p53-null cells and inactivation of Bcl11a in established tumours causes their regression. At the cellular level, Bcl11a deletion causes a reduction in the number of mammary epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Thus, BCL11A has an important role in TNBC and normal mammary epithelial cells. This study highlights the importance of further investigation of BCL11A in TNBC-targeted therapies.
Howard, Carolyn B.; Mcdowell, Roderick; Feleke, Kidus; Deer, Evangeline; Stamps, Symone; Thames, Easter; Singh, Vikash; Pervin, Shehla
Background Unresponsive to most clinical therapies, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the dominant biological cause of population-based racioethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality in the United States. We report the chemotherapeutic vulnerability of TNBC cells and stem cell-derived tumors to Vernonia amygdalina aqueous leaf extracts (VA extracts). VA extracts arrest cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in vitro and inhibit growth of implanted tumors and show chemo-preventive efficacy in vivo. Materials and Methods HRAS cells and MDA-MB-468 cells were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice with or without pretreatment with VA extracts before chemotherapeutic treatment with VA extracts and/or paclitaxel to evaluate their ability to inhibit tumor growth. Results The most significant reduction in tumor volume was observed in the MDA-MB-468 cell-induced tumors following VA extract pre-treatment compared to those from HRAS cell implantation. Conclusion VA extracts induce apoptosis, exhibit additive effects, inhibit tumor growth and display chemo-preventive actions against TNBCs. PMID:27466496
Qiao, Yichun; He, Huan; Jonsson, Philip; Sinha, Indranil; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a highly aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanistic aspects of inflammation mediated TNBC progression remain unclear. Using ChIP-seq, we demonstrate that the cistrome for the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is comprised of 13,800 binding regions in TNFα-stimulated TNBC cells. In addition, we show that c-Jun regulates nearly a third of the TNFα-regulated transcriptome. Interestingly, high expression level of the c-Jun-regulated pro-invasion gene program is associated with poor clinical outcome in TNBCs. We further demonstrate that c-Jun drives TNFα-mediated increase of malignant characteristics of TNBC cells by transcriptional regulation of Ninj1. As exemplified by the CXC chemokine genes clustered on chromosome 4, we demonstrate that NF-κB might be a pioneer factor required for the regulation of TNFα-inducible inflammatory genes, whereas c-Jun has little effect. Together, our results uncover AP-1 as an important determinant for inflammation-induced cancer progression, rather than inflammatory response. PMID:26792858
Lefort, S; Thuleau, A; Kieffer, Y; Sirven, P; Bieche, I; Marangoni, E; Vincent-Salomon, A; Mechta-Grigoriou, F
The CXCR4 receptor and its ligand CXCL12 (also named stromal cell-derived factor 1, SDF1) have a critical role in chemotaxis and homing, key steps in cancer metastasis. Although myofibroblasts expressing CXCL12 are associated with the presence of axillary metastases in HER2 breast cancers (BC), the therapeutic interest of targeting CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in the different BC subtypes remains unclear. Here, we investigate this question by testing antitumor activity of CXCR4 inhibitors in patient-derived xenografts (PDX), which faithfully reproduce human tumor properties. We observed that two CXCR4 inhibitors, AMD3100 and TN14003, efficiently impair tumor growth and metastasis dissemination in both Herceptin-sensitive and Herceptin-resistant HER2 BC. Conversely, blocking CXCR4/CXCL12 pathway in triple-negative (TN) BC does not reduce tumor growth, and can even increase metastatic spread. Moreover, although CXCR4 inhibitors significantly reduce myofibroblast content in all BC subtypes, they decrease angiogenesis only in HER2 BC. Thus, our findings suggest that targeting CXCR4 could provide some therapeutic interest for HER2 BC patients, whereas it has no impact or could even be detrimental for TN BC patients. PMID:27669438
Sun, Xin; Wang, Ning; Qu, Ying; Sun, Zhijun
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by lack of expressions of estrogen, progesterone, and ERBB2 receptors. Because biology of TNBC is poorly understood, no targeted therapy has been developed for this breast cancer subtype and chemotherapy is its only systemic treatment modality. In this study, we firstly determined that the expression of human ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase 3 (ART3) is significantly associated with the basal-like breast cancer subgroup, which is largely overlapped with TNBC, through analyzing published data sets. We also found that ART3 protein is significantly overexpressed in human TNBC tumors tissue and cell lines through using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Overexpression of ART3 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells increased cell proliferation, invasion, and survival in vitro and growth of xenograft tumors. Conversely, knockdown of ART3 in breast cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, we showed that ART 3 overexpression activated AKT and ERK in vitro and in xenograft tumors. Together, our findings demonstrate that ART3 is a critical TNBC marker with functional significance. PMID:27374177
Franchina, Tindara; Adamo, Barbara; Ricciardi, Giuseppina R R; Caristi, Nicola; Agostino, Rita Maria; Proto, Claudia; Adamo, Vincenzo
Breast carcinoma (BC) is a heterogeneous disease in terms of histology, therapeutic response, dissemination patterns to distant sites and patient outcomes. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), defined by the lack of protein expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the absence of HER2 protein overexpression (ER-/PR-/HER2-) has significant clinical implications due to their poor prognosis and the lack of targeted agents. Skin involvement is one of the most distressing presentations of locally recurrent breast cancer and few studies have identified effective agents in this setting. In fact, the increasing use of anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant settings has led to investigate new cytotoxic therapies such as the combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) with gemcitabine. Here, we report two cases of disseminated TNBC with extensive cutaneous metastases and a remarkable response to PLD in combination with gemcitabine. Further investigations are needed to confirm the efficacy of this regimen in skin involvement and TNBC.
Brown, Kristin K; Spinelli, Jessica B; Asara, John M; Toker, Alex
Chemotherapy resistance is a major barrier to the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and strategies to circumvent resistance are required. Using in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling of TNBC cells, we show that an increase in the abundance of pyrimidine nucleotides occurs in response to chemotherapy exposure. Mechanistically, elevation of pyrimidine nucleotides induced by chemotherapy is dependent on increased activity of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. Pharmacologic inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis sensitizes TNBC cells to genotoxic chemotherapy agents by exacerbating DNA damage. Moreover, combined treatment with doxorubicin and leflunomide, a clinically approved inhibitor of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway, induces regression of TNBC xenografts. Thus, the increase in pyrimidine nucleotide levels observed following chemotherapy exposure represents a metabolic vulnerability that can be exploited to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy for the treatment of TNBC.Significance: The prognosis for patients with TNBC with residual disease after chemotherapy is poor. We find that chemotherapy agents induce adaptive reprogramming of de novo pyrimidine synthesis and show that this response can be exploited pharmacologically, using clinically approved inhibitors of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, to sensitize TNBC cells to chemotherapy. Cancer Discov; 7(4); 391-9. ©2017 AACR.See related article by Mathur et al., p. 380This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 339.
Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Song, Cailu; Wei, Weidong; Xie, Xiaoming
mir-101-3p has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Recently, AMPK dysfunction has been highlighted in cancers, including breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological roles of mir-101-3p and AMPK in breast cancer. Our research demonstrated that AMPK was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). High-expression of AMPK correlated with poor outcome in both total breast cancer and TNBC patients. Ectopic expression of AMPK improved glucose uptake, glycolysis, proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro and its tumorigenicity in vivo. AMPK was predicted to be a direct target of mir-101-3p. The luciferase reporter assay was performed to certificate this prediction. The expression of AMPK was suppressed by transfection of mir-101-3p in TNBC cells. Over-expression of mir-101-3p or knock-down of AMPK inhibited glucose metabolism and proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro. Our study provides evidence that mir-101-3p- AMPK axis could be a promising therapeutic target in TNBC targeting tumor metabolism. PMID:27145268
Orzechowska, Magdalena; Jędroszka, Dorota; Bednarek, Andrzej K
Breast cancer (BC) is characterized by high heterogeneity regarding its biology and clinical characteristics. The Notch pathway regulates such processes as organ modeling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of differential expression of Notch members on disease-free survival (DFS) in luminal type A (lumA) and triple negative (TN) BC. The differential expression of 19 Notch members was examined in a TCGA BC cohort. DFS analysis was performed using the log-rank test (p<0.05). Biological differences between DFS groups were determined with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) (tTest, FDR<0.25). Common expression profiles according to Notch signaling were examined using ExpressCluster (K-means, mean centered, Euclidean distance metric). The overexpression of HES1, LFNG and PSEN1 was found to be favorable for DFS in lumA, and lowered expression favorable for DFS in TN. GSEA analysis showed that differential Notch signaling is associated with cell cycle, tissue architecture and remodeling. Particularly, targets of E2F, early stage S phase transcription factor, were upregulated in the lumA unfavorable group and the TN favorable group differentiated on a basis of HES1 and PSEN1 expression. Summarizing, our analysis show significance of Notch signaling in BRCA progression through triggering EMT. Moreover, identification of numerous genes which overexpression is associated with disease recurrence may serve as a source of potential targets for a new anticancer therapy. PMID:27888801
Wiegmans, Adrian P.; Miranda, Mariska; Wen, Shu Wen
The molecular rationale to induce synthetic lethality, by targeting defective homologous recombination repair in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), has proven to have several shortcomings. Not meeting the expected minimal outcomes in clinical trials has highlighted common clinical resistance mechanisms including; increased expression of the target gene PARP1, increased expression or reversion mutation of BRCA1, or up-regulation of the compensatory homologous recombination protein RAD51. Indeed, RAD51 has been demonstrated to be an alternative synthetic lethal target in BRCA1-mutated cancers. To overcome selective pressure on DNA repair pathways, we examined new potential targets within TNBC that demonstrate synthetic lethality in association with RAD51 depletion. We confirmed complementary targets of PARP1/2 and DNA-PK as well as a new synthetic lethality combination with p38. p38 is considered a relevant target in breast cancer, as it has been implicated in resistance to chemotherapy, including tamoxifen. We show that the combination of targeting RAD51 and p38 inhibits cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, which was further enhanced by targeting of PARP1. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms revealed that depletion of RAD51 increased ERK1/2 and p38 signaling. Our results highlight a potential compensatory mechanism via p38 that limits DNA targeted therapy. PMID:27507046
Feng, Bing; Xu, Zhiai; Zhou, Fangyuan; Yu, Haijun; Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Dangge; Tang, Zhaohui; Yu, Haiyang; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping
Despite considerable progress being made in breast cancer therapy, the complete eradication of highly aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a notable challenge today. We herein report on the fabrication of novel gold nanorods (GNRs) with covalent cisplatin-polypeptide wrapping and folic acid (FA) conjugation (FA-GNR@Pt) for the targeted photothermal (PT) therapy and chemotherapy of TNBC. The FA-GNR@Pt hybrid nanoparticles are designed to integrate the photothermal conversion property of GNRs, the superior biocompatibility of polypeptide poly(l-glutamic acid) (PGA), the chemotoxicity of cisplatin, and the tumor targeting ability of FA into one single nanoplatform. In combination with localized near infrared (NIR) laser illumination, the resulting FA-GNR@Pt hybrid nanoparticles are able to significantly inhibit the growth of the TNBC tumor when administered systemically. In particular, they can extensively suppress the dissemination of TNBC cells from the primary tumor to the lung by eliminating the peripheral tumor blood vessels. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the combined PT therapy and chemotherapy using cisplatin-loaded GNRs with FA conjugation might imply a promising strategy for targeted treatment of TNBC.
Pandiella, Atanasio; Morís, Francisco; Ocaña, Alberto; Núñez, Luz-Elena; Montero, Juan C
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer. Despite response to chemotherapy, relapses are frequent and resistance to available treatments is often observed in the metastatic setting. Therefore, identification of new therapeutic strategies is required. Here we have investigated the effect of the mithramycin analog EC-8042 (demycarosil-3D-β-D-digitoxosyl mithramycin SK) on TNBC. The drug caused a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of a set of TNBC cell lines in vitro, and decreased tumor growth in mice xenografted with TNBC cells. Mechanistically, EC-8042 caused an arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, coincident with an increase in pCDK1 and Wee1 levels in cells treated with the drug. In addition, prolonged treatment with the drug also causes apoptosis, mainly through caspase-independent routes. Importantly, EC-8042 synergized with drugs commonly used in the therapy of TNBC in vitro, and potentiated the antitumoral effect of docetaxel in vivo. Together, these data suggest that the mithralog EC-8042 exerts an antitumoral action on TNBC cells and reinforces the action of standard of care drugs used in the therapy of this disease. These characteristics, together with a better toxicology profile of EC-8042 with respect to mithramycin, open the possibility of its clinical evaluation.
Robinson, Tyler JW; Pai, Melody; Liu, Jeff C; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Sun, Thomas; Egan, Sean E; Datti, Alessandro; Huang, Jing; Zacksenhaus, Eldad
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents an aggressive subtype, for which radiation and chemotherapy are the only options. Here we describe the identification of disulfiram, an FDA-approved drug used to treat alcoholism, as well as the related compound thiram, as the most potent growth inhibitors following high-throughput screens of 3185 compounds against multiple TNBC cell lines. The average IC50 for disulfiram was ~300 nM. Drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) analysis identified IQ motif-containing factors IQGAP1 and MYH9 as direct binding targets of disulfiram. Indeed, knockdown of these factors reduced, though did not completely abolish, cell growth. Combination treatment with 4 different drugs commonly used to treat TNBC revealed that disulfiram synergizes most effectively with doxorubicin to inhibit cell growth of TNBC cells. Disulfiram and doxorubicin cooperated to induce cell death as well as cellular senescence, and targeted the ESA+/CD24-/low/CD44+ cancer stem cell population. Our results suggest that disulfiram may be repurposed to treat TNBC in combination with doxorubicin. PMID:23974104
Bao, Bin; Mitrea, Cristina; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Marchetti, Luca; Girsch, Emily; Farr, Rebecca L; Boerner, Julie L; Mohammad, Ramzi; Dyson, Greg; Terlecky, Stanley R; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia
Among breast cancer patients, those diagnosed with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype have the worst prog-nosis. TNBC does not express estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, or the HER2 oncogene; therefore, TNBC lacks targets for molecularly-guided therapies. The concept that EGFR oncogene inhibitor drugs could be used as targeted treatment against TNBC has been put forth based on estimates that 30-60% of TNBC express high levels of EGFR. However, results from clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, did not improve patient outcomes. Results herein offer an explanation as to why EGFR inhibitors failed TNBC patients and support how combining a select antioxidant and an EGFR-specific small molecule kinase inhibitor (SMKI) could be an effective, novel therapeutic strategy. Treatment with CAT-SKL-a re-engineered protein form of the antioxidant enzyme catalase-inhibited cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and treatment with the EGFR-specific SMKI erlotinib inhibited non-CSCs. Thus, combining the antioxidant CAT-SKL with erlotinib targeted both CSCs and bulk cancer cells in cultures of EGFR-expressing TNBC-derived cells. We also report evidence that the mechanism for CAT-SKL inhibition of CSCs may depend on antioxidant-induced downregulation of a short alternative mRNA splicing variant of the methyl-CpG binding domain 2 gene, isoform MBD2c.
He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Ying; Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC) since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3) significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.
Campone, Mario; Valo, Isabelle; Jézéquel, Pascal; Moreau, Marie; Boissard, Alice; Campion, Loic; Loussouarn, Delphine; Verriele, Véronique; Coqueret, Olivier; Guette, Catherine
To date, there is no available targeted therapy for patients who are diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). The aim of this study was to identify a new specific target for specific treatments. Frozen primary tumors were collected from 83 adjuvant therapy-naive TNBC patients. These samples were used for global proteome profiling by iTRAQ-OFFGEL-LC-MS/MS approach in two series: a training cohort (n = 42) and a test set (n = 41). Patients who remains free of local or distant metastasis for a minimum of 5 years after surgery were classified in the no-relapse group; the others were in the relapse group. OPLS and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to select candidate markers, which were validated by immunohistochemistry. Three proteins were identified in the training set and validated in the test set by Kaplan-Meier method and immunohistochemistry (IHC): TrpRS as a good prognostic markers and DP and TSP1 as bad prognostic markers. We propose the establishment of an IHC test to calculate the score of TrpRS, DP, and TSP1 in TNBC tumors to evaluate the degree of aggressiveness of the tumors. Finally, we propose that DP and TSP1 could provide therapeutic targets for specific treatments.
Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan
MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.
Li, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Li-Sheng; Huang, Yong; Guo, Jun; Li, Jie; Sun, Xin-Ping; Chang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Zhe-Hai; Zhai, Kan
Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is critical in the regulation of inflammation and tumour progression. TNF-α-308G > A is associated with constitutively elevated TNF-α expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between TNF-α-308G > A and breast cancer (BC) risk by subtype and the connection between genotypes and clinical features of BC. A total of 768 patients and 565 controls were enrolled in this study, and genotypes were detected using the TaqMan assay. No effect on susceptibility for any BC subtype was found for the TNF-α-308 polymorphism in our study or in the pooled meta-analysis. This polymorphism was shown to be associated with age at menarche in all BC and in progesterone receptor-negative BC. Interestingly, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with TNF-α-308A had an increased risk of distant tumour metastasis (OR = 3.80, 95% CI: 1.31–11.02, P = 0.009). Multi-regression analysis showed that TNF-α-308A was also a risk factor for distant tumour metastasis after adjustment for tumour size and lymph node metastasis status (OR = 6.26, 95% CI: 1.88–20.87, P = 0.003). These findings indicate that TNF-α might play a distinct role in the progression of TNBC, especially in distant tumour metastasis of TNBC. PMID:26165253
Toy, Kathy A; Valiathan, Rajeshwari R; Núñez, Fernando; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gonzalez, Maria E; Fridman, Rafael; Kleer, Celina G
Receptor kinases Discoidin Domain Receptors (DDRs) 1 and 2 are emerging as new therapeutic targets in breast cancer (BC). However, the expression of DDR proteins during BC progression and their association with BC subtypes remain poorly defined. Herein we report the first comprehensive immunohistochemical analyses of DDR protein expression in a wide range of breast tissues. DDR1 and DDR2 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 218 samples of normal breast (n = 10), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, n = 10), and invasive carcinomas (n = 198), arrayed in tissue microarrays with comprehensive clinical and follow-up information. Staining was evaluated for cell type, subcellular localization, percentage and intensity (scores 1-4), and association with disease subtype and outcome. In normal epithelium and DCIS, DDR1 was highly expressed, while DDR2 was negative in normal epithelium, and in DCIS it localized to cells at the epithelial-stromal interface. Of the 198 invasive carcinomas, DDR1 was high in 87 (44 %) and low in 103 (52 %), and DDR2 was high in 110 (56 %) and low in 87 (44 %). High DDR2 was associated with high tumor grade (P = 0.002), triple-negative subtype (TNBC) (P < 0.0001), and worse survival (P = 0.037). We discovered a novel concordant deregulation of DDR expression, with a DDR1(Low)/DDR2(High) profile significantly associated with TNBC, compared to luminal tumors (P = 0.012), and with worse overall survival. In conclusion, DDR2 upregulation occurs in DCIS, before stromal invasion, and may reflect epithelial-stromal cross-talk. A DDR1(Low)/DDR2(High) protein profile is associated with TNBC and may identify invasive carcinomas with worse prognosis.
MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; “active” targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:26387848
Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael
ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p < 0.001) and associated with CD163+ macrophages (p < 0.0001), poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.021) and significantly increased numbers of TGF-α+ cells. While G-CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367
Castilla, María Ángeles; López-García, María Ángeles; Atienza, María Reina; Rosa-Rosa, Juan Manuel; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Pecero, María Luisa; Vieites, Begoña; Romero-Pérez, Laura; Benítez, Javier; Calcabrini, Annarica; Palacios, José
Vestigial-like 1 (VGLL1) is a poorly characterized gene encoding a transcriptional co-activator structurally homologous to TAZ and YAP that modulates the Hippo pathway in Drosophila. In this study, we examined the expression of VGLL1 and its intronic miRNA, miR-934, in breast cancer. VGLL1 and miR-934 expression miRNA profiling was carried out on frozen samples of grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas. VGLL1 protein was also examined in 433 sporadic and BRCA1-associated breast carcinomas on tissue microarrays. RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to confirm differences in VGLL1 and miR-934 expression in different breast cancer subtypes, and to correlate their expression with that of other genes and miRNAs. Of 28 miRNAs differentially expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative grade 3 breast carcinomas, miR-934 was most strongly upregulated in ER-negative carcinomas, and its expression was correlated with that of VGLL1. Nuclear VGLL1 expression was observed in 13% of sporadic breast carcinomas, and while VGLL1 was only occasionally found in luminal A (0.70%) and B (5.60%) carcinomas, it was often expressed in HER2-positive (17%), triple-negative (TN) breast carcinomas (>40%) and BRCA1-associated TN carcinomas (>50%). These findings were confirmed in the TCGA dataset, which revealed positive associations with luminal progenitor genes (GABRP, SLC6A14, FOXC1, PROM1, and BBOX1) and strong negative correlations with ER-associated genes (ESR1, C6ORF211, GATA3, and FOXA1). Moreover, VGLL1 expression was associated with reduced overall survival. In conclusion, VGLL1 and miR-934 are mainly expressed in sporadic and BRCA1-associated TN basal-like breast carcinomas, and their coordinated expression, at least partially mediated by the direct modulation of ESR1, might be involved in the maintenance of a luminal progenitor phenotype.
Background Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by lack of expression of both estrogen and progesterone receptor as well as lack of overexpression or amplification of HER2. Despite an increased probability of response to chemotherapy, many patients resistant to current chemotherapy regimens suffer from a worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. However, molecular determinants of response to chemotherapy specific to TNBC remain largely unknown. Thus, there is a high demand for biomarkers potentially stratifying triple negative breast cancer patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapies or alternative therapies. Methods In order to identify genes correlating with both the triple negative breast cancer subtype as well as response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy we employed publicly available gene expression profiles of patients, which had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Analysis of tissue microarrays as well as breast cancer cell lines revealed correlation to the triple negative breast cancer subtype. Subsequently, effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown on response to standard chemotherapeutic agents as well as radiation therapy were analyzed. Additionally, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms by which SFRP1 alters the carcinogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Results SFRP1 was identified as being significantly overexpressed in TNBC compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Additionally, SFRP1 expression is significantly correlated with an increased probability of positive response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Knockdown of SFRP1 in triple negative breast cancer cells renders the cells more resistant to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, tumorigenic properties of the cells are modified by knockdown, as shown by both migration or invasion capacity as well reduced apoptotic events. Surprisingly, we found that these effects do not rely on Wnt signaling. Furthermore, we show that pro-apoptotic as well as migratory pathways are differentially
Geyer, Felipe C; Berman, Samuel H.; Marchiò, Caterina; Burke, Kathleen A; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Pareja, Fresia; Wen, Hannah Y; Hodi, Zoltan; Schnitt, Stuart J; Rakha, Emad A; Ellis, Ian O; Norton, Larry; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S
Acinic cell carcinoma is an indolent form of invasive breast cancer, whereas microglandular adenosis has been shown to be a neoplastic proliferation. Both entities display a triple-negative phenotype, and may give rise to and display somatic genomic alterations typical of high-grade triple-negative breast cancers. Here we report on a comparison of previously published data on eight carcinoma-associated microglandular adenosis and eight acinic cell carcinomas subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 236 genes recurrently mutated in breast cancer and/or DNA repair-related. Somatic mutations, insertions/deletions and copy number alterations were detected using state-of-the-art bioinformatic algorithms. All cases were of triple-negative phenotype. A median of 4.5 (1–13) and 4.0 (1–7) non-synonymous somatic mutations per carcinoma-associated microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinoma were identified, respectively. TP53 was the sole highly recurrently mutated gene (75% in microglandular adenosis versus 88% in acinic cell carcinomas), and TP53 mutations were consistently coupled with loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele. Additional somatic mutations shared by both groups included those in BRCA1, PIK3CA and INPP4B. Recurrent (n=2) somatic mutations restricted to microglandular adenosis or acinic cell carcinomas included those affecting PTEN and MED12, or ERBB4, respectively. No significant differences in the repertoire of somatic mutations were detected between microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinomas, and between this group of lesions and 77 triple-negative carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinomas, however, were genetically distinct from estrogen receptor-positive and/or HER2-positive breast cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our findings support the contention that microglandular adenosis and acinic cell carcinoma are part of the same spectrum of lesions
Matamala, Nerea; Vargas, Maria Teresa; González-Cámpora, Ricardo; Arias, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Andrés-León, Eduardo; Yanowsky, Kira; Llaneza-Folgueras, Ana; Miñambres, Rebeca; Martínez-Delgado, Beatriz; Benítez, Javier
Emerging evidence suggests that BRCA1 pathway contributes to the behavior of sporadic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this association. Considering the central role that microRNAs (miRNAs) play in gene expression regulation, the aim of this study was to identify miRNAs specifically deregulated in TNBC and investigate their involvement in BRCA1 regulation. Using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based microarrays, expression levels of 1919 miRNAs were measured in paraffin-embedded tissues from 122 breast tumors and 11 healthy breast tissue samples. Differential miRNA expression was explored among the main subtypes of breast cancer, and 105 miRNAs were identified as specific for triple negative tumors. In silico prediction revealed that miR-498 and miR-187-5p target BRCA1, and these results were confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. While miR-187-5p was found overexpressed in a luminal B cell line, miR-498 was highly expressed in a triple negative cell line, Hs578T, and its expression was negatively correlated with the levels of BRCA1. We functionally demonstrated that miR-498 inhibits BRCA1 in breast cancer cell lines, and showed that inhibition of miR-498 led to reduced proliferation in the triple negative cell line Hs578T. Our results indicate that miR-498 regulates BRCA1 expression in breast cancer and its overexpression could contribute to the pathogenesis of sporadic TNBC via BRCA1 downregulation. PMID:26933805
Liu, Xiaoping; Tang, Hailin; Chen, Jianping; Song, Cailu; Yang, Lu; Liu, Peng; Wang, Neng; Xie, Xinhua; Lin, Xiaoti; Xie, Xiaoming
Triple-negative breast cancer is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. The aim of our study was to investigate the functional role of both miR-101 and MCL-1 in the sensitivity of human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to paclitaxel. We found that the expression of miR-101 was strongly decreased in triple-negative breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The expression of miR-101 was not associated with clinical stage or lymph node infiltration in TNBC. Ectopic overexpression of miR-101 inhibit growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. MCL-1 was significantly overexpressed in most of the TNBC tissues and cell lines. Luciferase assay results confirmed MCL-1 as a direct target gene of miR-101. MiR-101 inhibited MCL-1 expression in TNBC cells and transplanted tumors. There was a negative correlation between the level of expression of miR-101 and MCL-1 in TNBC tissues. Suppression of MCL-1 enhanced the sensitivity of MDA-MB-435 cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, miR-101 increased paclitaxel sensitivity by inhibiting MCL-1 expression. Our findings provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of TNBC carcinogenesis and may have clinical relevance for the development of novel, targeted therapies for TNBC.
The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to hormonal therapy is recommended for patients with estrogen receptor–positive (ER+), node-positive (N+) early breast cancer (EBC). Some of these patients, however, are not likely to benefit from treatment and may, therefore, be overtreated while also incurring unnecessary treatment-related adverse events and health care costs. The 21-gene Recurrence Score assay has been clinically validated and recommended for use in patients with ER+, node-negative (N0) EBC to assess the 10-year risk of distant disease recurrence and predict the likelihood of response to adjuvant chemotherapy. A growing body of evidence from several large phase III clinical trials reports similar findings in patients with ER+, N+ EBC. A systematic review of published literature from key clinical trials that have used the 21-gene breast cancer assay in patients with ER+, N+ EBC was performed. The Recurrence Score has been shown to be an independent predictor of disease-free survival, overall survival, and distant recurrence-free interval in patients with ER+, N+ EBC. Outcomes from decision impact and health economics studies further indicate that the Recurrence Score affects physician treatment recommendations equally in patients with N+ or N0 disease. It also indicates that a reduction in Recurrence Score–directed chemotherapy is cost-effective. There is a large body of evidence to support the use of the 21-gene assay Recurrence Score in patients with N+ EBC. Use of this assay could help guide treatment decisions for patients who are most likely to receive benefit from chemotherapy. PMID:24853663
Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Jain, Maneesh; Pai, Priya; Smith, Lynette M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Batra, Surinder K.
Introduction Current studies indicate that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer subtype, is associated with poor prognosis and an early pattern of metastasis. Emerging evidence suggests that MUC4 mucin is associated with metastasis of various cancers, including breast cancer. However, the functional role of MUC4 remains unclear in breast cancers, especially in TNBCs. Method In the present study, we investigated the functional and mechanistic roles of MUC4 in potentiating pathogenic signals including EGFR family proteins to promote TNBC aggressiveness using in vitro and in vivo studies. Further, we studied the expression of MUC4 in invasive TNBC tissue and normal breast tissue by immunostaining. Results MUC4 promotes proliferation, anchorage-dependent and-independent growth of TNBC cells, augments TNBC cell migratory and invasive potential in vitro, and enhances tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. In addition, our studies demonstrated that MUC4 up-regulates the EGFR family of proteins, and augments downstream Erk1/2, PKC-γ, and FAK mediated oncogenic signaling. Moreover, our studies also showed that knockdown of MUC4 in TNBC cells induced molecular changes suggestive of mesenchymal to epithelial transition. We also demonstrated in this study, for the first time, that knockdown of MUC4 was associated with reduced expression of EGFR and ErbB3 (EGFR family proteins) in TNBC cells, suggesting that MUC4 uses an alternative to ErbB2 mechanism to promote aggressiveness. We further demonstrate that MUC4 is differentially over-expressed in invasive TNBC tissues compared to normal breast tissue. Conclusions MUC4 mucin expression is associated with TNBC pathobiology, and its knockdown reduced aggressiveness in vitro, and tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Overall, our findings suggest that MUC4 mucin promotes invasive activities of TNBC cells by altering the expression of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 molecules and their downstream signaling. PMID
Mirzania, Mehrzad; Safaee, Seyed Reza; Shahi, Farhad; Jahanzad, Issa; Zahedi, Ghazal; Mehdizadeh, Reza
Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) have a more aggressive course and are associated with poorer prognosis in comparison with other subtypes of breast cancer. One of the most common subtypes of TNBC is basal-like. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological characteristics and clinical course of TNBC in Iranian women and compare them with other studies. Subjects and Methods: Between March 2009 and February 2011, patients with breast cancer in Cancer Institute of Iran were selected and then followed-up for 2 years. Paraffin-embedded tumor block of all TNBC patients were evaluated for CK5/6 and EGFR using IHC method. Results: Among 267 breast cancer patients, 60 cases with TNBC were identified (22.5%), 31 patients (51.7%) had basal-like and 29 patients (48.3%) had non-basal-like tumors. The median age of participants with TNBC was 49.6 years. Among our patients, 70% had positive lymph nodes.93.4% of all patients at the time of diagnosis were stage II or III and tumor size was at least 3 centimeters. No grade 1 TNBC was found in this study. During the follow-up period, there were 26 recurrences and 7 deaths. Conclusion: The percentage of basal-like subtype among Iranian women with TNBC was lower compared to other studies, while bone metastases, clinical stage, lymph node involvement and tumor size were higher. Clinicopathological findings in basal and non-basal-like subgroups were not different, but the probability of lymph node involvement was more common in patients who were EGFR positive. PMID:28286613
Abdollahi, Alireza; Etemadi, Mehrnoosh
Background : Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are defined as breast cancers with lack of estrogen and progesterone receptors and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This study was performed to determine the frequency and pathologic features of TNBC in Iranian patients. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on patients with breast cancer who referred to Cancer Institute, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from April 2014 to April 2015. Data about the demographics, the status of gene receptors and the pathologic features were extracted from patients’ records. Results : Of 214 pathology samples of patients with malignant breast cancer, TNBCs account for 14% of cases. The mean age in N-TNBC group was 50 ± 12 years. Significant difference was seen between the age of two groups (p=0.03). No significant difference was observed regarding the number of involved lymph nodes between two groups (p=0.058). Presence of vascular and nerve invasion and involvement of surgical margins at the time of diagnosis were significantly more frequent in TNBC group comparing with N-TNBC. Grade III of histologic and nuclear grading was significantly more common in TNBC. Conclusion : TNBC group was significantly associated with higher grade, higher mitotic indices and higher rate of P53 positivity and higher level of Ki-67 at the time of diagnosis. High grade breast cancers are more seen in TNBC. The presence of aforementioned characteristics in a patient highlights the need for evaluating TNBC biomarkers to better predict prognosis and consider appropriate treatment. PMID:27928473
Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER)+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER− breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. PMID:24482576
Liu, Yan; Baglia, Michelle; Zheng, Ying; Blot, William; Bao, Ping-Ping; Cai, Hui; Nechuta, Sarah; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou
ALDH1 is a crucial element in the retinoic acid signaling pathway regulating the self-renewal and differentiation of normal stem cells, and may play an important role in cancer progression. However, research on ALDH1 gene expression and breast cancer prognosis has yielded conflicting results. We evaluated the association between tumor tissue ALDH1A1/ALDH1A3 mRNA expression and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) prognosis in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, N=463), Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS, N=86), and Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS, N=47). Gene expression was measured in RNA isolated from breast cancer tissues. In the SBCSS, higher ALDH1A1 mRNA level was associated with improved disease-free (HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95, per log unit change) and overall survival (HR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.93 per log unit change) independent of age at diagnosis, TNM stage and treatment. We replicated the findings for overall survival in the NBHS and SCCS (HR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73) and for disease-free survival by a meta-analysis of four publicly-available gene expression datasets (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97). No significant association was found for ALDH1A3.Our study suggests high expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA in tumor tissues may be an independent predictor of a favorable TNBC outcome.
Wang, Lei; Hu, Xin; Wang, Peng; Shao, Zhi-Ming
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous disease with an aggressive clinical course. Prognostic models are needed to chart potential patient outcomes. To address this, we used alternative 3′UTR patterns to improve postoperative risk stratification. We collected 327 publicly available microarrays and generated the 3′UTR landscape based on expression ratios of alternative 3′UTR. After initial feature filtering, we built a 17-3′UTR-based classifier using an elastic net model. Time-dependent ROC comparisons and Kaplan–Meier analyses confirmed an outstanding discriminating power of our prognostic model for TNBC patients. In the training cohort, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 78.6% (95% CI 71.2–86.0) for the low-risk group, and 16.3% (95% CI 2.3–30.4) for the high-risk group (log-rank p<0.0001; hazard ratio [HR] 8.29, 95% CI 4.78–14.4), In the validation set, 5-year EFS was 75.6% (95% CI 68.0–83.2) for the low-risk group, and 33.2% (95% CI 17.1–49.3) for the high-risk group (log-rank p<0.0001; HR 3.17, 95% CI 1.66–5.42). In conclusion, the 17-3′UTR-based classifier provides a superior prognostic performance for estimating disease recurrence and metastasis in TNBC patients and it may permit personalized management strategies. PMID:27494850
Sugita, Bruna; Gill, Mandeep; Mahajan, Akanskha; Duttargi, Anju; Kirolikar, Saurabh; Almeida, Rodrigo; Regis, Kenny; Oluwasanmi, Olusayo L.; Marchi, Fabio; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Sheahan, Laura; Cavalli, Iglenir J.; Ribeiro, Enilze M.; Madhavan, Subha; Boca, Simina; Gusev, Yuriy; Cavalli, Luciane R.
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), a clinically aggressive subtype of breast cancer, disproportionately affects African American (AA) women when compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). MiRNAs(miRNAs) play a critical role in these tumors, through the regulation of cancer driver genes. In this study, our goal was to characterize and compare the patterns of miRNA expression in TNBC of AA (n = 27) and NHW women (n = 30). A total of 256 miRNAs were differentially expressed between these groups, and distinct from the ones observed in their respective non-TNBC subtypes. Fifty-five of these miRNAs were mapped in cytobands carrying copy number alterations (CNAs); 26 of them presented expression levels concordant with the observed CNAs. Receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a good power (AUC ≥ 0.80; 95% CI) for over 65% of the individual miRNAs and a high combined power with superior sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 0.88 (0.78−0.99); 95% CI) of the 26 miRNA panel in discriminating TNBC between these populations. Subsequent miRNA target analysis revealed their involvement in the interconnected PI3K/AKT, MAPK and insulin signaling pathways. Additionally, three miRNAs of this panel were associated with early age at diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicated that there are different patterns of miRNA expression between TNBC of AA and NHW women and that their mapping in genomic regions with high levels of CNAs is not merely physical, but biologically relevant to the TNBC phenotype. Once validated in distinct cohorts of AA women, this panel can potentially represent their intrinsic TNBC genome signature. PMID:27813494
Ren, Yong-qiang; Fu, Fengkui; Han, Jianjun
Background MiR-27a is significantly overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the exact biological function of MiR-27a in TNBC is not fully understood. In this study, we verified miR-27a expression in TNBC cells and explored how its overexpression modulates radiosensitivity of the cells. Material/Method qRT-PCR analysis was performed to study miR-27a expression in TNBC lines MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 and in normal human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Dual luciferase assay was performed to verify a putative downstream target of miR-27a, CDC27. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the influence of miR-27a-CDC27 axis on cell proliferation under irradiation (IR) treatment. Results We confirmed significantly higher miR-27a expression in 2 TNBC cell lines – MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231 – than in human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. miR-27a could modulate proliferation and radiosensitivity of TNBC cells. CDC-27 is a direct target of miR-27a and its downregulation conferred increased radioresistance of the cells. Conclusions The miR-27a-CDC27 axis might play an important role in modulating response to radiotherapy in TNBC cells. Testing miR-27a expression might be a useful way to identify a subgroup of patients who will benefit from an IR-based therapeutic approach. PMID:25943633
Fanale, Daniele; Perez, Alessandro; Castiglia, Marta; Incorvaia, Lorena; Listì, Angela; Rizzo, Sergio; Cicero, Giuseppe; Bazan, Viviana; Castorina, Sergio; Russo, Antonio
Breast cancer is one of the most widespread carcinoma and one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide, especially in women aged between 35 and 75 years. Among the different subtypes, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the total absence of the estrogen-receptor (ER) and progesteron-receptor (PR) expression as well as the lack of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or gene amplification. These biological characteristics confer to TNBC a higher aggressiveness and relapse risk along with poorer prognosis compared to other subtypes. Indeed, 5-years survival rate is still low and almost all patients die, despite any adjuvant treatment which at moment represents the heading pharmacological approach. To date, several clinical trials have been designed to investigate the potential role of some molecular markers, such as VEGF, EGFR, Src and mTOR, for targeted treatments in TNBC. In fact, many inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, frequently de-regulated in TNBC, are acquiring a growing interest and several inhibitors are in preclinical development or already in early phase clinical trials. In this Review, we investigated the role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in TNBC patients, by summarizing the molecular features that led to the distinction of different histotypes of TNBC. Furthermore, we provided an overview of the inhibition mechanisms of the mTOR and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, highlighting the importance of integrating biological and clinical data for the development of mTOR inhibitors in order to implement targeted therapies for TNBC patients. PMID:27474173
Severson, Tesa M; Peeters, Justine; Majewski, Ian; Michaut, Magali; Bosma, Astrid; Schouten, Philip C; Chin, Suet-Feung; Pereira, Bernard; Goldgraben, Mae A; Bismeijer, Tycho; Kluin, Roelof J C; Muris, Jettie J F; Jirström, Karin; Kerkhoven, Ron M; Wessels, Lodewyk; Caldas, Carlos; Bernards, René; Simon, Iris M; Linn, Sabine
Triple negative (TN) breast cancers make up some 15% of all breast cancers. Approximately 10-15% are mutant for the tumor suppressor, BRCA1. BRCA1 is required for homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair and deficiency results in genomic instability. BRCA1-mutated tumors have a specific pattern of genomic copy number aberrations that can be used to classify tumors as BRCA1-like or non-BRCA1-like. BRCA1 mutation, promoter methylation, BRCA1-like status and genome-wide expression data was determined for 112 TN breast cancer samples with long-term follow-up. Mutation status for 21 known DNA repair genes and PIK3CA was assessed. Gene expression and mutation frequency in BRCA1-like and non-BRCA1-like tumors were compared. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. BRCA1 germline mutation was identified in 10% of patients and 15% of tumors were BRCA1 promoter methylated. Fifty-five percent of tumors classified as BRCA1-like. The functions of genes significantly up-regulated in BRCA1-like tumors included cell cycle and DNA recombination and repair. TP53 was found to be frequently mutated in BRCA1-like (P < 0.05), while PIK3CA was frequently mutated in non-BRCA1-like tumors (P < 0.05). A significant association with worse prognosis was evident for patients with BRCA1-like tumors (adjusted HR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.30-8.48, P = 0.01). TN tumors can be further divided into two major subgroups, BRCA1-like and non-BRCA1-like with different mutation and expression patterns and prognoses. Based on these molecular patterns, subgroups may be more sensitive to specific targeted agents such as PI3K or PARP inhibitors.
Su, Jung-Chen; Mar, Ai-Chung; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Tai, Wei-Tien; Chu, Pei-Yi; Wu, Chia-Yun; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Kuen-Feng; Liu, Chun-Yu; Chiu, Hao-Chieh; Shiau, Chung-Wai
Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) had an increased likelihood of distant recurrence and death, as compared with those with non-TNBC subtype. Regorafenib is a multi-receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor targeting oncogenesis and has been approved for metastatic colorectal cancer and advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Recent studies suggest regorafenib acts as a SHP-1 phosphatase agonist. Here, we investigated the potential of regorafenib to suppress metastasis of TNBC cells through targeting SHP-1/p-STAT3/VEGF-A axis. We found a significant correlation between cancer cell migration and SHP-1/p-STAT3/VEGF-A expression in human TNBC cells. Clinically, high VEGF-A expression is associated with worse disease-free and distant metastasis-free survival. Regorafenib induced significant anti-migratory effects, in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 and VEGF-A. To exclude the role of RTK inhibition in regorafenib-induced anti-metastasis, we synthesized a regorafenib derivative, SC-78, that had minimal effect on VEGFR2 and PDGFR kinase inhibition, while having more potent effects on SHP-1 activation. SC-78 demonstrated superior in vitro and in vivo anti-migration to regorafenib. Furthermore, VEGF-A dependent autocrine/paracrine loops were disrupted by regorafenib and SC-78. This study implies that SHP-1/p-STAT3/VEGF-A axis is a potential therapeutic target for metastatic TNBC, and the more potent SC-78 may be a promising lead for suppressing metastasis of TNBC. PMID:27364975
Piechocki, Marie P; Wu, Gen Sheng; Jones, Richard F; Jacob, Jennifer B; Gibson, Heather; Ethier, Stephen P; Abrams, Judith; Yagita, Hideo; Venuprasad, K; Wei, Wei-Zen
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 [TRAIL-R2 or death receptor 5 (DR5)] is expressed at elevated levels in a broad range of solid tumors to mediate apoptotic signals from TRAIL or agonist antibodies. We tested the hypothesis that DR5 DNA vaccination will induce proapoptotic antibody to trigger apoptosis of tumor cells. BALB/c mice were electrovaccinated with DNA-encoding wild-type human DR5 (phDR5) or its derivatives. Resulting immune serum or purified immune IgG induced apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which were also TRAIL sensitive. The proapoptotic activity of immune serum at dilutions of 0.5-2% was comparable to that of 1-2 μg/ml of TRAIL. Apoptotic activity of immune serum was enhanced by antibody crosslinking. Apoptotic cell death induced by anti-DR5 antibody was shown by the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3. In contrast, immune serum had no effect on the proliferation of activated human T cells, which expressed low levels of DR5. In vivo, hDR5 reactive immune serum prevented growth of SUM159 TNBC cells in severe combined immune-deficient mice. DR5-specific IFN-γ-secreting T cells were also induced by DNA vaccination. Furthermore, the feasibility to overcome immune tolerance to self DR5 was shown by the induction of mouse DR5-binding antibody after electrovaccination of BALB/c mice with pmDR5ectm-Td1 encoding a fusion protein of mouse DR5 and an immunogenic fragment of tetanus toxin. These findings support DR5 as a promising vaccine target for controlling TNBC and other DR5-positive cancers.
Kai, Masaya; Kanaya, Noriko; Wu, Shang V; Mendez, Carlos; Nguyen, Duc; Luu, Thehang; Chen, Shiuan
The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of combining a histone deacetylase inhibitor (LBH589) and a breast cancer stem cells (BCSC)-targeting agent (salinomycin) as a novel combination therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We performed in vitro studies using the TNBC cell lines to examine the combined effect. We used the mammosphere and ALDEFLUOR assays to estimate BCSC self-renewal capacity and distribution of BCSCs, respectively. Synergistic analysis was performed using CalcuSyn software. For in vivo studies, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 ALDH1-positive cells were injected into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency gamma (NSG) mice. After tumor formation, mice were treated with LBH589, salinomycin, or in combination. In a second mouse model, HCC1937 cells were first treated with each treatment and then injected into NSG mice. For mechanistic analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed using cell and tumor samples. HCC1937 cells displayed BCSC properties including self-renewal capacity, an ALDH1-positive cell population, and the ability to form tumors. Treatment of HCC1937 cells with LBH589 and salinomycin had a potent synergistic effect inhibiting TNBC cell proliferation, ALDH1-positive cells, and mammosphere growth. In xenograft mouse models treated with LBH589 and salinomycin, the drug combination effectively and synergistically inhibited tumor growth of ALDH1-positive cells. The drug combination exerted its effects by inducing apoptosis, arresting the cell cycle, and regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Combination of LBH589 and salinomycin has a synergistic inhibitory effect on TNBC BCSCs by inducing apoptosis, arresting the cell cycle, and regulating EMT; with no apparent associated severe toxicity. This drug combination could therefore offer a new targeted therapeutic strategy for TNBC and warrants further clinical study in patients with TNBC.
Dawood, Shaheenah; Broglio, Kristine; Kau, Shu-Wan; Green, Marjorie C.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Albarracin, Constance; Yang, Wei T.; Hennessy, Bryan T.J.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria
Purpose The goal of this study was to describe the effect of race on pathologic complete response (pCR) rates and survival outcomes in women with triple receptor–negative (TN) breast cancers. Patients and Methods Four hundred seventy-one patients with TN breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2005 and treated with primary systemic chemotherapy were included. pCR was defined as no residual invasive cancer in the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and compared between groups using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted for each survival outcome to determine the relationship of patient and tumor variables with outcome. Results Median follow-up time was 24.5 months. One hundred patients (21.2%) were black, and 371 patients (78.8%) were white/other race. Seventeen percent of black patients (n = 17) and 25.1% of white/other patients (n = 93) achieved a pCR (P = .091). Three-year RFS rates were 68% (95% CI, 56% to 76%) and 62% (95% CI, 57% to 67%) for black and white/other patients, respectively, with no significant difference observed between the two groups (P = .302). Three-year OS was similar for the two racial groups. After controlling for patient and tumor characteristics, race was not significantly associated with RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.68; P = .747) or OS (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.68; P = .735) when white/other patients were compared with black patients. Conclusion Race does not significantly affect pCR rates or survival outcomes in women with TN breast cancer treated in a single institution under the same treatment conditions. PMID:19047281
Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Kyunghee; Jung, Hae Hyun; Lee, Eunjin; Cho, Eun Yoon; Lee, Kwang Hee; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee
Purpose TP53, the most frequently mutated gene in breast cancer, is more frequently altered in HER2-enriched and basal-like breast cancer. However, no studies have clarified the role of TP53 status as a prognostic and predictive marker of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Materials and Methods We performed p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC), nCounter mRNA expression assay, and DNA sequencing to determine the relationship between TP53 alteration and clinical outcomes of TNBC patients. Results Seventy-seven of 174 TNBC patients were found to harbor a TP53 mutation. Patients with missense mutations showed high protein expression in contrast to patients with deletion mutations (positivity of IHC: wild type vs. missense vs. deletion mutation, 53.6% vs. 89.8% vs. 25.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). TP53 mRNA expression was influenced by mutation status (mRNA expression [median]: wild type vs. missense vs. deletion mutation, 207.36± 132.73 vs. 339.61±143.21 vs. 99.53±99.57, respectively; p < 0.001). According to survival analysis, neither class of mutation nor protein or mRNA expression status had any impact on patient prognosis. In subgroup analysis, low mRNA expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with a TP53 missense mutation (5-year distant recurrence-free survival [5Y DRFS]: low vs. high, 50.0% vs. 87.8%; p=0.009), while high mRNA expression with a TP53 deletion mutation indicated poor prognosis (5Y DRFS: low vs. high, 91.7% vs. 75.0%; p=0.316). Conclusion Association between TP53 mutation and expression indicates a potential prognostic marker of TNBC; hence both DNA sequencing and mRNA expression analysis may be required to predict the prognosis of TNBC patients. PMID:26910472
Zheng, Yi-Zi; Qiao, Feng; Yao, Ling; Cao, Zhi-Gang; Ye, Fu-Gui; Wu, Jiong; Hu, Xin; Wang, Bin; Shao, Zhi-Ming
Background The tumor suppressor BRCA1 plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor suppression. The BRCA1-A complex is required for recruitment of BRCA1 to DNA damage sites, DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Since germline mutations of BRCA1 often lead to breast tumors that are triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) type, we aimed to investigate whether genetic deficiency in genes of the BRCA1-A complex is associated with risk to TNBC development. Results We found that rs7250266 in the promoter region of NBA1 confers a decreased risk to TNBC development, but not to non-TNBC susceptibility. In addition, the haplotypes containing two polymorphisms rs7250266 and rs2278256 are associated with a lower chance of TNBC development specifically. Our studies also showed that the protective alleles of rs7250266 (C > G) and rs2278256 (T > C) down-regulate promoter activity of NBA1 in mammary epithelial cells. Methods We investigated associations between the BRCA1-A complex genes and TNBC developing risk in first case-control study of Chinese Han Women population including 414 patients with TNBC and 354 cancer-free controls. We detected 37 common variants in ABRAXAS, RAP80, BRE, BRCC36 and NBA1/MERIT40 genes encoding the BRCA1-A complex and evaluated their genetic susceptibility to the risk of TNBC. An additional cohort with 652 other types of breast cancer (non-TNBC) cases and 890 controls was used to investigate the associations between TNBC-specific SNPs genotype and non-TNBCs susceptibility. Conclusions Genetic variants in NBA1 may be an important genetic determinant of TNBC susceptibility. Further investigation and validation of these SNPs in larger cohorts may facilitate in predication and prevention of TNBC and in counseling individuals for risk of TNBC development. PMID:26848770
Kai, Kazuharu; Kondo, Kimie; Wang, Xiaoping; Xie, Xuemei; Pitner, Mary K.; Reyes, Monica E.; Torres-Adorno, Angie M.; Masuda, Hiroko; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Saya, Hideyuki; Tripathy, Debu; Sen, Subrata; Ueno, Naoto T.
Currently, no targeted drug is available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. TNBC has high mitotic activity, and since Aurora A and B mitotic kinases drive cell division and are overexpressed in tumors with a high mitotic index, we hypothesized that inhibiting Aurora A and B produces a significant antitumor effect in TNBC. We tested this hypothesis by determining the antitumor effects of KW-2450, a multikinase inhibitor of both Aurora A and B kinases. We observed significant inhibitory activities of KW-2450 on cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation in agar, and mammosphere formation in TNBC cells. The growth of TNBC xenografts was significantly inhibited with KW-2450. In cell cycle analysis, KW-2450 induced tetraploid accumulation followed by apoptosis or surviving octaploid (8N) cells, depending on dose. These phenotypes resembled those of Aurora B knockdown and complete pharmaceutical inhibition of Aurora A. We demonstrated that 8N cells resulting from KW-2450 treatment depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) for their survival. When treated with the MEK inhibitor selumetinib combined with KW-2450, compared with KW-2450 alone, the 8N cell population was significantly reduced and apoptosis was increased. Indeed this combination showed synergistic antitumor effect in SUM149 TNBC xenografts. Collectively, Aurora A and B inhibition had a significant antitumor effect against TNBC, and this antitumor effect was maximized by the combination of selumetinib with Aurora A and B inhibition. PMID:26443806
Jin, Min-Sun; Lee, Hyebin; Park, In Ae; Chung, Yul Ri; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Kyubo; Kim, Tae-Yong; Noh, Dong-Young; Ryu, Han Suk
Dysregulated energy metabolism is one of the main mechanisms for uncontrolled growth in solid tumors. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) is a transcription factor implicated in regulating several genes that are responsible for cell metabolism, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). The aim of this study is to determine the clinical significance of immunohistochemical metabolic alteration in early-stage triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients who received cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy or radiotherapy and those with basal phenotype. Immunohistochemical staining for HIF1α and CAIX was performed to determine the correlation with clinicopathologic variables and survival outcome on tissue microarrays from 270 early-stage TNBC patients. In vitro experiments with multiple human TNBC cell lines, suppression of HIF1α by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced CAIX protein expression in all cell lines. In multivariate analyses for different therapeutic modalities and basal phenotype, combined HIF1α and CAIX protein overexpression was significantly associated with disease-free survival in the total cohort (OR = 2.583, P = 0.002), stratified cohorts expressing basal phenotype (OR = 2.234, P = 0.021), and in those patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 3.078, P = 0.023) and adjuvant radiotherapy (OR = 2.111, P = 0.050), respectively. In early TNBC, combined HIF1α and CAIX protein expression may serve as an unfavorable prognostic indicator particularly in patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy or radiotherapy as well as those with basal phenotype of breast cancer.
Kwon, Jeanny; Eom, Keun-Yong; Koo, Tae Ryool; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu Jung; Park, So Yeon
Purpose Considering the distinctive biology of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), this study aimed to identify TNBC-specific prognostic factors and determine the prognostic value of the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) and its variant indices. Methods A total of 233 patients with newly diagnosed stage I to III TNBC from 2003 to 2012 were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed the patients' demographics, clinicopathologic parameters, treatment, and survival outcomes. The NPI was calculated as follows: tumor size (cm)×0.2+node status+Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade. The modified NPI (MNPI) was obtained by adding the modified SBR grade rather than the SBR grade. Results The median follow-up was 67.8 months. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 81.4% and 89.9%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the MNPI was the most significant and common prognostic factor of DFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.019). Young age (≤35 years) was also correlated with poor DFS (p=0.006). A recursive partitioning for establishing the prognostic model for DFS was performed based on the results of multivariate analysis. Patients with a low MNPI (≤6.5) were stratified into the low-risk group (p<0.001), and patients with a high MNPI (>6.5) were subdivided into the intermediate (>35 years) and high-risk (≤35 years) groups. Age was not a prognostic factor in patients with a low MNPI, whereas in patients with a high MNPI, it was the second key factor in subdividing patients according to prognosis (p=0.023). Conclusion The MNPI could be used to stratify patients with stage I to III TNBC according to prognosis. It was the most important prognosticator for both DFS and OS. The prognostic significance of young age for DFS differed by MNPI. PMID:28382096
Masili-Oku, Sergio Mitsuo; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo; Fernandes, Felipe Seabra; Filassi, José Roberto; Baracat, Edmund C; Carvalho, Filomena Marino
Objective Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasias, even though they generally exhibit a clinically more aggressive phenotype, and are more prevalent in young women. To date, targeted therapies for this group of tumors have not been defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the apocrine subtype in TBNCs from premenopausal patients as defined by the immunohistochemical expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its association with: histological type; tumor grade; proliferative activity; epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression; and a basal-like phenotype. Methods A total of 118 tumor samples from patients aged 45 years or younger were selected and reviewed according to histological type and grade. Ki-67 expression was also evaluated. Immunohistochemical expression of the AR, basal cytokeratin ⅚, and EGFR expression were analyzed in tissue microarrays. The apocrine subset was defined by AR-positive expression. The basal-like phenotype was characterized by cytokeratin ⅚ and/or EGFR expression. Results An apocrine profile was identified in 6/118 (5.1%) cases. This subset of cases also exhibited a lower rate of Ki-67 expression (17.5% versus 70.0%, p = 0.02), and a trend toward a lower histological grade (66.7% versus 27.9%, p = 0.06). Conclusions The apocrine subtype of TNBCs is rare among premenopausal women, and it tends to present as carcinomas of lower grade and lower proliferative activity, suggesting a less aggressive biological phenotype.
Kai, Kazuharu; Kondo, Kimie; Wang, Xiaoping; Xie, Xuemei; Pitner, Mary K; Reyes, Monica E; Torres-Adorno, Angie M; Masuda, Hiroko; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Saya, Hideyuki; Tripathy, Debu; Sen, Subrata; Ueno, Naoto T
Currently, no targeted drug is available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. TNBC has high mitotic activity, and, because Aurora A and B mitotic kinases drive cell division and are overexpressed in tumors with a high mitotic index, we hypothesized that inhibiting Aurora A and B produces a significant antitumor effect in TNBC. We tested this hypothesis by determining the antitumor effects of KW-2450, a multikinase inhibitor of both Aurora A and B kinases. We observed significant inhibitory activities of KW-2450 on cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation in agar, and mammosphere formation in TNBC cells. The growth of TNBC xenografts was significantly inhibited with KW-2450. In cell-cycle analysis, KW-2450 induced tetraploid accumulation followed by apoptosis or surviving octaploid (8N) cells, depending on dose. These phenotypes resembled those of Aurora B knockdown and complete pharmaceutical inhibition of Aurora A. We demonstrated that 8N cells resulting from KW-2450 treatment depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) for their survival. When treated with the MEK inhibitor selumetinib combined with KW-2450, compared with KW-2450 alone, the 8N cell population was significantly reduced and apoptosis was increased. Indeed, this combination showed synergistic antitumor effect in SUM149 TNBC xenografts. Collectively, Aurora A and B inhibition had a significant antitumor effect against TNBC, and this antitumor effect was maximized by the combination of selumetinib with Aurora A and B inhibition.
Kwon, Yeon-Jin; Petrie, Kevin; Leibovitch, Boris A; Zeng, Lei; Mezei, Mihaly; Howell, Louise; Gil, Veronica; Christova, Rossitza; Bansal, Nidhi; Yang, Shuai; Sharma, Rajal; Ariztia, Edgardo V; Frankum, Jessica; Brough, Rachel; Sbirkov, Yordan; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J; Zelent, Arthur; Farias, Eduardo; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Waxman, Samuel
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors account for 10% to 20% of breast cancer and are indicative of poor prognosis. The development of effective treatment strategies therefore represents a pressing unmet clinical need. We previously identified a molecularly targeted approach to target aberrant epigenetics of TNBC using a peptide corresponding to the SIN3 interaction domain (SID) of MAD. SID peptide selectively blocked binding of SID-containing proteins to the paired α-helix (PAH2) domain of SIN3, resulting in epigenetic and transcriptional modulation of genes associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To find small molecule inhibitor (SMI) mimetics of SID peptide, we performed an in silico screen for PAH2 domain-binding compounds. This led to the identification of the avermectin macrocyclic lactone derivatives selamectin and ivermectin (Mectizan) as candidate compounds. Both selamectin and ivermectin phenocopied the effects of SID peptide to block SIN3-PAH2 interaction with MAD, induce expression of CDH1 and ESR1, and restore tamoxifen sensitivity in MDA-MB-231 human and MMTV-Myc mouse TNBC cells in vitro. Treatment with selamectin or ivermectin led to transcriptional modulation of genes associated with EMT and maintenance of a cancer stem cell phenotype in TNBC cells. This resulted in impairment of clonogenic self-renewal in vitro and inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Underlining the potential of avermectins in TNBC, pathway analysis revealed that selamectin also modulated the expression of therapeutically targetable genes. Consistent with this, an unbiased drug screen in TNBC cells identified selamectin-induced sensitization to a number of drugs, including those targeting modulated genes.
Noori, Mahboubeh S; O'Brien, John D; Champa, Zachary J; Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Lanier, Olivia L; Qi, Chunyan; Burdick, Monica M; Schwartz, Frank L; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McCall, Kelly D; Goetz, Douglas J
Inhibition of interleukin-6 (IL-6) holds significant promise as a therapeutic approach for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We previously reported that phenylmethimazole (C10) reduces IL-6 expression in several cancer cell lines. We have identified a more potent derivative of C10 termed COB-141. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that C10 and COB-141 inhibit TNBC cell expressed IL-6 and investigated the potential for classical IL-6 pathway induced signaling within TNBC cells. A panel of TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, MDA-MB-468) was used. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that C10 and COB-141 inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell IL-6 secretion, with COB-141 being ~6.5 times more potent than C10. Therefore, the remainder of the study focused on COB-141 which inhibited IL-6 secretion, and was found, via quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), to inhibit IL-6 mRNA in the TNBC panel. COB-141 had little, if any, effect on metabolic activity indicating that the IL-6 inhibition is not via a toxic effect. Flow cytometric analysis and QRT-PCR revealed that the TNBC cell lines do not express the IL-6 receptor (IL-6Rα). Trans-AM assays suggested that COB-141 exerts its inhibitory effect, at least in part, by reducing NF-κB (p65/p50) DNA binding. In summary, COB-141 is a potent inhibitor of TNBC cell expressed IL-6 and the inhibition does not appear to be due to non-specific toxicity. The TNBC cell lines do not have an intact classical IL-6 signaling pathway. COB-141's inhibitory effect may be due, at least in part, to reducing NF-κB (p65/p50) DNA binding.
Li, Rong-Hui; Huang, Wen-He; Wu, Jun-Dong; Du, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the significance of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CXCR4 and EGFR expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in 207 primary breast cancer specimens. The associations between receptor expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed, and receptor expression was also assessed as a prognostic factor. In the human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, CXCR4 or EGFR was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA, and the biological behavior of the cells, including migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, was investigated. The results revealed that TNBC was associated with younger age, higher histological grade and an aggressive phenotype. CXCR4 and EGFR were highly expressed in patients with TNBC, and those with high CXCR4 or EGFR expression exhibited an unfavorable prognosis in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the expression of CXCR4 protein was decreased following EGFR silencing, while CXCR4 knockdown also caused a decrease in EGFR protein levels. The migratory and invasive capabilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were decreased following the knockdown of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. A strong correlation between CXCR4 and EGFR expression was identified in patients with TNBC. The results suggest that elevated expression levels of these two receptors may serve as predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. In addition, tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis are weakened in MDA-MB-231 cells following suppression of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. Therefore, EGFR and CXCR4 may be potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. PMID:28356948
Panayotopoulou, Effrosini G; Müller, Anna-Katharina; Börries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Hu, Guohong; Lev, Sima
Standard chemotherapy is the only systemic treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and despite the good initial response, resistance remains a major therapeutic obstacle. Here, we employed a High-Throughput Screen to identify targeted therapies that overcome chemoresistance in TNBC. We applied short-term paclitaxel treatment and screened 320 small-molecule inhibitors of known targets to identify drugs that preferentially and efficiently target paclitaxel-treated TNBC cells. Among these compounds the SMAC mimetics (BV6, Birinapant) and BH3-mimetics (ABT-737/263) were recognized as potent targeted therapy for multiple paclitaxel-residual TNBC cell lines. However, acquired paclitaxel resistance through repeated paclitaxel pulses result in desensitization to BV6, but not to ABT-263, suggesting that short- and long-term paclitaxel resistance are mediated by distinct mechanisms. Gene expression profiling of paclitaxel-residual, -resistant and naïve MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated that paclitaxel-residual, as opposed to -resistant cells, were characterized by an apoptotic signature, with downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC5), induction of apoptosis inducers (IL24, PDCD4), and enrichment of TNFα/NF-κB pathway, including upregulation of TNFSF15, coupled with cell-cycle arrest. BIRC5 and FOXM1 downregulation and IL24 induction was also evident in breast cancer patient datasets following taxane treatment. Exposure of naïve or paclitaxel-resistant cells to supernatants of paclitaxel-residual cells sensitized them to BV6, and treatment with TNFα enhanced BV6 potency, suggesting that sensitization to BV6 is mediated, at least partially, by secreted factor(s). Our results suggest that administration of SMAC or BH3 mimetics following short-term paclitaxel treatment could be an effective therapeutic strategy for TNBC, while only BH3-mimetics could effectively overcome long-term paclitaxel resistance.
Li, Rong-Hui; Huang, Wen-He; Wu, Jun-Dong; Du, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the significance of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CXCR4 and EGFR expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in 207 primary breast cancer specimens. The associations between receptor expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed, and receptor expression was also assessed as a prognostic factor. In the human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, CXCR4 or EGFR was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA, and the biological behavior of the cells, including migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, was investigated. The results revealed that TNBC was associated with younger age, higher histological grade and an aggressive phenotype. CXCR4 and EGFR were highly expressed in patients with TNBC, and those with high CXCR4 or EGFR expression exhibited an unfavorable prognosis in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the expression of CXCR4 protein was decreased following EGFR silencing, while CXCR4 knockdown also caused a decrease in EGFR protein levels. The migratory and invasive capabilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were decreased following the knockdown of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. A strong correlation between CXCR4 and EGFR expression was identified in patients with TNBC. The results suggest that elevated expression levels of these two receptors may serve as predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. In addition, tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis are weakened in MDA-MB-231 cells following suppression of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. Therefore, EGFR and CXCR4 may be potential therapeutic targets for TNBC.
Chen, Bo; Dai, Danian; Tang, Hailin; Chen, Xi; Ai, Xiaohong; Huang, Xiaojia; Wei, Weidong; Xie, Xiaoming
Background: Serum parameters as prognostic parameters are studied widely. We aim to examine the prognostic significance of the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods: Total of 253 TNBC patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center who underwent treatment between January 2004 and December 2009 was conducted in this retrospective study. Before treatment serum ALP and LDH levels were routinely measured. We use the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to estimate the cutoff value of serum ALP and LDH levels. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression analysis were used for Disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) assessed. Results: The ROC curves determined that the optimum cutoff point for ALP and LDH were 66.5u/L and 160.5u/L, respectively. The elevated ALP and LDH were both significantly associated with decreased DFS and OS (both P < 0.001). In addition, the entire cohort was stratified into three subgroups basis of ALP levels and LDH levels. TNBC Patients who with ALP >66.5 u/L and LDH >160.5u/L had the worst DFS and OS (both P < 0.001). In TNBC patients, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses conformed ALP and LDH were independent unfavorable prognostic factors for DFS and OS. Conclusions: The serum levels of ALP and LDH before treatment are independent prognostic parameters and may serve as complement to help predict survival in TNBC. PMID:27994669
Sinha, Abhilasha; Paul, Bibbin T; Sullivan, Lisa M; Sims, Hillary; El Bastawisy, Ahmed; Yousef, Hend F; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Bahnassy, Abeer A; ElShamy, Wael M
Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are cancer cells endowed with self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation, increased chemo-resistance, and in breast cancers the CD44+/CD24-/ALDH1+ phenotype. Triple negative breast cancers show lack of BRCA1 expression in addition to enhanced basal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and TIC phenotypes. BRCA1-IRIS (hereafter IRIS) is an oncogene produced by the alternative usage of the BRCA1 locus. IRIS is involved in induction of replication, transcription of selected oncogenes, and promoting breast cancer cells aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that IRIS overexpression (IRISOE) promotes TNBCs through suppressing BRCA1 expression, enhancing basal-biomarkers, EMT-inducers, and stemness-enforcers expression. IRISOE also activates the TIC phenotype in TNBC cells through elevating CD44 and ALDH1 expression/activity and preventing CD24 surface presentation by activating the internalization pathway EGFR→c-Src→cortactin. We show that the intrinsic sensitivity to an anti-CD24 cross-linking antibody-induced cell death in membranous CD24 expressing/luminal A cells could be acquired in cytoplasmic CD24 expressing IRISOE TNBC/TIC cells through IRIS silencing or inactivation. We show that fewer IRISOE TNBC/TICs cells form large tumors composed of TICs, resembling TNBCs early lesions in patients that contain metastatic precursors capable of disseminating and metastasizing at an early stage of the disease. IRIS-inhibitory peptide killed these IRISOE TNBC/TICs, in vivo and prevented their dissemination and metastasis. We propose IRIS inactivation could be pursued to prevent dissemination and metastasis from early TNBC tumor lesions in patients.
Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W; Parris, Amanda B; Guo, Zhiying; Zhao, Qingxia; Yang, Xiaohe
Although alcohol is an established breast cancer risk factor, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous studies examined the general association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk; however, the risk for different breast cancer subtypes has been rarely reported. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer lacking hormone receptors and HER2 expression, and having poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of TNBC etiology remains a significant challenge. In this study, we investigated cellular responses to alcohol in two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. Our results showed that alcohol at low concentrations (0.025-0.1% v/v) induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in 1% FBS-containing medium. Molecular analysis indicated that these phenotypic changes were associated with alcohol-induced reactive oxygen species production and increased p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Likewise, p38 or JNK inhibition attenuated alcohol-induced cell migration and invasion. We revealed that alcohol treatment activated/phosphorylated NF-κB regulators and increased transcription of NF-κB-targeted genes. While examining the role of acetaldehyde, the major alcohol metabolite, in alcohol-associated responses in TNBC cells, we saw that acetaldehyde induced cell migration, invasion, and increased phospho-p38, phospho-JNK, and phospho-IκBα in a pattern similar to