Science.gov

Sample records for noise exposures characterization

  1. Noise exposure, characterization, and comparison of three football stadiums.

    PubMed

    Engard, Derek J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W; Brazile, William J

    2010-11-01

    Personal noise exposure samples were collected from five workers at a large-sized college football stadium and five workers at a medium-sized college football stadium in northern Colorado during three home football games, for a total of 30 personal noise exposures. In addition, personal noise exposure samples were collected from five fans at a National Football League (NFL) stadium, and from two fans at each of the college stadiums during three home football games, for a total of 27 personal noise exposure samples. None of the workers' noise doses were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. However, 11 of 28 (39%) workers' noise doses exceeded the OSHA action level of 85 dBA that would require enrollment in a hearing conservation program. Following ACGIH® recommendations for noise exposure limits, 27 of 28 (96%) workers would be considered overexposed. In addition, 24 of 25 fans (96%) were also overexposed according to ACGIH and World Health Organization recommendations. At the 95% confidence level, workers' and fans' noise exposures were not significantly different between the three stadiums. However, there was significant noise level variability between the games in each individual stadium (e.g., 82 dbA vs. 87 dbA mean worker OSHA noise exposure for two games at the large-sized college stadium, p=0.001). Given the personal sampling results for the stadium workers, the investigators believe that stadium management at these two universities should implement a hearing conservation program and provide hearing protection. Management should include a warning of possible loud-noise exposure during any sporting events held at the stadiums in fan guides, pamphlets, websites, or other appropriate communication tools. This information should include the health effects of loud noise exposure, namely, noise-induced hearing loss, the information should also be specifically targeted to parents of young children

  2. Characterization of noise and carbon monoxide exposures among professional firefighters in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Tracy L; Koehoorn, Mieke W; Davies, Hugh; Demers, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    To characterize exposures to noise and carbon monoxide (CO) among firefighters in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects were recruited from 13 fire halls across three municipalities in Metro Vancouver. Personal full-shift noise and CO samples were collected using datalogging noise dosimeters and CO monitors on both day and night shifts. Determinants of exposure (DoE) information were recorded by trained research staff and hygienists through direct observation during the measurement period. In total, 113 noise and 156 CO samples were collected from 45 male firefighters, aged 41.0 ± 7.2 years with 14.2 ± 9.0 years of experience. Mean L(eq) and peak noise levels were 81.1 ± 4.8 dBA and 137.1 ± 5.2 dB, respectively; 45% of samples exceeded occupational limits. Noise levels were significantly greater on day shifts, among firefighters in non-supervisory jobs, for those working on engine and rescue trucks, by number of emergency calls they attended and in particular for motor vehicle accident (MVA) and building alarms calls, if subjects worked near or used fire equipment, or if they participated in active firefighting training activities. Full-shift and peak CO levels were 1.0 ppm [geometric mean (GM) = 0.7, geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.8] and 42.9 ppm (GM = 9.95, GSD = 5.6), respectively; 1% of CO samples exceeded occupational limits. Both full-shift and peak CO levels were significantly correlated by number of MVAs and building alarms calls. Our results show that firefighters may be at an increased risk of exposure to high noise levels, but CO exposures were lower than anticipated. Additional exposure studies are needed to confirm our results and to better understand the DoE to noise and CO among this occupational group.

  3. Characterization of vibration and noise exposure in Canadian Forces armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Ann M.; Borland, Matthew J.; Abel, Sharon M.

    2005-09-01

    A study to characterize the vibration and noise exposure in several Canadian Forces (CF) armored vehicles is in progress. Measurements of whole-body vibration and ambient noise levels are being made in the LAV III, Bison, Coyote, and M113 vehicles at three different positions: driver, crew commander, and passenger bench (or navigator seat in the case of the Coyote). The measurements are being made while the vehicles are idling, driven over rough terrain, and driven at a high speed on paved highways. There are several standards that provide guidance on the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration, but they are difficult to implement in practice, particularly in adverse environments. The whole-body vibration measurements in this study are particularly difficult to interpret in the case of the crew commander, who often stands on the seat, and the passenger, who is seated but unrestrained by a seatbelt. The preliminary results-suggest, that according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines (ISO 2631-1:1997), there may be potential health risks for the driver and passenger after driving on rough terrain for less than 10 min. Noise levels were as high as 100 dBA during high-speed highway driving.

  4. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  5. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  6. Playback Experiments for Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Holles, Sophie; Simpson, Stephen D; Lecchini, David; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Playbacks are a useful tool for conducting well-controlled and replicated experiments on the effects of anthropogenic noise, particularly for repeated exposures. However, playbacks are unlikely to fully reproduce original sources of anthropogenic noise. Here we examined the sound pressure and particle acceleration of boat noise playbacks in a field experiment and reveal that although there remain recognized limitations, the signal-to-noise ratios of boat playbacks to ambient noise do not exceed those of a real boat. The experimental setup tested is therefore of value for use in experiments on the effects of repeated exposure of aquatic animals to boat noise.

  7. Noise exposure of music teachers.

    PubMed

    Behar, Alberto; MacDonald, Ewen; Lee, Jason; Cui, Jie; Kunov, Hans; Wong, Willy

    2004-04-01

    A noise exposure survey was performed to assess the risk of hearing loss to school music teachers during the course of their activities. Noise exposure of 18 teachers from 15 schools was measured using noise dosimeters. The equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq)) of each teacher was recorded during single activities (classes) as well as for the entire day, and a normalized 8-hour exposure, termed the noise exposure level (L(ex)) was also computed. The measured L(eq) exceeded the 85-dBA limit for 78% of the teachers. L(ex) exceeded 85 dBA for 39% of the teachers. Limited recommendations on how to reduce the noise exposures are provided. The need for a hearing conservation program has also been emphasized.

  8. Chicago Transit Authority Train Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Phan, Linh T; Jones, Rachael M

    2017-02-07

    To characterize noise exposure of riders on Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) trains, we measured noise levels twice on each segment of seven of the eight CTA train lines, which are named after colors, yielding 48 time-series measurements. We found the Blue Line has the highest noise levels compared to other train lines, with mean 76.9 dBA; and that the maximum noise level, 88.9 dBA occurred in the tunnel between the Chicago and Grand stations. Train segments involving travel through a tunnel had significantly higher noise levels than segments with travel on elevated and ground level tracks. While 8-hour doses inside the passenger cars were not estimated to exceed occupational exposure limits, train operators ride in a separate cab with operational windows and may therefore have higher noise exposures than riders. Despite the low risk of hearing loss for riders on CTA trains, in part because transit noise accounts for a small part of total daily noise exposure, 1-minute average noise levels exceeded 85 dBA at times. This confirms anecdotal observations of discomfort due to noise levels, and indicates a need for noise management, particularly in tunnels.

  9. Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    PubMed

    Mikulec, A A; Lukens, S B; Jackson, L E; Deyoung, M N

    2011-02-01

    To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed. Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h. When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top. Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

  10. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  11. 75 FR 44046 - Noise Exposure Map Acceptance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... the precise relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a noise... contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve questions concerning, for example, which.... Therefore, the responsibility for the detailed overlaying of noise exposure contours onto the map...

  12. Noise exposure among construction electricians.

    PubMed

    Seixas, N S; Ren, K; Neitzel, R; Camp, J; Yost, M

    2001-01-01

    Data-logging noise dosimetry was used to assess the exposure levels of electricians working for a major electrical subcontractor in Washington State at five sites using four types of construction methods. Subjects documented activities and work environment information throughout their work shift, resulting in an activity/exposure record for each of the 174 full-shift samples collected over the 4-month duration of the study. Over 24% of the TWA samples exceeded 85 dBA; 5.2% exceeded the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health exposure metric, which specifies a 3-dB ER, was also utilized; using this metric, 67.8% of the samples exceeded 85 dBA and 27% exceeded 90 dBA. Subjects were directly observed for a subset of 4469 min during which more detailed activity and environmental information was recorded. Linear and logistic regression models using this subset were used to identify the determinants of average exposure, and exposure exceedences, respectively. These models demonstrated the importance of multiple variable modeling in interpreting exposure assessments, and the feasibility and utility of modeling exposure exceedences using logistic regression. The results further showed that presumably quiet trades such as electrician are at risk of exposure to potentially harmful noise exposures, and that other workers' activities and the general environment contribute substantially to that risk. These results indicate that noise control strategies will have to address the construction work environment as an integrated system.

  13. Noise exposure in marching bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  14. Noise exposure in oil mills

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-01-01

    Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis

  15. Occupational and recreational noise exposure from indoor arena hockey games.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Cory J; Brazile, William J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Occupational and recreational noise exposures were evaluated at two sporting arenas hosting collegiate hockey games (Venue 1) and semi-professional hockey (Venue 2). A total of 54 personal noise dosimetry samples were taken over the course of seven home hockey games: 15 workers and 9 fans at Venue 1, and 19 workers and 11 fans at Venue 2. None of the sampled workers were overexposed to noise based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria. However, 40% and 57% of workers at Venue 1 and 33% and 91% of fans at Venue 2 were overexposed based on ACGIH noise exposure criteria. Noise exposures for fans were significantly different between venues, but worker noise exposures between venues were not significantly different. In addition, extensive area noise monitoring was conducted at each venue to further characterize the stadium noise on a location-by-location basis. Mean equivalent sound pressure levels ranged from 81 to 96 dBA at Venue 1 and from 85 to 97 dBA at Venue 2. Mean noise peak levels ranged from 105 to 124 dBA at Venue 1, and from 110 to 117 dBA at Venue 2. These data reflect the potential for overexposure at indoor hockey events and are useful in characterizing occupational noise exposure of indoor arena support staff and may also provide a foundation for future noise control research in indoor sports arenas.

  16. Evaluation of the noise exposure of symphonic orchestra musicians.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Matilde Alexandra; Freitas, Marisa Alexandra; Neves, Maria Paula; Silva, Manuela Vieira

    2014-01-01

    For musicians, the impact of noise exposure is not yet fully characterized. Some inconsistencies can be found in the methodology used to evaluate noise exposure. This study aims to analyze the noise exposure of musicians in a symphonic orchestra to understand their risk for hearing loss, applying the methodology proposed by ISO 9612:2009. Noise levels were monitored among musicians during the rehearsal of eight different repertoires. Test subjects were selected according to their instrument and position in the orchestra. Participants wore noise dosimeters throughout the rehearsals. A sound meter was used to analyze the exposure of the conductor. The results showed that musicians are exposed to high noise levels that can damage hearing. Brass, woodwind and percussion and timpani musicians were exposed to noise levels in excess of the upper exposure action level of 85 dB (A), while the other instrumental groups had a lower exposure action level of 80 dB (A). Percussion musicians were exposed to high peak noise levels of 135 dB (C). Sound levels varied by instrument, repertoire and position. Octave frequency analyses showed differences among musicians. This study suggests that musicians are at risk for hearing loss. There is a need for more effective guidelines applicable to all countries, which should define standardized procedures for determining musician noise exposure and should allow exposure level normalization to the year, including different repertoires.

  17. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  18. Noise exposure from leisure activities: a review.

    PubMed

    Clark, W W

    1991-07-01

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing concern about the role of nonoccupational, or leisure noise on hearing. This paper reviews published studies that detail the noise levels and potential effects of some noisy leisure activities. Considered are the most common sources of leisure noise: exposure to live or amplified rock, classical, or jazz music; exposures from personal listening devices ("walkman" type); noise around the home, and hunting and target shooting. Although all activities listed above have the potential for dangerous levels of noise exposure, the most serious threat to hearing comes from recreational hunting or target shooting.

  19. Preschool Teachers' Exposure to Classroom Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid

    2006-01-01

    This research examined exposure to classroom noise of 25 full-time teaching staff in 14 preschool settings located across Western Sydney. The results indicated that one teacher exceeded the maximum permissible level of daily noise exposure for employees under the health and safety legislation. Three staff approached this level and 92% of teachers…

  20. Annoyance due to multiple airplane noise exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the annoyance effects of multiple aircraft noise exposure in which 250 subjects judged the annoyance of half-hour periods of airplane noise simulative of typical indoor home exposures. The variables of the aircraft noise exposure were the peak noise level of flyovers, which was constant within each period, and the number of flyovers. Each subject judged 5 of the possible 25 factorial combinations of level and number. Other variables investigated included the experience of the test subjects in making annoyance judgments and their home exposure to airplane noise. The annoyance judgments increased with both noise level and number of flyovers. The increased annoyance produced by doubling the number of flyovers was found to be the equivalent of a 4 to 6 db increase in noise level. The sensitivity of the subjects to changes in both noise level and number of flyovers increased with laboratory experience. Although the means of the annoyance judgments made in the laboratory were found to decrease with the subjects' home exposure to aircraft noise, the subjects' sensitivities to changes in both level and number were unaffected by their home exposure.

  1. Noise Exposure Assessment in a Dental School

    PubMed Central

    Kaimook, Wandee; Tantisarasart, Ratchada; Sooksamear, Puwanai; Chayaphum, Satith; Kongkamol, Chanon; Srisintorn, Wisarut; Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional study was performed in the Dental School of Prince of Songkla University to ascertain noise exposure of dentists, dental assistants, and laboratory technicians. A noise spectral analysis was taken to illustrate the spectra of dental devices. Methods A noise evaluation was performed to measure the noise level at dental clinics and one dental laboratory from May to December 2010. Noise spectral data of dental devices were taken during dental practices at the dental services clinic and at the dental laboratory. A noise dosimeter was set following the Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria and then attached to the subjects' collar to record personal noise dose exposure during working periods. Results The peaks of the noise spectrum of dental instruments were at 1,000, 4,000, and 8,000 Hz which depended on the type of instrument. The differences in working areas and job positions had an influence on the level of noise exposure (p < 0.01). Noise measurement in the personal hearing zone found that the laboratory technicians were exposed to the highest impulsive noise levels (137.1 dBC). The dentists and dental assistants who worked at a pedodontic clinic had the highest percent noise dose (4.60 ± 3.59%). In the working areas, the 8-hour time-weighted average of noise levels ranged between 49.7-58.1 dBA while the noisiest working area was the dental laboratory. Conclusion Dental personnel are exposed to noise intensities lower than occupational exposure limits. Therefore, these dental personnel may not experience a noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:22953219

  2. [Noise exposure in neonatal intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Magnavita, V; Arslan, E; Benini, F

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the exposure of newborn babies in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) to noise which can cause hearing lesions directly (acoustic trauma) as well as indirectly (hypoxia). Moreover, noise can have an aggravating effect when combined with other potentially harmful factors in the NICU, such as ototoxic medication or stress due to other external stimuli, such as excessively bright light, lack of a day/night rhythm or pain. Sound pressure levels were measured in the NICU and inside the cribs in various experimental conditions, classified under 3 different types of sound events: constant background noise, variations in background noise and impulsive events. The main sources of noise detected were crib noise generated by ventilation and temperature control systems, ambient noise in the room, noise caused by the staff in the NICU, noise generated by crib alarm systems and NICU apparatus and noise caused by activity on the crib cover or on its plexiglas top. Findings revealed that the influence of ambient noise is fairly irrelevant. Background noise and its variations concerned with activities in the department never exceeded the limits considered potentially harmful to adults (DRC), whereas the impulsive noise generated by staff on the cribs or on the plexiglas tops was considerable and potentially harmful. These findings demonstrate that it is feasible and relatively easy to control noise in the NICU and significantly reduce the impulsive noise component by training staff to be more careful and avoid any unnecessary jolting and rough handling on and near the cribs.

  3. Transient threshold shift after gunshot noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Saedi, B; Ghasemi, M; Motiee, M; Mojtahed, M; Safavi, A

    2013-01-01

    Many people, such as soldiers, are routinely exposed to gunshot noise during target practice. It is suspected that this high-intensity noise may affect audition through repeated Transient Threshold Shifts (TTS); it can also mechanically alter auditory components such as waves. This study investigates the scope of gunshot noise from the AK-47 rifle (Kalashnikov) and the impact on the shooters' audition. Forty soldiers (80 ears) were recruited in this study. They were all young and being exposed to gunshot noise for the first time. Gunshot characteristics were measured before exposure. The soldiers underwent auditory evaluation with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) and Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE) once before exposure and immediately (less than one hour) after exposure. The AK-47 gunshot noise pressure level varied between L(AIm) = 73.7 dBA to L(AIm) = 111.4 dBA. Fourteen participants had subclinical hearing impairment in their pre-exposure evaluation; this number increased to 16 after the exposure. Six months post-exposure and later, the number of cases with impairment had fallen to eight (improvement in 50%). Both pre- and post-exposure OAE results were within normal values, while PTA results indicated a significant threshold alteration only at 6 kHz. The results of this study confirm that exposure to gunshot noise with no ear protection can represent a significant hazard for auditory function, especially at higher frequencies.

  4. Loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James L; Pettersson, David; Palmisano, Sadie; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Edwards, Colin G; Mathiesen, Tiit; Prochazka, Michaela; Bergenheim, Tommy; Florentzson, Rut; Harder, Henrik; Nyberg, Gunnar; Siesjö, Peter; Feychting, Maria

    2014-07-01

    The results from studies of loud noise exposure and acoustic neuroma are conflicting. A population-based case-control study of 451 acoustic neuroma patients and 710 age-, sex-, and region-matched controls was conducted in Sweden between 2002 and 2007. Occupational exposure was based on historical measurements of occupational noise (321 job titles summarized by a job exposure matrix) and compared with self-reported occupational noise exposure. We also evaluated self-reported noise exposure during leisure activity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. There was no statistically significant association between acoustic neuroma and persistent occupational noise exposure, either with or without hearing protection. Exposure to loud noise from leisure activity without hearing protection was more common among acoustic neuroma cases (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.03). Statistically significant odds ratios were found for specific leisure activities including attending concerts/clubs/sporting events (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.04) and participating in workouts accompanied by loud music (odds ratio = 2.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 5.89). Our findings do not support an association between occupational exposure to loud noise and acoustic neuroma. Although we report statistically significant associations between leisure-time exposures to loud noise without hearing protection and acoustic neuroma, especially among women, we cannot rule out recall bias as an alternative explanation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The High Price of Noise Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Hearing Disorders The High Price of Noise Exposure Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... These tiny structures convert sound waves into electrical energy. Our auditory nerve sends this energy to the ...

  6. Noise exposures in US coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

  7. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24616334

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noise Exposure Computation A Appendix A to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Noise Exposure Computation This appendix is mandatory. I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure A...

  9. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  10. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noise Exposure Computation A Appendix A to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Noise Exposure Computation This appendix is mandatory. I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure A...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noise Exposure Computation A Appendix A to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Noise Exposure Computation This appendix is mandatory. I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure A...

  13. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noise Exposure Computation A Appendix A to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Noise Exposure Computation This appendix is mandatory. I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure A...

  15. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  16. 30 CFR 62.110 - Noise exposure assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Noise exposure assessment. 62.110 Section 62... REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.110 Noise exposure assessment. (a) The mine operator must establish a system of monitoring that evaluates each miner's noise exposure sufficiently to determine...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Noise Exposure Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noise Exposure Computation A Appendix A to Part... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Noise Exposure Computation This appendix is mandatory. I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure A...

  18. Repeated Moderate Noise Exposure in the Rat--an Early Adulthood Noise Exposure Model.

    PubMed

    Mannström, Paula; Kirkegaard, Mette; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of varying intensity levels of repeated moderate noise exposures on hearing. The aim was to define an appropriate intensity level that could be repeated several times without giving rise to a permanent hearing loss, and thus establish a model for early adulthood moderate noise exposure in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to broadband noise for 90 min, with a 50 % duty cycle at levels of 101, 104, 107, or 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL), and compared to a control group of non-exposed animals. Exposure was repeated every 6 weeks for a maximum of six repetitions or until a permanent hearing loss was observed. Hearing was assessed by the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Rats exposed to the higher intensities of 107 and 110 dB SPL showed permanent threshold shifts following the first exposure, while rats exposed to 101 and 104 dB SPL could be exposed at least six times without a sustained change in hearing thresholds. ABR amplitudes decreased over time for all groups, including the non-exposed control group, while the latencies were unaffected. A possible change in noise susceptibility following the repeated moderate noise exposures was tested by subjecting the animals to high-intensity noise exposure of 110 dB for 4 h. Rats previously exposed repeatedly to 104 dB SPL were slightly more resistant to high-intensity noise exposure than non-exposed rats or rats exposed to 101 dB SPL. Repeated moderate exposure to 104 dB SPL broadband noise is a viable model for early adulthood noise exposure in rats and may be useful for the study of noise exposure on age-related hearing loss.

  19. 78 FR 19355 - Noise Exposure Map Notice: Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Exposure Contour, page 3-3. Exhibit 3-2: Future (2017) Baseline Noise Exposure Contour, page 3- 7. The FAA... of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under... relative locations of specific properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in...

  20. Noise Exposure Summary And Comparitive Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bumala, Philip A.

    2013-11-18

    This paper summarizes and compares facility Operations and Maintenance (O&M) noise Dosimetry data to industry wide construction data. Dosimetry data has been compiled from a noise exposure assessment at a DOE national research facility Maintenance, Utilities, and Service Department (MUSD). This facility is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The laboratory consists of ten O&M craft and trade shops responsible for a fifty year old infrastructure including over 300 buildings, and a worker population of approximately 7,000. The facility includes an extensive variety of noise generating activities throughout a one square mile site.

  1. Methods for evaluating temporal trends in noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Galusha, D; Dixon-Ernst, C; Rabinowitz, PM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hearing conservation programs have been mandatory in many US industries since 1983. Since then, three program elements (audiometric testing, hearing protection, and training) have been the focus of much research. By comparison, little has been done on noise exposure evaluation. Design and study sample Utilizing a large dataset (>10,000 measurements over 20 years) from eight facilities operated by a multinational aluminum manufacturing company, we evaluated several approaches to assessing temporal trends in Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposures and the fraction of measurements exceeding 85 dBA by facility, by exposure group within facility, and by individual worker within facility. Results Overall, exposures declined across locations over the study period. Several facilities demonstrated substantial reductions in exposure, and the results of mean noise levels and exceedance fractions generally showed good agreement. The results of analyses at the individual level diverged with analyses by facility and exposure group within facility, suggesting that individual-level analyses, while challenging, may provide important information not available from coarser levels of analysis. Conclusions Validated metrics are needed to allow for assessment of temporal trends in noise exposure. Such metrics will improve our ability to characterize, in a standardized manner, efforts to reduce noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:24564696

  2. Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports (HYENA): Study Design and Noise Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jarup, Lars; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Babisch, Wolfgang; Houthuijs, Danny; Swart, Wim; Pershagen, Göran; Bluhm, Gösta; Katsouyanni, Klea; Velonakis, Manolis; Cadum, Ennio; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of people live near airports with considerable noise and air pollution. The Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports (HYENA) project aims to assess the impact of airport-related noise exposure on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease using a cross-sectional study design. We selected 6,000 persons (45–70 years of age) who had lived at least 5 years near one of six major European airports. We used modeled aircraft noise contours, aiming to maximize exposure contrast. Automated BP instruments are used to reduce observer error. We designed a standardized questionnaire to collect data on annoyance, noise disturbance, and major confounders. Cortisol in saliva was collected in a subsample of the study population (n = 500) stratified by noise exposure level. To investigate short-term noise effects on BP and possible effects on nighttime BP dipping, we measured 24-hr BP and assessed continuous night noise in another sub-sample (n = 200). To ensure comparability between countries, we used common noise models to assess individual noise exposure, with a resolution of 1 dB(A). Modifiers of individual exposure, such as the orientation of living and bedroom toward roads, window-opening habits, and sound insulation, were assessed by the questionnaire. For four airports, we estimated exposure to air pollution to explore modifying effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. The project assesses exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, primarily using data from another project funded by the European Union (APMoSPHERE, Air Pollution Modelling for Support to Policy on Health and Environmental Risks in Europe). PMID:16263498

  3. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less...

  6. Characterization of impulse noise and hazard analysis of impulse noise induced hearing loss using AHAAH modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qing

    Millions of people across the world are suffering from noise induced hearing loss (NIHL), especially under working conditions of either continuous Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise that might affect human's hearing function. Impulse noise is a typical non-Gaussian noise exposure in military and industry, and generates severe hearing loss problem. This study mainly focuses on characterization of impulse noise using digital signal analysis method and prediction of the auditory hazard of impulse noise induced hearing loss by the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans (AHAAH) modeling. A digital noise exposure system has been developed to produce impulse noises with peak sound pressure level (SPL) up to 160 dB. The characterization of impulse noise generated by the system has been investigated and analyzed in both time and frequency domains. Furthermore, the effects of key parameters of impulse noise on auditory risk unit (ARU) are investigated using both simulated and experimental measured impulse noise signals in the AHAAH model. The results showed that the ARUs increased monotonically with the peak pressure (both P+ and P-) increasing. With increasing of the time duration, the ARUs increased first and then decreased, and the peak of ARUs appeared at about t = 0.2 ms (for both t+ and t-). In addition, the auditory hazard of experimental measured impulse noises signals demonstrated a monotonically increasing relationship between ARUs and system voltages.

  7. [Noise exposure in a dry dock].

    PubMed

    Atzeri, S; Vacca, L

    1997-01-01

    Personal monitoring of noise exposure was conducted in a small dry dock, where mainly tug-boats and high sea fishing-boats are refitted. Manual tools were the prevalent noise sources. Noise exposure could be affected and amplified by factors extraneous to workers' tasks. The workers might be employed in different jobs simultaneously also in confined and small areas, and were mainly involved in non-routine tasks. Six different tasks were investigated: dry-dock supervisor, welder/ship-wrights, painters, electricians, woodworkers and unskilled workers. The number of workers employed in the tasks, with the exclusion of the supervisor, might change from day to day according to the particular work phase carried out on the boat. Daily personal exposure was measured using Larson Davis mod. 700 integrating sound level meters. The all shift time history of short equivalent continuous sound level with 10 s integrating time was collected for each selected worker. A 1/2 inch microphone was attached to the helmet at a distance of 11 +/- 1 cm from the right outer ear. Measurements were repeated over 13 days and randomly distributed over about four months. The number of data-points collected was nine for the supervisor, twenty-seven for the welders, eighteen for the painters, twelve for the electricians, six for the woodworkers and eleven for the unskilled workers. Ranges of the daily noise exposure level were from 15 to 30 dBA for all tasks, with the exclusion of the woodworkers. The time histories relative to workers grouped in the same task were matched to verify the correlation. The daily exposure levels derived from correlated samples were substituted by their arithmetic mean. The analysis of variance applied to experimental distributions of daily exposure for four of the welders indicates that the difference of means (p > 0.3) is not significant. A similar conclusion is reached for painters when only this task is considered. If we take into account the exposures of painters

  8. Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry.

    PubMed

    McMahon, K J; McManus, P E

    1988-01-01

    The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York city area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85 dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90 dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.

  9. Historical development of noise exposure metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the historical events that led to the introduction of night penalties are reported with emphasis on what happens with different kinds of day/night operations when night pentalties are employed. These effects are considered in terms of the difference between a nighttime weighting cumulative measure of noise exposure verses simply not using any night weighting at all, in decibles.

  10. Evaluation of Noise Exposure Secondary to Wind Noise in Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Michael D; Wertz, Anna G; Smith, Matthew M; Jacob, Steve; Ahsan, Syed F

    2017-07-01

    Objective Determine if the noise levels of wind exposure experienced by cyclists reach levels that could contribute to noise-induced hearing loss. Study Design Industrial lab research. Setting Industrial wind tunnel. Subjects and Methods A commercial-grade electric wind tunnel was used to simulate different speeds encountered by a cyclist. A single cyclist was used during the simulation for audiometric measurements. Microphones attached near the ears of the cyclist were used to measure the sound (dB sound pressure level) experienced by the cyclist. Loudness levels were measured with the head positioned at 15-degree increments from 0 degrees to 180 degrees relative to the oncoming wind at different speeds (10-60 mph). Results Wind noise ranged from 84.9 dB at 10 mph and increased proportionally with speed to a maximum of 120.3 dB at 60 mph. The maximum of 120.3 dB was measured at the downwind ear when the ear was 90 degrees away from the wind. Conclusions Wind noise experienced by a cyclist is proportional to the speed and the directionality of the wind current. Turbulent air flow patterns are observed that contribute to increased sound exposure in the downwind ear. Consideration of ear deflection equipment without compromising sound awareness for cyclists during prolonged rides is advised to avoid potential noise trauma. Future research is warranted and can include long-term studies including dosimetry measures of the sound and yearly pre- and postexposure audiograms of cyclists to detect if any hearing loss occurs with long-term cycling.

  11. 75 FR 11990 - Chicago Executive Airports Noise Exposure Map Approval and Noise Compatibility Program Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under... relative locations of specific properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting... responsibility for the detailed overlaying of noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on...

  12. Self-Report of Transportation Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Noise Sensitivity in Relation to Noise Map Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HEINONEN-GUZEJEV, M.; VUORINEN, H. S.; KAPRIO, J.; HEIKKILÄ, K.; MUSSALO-RAUHAMAA, H.; KOSKENVUO, M.

    2000-07-01

    Self-report of noise exposure was compared with the information on noise maps while taking into account measures of self-reported annoyance and noise sensitivity. Self-report data were analyzed for 1495 subjects participating in a case-control study of hypertension from the Finnish Twin Cohort who had replied to a questionnaire in 1988. In addition, noise map information was included in analyses of the 218 study subjects living in the Metropolitan Area of Helsinki. The results show that: (1) In the factor analysis based on all subjects self-report of transportation noise exposure formed an own factor independent of the annoyance variables or noise sensitivity. Annoyance items loaded on to two different factors termed nighttime and daytime annoyance. Noise sensitivity did not load to either of the factors of annoyance. For the subsample with noise map information, the results indicated that: (2) Noise sensitivity was independent of noise map information. (3) Subjects with high noise sensitivity reported more transportation noise exposure than subjects with low noise sensitivity and they reported aircraft, railway and road traffic noise exposure outside the environmental noise map areas almost twice as often as non-sensitive subjects. (4) Noise map information and self-report of noise exposure were consistently associated when aircraft noise was considered. Self-report of noise related items may supplement noise map information in noise protection.

  13. Impact of Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring on Occupational Noise Exposures in Manufacturing Workers

    PubMed Central

    McTague, Michael F.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Slade, Martin D.; Cullen, Mark R.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs), noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains one of the most prevalent occupational conditions. A new technology allows for daily monitoring of noise exposures under HPDs. We report on an intervention employing the voluntary use of this technology in a worksite setting. Design Volunteers were fitted with a device allowing them to monitor noise exposure under their hearing protection on a daily basis. The trends in noise exposures for individuals who completed at least six months of the intervention were analyzed. Study Sample Recruitment occurred at three manufacturing facilities, with 127 workers enrolling and 66 workers actively using the device during their work shifts. Results Among volunteers downloading regularly, the percentage of daily exposures in excess of the OSHA action level (85dBA) decreased from 14% to 8%, while the percentage of daily exposures in excess of 90dBA decreased from 4% to less than 2%. Conclusion Initial results from this longitudinal study indicate that volunteers find daily noise exposure monitoring to be feasible, and that workers who monitor daily are able to reduce exposures. The results of subject adherence shed light on the challenges and possibilities of worksite interventions for health and safety. PMID:23373740

  14. Outside and inside noise exposure in urban and suburban areas

    Treesearch

    Dwight E. Bishop; Myles A. Simpson

    1977-01-01

    In urban and suburban areas of the United States (away from major airports), the outdoor noise environment usually depends strongly on local vehicular traffic. By relating traffic flow to population density, a model of outdoor noise exposure has been developed for estimating the cumulative 24-hour noise exposure based upon the population density of the area. This noise...

  15. Exposure to infrasonic noise in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2017-03-21

    Although exposure to audible noise has been examined in many publications, the sources of infrasound in agriculture have not been fully examined and presented. The study presents the assessment of exposure to infrasound from many sources at workplaces in agriculture with examples of possible ergonomic and health consequences caused by such exposure. Workers'-perceived infrasonic noise levels were examined for 118 examples of moving and stationary agricultural machines (modern and old cab-type tractors, old tractors without cabins, small tractors, grinders, chargers, forage mixers, grain cleaners, conveyors, bark sorters and combine-harvesters). Measurements of infrasound were taken with the use of class 1 instruments (digital sound analyzer DSA-50 digital and acoustic calibrator). Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-Z-01338:2010, PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 and ISO 9612:2009. The most intense sources of infrasound in the study were modern and old large size types agricultural machinery (tractors, chargers and combined-harvesters, and stationary forage mixers with ventilation). The G-weighted infrasound levels were significant and at many analyzed workplaces stayed within or exceeded the occupational exposure limit (LG eq, 8h = 102 dB) when the duration of exposure is longer than 22 min./8-hours working day (most noisy - modern cab-type tractors), 46 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - old type cab-tractors), 73 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - old tractors without cabins), 86 min./8-hours working day (most noisy - combine-harvesters) and 156 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - stationary forage mixers with ventilation). All measured machines generated infrasonic noise exceeded the value LG eq, Te = 86 dB (occupational exposure limit for workplaces requiring maintained mental concentration). A very important harmful factor is infrasound exposure for pregnant women and adolescents at workplaces in agriculture. Very valuable work can be

  16. Noise Exposure Questionnaire (NEQ): A Tool for Quantifying Annual Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tiffany A.; Cooper, Susan; Stamper, Greta C.; Chertoff, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to both occupational and non-occupational noise is recognized as a risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Although audiologists routinely inquire regarding history of noise exposure, there are limited tools available for quantifying this history or for identifying those individuals who are at highest risk for NIHL. Identifying those at highest risk would allow hearing conservation activities to be focused on those individuals. Purpose To develop a detailed, task-based questionnaire for quantifying an individual’s annual noise exposure arising from both occupational and non-occupational sources (aim 1) and to develop a short screening tool that could be used to identify individuals at high risk of NIHL (aim 2). Research Design Review of relevant literature for questionnaire development followed by a cross-sectional descriptive and correlational investigation of the newly developed questionnaire and screening tool. Study Sample One hundred fourteen college freshmen completed the detailed questionnaire for estimating annual noise exposure (aim 1) and answered the potential screening questions (aim 2). An additional 59 adults participated in data collection where the accuracy of the screening tool was evaluated (aim 2). Data Collection and Analysis In study aim 1, all subjects completed the detailed questionnaire and the potential screening questions. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify subject participation in various noisy activities and their associated annual noise exposure estimates. In study aim 2, linear regression techniques were used to identify screening questions that could be used to predict a subject’s estimated annual noise exposure. Clinical decision theory was then used to assess the accuracy with which the screening tool predicted high and low risk of NIHL in a new group of subjects. Results Responses on the detailed questionnaire indicated that our sample of college freshmen reported high rates of

  17. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be...

  19. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  20. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table...

  2. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational noise... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table...

  3. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Occupational noise... CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.10 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table...

  4. Personal noise exposure assessment from small firearms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Murphy, William J.; Willson, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted noise exposure evaluations of law-enforcement personnel during firearms training at indoor and outdoor firing ranges. A representative cross section of weapons used by officers was measured. Shooters participated in live-fire exercise at an indoor firing range using three different weapons: a Beretta .400 caliber pistol, a Remington 12-gauge shotgun, and an M4 .223-caliber assault rifle. Indoor and outdoor measurements were obtained for the Smith and Wesson .357 pistol and Colt .450 and 9-mm pistols, the Glock .400 pistol, and the Heckler and Koch and Colt AR15 .223 rifles. Impulses were measured using a Bruel and Kjaer 4136 1/4-in. microphone and TASCAM digital audio tape recorder. Relevant impulse noise metrics were calculated. Peak levels ranged from 155 to 168 dB SPL. A-weighted equivalent levels ranged from 124 to 128 dBA. The contributions of the secondary weapon firings were approximately 1 to 9 dBA. Other parameters such as A/B durations, number and mixture of impulses, spectral content, energy, kurtosis, temporal spacing, and hearing protectors' effectiveness were examined. Comparisons of applicable damage risk criteria are presented. Further studies are needed to establish an occupational impulse noise damage risk criterion.

  5. Noise characterization of oil and gas operations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Cameron; Autenrieth, Daniel A; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2017-08-01

    In cooperation with The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, researchers at Colorado State University performed area noise monitoring at 23 oil and gas sites throughout Northern Colorado. The goals of this study were to: (1) measure and compare the noise levels for the different phases of oil and gas development sites; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of noise barriers; and (3) determine if noise levels exceeded the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission noise limits. The four phases of oil and gas development include drilling, hydraulic fracturing, completion and production. Noise measurements were collected using the A- and C-weighted sound scales. Octave band analysis was also performed to characterize the frequency spectra of the noise measurements.  Noise measurements were collected using noise dosimeters and a hand-held sound-level meter at specified distances from the development sites in each cardinal direction. At 350 ft (107 m), drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion sites without noise barriers exceeded the maximum permissible noise levels for residential and commercial zones (55 dBA and 60 dBA, respectively). In addition, drilling and hydraulic fracturing sites with noise barriers exceeded the maximum permissible noise level for residential zones (55 dBA). However, during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion operations, oil producers are allowed an exception to the noise permissible limits in that they only must comply with the industrial noise limit (80 dBA). It is stated in Rule 604.c.(2)A. that: "Operations involving pipeline or gas facility installation or maintenance, the use of a drilling rig, completion rig, workover rig, or stimulation is subject to the maximum permissible noise levels for industrial zones (80dBA)." ([8]) Production sites were within the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission permissible noise level criteria for all zones. At 350 ft (107 m) from the noise source, all drilling

  6. Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Hygge, Staffan; Clark, Charlotte; Alfred, Tamuno

    2010-01-01

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these

  7. Air Weaponry Noise Source Characterization Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    point for creating new cases or importing cases from other sources. When the program is initially launched, it shows an empty grid similar to a...weapon noise contour for an entire range. An important step in this modeling method involves calculating and storing the individual noise footprints...research project can be stated as follows: (1) To characterize the noise generated by airborne weapon systems. This includes important aspects of

  8. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 150 - Noise Exposure Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this appendix. Sec. A150.3Noise descriptors. (a) Airport Noise Measurement. The A-Weighted Sound Level.... (b) Airport Noise Exposure. The yearly day-night average sound level (YDNL) must be employed for the...) Sound levels must be measured or analyzed with equipment having the “A” frequency weighting,...

  9. A community survey of helicopter noise annoyance conducted under controlled noise exposure conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.; Powell, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Reactions to low numbers of helicopter noise events (less than 50 per day) were studied in a community setting. Community residents were repeatedly interviewed about daily noise annoyance reactions on days when helicopter noise exposures were, without the residents' knowledge, controlled. The effects of maximum noise level and number of noise events on helicopter noise annoyance are consistent with the principles contained in LEQ-based noise indices. The effect of the duration of noise events is also consistent with LEQ-based indices. After removing the effect of differences in noise levels (LEQ) there is not an important difference between reactions to impulsive and nonimpulsive types of helicopters. EPNL, where corrected for number of overflights, and LEQ are approximately equally successful in representing the characteristics of noise which are related to human response. The new type of design provided estimates of the parameters in a noise reaction model which would not obtained with a similar degree of precision from conventional study designs.

  10. Exposure modifiers of the relationships of transportation noise with high blood pressure and noise annoyance.

    PubMed

    Babisch, Wolfgang; Swart, Wim; Houthuijs, Danny; Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Pershagen, Göran; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Haralabidis, Alexandros S; Katsouyanni, Klea; Davou, Elli; Sourtzi, Panayota; Cadum, Ennio; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Floud, Sarah; Hansell, Anna L

    2012-12-01

    In the cross-sectional hypertension and exposure to noise near airports study the relationship between road traffic noise, aircraft noise and hypertension and annoyance was investigated. The data collection comprised a variety of potentially exposure modifying factors, including type of housing, location of rooms, window opening habits, use of noise-reducing remedies, shielding due to obstacles, lengths of exposure. In the present paper the quantitative role of these factors on the relationship between road and aircraft noise exposure and outcomes was analyzed. Multiple logistic and linear regression models were calculated including these co-factors and related interaction terms with noise indicators, as well as stratified analyses. Type of housing, length of residence, location of rooms and the use of noise reducing remedies modified the relationship between noise and hypertension. However, the effects were not always in the direction of a stronger association in higher exposed subjects. Regarding annoyance, type of housing, location of rooms, noise barriers, window opening habits, noise insulation, the use of noise reducing remedies, hours spent at home during daytime were significant effect modifiers. The use of noise-reducing remedies turned out to be indicators of perceived noise disturbance rather than modifiers reducing the annoyance.

  11. Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss Among Sand and Gravel Miners

    PubMed Central

    Landen, Deborah; Wilkins, Steve; Stephenson, Mark; McWilliams, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe workplace noise exposures, risk factors for hearing loss, and hearing levels among sand and gravel miners, and to determine whether full shift noise exposures resulted in changes in hearing thresholds from baseline values. Sand and gravel miners (n = 317) were interviewed regarding medical history, leisure-time and occupational noise exposure, other occupational exposures, and use of hearing protection. Audiometric tests were performed both before the work shift (following a 12-hour noise-free interval) and immediately following the work shift. Full shift noise dosimetry was conducted. Miners' noise exposures exceeded the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for 69% of workers, and exceeded the Mine Safety and Health Administration's action level for enrollment in a hearing conservation program for 41% of workers. Significantly higher noise exposures occurred among employees of small companies, among workers with a job classification of truck driver, among males, and among black workers. Hearing protection usage was low, with 48% of subjects reporting that they never used hearing protection. Hearing impairment, as defined by NIOSH, was present among 37% of 275 subjects with valid audiograms. Black male workers and white male workers had higher hearing thresholds than males from a comparison North Carolina population unexposed to industrial noise. Small but statistically significant changes in hearing thresholds occurred following full shift noise exposure among subjects who had good hearing sensitivity at baseline. In a logistic regression model, age and history of a past noisy job were significant predictors of hearing impairment. Overall, sand and gravel workers have excessive noise exposures and significant hearing loss, and demonstrate inadequate use of hearing protection. Well-designed hearing conservation programs, with reduction of noise exposure

  12. Noise exposure and hearing loss among sand and gravel miners.

    PubMed

    Landen, Deborah; Wilkins, Steve; Stephenson, Mark; McWilliams, Linda

    2004-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe workplace noise exposures, risk factors for hearing loss, and hearing levels among sand and gravel miners, and to determine whether full shift noise exposures resulted in changes in hearing thresholds from baseline values. Sand and gravel miners (n = 317) were interviewed regarding medical history, leisure-time and occupational noise exposure, other occupational exposures, and use of hearing protection. Audiometric tests were performed both before the work shift (following a 12-hour noise-free interval) and immediately following the work shift. Full shift noise dosimetry was conducted. Miners' noise exposures exceeded the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for 69% of workers, and exceeded the Mine Safety and Health Administration's action level for enrollment in a hearing conservation program for 41% of workers. Significantly higher noise exposures occurred among employees of small companies, among workers with a job classification of truck driver, among males, and among black workers. Hearing protection usage was low, with 48% of subjects reporting that they never used hearing protection. Hearing impairment, as defined by NIOSH, was present among 37% of 275 subjects with valid audiograms. Black male workers and white male workers had higher hearing thresholds than males from a comparison North Carolina population unexposed to industrial noise. Small but statistically significant changes in hearing thresholds occurred following full shift noise exposure among subjects who had good hearing sensitivity at baseline. In a logistic regression model, age and history of a past noisy job were significant predictors of hearing impairment. Overall, sand and gravel workers have excessive noise exposures and significant hearing loss, and demonstrate inadequate use of hearing protection. Well-designed hearing conservation programs, with reduction of noise exposure

  13. Community sensitivity to changes in aircraft noise exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Teffeteller, S.; Pearsons, K.

    1981-01-01

    Interviews were conducted in the vicinity of Burbank Airport during a four month period during which a counterbalanced series of changes in aircraft noise exposure occurred due to runway repairs. Another interview was undertaken approximately one year after completion of the initial runway repairs. Noise measurements were made in conjunction with administration of a brief questionnaire to a near exhaustive sample of residents in four airport neighborhoods. The magnitude and direction of change of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure corresponded closely to the actual changes in physical exposure. Estimates were made of time constants for the rate of change of attitudes toward aircraft noise.

  14. Validation of Aircraft Noise Models at Lower Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.

    1996-01-01

    Noise levels around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound level in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft noise at larger distances from the airport. including en-route noise. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure levels (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.

  15. The association between noise exposure and blood pressure and ischemic heart disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Elise E M M; Kruize, Hanneke; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ameling, Caroline B; Staatsen, Brigit A M; de Hollander, Augustinus E M

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that noise exposure is associated with blood pressure changes and ischemic heart disease risk, but epidemiologic evidence is still limited. Furthermore, most reviews investigating these relations were not carried out in a systematic way, which makes them more prone to bias. We conducted a meta-analysis of 43 epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1999 that investigate the relation between noise exposure (both occupational and community) and blood pressure and/or ischemic heart disease (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes 410-414). We studied a wide range of effects, from blood pressure changes to a myocardial infarction. With respect to the association between noise exposure and blood pressure, small blood pressure differences were evident. Our meta-analysis showed a significant association for both occupational noise exposure and air traffic noise exposure and hypertension: We estimated relative risks per 5 dB(A) noise increase of 1.14 (1.01-1.29) and 1.26 (1.14-1.39), respectively. Air traffic noise exposure was positively associated with the consultation of a general practitioner or specialist, the use of cardiovascular medicines, and angina pectoris. In cross-sectional studies, road traffic noise exposure increases the risk of myocardial infarction and total ischemic heart disease. Although we can conclude that noise exposure can contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, the evidence for a relation between noise exposure and ischemic heart disease is still inconclusive because of the limitations in exposure characterization, adjustment for important confounders, and the occurrence of publication bias. PMID:11882483

  16. 75 FR 76067 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... noise exposure contours depicted on a Noise Exposure Map submitted under Section 47503 of the Act, it... properties with regard to the depicted noise exposure contours, or in interpreting the Noise Exposure Maps to... overlaying of noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on the surface rests exclusively...

  17. Proposed iso standard determination of occupational noise exposure and estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment

    SciTech Connect

    Von Gierke, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the relationship between noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss has been very intense over the last 30 years, and steady progress has been made in spite of many remaining questions and unresolved problems regarding the mechanisms. For the time being, avoidance of excessive noise exposure is the only way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss; this is the reason why governments, industry, workers and their representatives have been looking for scientific exposure criteria and guidelines to prevent hazardous noise exposure as part of comprehensive hearing conservation programs. Although it was clear from the beginning that noise-induced hearing loss in a population with exactly defined noise exposure would exhibit a statistical distribution due to differences in biological susceptibility, the epidemiological statistical data were not available to describe quantitatively the difference between the percentage of people with impaired hearing in a noise-exposed group and the percentage of people in a non-noise-exposed group, i.e., the risk of noise-induced hearing impairment.

  18. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  19. Assessment of noise exposure during commuting in the Madrid subway.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, M; Pavón, I; Ausejo, M; Asensio, C; Recuero, M

    2011-09-01

    Because noise-induced hearing impairment is the result not only of occupational noise exposure but also of total daily noise exposure, it is important to take the non-occupational exposure of individuals (during commuting to and from their jobs, at home, and during recreational activities) into account. Mass transit is one of the main contributors to non-occupational noise exposure. We developed a new methodology to estimate a representative commuting noise exposure. The methodology was put into practice for the Madrid subway because of all Spanish subway systems it covers the highest percentage of worker journeys (22.6%). The results of the application highlight that, for Madrid subway passengers, noise exposure level normalized to a nominal 8 hr (L(Ex,8h-cj) ) depends strongly on the type of train, the presence of squealing noise, and the public address audio system, ranging from 68.6 dBA to 72.8 dBA. These values play an important role in a more complete evaluation of a relationship between noise dose and worker health response.

  20. Temporal Characterization of Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Current aircraft source noise prediction tools yield time-independent frequency spectra as functions of directivity angle. Realistic evaluation and human assessment of aircraft fly-over noise require the temporal characteristics of the noise signature. The purpose of the current study is to analyze empirical data from broadband jet and tonal fan noise sources and to provide the temporal information required for prediction-based synthesis. Noise sources included a one-tenth-scale engine exhaust nozzle and a one-fifth scale scale turbofan engine. A methodology was developed to characterize the low frequency fluctuations employing the Short Time Fourier Transform in a MATLAB computing environment. It was shown that a trade-off is necessary between frequency and time resolution in the acoustic spectrogram. The procedure requires careful evaluation and selection of the data analysis parameters, including the data sampling frequency, Fourier Transform window size, associated time period and frequency resolution, and time period window overlap. Low frequency fluctuations were applied to the synthesis of broadband noise with the resulting records sounding virtually indistinguishable from the measured data in initial subjective evaluations. Amplitude fluctuations of blade passage frequency (BPF) harmonics were successfully characterized for conditions equivalent to take-off and approach. Data demonstrated that the fifth harmonic of the BPF varied more in frequency than the BPF itself and exhibited larger amplitude fluctuations over the duration of the time record. Frequency fluctuations were found to be not perceptible in the current characterization of tonal components.

  1. [Assessment of noise exposure in sheep].

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2013-02-01

    The behaviour of sheep was recorded as a reaction to the sound pressure levels caused by shooting with heavy machine guns. The reactions varied in intensity depending on the distance of the source of the noise from the fold. In the case of salvoes that were fired in the immediate vicinity of the fold and were associated with sound pressure levels higher than 120 dB (LCpeak), the sheep reacted with marked fright reactions, and no adaptation to the shooting noise was observed. It is concluded that the tolerable maximum noise level for sheep with this kind of noise source is likely to be less than 120 dB (LCpeak).

  2. Noise Exposure Estimates of Urban MP3 Player Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania; Fligor, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the sound level and duration of use of personal listening devices (PLDs) by 189 college students, ages 18-53 years, as they entered a New York City college campus, to determine whether noise exposure from PLDs was in excess of recommended exposure limits and what factors might influence exposure. Method: Free-field equivalent…

  3. Noise Exposure Estimates of Urban MP3 Player Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania; Fligor, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the sound level and duration of use of personal listening devices (PLDs) by 189 college students, ages 18-53 years, as they entered a New York City college campus, to determine whether noise exposure from PLDs was in excess of recommended exposure limits and what factors might influence exposure. Method: Free-field equivalent…

  4. Status: Crewmember Noise Exposures on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo-Rodriguez, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique environment where crewmembers from the US and our international partners work and live for as long as 6 to 12 consecutive months. During these long-durations ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. It is crucial to control acoustical noise aboard ISS to acceptable noise exposure levels during the work-time period, and to also provide a restful sleep environment during the sleep-time period. Acoustic dosimeter measurements, obtained when the crewmember wears the dosimeter for 24-hour periods, are conducted onboard ISS every 60 days and compared to ISS flight rules. NASA personnel then assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed, and provide recommendations for hearing protection device usage. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of ISS noise exposure monitoring and hearing conservation strategies, as well as to summarize assessments of acoustic dosimeter data collected since the Increment 36 mission (April 2013). A description of the updated noise level constraints flight rule, as well as the Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and the Noise Hazard Inventory implementation for predicting crew noise exposures and recommending to ISS crewmembers when hearing protection devices are required, will be described.

  5. 78 FR 71706 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport, Bullhead City, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... future noise contours. Arrival and departure flight tracks for the existing and five-year forecast Noise... noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under section 47503 of the Act, it... properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to...

  6. A study of riders' noise exposure on Bay Area Rapid Transit trains.

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis; Powell, Cynthia; King, Margaret Mary

    2011-02-01

    Excessive noise exposure may present a hazard to hearing, cardiovascular, and psychosomatic health. Mass transit systems, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system, are potential sources of excessive noise. The purpose of this study was to characterize transit noise and riders' exposure to noise on the BART system using three dosimetry metrics. We made 268 dosimetry measurements on a convenience sample of 51 line segments. Dosimetry measures were modeled using linear and nonlinear multiple regression as functions of average velocity, tunnel enclosure, flooring, and wet weather conditions and presented visually on a map of the BART system. This study provides evidence of levels of hazardous levels of noise exposure in all three dosimetry metrics. L(eq) and L(max) measures indicate exposures well above ranges associated with increased cardiovascular and psychosomatic health risks in the published literature. L(peak) indicate acute exposures hazardous to adult hearing on about 1% of line segment rides and acute exposures hazardous to child hearing on about 2% of such rides. The noise to which passengers are exposed may be due to train-specific conditions (velocity and flooring), but also to rail conditions (velocity and tunnels). These findings may point at possible remediation (revised speed limits on longer segments and those segments enclosed by tunnels). The findings also suggest that specific rail segments could be improved for noise.

  7. 75 FR 54695 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Brownsville South Padre Island International Airport, Brownsville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under section 47503 of the Act, it... properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve... noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on the surface rests exclusively with...

  8. 78 FR 25523 - Acceptance of Noise Exposure Map Notice for Oakland County International Airport, Pontiac, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under section 47503 of the Act, it... properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve... noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on the surface rests exclusively with...

  9. 77 FR 834 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Albany International Airport, Albany, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under section 47503 of the Act, it... properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve... noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on the surface rests exclusively with...

  10. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under section 47503 of the Act, it... properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve... noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on the surface rests exclusively with...

  11. Particle and Noise Exposure During Highway Maintenance Work

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to traffic is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Traffic particles are associated with increased pro‑inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers as well as altered heart rhythm (Riediker et al. 2004). Occupational noise exposu...

  12. Particle and Noise Exposure During Highway Maintenance Work

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to traffic is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Traffic particles are associated with increased pro‑inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers as well as altered heart rhythm (Riediker et al. 2004). Occupational noise exposu...

  13. Human noise exposure criteria for combat aircraft training areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert A.; Harris, C. Stanley; Vongierke, Henning E.

    1992-04-01

    An overview of interpretive criteria for the noise exposure conditions associated with low altitude flying operations in the United States is presented. It includes description of single event and cumulative noise characteristics unique to such flying activity and a discussion of rationale for using the measure, onset rated adjusted Day-Night Average Sound Level, for predicting population annoyance.

  14. Noise exposure and hypertension: investigation of a silent relationship.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Tatiana Cristina Fernandes; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; Moura, Marisa

    2015-04-03

    Noise is an important occupational hazard worldwide and hypertension a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is currently the greatest cause of disability retirement worldwide. The association between noise exposure and auditory effects is well documented in the biomedical literature, but the same is not true about exposure to different levels of noise and extra-auditory effects. It has been shown that noise exposure levels to be considered for non-auditory effects may not be the same as in the case of auditory effects. The frequent presence of noise in workplace environments, the high prevalence of hypertension worldwide, the biological plausibility of the association between noise exposure and high blood pressure and the need for more studies investigating the non-auditory effects of exposures to less than 85 dB(A), were the reasons that led us to develop this study. We aimed at investigating the hypothesis that exposure to different levels of noise is associated with hypertension. We used a cross-sectional design to study the association between occupational noise exposure (≤75, 75-85, and ≥ 85 dB(A)) and hypertension (use of anti-hypertensive medication and/or blood pressure of ≥140/90 mmHg) in 1,729 petrochemical workers at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected from obligatory annual health evaluation records and from environmental measurements of noise and heat levels. We used logistical regression analysis to study the association while controlling for key confounding variables, such as smoking and body mass index. Using the ≤75 dB(A) as reference category, noise exposure was independently associated to hypertension both at the 75-85 dB(A) (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.13-2.17) and the ≥85 dB(A) levels (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.10-2.26). Age, gender and body mass index were also independently associated to high blood pressure. Herein, we were able to demonstrate that noise exposure is independently associated to hypertension. Our

  15. Synergistic ototoxicity due to noise exposure and aminoglycoside antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic exposure to high intensity and/or prolonged noise causes temporary or permanent threshold shifts in auditory perception, reflected by reversible or irreversible damage in the cochlea. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, used for treating or preventing life-threatening bacterial infections, also induce cytotoxicity in the cochlea. Combined noise and aminoglycoside exposure, particularly in neonatal intensive care units, can lead to auditory threshold shifts greater than simple summation of the two insults. The synergistic toxicity of acoustic exposure and aminoglycoside antibiotics is not limited to simultaneous exposures. Prior acoustic insult which does not result in permanent threshold shifts potentiates aminoglycoside ototoxicity. In addition, exposure to sub-damaging doses of aminoglycosides aggravates noise-induced cochlear damage. The mechanisms by which aminoglycosides cause auditory dysfunction are still being unraveled, but likely include the following: 1) penetration into the endolymphatic fluid of the scala media, 2) permeation of non-selective cation channels on the apical surface of hair cells and 3) generation of toxic reactive oxygen species and interference with other cellular pathways. Here we discuss the synergistic effect of combined noise and aminoglycoside exposure to identify pivotal synergistic events that can potentiate ototoxicity, in addition to a current understanding of aminoglycoside trafficking within the cochlea. Preventing the ototoxic synergy of noise and aminoglycosides is best achieved by using non-ototoxic bactericidal drugs, and by attenuating perceived noise intensity when life-saving aminoglycoside therapy is required. PMID:19265251

  16. Selected methods for quantification of community exposure to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, P. M., Jr.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the state-of-the-art for the quantification of community exposure to aircraft noise is presented. Physical aspects, people response considerations, and practicalities of useful application of scales of measure are included. Historical background up through the current technology is briefly presented. The developments of both single-event and multiple-event scales are covered. Selective choice is made of scales currently in the forefront of interest and recommended methodology is presented for use in computer programing to translate aircraft noise data into predictions of community noise exposure. Brief consideration is given to future programing developments and to supportive research needs.

  17. Noise exposure reconstruction and evaluation of exposure trends in two large automotive plants.

    PubMed

    Brueck, Scott E; Prince Panaccio, Mary; Stancescu, Daniel; Woskie, Susan; Estill, Cheryl; Waters, Martha

    2013-11-01

    This study used a task-based approach to reconstruct employee noise exposures at two large automotive manufacturing plants for the period 1970-1989, utilizing historic noise measurement data, work history records, documented changes in plant operations, focus group discussions, structured interviews with long-tenure employees, and task-based job profiles. Task-based job noise exposure profiles were developed in the 1990s when the plants conducted task-based noise monitoring. Under the assumption that tasks and time-at-task profile within jobs did not change over time, these profiles were applied to historic jobs. By linking historic noise exposure measurements to job tasks, this approach allowed task-based reconstructed noise exposure profiles to capture variability of daily noise exposures. Reconstructed noise exposures, along with task-based noise exposure measurements collected at each plant during the 1990s, were analyzed to examine time trends in workplace noise levels and worker noise exposure. Our analysis of noise exposure trends revealed that noise levels for many jobs declined by ≥3 dBA from 1970 to 1998 as operational and equipment changes occurred in the plants and some noise control measures were implemented, but for some jobs, noise levels increased in the mid- to late 1990s, most likely because of an increase in production at that time. Overall, the percentage of workers exposed to noise levels >90 dBA decreased from 95% in 1970 to 54% in 1998 at one of the plants and decreased from 36% in 1970 to ~5% in 1999 at the other plant. These reductions indicate a degree of success for the hearing conservation program. However, the actual number of employees with noise exposure >90 dBA increased because of a substantial increase in the number of production employees, particularly in jobs with high noise levels, which shows a hearing conservation program challenge that companies face during periods of increased production. Future analysis of hearing levels

  18. Characterization of the Crab Pulsar's Timing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. M.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a power spectral analysis of the Crab pulsar's timing noise, mainly using radio measurements from Jodrell Bank taken over the period 1982-1989, an interval bounded by sparse data sampling and a large glitch. The power spectral analysis is complicated by nonuniform data sampling and the presence of a steep red power spectrum that can distort power spectra measurement by causing severe power 'leakage'. We develop a simple windowing method for computing red noise power spectra of uniformly sampled data sets and test it on Monte Carlo generated sample realizations of red power-law noise. We generalize time-domain methods of generating power-law red noise with even integer spectral indices to the case of noninteger spectral indices. The Jodrell Bank pulse phase residuals are dense and smooth enough that an interpolation onto a uniform time series is possible. A windowed power spectrum is computed revealing a periodic or nearly periodic component with a period of 568 +/- 10 days and a l/f(exp 3) power-law noise component in pulse phase with a noise strength S(sub infinity)=(1.24 +/- 0.067) x 10(exp 16) cycles(exp 2)/sec(exp 2) over the analysis frequency range f=0.003- 0.1 cycles/day. This result deviates from past analyses which characterized the pulse phase timing residuals as either l/f(sub 4) power-law noise or a quasiperiodic process. The analysis was checked using the Deeter polynomial method of power spectrum estimation that was developed for the case of nonuniform sampling, but has lower spectral resolution. The timing noise is consistent with a torque noise spectrum rising with analysis frequency as f implying blue torque noise, a result not predicted by current models of pulsar timing noise. If the periodic or nearly periodic component is due to a binary companion, we find a mass function f(M) = (6.8 +/- 2.4) x 10(exp -16) solar mass and a companion mass, M(sub c) is greater than or equal to 3.2 solar mass assuming a Crab pulsar mass of 1.4 solar

  19. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Taiana Pacheco; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. METHODS This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. RESULTS A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight. PMID:25372170

  20. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Taiana Pacheco; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight.

  1. Hearing Profile of Brazilian Forestry Workers' Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Adriana; Quintiliano, Juliana; Lobato, Diolen; Gonçalves, Claudia; Marques, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years), mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years), and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years). The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter), 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed. PMID:25992147

  2. Hearing profile of brazilian forestry workers' noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Adriana; Quintiliano, Juliana; Lobato, Diolen; Gonçalves, Claudia; Marques, Jair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years), mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years), and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years). The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter), 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed.

  3. Leisure noise exposure in adolescents and young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, A.

    1991-12-01

    Many efforts have been made in recent times to combat occupational noise exposure, and noise preventive measures in many industries seem promising. Less positive, however, are noise exposure situations during leisure time activities. New noisy leisure activities are cropping up, and sound levels appear to have increased over the years. There is thus reason for concern over such noisy activities as listening to "walkman" devices, pop/rock concerts and car stereos, and being present at motor sports and shooting activities. Luckily, however, there seem not to be many reported cases of noise-induced hearing loss which can be clearly related to such leisure activities. In addition, recent animal experiments have shown that there is a possibility that the ear can be trained toward increased noise resistance. Nevertheless, general attitudes should be in favor of lowering the sound levels now found in connection with these activities.

  4. 78 FR 8685 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review: Tweed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... determination that the noise exposure map for Tweed New Haven Regional Airport, as submitted by the Tweed New Haven Airport Authority under the provisions of Title I of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act...

  5. 78 FR 77548 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review Seattle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and... Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Port of Seattle for the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et. seq. (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part...

  6. Neuropharmacological and cochleotoxic effects of styrene. Consequences on noise exposures.

    PubMed

    Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Thomas, Aurélie; Cour, Chantal; Brochard, Céline; Cosnier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Occupational noise exposure can damage workers' hearing, particularly when combined with exposure to cochleotoxic chemicals such as styrene. Although styrene-induced cochlear impairments only become apparent after a long incubation period, the pharmacological impact of styrene on the central nervous system (CNS) can be rapidly measured by determining the threshold of the middle-ear acoustic reflex (MER) trigger. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a noise (both continuous and impulse), and a low concentration of styrene [300ppm<(threshold limit value×10) safety factor] on the peripheral auditory receptor, and on the CNS in rats. The impact of the different conditions on hearing loss was assessed using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions, and histological analysis of cochleae. Although the LEX,8h (8-hour time-weighted average exposure) of the impulse noise was lower (80dB SPL sound pressure level) than that of the continuous noise (85dB SPL), it appeared more detrimental to the peripheral auditory receptors. A co-exposure to styrene and continuous noise was less damaging than exposure to continuous noise alone. In contrast, the traumatic effects of impulse noise on the organ of Corti were enhanced by co-exposure to styrene. The pharmacological effects of the solvent on the CNS were discussed to put forward a plausible explanation of these surprising results. We hypothesize that CNS effects of styrene may account for this apparent paradox. Based on the present results, the temporal structure of the noise should be reintroduced as a key parameter in hearing conservation regulations.

  7. Noise exposure levels of priests and worshippers in protestant churches.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Felipe; Cabral, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    Context. Worship in Protestant churches in Brazil is very noisy. Thus, this practice may pose a hearing risk. Aims. To evaluate the priests' and worshippers' noise exposure during worship. Settings and design. The analysis was carried out in 5 churches located in the city of São José dos Campos, Brazil. Methods and material. To estimate the worshippers' noise exposure, an author of this study was also submitted to dosimetry. The methodology was based on Fundacentro's Occupational Hygiene Standard No. NHO-01 (2001). Weekly noise exposure was estimated according to the priest's information about the number of services in the period. Results. The priest's noise exposure was over the recommended limits. The normalized exposure level varied between 95.4 to 99.5 dB(A). In 2 of the churches, the noise exposure registered, with values of 85.3 and 86.5 dB(A), may also pose risk to the worshippers. Conclusions. Worship in the churches generated sound pressure levels that imply health risk, especially to priests, so hearing conservation programs with adequate acoustical sanitation measures must be implemented there.

  8. 14 CFR 150.21 - Noise exposure maps and related descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noise exposure maps and related... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.21 Noise exposure maps and related descriptions. (a) Each airport...

  9. 14 CFR 150.21 - Noise exposure maps and related descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noise exposure maps and related... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.21 Noise exposure maps and related descriptions. (a) Each airport...

  10. 14 CFR 150.21 - Noise exposure maps and related descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise exposure maps and related... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.21 Noise exposure maps and related descriptions. (a) Each airport...

  11. 14 CFR 150.21 - Noise exposure maps and related descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noise exposure maps and related... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.21 Noise exposure maps and related descriptions. (a) Each airport...

  12. 14 CFR 150.21 - Noise exposure maps and related descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noise exposure maps and related... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Development of Noise Exposure Maps and Noise Compatibility Programs § 150.21 Noise exposure maps and related descriptions. (a) Each airport...

  13. Characterizing global infrasonic ocean ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Stutzman, Eleonore; Arduin, Fabrice; Sylvain, Leon

    2017-04-01

    The ability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) global infrasound network to detect atmospheric explosions and events of interest strongly depends on station specific ambient noise which includes both incoherent wind noise and real coherent infrasonic waves. To characterize the coherent ambient noise, a broadband array processing was performed on 10 years of continuous recordings at IMS stations. Multi-year comparisons between the observed and modeled directional microbarom amplitude variations at several IMS stations using two-dimensional wave energy spectrum ocean wave products are performed to build of a reference database of infrasound oceanic sources. Microseisms are attributed the same source processes as microbaroms, involving the interaction of standing ocean waves. To further evaluate oceanic wave action models, the infrasound analysis will be supplemented with several other approaches including microseisms collected at seismic instrumentation (single stations and arrays). The expected benefits of such studies concern the use of multi-year complementary data to finely characterize coupling mechanisms at the ocean-atmosphere interface. In return, a better knowledge of the source of the ambient ocean noise opens new perspectives by providing additional integrated constraints on the dynamics of the middle atmosphere and its disturbances where data coverage is sparse.

  14. 76 FR 21939 - Noise Exposure Map; Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review; Lambert-St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... questions arise concerning the precise relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours... to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve questions... exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on the surface rests exclusively with the...

  15. Workplace noise exposure after modernisation of an aluminium processing complex.

    PubMed

    Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Lukić, Jela; Udovicić, Ruzica; Zuskin, Eugenija; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Zajec, Zdenko

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess to which extent modernisation of an aluminium production complex reduced occupational noise hazard for jobs with the highest potential of exposure. Periodical measurements of noise level were taken at the same workplaces using the same method, before and after modernisation of all plants. The results were compared with the recommended standard. After modernisation, the noise was significantly reduced in all sections of all plants. The greatest reduction was measured in the foundry. After modernisation, the portion of workplaces with excessive noise level dropped significantly (chisquare=21.315; p<0.0001) from 78.4% to 13%. Noise remained a problem in ingot casting and dross skimming section. In the anode plant, noise remained a problem in the green mill section where noise intensities generated by mills and vibrocompactors varied from 95 dB(A) to 102 dB(A). In the electrolysis plant, the portion of workplaces with extensive noise dropped from 77.8% to 39.3% after modernisation (p=0.0019). Noise remains to be a problem at the anode covering section where levels rise up to 100 dB(A). The modernisation of the factory has considerably reduced the noise level in the working environment of all plants, but it can not be reduced completely.

  16. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

    2010-10-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  17. Firefighter noise exposure during training activities and general equipment use.

    PubMed

    Root, Kyle S; Schwennker, Catherine; Autenrieth, Daniel; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2013-01-01

    Multiple noise measurements were taken on 6 types of fire station equipment and 15 types of emergency response vehicle-related equipment used by firefighters during routine and emergency operations at 10 fire stations. Five of the six types of fire station equipment, when measured at a distance of one meter and ear level, emitted noise equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including lawn maintenance equipment, snow blowers, compressors, and emergency alarms. Thirteen of 15 types of equipment located on the fire engines emitted noise levels equal to or greater than 85 dBA, including fans, saws, alarms, and extrication equipment. In addition, noise measurements were taken during fire engine operations, including the idling vehicle, vehicle sirens, and water pumps. Results indicated that idling fire-engine noise levels were below 85 dBA; however, during water pump and siren use, noise levels exceeded 85 dBA, in some instances, at different locations around the trucks where firefighters would be stationed during emergency operations. To determine if the duration and use of fire fighting equipment was sufficient to result in overexposures to noise during routine training activities, 93 firefighter personal noise dosimetry samples were taken during 10 firefighter training activities. Two training activities per sampling day were monitored during each sampling event, for a mean exposure time of 70 min per day. The noise dosimetry samples were grouped based on job description to compare noise exposures between the different categories of job tasks commonly associated with fire fighting. The three job categories were interior, exterior, and engineering. Mean personal dosimetry results indicated that the average noise exposure was 78 dBA during the training activities that lasted 70 min on average. There was no significant difference in noise exposure between each of the three job categories. Although firefighters routinely use equipment and emergency response vehicles that

  18. Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Fredrik; Kjellberg, Anders; Knutsson, Anders; Landström, Ulf; Lindberg, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  19. Traffic noise exposure affects telomere length in nestling house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Ribout, Cécile; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    In a consistently urbanizing world, anthropogenic noise has become almost omnipresent, and there are increasing evidence that high noise levels can have major impacts on wildlife. While the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure on adult animals have been widely studied, surprisingly, there has been little consideration of the effects of noise pollution on developing organisms. Yet, environmental conditions experienced in early life can have dramatic lifelong consequences for fitness. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) breeding in nest boxes. We focused on the impact of such disturbance on nestlings' telomere length and fledging success, as telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) appear to be a promising predictor of longevity. We showed that despite the absence of any obvious immediate consequences (growth and fledging success), nestlings reared under traffic noise exposure exhibited reduced telomere lengths compared with their unexposed neighbours. Although the mechanisms responsible for this effect remain to be determined, our results provide the first experimental evidence that noise alone can affect a wild vertebrate's early-life telomere length. This suggests that noise exposure may entail important costs for developing organisms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Traffic noise exposure affects telomere length in nestling house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Ribout, Cécile; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In a consistently urbanizing world, anthropogenic noise has become almost omnipresent, and there are increasing evidence that high noise levels can have major impacts on wildlife. While the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure on adult animals have been widely studied, surprisingly, there has been little consideration of the effects of noise pollution on developing organisms. Yet, environmental conditions experienced in early life can have dramatic lifelong consequences for fitness. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus) breeding in nest boxes. We focused on the impact of such disturbance on nestlings’ telomere length and fledging success, as telomeres (the protective ends of chromosomes) appear to be a promising predictor of longevity. We showed that despite the absence of any obvious immediate consequences (growth and fledging success), nestlings reared under traffic noise exposure exhibited reduced telomere lengths compared with their unexposed neighbours. Although the mechanisms responsible for this effect remain to be determined, our results provide the first experimental evidence that noise alone can affect a wild vertebrate's early-life telomere length. This suggests that noise exposure may entail important costs for developing organisms. PMID:26382074

  1. Noise exposure levels in stock car auto racing.

    PubMed

    Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S; Prazma, Jiri; Pillsbury, Harold C

    2008-12-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss associated with the workplace has been well described. Far less is known, however, about the risks to hearing from recreational sources of noise. We investigated the popular sport of stock car racing as a potentially significant source of noise exposure, and we conducted a sound-level survey at a National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) event. Noise levels measured during the race ranged from 96.5 to 104 dB(A) at 46 meters ( approximately 150 feet) from the track and 99 to 109 dB(A) at 6 meters ( approximately 20 feet) from the track. The peak sound pressure level at 6 meters was 109 dB(A). Although significantly less than that associated with an immediate permanent threshold shift, such an exposure could cause a temporary threshold shift. Alhough hearing protection is recommended, particularly for track employees with longer periods of exposure, racing fans with only occasional exposure to such noise levels are unlikely to develop a permanent noise-induced hearing loss.

  2. Injury risk and noise exposure in firefighter training operations

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Long, Rachel; Sun, Kan; Sayler, Stephanie; von Thaden, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Firefighters have high rate of injuries and illnesses, as well as exposures to high levels of noise. This study explored the relationship between noise exposure and injury among firefighters. Methods We recruited firefighters undergoing vehicle extrication and structural collapse emergency response training at a highly realistic training facility. Demographics, health status, body mass index, and history of serious injuries (i.e., injuries requiring first aid treatment, treatment in a medical clinic or office, or treatment at a hospital) were assessed at baseline, and daily activities, injury events, and near-misses were assessed daily using surveys. Participants' noise exposures were monitored for one 24-hour period using noise dosimeters. We used a mixed-effects logistic regression model to estimate the odds of injury events and near-misses associated with noise exposure as an independent variable. Results Of 56 subjects, twenty (36%) reported that they had ever suffered a serious injury during firefighting activities, and nine (16%) reported a serious injury within the past year. We estimated rates of 6.6 lifetime serious injuries per 100 FTE 16.1 serious injuries per 100 FTE within the past year. Our models indicated a significant increase in injury events and near misses among those with higher BMI, and as well as a dose-response relationship between near-misses/injuries and increasing noise levels. Noise levels >90 dBA in the 30 min prior to time of injury or near-miss were associated with substantially increased odds ratios for injury or near-miss. Our models further indicated that perceived job demands were significantly associated with increased risk of injury or near-miss. Conclusion Our results suggest that noise exposures may need to be incorporated into injury prevention programs for firefighters to reduce injuries among this high-risk occupational group. PMID:26712895

  3. 78 FR 9988 - Noise Exposure Map Notice Nashville Interntional Airport, Nashville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a Noise Exposure Map submitted under... relative locations of specific properties with regard to the depicted noise exposure contours, or in..., the responsibility for the detailed overlaying of noise exposure contours onto the map...

  4. 75 FR 77693 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Manchester-Boston Regional Airport, Manchester, NH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under Section 103 of the Act, it should be... properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting the noise exposure maps to resolve... noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on ] the surface rests exclusively with...

  5. 78 FR 64048 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... includes: Exhibit 1, 2012 Noise Exposure Contour (Existing Condition); Exhibit 2, 2017 Noise Exposure Contours (Forecast Condition). The FAA has determined that these Noise Exposure Maps and accompanying... concerning the precise relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a...

  6. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  7. Immediate and delayed cochlear neuropathy after noise exposure in pubescent mice.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Lysaght, Andrew C; Liberman, M Charles; Qvortrup, Klaus; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2015-01-01

    Moderate acoustic overexposure in adult rodents is known to cause acute loss of synapses on sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and delayed degeneration of the auditory nerve, despite the completely reversible temporary threshold shift (TTS) and morphologically intact hair cells. Our objective was to determine whether a cochlear synaptopathy followed by neuropathy occurs after noise exposure in pubescence, and to define neuropathic versus non-neuropathic noise levels for pubescent mice. While exposing 6 week old CBA/CaJ mice to 8-16 kHz bandpass noise for 2 hrs, we defined 97 dB sound pressure level (SPL) as the threshold for this particular type of neuropathic exposure associated with TTS, and 94 dB SPL as the highest non-neuropathic noise level associated with TTS. Exposure to 100 dB SPL caused permanent threshold shift although exposure of 16 week old mice to the same noise is reported to cause only TTS. Amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response, which reflects the summed activity of the cochlear nerve, was complemented by synaptic ribbon counts in IHCs using confocal microscopy, and by stereological counts of peripheral axons and cell bodies of the cochlear nerve from 24 hours to 16 months post exposure. Mice exposed to neuropathic noise demonstrated immediate cochlear synaptopathy by 24 hours post exposure, and delayed neurodegeneration characterized by axonal retraction at 8 months, and spiral ganglion cell loss at 8-16 months post exposure. Although the damage was initially limited to the cochlear base, it progressed to also involve the cochlear apex by 8 months post exposure. Our data demonstrate a fine line between neuropathic and non-neuropathic noise levels associated with TTS in the pubescent cochlea.

  8. Immediate and Delayed Cochlear Neuropathy after Noise Exposure in Pubescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Lysaght, Andrew C.; Liberman, M. Charles; Qvortrup, Klaus; Stankovic, Konstantina M.

    2015-01-01

    Moderate acoustic overexposure in adult rodents is known to cause acute loss of synapses on sensory inner hair cells (IHCs) and delayed degeneration of the auditory nerve, despite the completely reversible temporary threshold shift (TTS) and morphologically intact hair cells. Our objective was to determine whether a cochlear synaptopathy followed by neuropathy occurs after noise exposure in pubescence, and to define neuropathic versus non-neuropathic noise levels for pubescent mice. While exposing 6 week old CBA/CaJ mice to 8-16 kHz bandpass noise for 2 hrs, we defined 97 dB sound pressure level (SPL) as the threshold for this particular type of neuropathic exposure associated with TTS, and 94 dB SPL as the highest non-neuropathic noise level associated with TTS. Exposure to 100 dB SPL caused permanent threshold shift although exposure of 16 week old mice to the same noise is reported to cause only TTS. Amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response, which reflects the summed activity of the cochlear nerve, was complemented by synaptic ribbon counts in IHCs using confocal microscopy, and by stereological counts of peripheral axons and cell bodies of the cochlear nerve from 24 hours to 16 months post exposure. Mice exposed to neuropathic noise demonstrated immediate cochlear synaptopathy by 24 hours post exposure, and delayed neurodegeneration characterized by axonal retraction at 8 months, and spiral ganglion cell loss at 8-16 months post exposure. Although the damage was initially limited to the cochlear base, it progressed to also involve the cochlear apex by 8 months post exposure. Our data demonstrate a fine line between neuropathic and non-neuropathic noise levels associated with TTS in the pubescent cochlea. PMID:25955832

  9. [Survey of noise exposure level of national forestry workers].

    PubMed

    Taoda, K; Watanabe, S; Nishiyama, K; Fukuchi, Y; Miyakita, T

    1998-05-01

    Eighty-one national forestry workers who were using chain saws, log cutters, log cutting machines, bush cleaners, timber-collecting cable machines and forklifts were examined for their level of noise exposure in a working day by using a portable sound meter. And their noise exposure levels Leq (8 h) for a year were estimated based on the measured noise levels and on the number of noise exposure days and hours in a year recorded in their work documents. The survey was made from July to December, 1988. The maximum noise levels with all the machines except a case of the forklift were above 100 dB, and with most chain saws they were above 110 dB. The amount of time that workers were exposed to the noise of logging and lumbering with chain saws, cutting by bush cleaners and timber-collecting cable machines without a cabin was longer than the allowable time for 90 dB and 95 dB. The number of noise exposure days in a year is fewer than reported in the past. The estimated Leq (8 h) for 32 out of 34 lumbermen surveyed was more than 85 dB, and for 5 lumbermen the Leq (8 h) was more than 90 dB. From these results, it can be concluded that there is a danger of noise induced hearing loss in national forestry workers using chain saws, log cutters, log cutting machines and timber-collecting cable machines without a cabin in 1987.

  10. Assessment of the noise exposure of call centre operators.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jacqueline A; Broughton, Keith

    2002-11-01

    Call centres now play a major role in the daily operations of financial, technology and utility companies, as well as public bodies. It is predicted that 2002 will see 2.3% of the total British workforce employed in call centres. However, local authority enforcement officers, unions, voluntary organizations, employers and employees have all expressed concern that there are hazards to health and safety unique to this new and developing industry. One of the potential hazards reported in the press is hearing damage from using headsets. In a Health & Safety Executive funded project, the noise exposure of 150 call centre operators was evaluated, in call centres which included financial services, home shopping and telecommunications services. The results show that the daily personal noise exposure of these call centre operators is unlikely to exceed the 85 dB(A) action level defined in the Noise at Work Regulations 1989. The risk of hearing damage is therefore extremely low. Exposure to higher noise levels is possible, for example from fax tones, holding tones and high pitched tones from mobile phones. However, the duration of these events is likely to be short and they are therefore unlikely to have a significant effect on the operators' overall noise exposure. A practical method of limiting exposure to unexpected high noises from headsets is to ensure that the headsets incorporate acoustic shock protection that meets the requirements of the Department of Trade and Industry specification 85/013. In the UK, this limiter ensures any noise above 118 dB is not transmitted through the headset. Operators should receive regular training on the headset and telephone equipment they are using. This training should include correct use of the headset and the volume control facilities, and advice on how and when to clean and maintain the headsets.

  11. Assessment of noise exposure in a hospital kitchen.

    PubMed

    Achutan, Chandran

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was asked to evaluate the noise exposure of employees in the Nutrition and Food Services Department of a large hospital, because of noise concerns raised after the installation of the PowerSoak dishwashing system. Eleven employees (two cooks, eight food service workers, and a materials handler) contributed 13 full-shift and two task-based personal noise dosimetry measures over two days. The noise levels for two food service workers assigned to the pots and pans room (85.1 and 85.2dBA), a cook working in the food preparation area (85.9 dBA), and a food service worker assigned to the dishwashing room (89.5 dBA) exceeded the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL); however, none of the measures exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The noise level from the PowerSoak dishwashing system alone was not excessive, but additional noise from the food preparation area (primarily from blenders and utensils), and from metal-to-metal contact between stainless steel pots and pans and metal racks, may explain exposures above the NIOSH REL for employees in the pots and pans room. The cooks were exposed to many intermittent impact noise sources, such as, metal-to-metal contact between utensils and the use of industrial-size blenders. We recommended that metal-to-metal contact be reduced as much as possible throughout the Nutrition and Food Services Department, and hearing protectors be provided to employees in the dishwashing room until engineering controls were in place.

  12. 76 FR 39150 - Updated Noise Exposure Map Notice for Indianapolis International Airport; Indianapolis, Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a noise exposure map submitted under... relative locations of specific properties with regard to the depicted noise contours, or in interpreting... responsibility for the detailed overlaying of noise exposure contours onto the map depicting properties on...

  13. 77 FR 22378 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Lafayette Regional Airport, Lafayette, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ..., Existing (2010) Condition Noise Contour Map; Table 4.6, 2010 Noise Exposure Estimates; Table 5.1, 2016... Contour Map; Table 5.4, 2016 Noise Exposure Estimates; Exhibit 5.3, Incompatible Land Use; and Exhibit 5.4... the precise relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a...

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and noise exposure of baristas.

    PubMed

    Pursley, Alyssa J; Saunders, Gabrielle H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. A total of 11 females and four males, aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Noise Exposure of Baristas

    PubMed Central

    Pursley, Alyssa J.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Design Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. Study Sample 11 females and 4 males aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Results Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 dBA and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Conclusions Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices. PMID:26795371

  16. Guide to the evaluation of human exposure to noise from large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.; Grosveld, F.

    1982-01-01

    Guidance for evaluating human exposure to wind turbine noise is provided and includes consideration of the source characteristics, the propagation to the receiver location, and the exposure of the receiver to the noise. The criteria for evaluation of human exposure are based on comparisons of the noise at the receiver location with the human perception thresholds for wind turbine noise and noise-induced building vibrations in the presence of background noise.

  17. Temporary changes in hearing after exposure to shooting noise.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Bak, Marek; Fiszer, Marta; Kotyło, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2004-01-01

    Firearm is a common source of impulse noise that may potentially damage hearing organ. It has been suggested that otoacoustic emissions, particularly transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), might be more sensitive than pure-tone audiometry (PTA) in the assessment of changes to cochlea caused by noise. The aim of this study was to: (i) evaluate exposure to impulse noise from small-caliber weapons, (ii) compare the post-exposure changes in hearing measured by PTA and TEOAE and correlate them with noise parameters. The study included 18 male hunters (group I) and 28 candidate policemen (group II) exposed to impulse noise from small firearms during target practices. Group I was unprotected during shooting, whereas group II used commonly available hearing protectors. PTA and TEOAE were performed before and 2-10 min after shooting. Exposure to impulse noise was evaluated by in situ measurements. Groups I and II were exposed to 3-4 and 4-144 impulses of noise at mean C-weighted peak sound pressure levels of 154 dB and 156 dB, respectively. No post-exposure audiometric threshold shift was observed in group I. Significant reductions of TEOAE levels were found both for the whole response (-2.2 dB SPL) and for 1/2 -octave band responses in the frequency range of 1000-4000 Hz (from -1.6 to -3.0 dB SPL). These changes were not correlated with C-weighted peak sound pressure levels or equivalent-continuous A-weighted sound pressure level. Significant correlation was found for peak sound pressure and maximum sound pressure levels in 1/3-octave bands in the frequency range corresponding with the main part of the acoustic energy of impulses (correlation coefficients r from -0.58 to -0.77, p < 0.05). In group II neither PTA nor TEOAE showed significant hearing impairment after shooting. The results show that even short-term exposure to impulse noise from small-calibre firearms might cause temporary hearing impairment measured by TEOAE. Therefore, the use of earmuffs is

  18. Characterization of Softmagnetic Thin Layers Using Barkhausen Noise Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Barkhausen Noise Microscopy DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Applications...Proc. Vol. 674 © 2001 Materials Research Society Characterization of Softmagnetic Thin Layers using Barkhausen Noise Microscopy Jochen Hoffmann...layer system. Barkhausen Noise Microscopy enables the characterization of such thin layers. By cycling the magnetic hysteresis of ferromagnetic material

  19. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex. Methods: A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann–Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p < 0.05, were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 498 subjects from both sexes, and the median age was 69 years. From the comparison between men and women, we obtained the medium hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p < 0.0001). Comparing the thresholds of individuals with and without a history of occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure. PMID:25992010

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... listed in Table I of this section, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... listed in Table I of this section, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... them on this graph and noting the A-weighted sound level corresponding to the point of highest...) Where circumstances such as high worker mobility, significant variations in sound level, or a... without exposure to workplace noise. (iv) The employer shall notify employees of the need to avoid...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... them on this graph and noting the A-weighted sound level corresponding to the point of highest...) Where circumstances such as high worker mobility, significant variations in sound level, or a... without exposure to workplace noise. (iv) The employer shall notify employees of the need to avoid...

  4. Annoyance responses to stable and changing aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Brink, Mark; Wirth, Katja E; Schierz, Christoph; Thomann, Georg; Bauer, Georg

    2008-11-01

    This article reports the two extensive aircraft noise annoyance surveys subsequently carried out among residents in the vicinity of Zurich Airport in 2001 and 2003 in order to update and validate existing exposure-effect relationships for aircraft noise and annoyance in Switzerland. Logistic and polynomial approximations of the exposure-annoyance relationships for both the years 2001 and 2003 are presented for the L(dn), L(den), and L(A,eq24) noise metrics. The results confirm other recently published international research and provide further evidence that community annoyance due to aircraft noise has increased over the past decades. Between the two survey years, a considerable amount of early morning and late evening flight operations have been relocated to use an other runway than before; thus both the effects of a recent step decrease and recent step increase on the exposure-annoyance relationship could be investigated. Residents that experienced a step increase elicited a quite pronounced over-reaction of annoyance which correlated with the magnitude of the change. Two logistic regression models are provided to forecast the effects of changes in exposure during shoulder hours in the early morning and the late evening.

  5. [Electrocardiogram change of workers after disengaging occupational noise exposure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie-ming; Jiang, Chao-qiang; Zhang, Wei-sen; Hou, Li-jun; Cheng, K K; Lam, H T

    2007-10-01

    To examine electrocardiogram (ECG) change of workers after leaving occupational noise exposure. In the first phase of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study, 10413 Guangzhou residents aged 50 years or more received a face-to face interview including noise exposure history, a full medical check-up and laboratory tests in 2003 - 4. ECG examination was carried out using 12-lead MAC-CS ECG machine made in HP Ltd, Shanghai, China. ECG of every subject was independently diagnosed by two doctors who had obtained ECG diagnosis qualification. (1) Among 10413 subjects, 70% were female, and more than half were aged 60-69 years. The mean age and education level in males were higher than those in females. (2) 2119 subjects (21.0%) were previously exposed to noise and were retired now. (3) The prevalence of ECG abnormality was respectively 82.4% and 79.1% in females and males. Rate of ECG abnormality increased with age in both females and males (P = 0.000), and was lower in females with higher education level (P = 0.000). There was not significant difference in ECG abnormality between workers previously exposed or unexposed to noise in both females and males (P > 0.05). 4 Comparing workers previously exposed to those unexposed to noise in both females and males, after adjusting for age, educational level and smoking status, the rates of arrhythmia, axes deviation, atria and ventricle hypertrophy, ST-T change and coronary artery syndrome were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Our study showed that the prevalence of ECG abnormality was not significantly increased in workers previously exposed to noise and had left exposure now compared to those never exposed to noise. Because our study was cross section and occupational history was obtained from a questionnaire but was not confirmed by the companies, further study is needed.

  6. 77 FR 50759 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Orlando Sanford International Airport, Sanford, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Tracks; Figure 4: Existing Land Use; Figure 5: 2011 NEM Contours; Figure 6: 2016 NEM Contours; Figure 7... exposure contours depicted on a Noise Exposure Map submitted under Section 47503 of the Act, it should be... properties with regard to the depicted noise exposure contours, or in interpreting the Noise Exposure Maps...

  7. Traffic Noise Exposure Increases Gastric Pepsin Secretion in Rat.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Azam; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Rouhbakhsh, Nematollah; Sotudeh, Masoud; Salimi, Ehsan; Barzegar Behrooz, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Noise is considered as one of the most severe sources of environmental and workplace constraints. Many noise effects are well known on immune function, hormonal levels, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise exposure on basal and stimulated gastric pepsin secretion. 48 male rats were exposed to traffic noise (86 dB) for a short term of (8h/day for 1 day) and a long term of (8h/day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) as well as a control group. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out technique. Pepsin secretion was measured by employing the Anson method. Histological studies were carried out on the epithelial layer. The corticosteroid hormone was measured in the serum for the stress augmentation. The present finding indicated no changes in pepsin secretion content in the short term, but in the 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal gastric pepsin secretion increased markedly compared to the control group. Histological results showed that the number of oxyntic glands and cell nuclei decreased in comparison with the control group while the thickness of the epithelial layer increases. In addition, the corticosterone levels increase in all groups in comparison with the control. It seems that the increase of gastric pepsin secretion is due to the description and translation processes in the peptic cells and needs enough time for completion.

  8. The plasma cyclic-AMP response to noise in humans and rats—short-term exposure to various noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, M.; Dodo, H.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Goto, H.

    1988-12-01

    Rats were exposed to short-term noise which was found to activate the hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal system and result in a decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA) and an increase of serum corticosterone (SCS). The threshold limit value lay between 60 and 70 dB(A). To characterize better the effect of noise on the human hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system, a large group of subjects was exposed to short-term noise at 85 dB(A) and higher, and tested for levels of adrenocortical steroid (cortisol) and anterior pituitary hormones such as ACTH, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Results in humans showed hyperfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary system. However, as the responses in rats and humans differed, a further experiment was performed using C-AMP, a second messenger mediating many of the effects of a variety of hormones. Plasma C-AMP in humans and rats increased significantly after exposure to noise greater than 70 dB(A). We suggest that plasma C-AMP could be useful as a sensitive index for noise-related stress in the daily living environment of humans and rats.

  9. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    PubMed

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  10. Disorders Induced by Direct Occupational Exposure to Noise: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251

  11. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: "Noise, Occupational," "Occupational Exposure," and "Occupational Disease." The following limits were considered: "Humans," "Adult (more than 18 years)," and "Comparative Studies." A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  12. An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

  13. An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

  14. Effects of Classroom Acoustics and Self-Reported Noise Exposure on Teachers' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg

    2013-01-01

    Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…

  15. Effects of Classroom Acoustics and Self-Reported Noise Exposure on Teachers' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Persson, Roger; Lund, Soren Peter; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Moberg

    2013-01-01

    Beyond noise annoyance and voice problems, little is known about the effects that noise and poor classroom acoustics have on teachers' health and well-being. The aim of this field study was therefore to investigate the effects of perceived noise exposure and classroom reverberation on measures of well-being. Data on self-reported noise exposure,…

  16. Semiconductor Laser Low Frequency Noise Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Logan, Ronald T.

    1996-01-01

    This work summarizes the efforts in identifying the fundamental noise limit in semiconductor optical sources (lasers) to determine the source of 1/F noise and it's associated behavior. In addition, the study also addresses the effects of this 1/F noise on RF phased arrays. The study showed that the 1/F noise in semiconductor lasers has an ultimate physical limit based upon similar factors to fundamental noise generated in other semiconductor and solid state devices. The study also showed that both additive and multiplicative noise can be a significant detriment to the performance of RF phased arrays especially in regard to very low sidelobe performance and ultimate beam steering accuracy. The final result is that a noise power related term must be included in a complete analysis of the noise spectrum of any semiconductor device including semiconductor lasers.

  17. Noise exposure estimates of urban MP3 player users.

    PubMed

    Levey, Sandra; Levey, Tania; Fligor, Brian J

    2011-02-01

    To examine the sound level and duration of use of personal listening devices (PLDs) by 189 college students, ages 18-53 years, as they entered a New York City college campus, to determine whether noise exposure from PLDs was in excess of recommended exposure limits and what factors might influence exposure. Free-field equivalent sound levels from PLD headphones were measured on a mannequin with a calibrated sound level meter. Participants reported demographic information, whether they had just come off the subway, the type of PLD and earphones used, and duration per day and days per week they used their PLDs. Based on measured free-field equivalent sound levels from PLD headphones and the reported PLD use, per day 58.2% of participants exceeded 85 dB A-weighted 8-hr equivalent sound levels (L(Aeq)), and per week 51.9% exceeded 85 dB A-weighted 40-hr equivalent continuous sound levels (L(Awkn)). The majority of PLD users exceeded recommended sound exposure limits, suggesting that they were at increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss. Analyses of the demographics of these participants and mode of transportation to campus failed to indicate any particular gender differences in PLD use or in mode of transportation influencing sound exposure.

  18. Toward standardization of noise exposure in animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkard, Robert

    2003-04-01

    In the United States, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Accredited Standards Committee on Bioacoustics S3 develops voluntary standards related to psychological and physiological acoustics, including areas such as general acoustics, vibration, and shock. Several years ago, an S3 working group (WG) was formed, WG90 Animal Bioacoustics, with the goal of developing guidelines and standards in the area of animal bioacoustics, including relevant terminology, procedures to quantify noise exposure, and the effects of noise exposure on animals. The scope of this working group involves both terrestrial and marine animals, and their environments. Although ANSI Standards are voluntary, the development of accepted sound measurement procedures is needed before any legislation can be implemented that is intended to protect these animals from sound exposures detrimental to their long-term survival. To date, no standards have emerged from the Animal Bioacoustics working group. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the ANSI standards development process, briefly review some of standards that have been developed that are intended to quantify human exposure to sound, as well as describe the standards that need to be developed in order to protect both terrestrial and marine animals from excessive sound exposure.

  19. 75 FR 47881 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, T.F.Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice, T.F.Green Airport, Warwick, RI AGENCY: Federal... its determination that the noise exposure maps for T.F.Green Airport as submitted by the Rhode Island... INFORMATION: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the noise exposure maps submitted for...

  20. 76 FR 21419 - Noise Exposure Map; Louisville Interntional Airport, Louisville, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Tracks and Use''; Table 25, ``Estimated Residential Population within 2011 and 2016 DNL Contours''. The... relationship of specific properties to noise exposure contours depicted on a Noise Exposure Map submitted under... relative locations of specific properties with regard to the depicted noise exposure contours, or...

  1. Associations between chronic community noise exposure and blood pressure at rest and during acute noise and non-noise stressors among urban school children in India.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stephen J; Shejwal, Bhaskar; Kim, Bang Hyun; Evans, Gary W

    2010-09-01

    The present study builds on prior research that has examined the association between children's chronic exposure to community noise and resting blood pressure and blood pressure dysregulation during exposure to acute stressors. A novel contribution of the study is that it examines how chronic noise exposure relates to blood pressure responses during exposure to both noise and non-noise acute stressors. The acute noise stressor was recorded street noise and the non-noise stressor was mental arithmetic. The sample consisted of 189 3rd and 6th grade children (51.9% percent boys; 52.9% 3rd graders) from a noisy (n = 95) or relatively quiet (n = 94) public school in the city of Pune, India. There were no statistically significant differences between chronic noise levels and resting blood pressure levels. However, relative to quiet-school children, noisy-school children had significantly lower increases in blood pressure when exposed to either an acute noise or non-noise stressor. This finding suggests that chronic noise exposure may result in hypo-reactivity to a variety of stressors and not just habituation to noise stressors.

  2. Soundscape and Noise Exposure Monitoring in a Marine Protected Area Using Shipping Data and Time-Lapse Footage.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work that developed new techniques for underwater noise assessment that integrate acoustic monitoring with automatic identification system (AIS) shipping data and time-lapse video, meteorological, and tidal data. Two sites were studied within the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation (SAC) for bottlenose dolphins, where increased shipping traffic is expected from construction of offshore wind farms outside the SAC. Noise exposure varied markedly between the sites, and natural and anthropogenic contributions were characterized using multiple data sources. At one site, AIS-operating vessels accounted for total cumulative sound exposure (0.1-10 kHz), suggesting that noise modeling using the AIS would be feasible.

  3. Noise-induced hearing loss and combined noise and vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Turcot, A; Girard, S A; Courteau, M; Baril, J; Larocque, R

    2015-04-01

    While there is a wide body of literature addressing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) independently, relatively few studies have considered the combined effects of noise and vibration. These studies have suggested an increased risk of NIHL in workers with vibration white finger (VWF), though the relationship remains poorly understood. To determine whether hearing impairment is worse in noise-exposed workers with VWF than in workers with similar noise exposures but without VWF. The Quebec National Institute of Public Health audiometric database was used in conjunction with work-related accident and occupational diseases data from the Quebec workers' compensation board to analyse differences in audiometry results between vibration-exposed workers in the mining and forestry industries and the overall source population, and between mining and forestry workers with documented VWF and those without VWF. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7029 standards were used to calculate hearing loss not attributable to age. 15751 vibration-exposed workers were identified in an overall source population of 59339. Workers with VWF (n = 96) had significantly worse hearing at every frequency studied (500, 1000, 2000 4000 Hz) compared with other mining and forestry workers without VWF. This study confirms previous findings of greater hearing loss at higher frequencies in workers with VWF, but also found a significant difference in hearing loss at low frequencies. It therefore supports the association between combined noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure and NIHL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Stress effects of noise in a field experiment in comparison to reactions to short term noise exposure in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ising, H; Michalak, R

    2004-01-01

    Reactions to noise-induced communication disturbance of 42 men during a seminar were investigated. Stress reactions with or without road traffic noise (Lm = 60 dBA) were compared. Traffic noise was played back via loudspeakers during one day in the seminar room. The following parameters were measured: Fatigue and mental tension by questionnaire; blood pressure and heart rate; excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cAMP from the collected urine. The same subjects participated in a laboratory test where the blood pressure was measured during 5 minutes of rest and after 5 minutes of exposure to intermittent white noise (Lm=97 dBA). It was found that the noise in the field experiment caused psychological and physiological stress effects in half of the subjects. Increased mental tension was correlated to increases as well as decreases of the blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure reactions were stronger than the reactions of diastolic blood pressure. Noise sensitive subjects reacted stronger than the others. In the short-term laboratory test, systolic blood pressure increases were smaller than the diastolic increases. At the end of the 5 minutes noise exposure only the diastolic blood pressure increases were significant. There was no correlation between the blood pressure reactions in the two different noise exposure experiments. There existed a positive correlation between noise sensitivity and the systolic blood pressure increases during the seminar, whilst the correlation, between noise sensitivity and systolic blood pressure increases in the laboratory exposure, was negative. From these results we conclude that short-term noise exposure experiments do not provide information about the effects of long-term real life exposure to environmental noise. Potential health effects of chronic noise-induced disturbances of activities are discussed.

  5. Occupational noise exposure and risk of hypertension in an industrial workforce.

    PubMed

    Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Galusha, Deron; Cantley, Linda F; Cullen, Mark R; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2017-09-22

    Community noise exposure has been shown to increase the risk of hypertension; however, the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is less clear. Using an inception cohort of workers in a specialty metals manufacturing company, we retrospectively assessed occupational noise exposure, hearing acuity, and incident hypertension diagnoses using administrative datasets. Time-weighted average noise exposure levels were assigned to employees based on their job histories. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to determine the association of noise exposure with risk of incident hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident hypertension did not significantly differ between groups by cumulative continuous or categorized noise exposure metric. We found no increased risk of incident hypertension with exposure to occupational noise among workers. Further assessment examining workers' use of hearing protection devices is warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Psycho-social effects of traffic noise exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper a study of psycho-social effects of exposure to high levels of road traffic noise is presented. A questionnaire was constructed to evaluate not only annoyance reactions and sleep disturbance effects of noise, but also more long-term effects on psycho-social well-being (PSW). PSW was evaluated by 26 questions concerning depression, relaxation, activity, passivity, general well-being and social orientation. The postal questionnaire was answered by 151 persons in a quiet city area and 97 persons in an area exposed to an Leq level of 72 dB(A). The results showed that a higher proportion of those who lived in the noisy area in apartments with windows facing the street more often felt depressed. Those who had windows facing the courtyard, in the noisy area, however, were not more depressed that those who lived in the quiet area. Methodological difficulties in this type of study are also discussed in the paper.

  7. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements. DATES...

  8. 76 FR 12404 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Jackson-Evers International Airport, Jackson, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Jackson-Evers International Airport, Jackson... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by the Jackson Municipal.... (Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements...

  9. Automatic exposure control and estimation of effective system noise in diffuse fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Kepshire, Dax L; Dehghani, Hamid; Leblond, Frederic; Pogue, Brian W

    2009-12-07

    A diffuse fluorescence tomography system, based upon time-correlated single photon counting, is presented with an automated algorithm to allow dynamic range variation through exposure control. This automated exposure control allows the upper and lower detection levels of fluorophore to be extended by an order of magnitude beyond the previously published performance and benefits in a slight decrease in system effective noise. The effective noise level is used as a metric to characterize the system performance, integrating both model-mismatch and calibration bias errors into a single parameter. This effective error is near 7% of the reconstructed fluorescent yield value, when imaging in just few minutes. Quantifying protoporphyrin IX concentrations down to 50 ng/ml is possible, for tumor-sized regions. This fluorophore has very low fluorescence yield, but high biological relevance for tumor imaging, given that it is produced in the mitochondria, and upregulated in many tumor types.

  10. A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Strategic Noise Mapping and Occupational Noise Exposure Using the Random Walk Approach

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Zaiton; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces. PMID:25875019

  11. A stochastic simulation framework for the prediction of strategic noise mapping and occupational noise exposure using the random walk approach.

    PubMed

    Han, Lim Ming; Haron, Zaiton; Yahya, Khairulzan; Bakar, Suhaimi Abu; Dimon, Mohamad Ngasri

    2015-01-01

    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces.

  12. Exposure-effect relations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school and reading comprehension: the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Martin, Rocio; van Kempen, Elise; Alfred, Tamuno; Head, Jenny; Davies, Hugh W; Haines, Mary M; Lopez Barrio, Isabel; Matheson, Mark; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    Transport noise is an increasingly prominent feature of the urban environment, making noise pollution an important environmental public health issue. This paper reports on the 2001-2003 RANCH project, the first cross-national epidemiologic study known to examine exposure-effect relations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and reading comprehension. Participants were 2,010 children aged 9-10 years from 89 schools around Amsterdam Schiphol, Madrid Barajas, and London Heathrow airports. Data from The Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom were pooled and analyzed using multilevel modeling. Aircraft noise exposure at school was linearly associated with impaired reading comprehension; the association was maintained after adjustment for socioeconomic variables (beta = -0.008, p = 0.012), aircraft noise annoyance, and other cognitive abilities (episodic memory, working memory, and sustained attention). Aircraft noise exposure at home was highly correlated with aircraft noise exposure at school and demonstrated a similar linear association with impaired reading comprehension. Road traffic noise exposure at school was not associated with reading comprehension in either the absence or the presence of aircraft noise (beta = 0.003, p = 0.509; beta = 0.002, p = 0.540, respectively). Findings were consistent across the three countries, which varied with respect to a range of socioeconomic and environmental variables, thus offering robust evidence of a direct exposure-effect relation between aircraft noise and reading comprehension.

  13. Nonauditory effects of repeated exposures to intense impulse noise

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Y.Y.; Dancer, A.; Richmond, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to intense impulse noise can cause injury to all of the air-containing structures of the body. While the ear is the most-sensitive organ, the upper respiratory tract (URT), the lungs, and the gut can be damaged by air blast. This nonauditory injury has been studied as a consequence of weapon-effects research. The development of light, long-range artillery and powerful shoulder-fired antitank weapons has increased the intensity of impulse noise to which soldiers are exposed. Hearing damage is recognized as a military occupational health hazard, and the advent of louder weapons has raised the possibility that nonauditory injury might become a limiting safety concern. Animal research was begun in Europe and the United States in an attempt to define that new hazard. Anesthetized sheep and swine were necropsied after being exposed to a variety of impulse conditions. It was readily demonstrated that with repeated exposures, nonauditory injury could build up at relatively low overpressure levels.

  14. A study of classroom acoustics and school teachers' noise exposure, voice load and speaking time during teaching, and the effects on vocal and mental fatigue development.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren Peter; Persson, Roger; Shibuya, Hitomi; Nielsen, Per Møberg; Scholz, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    The study investigated the noise exposure in a group of Danish school teachers. The aims were to investigate if noise posed a risk of impairment of hearing and to study the association between classroom acoustical conditions, noise exposure, vocal symptoms, and cognitive fatigue. Background noise levels, vocal load and speaking time were measured on 35 teachers during actual classroom teaching. The classrooms were characterized acoustically by measurements of reverberation time. Before and after the workday, the teachers answered a questionnaire on fatigue symptoms and carried out two cognitive test tasks sensitive to mental fatigue. The average noise level during the lessons was 72 dB(A), but during indoor sports activities the average noise level increased 6.6 dB(A). Room reverberation time (range 0.39-0.83 s) had no significant effect on the noise level. The teachers were talking with a raised voice in 61% of the time, and the vocal load increased 0.65 dB(A) per dB(A) increase in the average lesson noise level. An increase in voice symptoms during the workday correlated significantly with individual average noise exposure, and a decrease in performance in the two-back test correlated significantly with individual average vocal load. Noise exposure in general classrooms posed no risk of noise-induced hearing impairment in school teachers. However, the results provide evidence for an association between noise exposure and vocal load and development of vocal symptoms and cognitive fatigue after work.

  15. A pilot study to assess residential noise exposure near natural gas compressor stations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Meleah D.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Dalemarre, Laura; Sapkota, Amy R.; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Milton, Donald; Sapkota, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background U.S. natural gas production increased 40% from 2000 to 2015. This growth is largely related to technological advances in horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing. Environmental exposures upon impacted communities are a significant public health concern. Noise associated with natural gas compressor stations has been identified as a major concern for nearby residents, though limited studies exist. Objectives We conducted a pilot study to characterize noise levels in 11 homes located in Doddridge County, West Virginia, and determined whether these levels differed based on time of day, indoors vs. outdoors, and proximity of homes to natural gas compressor stations. We also compared noise levels at increasing distances from compressor stations to available noise guidelines, and evaluated low frequency noise presence. Methods We collected indoor and outdoor 24-hour measurements (Leq, 24hr) in eight homes located within 750 meters (m) of the nearest compressor station and three control homes located >1000m. We then evaluated how A-weighted decibel (dBA) exposure levels differed based on factors outlined above. Results The geometric mean (GM) for 24-hour outdoor noise levels at homes located <300m (Leq,24hr: 60.3 dBA; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.0) from the nearest compressor station was nearly 9 dBA higher than control homes (Leq,24hr: 51.6 dBA; GSD: 1.1). GM for 24 hour indoor noise for homes <300m (Leq,24hr: 53.4 dBA; GSD: 1.2) from the nearest compressor station was 11.2 dBA higher than control homes (Leq,24hr: 42.2 dBA; GSD: 1.1). Indoor average daytime noise for homes <300m of the nearest compressor stations were 13.1 dBA higher than control homes, while indoor nighttime readings were 9.4 dBA higher. Conclusions Findings indicate that living near a natural gas compressor station could potentially result in high environmental noise exposures. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and evaluate potential health impacts

  16. A pilot study to assess residential noise exposure near natural gas compressor stations.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Meleah D; Soneja, Sutyajeet; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Dalemarre, Laura; Sapkota, Amy R; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Milton, Donald; Sapkota, Amir

    2017-01-01

    U.S. natural gas production increased 40% from 2000 to 2015. This growth is largely related to technological advances in horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing. Environmental exposures upon impacted communities are a significant public health concern. Noise associated with natural gas compressor stations has been identified as a major concern for nearby residents, though limited studies exist. We conducted a pilot study to characterize noise levels in 11 homes located in Doddridge County, West Virginia, and determined whether these levels differed based on time of day, indoors vs. outdoors, and proximity of homes to natural gas compressor stations. We also compared noise levels at increasing distances from compressor stations to available noise guidelines, and evaluated low frequency noise presence. We collected indoor and outdoor 24-hour measurements (Leq, 24hr) in eight homes located within 750 meters (m) of the nearest compressor station and three control homes located >1000m. We then evaluated how A-weighted decibel (dBA) exposure levels differed based on factors outlined above. The geometric mean (GM) for 24-hour outdoor noise levels at homes located <300m (Leq,24hr: 60.3 dBA; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.0) from the nearest compressor station was nearly 9 dBA higher than control homes (Leq,24hr: 51.6 dBA; GSD: 1.1). GM for 24 hour indoor noise for homes <300m (Leq,24hr: 53.4 dBA; GSD: 1.2) from the nearest compressor station was 11.2 dBA higher than control homes (Leq,24hr: 42.2 dBA; GSD: 1.1). Indoor average daytime noise for homes <300m of the nearest compressor stations were 13.1 dBA higher than control homes, while indoor nighttime readings were 9.4 dBA higher. Findings indicate that living near a natural gas compressor station could potentially result in high environmental noise exposures. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and evaluate potential health impacts and protection measures.

  17. Efferent Feedback Minimizes Cochlear Neuropathy from Moderate Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maison, Stéphane F.; Usubuchi, Hajime; Liberman, M. Charles

    2013-01-01

    Although protective effects of the cochlea’s efferent feedback pathways have been well documented, prior work has focused on hair cell damage and cochlear threshold elevation and, correspondingly, on the high sound pressure levels (> 100 dB SPL) necessary to produce them. Here we explore the noise-induced loss of cochlear neurons that occurs with lower intensity exposures and in the absence of permanent threshold shifts. Using confocal microscopy to count synapses between hair cells and cochlear nerve fibers, and using measurement of auditory brainstem responses and otoacoustic emissions to assess cochlear pre- and post-synaptic function, we compare the damage from a weeklong exposure to moderate-level noise (84 dB SPL) in mice with varying degrees of cochlear de-efferentation induced by surgical lesion to the olivocochlear pathway. Such exposure causes minimal acute threshold shift and no chronic shifts in mice with normal efferent feedback. In de-efferented animals, there was up to 40% loss of cochlear nerve synapses and a corresponding decline in the amplitude of the auditory brainstem response. Quantitative analysis of the de-efferentation in inner vs. outer hair cell areas suggested that outer hair cell efferents are most important in minimizing this neuropathy, presumably by virtue of their sound-evoked feedback reduction of cochlear amplification. The moderate nature of this acoustic overexposure suggests that cochlear neurons are at risk even in everyday acoustic environments, and, thus, that the need for cochlear protection is plausible as a driving force in the design of this feedback pathway. PMID:23536069

  18. Effects of various noise exposures on endocochlear potentials correlated with cochlear gross responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Li, Q; Dong, W; Chen, J

    1992-04-01

    Changes in endocochlear potentials (EP), cochlear microphonics (CM), and compound action potentials (CAP) with noise exposure were investigated in guinea pigs. The animals were anesthetized and immobilized and exposed to white noise at intensities ranging from 105 to 125 dB. The negative EP (N-EP) was induced by anoxia and was investigated during and after noise exposure. It was found that the general EP (G-EP, the sum of both positive EP (P-EP) and N-EP) increased remarkably during exposure to 115 dB noise but decreased during exposure to 125 dB noise. A smaller absolute value of N-EP was encountered only during exposure to 125 dB noise. The results shed light on the relationship between EP and CM, CAP changes, and the potential mechanism of EP change and its significance in noise-induced hearing loss.

  19. Do ambient noise exposure levels predict hearing loss in a modern industrial cohort?

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, P M; Galusha, D; Dixon-Ernst, C; Slade, M D; Cullen, M R

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about the exposure-response relationship between occupational noise exposures and hearing loss comes from cross-sectional studies conducted before the widespread implementation of workplace hearing conservation programmes. Little is known about the current relationship of ambient noise exposure measurements to hearing loss risk. To examine the relationship between rates of high frequency hearing loss and measured levels of noise exposure in a modern industrial workforce. Ten-year hearing loss rates were determined for 6217 employees of an aluminium manufacturing company. Industrial hygiene and human resources records allowed for reconstruction of individual noise exposures. Hearing loss rates were compared to ANSI 3.44 predictions based on age and noise exposure. Associations between hearing loss, noise exposure, and covariate risk factors were assessed using multivariate regression. Workers in higher ambient noise jobs tended to experience less high frequency hearing loss than co-workers exposed at lower noise levels. This trend was also seen in stratified analyses of white males and non-hunters. At higher noise exposure levels, the magnitude of hearing loss was less than predicted by ANSI 3.44 formulae. There was no indication that a healthy worker effect could explain these findings. The majority of 10 dB standard threshold shifts (STS) occurred in workers whose calculated ambient noise exposures were less than or equal to 85 dBA. In this modern industrial cohort, hearing conservation efforts appear to be reducing hearing loss rates, especially at higher ambient noise levels. This could be related to differential use of hearing protection. The greatest burden of preventable occupational hearing loss was found in workers whose noise exposure averaged 85 dBA or less. To further reduce rates of occupational hearing loss, hearing conservation programmes may require innovative approaches targeting workers with noise exposures close to 85 dBA.

  20. The West London Schools Study: the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on child health.

    PubMed

    Haines, M M; Stansfeld, S A; Brentnall, S; Head, J; Berry, B; Jiggins, M; Hygge, S

    2001-11-01

    Previous field studies have indicated that children's cognitive performance is impaired by chronic aircraft noise exposure. However, these studies have not been of sufficient size to account adequately for the role of confounding factors. The objective of this study was to test whether cognitive impairments and stress responses (catecholamines, cortisol and perceived stress) are attributable to aircraft noise exposure after adjustment for school and individual level confounding factors and to examine whether children exposed to high levels of social disadvantage are at greater risk of noise effects. The cognitive performance and health of 451 children aged 8-11 years, attending 10 schools in high aircraft noise areas (16 h outdoor Leq > 63 dBA) was compared with children attending 10 matched control schools exposed to lower levels of aircraft noise (16 h outdoor Leq < 57 dBA). Noise exposure was associated with impaired reading on difficult items and raised annoyance, after adjustment for age, main language spoken and household deprivation. There was no variation in the size of the noise effects in vulnerable subgroups of children. High levels of noise exposure were not associated with impairments in mean reading score, memory and attention or stress responses. Aircraft noise was weakly associated with hyperactivity and psychological morbidity. Chronic noise exposure is associated with raised noise annoyance in children. The cognitive results indicate that chronic aircraft noise exposure does not always lead to generalized cognitive effects but, rather, more selective cognitive impairments on difficult cognitive tests in children.

  1. Assessment of Noise Exposure to Children: Considerations for the National Children's Study

    PubMed Central

    Viet, Susan Marie; Dellarco, Michael; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Neitzel, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has been accruing to indicate that young children are vulnerable to noise in their physical environment. A literature review identified that, in addition to hearing loss, noise exposure is associated with negative birth outcomes, reduced cognitive function, inability to concentrate, increased psychosocial activation, nervousness, feeling of helplessness, and increased blood pressure in children. While increasing attention has been given to the health effects of noise in children, research about noise exposure is sparse and often the measure of exposure is simply proximity to a noise source. The U.S. National Children's Study (NCS) provides a unique opportunity to investigate noise exposures to pregnant women and children using a number of assessment modalities at different life stages. Measurement of noise levels in homes and other environments, personal dosimetry measurements made over a period of days, and questionnaires addressing sources of noise in the environment, annoyance to noise, perceived noise level, use of head phones and ear buds, noisy activity exposures, and occupational exposures, are planned for evaluation within the NCS Vanguard pilot study. We describe the NCS planned approach to addressing noise exposure assessment in study visits over a child's lifetime. PMID:25866843

  2. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults' hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed.

  3. Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Vinck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Great concern arises from recreational noise exposure, which might lead to noise-induced hearing loss in young adults. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of recreational noise exposure on hearing function in young adults. A questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposures and an audiological test battery were completed by 163 subjects (aged 18-30 years). Based on the duration of exposure and self-estimated loudness of various leisure-time activities, the weekly and lifetime equivalent noise exposure were calculated. Subjects were categorized in groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure based on these values. Hearing was evaluated using audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Mean differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant differences in hearing thresholds, TEOAE amplitudes, and DPOAE amplitudes between groups with low, intermediate, or high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, one-third of our subjects exceeded the weekly equivalent noise exposure for all activities of 75 dBA. Further, the highest equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated for the activities visiting nightclubs or pubs, attending concerts or festivals, and playing in a band or orchestra. Moreover, temporary tinnitus after recreational noise exposure was found in 86% of our subjects. There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure. Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults’ hearing in relation to recreational noise exposure is needed. PMID:26356366

  4. The effects of noise exposure and musical training on suprathreshold auditory processing and speech perception in noise.

    PubMed

    Yeend, Ingrid; Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Sharma, Mridula; Dillon, Harvey

    2017-09-01

    Recent animal research has shown that exposure to single episodes of intense noise causes cochlear synaptopathy without affecting hearing thresholds. It has been suggested that the same may occur in humans. If so, it is hypothesized that this would result in impaired encoding of sound and lead to difficulties hearing at suprathreshold levels, particularly in challenging listening environments. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of noise exposure on auditory processing, including the perception of speech in noise, in adult humans. A secondary aim was to explore whether musical training might improve some aspects of auditory processing and thus counteract or ameliorate any negative impacts of noise exposure. In a sample of 122 participants (63 female) aged 30-57 years with normal or near-normal hearing thresholds, we conducted audiometric tests, including tympanometry, audiometry, acoustic reflexes, otoacoustic emissions and medial olivocochlear responses. We also assessed temporal and spectral processing, by determining thresholds for detection of amplitude modulation and temporal fine structure. We assessed speech-in-noise perception, and conducted tests of attention, memory and sentence closure. We also calculated participants' accumulated lifetime noise exposure and administered questionnaires to assess self-reported listening difficulty and musical training. The results showed no clear link between participants' lifetime noise exposure and performance on any of the auditory processing or speech-in-noise tasks. Musical training was associated with better performance on the auditory processing tasks, but not the on the speech-in-noise perception tasks. The results indicate that sentence closure skills, working memory, attention, extended high frequency hearing thresholds and medial olivocochlear suppression strength are important factors that are related to the ability to process speech in noise. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by

  5. An assessment of residential exposure to environmental noise at a shipping port.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Enda; King, Eoin A

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organisation has recently acknowledged that contrary to the trend for other environmental stressors, noise exposure is increasing in Europe. However, little research has been conducted on environmental noise exposure to handling activity at shipping ports. This paper reports on research examining the extent of noise exposure for residents within the vicinity of Dublin Port, Ireland using the nation's largest port terminal as a proxy for port noise. In order to assess the level of exposure in the area, long-term measurements were undertaken at the most exposed residential façade for a period of 45days to determine the extent of night-time exposure that was above levels recommended by the World Health Organisation. The indicators L90, Leq and LMax were used to determine exposure levels. The results show that exposure is above night-time guideline limits set down by the WHO, above Irish levels for the assessment of noise mitigation and highlight the extent to which port noise can be a significant environmental stressor. The research also investigated the extent of low-frequency noise (which is associated with greater health issues) from night-time port handling activity and found a significant low-frequency component indicating the negative health issues that might arise from port noise exposure more generally. We also undertook semi-structured interviews with residents to qualitatively assess the self-reported impact of prolonged night-time noise exposure for local residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Do ambient noise exposure levels predict hearing loss in a modern industrial cohort?

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, P M; Galusha, D; Dixon‐Ernst, C; Slade, M D; Cullen, M R

    2007-01-01

    Background Much of what is known about the exposure–response relationship between occupational noise exposures and hearing loss comes from cross‐sectional studies conducted before the widespread implementation of workplace hearing conservation programmes. Little is known about the current relationship of ambient noise exposure measurements to hearing loss risk. Aim To examine the relationship between rates of high frequency hearing loss and measured levels of noise exposure in a modern industrial workforce. Methods Ten‐year hearing loss rates were determined for 6217 employees of an aluminium manufacturing company. Industrial hygiene and human resources records allowed for reconstruction of individual noise exposures. Hearing loss rates were compared to ANSI 3.44 predictions based on age and noise exposure. Associations between hearing loss, noise exposure, and covariate risk factors were assessed using multivariate regression. Results Workers in higher ambient noise jobs tended to experience less high frequency hearing loss than co‐workers exposed at lower noise levels. This trend was also seen in stratified analyses of white males and non‐hunters. At higher noise exposure levels, the magnitude of hearing loss was less than predicted by ANSI 3.44 formulae. There was no indication that a healthy worker effect could explain these findings. The majority of 10 dB standard threshold shifts (STS) occurred in workers whose calculated ambient noise exposures were less than or equal to 85 dBA. Conclusions In this modern industrial cohort, hearing conservation efforts appear to be reducing hearing loss rates, especially at higher ambient noise levels. This could be related to differential use of hearing protection. The greatest burden of preventable occupational hearing loss was found in workers whose noise exposure averaged 85 dBA or less. To further reduce rates of occupational hearing loss, hearing conservation programmes may require innovative approaches

  7. Characterizing ultrasonic transducers using radiation efficiency and reception noise figure.

    PubMed

    Rhyne, T L

    1998-01-01

    Transducer performance is considered separately for transmission and reception operations. The transmission operation is traditionally characterized by its traditional transfer function. Using a Thevenin source, the transfer function may be scaled to become the absolute radiation efficiency. Transmission lines are accurately modeled, and a matched impedance design is recommended. The reception operation also is characterized by its traditional transfer function. However, reception sensitivity is defined as the signal-to-noise ratio achieved by the combined transducer, transmission line, and preamplifier. The thermal noise arises from the media and other noise sources contributed by the transducer, transmission line, and preamplifier. An absolute sensitivity measure is defined as the acoustic noise figure, which is the sum of individual transducer and preamplifier noise figures. The transducer noise figure is independent of the receiver load impedance and depends critically on dissipative loss. Preamplifier noise figure performance requires noise matching to the transducer. High performance design methods are presented that incorporate transmission lines, which include loss. Modeled examples are used to demonstrate performance.

  8. Personal noise exposures of operators of agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Aybek, Ali; Kamer, H Atil; Arslan, Selçuk

    2010-03-01

    Approximately one million agricultural tractors are used in Turkey for crop production and about one-third of the population lives in rural areas. The objectives of this study were to determine sound pressure levels, A-weighted sound pressure levels, and the permissible exposure time for tractors without cabins, field-installed cabins, and original cabins at ear level of agricultural tractor operators for following machines: plows, cultivators, top soil cultivators, rotary tillers, tool combinations (harrow+roller), mechanical drills, pneumatic drills, chemical applicators, fertilizer applicators, drum mowers, balers, and forage harvesters. Variance analyses showed that type of operation, type of cabins, and operation x cabin interactions were statistically significant (P<0.01) both for sound pressure levels and equivalent (A-weighted) sound pressure levels. The use of original cabins had a greater effect in decreasing average sound pressures and resulted in more efficient noise insulation, especially at higher center frequencies compared to field-installed cabins whereas field-installed cabins proved to be more favorable compared to tractors without cabins. Sound pressure levels at 4000Hz center frequency was reduced 2-13dB and 4-18dB by using a field-installed cabin and an original cabin, respectively. The measured A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels were compared to the threshold limit level, and was concluded that depending on the cabin types used, the operators could usually work from 4 to 6h a day without suffering from noise induced inconveniences while 2-3h is permissible for plowing and forage harvesting on tractors without cabins. Due to timeliness considerations in agricultural machine operations, a farmer would not be willing to interrupt the operation based on permissible exposure time set by the standards. Based on the findings of this study, particularly an original cabin is recommended to reduce machine-induced noise below the danger limit

  9. Hearing loss in the chinchilla from impact and continuous noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Dunn, D E; Davis, R R; Merry, C J; Franks, J R

    1991-10-01

    The relative hazard posed to the peripheral auditory system by impact/impulse and continuous noise of the same power spectrum was determined. Impact noise was generated by striking a nail with a hammer and was digitally recorded. The acoustical power spectrum of the impact was determined and pink noise was filtered to produce a continuous noise stimulus with the same acoustic power spectrum. Pre-exposure auditory evoked response (AER) thresholds were obtained at 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz on 16 adult chinchillas. The pool of animals was divided into two equal groups based upon pre-exposure AER thresholds. One group was exposed to impact noise and the other group to the filtered pink noise. Exposures were 4 h/day for 5 days. Thirty days following the exposure, auditory evoked response thresholds were remeasured. Changes in auditory sensitivity were determined by subtracting the pre-exposure thresholds from the post-exposure thresholds. Hearing threshold shifts of the impact noise group were significantly greater (p less than 0.0001) than the hearing threshold shifts of the continuous noise group. These data indicate a need to more closely examine the parameters and effects of impact noise. There may be a need to develop expanded damage-risk criteria for occupational exposure to impulse/impact noise.

  10. Characterizing local variability in long‐period horizontal tilt noise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohde, M.D.; Ringler, Adam; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Holland, Austin; Sandoval, L.D; Storm, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal seismic data are dominated by atmospherically induced tilt noise at long periods (i.e., 30 s and greater). Tilt noise limits our ability to use horizontal data for sensitive seismological studies such as observing free earth modes. To better understand the local spatial variability of long‐period horizontal noise, we observe horizontal noise during quiet time periods in the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) underground vault using four small‐aperture array configurations. Each array comprises eight Streckeisen STS‐2 broadband seismometers. We analyze the spectral content of the data using power spectral density and magnitude‐squared coherence (γ2‐coherence). Our results show a high degree of spatial variability and frequency dependence in the long‐period horizontal wavefield. The variable nature of long‐period horizontal noise in the ASL vault suggests that it might be highly local in nature and not easily characterized by simple physical models when overall noise levels are low, making it difficult to identify locations in the vault with lower horizontal noise. This variability could be limiting our ability to apply coherence analysis for estimating horizontal sensor self‐noise and could also complicate various indirect methods for removing long‐period horizontal noise (e.g., collocated rotational sensor or microbarograph).

  11. Thermal-Mechanical Noise Based CMUT Characterization and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Gurun, Gokce; Hochman, Michael; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    When capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are monolithically integrated with custom-designed low-noise electronics, the output noise of the system can be dominated by the CMUT thermal-mechanical noise both in air and in immersion even for devices with low capacitance. Since the thermal-mechanical noise can be related to the electrical admittance of the CMUTs, this provides an effective means of device characterization. This approach yields a novel method to test the functionality and uniformity of CMUT arrays and the integrated electronics where a direct connection to CMUT array element terminals is not available. These measurements can be performed in air at the wafer level, suitable for batch manufacturing and testing. We demonstrate this method on the elements of an 800-μm diameter CMUT-on-CMOS array designed for intravascular imaging in the 10-20 MHz range. Noise measurements in air show the expected resonance behavior and spring softening effects. Noise measurements in immersion for the same array provide useful information on both the acoustic cross talk and radiation properties of the CMUT array elements. The good agreement between a CMUT model based on finite difference and boundary element method and the noise measurements validates the model and indicates that the output noise is indeed dominated by thermal-mechanical noise. The measurement method can be exploited to implement CMUT based passive sensors to measure immersion medium properties, or other parameters affecting the electro-mechanics of the CMUT structure. PMID:22718877

  12. Psycho-Circulatory Responses Caused by Listening to Music, and Exposure to Fluctuating Noise or Steady Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAKAMOTO, H.; HAYASHI, F.; SUGIURA, S.; TSUJIKAWA, M.

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of steady noise, fluctuating noise and music on circulatory function. Pulse-wave and blood pressure were continuously measured in 35 healthy young females who listened to three types of music or were exposed to steady noise or fluctuating noise, synchronized with each type of music with respect to intensity variations. The pulse-wave did not change during any exposure conditions. Regarding blood pressure, several modes were observed. The critical level for a blood pressure change was estimated to be 54 LAeqduring exposure to steady noise. The frequency of high-intensity peaks in the mode of sound fluctuation was associated with elevation in blood pressure. The blood pressure change was analyzed by distinguishing the intensity variation in sound fluctuation from other attributes of music. The effects of music on blood pressure were modified not only by the melody and timbre of the music but also by emotional responses during listing.

  13. Noise exposure of musicians of a ballet orchestra.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng Liang; Behar, Alberto; Wong, Willy

    2011-01-01

    With over 70 dancers and its own orchestra, The National Ballet of Canada ranks amongst the world's top dance companies. It performs three seasons annually: fall, winter and summer, plus many shows of Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker. The 70-strong orchestra plays an average of 360 hours/year including rehearsals and performances. Rehearsals are held at two locations: one in a ballet rehearsal room with little or no absorption, and the other in an acoustically treated location. Performances are held in the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts in Toronto. The present survey was done at the request of the National Ballet, since the musicians complained of excessive sound levels and were concerned about possible hearing losses. The survey was performed using five dosimeters Quest Mod 300 during 10 performances of the ballet Romeo and Juliet by Sergei Prokofiev, deemed as the noisiest in the whole repertoire. Results of the survey indicate that the noise exposure levels from only the orchestra's activities do not present risk of hearing loss. Exposure due to other musical activities was, however, not included.

  14. Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure. Volume 3. Summary of Literature on Cardiovascular Effects on Noise Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    1983. sonic boom, space diseases, hyper- C.; Sutherland, data; Cross- Large sample, averaged for each tension, cerebro - L; Plotkin, sectional data by...and control mean exposure to noise since noise and tical controlling on age, workers. T-test used. of 95 dBA, the sys- health pan - sex, weight

  15. Combining Seismic Noise Techniques for Landslide Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino; Saponaro, Annamaria; Abdybachaev, Ulan

    2014-08-01

    A strong topographic relief and the presence of weakly consolidated sediments create favorable conditions for the development of landslides around the eastern rim of the Fergana Basin (Central Asia). In summer 2012, a field experiment employing small aperture seismic arrays was carried out on an unstable slope, using ambient vibration recordings. The aim of the study was to constrain the seismic response of a potential future landslide and to map lateral and vertical changes in the shear-wave velocity of the surficial soil layers. Strong variations of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios in terms of amplitude and directionality indicated clear differences in local site effects, probably reflecting the stability of different sections of the slope. Results further showed resonant frequencies of both the entire unstable block, as well as for smaller, individual parts. The use of an ad hoc, passive seismic tomography approach based on noise correlograms allowed for the mapping of the shear-wave velocities of the sliding material, even in cases of significant topography relief. Based on the recording of seismic noise only, we clearly identified a low-velocity body of weakly consolidated claystone and limestone material, which can be interpreted as the landslide body, with laterally varying thickness.

  16. 75 FR 44304 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Portland International Airport, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... DNL 65, 70 and 75 noise contours, 2008 Figure 2-2, Noise Exposure Map depicting estimated population, residential units and acres within DNL 65,70 and 75 noise contours, 2017 There are no properties on or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places within the 65 DNL contour Appendix...

  17. 76 FR 78329 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL AGENCY...) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Martin County Board of County Commissioners for Martin County Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et. Seq (Aviation Safety...

  18. Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Background Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. Objective This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. Data Sources A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. Study Eligibility Criteria All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Results Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Limitations Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Conclusions Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found

  19. Health effects related to wind turbine noise exposure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found. Future studies should focus on investigations aimed at objectively demonstrating whether or not

  20. A practical exposure-equivalent metric for instrumentation noise in x-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadava, G. K.; Kuhls-Gilcrist, A. T.; Rudin, S.; Patel, V. K.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Bednarek, D. R.

    2008-09-01

    The performance of high-sensitivity x-ray imagers may be limited by additive instrumentation noise rather than by quantum noise when operated at the low exposure rates used in fluoroscopic procedures. The equipment-invasive instrumentation noise measures (in terms of electrons) are generally difficult to make and are potentially not as helpful in clinical practice as would be a direct radiological representation of such noise that may be determined in the field. In this work, we define a clinically relevant representation for instrumentation noise in terms of noise-equivalent detector entrance exposure, termed the instrumentation noise-equivalent exposure (INEE), which can be determined through experimental measurements of noise-variance or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The INEE was measured for various detectors, thus demonstrating its usefulness in terms of providing information about the effective operating range of the various detectors. A simulation study is presented to demonstrate the robustness of this metric against post-processing, and its dependence on inherent detector blur. These studies suggest that the INEE may be a practical gauge to determine and compare the range of quantum-limited performance for clinical x-ray detectors of different design, with the implication that detector performance at exposures below the INEE will be instrumentation-noise limited rather than quantum-noise limited.

  1. Effects of prior exposure to office noise and music on aspects of working memory.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Waters, Beth; Jones, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that prior exposure to noise reduces the effect of subsequent exposure due to habituation. Similarly, a number of studies have shown that exposure to Mozart's music leads to better subsequent spatial reasoning performance. Two studies were conducted to extend these findings. The first one examined whether habituation occurs to office noise (including speech) and, if so, how long it takes to develop. Thirty-six young adults participated in the first study which compared effects of office noise with quiet on the performance of a maths task. The study also examined the effects of prior exposure to the office noise on the subsequent effect of the noise. The results showed that performance was initially impaired by the office noise but that the effects of the noise were removed by 10 minutes of exposure between tasks. The second experiment attempted to replicate the "Mozart effect" which represents an improvement in spatial reasoning following listening to Mozart. The study also examined whether the Mozart effect could be explained by changes in mood. Twenty-four young adults participated in the study. The results replicated the Mozart effect and showed that it was not due to changes in mood. Overall, these results show that prior exposure to noise or music can influence aspects of working memory. Such effects need to be incorporated into models of effects of noise on cognition and attempts have to be made to eliminate alternative explanations rather than just describing changes that occur in specific contexts.

  2. Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Theorell, Töres; Pershagen, Göran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Järup, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. Results We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32–9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (LAeq,24h) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to LAeq,24h ≤ 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects. PMID:20049122

  3. Reproductive Outcomes Associated with Noise Exposure — A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ristovska, Gordana; Laszlo, Helga Elvira; Hansell, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: High noise exposure during critical periods in gestation is a potential stressor that may result in increased risk of implantation failure, dysregulation of placentation or decrease of uterine blood flow. This paper systematically reviews published evidence on associations between reproductive outcomes and occupational and environmental noise exposure. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched for papers published between 1970 to June 2014 and via colleagues. We included 14 epidemiological studies related to occupational noise exposure and nine epidemiological studies related to environmental noise exposure. There was some evidence for associations between occupational noise exposure and low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age, either independently or together with other occupational risk factors. Five of six epidemiologic studies, including the two largest studies, found significant associations between lower birthweight and higher noise exposure. There were few studies on other outcomes and study design issues may have led to bias in assessments in some studies. Conclusions: There is evidence for associations between noise exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes from animal studies. Few studies in have been conducted in humans but there is some suggestive evidence of adverse associations with environmental noise from both occupational and epidemiological studies, especially for low birthweight. PMID:25101773

  4. Attitudinal Responses to Changes in Noise Exposure in Residential Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horonjeff, Richard D.; Robert, William E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is (1) to investigate the current body of knowledge encompassing two related topics: (a) to what extent can we reliably predict the change in people's attitudes in response to an abrupt change in noise exposure, and (b) after the change, is there a decay in the abrupt-change effect whereby people's attitudes slowly shift from their initial reaction to a steady-state value? and (2) to provide recommendations for any future work that may be needed. The literature search located 23 studies relating to one or both of the above topics. These prior studies shed considerable light on the current ability to predict initial reaction and decay effects. The literature makes one point very clear: Great care in both experimental design and data analysis is necessary to produce credible, convincing findings, both in the reanalysis of existing data and for planning future data acquisition and analysis studies. New airport studies must be designed to minimize nuisance variables and avoid past design features that may have introduced sufficient unexplained variance to mask sought after effects. Additionally, the study must be designed to tie in with previous investigations by incorporating similar survey questions and techniques.

  5. Model for Estimating Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associated With Occupational Noise Exposure in a Specified US Navy Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-10

    U.S. government for noise-induced hearing loss ( NIHL ) caused to service personnel by noisy systems and spaces are unaccounted for in estimates of...life-cycle costs. This pilot study explored whether a NIHL prediction algorithm from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI S3.44-1996) could...medical and compensation costs of NIHL in this population. This population of Sailors has a “simple” exposure in that the main career-long noise

  6. Exposure to Road, Railway, and Aircraft Noise and Arterial Stiffness in the SAPALDIA Study: Annual Average Noise Levels and Temporal Noise Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Foraster, Maria; Eze, Ikenna C; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Vienneau, Danielle; Héritier, Harris; Endes, Simon; Rudzik, Franziska; Thiesse, Laurie; Pieren, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Marc Wunderli, Jean; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-07

    The impact of different transportation noise sources and noise environments on arterial stiffness remains unknown. We evaluated the association between residential outdoor exposure to annual average road, railway, and aircraft noise levels, total noise intermittency (IR), and total number of noise events (NE) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) following a cross-sectional design. We measured baPWV (meters/second) in 2,775 participants (49-81 y old) at the second follow-up (2010-2011) of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). We assigned annual average road, railway, and aircraft noise levels (Ldensource), total day- and nighttime NEtime and IRtime (percent fluctuation=0%, none or constant noise; percent fluctuation=100%, high fluctuation) at the most exposed façade using 2011 Swiss noise models. We applied multivariable linear mixed regression models to analyze associations. Medians [interquartile ranges (IQRs)] were baPWV=13.4 (3.1) m/s; Ldenair (57.6% exposed)=32.8 (8.0) dB; Ldenrail (44.6% exposed)=30.0 (8.1) dB; Ldenroad (99.7% exposed): 54.2 (10.6) dB; NEnight=123 (179); NEday=433 (870); IRnight=73% (27); and IRday=63.8% (40.3). We observed a 0.87% (95% CI: 0.31, 1.43%) increase in baPWV per IQR of Ldenrail, which was greater with IRnight>80% or with daytime sleepiness. We observed a nonsignificant positive association between Ldenroad and baPWV in urban areas and a negative tendency in rural areas. NEnight, but not NEday, was associated with baPWV. Associations were independent of the other noise sources and air pollution. Long-term exposure to railway noise, particularly in an intermittent nighttime noise environment, and to nighttime noise events, mainly related to road noise, may affect arterial stiffness, a major determinant of cardiovascular disease. Ascertaining noise exposure characteristics beyond average noise levels may be relevant to better understand noise-related health

  7. Characterization of the noise effect on weak synchronization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang; Jalnine, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Sergey P

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the noise effect on weak synchronization in two coupled identical one-dimensional (1D) maps. Due to the existence of positive local transverse Lyapunov exponents, the weakly stable synchronous chaotic attractor (SCA) becomes sensitive with respect to the variation of noise intensity. To quantitatively characterize such noise sensitivity, we introduce a quantifier, called the noise sensitivity exponent (NSE). For the case of bounded noise, the values of the NSE are found to be the same as those of the exponent characterizing a parameter sensitivity of the weakly stable SCA in presence of a parameter mismatch between the two 1D maps. Furthermore, it is found that the scaling exponent for the average time spent near the diagonal for both the bubbling and riddling cases occurring in the regime of weak synchronization is given by the reciprocal of the NSE, as in the parameter-mismatching case. Consequently, both the noise and parameter mismatch have the same effect on the scaling behavior of the average characteristic time.

  8. Noise exposure in occupational setting associated with elevated blood pressure in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuchang; Ni, Yaqin; Zhang, Lei; Kong, Liya; Lu, Luying; Yang, Zhangping; Yang, Luoxian; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-01-23

    Hypertension is the primary out-auditory adverse outcome caused due to occupational noise exposure. This study investigated the associations of noise exposure in an occupational setting with blood pressure and risk of hypertension. A total of 1,390 occupational noise-exposed workers and 1399 frequency matched non-noise-exposed subjects were recruited from a cross-sectional survey of occupational noise-exposed and the general population, respectively. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer following a standard protocol. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of noise exposure adjusted by potential confounders. Noise-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure(SBP) (125.1 ± 13.9 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (77.6 ± 10.7 mm Hg) than control subjects (SBP: 117.2 ± 15.7 mm Hg, DBP: 70.0 ± 10.5 mm Hg) (P < 0.001). Significant correlations were found between noise exposure and blood pressure (SBP and DBP) (P < 0.001). However, the linear regression coefficients with DBP appeared larger than those with SBP. The prevalence of hypertension was 17.8% in subjects with noise exposure and 9.0% in control group (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the subjects with noise exposure had the risk of hypertension with an OR of 1.941 (95% CI = 1.471- 2.561) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and drinking status. Dose-response relationships were found between noise intensity, years of noise exposure, cumulative noise exposure and the risk of hypertension (all P values < 0.05). No significant difference was found between subjects wearing an earplug and those not wearing an earplug, and between steady and unsteady noise categories (P > 0.05). Occupational noise exposure was associated with higher levels of SBP, DBP, and the risk of hypertension. These findings indicate that effective and feasible

  9. [The NSI (Noise Sensitivity Index)--a method for the demonstration of acute physical symptoms in noise exposure and combination exposure].

    PubMed

    Meister, A; Bening, Y; Brumm, L M

    1989-01-01

    The NSI (Noise Sensitive Index) is a method suitable for the single or repeated recording of acute, subjectively perceived bodily complaints caused by exposure against noise alone or combined with additional physical factors (e.g. physical load, high temperature) during the lapse of exposure. The paper describes the application of NSI in 6 experimental investigations. The results are indicative regarding their dependence on components of exposure and personality. If certain rules are taken into consideration, application, scoring and interpretation of NSI is easy, not very time consuming, and profitable.

  10. Exposures to Transit and Other Sources of Noise among New York City Residents

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Gershon, Robyn R. M.; McAlexander, Tara P.; Magda, Lori A.; Pearson, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of common noise sources to total annual noise exposures among urban residents and workers, we estimated exposures associated with five common sources (use of mass transit, occupational and non-occupational activities, MP3 player and stereo use, and time at home and doing other miscellaneous activities) among a sample of over 4500 individuals in New York City (NYC). We then evaluated the contributions of each source to total noise exposure and also compared our estimated exposures to the recommended 70 dBA annual exposure limit. We found that one in ten transit users had noise exposures in excess of the recommended exposure limit from their transit use alone. When we estimated total annual exposures, 90% of NYC transit users and 87% of nonusers exceeded the recommended limit. MP3 player and stereo use, which represented a small fraction of the total annual hours for each subject on average, was the primary source of exposure among the majority of urban dwellers we evaluated. Our results suggest that the vast majority of urban mass transit riders may be at risk of permanent, irreversible noise-induced hearing loss and that, for many individuals, this risk is driven primarily by exposures other than occupational noise. PMID:22088203

  11. Exposures to transit and other sources of noise among New York City residents.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard L; Gershon, Robyn R M; McAlexander, Tara P; Magda, Lori A; Pearson, Julie M

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the contributions of common noise sources to total annual noise exposures among urban residents and workers, we estimated exposures associated with five common sources (use of mass transit, occupational and nonoccupational activities, MP3 player and stereo use, and time at home and doing other miscellaneous activities) among a sample of over 4500 individuals in New York City (NYC). We then evaluated the contributions of each source to total noise exposure and also compared our estimated exposures to the recommended 70 dBA annual exposure limit. We found that one in ten transit users had noise exposures in excess of the recommended exposure limit from their transit use alone. When we estimated total annual exposures, 90% of NYC transit users and 87% of nonusers exceeded the recommended limit. MP3 player and stereo use, which represented a small fraction of the total annual hours for each subject on average, was the primary source of exposure among the majority of urban dwellers we evaluated. Our results suggest that the vast majority of urban mass transit riders may be at risk of permanent, irreversible noise-induced hearing loss and that, for many individuals, this risk is driven primarily by exposures other than occupational noise.

  12. Seismic Noise Characterization in the Northern Mississippi Embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, S.; Deshon, H. R.; Boyd, O. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of seismic noise sources present within the northern Mississippi embayment near the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). The northern embayment contains up to 1 km of unconsolidated coastal plain sediments overlying bedrock, making it an inherently noisy environment for seismic stations. The area is known to display high levels of cultural noise caused by agricultural activity, passing cars, trains, etc. We characterize continuous broadband seismic noise data recorded for the months of March through June 2009 at six stations operated by the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Network. We looked at a single horizontal component of data during nighttime hours, defined as 6:15PM to 5:45AM Central Standard Time, which we determined to be the lowest amplitude period of noise for the region. Hourly median amplitudes were compared to daily average wind speeds downloaded from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We find a correlation between time periods of increased noise and days with high wind speeds, suggesting that wind is likely a prevalent source of seismic noise in the area. The effects of wind on seismic recordings may result from wind induced tree root movement which causes ground motion to be recorded at the vaults located ~3m below ground. Automated studies utilizing the local network or the EarthScope Transportable Array, scheduled to arrive in the area in 2010-11, should expect to encounter wind induced noise fluctuations and must account for this in their analysis.

  13. The Dose Response Relationship between In Ear Occupational Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use hearing protection and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. Methods At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory program to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high frequency hearing loss over a six year period using a mixed effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Workers’ high frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, interquartile range 74 to 80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high frequency hearing loss (p = 0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. Conclusion At-ear noise exposures below 85dBA did not show an association with risk of high frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure. PMID:23825197

  14. The dose-response relationship between in-ear occupational noise exposure and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Clougherty, Jane E; Neitzel, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Current understanding of the dose-response relationship between occupational noise and hearing loss is based on cross-sectional studies prior to the widespread use of hearing protection, and with limited data regarding noise exposures below 85 dBA. We report on the hearing loss experience of a unique cohort of industrial workers, with daily monitoring of noise inside of hearing protection devices. At an industrial facility, workers exhibiting accelerated hearing loss were enrolled in a mandatory programme to monitor daily noise exposures inside of hearing protection. We compared these noise measurements (as time-weighted LAVG) to interval rates of high-frequency hearing loss over a 6-year period using a mixed-effects model, adjusting for potential confounders. Workers' high-frequency hearing levels at study inception averaged more than 40 dB Hearing threshold level (HTL). Most noise exposures were less than 85 dBA (mean LAVG 76 dBA, IQR 74-80 dBA). We found no statistical relationship between LAvg and high-frequency hearing loss (p=0.53). Using a metric for monthly maximum noise exposure did not improve model fit. At-ear noise exposures below 85 dBA did not show an association with risk of high-frequency hearing loss among workers with substantial past noise exposure and hearing loss at baseline. Therefore, effective noise control to below 85 dBA may lead to significant reduction in occupational hearing loss risk in such individuals. Further research is needed on the dose-response relationship of noise and hearing loss in individuals with normal hearing and little prior noise exposure.

  15. Railway noise annoyance: exposure-response relationships and testing a theoretical model by structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Schady, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In some regions the exposure to railway noise is extremely concentrated, which may lead to high residential annoyance. Nonacoustical factors contribute to these reactions, but there is limited evidence on the interrelations between the nonacoustical factors that influence railway noise annoyance. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine exposure-response relationships between long-term railway noise exposure and annoyance in a region severely affected by railway noise and (2) to determine a priori proposed interrelations between nonacoustical factors by structural equation analysis. Residents (n = 320) living close to railway tracks in the Middle Rhine Valley completed a socio-acoustic survey. Individual noise exposure levels were calculated by an acoustical simulation model for this area. The derived exposure-response relationships indicated considerably higher annoyance at the same noise exposure level than would have been predicted by the European Union standard curve, particularly for the night-time period. In the structural equation analysis, 72% of the variance in noise annoyance was explained by the noise exposure (L(den)) and nonacoustical variables. The model provides insights into several causal mechanisms underlying the formation of railway noise annoyance considering indirect and reciprocal effects. The concern about harmful effects of railway noise and railway traffic, the perceived control and coping capacity, and the individual noise sensitivity were the most important factors that influence noise annoyance. All effects of the nonacoustical factors on annoyance were mediated by the perceived control and coping capacity and additionally proposed indirect effects of the theoretical model were supported by the data.

  16. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Alagramam, Kumar N; Stepanyan, Ruben; Jamesdaniel, Samson; Chen, Daniel H-C; Davis, Rickie R

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL) broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4-8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control) or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b , Cacna1g , and Pla2g6 , related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway.

  18. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure.

  19. Using room temperature current noise to characterize single molecular spectra.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Smitha; Ghosh, Avik W

    2014-03-25

    We propose a way to use room temperature random telegraph noise to characterize single molecules adsorbed on a backgated silicon field-effect transistor. The overlap of molecule and silicon electronic wave functions generates a set of trap levels that impose their unique scattering signatures on the voltage-dependent current noise spectrum. Our results are based on numerical modeling of the current noise, obtained by coupling a density functional treatment of the trap placement within the silicon band gap, a quantum kinetic treatment of the output current, and a Monte Carlo evaluation of the trap occupancy under resonance. As an illustrative example, we show how we can extract molecule-specific "fingerprints" of four benzene-based molecules directly from a frequency-voltage colormap of the noise statistics. We argue that such a colormap carries detailed information about the trap dynamics at the Fermi energy, including the presence of correlated interactions, observed experimentally in backgated carbon nanotubes.

  20. Characterizing Observers Using External Noise and Observer Models: Assessing Internal Representations with External Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2008-01-01

    External noise methods and observer models have been widely used to characterize the intrinsic perceptual limitations of human observers and changes of the perceptual limitations associated with cognitive, developmental, and disease processes by highlighting the variance of internal representations. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of…

  1. [Epidemiological study on the occupational noise exposure and hypertension in mechanic factory workers].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-zhang; Pang, Li-juan; Fu, Ben-yan

    2005-11-01

    To study the relations of noise expose and hypertension in mechanic factory workers. A cross-sectional study on 1205 workers (exposed to different noise levels) in Hunan was carried out, using questionnaire, blood pressure of the workers and the exposure level to noise at workplace. The prevalence of hypertension was 12.1% in mechanic factory workers. There was an increasing tendency of hypertension rate along with the increase of accumulative noise doses (tendency chi-squared = 29.932, P < 0.01). Result by logistic regression analysis after adjusting age, history of hypertension in parents and body weight index showed that the risk of hypertension increased about 5% by 1 dB(A) of more noise exposure (OR = 1.047). Noise exposure might serve as a risk factor of hypertension. Reducing the sound pressure level in workshops could work as an effective measure to control the incidence rate of hypertension in mechanic factory workers.

  2. Research plan for establishing the effects of time varying noise exposures on community annoyance and acceptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a community noise survey to determine the effects of time varying noise exposures in residential communities is presented. Complex physical and human variables involved in the health and welfare effects of environmental noise and the number-level tradeoffs and time of day penalties are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on community reactions where noise exposures are equal in day or evening but differ in the night time, and the effects of ambient noise on more intense aircraft noise exposures. Thirteen different times of day and types of operation situations with exposed populations up to 8-10 miles from the airport are identified. A detailed personal interview questionnaire as well as specific instructions to interviewers are included.

  3. Childhood sensorineural hearing loss: effects of combined exposure with aging or noise exposure later in life.

    PubMed

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Nafstad, Per; Bjørgan, Eskil; Engdahl, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine childhood high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (HF-SNHL) and the effects of combined exposure with aging or noise exposure on HF hearing thresholds in adulthood. Population-based cohort study of 30,003 adults (mean age 40 years) underwent an audiometry and completed a hearing questionnaire. At age 7-13 years, the same people had participated in a longitudinal school hearing investigation, in which 283 participants were diagnosed with HF-SNHL [PTA 3-8 kHz ≥ 25 dB HL (mean 45 dB HL), worse hearing ear], and 29,720 participants had normal hearing thresholds. The effect of childhood HF-SNHL on adult hearing threshold was significantly moderated by age. Age stratified analyses showed that the difference in HF hearing thresholds between adults with and without childhood HF-SNHL was 33 dB (95 % CI 31-34) in young adults (n = 173, aged 20-39 years) and 37 dB (95 % CI 34-39) in middle-aged adults (n = 110, aged 40-56 years). The combined exposure of childhood HF-SNHL and noise exposure showed a simple additive effect. It appears to be a super-additive effect of childhood-onset HF-SNHL and aging on adult hearing thresholds. An explanation might be that already damaged hair cells are more susceptible to age-related degeneration. To exclude possible birth cohort effects, the finding should be confirmed by a study with several audiometries in adulthood.

  4. Modeling Vehicle Interior Noise Exposure Dose on Freeways Considering Weaving Segment Designs and Engine Operation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a lab environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic, road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex for its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters, and improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted to twelve subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. An On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their Out-Of-Bag permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments is quantified to Hazard Quotient, NED and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable, the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness, and subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model performs highly predictive power (R

  5. Mathematical model for characterizing noise transmission into finite cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyu; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2005-02-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of the sound transmission into a finite cylinder under coupled structural and acoustic vibration. Particular attention of this study is focused on evaluating a dimensionless quantity, ``noise reduction,'' for characterizing noise transmission into a small cylindrical enclosure. An analytical expression of the exterior sound pressure resulting from an oblique plane wave impinging upon the cylindrical shell is first presented, which is approximated from the exterior sound pressure for an infinite cylindrical structure. Next, the analytical solution of the interior sound pressure is computed using modal-interaction theory for the coupled structural acoustic system. These results are then used to derive the analytical formula for the noise reduction. Finally, the model is used to predict and characterize the sound transmission into a ChamberCore cylindrical structure, and the results are compared with experimental data. The effects of incidence angle and internal acoustic damping on the sound transmission into the cylinder are also parametrically studied. .

  6. [The information value of indices of the mathematical analysis of heart rhythm in noise exposure].

    PubMed

    Danev, S

    1988-01-01

    The effect of noise on the vegetative nervous system is well-studied. In a laboratory room simulating operator's box 6 subjects were exposed fourfold to white noise with intensity 95 dB/A. The indices of the cardiac rhythm were measured for 10 minutes, threefold, during all exposures, except the first. The measurements were before the beginning of the noise exposure, from the 5th to the 15th minute after starting and at the end (the exposure continues 135 min.). It was established that the effect of noise on the cardiac rhythm indices is most strongly expressed in the beginning. At the end of the exposure the traced indices show a tendency towards level off with the initial data. A conclusion is made that the nearly unknown, in our country, indices of the mathematical analysis of the cardiac rhythm possess high information concerning the noise hazard.

  7. Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure among Groundskeepers in North Carolina Public Universities

    PubMed Central

    Balanay, Jo Anne G.; Kearney, Gregory D.; Mannarino, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Groundskeepers may have increased risk to noise-induced hearing loss due to the performance of excessively noisy tasks. This study assessed the exposure of groundskeepers to noise in multiple universities and determined the association between noise exposure and variables (ie, university, month, tool used). Personal noise exposures were monitored during the work shift using noise dosimetry. A sound level meter was used to measure the maximum sound pressure levels from groundskeeping equipment. The mean Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures were 83.0 ± 9.6 and 88.0 ± 6.7 dBA, respectively. About 52% of the OSHA TWAs and 77% of the NIOSH TWAs exceeded 85 dBA. Riding mower use was associated with high TWA noise exposures and with having OSHA TWAs exceeding 85 and 90 dBA. The maximum sound pressure levels of equipment and tools measured ranged from 76 to 109 dBA, 82% of which were >85 dBA. These findings support that groundskeepers have excessive noise exposures, which may be effectively reduced through careful scheduling of the use of noisy equipment/tools. PMID:27330303

  8. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children's episodic memory: the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Martin, Rocio; van Kempen, Elise; Haines, Mary; Barrio, Isabel Lopez; Hygge, Staffan; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children's performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months) completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children's episodic memory.

  9. Community Noise Exposure Resulting from Aircraft Operations: Technical Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    Civil Aviation i—1 Organization, DOC 8857 (Noise) 1969- 9. "Noise-Final Report,’ July 196 3- Cmnd. 20 56, K.M London, 177 Preceding page blank...Heathrow) Airport," H.M.S.O., London, 1971. I*». "Community Reaction to Airport Noise - Vol. lV prepared by Tracor Inc. NASA CR-I76I, July 1971- 15...1779, July 1971. "Some Factors Kryter, K. D. and Williams, C. E. Influencing Human Response to Aircraft Noise: Maskino of Speech and Variability

  10. Experimental Characterization of Wind Turbine Blade Aerodynamic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemanson, Megan Lynn

    Wind turbine noise at low frequencies less than 300Hz is not only annoying to humans but has been proven to cause serious health issues. Additionally, animals are severely affected by wind turbines because a small increase in ambient noise (as is produced by wind turbines) significantly reduces their listening ability. In an attempt to better understand and characterize the aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades, experimental testing was completed on PowerWorks 100kW and GudCraft WG700 blade specimens in the University of California, Davis Transportation Noise Control Center's anechoic chamber. Experimental testing and data analysis proved approximately 4.0dB to 6.0dB was produced due to the blades' geometric design for both blade specimens at low frequencies. This noise was maximized at the blades' leading edge along the central portion of the blades' radius. Theoretical prediction models have been used to determine that, for typical wind speeds and low frequencies, noise generated due to the tip passing frequency is clearly predominant.

  11. Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jingui; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yongzhi; Xie, Guoqiang; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia

    2015-01-01

    Optical noise, the core of the pulse-contrast challenge for ultra-high peak power femtosecond lasers, exhibits spatiotemporal (ST) coupling induced by angular dispersion. Full characterization of such ST noise requires two-dimensional measurements in the ST domain. Thus far, all noise measurements have been made only in the temporal domain. Here we report the experimental characterization of the ST noise, which is made feasible by extending cross-correlation from the temporal domain to the ST domain. We experimentally demonstrate that the ST noise originates from the optical surface imperfections in the pulse stretcher/compressor and exhibits a linear ST coupling in the far-field plane. The contrast on the far-field axis, underestimated in the conventional measurements, is further improved by avoiding the far-field optics in the stretcher. These results enhance our understanding of the pulse contrast with respect to its ST-coupling nature and pave the way toward the design of high-contrast ultra-high peak power lasers. PMID:25648187

  12. Worker noise exposures from diesel and electric surface coal mining machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.; Adhikari, G.R.

    2007-09-15

    comparative study of noise produced from diesel and electric mining machinery in an opencast coal mine was made. It was found that the diesel machines produced higher environmental noise than the electric machines. The projected and measured operator's noise dose for 8-hour also showed that the diesel machines produced higher noise than the electric machines. The recorded sound levels and the noise dose for different machines and the crusher house were compared with the regulatory limits. With electric drill machines, drilling in hard rock produced higher noise levels than drilling in soft rock. This can be used to characterize the rock for blast designs.

  13. Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Song, XuPing; Cui, Qi; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders.

  14. Is there an association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension? A meta-analysis of 16784 participants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di; Song, XuPing; Cui, Qi; Tian, Jinhui; Wang, Quan; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    To determine if aircraft noise exposure causes an increased incidence of hypertension among residents near airports. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between aircraft noise exposure and the incidence of hypertension. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were searched without any restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The pooled ORs were calculated using both the fixed effects model and random effects model. All analyses were performed using STATA version 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). We examined five studies, comprising a total of 16,784 residents. The overall OR for hypertension in residents with aircraft noise exposure was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.14-2.33), and one of our included studies showed that there was no evidence that aircraft noise is a risk factor for hypertension in women. According to our subgroup analysis, the summary OR for the incidence was 1.31 (95% CI, 0.85-2.02) with I2 of 80.7% in women and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.15-1.60) with moderate heterogeneity in men. The pooled OR for the incidence of hypertension in residents aged over 55 years and under 55 years was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.27) with no heterogeneity and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.33-2.39) with I2 of 29.4%, respectively. The present meta-analysis suggests that aircraft noise could contribute to the prevalence of hypertension, but the evidence for a relationship between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension is still inconclusive because of limitations in study populations, exposure characterization, and adjustment for important confounders. PMID:25774612

  15. CO{sub 2} dial transmitter/receiver noise characterization and related correlated noise issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.; Schmitt, M.; Goeller, R.; Czuchlewski, S.; Fuller, K.; Olivas, N.; Laubscher, B.; Sander, R.

    1996-02-01

    Our approach concerning the development of hard target return CO{sub 2} DIAL transmitter/receiver systems is two phased- (i) through analysis and experiment, develop a fundamental understanding of the transmitter/receiver physics specific to DIAL systems and (ii) apply these fundamentals in the development of optimal performance DIAL transmitter/receiver systems. We present our progress and results towards these objectives with the following topics addressed: A general overview of the DIAL transmitter/receiver system characterization effort with a focus on transceiver noise processes. The effects of correlated noise on DIAL performance, especially those effecting statistical convergence over long sample structures, is , introduced. And, preliminary measurements of a low-noise, ``white`` receiver prototype are presented.

  16. Chronic exposure of rats to cotton-mill-room noise changes the cell composition of the tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Pereira, António S; Guimarães, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P

    2002-12-01

    The work environment of cotton mill rooms of modern textile plants is characterized by noise pollution. We have taped and reproduced this noisy environment to study its effects on experimentally exposed rats. Because we have previously documented that chronic noise causes alterations in the respiratory epithelium, we have focused our investigation on the morphology of the tracheal lining. Wistar rats were exposed to the textile-type noise from 1 up to 7 months, with an average 40 hours weekly exposure of the animals. The rats were sacrificed monthly and the tracheas were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantify the areas of the airway lining that were covered by ciliated, serous or other cells of the epithelium. We found that noise exposure of the rats caused a significant loss of tracheal ciliated cells; an increased density of serous cells on the epithelium balanced this change. This modification of the rat trachea was already established after 1 month of noise treatment of the animals; it did not change significantly throughout the 7-month course of the herein investigation. Loss of ciliated cells was more intense in areas of the tracheal epithelium located between the regions of cartilage rings. We conclude that the ciliated cell is an elective target for damage caused on the respiratory epithelium by the workplace noise occurring in cotton mill rooms. This modification of the respiratory epithelium is likely to impair clearance of the airways since this function depends on the activity of ciliated cells.

  17. Theory and Design Tools For Studies of Reactions to Abrupt Changes in Noise Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.; Ehrlich, Gary E.; Zador, Paul; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Study plans, a pre-tested questionnaire, a sample design evaluation tool, a community publicity monitoring plan, and a theoretical framework have been developed to support combined social/acoustical surveys of residents' reactions to an abrupt change in environmental noise, Secondary analyses of more than 20 previous surveys provide estimates of three parameters of a study simulation model; within individual variability, between study wave variability, and between neighborhood variability in response to community noise. The simulation model predicts the precision of the results from social surveys of reactions to noise, including changes in noise. When the study simulation model analyzed the population distribution, noise exposure environments and feasible noise measurement program at a proposed noise change survey site, it was concluded that the site could not yield sufficient precise estimates of human reaction model to justify conducting a survey. Additional secondary analyses determined that noise reactions are affected by the season of the social survey.

  18. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    PubMed

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  19. Repeated exposure reduces the response to impulsive noise in European seabass.

    PubMed

    Radford, Andrew N; Lèbre, Laurie; Lecaillon, Gilles; Nedelec, Sophie L; Simpson, Stephen D

    2016-10-01

    Human activities have changed the acoustic environment of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the globe. Mounting evidence indicates that the resulting anthropogenic noise can impact the behaviour and physiology of at least some species in a range of taxa. However, the majority of experimental studies have considered only immediate responses to single, relatively short-term noise events. Repeated exposure to noise could lead to a heightened or lessened response. Here, we conduct two long-term (12 week), laboratory-based exposure experiments with European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to examine how an initial impact of different sound types potentially changes over time. Naïve fish showed elevated ventilation rates, indicating heightened stress, in response to impulsive additional noise (playbacks of recordings of pile-driving and seismic surveys), but not to a more continuous additional noise source (playbacks of recordings of ship passes). However, fish exposed to playbacks of pile-driving or seismic noise for 12 weeks no longer responded with an elevated ventilation rate to the same noise type. Fish exposed long-term to playback of pile-driving noise also no longer responded to short-term playback of seismic noise. The lessened response after repeated exposure, likely driven by increased tolerance or a change in hearing threshold, helps explain why fish that experienced 12 weeks of impulsive noise showed no differences in stress, growth or mortality compared to those reared with exposure to ambient-noise playback. Considering how responses to anthropogenic noise change with repeated exposure is important both when assessing likely fitness consequences and the need for mitigation measures.

  20. Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss in Rural Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Charles M.; Lass, Norman J.

    1993-01-01

    A high level of work-related and recreational noise has led to a high prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in rural students. Teachers can help prevent this problem by integrating hearing conservation education with existing curricula. Educators could be trained about hearing conservation by professional audiologists. (LP)

  1. Total leisure noise exposure and its association with hearing loss among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dehnert, Knut; Raab, Ulla; Perez-Alvarez, Carmelo; Steffens, Thomas; Bolte, Gabriele; Fromme, Hermann; Twardella, Dorothee

    2015-01-01

    To investigate total leisure noise exposure among adolescents and to assess its association with hearing. Based on self-reported time spent on 19 leisure activities and associated mean sound pressure levels reported in the literature, total leisure noise exposure was evaluated and compared to noise at work limits (> 85 dB(A) = hazardous) in a cross-sectional survey. Tympanometry and pure-tone audiometry was performed in sound isolated rooms. The study sample consists of 2143 pupils attending grade nine in any school in a German city 2009-2011 (mean age: 15.4 years; range: 13-19 years). Audiometric data were available for 1837 (85.8%) pupils (53.9% girls). 41.9% of the 2143 adolescents who had provided self-reported data on leisure activities associated with noise exposure were estimated to be hazardously exposed to leisure time noise. The interaction of gender with total leisure time noise exposure was not significant. No association between leisure time noise exposure and audiometric notches could be detected. While hearing loss seems seldom in this age group, a high proportion of adolescents aged 15-16 years are exposed to noise levels during leisure time bearing long-term risks of hearing loss.

  2. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher; Castilla-Sanchez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009) for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70%) in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (<30%) and not enforced by most venues. The understanding of the hazard posed by noise was low, and implementation of the noise regulations was haphazard, with staff regularly exceeding regulatory limits. The implication is that the industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  3. Auditory Effects of Exposure to Noise and Solvents: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Diolen Conceição Barros; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira De; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio De Oliveira; Coifman, Herton

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Industry workers are exposed to different environmental risk agents that, when combined, may potentiate risks to hearing. Objective To evaluate the effects of the combined exposure to noise and solvents on hearing in workers. Methods A transversal retrospective cohort study was performed through documentary analysis of an industry. The sample (n = 198) was divided into four groups: the noise group (NG), exposed only to noise; the noise and solvents group (NSG), exposed to noise and solvents; the noise control group and noise and solvents control group (CNS), no exposure. Results The NG showed 16.66% of cases suggestive of bilateral noise-induced hearing loss and NSG showed 5.26%. The NG and NSG had worse thresholds than their respective control groups. Females were less susceptible to noise than males; however, when simultaneously exposed to solvents, hearing was affected in a similar way, resulting in significant differences (p < 0.05). The 40- to 49-year-old age group was significantly worse (p < 0.05) in the auditory thresholds in the NSG compared with the CNS. Conclusion The results observed in this study indicate that simultaneous exposure to noise and solvents can damage the peripheral auditory system. PMID:25992079

  4. Auditory effects of exposure to noise and solvents: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Diolen Conceição Barros; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira De; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio De Oliveira; Coifman, Herton

    2014-04-01

    Introduction Industry workers are exposed to different environmental risk agents that, when combined, may potentiate risks to hearing. Objective To evaluate the effects of the combined exposure to noise and solvents on hearing in workers. Methods A transversal retrospective cohort study was performed through documentary analysis of an industry. The sample (n = 198) was divided into four groups: the noise group (NG), exposed only to noise; the noise and solvents group (NSG), exposed to noise and solvents; the noise control group and noise and solvents control group (CNS), no exposure. Results The NG showed 16.66% of cases suggestive of bilateral noise-induced hearing loss and NSG showed 5.26%. The NG and NSG had worse thresholds than their respective control groups. Females were less susceptible to noise than males; however, when simultaneously exposed to solvents, hearing was affected in a similar way, resulting in significant differences (p < 0.05). The 40- to 49-year-old age group was significantly worse (p < 0.05) in the auditory thresholds in the NSG compared with the CNS. Conclusion The results observed in this study indicate that simultaneous exposure to noise and solvents can damage the peripheral auditory system.

  5. Experimental characterization of vertical-axis wind turbine noise.

    PubMed

    Pearson, C E; Graham, W R

    2015-01-01

    Vertical-axis wind turbines are wind-energy generators suitable for use in urban environments. Their associated noise thus needs to be characterized and understood. As a first step, this work investigates the relative importance of harmonic and broadband contributions via model-scale wind-tunnel experiments. Cross-spectra from a pair of flush-mounted wall microphones exhibit both components, but further analysis shows that the broadband dominates at frequencies corresponding to the audible range in full-scale operation. This observation has detrimental implications for noise-prediction reliability and hence also for acoustic design optimization.

  6. Methods to characterize non-Gaussian noise in TAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Masaki; Arai, K.; Takahashi, R.; Tatsumi, D.; Beyersdorf, P.; Kawamura, S.; Miyoki, S.; Mio, N.; Moriwaki, S.; Numata, K.; Kanda, N.; Aso, Y.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Tsubono, K.; Kuroda, K.; TAMA Collaboration

    2003-09-01

    We present a data characterization method for the main output signal of the interferometric gravitational-wave detector, in particular targetting at effective detection of burst gravitational waves from stellar core collapse. The time scale of non-Gaussian events is evaluated in this method, and events with longer time scale than real signals are rejected as non-Gaussian noises. As a result of data analysis using 1000 h of real data with the interferometric gravitational-wave detector TAMA300, the false-alarm rate was improved 103 times with this non-Gaussian noise evaluation and rejection method.

  7. Characterization of the timing noise of the Crab pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. M.; Finger, M. H.; Wilson, C. A.

    2003-09-01

    We present a power spectral analysis of the timing noise of the Crab pulsar, mainly using radio measurements from Jodrell Bank taken over the period 1982-89, an interval bounded by sparse data sampling and a large glitch. The power spectral analysis is complicated by non-uniform data sampling and the presence of a steep red power spectrum that can distort power spectra measurement by causing severe power `leakage'. We develop a simple windowing method for computing red noise power spectra of uniformly sampled data sets and test it on Monte Carlo generated sample realizations of red power-law noise. We generalize time-domain methods of generating power-law red noise with even integer spectral indices to the case of non-integer spectral indices. The Jodrell Bank pulse phase residuals are dense and smooth enough that an interpolation on to a uniform time-series is possible. A windowed power spectrum is computed, revealing a periodic or nearly periodic component with a period of 568 +/- 10 d and a 1/f3 power-law noise component in pulse phase with a noise strength Sφ= (1.24 +/- 0.067) × 10-16 cycle2 s-2 over the analysis frequency range f= 0.003-0.1 cycle d-1. This result deviates from past analyses which characterized the pulse phase timing residuals as either 1/f4 power-law noise or a quasiperiodic process. The analysis was checked using the Deeter polynomial method of power spectrum estimation that was developed for the case of non-uniform sampling, but has lower spectral resolution. The timing noise is consistent with a torque noise spectrum rising with analysis frequency as f, implying blue torque noise, a result not predicted by current models of pulsar timing noise. If the periodic or nearly periodic component is due to a binary companion, we find a mass function f(M) = (6.8 +/- 2.4) × 10-16 Msolar and a companion mass, Mc>= 3.2 M⊕, assuming a Crab pulsar mass of 1.4 Msolar.

  8. Effects of combined exposure to metals, solvents, and noise on permanent threshold shifts.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nicholas; Slagley, Jeremy; Zreiqat, Majed; Paschold, Helmut

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest metal and solvent exposure may damage hearing. This study evaluated the association between exposures classified as high for metals, solvents, and noise on permanent threshold shift (PTS) development. A total of 1,546 personnel at an industrial shipyard were divided into five exposure groups based on level of concentration: high noise, high metals/solvents, high metals/noise, high metals/solvents/noise, and a low metals/solvents/noise reference group. Hearing threshold changes were analyzed to identify development of a PTS. Logistic regression indicated high metals/solvents and high metals/solvent/noise groups had significantly greater odds ratios of 2.4; 95%CI [1.02, 2.85] and 1.7; 95%CI [1.46, 3.94], respectively, compared to a reference group. Both groups were associated with PTSs while controlling for age, gender, and exposure duration. Simultaneous exposures classified as high for metals and solvents may damage hearing. Results suggest the need for expanding hearing conservation programs to consider combinations of exposures to metals, solvents, and noise. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:227-238, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Noise exposure of workers and the use of hearing protection equipment in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    John, G W; Grynevych, A; Welch, D; McBride, D; Thorne, P R

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss from occupational noise exposure is a significant occupational health problem, requiring effective health and safety strategies. Essential to this is an understanding of the noise exposure of workers and the use of hearing protection equipment (HPE). This study reports on data collected in New Zealand. Visits were made to companies in each economic sector. Personal dosimetry was used to assess individual noise exposure of 529 workers. Workers were also interviewed about their use of HPE. Overall, 40.4% of production workers had a daily noise exposure greater than 1 Pa(2)h, exceeding the New Zealand National Standard for occupational noise exposure without HPE. Of these, 88.5% reported to use HPE when working in noise; however, some observations suggested that workers do not consistently use the devices. These data add to the overall picture of noise exposure of workers in New Zealand and are especially useful in areas where data did not previously exist or were difficult to access.

  10. Chronic exposure of rats to occupational textile noise causes cytological changes in adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Joao R; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ribeiro, Andreia M; Pignatelli, Duarte; Aguas, Artur P

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to industrial noise and its effects on biological systems. Occupational exposure to noise may result in health disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to high-intensity noise of textile industry cotton rooms on the adrenal morphology. The environmental noise of a cotton-mill room from a large textile factory of Northern Portugal was recorded and reproduced by an adopted electroacoustic setup in a sound-insulated animal room where the rats were housed. The sounds were reproduced at the original levels of approximately 92 dB, which was achieved by equalization and distribution of sound output in the room. Wistar rats were submitted to noise exposure, in the same time schedule as employed in textile plants. After one, three, five, and seven months, the adrenals were collected and analyzed by light microscopy. Analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons of the means between the groups. Noise exposure induced time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex, with decrease of zona fasciculata (ZF) and increase of zona reticularis volumes, together with a significant depletion of lipid droplet density in ZF cells of exposed rats, in comparison to control rats. Chronic exposure of rats to textile industry noise triggers cytological changes in the adrenals that suggest the existence of a sustained stress response.

  11. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in

  12. Occupational noise exposure and incident hypertension in men: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Chen, Ren-Yin; Wang, Ven-Shing; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2013-04-15

    The associations between occupational noise exposure and hypertension remain controversial because of the differences in study designs, exposure assessments, and confounding controls. This prospective study investigated the relationship between noise exposure and the 10-year risk of hypertension. A cohort of 578 male workers in Taiwan was followed from 1998 to 2008. All subjects were divided into high-, intermediate-, and low-exposure groups on the basis of noise exposure assessment. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of hypertension after adjustment for potential confounders. During the 7,805 person-years of follow-up, 141 hypertension cases were identified. Significant increases of 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 6.2) mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 2.5 (95% CI: 0.1, 4.8) mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up measurements were observed in the high-exposure group. Participants exposed to ≥85 A-weighted decibels (dBA) had a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 3.22) risk of hypertension compared with those exposed to <80 dBA. There was a significant exposure-response pattern (P = 0.016) between the risk of hypertension and the stratum of noise exposure. Prolonged exposure to noise levels ≥85 dBA may increase males' systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. This association may translate into a higher incidence of hypertension.

  13. Noise exposure of commercial divers in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Nedwell, J R; Mason, T I; Collett, A G; Gardiner, R W K

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that exposure to high noise levels can adversely affect human hearing. Legislation exists in Europe to control or restrict the level of noise to which employees may be exposed during the course of their work. While the noise levels to which a worker may be exposed is well defined in air, human sensitivity to noise is different in high-pressure and mixed-gas conditions. Relatively little research exists to define human hearing in these circumstances, and few measurements exist of the levels of noise to which divers working in these conditions are exposed. A study using specially designed equipment has been undertaken in Norwegian waters to sample the noise levels present during typical saturation dives undertaken by commercial divers working in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The divers were working in heliox at depths of 30 msw and 120 msw. It found noise levels were generally dominated by self-noise: flow noise while breathing and communications. The noise levels, both when corrected for the difference in hearing sensitivity under pressure in mixed gas and uncorrected, would exceed legislated limits for noise exposure in a working day without the use of noisy tools.

  14. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors.

    PubMed

    Nording, F; Weber, S; Ludwig, F; Schilling, M

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  15. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nording, F.; Weber, S.; Ludwig, F.; Schilling, M.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  16. Noise exposure reduction of advanced high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Contract NAS1-20090 Task 3 was to investigate the potential for noise reduction that would result from improving the high-lift performance of conventional subsonic transports. The study showed that an increase in lift-to-drag ratio of 15 percent would reduce certification noise levels by about 2 EPNdB on approach, 1.5 EPNdB on cutback, and zero EPNdB on sideline. In most cases, noise contour areas would be reduced by 10 to 20 percent.

  17. [Evaluation of acoustic effectiveness of personnel protectors from extra-aural exposure to aviation noise].

    PubMed

    Dragan, S P; Soldatov, S K; Bogomolov, A V; Drozdov, S V; Poliakov, N M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the investigation was to validate testing acoustic effectiveness of a personnel vest-like protector (PP) from extra-aural exposure to aviation noise. Levels of aviation noise for PP testing were determined through calculation. Vest effectiveness in protecting from acoustic vibration generated by high-intensity aviation noise was evaluated both in laboratory and field tests. For comparison analysis, PP was also tested with a dummy exposed on a special tester, i.e. acoustic interferometer.

  18. Children's cognition and aircraft noise exposure at home--the West London Schools Study.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Stansfeld, S; Haines, M; Head, J

    2004-01-01

    The association of aircraft noise exposure with cognitive performance was examined by means of a cross-sectional field survey. Two hundred thirty six children attending 10 primary schools around Heathrow Airport in west London were tested on reading comprehension, immediate/delayed recall and sustained attention. In order to obtain the information about their background, a questionnaire was delivered to the parents and 163 answers were collected. Logistic regression models were used to assess performance on the cognitive tests in relation to aircraft noise exposure at home and possible individual and school level confounding factors. A significant dose-response relationship was found between aircraft noise exposure at home and performance on memory tests of immediate/delayed recall. However there was no strong association with the other cognitive outcomes. These results suggest that aircraft noise exposure at home may affect children's memory.

  19. Effects of aircraft noise exposure on saliva cortisol near airports in France.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Marie; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard; Evrard, Anne-Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Saliva cortisol is a possible marker of noise-induced stress and could then mediate the relation observed between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases. However, the association between transportation noise and cortisol levels is still unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the variability of saliva cortisol concentration as an indicator of disturbed hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation in relation to long-term aircraft noise exposure. Saliva samples were taken when awakening and before going to bed for 1244 participants older than 18 years of age. Information about health, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was also collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire performed at home by an interviewer. Aircraft noise exposure was assessed for each participant's home address using noise maps. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the effects of aircraft noise exposure on the morning and evening cortisol levels and on the daily variation of cortisol per hour. This study suggests a modification of the cortisol circadian rhythm in relation to aircraft noise exposure. This exposure was associated with a smaller variation of cortisol levels over the day, with unchanged morning cortisol levels, but higher cortisol levels in the evening. These findings provide some support for a psychological stress induced by aircraft noise exposure, resulting in HPA dysregulation and a flattened cortisol rhythm, thus contributing to cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Characterization of Noise and Instability in a Commercial Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Stewart; Agrawal, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    A range of combustion applications produce noise as a significant and undesirable output. Concurrently, efforts to reduce emissions through lean premixed combustion have shown this process to be prone to developing instabilities. In this study a commercial-style combustor was investigated to characterize combustion noise and instabilities. Knowledge in this area is intended for future research involving the application of porous inert media (PIM) in industrial burners. Porous media has been used to passively suppress both combustion noise and instabilities in a laboratory setting, but has yet to be implemented in a commercial burner. Combustion experiments were conducted in an industrial-scale lean premixed burner using natural gas while varying equivalence ratio and reactant flow rate. Acoustic data was acquired using a microphone probe placed in the plane of the combustor exit. Measurements were analyzed in the frequency spectrum to quantify noise spectra and detect the development of instabilities. Results have indicated the occurrence of strong combustion instability at certain conditions. Additionally, research has supported the general relationship of increased noise production with increasing equivalence ratio and heat release rate. Adverse effects of combustion instability were accompanied with flashback and downstream acoustic excitation. Funding for this research provided by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  1. Characterization of noise-induced strange nonchaotic attractors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lai, Choy Heng

    2006-07-01

    Strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs) were previously thought to arise exclusively in quasiperiodic dynamical systems. A recent study has revealed, however, that such attractors can be induced by noise in nonquasiperiodic discrete-time maps or in periodically driven flows. In particular, in a periodic window of such a system where a periodic attractor coexists with a chaotic saddle (nonattracting chaotic invariant set), none of the Lyapunov exponents of the asymptotic attractor is positive. Small random noise is incapable of causing characteristic changes in the Lyapunov spectrum, but it can make the attractor geometrically strange by dynamically connecting the original periodic attractor with the chaotic saddle. Here we present a detailed study of noise-induced SNAs and the characterization of their properties. Numerical calculations reveal that the fractal dimensions of noise-induced SNAs typically assume fractional values, in contrast to SNAs in quasiperiodically driven systems whose dimensions are integers. An interesting finding is that the fluctuations of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents away from their asymptotic values obey an exponential distribution, the generality of which we are able to establish by a theoretical analysis using random matrices. We suggest a possible experimental test. We expect noise-induced SNAs to be general.

  2. Effect of nighttime aircraft noise exposure on endothelial function and stress hormone release in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Frank P.; Basner, Mathias; Kröger, Gunnar; Weck, Stefanie; Schnorbus, Boris; Muttray, Axel; Sariyar, Murat; Binder, Harald; Gori, Tommaso; Warnholtz, Ascan; Münzel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aims Aircraft noise disturbs sleep, and long-term exposure has been shown to be associated with increases in the prevalence of hypertension and an overall increased risk for myocardial infarction. The exact mechanisms responsible for these cardiovascular effects remain unclear. Methods and results We performed a blinded field study in 75 healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years), who were exposed at home, in random order, to one control pattern (no noise) and two different noise scenarios [30 or 60 aircraft noise events per night with an average maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB(A)] for one night each. We performed polygraphy during each study night. Noise caused a worsening in sleep quality (P < 0.0001). Noise60, corresponding to equivalent continuous SPLs of 46.3 dB (Leq) and representing environmental noise levels associated with increased cardiovascular events, caused a blunting in FMD (P = 0.016). As well, although a direct comparison among the FMD values in the noise groups (control: 10.4 ± 3.8%; Noise30: 9.7 ± 4.1%; Noise60: 9.5 ± 4.3%, P = 0.052) did not reach significance, a monotone dose-dependent effect of noise level on FMD was shown (P = 0.020). Finally, there was a priming effect of noise, i.e. the blunting in FMD was particularly evident when subjects were exposed first to 30 and then to 60 noise events (P = 0.006). Noise-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) was reversed by the administration of Vitamin C (P = 0.0171). Morning adrenaline concentration increased from 28.3 ± 10.9 to 33.2 ± 16.6 and 34.1 ± 19.3 ng/L (P = 0.0099). Pulse transit time, reflecting arterial stiffness, was also shorter after exposure to noise (P = 0.003). Conclusion In healthy adults, acute nighttime aircraft noise exposure dose-dependently impairs endothelial function and stimulates adrenaline release. Noise-induced ED may be in part due to increased production in reactive oxygen species and may thus be one mechanism contributing to the observed association of

  3. Effect of nighttime aircraft noise exposure on endothelial function and stress hormone release in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank P; Basner, Mathias; Kröger, Gunnar; Weck, Stefanie; Schnorbus, Boris; Muttray, Axel; Sariyar, Murat; Binder, Harald; Gori, Tommaso; Warnholtz, Ascan; Münzel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft noise disturbs sleep, and long-term exposure has been shown to be associated with increases in the prevalence of hypertension and an overall increased risk for myocardial infarction. The exact mechanisms responsible for these cardiovascular effects remain unclear. We performed a blinded field study in 75 healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years), who were exposed at home, in random order, to one control pattern (no noise) and two different noise scenarios [30 or 60 aircraft noise events per night with an average maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB(A)] for one night each. We performed polygraphy during each study night. Noise caused a worsening in sleep quality (P < 0.0001). Noise60, corresponding to equivalent continuous SPLs of 46.3 dB (Leq) and representing environmental noise levels associated with increased cardiovascular events, caused a blunting in FMD (P = 0.016). As well, although a direct comparison among the FMD values in the noise groups (control: 10.4 ± 3.8%; Noise30: 9.7 ± 4.1%; Noise60: 9.5 ± 4.3%, P = 0.052) did not reach significance, a monotone dose-dependent effect of noise level on FMD was shown (P = 0.020). Finally, there was a priming effect of noise, i.e. the blunting in FMD was particularly evident when subjects were exposed first to 30 and then to 60 noise events (P = 0.006). Noise-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) was reversed by the administration of Vitamin C (P = 0.0171). Morning adrenaline concentration increased from 28.3 ± 10.9 to 33.2 ± 16.6 and 34.1 ± 19.3 ng/L (P = 0.0099). Pulse transit time, reflecting arterial stiffness, was also shorter after exposure to noise (P = 0.003). In healthy adults, acute nighttime aircraft noise exposure dose-dependently impairs endothelial function and stimulates adrenaline release. Noise-induced ED may be in part due to increased production in reactive oxygen species and may thus be one mechanism contributing to the observed association of chronic noise exposure with

  4. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  5. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.

  6. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  7. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Reactions to Noise Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Fields, James M.

    2004-01-01

    More than 80,000 residents' responses to transportation noise at different times of year provide the best, but imprecise, statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. Annoyance with noise is found to be slightly statistically significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in a seven-year study in the Netherlands. Analyses of 41 other surveys drawn from diverse countries, climates, and times of year find noise annoyance is increased by temperature, and may be increased by more sunshine, less precipitation, and reduced wind speeds. Meteorological conditions on the day of the interview or the immediately preceding days do not appear to have any more effect on reactions than do the conditions over the immediately preceding weeks or months.

  8. Noise exposure during early development influences the acoustic startle reflex in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Rybalko, Natalia; Bureš, Zbyněk; Burianová, Jana; Popelář, Jiří; Grécová, Jolana; Syka, Josef

    2011-03-28

    Noise exposure during the critical period of postnatal development in rats results in anomalous processing of acoustic stimuli in the adult auditory system. In the present study, the behavioral consequences of an acute acoustic trauma in the critical period are assessed in adult rats using the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR. Rat pups (strain Long-Evans) were exposed to broad-band noise of 125 dB SPL for 8 min on postnatal day 14; at the age of 3-5 months, ASR and PPI of ASR were examined and compared with those obtained in age-matched controls. In addition, hearing thresholds were measured in all animals by means of auditory brainstem responses. The results show that although the hearing thresholds in both groups of animals were not different, a reduced strength of the startle reflex was observed in exposed rats compared with controls. The efficacy of PPI in exposed and control rats was also markedly different. In contrast to control rats, in which an increase in prepulse intensity was accompanied by a consistent increase in the efficacy of PPI, the PPI function in the exposed animals was characterized by a steep increase in inhibitory efficacy at low prepulse intensities of 20-30 dB SPL. A further increase of prepulse intensity up to 60-70 dB SPL caused only a small and insignificant change of PPI. Our findings demonstrate that brief noise exposure in rat pups results in altered behavioral responses to sounds in adulthood, indicating anomalies in intensity coding and loudness perception.

  9. Repeated exposure to noise increases tolerance in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Mills, Suzanne C; Lecchini, David; Nedelec, Brendan; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-09-01

    Some anthropogenic noise is now considered pollution, with evidence building that noise from human activities such as transportation, construction and exploration can impact behaviour and physiology in a broad range of taxa. However, relatively little research has considered the effects of repeated or chronic noise; extended exposures may result in habituation or sensitisation, and thus changes in response. We conducted a field-based experiment at Moorea Island to investigate how repeated exposure to playback of motorboat noise affected a coral reef fish (Dascyllus trimaculatus). We found that juvenile D. trimaculatus increased hiding behaviour during motorboat noise after two days of repeated exposure, but no longer did so after one and two weeks of exposure. We also found that naïve individuals responded to playback of motorboat noise with elevated ventilation rates, but that this response was diminished after one and two weeks of repeated exposure. We found no strong evidence that baseline blood cortisol levels, growth or body condition were affected by three weeks of repeated motorboat-noise playback. Our study reveals the importance of considering how tolerance levels may change over time, rather than simply extrapolating from results of short-term studies, if we are to make decisions about regulation and mitigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town

    PubMed Central

    Green, Deirdre R.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69–90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures, where noise

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town.

    PubMed

    Green, Deirdre R; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69-90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures

  12. Assessment of exposure to voices and noise via earphones in manufacturing industry workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tomo; Kakei, Masazumi; Araki, Ikuno; Tsutsui, Takao; Satoh, Noriaki; Inoue, Jinro; Horie, Seichi

    2014-01-01

    There is concern that sound via earphones and headphones attached to headsets used in workplaces may be a risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Although there are some previous studies investigating exposure to noise from headphones, almost none have assessed the risks to workers who use earphones. We assessed exposure to noise among workers who regularly wear earphones in noisy workplaces. The subjects of this study were 21 workers who regularly wear earphones in three manufacturing companies in Japan. The sound pressure output from earphones and personal exposure to occupational noise was measured for each worker. A noise-dosimeter was used to measure individual exposure to occupational noise. The sound pressure output from the earphones was measured by recording the electric signal with a data recorder attached to the earphones, and the recording was analyzed by playing it back in the laboratory through a sound analyzer via an ear simulator. The mean scores for personal exposure and earphone output LAeq were 87.9 dB and 87.6 dB, respectively. Earphone output LAeq exceeded 85 dB for two-thirds of the subjects. Nearly all the subjects lacked hearing protection devices (HPDs) on their earphones. The results suggest that workers who use earphones in noisy workplaces are exposed to the following NIHL risk factors: (1) they are deprived of the opportunity to fit appropriate HPDs, and (2) the sound pressure output from the earphones themselves exceeds the occupational exposure limit.

  13. [Exposure of schoolchildren and teachers to noise at school].

    PubMed

    Koszarny, Z; Goryński, P

    1990-01-01

    The factor of decisive influence on the acoustic climate in rooms is the inner noise, which is dependent in schools on the activity of children, overcrowding of classes and inadequate use of technical protective means. The inappropriate location of schools, although also important from the standpoint of acoustics, is a much lower source of noise than it is generally assumed. Particularly unfavourable acoustic conditions are in elementary schools with over 300 children in one shift. The spaces with the highest noise level include corridors, especially during recesses between lessons. The noise level in them is in the range of an equivalent sound A 60-95 dB, and the most frequent noise level is 80 dB. In a large part of schools the acoustic conditions in the corridors during recesses approach the critical values accepted for hearing protection in industrial plants, in some schools they are even exceeded. The situation is also unfavourable in other rooms such as doctor's office, director's room, reading rooms, rooms for teachers. These rooms are situated usually without taking into consideration of the acoustic conditions. This is particularly true of teachers' rooms which should give the teachers the possibility of resting before the next lesson. During lessons the noise level decreases in all rooms. However, the noisiest among them, corridors, classes situated near the hall for physical exercises and day-room, have still up to about 65 dB noise level. Generally speaking, in about 60% of rooms the acoustic conditions are below the recommended standard. The main cause, apart from overcrowding of schools, is low acoustic absorption ability of school rooms, and poor acoustic insulation ability of the doors in schools.

  14. Loud Noise Exposure Produces DNA, Neurotransmitter and Morphological Damage within Specific Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Frenzilli, Giada; Ryskalin, Larisa; Ferrucci, Michela; Cantafora, Emanuela; Chelazzi, Silvia; Giorgi, Filippo S.; Lenzi, Paola; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Frati, Alessandro; Biagioni, Francesca; Gambardella, Stefano; Falleni, Alessandra; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum) of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA) for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay. In parallel studies, brain monoamine levels and morphology of nigrostriatal pathways, hippocampus and cerebellum were analyzed at different time intervals (24 h and 7 days) after noise exposure. Loud noise produced a sudden increase in DNA damage in all the brain areas under investigation. Monoamine levels detected at 7 days following exposure were differently affected depending on the specific brain area. Namely, striatal but not hippocampal dopamine (DA) significantly decreased, whereas hippocampal and cerebellar noradrenaline (NA) was significantly reduced. This is in line with pathological findings within striatum and hippocampus consisting of a decrease in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) combined with increased Bax and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Loud noise exposure lasting 12 h causes immediate DNA, and long-lasting neurotransmitter and immune-histochemical alterations within specific brain areas of the rat. These alterations may suggest an anatomical and functional link to explain the neurobiology of diseases which prevail in human subjects exposed to environmental noise. PMID:28694773

  15. Noise exposure and noise induced hearing loss among Kuala Lumpur traffic point duty personnel.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N; Mariah, A Nor; Fuad, A; Kuljit, S; Philip, R

    2007-06-01

    Thirty-two points in Kuala Lumpur were selected where traffic personnel were on duty. Sound level readings were taken three times a day. Generally, the traffic noise levels were between 75 dBA to 85 dBA. The maximum sound level recorded was 108.2 dBA. Noise emitted by traffic equipment and vehicles were up to 133 dBA. Results of audiometric tests revealed that out of 30 who were tested, 24 or 80% were positive for noise-induced hearing loss. A questionnaire survey revealed a lack of knowledge on occupational safety and personal protective equipment.

  16. Effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liqiong; Li, Peng-Hui; Li, Hua; Colicino, Elena; Colicino, Silvia; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Ruiping; Feng, Xiaotian; Barrow, Timothy M; Cayir, Akin; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min

    2017-02-01

    Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health. We exposed four groups of male Wistar rats to moderate intensity noise (70-75dB with 20-4000Hz) at night for three days as short-term exposure, and for three weeks as long-term exposure. Noise exposure was limited to 45dB during the daytime. Control groups were exposed to only 45dB, day and night. We measured DNA methylation in the Bdnf, Comt, Crhr1, Mc2r, and Snca genes in tissue from four brain regions of the rats (hippocampus, frontal lobe, medulla oblongata, and inferior colliculus). Further, we measured blood pressure and body weight after long-term noise exposure. We found that environmental noise exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation changes in specific regions of the brain. Changes in DNA methylation are significantly associated with changes in body weight (between Bdnf DNA methylation and Δ body weight: r=0.59, p=0.018; and between LINE-1 ORF DNA methylation and Δ body weight: =-0.80, p=0.0004). We also observed that noise exposure decreased blood pressure (p=0.038 for SBP, p=0.017 for DBP and p 0. 017 for MAP) and decreased body weight (β=-26g, p=0.008). In conclusion, environmental noise exposures can induce changes in DNA methylation in the brain, which may be associated with adverse effects upon metabolic health through modulation of response to stress-related hormones

  17. Probabilistic Exposure Analysis for Chemical Risk Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Kenneth T.; Cullen, Alison C.; Frey, H. Christopher; Price, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the state of the science of probabilistic exposure assessment (PEA) as applied to chemical risk characterization. Current probabilistic risk analysis methods applied to PEA are reviewed. PEA within the context of risk-based decision making is discussed, including probabilistic treatment of related uncertainty, interindividual heterogeneity, and other sources of variability. Key examples of recent experience gained in assessing human exposures to chemicals in the environment, and other applications to chemical risk characterization and assessment, are presented. It is concluded that, although improvements continue to be made, existing methods suffice for effective application of PEA to support quantitative analyses of the risk of chemically induced toxicity that play an increasing role in key decision-making objectives involving health protection, triage, civil justice, and criminal justice. Different types of information required to apply PEA to these different decision contexts are identified, and specific PEA methods are highlighted that are best suited to exposure assessment in these separate contexts. PMID:19223660

  18. Antioxidant loading reduces oxidative stress induced by high-energy impulse noise (blast) exposure.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M; Armstrong, K L; William, M T; Cooper, M F

    2000-11-30

    Detonation of explosives, firing of large caliber weapons and occupational explosions, professional or accidental, produce high-energy impulse noise (blast) waves characterized by a rapid rise in atmospheric pressure (overpressure) followed by gradual decay to ambient level. Exposure to blast waves causes injury, predominantly to the hollow organs such as ears and lungs. We have previously reported that blast exposure can induce free radical-mediated oxidative stress in the lung characterized by antioxidant depletion, lipid peroxidation, and hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. In this study, we examined whether pre-loading, adequately fed rats, with pharmacological doses of antioxidants would reduce the response to blast. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were loaded with either 800 IU vitamin E (VE), 1000 mg vitamin C (VC) or 25 mg lipoic acid (LA) for 3 consecutive days by gavage before exposure to blast. Both VE, and LA were dissolved in 2 ml corn oil, but VC in 2 ml water. After the 3-day antioxidant loading, the rats were divided into six groups (five rats per group), deeply anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (60 mg/kg body weight), then exposed to a low-level blast (62+/-2 kPa peak pressure and 5 ms duration). A matched number of groups were sham exposed and served as controls. One hour after exposure, all rats were euthanized then blood, and lung tissue was analyzed. We found that antioxidant loading resulted in restored Hb oxygenation, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Lung tissue VE content was elevated after loading but VC did not change possibly due to their different bioavailability and saturation kinetics. These observations, suggest that brief antioxidant loading with pharmacological doses can reduce blast-induced oxidative stress, and may have occupational and clinical implications.

  19. Limiting hazardous noise exposure from noisy toys: simple, sticky solutions.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Heather M; Jabbour, Noel; Levine, Samuel; Yueh, Bevan

    2013-09-01

    To assess noise levels of toys from the Sight & Hearing Association (SHA) 2010 Noisy Toys List and evaluate the change in noise of these toys after covering the speakers with tape or glue. One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. SHA 2010 Toys List (n = 18) toys were tested at distances of 0 and 25 cm from sound source in a soundproof booth using a digital sound-level meter. The dBA level of sound produced by toy was obtained. Toys with speakers (n = 16) were tested before and after altering speakers with plastic packing tape or nontoxic glue. Mean noise level for non-taped toys at 0 and 25 cm was 107.6 dBA (SD ± 8.5) and 82.5 dBA (SD ± 8.8), respectively. With tape, there was a statistically significant decrease in noise level at 0 and 25 cm: 84.2 dBA and 68.2 dBA (P <0.001). With glue, there was a statistically significant decrease in noise level at 0 cm and 25 cm: 79.7 dBA and 66.4 dBA (P <0.001). Both tape and glue significantly decreased the noise level produced by the toys. However, there was no significant difference between tape or glue. Overall, altering the toy can significantly decrease the sound a child may experience when playing with toys. However, some toys, even after altering, still produce sound levels that may be considered dangerous. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Health standards for occupational noise exposure. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1999-09-13

    This final comprehensive rule replaces MSHA's existing standards for occupational noise exposure in coal mines and metal and nonmetal mines. The final rule establishes uniform requirements to protect the Nation's miners from occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The rule is derived in part from existing MSHA noise standards, and from the Department of Labor's existing occupational noise exposure standard for general industry promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As a result of the Agency's ongoing review of its safety and health standards, MSHA determined that its existing noise standards, which are more than twenty years old, do not adequately protect miners from occupational noise-induced hearing loss. A significant risk to miners of material impairment of health from workplace exposure to noise over a working lifetime exists when miners' exposure exceeds an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA8) of 85 dBA. MSHA expects that the final rule will significantly reduce the risk of material impairment within the mining industry as a whole.

  1. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-02-01

    More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Gene-environment interaction between angiotensinogen and chronic exposure to occupational noise contribute to hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Cheng, Kang-Yin; Liu, Chiu-Shong

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies on the effects of angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms and chronic exposure to occupational noise on the risk of hypertension have mainly been cross-sectional or prevalent case-control studies, where temporality constitutes problems. The present study was to assess longitudinally both independent and joint effects of AGT gene polymorphisms and chronic exposure to occupational noise on occurrence of hypertension. The authors conducted a 20-year prospective cohort study of 1301 aviation workers in Taiwan. The study population included 912 workers without hypertension at baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of hypertension during the study period. The studied determinants were three AGT genotypes (TT, TM and MM) and four exposure categories according to the levels of noise representing high (>80 dBA), medium (80-65 dBA), low exposure (64-50 dBA) and the reference level (49-40 dBA). In Poisson regression adjusting for confounders, AGT (TT vs MM adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.77, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.51) and noise exposure (high and medium combined) during 3-15 years (adjusted IRR 2.35, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.88) were independent determinants of hypertension. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension increased with noise exposure (adjusted IRR 3.73, 95% CI 1.84 to 7.56) among TT homozygotes but not among those with at least one M allele (Rothman synergy index=1.05). The results evidence further the independent effects of AGT gene polymorphisms and exposure to occupational noise. Our finding also suggests that workers carrying TT variant allele have higher risk of hypertension under chronic exposure to occupational noise.

  3. Multiple work-related accidents: tracing the role of hearing status and noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Girard, S A; Picard, M; Davis, A C; Simard, M; Larocque, R; Leroux, T; Turcotte, F

    2009-05-01

    Our main purpose was to investigate any relationship between noise exposure levels in the workplace, degree of hearing loss (HL), and the relative risk of accident (OR of single or multiple events). We conducted a retrospective study of 52 982 male workers aged 16-64 years with long-standing exposures to occupational noise over a 5-year period, using "hearing status" and "noise exposure" from the registry held by the Quebec National Institute of Public Health. Information on work-related accidents was obtained from the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board. Hearing threshold level measurements and noise exposures were regressed on the numbers of accidents after adjusting for age. Exposure to extremely noisy environments (L(eq8h) (equivalent noise level for 8 h exposure) > or =90 dBA) is associated with a higher relative risk of accident. The severity of hearing impairment (average bilateral hearing threshold levels at 3, 4 and 6 kHz) increases the relative risk of single and multiple events when threshold levels exceed 15 dB of hearing loss. The relative risk of multiple events (four or more) is approximately three times higher among severely hearing-impaired workers who are exposed to L(eq8h) > or =90 dBA. Single and multiple events are associated with high noise exposure and hearing status. This suggests that reducing noise exposure contributes to increased safety in noisy industries and prevents hearing loss. Hearing-impaired workers assigned to noisy workstations should be provided with assistive listening devices and efficient communication strategies should be implemented.

  4. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  5. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  6. [Distortion product otoacoustic emissions before and after one year exposure to impulse noise].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Wiesław; Olszewski, Jurek; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Mielczarek, Marzena

    2006-01-01

    Firearms are a common source of impulse noise that may be very harmful to the auditory organ. Impulse noise from weapons and explosions continually produces hearing damage among military personnel. The discovery of otoacoustic emission (OAE) has given a new possibility of early diagnosis of noise induced hearing loss. The transiently evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) are non-invasive, objective and frequency specific audiometric tests for evaluating outer hair cell function. The aim of the study was to asses the effects of exposure to impulse noise on DPOAE after one year of the obligatory military service. The study comprised 92 (184 ears) soldiers, subjected to impulse noise during military service. The examine group was divided according total noise exposure. The control group consisted of secondary school students not exposed to noise. DPOAE was recorded before and after one year of military service. After military service significant deterioration of DPOAE level was observed at frequencies of 1, 3, and 4 kHz on the right ear and 2, 5 and 6 kHz left one. 1. Reduction of DPOAE amplitude connected all frequencies. 2. We did not notice significant differences between groups connected total noise exposure.

  7. DNA damage associated with ultrastructural alterations in rat myocardium after loud noise exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Paola; Frenzilli, Giada; Gesi, Marco; Ferrucci, Michela; Lazzeri, Gloria; Fornai, Francesco; Nigro, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Noise exposure causes changes at different levels in human organs, particularly the cardiovascular system, where it is responsible for increasing heart rate, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. In this study, we evaluated the effect of noise exposure on DNA integrity and ultrastructure of rat cardiomyocytes. The exposure to loud noise (100 dBA) for 12 hr caused a significant increase of DNA damage, accompanied by swelling of mitochondrial membranes, dilution of the matrix, and cristolysis. These alterations were concomitant with increased in situ noradrenaline levels and utilization. Genetic and ultrastructural alterations did not decrease 24 hr after the cessation of the stimulus. An elevated oxyradical generation, possibly related to altered sympathetic innervation, is hypothesized as responsible for the induction and persistence of noise-induced cellular damage. PMID:12676600

  8. Noise exposure and hearing conservation in U.S. coal mines - A surveillance report

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, G.J.; Middendorf, P.J.

    2007-01-15

    This study examines the patterns and trends in noise exposure documented in data collected by Mine Safety and Health Administration inspectors at U. S. coal mines from 1987 through 2004. During this period, MSHA issued a new regulation on occupational noise exposure that changed the regulatory requirements and enforcement policies. The data were examined to identify potential impacts from these changes. The overall annual median noise dose declined 67% for surface coal mining and 24% for underground coal mining, and the reduction in each group accelerated after promulgation of the new noise rule. However, not all mining occupations experienced a decrease. The exposure reduction was accompanied by an increase of shift length as represented by dosimeter sample duration. For coal miners exposed above the permissible exposure level, use of hearing protection devices increased from 61% to 89% during this period. Participation of miners exposed at or above the action level in hearing conservation programs rapidly reached 86% following the effective date of the noise rule. Based on inspection data, the occupational noise regulation appears to be having a strong positive impact on hearing conservation by reducing exposures and increasing the use of hearing protection devices and medical surveillance. However, the increase in shift duration and resulting reduction in recovery time may mitigate the gains somewhat.

  9. Pilot noise exposure during a Boeing 747-400 round trip: Judgement of noise and analysis in respect to hearing impairment of pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooman, Hans Juergen

    1992-01-01

    Noise level measurements are made on Boeing 747 aircraft to determine the potential hazards to airline pilots. Measuring results have shown that most pilots work under conditions that where noise constitutes a health hazard. Long and short term effects of noise exposure in pilots is examined as well as the legal ramifications of this potential hazard.

  10. Pilot noise exposure during a Boeing 747-400 round trip: Judgement of noise and analysis in respect to hearing impairment of pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooman, Hans Juergen

    1992-01-01

    Noise level measurements are made on Boeing 747 aircraft to determine the potential hazards to airline pilots. Measuring results have shown that most pilots work under conditions that where noise constitutes a health hazard. Long and short term effects of noise exposure in pilots is examined as well as the legal ramifications of this potential hazard.

  11. Recovery of otoacoustic emissions after high-level noise exposure in the American bullfrog

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Dwayne D.; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D.; Hooper, Rebecca A.; Baird, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of noise on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the noise levels that diminished DPOAE at 2f1–f2 using an f2 stimulus level at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1–f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after noise exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-level (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to noise differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to noise and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to noise. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following noise exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure levels within 3–4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After noise-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent noise damage. PMID:24501139

  12. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 150 - Noise Exposure Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mechanical ventilation and closed windows year round. However, the use of NLR criteria will not eliminate... airport sources.) (6) Location of noise sensitive public buildings (such as schools, hospitals, and health... Transient lodgings Y N(1) N(1) N(1) N N Public Use Schools Y N(1) N(1) N N N Hospitals and nursing homes Y...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 150 - Noise Exposure Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mechanical ventilation and closed windows year round. However, the use of NLR criteria will not eliminate... airport sources.) (6) Location of noise sensitive public buildings (such as schools, hospitals, and health... Transient lodgings Y N(1) N(1) N(1) N N Public Use Schools Y N(1) N(1) N N N Hospitals and nursing homes Y...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 150 - Noise Exposure Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mechanical ventilation and closed windows year round. However, the use of NLR criteria will not eliminate... airport sources.) (6) Location of noise sensitive public buildings (such as schools, hospitals, and health... Transient lodgings Y N(1) N(1) N(1) N N Public Use Schools Y N(1) N(1) N N N Hospitals and nursing homes Y...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 150 - Noise Exposure Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mechanical ventilation and closed windows year round. However, the use of NLR criteria will not eliminate... airport sources.) (6) Location of noise sensitive public buildings (such as schools, hospitals, and health... Transient lodgings Y N(1) N(1) N(1) N N Public Use Schools Y N(1) N(1) N N N Hospitals and nursing homes Y...

  16. Residential exposure to aircraft noise and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases: multi-airport retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Andrew W; Peters, Junenette L; Levy, Jonathan I; Melly, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether exposure to aircraft noise increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in older people (≥65 years) residing near airports. Design Multi-airport retrospective study of approximately 6 million older people residing near airports in the United States. We superimposed contours of aircraft noise levels (in decibels, dB) for 89 airports for 2009 provided by the US Federal Aviation Administration on census block resolution population data to construct two exposure metrics applicable to zip code resolution health insurance data: population weighted noise within each zip code, and 90th centile of noise among populated census blocks within each zip code. Setting 2218 zip codes surrounding 89 airports in the contiguous states. Participants 6 027 363 people eligible to participate in the national medical insurance (Medicare) program (aged ≥65 years) residing near airports in 2009. Main outcome measures Percentage increase in the hospitalization admission rate for cardiovascular disease associated with a 10 dB increase in aircraft noise, for each airport and on average across airports adjusted by individual level characteristics (age, sex, race), zip code level socioeconomic status and demographics, zip code level air pollution (fine particulate matter and ozone), and roadway density. Results Averaged across all airports and using the 90th centile noise exposure metric, a zip code with 10 dB higher noise exposure had a 3.5% higher (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 7.0%) cardiovascular hospital admission rate, after controlling for covariates. Conclusions Despite limitations related to potential misclassification of exposure, we found a statistically significant association between exposure to aircraft noise and risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases among older people living near airports. PMID:24103538

  17. Residential exposure to aircraft noise and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases: multi-airport retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Correia, Andrew W; Peters, Junenette L; Levy, Jonathan I; Melly, Steven; Dominici, Francesca

    2013-10-08

    To investigate whether exposure to aircraft noise increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases in older people (≥ 65 years) residing near airports. Multi-airport retrospective study of approximately 6 million older people residing near airports in the United States. We superimposed contours of aircraft noise levels (in decibels, dB) for 89 airports for 2009 provided by the US Federal Aviation Administration on census block resolution population data to construct two exposure metrics applicable to zip code resolution health insurance data: population weighted noise within each zip code, and 90th centile of noise among populated census blocks within each zip code. 2218 zip codes surrounding 89 airports in the contiguous states. 6 027 363 people eligible to participate in the national medical insurance (Medicare) program (aged ≥ 65 years) residing near airports in 2009. Percentage increase in the hospitalization admission rate for cardiovascular disease associated with a 10 dB increase in aircraft noise, for each airport and on average across airports adjusted by individual level characteristics (age, sex, race), zip code level socioeconomic status and demographics, zip code level air pollution (fine particulate matter and ozone), and roadway density. Averaged across all airports and using the 90th centile noise exposure metric, a zip code with 10 dB higher noise exposure had a 3.5% higher (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 7.0%) cardiovascular hospital admission rate, after controlling for covariates. Despite limitations related to potential misclassification of exposure, we found a statistically significant association between exposure to aircraft noise and risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases among older people living near airports.

  18. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) maintain hearing sensitivity after exposure to intense band-limited noise.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Hom, Kelsey N; Simmons, James A

    2017-03-01

    Thresholds to short-duration narrowband frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps were measured in six big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in a two-alternative forced choice passive listening task before and after exposure to band-limited noise (lower and upper frequencies between 10 and 50 kHz, 1 h, 116-119 dB sound pressure level root mean square; sound exposure level 152 dB). At recovery time points of 2 and 5 min post-exposure, thresholds varied from -4 to +4 dB from pre-exposure threshold estimates. Thresholds after sham (control) exposures varied from -6 to +2 dB from pre-exposure estimates. The small differences in thresholds after noise and sham exposures support the hypothesis that big brown bats do not experience significant temporary threshold shifts under these experimental conditions. These results confirm earlier findings showing stability of thresholds to broadband FM sweeps at longer recovery times after exposure to broadband noise. Big brown bats may have evolved a lessened susceptibility to noise-induced hearing losses, related to the special demands of echolocation.

  19. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health ...

  20. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health ...

  1. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  2. The effects of chronic exposure to aircraft noise on the prevalence of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Moo-Yong; Kim, Hae-Young; Roh, Sang-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2008-04-01

    Exposure to environmental noise has been suggested to increase the prevalence of hypertension. The present study investigated whether or not chronic exposure to military aircraft noise is related to an increased prevalence of hypertension. The study population consisted of 137 subjects (mean age 60+/-14 years) who lived within 5 km of a helicopter airbase and 486 subjects (58+/-16 years) living within 5 km of a fighter-jet airbase. A control group consisted of 252 subjects (58+/-16 years) not exposed to aircraft noise. Overall, the subjects exposed to military aircraft noise had a higher prevalence of hypertension than those in the control group (p=0.037). However, whereas those exposed to helicopter noise had a higher prevalence than the control group (p=0.020), those exposed to fighter-jet noise did not (p=0.094). The prevalence of known hypertension in the helicopter group was higher than in the control group (p=0.024). The prevalence odds ratio for hypertension adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, current smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, and regular exercise was 1.62 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02-2.59) for the subjects exposed to helicopter noise, and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.87-1.74) for those exposed to fighter-jet noise. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to military aircraft noise may be associated with hypertension. The difference in the effects between helicopter and fighter-jet noise implies that different kinds of noise will have different influences on the prevalence of hypertension.

  3. Residential exposure to traffic noise and leisure-time sports - A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-08-01

    Traffic levels have been found a significant environmental predictor for physical inactivity. A recent study suggested that traffic noise annoyance was associated with lower physical activity. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and leisure-time sports. In the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from the baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). People reported participation (yes/no) and hours of leisure-time sport, from which we calculated MET hrs/week. Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2002 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression. Traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was associated with higher prevalence odds ratio of non-participation in leisure-time sports; significantly for road traffic noise (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.13) and borderline for railway noise (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07), per 10dB. In longitudinal analyses, a 10dB higher road traffic noise was associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio of ceasing (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and a lower prevalence odds ratio of initiating (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) leisure-time sports. Exposure to railway noise was negatively associated with baseline MET hrs/week, whereas no association was found in longitudinal analyses, or for road traffic noise. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is negatively associated with leisure-time sports. Results for railway noise were less consistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Noise and exposure of personnel aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Erlend; Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Moen, Bente E; Gjestland, Truls; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Bråtveit, Magne

    2015-03-01

    Despite awareness of noise aboard vessels at sea, few studies have reported measured noise levels aboard ships. This study aimed to describe the noise levels aboard vessels in the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN), and to assess the noise exposure of personnel aboard RNoN vessels. In 2012/2013 noise measurements were conducted aboard 14 RNoN vessels from four different vessel classes (frigates, coastal corvettes, mine vessels, and coast guard vessels) which were included in this study. Mean and median A-weighted noise levels (L p,A) in decibel (dB(A)) were calculated for different locations in each vessel class. The noise exposure of RNoN personnel was assessed by dosimeter measurements, and with a task-based (TB) strategy. The TB strategy used means of area measured noise levels in locations and the personnel's mean reported time spent in the respective locations to estimate the exposure. Area measurements of noise during sailing with typical operating modes, showed that for all vessel classes the noise levels were high in engine rooms with median L p,A ranging from 86.4 to 105.3 dB(A). In all the other locations the vessel class with the highest noise levels (coastal corvettes) had a median L p,A ranging from 71.7 to 95.0 dB(A), while the vessel class with the lowest noise levels (coast guard vessels) had a median L p,A ranging from 41.5 to 57.8 dB(A). For all vessel classes the engineers and electricians had amongst the highest 24-hour noise exposure (L p,A,24h), both before and after adjusting for estimated use of hearing protective devices (L p,A,24h > 67.3 dB(A)). The vessel class with the highest personnel exposure levels (coastal corvettes) had L p,A,24h ranging from 76.6 to 79.3 dB(A). The vessel class with the lowest personnel exposure levels (coast guard vessels) had an L p,A,24h ranging from 47.4 to 67.3 dB(A). In general, the dosimeter measurements gave higher exposure levels than those estimated with the TB strategy. All vessel classes, except the coast

  5. Effect of recreational noise exposure on hearing impairment among teenage students.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Chao, Keh-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the potential impact of children's hearing loss on learning and development. Recently, numerous teenage students have been found to be fond of listening to music on personal devices and participating in recreational music activities. The objective of this study was to investigate teenage students' hearing impairment, their experience with recreational noise exposure, and their self-reported hearing. The participants were 1878 first-year students at a university in Taiwan. The result of the pure tone audiometry test showed that 11.9% of the participants had one or two ears with a hearing threshold over 25 dB. Over the past year, approximately 80.9% of the participants had taken part in at least one loud-noise recreational activity, and 90.9% of the participants were in the habit of using earphones. Among the participants, 190 students with a high level of recreational noise exposure were assigned to the exposure group, and 191 students with a low level of recreational noise exposure constituted the control group. The exposure group had more hearing problems than the control group, but no significant difference existed between the two groups in the pure tone audiometry test (p=0.857). It is suggested that the schools should reinforce hearing health education and proactively provide intervention measures, such as hearing tests, evaluation of noise exposure, and hearing protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  7. Auditory Brainstem Response Altered in Humans With Noise Exposure Despite Normal Outer Hair Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Bramhall, Naomi F.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn; McMillan, Garnett P.; Griest, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Recent animal studies demonstrated that cochlear synaptopathy, a partial loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve fiber synapses, can occur in response to noise exposure without any permanent auditory threshold shift. In animal models, this synaptopathy is associated with a reduction in the amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The goal of this study was to determine whether higher lifetime noise exposure histories in young people with clinically normal pure-tone thresholds are associated with lower ABR wave I amplitudes. Design Twenty-nine young military Veterans and 35 non Veterans (19 to 35 years of age) with normal pure-tone thresholds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on their self-reported lifetime noise exposure history and Veteran status. Suprathreshold ABR measurements in response to alternating polarity tone bursts were obtained at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz with gold foil tiptrode electrodes placed in the ear canal. Wave I amplitude was calculated from the difference in voltage at the positive peak and the voltage at the following negative trough. Distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions were collected in each participant at the same four frequencies to assess outer hair cell function. Results After controlling for individual differences in sex and distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude, the groups containing participants with higher reported histories of noise exposure had smaller ABR wave I amplitudes at suprathreshold levels across all four frequencies compared with the groups with less history of noise exposure. Conclusions Suprathreshold ABR wave I amplitudes were reduced in Veterans reporting high levels of military noise exposure and in non Veterans reporting any history of firearm use as compared with Veterans and non Veterans with lower levels of reported noise exposure history. The reduction in ABR wave I amplitude in the groups with higher levels of noise exposure cannot be accounted

  8. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    PubMed

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups.

  9. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    PubMed

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  10. Epidemiology of firearm and other noise exposures in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Jay M; Lin, Harrison W; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Identify contemporary noise exposures and hearing protection use among adults. Cross-sectional analysis of national health survey. Adult respondents in the 2014 National Health Interview Series hearing survey module were analyzed. Potentially harmful exposures to occupational and recreational noises in the past 12 months were extracted and quantified. Patterns of hearing protection use also were analyzed. Among 239.7 million adults, "loud" and "very loud" occupational noise exposures were reported by 5.3% and 21.7%, respectively. Of those exposed to "loud" or "very loud" sounds at work, only 18.7% and 43.6%, respectively, always used hearing protection. A total of 38.2% (1.9 million) of those with "very loud" occupational exposures never used hearing protection. Frequent (> 10/year) "loud" and "very loud" recreational noise exposures were reported by 13.9% and 21.1%, respectively, most commonly to lawn mowers (72.6% and 55.2%, respectively). When exposed to recreational "loud/very loud" noise, only 11.4% always used hearing protection, whereas 62.3% (6.3 million) never used any protection. Lifetime exposure to firearm noise was reported by 36.6% of adults, 11.5% of whom had used firearms in the prior 12 months. Of those, only 58.5% always used hearing protection, whereas 21.4% (7.4 million) never used hearing protection. Substantial noise exposures with potentially serious long-term hearing health consequences frequently are occurring in occupational and recreational settings, and with the use of firearms. Only a minority of those exposed consistently are using hearing protection. Healthcare providers should actively identify and encourage the use of hearing protection with those patients at risk. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:E340-E346, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  12. Noise Characterization and Performance of MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Chiang, Kwofu; Chen, Na; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a premier Earth-observing sensor of the early 21st century, flying onboard the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) spacecraft. Both instruments far exceeded their six-year design life and continue to operate satisfactorily for more than 15 and 13 years, respectively. The MODIS instrument is designed to make observations at nearly a 100% duty cycle covering the entire Earth in less than two days. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41micrometers to 14.4 micrometers, of which those wavelengths ranging from 3.7 micrometers to 14.4 micrometers cover the thermal infrared region which is interspaced in 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs). Each of the TEB contains ten detectors which record samples at a spatial resolution of 1 km. In order to ensure a high level of accuracy for the TEB-measured top-of-atmosphere radiances, an onboard blackbody (BB) is used as the calibration source. This paper reports the noise characterization and performance of the TEB on various counts. First, the stability of the onboard BB is evaluated to understand the effectiveness of the calibration source. Next, key noise metrics such as the noise equivalent temperature difference and the noise equivalent dn difference (NEdN) for the various TEBs are determined from multiple temperature sources. These sources include the nominally controlled BB temperature of 290 K for T-MODIS and 285 K for A-MODIS, as well as a BB warm up-cool down cycle that is performed over a temperature range from roughly 270 to 315 K. The space-view port that measures the background signal serves as a viable cold temperature source for measuring noise. In addition, a well characterized Earth-view target, the Dome Concordia site located in the Antarctic plateau, is used for characterizing the stability of the sensor, indirectly providing a measure of the NEdN. Based on this rigorous characterization, a list of the noisy and inoperable detectors for

  13. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel

  14. Using city-wide mobile noise assessments to estimate bicycle trip annual exposure to Black Carbon.

    PubMed

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during bicycle trips. Previously, the instantaneous BC exposure of cyclists was modeled as the sum of a background concentration and a local traffic related component based on a local assessment of traffic noise. We present a fast and low cost methodology to achieve a city-wide assessment of yearly average BC exposure of cyclists along their trips, based on a city-wide mobile noise sensing campaign. The methodology requires participatory sensing measurements of noise, partially combined with BC and/or other air pollutants sensitive to local traffic variations. The combined measurements cover the spatial and meteorological variability and provide the data for an instantaneous exposure model. The mobile noise-only measurements map the full city; and yearly meteorology statistics are used to extrapolate the instantaneous exposure model to a yearly average map of in-traffic air pollution exposure. Less than four passages at each segment along the network with mobile noise equipment are necessary to reach a standard error of 500 ng/m(3) for the yearly average BC exposure. A strong seasonal effect due to the BC background concentration is detected. The background contributes only 25% to the total trip exposure during spring and summer. During winter the background component increases to 50-60%. Engine related traffic noise along the bicyclist's route is a valid indicator of the BC exposure along the route, independent of the seasonal background. Low exposure route selection results in an exposure reduction of 35% in winter and 60% in summer, sensitive to the weather conditions, specific trip attributes and the available alternatives. The methodology is relevant for further research into the local effects of air pollution on health. Mobile noise mapping adds local traffic data including traffic dynamics into the air pollution exposure

  15. The Prevalence of Annoyance and Effects after Long-Term Exposure to Low-Frequency Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PERSSON WAYE, K.; RYLANDER, R.

    2001-02-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire and noise measurement survey was undertaken among 279 randomly chosen persons exposed to noise from heat pump/ventilation installations in their homes. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of annoyance, disturbance of rest and concentration and the presence of psycho-social and medical symptoms in relation to noise exposure. Of the sample, 108 persons were exposed to a noise classified as of a low-frequency character (low-frequency noise exposed). As controls were chosen 171 persons living in similar residential areas, but exposed to a noise classified as of a mid-frequency character. The results showed that the prevalence of annoyance and disturbed concentration and rest was significantly higher among the persons exposed to low-frequency noise as compared to controls. Annoyance was suggested to be related to the sound pressure levels of the dominant low frequencies. The dB (A) noise levels did not predict annoyance. No significant differences in medical or psycho-social symptoms were found between the low-frequency noise exposed persons and controls. Among persons reporting themselves to be “rather” or “very” annoyed by low-frequency noise due to the heat pump/ventilation installations, a higher extent of psycho-social symptoms, sleep disturbance and headaches was found.

  16. Association and moderation of self-reported hypotension with traffic noise exposure: a neglected relationship.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In a short-term experimental study about one-third of subjects exposed to noise shows both increases and decreases in blood pressure. While the association of noise with hypertension is established it is not yet known whether hypotension is associated with noise in field studies. In a cross-sectional study the association of self-reported hypotension and low blood pressure readings with traffic noise was examined in adults (age 25-65, N = 1989, participation = 62%). Noise exposure was based on both, short and long-term day/night recordings and standard noise mapping. Questionnaire data on socio-demographics, housing, life-style, noise and weather sensitivity, health status, mental and physical symptoms were available to adjust for potential confounding and testing for moderation. Non-linear multiple regression was applied to estimate the association between the two outcomes and overall noise exposure. We did not observe a stable relation between noise and low blood pressure readings since the number of subjects based on the recommended cut-off points (5 th percentile or 110 (100)/60 mmHg) was too small. However, self-reported hypotension was non-linearly associated with noise exposure ( P = 0.044) in the presence of a strong sex × age effect modification ( P < 0.0001). Another significant moderation by noise were observed with reported symptoms of exhaustion ( P = 0.03). Weather sensitivity showed a significant interaction with noise sensitivity ( P = 0.02) and also a non-linear interaction with age ( P = 0.02). The results remained stable after adjustment for variables known to be associated with constitutional hypotension. The exposure-effect curve ascends around sound levels of 55 dBA. The results suggest a novel moderated association of noise with self-reported hypotension, predominantly in weather sensitive women with symptoms of exhaustion. Further and larger studies are needed to replicate the potential moderating effect of noise on persons with

  17. 2Loud?: Community mapping of exposure to traffic noise with mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Leao, Simone; Ong, Kok-Leong; Krezel, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Despite ample medical evidence of the adverse impacts of traffic noise on health, most policies for traffic noise management are arbitrary or incomplete, resulting in serious social and economic impacts. Surprisingly, there is limited information about citizen's exposure to traffic noise worldwide. This paper presents the 2Loud? mobile phone application, developed and tested as a methodology to monitor, assess and map the level of exposure to traffic noise of citizens with focus on the night period and indoor locations, since sleep disturbance is one of the major triggers for ill health related to traffic noise. Based on a community participation experiment using the 2Loud? mobile phone application in a region close to freeways in Australia, the results of this research indicates a good level of accuracy for the noise monitoring by mobile phones and also demonstrates significant levels of indoor night exposure to traffic noise in the study area. The proposed methodology, through the data produced and the participatory process involved, can potentially assist in planning and management towards healthier urban environments.

  18. Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk for non-hodgkin lymphoma among adults.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Ketzel, Matthias; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Friis, Søren; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to traffic noise may result in stress and sleep disturbances, which have been associated with impairment of the immune system. People with weakened immune systems are known to have a higher risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to determine whether traffic noise was associated with risk for NHL in a nationwide case-control study. We identified 2753 cases aged 30-84 years with a primary diagnosis of NHL in Denmark between 1992 and 2010. For each case we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road traffic and railway noise were calculated, and airport noise was estimated for all present and historical residential addresses of cases and controls from 1987 to 2010. Associations between traffic noise and risk for NHL were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for disposable income, education, cohabiting status and comorbidity. We found that a 5-year time-weighted mean of road traffic noise above 65 dB was associated with an 18% higher risk for NHL (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.37) when compared to road traffic noise below 55 dB, whereas for exposure between 55 and 65 dB no association was found (odds ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.88-1.08). In analyzes of NHL subtypes, we found no association between road traffic noise and risk for T-cell lymphoma, whereas increased risks for B-cell lymphoma and unspecified lymphomas were observed at exposures above 65 dB. In conclusion, our nationwide study may indicate that high exposure to traffic noise is associated with higher NHL risk.

  19. The effect of exposure duration on the subjective discomfort of aircraft cabin noise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Jiang, Weikang

    2017-01-01

    The time dependency for subjective responses to noise has been a controversial question over many years. For durations of up to 10 min, the discomfort produced by three levels of noise (ie 60, 70 and 80 dBA) was investigated in this experimental study to determine the relation of discomfort to the time duration of noise. The rate of increase in discomfort with increasing duration was 1.5 dB per doubling of exposure duration, whereas it is currently assumed to be 3 dB per doubling of exposure duration. The sound dose level (SDL) was proposed to predict the discomfort caused by noise of long duration. The combination of SDL and vibration dose value (VDV) provided more consistent estimates of the equivalent comfort contours between noise and vibration over durations from 2 to 32 s than the combination of sound exposure level and VDV or that of sound pressure level and r.m.s. acceleration. Practitioner Summary: The discomfort produced by noise of long duration can be well predicted from a new definition of sound dose level, where the discomfort increases at 1.5 dB per doubling of exposure duration.

  20. Hearing threshold shifts and recovery after noise exposure in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Supin, Alexander Ya; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysuyeva, Evgenia V; Klishin, Vladimir O; Pletenko, Mikhail G; Tarakanov, Mikhail B

    2013-05-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) after loud noise exposure was investigated in a male and a female beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas). The thresholds were evaluated using the evoked-potential technique, which allowed for threshold tracing with a resolution of ~1 min. The fatiguing noise had a 0.5 octave bandwidth, with center frequencies ranging from 11.2 to 90 kHz, a level of 165 dB re. 1 μPa and exposure durations from 1 to 30 min. The effects of the noise were tested at probe frequencies ranging from -0.5 to +1.5 octaves relative to the noise center frequency. The effect was estimated in terms of both immediate (1.5 min) post-exposure TTS and recovery duration. The highest TTS with the longest recovery duration was produced by noises of lower frequencies (11.2 and 22.5 kHz) and appeared at a test frequency of +0.5 octave. At higher noise frequencies (45 and 90 kHz), the TTS decreased. The TTS effect gradually increased with prolonged exposures ranging from 1 to 30 min. There was a considerable TTS difference between the two subjects.

  1. A job-exposure matrix for occupational noise: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, Mattias; Lewné, Marie; Alderling, Magnus; Willix, Pernilla; Berg, Peter; Gustavsson, Per; Svartengren, Magnus

    2013-07-01

    To develop a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for occupational noise in Sweden and to estimate its validity. The JEM, developed by a group of experienced occupational hygienists, contains 321 job families with information regarding occupational noise from 1970 to 2004. The occupational noise information derives from measurements collected from different sources. The time period label has a 5-year scale starting in 1970. The estimated average 8h (TWA) noise level in decibel [dB(A)] for every 5-year period was coded either as <75 dB(A), 75-84 dB(A), or ≥85 dB(A) and the risk of peak level exposure assessed. The validity of the JEM is tested, using Svensson's non-parametric methods based on classification consensus, reached by a second group of occupational hygienists. Validation results show ~ 80% agreement and no systematic differences, in classification, between the two different groups of occupational hygienists, classifying the occupational noise exposure. However, classification of peak level exposure did show a systematic difference in relative position. The results will give more power to the JEM that it gives a good general estimate for the occupational noise levels in Sweden for different job families during 1970-2004. We, thus, intend to use it in further studies and also make it available to collaborators.

  2. Bioresponses in men after repeated exposures to single and simultaneous sinusoidal or stochastic whole body vibrations of varying bandwidths and noise.

    PubMed

    Manninen, O

    1986-01-01

    This study deals with the changes in temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), upright body posture sway amplitudes in the X and Y direction, heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse pressure (PP) and the index characterizing haemodynamic activity (HDI), when the subjects were exposed to noise alone, to vibrations alone or to simultaneous noise and vibrations. The experiments were carried out in an exposure chamber and the number of exposure combinations was 12. Seven healthy, male students volunteered as subjects, making a total number of 84 experiments. For each person the experiment consisted of a 30-min control period, five consecutive 16-min exposures, between which there was a 4-min measuring interval, and a 15-min recovery period. The noise was broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted (white) noise. The noise categories were: (1) no noise and (2) noise with an intensity of 90 dBA. The categories of low-frequency whole body vibration in the direction of the Z-axis were: (1) vibration within the range 4.4-5.6 Hz, (2) vibration within the range 2.8-5.6 Hz, (3) vibration within the range 2.8-11.2 Hz, (4) vibration within the range 1.4-11.2 Hz and (5) sinusoidal vibration with a frequency of 5 Hz. The (rms) acceleration in all the vibration models was 2.12 m/s2. The results showed that the TTS2 values at 4 and 6 kHz increased as a result of simultaneous exposure to noise and vibration significantly more than as a result of exposure to noise alone. The TTS2 values increased more intensely during the first 16-min exposure. The means of the variances in the amplitudes of body upright posture sway changed not only after exposures to vibration alone, but also after exposure to noise alone. The means of the sway variances in the X and Y directions at 0.1 Hz and within the range 0.06 to 2.00 Hz increased only when the vibration in the noise-vibration combination was sinusoidal. The changes in the heart rate, R

  3. [Investigation of occupational noise exposure and hearing loss in large automobile manufacturing enterprise during 2006-2010 in Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhou, Hao; Li, Yanhua; Xiao, Lvwu; Wu, Lin; Du, Weijia; Liu, Yimin

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hearing loss among workers in large automobile manufacturing enterprise during 2006-2010 in Guangzhou, China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The subjects were divided into noise exposure group and control group. Their hearing examination results and noise exposure levels in different workplaces were collected during 2006-2010, and the relationship between noise exposure in workplaces and hearing loss was analyzed. The incidence of hearing loss for the noise exposure group was 9.34%, versus 2.75% for the control group; the noise exposure group had a significantly higher risk of hearing loss than the control group (R = 3.378, 95%CI = 1.467∼ 9.083). The noise intensity and over-limit rate were significantly higher in the stamping, welding, and general assembly workshops than in other workshops. The risk of hearing loss significantly increased with years of noise exposure in 80, 85, and 90 dB (A) groups (χ(2) = 6.377, P = 0.041; χ(2) = 8.570, P = 0.014; χ(2) = 7.037, P = 0.030). The risk of hearing loss also increased with noise intensity in all working age groups (χ(2) = 5.068, P = 0.024; χ(2) = 71.497, P < 0.01; χ(2) = 24.226, P < 0.01). Noise exposure increases the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in workers. The incidence of hearing loss increases with the noise intensity in workplaces and years of noise exposure. The noise exposure level and incidence of hearing loss are higher in the stamping workshop than in other workshops. Controlling the noise intensity in automobile manufacturing enterprise may reduce the risk of hearing loss in workers.

  4. Residential Exposure to Road and Railway Noise and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Jensen, Steen S; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Few modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are known. Recently, disruption of the circadian system has been proposed to affect risk, as it entails an inhibited melatonin production, and melatonin has demonstrated beneficial effects on cancer inhibition. This suggests a potential role of traffic noise in prostate cancer. Road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all present and historical addresses from 1987-2010 for a cohort of 24,473 middle-aged, Danish men. During follow-up, 1,457 prostate cancer cases were identified. We used Cox Proportional Hazards Models to calculate the association between noise exposure and incident prostate cancer. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) were calculated as crude and adjusted for smoking status, education, socioeconomic position, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, calendar year, and traffic noise from other sources than the one investigated. There was no association between residential road traffic noise and risk of prostate cancer for any of the three exposure windows: 1, 5 or 10-year mean noise exposure before prostate cancer diagnosis. This result persisted when stratifying cases by aggressiveness. For railway noise, there was no association with overall prostate cancer. There was no statistically significant effect modification by age, education, smoking status, waist circumference or railway noise, on the association between road traffic noise and prostate cancer, although there seemed to be a suggestion of an association among never smokers (IRR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.36). The present study does not support an overall association between either railway or road traffic noise and overall prostate cancer.

  5. Residential Exposure to Road and Railway Noise and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Jensen, Steen S.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Few modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are known. Recently, disruption of the circadian system has been proposed to affect risk, as it entails an inhibited melatonin production, and melatonin has demonstrated beneficial effects on cancer inhibition. This suggests a potential role of traffic noise in prostate cancer. Methods Road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all present and historical addresses from 1987–2010 for a cohort of 24,473 middle-aged, Danish men. During follow-up, 1,457 prostate cancer cases were identified. We used Cox Proportional Hazards Models to calculate the association between noise exposure and incident prostate cancer. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) were calculated as crude and adjusted for smoking status, education, socioeconomic position, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, calendar year, and traffic noise from other sources than the one investigated. Results There was no association between residential road traffic noise and risk of prostate cancer for any of the three exposure windows: 1, 5 or 10-year mean noise exposure before prostate cancer diagnosis. This result persisted when stratifying cases by aggressiveness. For railway noise, there was no association with overall prostate cancer. There was no statistically significant effect modification by age, education, smoking status, waist circumference or railway noise, on the association between road traffic noise and prostate cancer, although there seemed to be a suggestion of an association among never smokers (IRR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00–1.36). Conclusion The present study does not support an overall association between either railway or road traffic noise and overall prostate cancer. PMID:26305219

  6. NoiseChem: an European Commission research project on the effects of exposure to noise and industrial chemicals on hearing and balance.

    PubMed

    Prasher, Deepak; Morata, Thais; Campo, Pierre; Fechter, Lawrence; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Lund, Soren Peter; Pawlas, Krystyna; Starck, Jukka; Sułkowski, Wiesław; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to multiple physical and chemical agents is common in occupational environments but workplace hazards and occupational safety criteria for combined exposures are lacking. NoiseChem is an European Commission research project examining the effects of exposure to noise and chemicals on hearing and balance. Partners in Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark, UK and Poland with expert guidance from partners in the USA will examine workers and study the mechanisms of action in animals to determine the levels of risk associated with joint exposure to noise and solvents. This paper briefly outlines the project details.

  7. Effects of Noise Exposure on the Auditory Function of Ovariectomized Rats with Estrogen Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xujun; Wang, Ying; Lau, Chi Chuen

    2016-12-01

    The benefits of estrogen for the auditory function of women depend on a number of factors. In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of noise trauma on the auditory function of ovariectomized rats with estrogen deficiency. Twenty-eight young, female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups (OVX+N, OVX-N, Sham+N). Rats in the OVX+N group and the OVX-N group underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX); the OVX+N group alone was also exposed to white noise (N) of 115 dB SPL for 8 hours a day over 14 days. The Sham+N group consisted of rats with intact ovaries that were exposed to the same noise. The auditory function of all rats was measured before treatment and after noise exposure by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and the threshold of auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR). The Sham+N group (intact ovaries, noise-exposed) had worse auditory function than the OVX-N group (ovariectomy, no noise). The OVX+N group had decreased SNRs of DPOAE and increased ABR thresholds relative to the Sham+N group. Noise exposure may cause greater damage to auditory function when estrogen levels are low in females.

  8. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: <72.6 dB(A), 72.6-77.0 dB(A), 77.1-85.2 dB(A), and >85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A). PMID:26356374

  9. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  10. Characterisation of cochlear inflammation in mice following acute and chronic noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Winston J T; Thorne, Peter R; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as the key mechanism of the cochlear damage underlying noise-induced hearing loss, however, emerging evidence suggests that cochlear inflammation may also be a major contributor. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the cochlear inflammatory response associated with acute and chronic noise exposure. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute traumatic noise (100 dBSPL, 8-16 kHz for 24 h) and their cochleae collected at various intervals thereafter, up to 7 days. Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, changes in expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), chemokines (CCL2) and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) were studied. All gene transcripts displayed similar dynamics of expression, with an early upregulation at 6 h post-exposure, followed by a second peak at 7 days. ICAM-1 immunoexpression increased significantly in the inferior region of the spiral ligament, peaking 24 h post-exposure. The early expression of proinflammatory mediators likely mediates the recruitment and extravasation of inflammatory cells into the noise-exposed cochlea. The occurrence of the latter expression peak is not clear, but it may be associated with reparative processes initiated in response to cochlear damage. Chronic exposure to moderate noise (90 dBSPL, 8-16 kHz, 2 h/day, up to 4 weeks) also elicited an inflammatory response, reaching a maximum after 2 weeks, suggesting that cochlear damage and hearing loss associated with chronic environmental noise exposure may be linked to inflammatory processes in the cochlea. This study thus provides further insight into the dynamics of the cochlear inflammatory response induced by exposure to acute and chronic noise.

  11. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Made Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements are made aboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2000). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Discussions related to hearing protection will also be included. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers aboard the ISS.

  12. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels.

    PubMed

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: <72.6 dB(A), 72.6-77.0 dB(A), 77.1-85.2 dB(A), and >85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).

  13. Echolocation behavior in big brown bats is not impaired after intense broadband noise exposures.

    PubMed

    Hom, Kelsey N; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Simmons, James A; Simmons, Andrea Megela

    2016-10-15

    Echolocating bats emit trains of intense ultrasonic biosonar pulses and listen to weaker echoes returning from objects in their environment. Identification and categorization of echoes are crucial for orientation and prey capture. Bats are social animals and often fly in groups in which they are exposed to their own emissions and to those from other bats, as well as to echoes from multiple surrounding objects. Sound pressure levels in these noisy conditions can exceed 110 dB, with no obvious deleterious effects on echolocation performance. Psychophysical experiments show that big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) do not experience temporary threshold shifts after exposure to intense broadband ultrasonic noise, but it is not known if they make fine-scale adjustments in their pulse emissions to compensate for any effects of the noise. We investigated whether big brown bats adapt the number, temporal patterning or relative amplitude of their emitted pulses while flying through an acoustically cluttered corridor after exposure to intense broadband noise (frequency range 10-100 kHz; sound exposure level 152 dB). Under these conditions, four bats made no significant changes in navigation errors or in pulse number, timing and amplitude 20 min, 24 h or 48 h after noise exposure. These data suggest that big brown bats remain able to perform difficult echolocation tasks after exposure to ecologically realistic levels of broadband noise.

  14. Construction and validation of questionnaire to assess recreational noise exposure in university students.

    PubMed

    Fuentes López, Eduardo A; Morales, Felipe Cardemil

    2014-01-01

    Recreational noise exposure and its impact on hearing is a problem to which increasing attention is being paid. In Spanish, it is necessary to have a reliable and valid instrument that is capable of describing the extent of noise exposure. The aim was to create and validate an instrument to determine listening habits and levels of recreational noise exposure in young people. We performed a transversal questionnaire validation study using university students. We assessed the validity of the content and appearance of the "Recreational Hearing Habits Questionnaire" (CHAR in Spanish) through experts' judgment. Then we piloted the administration of semantic adaptation with 30 students. Finally, the instrument was applied to 335 Chilean university students, obtaining with these indicators that demonstrated convergent validity of the construct, criterion and reliability. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, as well as correlation and agreement tests. It was confirmed that 14 questions in the questionnaire have a good item-test correlation, having also a factorial structure that indicates the existence of three-dimensions. The questionnaire has good internal consistency and convergent validity with the Noise Exposure Questionnaire. In addition, the score obtained in the CHAR is a predictor of the presence of notch at frequencies of 4 kHz in the right ear and 6 kHz in the left. The CHAR is useful for determining listening habits and thereby recreational noise exposure, indicating good psychometric properties.

  15. Assessing the Effect of Simultaneous Exposure to Noise and Cigarette Smoke on Workers' Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Farzane; Rafiei Manesh, Ehsan; Jarahi, Lida; Eghbali, Saba

    2016-11-01

    Noise, as the most common pollutant in the industrial environment, can lead to hearing loss and negatively affect other organs such as the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among some workers, and can also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure to noise and cigarette smoke on the blood pressure of workers at a manufacturing factory. This cross-sectional study enrolled 604 workers at a steel factory. Information relating to workers' demography, employment, and risk factors were recorded. Based on the level of smoking per day, workers exposed to noise fell into one of the four following groups: 1) Non-smokers exposed to noise <85 DB; 2) Smokers exposed to noise <85 DB; 3) Non-smokers exposed to noise ≥85 DB; 4) Smokers exposed to noise ≥85 DB. A t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were applied for analysis using SPSS v11.5. The prevalence of hypertension, cigarette smoking, and exposure to noise ≥85 DB was 11.6%, 15.3%, and 56.4%, respectively, among the workers. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 112.3 and 73.9 mmHg, respectively. A significant difference was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four groups (P=0.001). Posthoc test showed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.001). Regression analysis indicated no significant difference in workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. This study demonstrates that noise is an important factor in terms of hypertension, with no significant differences observed in the prevalence of hypertension between workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. It is suggested that workers' blood pressure should be regularly monitored in noisy environments.

  16. Assessing the Effect of Simultaneous Exposure to Noise and Cigarette Smoke on Workers’ Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Rahimpour, Farzane; Rafiei Manesh, Ehsan; Jarahi, Lida; Eghbali, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Noise, as the most common pollutant in the industrial environment, can lead to hearing loss and negatively affect other organs such as the cardiovascular system. Cigarette smoking is a popular habit among some workers, and can also have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous exposure to noise and cigarette smoke on the blood pressure of workers at a manufacturing factory. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 604 workers at a steel factory. Information relating to workers’ demography, employment, and risk factors were recorded. Based on the level of smoking per day, workers exposed to noise fell into one of the four following groups: 1) Non-smokers exposed to noise <85 DB; 2) Smokers exposed to noise <85 DB; 3) Non-smokers exposed to noise ≥85 DB; 4) Smokers exposed to noise ≥85 DB. A t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were applied for analysis using SPSS v11.5. Results: The prevalence of hypertension, cigarette smoking, and exposure to noise ≥85 DB was 11.6%, 15.3%, and 56.4%, respectively, among the workers. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were 112.3 and 73.9 mmHg, respectively. A significant difference was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in four groups (P=0.001). Posthoc test showed a significant difference between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.001). Regression analysis indicated no significant difference in workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that noise is an important factor in terms of hypertension, with no significant differences observed in the prevalence of hypertension between workers who were simultaneously exposed to noise and cigarette smoke. It is suggested that workers’ blood pressure should be regularly monitored in noisy environments. PMID:28008392

  17. Noise exposure during the first trimester and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that affects pregnant women. GDM tends to resolve after delivery, but has an impact on the health of the mother and her offspring. Considering the potential association between noise and diabetes and the susceptibility of the pregnant state to diabetogenesis, noise pollution may be associated with the risk of GDM; however, there is no evidence of the effect of noise pollution on GDM. In this study, we investigated the association between residential exposure to noise during the first trimester and incidence of GDM using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC), a representative sample of South Koreans. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claim data. Study population was a total of 18 165 pregnant women. GDM was defined as ICD-10 code O244, and noise exposure levels were categorized as daytime (07:00-19:00) and nighttime (23:00-7:00). Other known risk factors for GDM were age, income, residential area, physical activity, smoking, drinking, blood sugar levels, and body mass index before getting pregnant. The study population included 18 165 pregnant women, of which 8.8% developed gestational diabetes. After adjustment, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for GDM associated with 1 dB increase in nighttime noise was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.05-1.10). Compared with the reference group (Quartile 1), the adjusted ORs for GDM in those exposed to the highest quartile of noise exposure (Quartile 4) was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.38-1.87) at nighttime noise. However, no significant association was observed between daytime noise exposure (07:00-19:00) and the incidence of GDM. We observed that the odds of gestational diabetes during the first trimester was 1.6 times higher for pregnant women exposed to elevated nighttime noise compared to similar women exposed to normal baseline noise levels in South Korea. Although this finding

  18. Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure on 24-Hour Ambulatory Vascular Properties in Male Workers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Su, Ta-Chen; Lin, Shou-Yu; Jain, Ruei-Man; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that occupational noise exposure is associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism in vascular structural changes is unclear. Objective This panel study aimed to investigate effects of occupational noise exposure on ambulatory vascular structural properties in male workers. Methods We recruited 20 volunteers and divided them into a high-noise–exposure group of 15 and a low-noise–exposure group of 5 based on environmental noise measurement in an automobile manufacturing company. We determined individual noise exposure and measured personal ambulatory vascular property parameters simultaneously during 24 hr. Linear mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate transient and sustained effects of noise exposure on vascular parameters by adjusting some confounders collected from self-administrated questionnaires and health checkups. Results The high-noise–exposed (85 ± 8 dBA) workers had significantly higher systemic vascular resistance (SVR) than the low-noise–exposed workers (59 ± 4 dBA) during work and sleep periods. Contrarily, low-noise–exposed workers had significantly higher brachial artery compliance (BAC), brachial artery distensibility (BAD), and systemic vascular compliance (SVC; marginal, p = 0.07) than high-noise–exposed workers during off-duty periods. We also found that high-noise–exposed workers had significantly lower BAC (1.38 ± 0.55 %mL/mmHg) and BAD (1.29 ± 0.51 %/mmHg), as well as lower SVC (0.24 ± 0.10 mL/L/mmHg), but higher SVR (1.93 ± 0.67 mL/L/min) compared with low-noise–exposed workers over a 24-hr period. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in automobile workers, occupational noise exposure may have sustained, not transient, effects on vascular properties and also enhances the development of hypertension. PMID:18008000

  19. Exposure to industrial wideband noise increases connective tissue in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Guimarães, Laura; Pinto, Ana; Águas, Artur P

    2012-01-01

    Rats were daily exposed (eight hours/day) for a period of four weeks to the same high-intensity wideband noise that was recorded before in a large textile plant. Histologic observation of liver sections of the rats was used to perform quantitative comparison of hepatic connective tissue (dyed by Masson trichromic staining) between the noise-exposed and control animals. For that, we have photographed at random centrolobular areas of stained rat liver sections. We found that noise exposure resulted in significant enhancement in the area of collagen-rich connective tissue present in the centrolobular domain of the rat liver. Our data strengthen previous evidence showing that fibrotic transformation is a systemic effect of chronic exposure of rodents and humans to industrial wideband noise.

  20. Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on the Use of Outdoor Recreational Areas

    PubMed Central

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied. PMID:21139867

  1. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on the use of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines behavioural responses to changes in aircraft noise exposure in local outdoor recreational areas near airports. Results from a panel study conducted in conjunction with the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 are presented. One recreational area was studied at each airport site. The samples (n = 1,264/1,370) were telephone interviewed about their use of the area before and after the change. Results indicate that changed aircraft noise exposure may influence individual choices to use local outdoor recreational areas, suggesting that careful considerations are needed in the planning of air routes over local outdoor recreational areas. However, considerable stability in use, and also fluctuations in use unrelated to the changes in noise conditions were found. Future studies of noise impacts should examine a broader set of coping mechanisms, like intra- and temporal displacement. Also, the role of place attachment, and the substitutability of local areas should be studied.

  2. Automatic exposure control systems designed to maintain constant image noise: effects on computed tomography dose and noise relative to clinically accepted technique charts.

    PubMed

    Favazza, Christopher P; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-01-01

    To compare computed tomography dose and noise arising from use of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system designed to maintain constant image noise as patient size varies with clinically accepted technique charts and AEC systems designed to vary image noise. A model was developed to describe tube current modulation as a function of patient thickness. Relative dose and noise values were calculated as patient width varied for AEC settings designed to yield constant or variable noise levels and were compared to empirically derived values used by our clinical practice. Phantom experiments were performed in which tube current was measured as a function of thickness using a constant-noise-based AEC system and the results were compared with clinical technique charts. For 12-, 20-, 28-, 44-, and 50-cm patient widths, the requirement of constant noise across patient size yielded relative doses of 5%, 14%, 38%, 260%, and 549% and relative noises of 435%, 267%, 163%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, as compared with our clinically used technique chart settings at each respective width. Experimental measurements showed that a constant noise-based AEC system yielded 175% relative noise for a 30-cm phantom and 206% relative dose for a 40-cm phantom compared with our clinical technique chart. Automatic exposure control systems that prescribe constant noise as patient size varies can yield excessive noise in small patients and excessive dose in obese patients compared with clinically accepted technique charts. Use of noise-level technique charts and tube current limits can mitigate these effects.

  3. Bayesian flaw characterization from eddy current measurements with grain noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Aldrin, John C.; Shell, Eric; Oneida, Erin

    2017-02-01

    The Bayesian approach to inference from measurement data has the potential to provide highly reliable characterizations of flaw geometry by quantifying the confidence in the estimate results. The accuracy of these confidence estimates depends on the accuracy of the model for the measurement error. Eddy current measurements of electrically anisotropic metals, such as titanium, exhibit a phenomenon called grain noise in which the measurement error is spatially correlated even with no flaw present. We show that the most commonly used statistical model for the measurement error, which fails to account for this correlation, results in overconfidence in the flaw geometry estimates from eddy current data, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the Bayesian approach. We then describe a method of modeling the grain noise as a Gaussian process (GP) using spectral mixture kernels, a type of non-parametric model for the covariance kernel of a GP This provides a broadly applicable, data-driven way of modeling correlation in measurement error. Our results show that incorporation of this noise model results in a more reliable estimate of the flaw and better agreement with the available validation data.

  4. Measurement and Characterization of Helicopter Noise at Different Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Stephenson, James

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a flight test campaign performed at different test sites whose altitudes ranged from 0 to 7000 feet above mean sea level (AMSL) between September 2014 and February 2015. The purposes of this campaign were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. In addition to describing the test campaign, results of the acoustic effects of altitude variation for the AS350 SD1 and EH-60L aircraft are presented. Large changes in acoustic amplitudes were observed in response to changes in ambient conditions when the helicopter was flown at constant indicated airspeed and gross weight at the three test sites. However, acoustic amplitudes were found to scale with ambient pressure when flight conditions were defined in terms of the non-dimensional parameters, such as the weight coefficient and effective hover tip Mach number.

  5. The effects of extended exposure to traffic noise on parid social and risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jessica L; Stec, Courtney L; O'Hatnick, Amy

    2012-09-01

    Traffic noise is a prevalent and yet poorly understood anthropogenic disturbance associated with reduced avian diversity, population densities and pairing and mating success. How these systems are affected is not clear as a direct experimental link between noise and behavior underlying these patterns is missing. Here we provide the first empirical evidence of the effects of long-term exposure to simulated traffic noise on social and risk-taking behavior of Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor). In testing for these effects we compare two hypotheses regarding the effects of noise on behavior. We found that noise increases sociality by reducing nearest neighbor distances and increasing the number of close-perches within study flocks. These behavioral responses mimic those of species in high-risk situations, such as birds in the presence of a predator. These results provide support for the 'Increased Threat Hypothesis,' which argues that chronic traffic noise affects behavior by increasing the perceived level of threat. Although the adaptive value or function of these responses to noise is unknown, they may serve to mitigate any negative effects of traffic noise. If true, species lacking behavioral plasticity may be more susceptible to effects of traffic noise and other similar acoustic disturbances.

  6. Effects of N-Acetylcysteine on Thresholds and Otoacoustic Emissions Following Noise Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    wearing ear plugs, muffs, etc.. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of one antioxidant, N- acetylcysteine ( NAC ), on temporary cochlear changes...EFFECTS OF N- ACETYLCYSTEINE ON THRESHOLDS AND OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS FOLLOWING NOISE EXPOSURE Barbara Acker-Mills, Ph.D*., CPT Martin Robinette...in humans by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Two levels of supplement (900 mg of NAC or placebo) and two levels of noise (60 dB

  7. Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Incident Diabetes: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Zorana J.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Becker, Thomas; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Background: Road traffic noise at normal urban levels can lead to stress and sleep disturbances. Both excess of stress hormones and reduction in sleep quality and duration may lead to higher risk for type 2 diabetes. Objective: We investigated whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Methods: In the population-based Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 57,053 people 50–64 years of age at enrollment in 1993–1997, we identified 3,869 cases of incident diabetes in a national diabetes registry between enrollment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.6 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1988 through 2006 were identified using a national register, and exposure to road traffic noise was estimated for all addresses. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes were analyzed in a Cox regression model. Results: A 10-dB higher level of average road traffic noise at diagnosis and during the 5 years preceding diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes, with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.14) and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.18), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, body mass index, waist circumference, education, air pollution (nitrogen oxides), and lifestyle characteristics. After applying a stricter definition of diabetes (2,752 cases), we found IRRs of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.19) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.22) per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at diagnosis and during the 5 years preceding diagnosis, respectively. Conclusion: Exposure to residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of diabetes. This study provides further evidence that urban noise may adversely influence population health. PMID:23229017

  8. Exposure to aircraft noise and risk of psychiatric disorders: the Elmas survey--aircraft noise and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Marci, Anna Rita; Carbone, Fiora; Cadeddu, Mariangela; Kovess, Viviane; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2005-01-01

    Evidence that high levels of aircraft noise lead to psychiatric disorders in the community is contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of mental disorders in a sample living in the immediate surroundings of an airport compared with those from a sample of residents from the same region who had not been exposed to the risk of aircraft noise. Exposed subjects were residents in Giliaquas in the vicinity of Elmas airport (Sardinia, Italy). The control sample was drawn from a database of a large community survey, after matching for sex, age and employment status. All subjects were interviewed using a simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Exposed subjects showed a higher frequency of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Anxiety Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). Previous studies generally suggested that high levels of environmental noise are associated with subsyndromal states (psychiatric symptoms) more than with specific syndromes. The present study shows an increased risk for long-lasting syndromal anxiety states (Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Anxiety Disorder NOS), thus supporting the hypothesis of a sustained central autonomic arousal due to chronic exposure to noise.

  9. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  10. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  11. Validation of Aircraft Noise Prediction Models at Low Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled noise levels to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated Noise Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure levels for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted levels are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.

  12. Intermittency ratio: A metric reflecting short-term temporal variations of transportation noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wunderli, Jean Marc; Pieren, Reto; Habermacher, Manuel; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin; Brink, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Most environmental epidemiology studies model health effects of noise by regressing on acoustic exposure metrics that are based on the concept of average energetic dose over longer time periods (i.e. the Leq and related measures). Regarding noise effects on health and wellbeing, average measures often cannot satisfactorily predict annoyance and somatic health effects of noise, particularly sleep disturbances. It has been hypothesized that effects of noise can be better explained when also considering the variation of the level over time and the frequency distribution of event-related acoustic measures, such as for example, the maximum sound pressure level. However, it is unclear how this is best parametrized in a metric that is not correlated with the Leq, but takes into account the frequency distribution of events and their emergence from background. In this paper, a calculation method is presented that produces a metric which reflects the intermittency of road, rail and aircraft noise exposure situations. The metric termed intermittency ratio (IR) expresses the proportion of the acoustical energy contribution in the total energetic dose that is created by individual noise events above a certain threshold. To calculate the metric, it is shown how to estimate the distribution of maximum pass-by levels from information on geometry (distance and angle), traffic flow (number and speed) and single-event pass-by levels per vehicle category. On the basis of noise maps that simultaneously visualize Leq, as well as IR, the differences of both metrics are discussed. PMID:26350982

  13. Noise exposure and hearing conservation for farmers of rural Japanese communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakita, Takashi; Ueda, Atsushi; Futatsuka, Makoto; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Nagano, Megumi; Koyama, Wasaku

    2004-10-01

    Agricultural mechanization in Japan has progressed dramatically since 1955 with the introduction of tractors, harvesters, and processing machines. These technological developments have resulted in an increase in exposure to sources of noise that are not only annoying, but damaging to hearing. The present study was undertaken to determine, whether Japanese farmers are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss in comparison with office workers, and by evaluating the present conditions regarding occupational noise levels among agricultural workers. The results suggest that farmers, especially male farmers, have a high prevalence of hearing loss in the higher frequency ranges. Daily noise exposure levels in L ranged from 81.5 to 99.1 dBA for tea harvesting and processing, and from 83.2 to 97.6 for sugar cane harvesting. Taking into account their rather long working hours and excessive noise from farm machinery, it is concluded that farmers are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss. These findings clearly indicate a strong need for implementation of hearing conservation programs among agricultural workers exposed to machinery noise.

  14. Geostatistic applied to seismic noise measurements for hydrothermal basin characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Trevisani, Sebastiano; Agostini, Laura; Galgaro, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    We present a geo-statistical analysis applied to seismic noise measurements in the framework of a thermal basin characterization. The site test is located in the N-E part of Italy (Caldiero, Verona Province) where more than 100 passive single station seismic noise measurements were conducted. The final aim was the characterization of an important hydrothermal basin, which is exploited since the Roman Period. The huge amount of measurements offers high density cover, since the measurements point has average spacing of 100 m for a total area investigated of ca 100ha. The HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio) is a geophysical passive technique used to retrieve fundamental resonance frequency of the subsoil. The measurement consists in passive recording of seismic noise with 3 components broadband receivers. From the spectral analysis of the recorded data, we can retrieve the resonance frequency of soil and hence information about depth and mechanical properties of soil covers. Since HVSR is a punctual measurement, 2d map of the results are usually extracted with interpolation procedure, as common kriging or natural neighbor techniques. Despite this accurate statistical procedure are rarely adopted for HVSR analysis, limiting the real significance of the dataset. As a matter of fact, rigorous statistical approach of the spatial distribution is neglected in common HVSR geophysical prospecting. Here we present the use of advanced spatial-statistic technique (e.g. cross-validation, residual distribution etc.) applied to HVSR data. Our results show as critic data scrubbing, joined to rigorous statistical approach for data interpolation, are mandatory to assure meaningful structural interpretation of microtremor HVSR survey. The maps obtained are compared with boreholes data, reflection seismic prospecting, and geological information. The proposed procedure highlighted the potential of these quick passive measurements, if correctly treated from the statistical point

  15. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandre Scalli Mathias; Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Pinheiro, Laiza Araujo Mohana; Costa, Everardo Andrade da; Gusmão, Reinaldo Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints. This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests. The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean=39.6), and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean=17.3). We found that 15.1% (55) of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140) had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192) had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172) had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000Hz bilaterally. There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  17. Occupational exposure to noise from authorized emergency vehicle sirens.

    PubMed

    Górski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Warning signals generated by sirens of authorized emergency vehicles should be audible and recognizable to all road users. Currently, there is no legislation in Poland defining sound pressure levels (SPLs) of audible warning signals generated by sirens of authorized emergency vehicles. Measured A-weighted SPLs of those signals range between 104 and 108 dB. While for road users, an audible warning signal is a source of important information and its A-weighted SPL is acceptable, it may be a source of annoying noise to an emergency vehicle crew. That is why, it is necessary to find a method of improving the acoustic comfort of the crew and, at the same time, maintaining the informational function of audible warning signals.

  18. Acute effects of noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Hsieh, Hsiu-Hui; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Wang, Ven-Shing; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2015-03-01

    Noise exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure, but the effects on susceptible workers have not been reported. This repeated-measure study investigated the effects of noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure among hypertensive, pre-hypertensive, and normotensive adults. We enrolled 113 volunteers in an occupational cohort in 2009. Individual noise exposure and personal blood pressure were measured simultaneously over 24 h on working and non-working days. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate the effects on SBP and DBP by controlling for potential confounders. Each A-weighted decibel (dBA) increase in a 30-min time-lagged exposure was associated with transient elevations of work-time SBP [0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.06, 0.54) mmHg] on working days as well as sleep-time SBP [0.39 (0.12, 0.66) mmHg] and DBP [0.33 (0.14, 0.51) mmHg] on non-working days among 19 hypertensive adults. In contrast, 46 normotensive workers had transient increases in work-time SBP [0.16 (0.03, 0.29) mmHg] and DBP [0.25 (0.15, 0.34) mmHg] on working days as well as sleep-time SBP [0.17 (0.06, 0.29) mmHg] and DBP [0.21 (0.14, 0.29) mmHg] on non-working days caused by a 1-dBA increase in the current exposure. All groups had sustained increases in 24-h average ambulatory SBP and DBP induced by noise exposure on 2 days, but the hypertensive workers had the most pronounced increase in SBP. Hypertensive adults are more susceptible to noise exposure with a greater effect on ambulatory SBP. These results suggest a need for more protection for this subpopulation.

  19. Use of hearing protection and perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Kerr, M J; Kauffman, S A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe construction workers' use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) and determine their perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss. Operating engineers, carpenters, and plumbers/pipe fitters in the Midwest (n = 400) completed a written questionnaire regarding their use of HPDs and their perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss. Subjects were recruited through their trade union groups. Mean reported use of HPDs and mean perceived noise exposure were compared across trade groups. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were used to assess relationships between use of HPDs and trade category, education, age, years of employment, noise exposure, and hearing loss. Bivariate analyses identified significant differences in mean use of HPDs by age, years of employment, and trade group. Multivariate logistic regression assessing the independent effects of these variables found significant differences only by trade group. Results indicate a need for significant improvement in all three trade groups' use of HPDs, and suggest a need to consider use and exposure levels, demographics, and trade group membership in designing hearing conservation programs.

  20. CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A REVIEW OF FACTORS INFLUENCING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE AND THE DATA AVAILABLE TO CHARACTERIZE AND ASSESS THAT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We review the factors influencing children's exposure to environmental contaminants and the data available to characterize and assess that exposure. Children's activity pattern data requirements are demonstrated in the context of the algorithms used to estimate exposure by inha...

  1. A Preliminary Analysis of Noise Exposure and Medical Outcomes for Department of Defense Military Musicians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cindy; Beamer, Sharon; Hall, Shane; Helfer, Thomas; Kluchinsky, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure is a known occupational health hazard to those serving in the military. Previous military epidemiology studies have identified military occupations at risk of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL); however, musicians have not been specifically mentioned. The focus of military NIHL studies is usually on those service members of the combat arms occupations. This project was a preliminary examination of Department of Defense (DoD) active duty military musicians in regard to their noise exposure, annual hearing test rates, and hearing injury rates using available data sources. The analysis concluded that DoD military musicians are an underserved population in terms of hearing conservation efforts. Noise surveillance data extracted from the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System-Industrial Hygiene showed that every musician similar exposure group (SEG) with noise survey data from 2009 to 2013 exceeded the occupation exposure level adopted by DoD Instruction 6055.12. However, only a small percentage of all DoD active duty military musicians (5.5% in the peak year of 2012) were assigned to a SEG that was actually surveyed. Hearing test data based on Current Procedural Terminology coding extracted from the Military Health System revealed that the percentage of musicians with annual hearing tests increased over the 5 years studied in all services except the Air Force. During 2013, the data showed that the Navy had the highest percentage of musicians with annual hearing tests at 70.9%, and the Air Force had the lowest at 11.4%. The Air Force had the highest percentage of hearing injuries of those musicians with annual hearing tests for all 5 years analyzed. Although noise surveillance and annual hearing tests are being conducted, they occur at a much lower rate than required for a population that is known to be overexposed to noise.

  2. Hearing loss associated with smoking and occupational noise exposure in a Japanese metal working company.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kyoko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Yano, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    The effects of smoking on hearing loss within the context of atherosclerosis was assessed, and the statistical interaction of occupational noise evaluated. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 397 Japanese males working at a metal factory, aged 21-66 years, in a periodical health checkup. The following information was obtained: two smoking indices of smoking status and Brinkman index, occupational noise exposures and atherosclerotic risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, atherosclerosis index). Hearing acuity was measured at 4 kHz using a pure-tone audiometer in a quiet room. Among the total subjects, 55 (13.9%) were identified as having hearing loss at 4 kHz, and 151 (38.0%) were currently exposed to occupational noise. When adjusted for age and occupational noise exposure, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hearing loss were 3.16 (1.04, 9.62) for past smokers and 3.39 (1.05, 11.01) for heavy smokers (Brinkman index >750 cigarettes per day x number of years), compared with never-smokers. Statistical interaction of occupational noise exposure was insignificant with the association between smoking and hearing loss. When including atherosclerotic risk factors in a multiple model, there were no significant associations between hearing loss and either smoking or any other factors (i.e., occupational noise and atherosclerotic factors). Smoking was found to be associated with hearing loss beyond occupational noise exposure, and this association seemed to be masked by atherosclerotic factors, suggesting that the direction of the atherosclerotic effect on the relationship might need to be explored between smoking and hearing impairment.

  3. Field evaluation of measuring indoor noise exposure in workplace with task-based active RFID technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Chuan; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Wang, Te-Shun; Wang, Peng-Yau

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the research using RFEMS (Radio Frequency Identification Exposure Monitoring System), which is designed by applying the task-based active RFID (radio frequency identification) technology, to measure the indoor noise exposure dose in a workplace. The RFEMS and sound level meter are mounted on the vests of eight workers to carry out on-site field test by monitoring the time activity pattern (TAP), and the noise dose level exposed by the workers. The data are recorded and instantaneously transmitted to a computer to be saved in the server and later compared to those obtained using the standard method. The results that have a 0.909 correlation coefficient (R(2)), and 1.64% average measure error confirm the accuracy of using RFEMS for monitoring TAP. Additionally, the combined use of RFEMS and sound level meter leads to the development of a semi noise dosimetry (SND), a real-time electronic indirect noise dosimetry (REIND), and an equivalent electronic recording indirect noise dosimetry (EEIND). The results obtained using these three devices are well correlated with the results monitored by using a PND (personal noise dosimetry) with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.915, 0.779 and 0.873, respectively. The errors of noise dose expressed in TWA (time weight average) for these three methods are 0.81, 1.57 and 1.23 dBA, respectively; they are well within the general errors of the average dosimetries. These observations indicate that the RFEMS developed in this research is applicable for conducting task-based measurements of indoor noise. It uses a relatively inexpensive sound level meter to measure the noise exposure doses that are comparable to those obtained with a standard dosimetry in addition to monitoring the worker's time activity pattern. The findings will assist in studying the source of long-term noise exposed by workers, and hence this devise is a valuable tool for tracing and monitoring long-term noise exposure with reduced manpower

  4. Occupational exposure in small and medium scale industry with specific reference to heat and noise.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess heat and noise exposure and occupational safety practices in small and medium scale casting and forging units (SMEs) of Northern India. We conducted personal interviews of 350 male workers of these units through a comprehensive questionnaire and collected information on heat and noise exposure, use of protective equipment, sweat loss and water intake, working hour. The ambient wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT index) was measured using quest temp 34/36o area heat stress monitor. A-weighted Leq ambient noise was measured using a quest sound level meter "ANSI SI. 43-1997 (R 2002) type-1 model SOUNDPRO SE/DL". We also incorporated OSHA norms for hearing conservation which include - an exchange rate of 5dB(A), criterion level at 90dB(A), criterion time of eight hours, threshold level is equal to 80dB(A), upper limit is equal to 140dB(A) and with F/S response rate. Results of the study revealed that occupational heat exposure in melting, casting, forging and punching sections is high compared to ACGIH/NIOSH norms. Ambience noise in various sections like casting / molding, drop forging, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barreling process was found to be more than 90dB(A). About 95% of the workers suffered speech interference where as high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Overall, 68% workers were not using any personal protective equipment (PPE). The study concluded that the proportion of SME workers exposed to high level heat stress and noise (60 - 72 hrs/week) is high. The workers engaged in forging and grinding sections are more prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies as compared to workers of other sections. It is recommended that there is a strong need to implement the standard of working hours as well as heat stress and noise control measures.

  5. Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, K K; Bedi, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Occupational noise has been recognized as hazardous for the human beings. A high noise level in forging shops is considered to lower the labour productivity and cause illness however occupational noise is being accepted as an integral part of the job. The present study has been carried out in 5 small scale hand tool forging units (SSI) of different sizes in Northern India in Punjab. Noise levels at various sections were measured. OSHA norms for hearing conservation has been incorporated which includes an exchange rate of 5 dB (A), criterion level at 90 dB (A), criterion time of 8 h, threshold level=80 dB (A), upper limit=140 dB (A) and with F/S response rate. Equivalent sound pressure level (L(eq)) has been measured in various sections of these plants. Noise at various sections like hammer section, cutting presses, punching, grinding and barrelling process was found to be >90 dB (A), which is greater than OSHA norms. A cross-sectional study on the basis of questionnaire has been carried out. The results of which revealed that 68% of the workers are not wearing ear protective equipments out of these 50% were not provided with PPE by the company. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference though high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. It has been established that the maximum noise exposure is being taken by the workers as they are working more than 8h a day for six days per week. More than 90% workers are working 12 to 24 h over time per week which lead to very high noise exposure i.e. 50 to 80% per week higher than exposure time/week in USA or European countries(15, 16)).

  6. Continuous exposure to low-frequency noise and carbon disulfide: Combined effects on hearing.

    PubMed

    Venet, Thomas; Carreres-Pons, Maria; Chalansonnet, Monique; Thomas, Aurélie; Merlen, Lise; Nunge, Hervé; Bonfanti, Elodie; Cosnier, Frédéric; Llorens, Jordi; Campo, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is used in industry; it has been shown to have neurotoxic effects, causing central and distal axonopathies.However, it is not considered cochleotoxic as it does not affect hair cells in the organ of Corti, and the only auditory effects reported in the literature were confined to the low-frequency region. No reports on the effects of combined exposure to low-frequency noise and CS2 have been published to date. This article focuses on the effects on rat hearing of combined exposure to noise with increasing concentrations of CS2 (0, 63,250, and 500ppm, 6h per day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks). The noise used was a low-frequency noise ranging from 0.5 to 2kHz at an intensity of 106dB SPL. Auditory function was tested using distortion product oto-acoustic emissions, which mainly reflects the cochlear performances. Exposure to noise alone caused an auditory deficit in a frequency area ranging from 3.6 to 6 kHz. The damaged area was approximately one octave (6kHz) above the highest frequency of the exposure noise (2.8kHz); it was a little wider than expected based on the noise spectrum.Consequently, since maximum hearing sensitivity is located around 8kHz in rats, low-frequency noise exposure can affect the cochlear regions detecting mid-range frequencies. Co-exposure to CS2 (250-ppm and over) and noise increased the extent of the damaged frequency window since a significant auditory deficit was measured at 9.6kHz in these conditions.Moreover, the significance at 9.6kHz increased with the solvent concentrations. Histological data showed that neither hair cells nor ganglion cells were damaged by CS2. This discrepancy between functional and histological data is discussed. Like most aromatic solvents, carbon disulfide should be considered as a key parameter in hearing conservation régulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of a Circadian Clock in the Inferior Colliculus and Its Dysregulation by Noise Exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Sub; Cederroth, Christopher R; Basinou, Vasiliki; Meltser, Inna; Lundkvist, Gabriella; Canlon, Barbara

    2016-05-18

    Circadian rhythms regulate bodily functions within 24 h and long-term disruptions in these rhythms can cause various diseases. Recently, the peripheral auditory organ, the cochlea, has been shown to contain a self-sustained circadian clock that regulates differential sensitivity to noise exposure throughout the day. Animals exposed to noise during the night are more vulnerable than when exposed during the day. However, whether other structures throughout the auditory pathway also possess a circadian clock remains unknown. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), which plays an important role in noise-induced pathologies such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizures. Using PER2::LUC transgenic mice and real-time bioluminescence recordings, we revealed circadian oscillations of Period 2 protein in IC explants for up to 1 week. Clock genes (Cry1, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Dbp) displayed circadian molecular oscillations in the IC. Averaged expression levels of early-induced genes and clock genes during 24 h revealed differential responses to day or night noise exposure. Rev-erbα and Dbp genes were affected only by day noise exposure, whereas Per1 and Per2 were affected only by night noise exposure. However, the expression of Bdnf was affected by both day and night noise exposure, suggesting that plastic changes are unlikely to be involved in the differences in day or night noise sensitivity in the IC. These novel findings highlight the importance of circadian responses in the IC and emphasize the importance of circadian mechanisms for understanding central auditory function and disorders. Recent findings identified the presence of a circadian clock in the inner ear. Here, we present novel findings that neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), a central auditory relay structure involved in sound processing, express a circadian clock as evidenced at both the mRNA and protein levels. Using a reporter mouse that expresses a luciferase protein

  8. Identification of a Circadian Clock in the Inferior Colliculus and Its Dysregulation by Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-sub; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Basinou, Vasiliki; Meltser, Inna; Lundkvist, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms regulate bodily functions within 24 h and long-term disruptions in these rhythms can cause various diseases. Recently, the peripheral auditory organ, the cochlea, has been shown to contain a self-sustained circadian clock that regulates differential sensitivity to noise exposure throughout the day. Animals exposed to noise during the night are more vulnerable than when exposed during the day. However, whether other structures throughout the auditory pathway also possess a circadian clock remains unknown. Here, we focus on the inferior colliculus (IC), which plays an important role in noise-induced pathologies such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizures. Using PER2::LUC transgenic mice and real-time bioluminescence recordings, we revealed circadian oscillations of Period 2 protein in IC explants for up to 1 week. Clock genes (Cry1, Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erbα, and Dbp) displayed circadian molecular oscillations in the IC. Averaged expression levels of early-induced genes and clock genes during 24 h revealed differential responses to day or night noise exposure. Rev-erbα and Dbp genes were affected only by day noise exposure, whereas Per1 and Per2 were affected only by night noise exposure. However, the expression of Bdnf was affected by both day and night noise exposure, suggesting that plastic changes are unlikely to be involved in the differences in day or night noise sensitivity in the IC. These novel findings highlight the importance of circadian responses in the IC and emphasize the importance of circadian mechanisms for understanding central auditory function and disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent findings identified the presence of a circadian clock in the inner ear. Here, we present novel findings that neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), a central auditory relay structure involved in sound processing, express a circadian clock as evidenced at both the mRNA and protein levels. Using a reporter mouse that expresses a

  9. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children’s Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)’s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children’s sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children’s parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children’s sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels. PMID:28481249

  10. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children's Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems.

    PubMed

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-05-06

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)'s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children's sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children's parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children's sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels.

  11. Noise-induced hair-cell loss and total exposure energy: Analysis of a large data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Gary W.; Bohne, Barbara A.

    2004-05-01

    The relation between total noise-exposure energy, recovery time, or rest during the exposure and amount of hair-cell loss was examined in 416 chinchillas. The exposures were octave bands of noise (OBN) with a center frequency of either 4 kHz at 47-108 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 0.5 h to 36 d, or 0.5 kHz at 65-128 dB SPL for 3.5 h to 432 d. Recovery times varied from 0 to 365 d. With both OBNs, some animals were exposed on interrupted schedules. Hair-cell loss as a function of age in nonexposed animals (N=117) was used to correct for sensory-cell loss due to aging. For both OBNs, the ears (N=607) were separated into three subsets to characterize the primary hair-cell loss from noise and the secondary post-exposure loss and to determine if rest during the exposure decreased loss. Cluster and regression analyses were performed on data from the basal and apical halves of the cochlea to determine the specific rates for these three factors. It was found that: (1) when the OBN was above a critical level, there was no relation between total energy and hair-cell loss; (2) below a critical level, there were highly significant log-linear relations between total energy and hair-cell loss, but not at rates predicted by the equal-energy hypothesis; (3) rest periods during either OBN exposure reduced hair-cell loss; more so for the 4 kHz OBN than the 0.5 kHz OBN; (4) except for the highest exposure levels, the majority of outer hair cell loss from the 4 kHz OBN occurred after the exposure had terminated, while that from the 0.5 kHz OBN occurred during the exposure; and (5) a majority of the inner hair cell loss from both OBNs occurred post-exposure.

  12. Things That Go Boom!: Noise and Toxic Exposures Associated with Weapon Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Booz Allen Hamilton,Stafford...use or in disposal. • Don’t always know what you’re carrying/ working with/cleaning up (militarized Agent Orange defoliant with unintended dioxins...exposures. • Work , home, recreation? • Mishaps? 19 Exposure during howitzer use (noise and combustion products). Photo: US Army 20 120mm mortar testing at

  13. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  14. Aging after noise exposure: acceleration of cochlear synaptopathy in "recovered" ears.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Katharine A; Jeffers, Penelope W C; Lall, Kumud; Liberman, M Charles; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2015-05-13

    Cochlear synaptic loss, rather than hair cell death, is the earliest sign of damage in both noise- and age-related hearing impairment (Kujawa and Liberman, 2009; Sergeyenko et al., 2013). Here, we compare cochlear aging after two types of noise exposure: one producing permanent synaptic damage without hair cell loss and another producing neither synaptopathy nor hair cell loss. Adult mice were exposed (8-16 kHz, 100 or 91 dB SPL for 2 h) and then evaluated from 1 h to ∼ 20 months after exposure. Cochlear function was assessed via distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Cochlear whole mounts and plastic sections were studied to quantify hair cells, cochlear neurons, and the synapses connecting them. The synaptopathic noise (100 dB) caused 35-50 dB threshold shifts at 24 h. By 2 weeks, thresholds had recovered, but synaptic counts and ABR amplitudes at high frequencies were reduced by up to ∼ 45%. As exposed animals aged, synaptopathy was exacerbated compared with controls and spread to lower frequencies. Proportional ganglion cell losses followed. Threshold shifts first appeared >1 year after exposure and, by ∼ 20 months, were up to 18 dB greater in the synaptopathic noise group. Outer hair cell losses were exacerbated in the same time frame (∼ 10% at 32 kHz). In contrast, the 91 dB exposure, producing transient threshold shift without acute synaptopathy, showed no acceleration of synaptic loss or cochlear dysfunction as animals aged, at least to ∼ 1 year after exposure. Therefore, interactions between noise and aging may require an acute synaptopathy, but a single synaptopathic exposure can accelerate cochlear aging. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357509-12$15.00/0.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus and exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic noise: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Zhang, Cuilin; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-09-08

    Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. We modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road traffic (Lden) exposure at all pregnancy addresses. According to the two diagnostic criteria: the Danish clinical guidelines, which was our main outcome, and the WHO standard during recruitment period, a total of 565 and 210 women, respectively, had GDM. For both exposures no risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. A 10-μg/m(3) increase in NO2 exposure during first trimester was, however, associated with an increased risk of WHO-GDM (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49). The corresponding OR associated with a 10-dB higher road traffic noise level was 1.15 (0.94 to 1.18). In mutually adjusted models the OR for NO2 remained similar 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) whereas that for road traffic noise decreased to 1.03 (0.80, 1.32). Significant associations were also observed for exposure averaged over the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and the full pregnancy. No risk was evident for the common Danish criterion of GDM. NO2 was associated with higher risk for GDM according to the WHO criterion, which might be due to selection bias. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Exposure smart hearing protector for reducing noise-induced hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Ed; Frank, Tom

    2003-10-01

    The Exposure Smart Hearing Protector (ESHP) is a new device that can be used for measuring noise exposure levels (NELs) and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). The ESHP consists of two microphones, located in a right and left earplug, that are connected to a dosimeter. In practice, the user wears the ESHP. When the noise level exceeds a safe dose a warning light comes on. The user then inserts the earplugs. If the earplugs are correctly inserted and the noise level in the user's earcanal is below a safe level the warning lights go off. As a result, the ESHP measures the user's total daily noise exposure (unprotected and protected). To increase the efficiency of using the ESHP for preventing NIHL, the user downloads the information stored in the ESHP via a scanner into user friendly-software. The software can be used not only to record a user's daily NELs, but more importantly to determine if the user needs intervention because the NELs exceed a safe level. The purpose of this poster session is to demonstrate the ESHP and software, and to report the results of a pilot study. [Work supported by NIOSH/CDC Grant No. U60/CCU 315855.

  18. Occupational noise exposure and hearing loss characteristics of a blue-collar population

    SciTech Connect

    Helmkamp, J.C.; Talbott, E.O.; Margolis, H.

    1984-12-01

    Recent studies of health effects from chronic exposure to noise in the workplace have not consistently addressed nonoccupational variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 197 randomly selected male hourly workers from a noisy plant ( greater than or equal to 89 dBA) in Pittsburgh to fully assess noise exposure and hearing loss, incorporating information on duration of exposure, noise level, occupational and medical histories, audiometric evaluation, and external noise sources. Population audiometric profiles are characteristic of noise-induced hearing loss; mean hearing thresholds for press room men were significantly higher at 2, 3, and 6 kHz (p less than or equal to .05). Only 40% of the men consistently wore hearing protection. Recent use of ototoxic drugs, noisy hobbies/second jobs, military service, family history of hearing loss, and ear-related problems were not found to have a significant effect on hearing levels at high frequencies, suggesting that observed hearing losses were of an occupational origin. 31 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Effects of long term exposure to occupational noise on textile industry workers' lung function.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, António Paes; Oliveira, Maria João R; Silva, Alvaro Moreira da; Aguas, Artur P; Pereira, António Sousa

    2006-01-01

    Vibroacoustic disease is a pathology caused by long occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude and low frequency noise. It is a systemic disease, with evolvement of respiratory structures. The exposure workers to this noise of textile industry may favour alterations in lung function. We studied 28 women working more than ten years in cotton-mill rooms to evaluate their lung function, including Spirometry, forced oscillation technique (I.O.S.) and Diffusion capacity. These results were compared with those of 30 women of similar ages not exposed to similar noise and not presenting respiratory disease. Statistical significance (P<0.05) was found with FEV25, R5 and Delta Rs5-Rs20. There was a resistance frequency dependence in 36% of the population exposed to noise, not statistically confirmed. Neither restriction nor changes in diffusing capacity where detected. The analysis of global alterations of lung function parameters suggests small airways aggression by noise. However we cannot definitively exclude the influence of cotton dust inhalation in itself which effects could be increased by the loss of ciliated cells and impairment of airways clearance caused by noise.

  20. Speckle noise suppression using part of pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Junmin; Zhou, Zhehai; Li, Fubing; Zheng, Qingyu; Liu, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A method is proposed to suppress speckle noise using only part of the pixels in a single-exposure digital hologram. Different holographic patterns are first generated from a single-exposure digital hologram using specially designed binary masks; then, these holographic patterns are reconstructed according to the Fresnel transform. The reconstructed images are superposed and averaged on the intensity to achieve the suppression of speckle noise. The entire denoising process does not need any additional digital holograms or specific requirements for recording a hologram. Theoretical simulation and experiment verification were carried out and confirm that the proposed method is a very convenient and effective way to suppress speckle noise in digital holography. The proposed method has wide applications in holographic imaging, holographic storage, and art display.

  1. Effects of changed aircraft noise exposure on experiential qualities of outdoor recreational areas.

    PubMed

    Krog, Norun Hjertager; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2010-10-01

    The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway's main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found.

  2. Transportation noise exposure and cardiovascular mortality: a nationwide cohort study from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Héritier, Harris; Vienneau, Danielle; Foraster, Maria; Eze, Ikenna Collins; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Thiesse, Laurie; Rudzik, Franziska; Habermacher, Manuel; Köpfli, Micha; Pieren, Reto; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Most studies published to date consider single noise sources and the reported noise metrics are not informative about the peaking characteristics of the source under investigation. Our study focuses on the association between cardiovascular mortality in Switzerland and the three major transportation noise sources-road, railway and aircraft traffic-along with a novel noise metric termed intermittency ratio (IR), expressing the percentage contribution of individual noise events to the total noise energy from all sources above background levels. We generated Swiss-wide exposure models for road, railway and aircraft noise for 2001. Noise from the most exposed façade was linked to geocodes at the residential floor height for each of the 4.41 million adult (>30 y) Swiss National Cohort participants. For the follow-up period 2000-2008, we investigated the association between all noise exposure variables [Lden(Road), Lden(Rail), Lden(Air), and IR at night] and various cardiovascular primary causes of death by multipollutant Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders including NO2. The most consistent associations were seen for myocardial infarction: adjusted hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) per 10 dB increase of exposure were 1.038 (1.019-1.058), 1.018 (1.004-1.031), and 1.026 (1.004-1.048) respectively for Lden(Road), Lden(Rail), and Lden(Air). In addition, total IR at night played a role: HRs for CVD were non-significant in the 1st, 2nd and 5th quintiles whereas they were 1.019 (1.002-1.037) and 1.021 (1.003-1.038) for the 3rd and 4th quintiles. Our study demonstrates the impact of all major transportation noise sources on cardiovascular diseases. Mid-range IR levels at night (i.e. between continuous and highly intermittent) are potentially more harmful than continuous noise levels of the same average level.

  3. The Relationship Between Exposure to Recreational Noise and Temporary Threshold Shifts in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirreffs, Janet; And Others

    An investigation was conducted to identify the effects of exposure to selected entertainment environments on hearing threshold levels. Twenty-five normal hearing females were randomly assigned to one of the following five taped noise conditions: (1) a discotheque band, (2) a motor speedway, (3) a hotel dance band, (4) an amusement park, and (5) a…

  4. Auditory brainstem responses of Japanese house bats (Pipistrellus abramus) after exposure to broadband ultrasonic noise.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Boku, Shokei; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi; Simmons, James A

    2015-10-01

    Echolocating bats forage and navigate within an intense soundscape containing their own sonar sounds as well as sounds from other bats. To determine how the bat's auditory system copes with these high noise levels, auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in the Japanese house bat, Pipistrellus abramus, before and after exposure to ultrasonic noise (30 min duration). Noise spectral content (10-80 kHz) and level (90 dB sound pressure level) are within the ranges these bats experience in their natural environment. ABR thresholds to test frequencies of 20, 40, and 80 kHz did not vary significantly between pre-exposure and post-exposure times of 0 and 30 min. Amplitudes and latencies of the P3 wave at suprathreshold were not significantly affected by noise exposure. These data show that the bat's hearing is not compromised when exposed to background sounds similar in wideband frequency content and sound level to what the animal encounters naturally. These results provide a baseline for examining how the bat's auditory system deals with other intense sounds, such as those emitted by anthropogenic sources or those producing temporary threshold shifts in other mammals.

  5. 77 FR 64580 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Angeles World Airports, Environmental Services Division, 7301 World Way West, 3rd Floor, Los Angeles... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Van Nuys Airport, Van Nuys, California... Airports, for Van Nuys Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (Aviation Safety and...

  6. On-Orbit Noise Characterization for MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Xie, X.; Angal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has operated successfully on-board the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and EOS Aqua spacecraft. MODIS is a passive cross-track scanning radiometer that makes observations in 36 spectral bands with spectral wavelengths from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared. MODIS bands 1-19 and 26 are the reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers. They are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board solar diffuser (SD) and a SD stability monitor (SDSM) system. For MODIS RSB, the level 1B calibration algorithm produces top of the atmosphere reflectance factors and radiances for every pixel of the Earth view. The sensor radiometric calibration accuracy, specified at each spectral band's typical scene radiance, is 2% for the RSB reflectance factors and 5% for the RSB radiances. Also specified at the typical scene radiance is the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a key sensor performance parameter that directly impacts its radiometric calibration accuracy and stability, as well as the image quality. This paper describes an on-orbit SNR characterization approach developed to evaluate and track MODIS RSB detector performance. In order to perform on-orbit SNR characterization, MODIS RSB detector responses to the solar illumination reflected from the SD panel must be corrected for factors due to variations of the solar angles and the SD bi-directional reflectance factor. This approach enables RSB SNR characterization to be performed at different response levels for each detector. On-orbit results show that both Terra and Aqua MODIS RSB detectors have performed well since launch. Except for a few noisy or inoperable detectors which were identified pre-launch, most RSB detectors continue to meet the SNR design requirements and are able to maintain satisfactory short-term stability. A comparison of on-orbit noise characterization results with results derived from pre

  7. Infrasound and low frequency noise from wind turbines: exposure and health effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Karl; Bluhm, Gösta; Eriksson, Gabriella; Nilsson, Mats E.

    2011-07-01

    Wind turbines emit low frequency noise (LFN) and large turbines generally generate more LFN than small turbines. The dominant source of LFN is the interaction between incoming turbulence and the blades. Measurements suggest that indoor levels of LFN in dwellings typically are within recommended guideline values, provided that the outdoor level does not exceed corresponding guidelines for facade exposure. Three cross-sectional questionnaire studies show that annoyance from wind turbine noise is related to the immission level, but several explanations other than low frequency noise are probable. A statistically significant association between noise levels and self-reported sleep disturbance was found in two of the three studies. It has been suggested that LFN from wind turbines causes other, and more serious, health problems, but empirical support for these claims is lacking.

  8. Surveillance of noise exposure in the Danish workplace: a baseline survey

    PubMed Central

    Kock, S; Andersen, T; Kolstad, H; Kofoed-Nielsen, B; Wiesler, F; Bonde, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate an epidemiological approach to a national noise hazard surveillance strategy, and report current exposure levels in the Danish workplace. Methods: A study base of 840 companies in 10 selected high risk industries in the largest county in Denmark was identified from a national register. Noise exposure was measured among manual workers recruited from a random sample of workplaces in each industry. For reference, financial companies and a sample of residents were investigated according to the same protocol. The A-weighted equivalent sound level (LAeq) for a full shift was measured by portable dosimeters worn by 830 workers employed at 91 workplaces (67% of 136 eligible companies). Results: The epidemiological design proved feasible and established a baseline for future noise surveillance. Substantial resources were needed to motivate workplaces to enlist and the final participation rate was less than optimal (66.9%). The LAeq (8) values in the selected industries were highly elevated (mean 83.7 dB(A) (95% CI 83.3 to 84.1) in comparison with residents and office workers (mean 69.9 dB(A), 95% CI 68.8 to 71.0). Some 50% of the workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A) and some 20% to more than 90 dB(A) in several industries. Conclusion: Noise levels in Danish high risk industries remain high. A substantial proportion of workers are exposed to noise levels above the current threshold limit of 85 dB(A). Ongoing surveillance of noise exposure using full shift dosimetry of workers in random samples of workplaces most at risk to high noise levels may help reinforce preventive measures. Such a programme would benefit from compulsory workplace participation. PMID:15377770

  9. Acoustic Array Development for Wind Turbine Noise Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, S.; Roadman, J.; Moriarty, P.; Palo, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report discusses the design and use of a multi-arm, logarithmic spiral acoustic array by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for measurement and characterization of wind turbine-generated noise. The array was developed in collaboration with a team from the University of Colorado Boulder. This design process is a continuation of the elliptical array design work done by Simley. A description of the array system design process is presented, including array shape design, mechanical design, design of electronics and the data acquisition system, and development of post-processing software. System testing and calibration methods are detailed. Results from the initial data acquisition campaign are offered and discussed. Issues faced during this initial deployment of the array are presented and potential remedies discussed.

  10. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Cascio, Wayne E; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise, and gaseous co-pollutants. The aim was to provide a better understanding of the workers' exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health endpoints. To quantify the workers' exposure, we monitored 18 subjects during 50 non-consecutive work shifts. Exposure assessment was based on personal and work site measurements and included fine particulate matter (PM2.5), particle number concentration (PNC), noise (Leq), and the gaseous co-pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mean work shift PM2.5 concentrations (gravimetric measurements) ranged from 20.3 to 321 μg m(-3) (mean 62 μg m(-3)) and PNC were between 1.6×10(4) and 4.1×10(5) particles cm(-3) (8.9×10(4) particles cm(-3)). Noise levels were generally high with Leq over work shifts from 73.3 to 96.0 dB(A); the averaged Leq over all work shifts was 87.2 dB(A). The highest exposure to fine and ultrafine particles was measured during grass mowing and lumbering when motorized brush cutters and chain saws were used. Highest noise levels, caused by pneumatic hammers, were measured during paving and guardrail repair. We found moderate Spearman correlations between PNC and PM2.5 (r = 0.56); PNC, PM2.5, and CO (r = 0.60 and r = 0.50) as well as PNC and noise (r = 0.50). Variability and correlation of parameters were influenced by work activities that included equipment causing combined air pollutant and noise emissions (e.g. brush cutters and chain saws). We conclude that highway maintenance workers are frequently exposed to elevated airborne particle and noise levels compared with the average population. This elevated exposure is a consequence of the permanent proximity to highway traffic with additional peak exposures caused by emissions of the work-related equipment.

  11. Accuracy of task recall for epidemiological exposure assessment to construction noise

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, C; Seixas, N; Sheppard, L; Neitzel, R

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To validate the accuracy of construction worker recall of task and environment based information; and to evaluate the effect of task recall on estimates of noise exposure. Methods: A cohort of 25 construction workers recorded tasks daily and had dosimetry measurements weekly for six weeks. Worker recall of tasks reported on the daily activity cards was validated with research observations and compared directly to task recall at a six month interview. Results: The mean LEQ noise exposure level (dBA) from dosimeter measurements was 89.9 (n = 61) and 83.3 (n = 47) for carpenters and electricians, respectively. The percentage time at tasks reported during the interview was compared to that calculated from daily activity cards; only 2/22 tasks were different at the nominal 5% significance level. The accuracy, based on bias and precision, of percentage time reported for tasks from the interview was 53–100% (median 91%). For carpenters, the difference in noise estimates derived from activity cards (mean 91.9 dBA) was not different from those derived from the questionnaire (mean 91.7 dBA). This trend held for electricians as well. For all subjects, noise estimates derived from the activity card and the questionnaire were strongly correlated with dosimetry measurements. The average difference between the noise estimate derived from the questionnaire and dosimetry measurements was 2.0 dBA, and was independent of the actual exposure level. Conclusions: Six months after tasks were performed, construction workers were able to accurately recall the percentage time they spent at various tasks. Estimates of noise exposure based on long term recall (questionnaire) were no different from estimates derived from daily activity cards and were strongly correlated with dosimetry measurements, overestimating the level on average by 2.0 dBA. PMID:14739379

  12. Noise Exposure and Hearing Impairment among Chinese Restaurant Workers and Entertainment Employees in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The “Klockhoff digit” method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. Results The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1–42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Conclusion Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs

  13. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be introduced to the service industry

  14. Task-based assessment of occupational vibration and noise exposures in forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Yost, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Forty-two noise exposures and 164 whole-body (WBV) and hand-arm (HAV) vibration exposures were collected from 43 forestry workers in six trades employed by two forestry companies. Data were collected on 10 days over 8 weeks during various felling, logging, and log handling operations. Up to 5 volunteers were monitored for noise and vibration daily using datalogging noise dosimeters, which provided daily time-weighted averages (TWAs) and 1-min averages; and a precision sound level meter equipped to measure human vibration, which provided triaxial HAV and WBV event-weighted averages (AEQS). Workers completed a short questionnaire throughout the workday detailing the timing and number of tasks performed and equipment used. Substantial overexposures to noise and vibration were seen; for example, 60% of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) TWAs and 83% of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) noise TWAs exceeded 85 dBA, 33-53% of the axis-specific HAV AEQS exceeded the 8-hour American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' HAV threshold limit value, and 34% of all summary weighted WBV AEQS exceeded the Commission of the European Communities' 8-hour exposure limit. The mean for 99 WBV summary weighted AEQ was 3.53 +/- 7.12 m/sec2, whereas the mean for 65 HAV summary weighted AEQ was 5.45 +/- 5.25 m/sec2. The mean OSHA TWA was 86.1 +/- 6.2 dBA, whereas the mean NIOSH TWA was 90.2 +/- 5.1 dBA. The task and tool with the highest exposure levels were unbelling chokers on landings and chain saws (noise), log processing and frontend loaders (WBV), and notching stumps and chain saws (HAV). An internal validation substudy indicated excellent agreement between worker-reported and researcher-documented tasks and tools.

  15. On-Orbit Noise Characterization of MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Geng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, was designed to collect complementary and comprehensive measurements of the Earth's properties on a global scale. The 20 reflective solar bands (RSBs), covering a wavelength range from 0.41 to 2.1 micrometers, are calibrated on-orbit using regularly scheduled solar diffuser (SD) observations. Although primarily used for on-orbit gain derivation, the SD observations also facilitate the characterization of the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition to the calibration requirement of 2% for the reflectance factors and 5% for the radiances, the required SNRs are also specified for all RSB at their typical scene radiances. A methodology to characterize the on-orbit SNR for the MODIS RSB is presented. Overall performance shows that a majority of the RSB continue to meet the specification, therefore performing well. A temporal decrease in the SNR, observed in the short-wavelength bands, is attributed primarily to the decrease in their detector responses. With the exception of the inoperable and noisy detectors in band 6 identified prelaunch, the detectors of AquaMODIS RSB perform better than TerraMODIS. The approach formulated for on-orbit SNR characterization can also be used by other sensors that use on-board SDs for their on-orbit calibration (e.g., Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership [SNPP]-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite).

  16. Spatial Analysis of Urban Form and Pedestrian Exposure to Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ni; Tang, U. Wa

    2011-01-01

    In the Macao Peninsula, the high population density (49,763 inhabitants/km2) and the lack of control over the number of vehicles (460 vehicles/km) have led to an increase in urban pollution. To provide useful information to local government and urban planners, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of traffic noise in the Macao Peninsula. The interactions among urban form, traffic flow and traffic noise are addressed. Considering the spatial nature of urban geometry and traffic, a high-resolution GIS-based traffic noise model system is applied. Results indicate that the Macao Peninsula has fallen into a situation of serious traffic noise pollution. About 60% of traffic noise levels along the major pedestrian sidewalks in the evening peak hour exceed the National Standard of 70 dB(A) in China. In particular, about 21% of traffic noise levels along the pedestrian sidewalks are above the National Standard by 5 dB(A). Noticeably, the high pedestrian exposure to traffic noise in the historical urban area reduces the comfort of tourists walking in the historic centre and is ruining the reputation of the area as a World Cultural Heritage site. PMID:21776213

  17. Spatial analysis of urban form and pedestrian exposure to traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ni; Tang, U Wa

    2011-06-01

    In the Macao Peninsula, the high population density (49,763 inhabitants/km2) and the lack of control over the number of vehicles (460 vehicles/km) have led to an increase in urban pollution. To provide useful information to local government and urban planners, this paper investigates the spatial distribution of traffic noise in the Macao Peninsula. The interactions among urban form, traffic flow and traffic noise are addressed. Considering the spatial nature of urban geometry and traffic, a high-resolution GIS-based traffic noise model system is applied. Results indicate that the Macao Peninsula has fallen into a situation of serious traffic noise pollution. About 60% of traffic noise levels along the major pedestrian sidewalks in the evening peak hour exceed the National Standard of 70 dB(A) in China. In particular, about 21% of traffic noise levels along the pedestrian sidewalks are above the National Standard by 5 dB(A). Noticeably, the high pedestrian exposure to traffic noise in the historical urban area reduces the comfort of tourists walking in the historic centre and is ruining the reputation of the area as a World Cultural Heritage site.

  18. Cardiovascular and stress responses to short-term noise exposures-A panel study in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Walker, Erica D; Brammer, Anthony; Cherniack, Martin G; Laden, Francine; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    While previous epidemiological studies report adverse effects of long-term noise exposure on cardiovascular health, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear. We sought to elucidate the cardiovascular and stress response to short-term, low (31.5-125Hz) and high (500-2000Hz) frequency noise exposures. Healthy male (n=10) participants were monitored on multiple visits during no noise, low- or high-frequency noise exposure scenarios lasting 40min. Participants were fitted with an ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure measures and saliva samples were taken before, during and after noise exposures. ECGs were processed for measures of heart rate variability (HRV): high-frequency power (HF), low-frequency power (LF), the root of the mean squared difference between adjacent normal heart beats (N-N) intervals (RMSSD), and the standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DPB), and pulse were reported and saliva was analyzed for salivary cortisol and amylase. Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age were used to identify statistically significant difference in outcomes by no noise, during noise or after noise exposure periods and whether this differed by noise frequency. A total of 658, 205, and 122, HRV, saliva, and blood pressure measurements were performed over 41 person days. Reductions in HRV (LF and RMSSD) were observed during noise exposure (a reduction of 19% (-35,-3.5) and 9.1% (-17,-1.1), respectively). After adjusting for noise frequency, during low frequency noise exposure, HF, LF, and SDNN were reduced (a reduction of 32% (-57,-6.2), 34% (-52,-15), and 16% (-26,-6.1), respectively) and during high frequency noise exposure, a 21% (-39,-2.3) reduction in LF, as compared to during no noise exposure, was found. No significant (p<0.05) changes in blood pressure, salivary cortisol, or amylase were observed. These results suggest that exposure to noise, and

  19. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise

  20. Interaction of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2007-01-01

    Background Noise is the most common hazardous agent at workplaces. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been known since the industrial revolution. Although NIHL is permanent, irreversible and frequent, it is preventable. The economic costs of NIHL have been estimated to be about billions of dollars. Besides, cigarette smoking is a common habit worldwide, and according to some recent studies smoking and noise may act in common causal pathways for hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to study the effect of smoking on NIHL in 206 male smoker workers and 206 male non-smoker workers in a large food-producing factory, in which workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85dBA. To determine noise exposure level, we used sound level measurements reported by industrial hygienists. A qualified audiologist assessed hearing acuity by using standardized audiometric procedures assuring at least 14 h of noise avoidance. Results We observed that the percentage of workers with hearing threshold differences of greater than or equal to 30 dB between 4000 Hz and 1000 Hz in both ears were 49.5% and 11.2% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively (Odds ratio = 7.8, 95% CI = 4.7 – 13), and the percentage of workers with a hearing threshold of greater than 25dB at 4000 Hz in the better ear were 63.6% and 18.4% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for age and exposure duration. Conclusion It can be concluded that smoking can accelerate noise induced hearing loss, but more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Accurate follow up of smoker workers who are exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA is suggested. Smokers should periodically attend educational courses on "smoking cessation", especially in noisy workplaces. PMID:17605828

  1. Challenges in HF noise characterization and modeling of sub-100nm MOSFETs for RF ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Zeng, Zheng; Jan, Jin-Shyong; Wang, Keh-Chung; Yeh, Chune-Sin

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the challenges in the high-frequency noise characterization and modeling of sub-100nm MOSFETs for radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuits (IC). In general, it addresses three major issues - accuracy of high-frequency (HF) noise measurements, impact of test structure designs and physics-based noise models for the noise sources of interest - channel noise, induced gate noise and gate tunneling noise. In the first section, different HF measurement techniques, namely Y-factor method and power-equation method are reviewed. The impact due to the difference in the output impedances of a noise source in the hot and the cold states on the measurement accuracy is demonstrated. In the second section, different test structures and de-embedding procedures for noise and scattering parameter de-embedding to get rid of the parasitic effects from the probe pads and interconnections in a device-under-test (DUT) are reviewed. Special considerations on the measurement accuracy are paid to the shift of DC bias conditions. Finally, with the power spectral densities for the noise sources of interest obtained from the intrinsic noise parameters, different physics-based noise models for these noise sources in sub-100nm MOSFETs are discussed. The impact of the channel-length modulation (CLM) effect, the hot electron effect and the velocity saturation effect on the channel thermal noise and the impact of the gate tunneling noise on the noise performance of deep submicron MOSFETs are reviewed.

  2. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Methods Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000–2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006–2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Results Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz=–0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p<0.0001). Analysis of a subset of intervention subjects matched to controls for initial rate of hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Conclusion Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups. PMID:21193566

  3. Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, Paul E.; Pawloski, Jeffrey L.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2003-06-01

    Behaviorally determined hearing thresholds for a 7.5-kHz tone for an Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) were obtained following exposure to fatiguing low-frequency octave band noise. The fatiguing stimulus ranged from 4 to 11 kHz and was gradually increased in intensity to 179 dB re 1 μPa and in duration to 55 min. Exposures occurred no more frequently than once per week. Measured temporary threshold shifts averaged 11 dB. Threshold determination took at least 20 min. Recovery was examined 360, 180, 90, and 45 min following exposure and was essentially complete within 45 min.

  4. Occupational exposures to noise resulting from the workplace use of personal media players at a manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of noise exposures from personal media player (PMP) use in the workplace to overall employee noise exposures at a Colorado manufacturing facility. A total of 24 workers' PMP and background noise exposures were measured. Twelve PMP users worked in high-background-noise exposure (HBNE) areas, and 12 worked in low-background-noise exposure (LBNE) areas. The self-selected PMP listening level of each worker was measured using an ear simulator, and the background noise of each employee workstation was measured using a sound level meter. Workers' self-reported PMP duration of use, PMP listening exposure levels, and background noise levels were used to estimate the daily occupational noise exposures. Measured background noise levels averaged 81 dBA for HBNE workers and 59 dBA for LBNE workers. Measured, free-field equivalent listening exposure levels were significantly greater for HBNE workers (85 dBA) compared with LBNE workers (75 dBA) (p = 0.0006). Estimated mean daily noise exposures for both groups were below the ACGIH threshold limit value for noise of 85 dBA8-hr time weighted average (TWA), specifically 84 dBA TWA for HBNE workers and 72 dBA TWA for LBNE workers. Three of 12 (25%) HBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA when only background noise was considered, yet when PMP use was also considered, 6 of 12 (50%) had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA, suggesting that PMP use doubled the number of overexposed workers. None of the LBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA. The contribution of PMP use to overall noise exposures was substantially less among HBNE workers than LBNE workers due to the disproportionate selection of noise-attenuating headsets among HBNE workers compared with LBNE workers. It is recommended that the facility management either restrict workplace PMP use among HBNE workers or require output-limiting technology to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing

  5. Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pouyatos, BenoIt . E-mail: benoit.pouyatos@med.va.gov; Gearhart, Caroline A.; Fechter, Laurence D.

    2005-04-01

    The diversity of chemical and drugs that can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has impeded efforts to predict such interactions. We have hypothesized that chemical contaminants that disrupt intrinsic antioxidant defenses hold significant risk for potentiating NIHL. If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL. ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in the United States, is metabolized via two pathways that are likely to disrupt intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) buffering systems: (1) it conjugates glutathione, depleting this important antioxidant rapidly; (2) a second pathway involves the formation of cyanide, which can inhibit superoxide dismutase. We hypothesized that moderate noise exposure, that does not produce permanent hearing loss by itself, could initiate oxidative stress and that ACN could render the inner ear more sensitive to noise by disrupting intrinsic antioxidant defenses. Temporary and persistent effects of ACN alone (50 mg/kg, sc 5 days), noise alone (95 or 97 dB octave band noise, 4 h/day for 5 days), or ACN in combination with noise were determined using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes. Histopathological damage to hair cells resulting from these treatments was also investigated using surface preparations of the organ of Corti. Individually, neither ACN nor noise exposures caused any permanent hearing or hair cell loss; only a reversible temporary threshold shift was measured in noise-exposed animals. However, when given in combination, ACN and noise induced permanent threshold shifts (13-16 dB between 7 and 40 kHz) and a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes (up to 25 dB at 19 kHz), as well as significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss (up to 20% in the first row between 13 and 47 kHz). This investigation demonstrates that ACN can potentiate NIHL at noise levels that are realistic in terms of human exposure, and that the OHCs are the

  6. Optimization of the exposure time of aerospace camera through its signal-to-noise ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuheng; Ji, Yiqun; Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Shen, Weimin

    2008-12-01

    The aerospace camera developed is an exclusive functional load of a micro satellite. The signal-to-noise ratio of the aerospace camera reflects its radiance response and is the parameter that directly associates with the quality of its acquired images. The traditional way to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of a camera is to substitute the related parameters of its subassemblies into the deduced formulas. This kind of method lacks the focalization on the diversities of its components and specific application occasions. The result tested by using standard uniform source can certainly be utilized to evaluate the work performance of the camera, but it ignores its actual orbital atmospheric condition and consequentially leads to unavoidable data deviation. The atmospheric transmission model is built and the radiation condition of the aerospace camera in orbit is simulated by means of MODTRAN. Instead of building the noise model based on electronic devices of the camera to get theoretical noise data, considering the difference of the noises of the camera between in-lab and on-orbit condition, we adopt the measured noise data of the CCD camera to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio so as to make it approach the real value as possible. The influences of the changes of solar altitude angle, earth surface albedo and weather condition on the signal-to-noise ratio of the camera are quantitatively determined. The result of the signal-to-noise ratio can be used as the basis to evaluate the remote sensing imaging quality and to decide the feasible exposure time.

  7. LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

  8. Night-Time Decibel Hell: Mapping Noise Exposure Zones and Individual Annoyance Ratings in an Urban Environment in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Zakpala, Rachel N.; Armah, Frederick Ato; Sackey, Brigid M.; Pabi, Opoku

    2014-01-01

    Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS), this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard. PMID:25136476

  9. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    PubMed

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P<0.05) . The level of noise exposure≥85 dB (A) (OR=5.79, 95%CI 3.70-8.81) , working years with noise exposure (OR=1.57, 95%CI 1.05-2.43) , and 25 years (OR=3.29, 95%CI 2.08-5.71) were risk factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  10. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Edaravone for Inner Ear Protection After Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Gang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Chang-Hua; Jiang, Ping; Sun, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants and the duration of treatment after noise exposure on hearing recovery are important. We investigated the protective effects of an antioxidant substance, edaravone, and its slow-release dosage form, edaravone solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), in steady noise-exposed guinea pigs. Methods: SLNs loaded with edaravone were produced by an ultrasound technique. Edaravone solution or edaravone SLNs were administered by intratympanic or intravenous injection after the 1st day of noise exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed to 110 dB sound pressure level (SPL) noise, centered at 0.25–4.0 kHz, for 4 days at 2 h/d. After noise exposure, the guinea pigs underwent auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold measurements, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected in their cochleas with electron spin resonance (ESR), and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted with silvernitrate (AgNO3) staining at 1, 4, and 6 days. Results: The ultrasound technique was able to prepare adequate edaravone SLNs with a mean particle size of 93.6 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.7%. Acoustic stress-induced ROS formation and edaravone exerted a protective effect on the cochlea. Comparisons of hearing thresholds and ROS changes in different animal groups showed that the threshold shift and ROS generation were significantly lower in treated animals than in those without treatment, especially in the edaravone SLN intratympanic injection group. Conclusions: Edaravone SLNs show noticeable slow-release effects and have certain protective effects against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:25591563

  11. Road Traffic Noise and Annoyance: A Quantification of the Effect of Quiet Side Exposure at Dwellings

    PubMed Central

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Janssen, Sabine A.; Vos, Henk; Salomons, Erik M.; Zhou, Han; van den Berg, Frits

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a “quiet side” to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the most and least exposed façade (Lden,most and Lden,least respectively) of dwellings for subjects in a population based survey (N = 1,967). It was investigated if and to what extent relative quietness at the least exposed façade affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance by comparing two groups: (1) The subgroup with a relatively quiet façade; (2) the subgroup without a relatively quiet façade (large versus small difference in exposure between most and least exposed façade; DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB respectively). In addition, it was investigated if and to what extent Lden,least affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance. Results indicate a significantly lower road traffic noise annoyance score at a given Lden,most, in the subgroup with DIF ≥ 10 dB versus DIF < 10 dB. Furthermore, results suggest an effect of Lden,least independent of Lden,most. The estimated size of the effect expressed in an equivalent change in Lden,most approximated 5 dB for both the difference between the two subgroups (DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB), and for a 10 dB change in Lden,least. PMID:23736655

  12. Exposure to loud noise, bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; Moline, Jacqueline; Kim, Hyun; Mannino, David M

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss is an indicator for chronic exposure to loud noise. This study aimed to examine the association between bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study included 5223 participants aged 20-69 years who participated in the audiometry examination of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency (3, 4 and 6 kHz) hearing threshold ≥25 dB in both ears. CHD was defined as self-reported diagnoses by doctors or other health professionals. Compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing, participants with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss were more likely to have CHD (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.85) after adjustment for various covariates. This association was particularly strong for currently employed workers who were exposed to loud occupational noise (OR 4.23; 95% CI 1.32 to 13.55). For this subgroup, there was no significant association of CHD with unilateral high-frequency hearing loss, and unilateral or bilateral low-frequency hearing loss. Furthermore, there was no significant association of CHD with any types of hearing loss for participants who were not exposed to loud noise. Stratified analyses for participants exposed to loud noise showed that the observed association was particularly strong for those who were less than 50 years of age, less educated and current smokers. On the basis of an objective indicator for personal chronic exposure to loud noise, this study confirmed that exposure to loud occupational noise is associated with the presence of CHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Implications of the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study results for classroom acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.; Clark, Charlotte

    2005-04-01

    Studies in West London have found associations between aircraft noise exposure and childrens' cognitive performance. This has culminated in the RANCH Study examining exposure-effect associations between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and cognitive performance and health. The RANCH project, the largest cross-sectional study of noise and childrens health, examined 2844 children, 9-10 years old, from 89 schools around three major airports: in the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Children were selected by external aircraft and road traffic noise exposure at school predicted from noise contour maps, modeling and on-site measurements. A substudy indicated high internal levels of noise within classrooms. Schools were matched for socioeconomic position within countries. Cognitive and health outcomes were measured by standardized tests and questionnaires administered in the classroom. A parental questionnaire collected information on socioeconomic position, parental education and ethnicity. Linear exposure-effect associations were found between chronic aircraft noise exposure and impairment of reading comprehension and recognition memory, maintained after adjustment for mothers education, socioeconomic factors, longstanding illness and classroom insulation. Road traffic noise exposure was linearly associated with episodic memory. The implications of these results for childrens' learning environments will be discussed. [Work supported by European Community (QLRT-2000-00197) Vth framework program.

  14. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM2.5 (85µg/m(3)), PM10 (131µg/m(3)), black carbon (10.9µg/m(3)) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioeffects induced by exposure to microwaves are mitigated by superposition of ELF noise.

    PubMed

    Litovitz, T A; Penafiel, L M; Farrel, J M; Krause, D; Meister, R; Mullins, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that microwave fields, amplitude modulated (AM) by an extremely low-frequency (ELF) sine wave, can induce a nearly twofold enhancement in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in L929 cells at SAR levels of the order of 2.5 W/kg. Similar, although less pronounced, effects were also observed from exposure to a typical digital cellular phone test signal of the same power level, burst modulated at 50 Hz. We have also shown that ODC enhancement in L929 cells produced by exposure to ELF fields can be inhibited by superposition of ELF noise. In the present study, we explore the possibility that similar inhibition techniques can be used to suppress the microwave response. We concurrently exposed L929 cells to 60 Hz AM microwave fields or a 50 Hz burst-modulated DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) digital cellular phone field at levels known to produce ODC enhancement, together with band-limited 30-100 Hz ELF noise with root mean square amplitude of up to 10 microT. All exposures were carried out for 8 h, which was previously found to yield the peak microwave response. In both cases, the ODC enhancement was found to decrease exponentially as a function of the noise root mean square amplitude. With 60 Hz AM microwaves, complete inhibition was obtained with noise levels at or above 2 microT. With the DAMPS digital cellular phone signal, complete inhibition occurred with noise levels at or above 5 microT. These results suggest a possible practical means to inhibit biological effects from exposure to both ELF and microwave fields.

  16. Cortisol response and subjective sleep disturbance after low-frequency noise exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson Waye, K.; Agge, A.; Clow, A.; Hucklebridge, F.

    2004-10-01

    A previous experimental study showed that the cortisol response upon awakening was reduced following nights with low-frequency noise exposure. This study comprised a larger number of subjects and an extended period of acclimatisation nights. In total, 26 male subjects slept during five consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Half of the subjects were exposed to low-frequency noise (40 dBA) on the 4th night and had their reference night (24 dBA) on the 5th night, while the reverse conditions were present for the other half of the group. Subjective sleep disturbances were recorded by questionnaires and cortisol response upon awakening was measured in saliva. The results showed that subjects were more tired and felt less socially orientated in the morning after nights with low-frequency noise. Mood was negatively affected in the evening after nights with low-frequency noise. No effect of noise condition was found on the cortisol secretion. There was a significant effect of group and weekday, indicating that further methodological developments are necessary before saliva cortisol secretion can be reliably used as an indicator of noise-disturbed sleep.

  17. Risk exposure to vibration and noise in the use of agricultural track-laying tractors.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Mariangela; Bono, Filippa; Quendler, Elisabeth; Febo, Pierluigi; Catania, Pietro

    2016-12-23

    Human exposure to mechanical vibration may represent a significant risk factor for exposed workers in the agricultural sector. Also, noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the evaluation of workers' health and safety. One of the major sources of discomfort for the workers operating a tractors is the noise to which they are exposed during work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of exposure to whole-body vibration for the operator driving track-laying tractors in vineyard orchard and the noise level. The experimental tests were performed with six different track-laying tractors coupled with the same rototilling machine. The results showed that the vibration values of track-laying tractors coupled to rototilling machine, referred to the 8-hour working day, were always higher than 0.5 m s(-2), the daily exposure action value established by Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament. The daily noise exposure levels always exceeded the exposure limit value of 87 dB(A) established by Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament. The ANOVA repeated measures model showed that the factor 'site', namely, the soil characteristics, did not influence the vibration level on the X and Y-axes of the tractors measured, regardless of their age. In the Z-axis, the vibration level was enhanced as the soil structure increased. As tractor age increased, the influence of soil characteristics was less important. In term of the age of the tractor and the number of hours worked, it was possible to identify three risk classes, which were up to 3,000 hours worked and offered a low risk; from 3,000 - 6,000 hours worked with a medium risk, and over 6,000 hours with a high risk level.

  18. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and postmenopausal breast cancer: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Ketzel, Matthias; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to traffic noise may result in stress and sleep disturbances. Studies on self-reported sleep duration and breast cancer risk have found inconsistent results. In a population-based Danish cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1219 incident, postmenopausal breast cancer cases during follow-up through 2010. Mean follow-up time was 12.3 years. Road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2010. We used Cox proportional hazard model for analyses and adjusted for hormone replacement therapy use, parity, alcohol consumption and other potential confounders. We found no overall association between residential road traffic or railway noise and breast cancer risk. Among women with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, a 10-dB higher level of road traffic noise (continuous scale) during the previous 1, 5 and 10 years were associated with 28% (95% CI: 1.04-1.56), 23% (95% CI: 1.00-1.51) and 20% (95% CI: 0.97-1.48) higher risks of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, respectively, in fully adjusted models. Similarly, a 10-dB increase in railway noise (1-year mean at diagnosis address) increased risk for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer by 38% (95% CI: 1.01-1.89). There was no association between road traffic or railway noise and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. In conclusion, these results suggest that residential road traffic and railway noise may increase risk of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. As the first study on traffic noise and breast cancer results should be treated with caution.

  19. Residential road traffic noise exposure and survival after breast cancer - A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Olsen, Anja; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-11-01

    It is generally acknowledged that patients with already existing clinical conditions are especially vulnerable to the effects of traffic noise exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise and breast cancer survival. Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident breast cancer cases (n=1,759) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes. We used Cox Proportional Hazard Models to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise at different time-windows, and overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Furthermore, we investigated interaction with prognostic and socioeconomic factors. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were calculated in both unadjusted models, and adjusted for residential railway noise, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic variables. During a median of 7.3 years of follow-up, 402 patients died; 274 from breast cancer. We found no association between time-weighted averages of residential road traffic noise 1-, 3- or 5-years before death, or over the entire follow-up period, and overall or breast cancer-specific mortality. A 10dB higher road traffic noise from diagnosis until censoring was associated with an adjusted MRR of 0.94 (0.81-1.08) for all-cause mortality. The association was modified by lymph node involvement, with a MRR of 1.20 (0.97-1.48) for those with tumor-positive lymph nodes and 0.76 (0.59-0.98) for those without. The present study suggests no association between residential road traffic noise and concurrent mortality. As it is the first study of its kind, with relatively limited power, further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of noise exposure on neonatal auditory brainstem response thresholds in pregnant guinea pigs at different gestational periods.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Chihiro; Nario, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h. We divided the animals into four groups as follows: the control, early gestational exposure, mid-gestational exposure, and late gestational exposure groups. ABR thresholds and latencies in newborns were recorded using 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tone burst on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Changes in ABR thresholds and latencies were measured between the 4 × 4 and 4 × 3 factorial groups mentioned above (gestational periods × postnatal days, gestational periods × frequencies). The thresholds were low in the order of control group < early gestational exposure group < mid-gestational exposure group and late gestational exposure group. Noise exposure during pregnancy influenced ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. This is the first study to show that noise exposure during the early, mid-, and late gestational periods significantly elevated ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Noise characterization of analog to digital converters for amplitude and phase noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-Olaya, A. C.; Rubiola, E.; Friedt, J.-M.; Bourgeois, P.-Y.; Ortolano, M.; Micalizio, S.; Calosso, C. E.

    2017-06-01

    Improvements on electronic technology in recent years have allowed the application of digital techniques in phase noise metrology, where low noise and high accuracy are required, yielding flexibility in system implementation and setup. This results in measurement systems with extended capabilities, additional functionalities, and ease of use. In most digital schemes, the Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) set the ultimate performance of the system; therefore the proper selection of this component is a critical issue. Currently, the information available in the literature describes in depth the ADC features only at frequency offsets far from the carrier. However, the performance close to the carrier is a more important concern. As a consequence, the ADC noise is, in general, analyzed on the implemented phase measurement setup. We propose a noise model for ADCs and a method to estimate its parameters. The method retrieves the phase modulation and amplitude modulation noise by sampling around zero and maximum amplitude, a test sine-wave synchronous with the ADC clock. The model allows discriminating the ADC noise sources and obtaining the phase noise and amplitude noise power spectral densities from 10 Hz to one half of the sampling frequency. This approach reduces the data processing, allowing an efficient ADC evaluation in terms of hardware complexity and computational cost.

  2. Evidence of "hidden hearing loss" following noise exposures that produce robust TTS and ABR wave-I amplitude reductions.

    PubMed

    Lobarinas, Edward; Spankovich, Christopher; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-06-01

    In animals, noise exposures that produce robust temporary threshold shifts (TTS) can produce immediate damage to afferent synapses and long-term degeneration of low spontaneous rate auditory nerve fibers. This synaptopathic damage has been shown to correlate with reduced auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-I amplitudes at suprathreshold levels. The perceptual consequences of this "synaptopathy" remain unknown but have been suggested to include compromised hearing performance in competing background noise. Here, we used a modified startle inhibition paradigm to evaluate whether noise exposures that produce robust TTS and ABR wave-I reduction but not permanent threshold shift (PTS) reduced hearing-in-noise performance. Animals exposed to 109 dB SPL octave band noise showed TTS >30 dB 24-h post noise and modest but persistent ABR wave-I reduction 2 weeks post noise despite full recovery of ABR thresholds. Hearing-in-noise performance was negatively affected by the noise exposure. However, the effect was observed only at the poorest signal to noise ratio and was frequency specific. Although TTS >30 dB 24-h post noise was a predictor of functional deficits, there was no relationship between the degree of ABR wave-I reduction and degree of functional impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and Impact of Low Frequency Wind Turbine Noise Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, James

    Wind turbine noise is a complex issue that requires due diligence to minimize any potential impact on quality of life. This study enhances existing knowledge of wind turbine noise through focused analyses of downwind sound propagation, directionality, and the low frequency component of the noise. Measurements were conducted at four wind speeds according to a design of experiments at incremental distances and angles. Wind turbine noise is shown to be highly directional, while downwind sound propagation is spherical with limited ground absorption. The noise is found to have a significant low frequency component that is largely independent of wind speed over the 20-250 Hz range. The generated low frequency noise is shown to be audible above 40 Hz at the MOE setback distance of 550 m. Infrasound levels exhibit higher dependency on wind speed, but remain below audible levels up to 15 m/s.

  4. Automatic Exposure Control Systems Designed to Maintain Constant Image Noise: Effects on Computed Tomography Dose and Noise Relative to Clinically Accepted Technique Charts

    PubMed Central

    Favazza, Christopher P.; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare computed tomography dose and noise arising from use of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system designed to maintain constant image noise as patient size varies with clinically accepted technique charts and AEC systems designed to vary image noise. Materials and Methods A model was developed to describe tube current modulation as a function of patient thickness. Relative dose and noise values were calculated as patient width varied for AEC settings designed to yield constant or variable noise levels and were compared to empirically derived values used by our clinical practice. Phantom experiments were performed in which tube current was measured as a function of thickness using a constant-noise-based AEC system and the results were compared with clinical technique charts. Results For 12-, 20-, 28-, 44-, and 50-cm patient widths, the requirement of constant noise across patient size yielded relative doses of 5%, 14%, 38%, 260%, and 549% and relative noises of 435%, 267%, 163%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, as compared with our clinically used technique chart settings at each respective width. Experimental measurements showed that a constant noise–based AEC system yielded 175% relative noise for a 30-cm phantom and 206% relative dose for a 40-cm phantom compared with our clinical technique chart. Conclusions Automatic exposure control systems that prescribe constant noise as patient size varies can yield excessive noise in small patients and excessive dose in obese patients compared with clinically accepted technique charts. Use of noise-level technique charts and tube current limits can mitigate these effects. PMID:25938214

  5. Raynaud's phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2014-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by constriction in blood supply to the fingers causing finger blanching, of white fingers (WF) and is triggered by cold. Earlier studies found that workers using vibrating hand-held tools and who had vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) had an increased risk for hearing loss compared with workers without VWF. This study examined the occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure. All 342 participants had a confirmed noise-induced hearing loss medico legally accepted as work-related by AFA Insurance. Each subject answered a questionnaire concerning their health status and the kinds of exposures they had at the time when their hearing loss was first discovered. The questionnaire covered types of exposures, discomforts in the hands or fingers, diseases and medications affecting the blood circulation, the use of alcohol and tobacco and for women, the use of hormones and whether they had been pregnant. The participation rate was 41% (n = 133) with 38% (n = 94) for men and 50% (n = 39) for women. 84 men and 36 women specified if they had Raynaud's phenomenon and also if they had used hand-held vibrating machines. Nearly 41% of them had used hand-held vibrating machines and 18% had used vibrating machines at least 2 h each workday. There were 23 men/6 women with Raynaud's phenomenon. 37% reported WF among those participants who were exposed to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and 15% among those not exposed to HAV. Among the participants with hearing loss with daily use of vibrating hand-held tools more than twice as many reports WF compared with participants that did not use vibrating hand-held tools. This could be interpreted as Raynaud's phenomenon could be associated with an increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss. However, the low participation rate limits the generalization of the results from this study.

  6. Structural changes in the adult rat auditory system induced by brief postnatal noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Balogová, Zuzana; Lu, Hui Pin; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies (Grécová et al., Eur J Neurosci 29:1921-1930, 2009; Bures et al., Eur J Neurosci 32:155-164, 2010), we demonstrated that after an early postnatal short noise exposure (8 min 125 dB, day 14) changes in the frequency tuning curves as well as changes in the coding of sound intensity are present in the inferior colliculus (IC) of adult rats. In this study, we analyze on the basis of the Golgi-Cox method the morphology of neurons in the IC, the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC) of 3-month-old Long-Evans rats exposed to identical noise at postnatal day 14 and compare the results to littermate controls. In rats exposed to noise as pups, the mean total length of the neuronal tree was found to be larger in the external cortex and the central nucleus of the IC and in the ventral division of the MGB. In addition, the numerical density of dendritic spines was decreased on the branches of neurons in the ventral division of the MGB in noise-exposed animals. In the AC, the mean total length of the apical dendritic segments of pyramidal neurons was significantly shorter in noise-exposed rats, however, only slight differences with respect to controls were observed in the length of basal dendrites of pyramidal cells as well as in the neuronal trees of AC non-pyramidal neurons. The numerical density of dendritic spines on the branches of pyramidal AC neurons was lower in exposed rats than in controls. These findings demonstrate that early postnatal short noise exposure can induce permanent changes in the development of neurons in the central auditory system, which apparently represent morphological correlates of functional plasticity.

  7. Multi-parameters Characterization of Electromigration Noise in Metal Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liang; Du, Lei; Zhuang, Yi-Qi; Bao, Jun-Lin

    2009-04-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of power spectrum density (PSD) method in noise analysis, two non-linear methods were adpoted to analyse electromigration noise in metal interconnection. Correlation integral result showed the dominant component of noise altered from random component to determinate component during electromigration process, which meant that the noise was changed from random signal to chaotic dynamic signal. Multiscale entropy result showed the complexity of nosie decreased duirng electromigraiton process, which reflected the disorder degree of electromigration system decreased continually.

  8. Observations of noise exposure through the use of headphones by radio announcers.

    PubMed

    Williams, W; Presbury, J

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the potential risk of hearing loss by commercial radio announcers. This risk is developed through the regular use of headphones. These headphones are used to monitor broadcast transmission and communication information from program producers. To our knowledge there are no published studies of the noise exposure of radio announcers. The experimental method utilised a headphone parallel to the one in use mounted on a wideband, artificial ear. A Sound Level Meter was then used to measure the sound level and then calculate the exposure level. Depending on the feedback level applied to their headphones radio announcers are exposed to potentially damaging levels of noise. Levels measured correlate with results from other studies of long-term average speech spectrum and voice level measurements.

  9. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Mestre, Vincent; Schomer, Paul; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level."

  10. Long-term exposure to occupational noise alters the cortical organization of sound processing.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Alku, Paavo; Ambrosi, Luigi; Monitillo, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Long-term exposure to noise may cause an altered hemispheric lateralization of speech processing even in silent conditions. We examined whether this lateralization shift is speech specific or occurs also for other sounds. Brain responses from 10 healthy noise-exposed workers (>5 years) and 10 matched controls were recorded with a 32-channel electroencephalogram in two conditions, one including standard and deviant speech sounds, the other non-speech sounds, with novel sounds in both. The deviant-sound elicited mismatch negativity (MMN) was larger to non-speech than speech sounds in control subjects, while it did not differ between the sound types in the noise-exposed subjects. Moreover, the MMN to speech sounds was lateralized to the right hemisphere in exposed workers, while it was left-hemisphere predominant in control subjects. No group topography difference was found for non-speech sounds. The deviant sounds that were close in formant space to the standards elicited a longer MMN latency in both speech and non-speech conditions in exposed subjects than controls. No group differences were found for cortical responses to novel sounds. Long-term noise exposure altered the strength and the hemispheric organization of speech-sound discrimination and decreased the speed of sound-change processing. Subpathological changes in cortical responses to sounds may occur even in subjects without a peripheral damage but continuously exposed to noisy auditory environments.

  11. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R.; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA) and severely (71–90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  12. Methods to improve traffic flow and noise exposure estimation on minor roads.

    PubMed

    Morley, David W; Gulliver, John

    2016-09-01

    Address-level estimates of exposure to road traffic noise for epidemiological studies are dependent on obtaining data on annual average daily traffic (AADT) flows that is both accurate and with good geographical coverage. National agencies often have reliable traffic count data for major roads, but for residential areas served by minor roads, especially at national scale, such information is often not available or incomplete. Here we present a method to predict AADT at the national scale for minor roads, using a routing algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS) to rank roads by importance based on simulated journeys through the road network. From a training set of known minor road AADT, routing importance is used to predict AADT on all UK minor roads in a regression model along with the road class, urban or rural location and AADT on the nearest major road. Validation with both independent traffic counts and noise measurements show that this method gives a considerable improvement in noise prediction capability when compared to models that do not give adequate consideration to minor road variability (Spearman's rho. increases from 0.46 to 0.72). This has significance for epidemiological cohort studies attempting to link noise exposure to adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults' individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated.

  14. The effects of a hearing education program on recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Hannah; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Sofie, Degeest; Bart, Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Excessive recreational noise exposure in young adults might result in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and tinnitus. Inducing behavioral change in young adults is one of the aims of a hearing conservation program (HCP). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a hearing education program after 6 months in young adults in relation to knowledge regarding their individual hearing status. The results of a questionnaire regarding the weekly equivalent recreational noise exposure, attitudes and beliefs toward noise, and hearing loss and hearing protector devices (HPDs) were compared between both sessions. Seventy-eight young adults completed the questionnaire concerning recreational noise exposure, youth attitude to noise scale (YANS), and beliefs about hearing protection and hearing loss (BAHPHL). Their hearing status was evaluated based on admittance measures, audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The main analysis consisted of a mixed model analysis of variance with dependent variables of either the noise exposure or the scores on (subscales of) YANS and BAHPHL. The independent variables were hearing status and session one versus session two. There was a significant decrease in recreational noise exposure and several (sub) scales of YANS and BAHPHL between both the sessions. This behavioral change resulted in a more frequent use of HPDs in 12% of the participants. However, the behavioral change was not completely related to the knowledge of young adults’ individual hearing status. To prevent hearing damage in young people, investing in HCPs is necessary, apart from regulating sound levels and its compliance at various leisure-time activities. Also, the long-term effect of HCPs and their most cost-efficient repetition rates should be further investigated. PMID:26356367

  15. Effect of exposure to a mixture of solvents and noise on hearing and balance in aircraft maintenance workers.

    PubMed

    Prasher, Deepak; Al-Hajjaj, Haifa; Aylott, Susan; Aksentijevic, Aleksander

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance workers are exposed to a mixture of solvents in the presence of intermittent noise. For this study these workers exposed to solvent mix and noise, were compared with mill workers exposed to noise alone, printed circuit board operatives exposed to solvents alone and those exposed to none who acted as controls. Tympanometry, acoustic reflex thresholds, transient and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem potentials, nystagmography and posturography were examined. There was a significant effect on pure tone thresholds for both noise and solvents+noise. The distortion product otoacoustic emissions declined with frequency and exhibited lower DP amplitude with noise compared to solvents and noise group. The transient emissions showed a similar effect. Over 32% of subjects with solvent and noise exposure had abnormalities of the auditory brainstem responses in terms of interwave interval prolongation. The mean acoustic reflex thresholds showed a pattern of differences which differentiate noise from solvent and noise groups. The contralateral pathway appears to be differentially affected by solvent exposure. 32% of subjects in the solvents and noise group had an abnormal posturographic finding. In the solvents and noise group 74% had abnormalities of saccades, 56% of pursuit and 45% of optokinetic nystagmus.

  16. An Experimental Basis for the Estimation of Auditory System Hazard Following Exposure to Impulse Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Impulse Noise (Reprint) DTIC By SElEC.’E APR 21 1992 James H. Patterson, Jr. D Sensory Research Division and Roger P. Hamernik Auditory Research Laboratory...FRMA LTC, MS Director, Sens y Research Released for publication: ReV W. ,.DPh.D. DVDH E Chairman, Scientif-ic- Colonel, MC, FS Review Committee...more than the conventional A-weighting function. In the second study, the exposures consisted of 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21 . ABSTRACT

  17. Association between ambient noise exposure, hearing acuity, and risk of acute occupational injury

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the associations between acute workplace injury risk, ambient noise exposure, and hearing acuity, adjusting for reported hearing protection use. Methods In a cohort of 9220 aluminum manufacturing workers studied over six years (33 300 person-years, 13 323 person-jobs), multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of all injuries as well as serious injuries by noise exposure category and hearing threshold level (HTL) adjusting for recognized and potential confounders. Results Compared to noise <82 dBA, higher exposure was associated with elevated risk in a monotonic and statistically significant exposure–response pattern for all injuries and serious injuries with higher risk estimates observed for serious injuries [82–84.99 dBA: RR 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96–1.64; 85–87.99 dBA: RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.85; ≥88 dBA: RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.52–3.47]. Hearing loss was associated with increased risk for all injuries, but was not a significant predictor of risk for the subset of more serious injuries. Compared to those without hearing loss, workers with HTL ≥25 dB had 21% increased all injury risk (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09–1.33) while those with HTL 10–24.99 dB had 6% increased risk (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00–1.13). Reported hearing protection type did not predict injury risk. Conclusion Noise exposure levels as low as 85 dBA may increase workplace injury risk. HTL was associated with increased risk for all, but not the subset of serious, injuries. Additional study is needed both to confirm the observed associations and explore causal pathways. PMID:25137556

  18. Asymmetrical Hearing Loss in Cases of Industrial Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Liam; Howard, James; Liu, Zi Wei; Phillips, John

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical hearing thresholds are common in people claiming compensation for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). When present and otherwise unexplained, there is some controversy as to whether such asymmetry can be attributed to occupational noise exposure. In this review, our main objectives were to collate the overall prevalence of this finding in subjects with NIHL, and further, to provide a balanced argument regarding causality. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane, Google Scholar. No date or language restrictions. A systematic review of the literature was performed and data on noise exposure, pure tone audiometry, and lateralized hearing outcomes were reviewed. Newcastle-Ottawa (N-O) criteria were employed to assess quality of studies where applicable. N/A CONCLUSION:: Six studies met the inclusion criteria giving a total of 4,735 individual cases with NIHL. Asymmetrical hearing loss accounted for between 2.4% and 22.6% of NIHL cases (L-R difference >15 dB for any frequency 0.5-8 kHz). However, the overwhelming majority of subjects in this review have symmetrical hearing loss when adjusted for other significant variables, e.g., age, sex, and binaural hearing deterioration. Subjects considered for noise exposure remuneration were men (94.3% SE ± 2.7), aged 52.9 years (inter-quartile range, 46.1-58.4), and from a broad range of industrial backgrounds. Future research will be needed to establish the influence of other factors such as smoking status, exposure to chemical agents, specific drugs, or genetic predisposition.

  19. Establishing aerosol exposure predictive models based on noise measurements--using concrete drilling as an example.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Ching-Hwa; Hsu, Der-Jen; Dai, Yu-Tung; Chang, Cheng-Ping

    2009-08-01

    This study used a full scale mockup of a concrete drilling simulator to simulate drilling processes in an exposure chamber. Six drilling conditions were selected with rotating speeds and drill bit sizes varied from 265 to 587 rpm and 16 to 32 mm, respectively. For each drilling condition, the emitted noise power spectrums were measured and dust exposure concentrations of the fractions of the total (C(tot)), inhalable (C(inh)), thoracic (C(tho)), and respirable (C(res)) were estimated. We find that neither the resultant dust exposure levels nor the noise levels can be explained simply by the involved drilling mechanical energy. By dividing the emitted noise power spectrums into the high and low frequency noise (i.e., W(H) and W(L)), we find that 86.3%, 85.6%, 81.5%, and 77.6% variations of C(tot), C(inh), C(tho), and C(res) could be explained by the combination of W(H) and W(L), respectively. We also find that the emissions of coarse particles and W(L) were possibly contributed by two mechanisms of the impact wear and brittle fracture wear, whereas fine particles and W(H) could be contributed by the mechanism of abrasive wear. Although the predictive models obtained from this study could not be directly used in other dust emission sources, the developed methodology would be beneficial to industries in the future for aerosol exposure assessment, particularly when conducting conventional personal aerosol samplings is not possible in the field.

  20. Phase noise characterization of sub-hertz linewidth lasers via digital cross correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Lours, Michel; Alexandre, Christophe; Le Coq, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Phase noise or frequency noise is a key metrics to evaluate the short term stability of a laser. This property is of a great interest for the applications but delicate to characterize, especially for narrow line-width lasers. In this letter, we demonstrate a digital cross correlation scheme to characterize the absolute phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers. Three 1,542 nm ultra-stable lasers are used in this approach. For each measurement two lasers act as references to characterize a third one. Phase noise power spectral density from 0.5 Hz to 0.8 MHz Fourier frequencies can be derived for each laser by a mere change in the configuration of the lasers. This is the first time showing the phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers with no reference limitation. We also present an analysis of the laser phase noise performance.

  1. Phase noise characterization of sub-hertz linewidth lasers via digital cross correlation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Lours, Michel; Alexandre, Christophe; Le Coq, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Phase noise or frequency noise is a key metric to evaluate the short-term stability of a laser. This property is of great interest for the applications but delicate to characterize, especially for narrow linewidth lasers. In this Letter, we demonstrate a digital cross-correlation scheme to characterize the absolute phase noise of sub-hertz linewidth lasers. Three 1542 nm ultra-stable lasers are used in this approach. For each measurement, two lasers act as references to characterize a third one. Phase noise power spectral density from 0.5 Hz to 0.8 MHz Fourier frequencies can be derived for each laser by a mere change in the configuration of the lasers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time showing the phase noise of sub-hertz linewidth lasers with no reference limitation. We also present an analysis of the laser phase noise performance.

  2. Speech discrimination after early exposure to pulsed-noise or speech

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Borland, Michael S.; Moreno, Nicole A.; Hanacik, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Robert S.; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Early experience of structured inputs and complex sound features generate lasting changes in tonotopy and receptive field properties of primary auditory cortex (A1). In this study we tested whether these changes are severe enough to alter neural representations and behavioral discrimination of speech. We exposed two groups of rat pups during the critical period of auditory development to pulsed noise or speech. Both groups of rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds when they were young adults, and anesthetized neural responses were recorded from A1. The representation of speech in A1 and behavioral discrimination of speech remained robust to altered spectral and temporal characteristics of A1 neurons after pulsed-noise exposure. Exposure to passive speech during early development provided no added advantage in speech sound processing. Speech training increased A1 neuronal firing rate for speech stimuli in naïve rats, but did not increase responses in rats that experienced early exposure to pulsed noise or speech. Our results suggest that speech sound processing is resistant to changes in simple neural response properties caused by manipulating early acoustic environment. PMID:22575207

  3. Noise Exposure on a Warship during Firing of a Heavy Machine Gun.

    PubMed

    Paddan, Gurmail S

    2015-11-01

    Sound pressure levels were measured on a military ship during firing of a Heavy Machine Gun (HMG). Measurements were made at three locations on the ship's bridge (the wheelhouse) and one location on the starboard bridge wing. The highest peak sound pressure levels measured on the bridge wing and on the bridge were 160.7 dB(C) (2170 Pa) and 122.7 dB(C) (27.3 Pa), respectively. The highest sound exposure levels measured on the bridge wing and on the bridge corresponding to one round being fired were 127.8 dB(A) and 88.9 dB(A), respectively. The ship's structure provided about 40 dB attenuation in the transmitted noise. The operator of the weapon would be required to wear some form of hearing protection. Based on the measured peak noise levels, there would be no requirement for bridge crew to wear any hearing protection during firing of a HMG. However, crew exposure to noise on the bridge is likely to exceed the upper exposure action value corresponding to 85 dB(A) after about 11 750 rounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Spectrum pattern resolution after noise exposure in a beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas: Evoked potential study.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vladimir V; Nechaev, Dmitry I; Sysueva, Evgenia V; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2015-07-01

    Temporary threshold shift (TTS) and the discrimination of spectrum patterns after fatiguing noise exposure (170 dB re 1 μPa, 10 min duration) was investigated in a beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, using the evoked potential technique. Thresholds were measured using rhythmic (1000/s) pip trains of varying levels and recording the rhythmic evoked responses. Discrimination of spectrum patterns was investigated using rippled-spectrum test stimuli of various levels and ripple densities, recording the rhythmic evoked responses to ripple phase reversals. Before noise exposure, the greatest responses to rippled-spectrum probes were evoked by stimuli with a low ripple density with a decrease in the response magnitude occurring with an increasing ripple density. After noise exposure, both a TTS and a reduction of the responses to rippled-spectrum probes appeared and recovered in parallel. The reduction of the responses to rippled-spectrum probes was maximal for high-magnitude responses at low ripple densities and was negligible for low-magnitude responses at high ripple densities. It is hypothesized that the impacts of fatiguing sounds are not limited by increased thresholds and decreased sensitivity results in reduced ability to discriminate fine spectral content with the greatest impact on the discrimination of spectrum content that may carry the most obvious information about stimulus properties.

  5. Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: I. Noise surveys.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Luann E; Morata, Thais; Kardous, Chucri A; Gwin, Kristin; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Dallaire, Jacques; Alvarez, Frank J

    2005-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed noise exposure for a professional stock car team at their race shop and during two races at one racetrack. At the team's shop, area sound pressure levels (SPLs) were measured for various work tasks. Equivalent levels (Leqs) ranged from 58 to 104 decibels, A-weighted (dBA). Personal noise dosimetry was conducted for at least one employee for each job description in race car assembly (n = 9). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 90 dBA for an 8-hour, 5-dB exchange rate time-weighted average (TWA) was never exceeded, but in two instances values exceeded OSHA's action level of 85 dBA for hearing conservation implementation. The NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 85 dBA for a 3-dB exchange rate Leq was exceeded for five of the measured jobs. During the races, SPLs averaged above 100 dBA in the pit area where cars undergo adjustments/refueling, both before and during the race. Peak levels reached 140 dB SPL. NIOSH REL was exceeded for every personal noise dosimetry measurement. Recommendations for hearing protection and communication are presented.

  6. Speech discrimination after early exposure to pulsed-noise or speech.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Carraway, Ryan S; Borland, Michael S; Moreno, Nicole A; Hanacik, Elizabeth A; Miller, Robert S; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-07-01

    Early experience of structured inputs and complex sound features generate lasting changes in tonotopy and receptive field properties of primary auditory cortex (A1). In this study we tested whether these changes are severe enough to alter neural representations and behavioral discrimination of speech. We exposed two groups of rat pups during the critical period of auditory development to pulsed-noise or speech. Both groups of rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds when they were young adults, and anesthetized neural responses were recorded from A1. The representation of speech in A1 and behavioral discrimination of speech remained robust to altered spectral and temporal characteristics of A1 neurons after pulsed-noise exposure. Exposure to passive speech during early development provided no added advantage in speech sound processing. Speech training increased A1 neuronal firing rate for speech stimuli in naïve rats, but did not increase responses in rats that experienced early exposure to pulsed-noise or speech. Our results suggest that speech sound processing is resistant to changes in simple neural response properties caused by manipulating early acoustic environment.

  7. The Risk of Occupational Injury Increased According to Severity of Noise Exposure After Controlling for Occupational Environment Status in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P < 0.05). Compared to the non-exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07–1.80) and 1.67 (1.13–2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. Conclusions: The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure. PMID:27991467

  8. Hidden Hearing Loss? No Effect of Common Recreational Noise Exposure on Cochlear Nerve Response Amplitude in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Grinn, Sarah K.; Wiseman, Kathryn B.; Baker, Jason A.; Le Prell, Colleen G.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested hypothesized relationships between noise exposure and auditory deficits. Both retrospective assessment of potential associations between noise exposure history and performance on an audiologic test battery and prospective assessment of potential changes in performance after new recreational noise exposure were completed. Methods: 32 participants (13M, 19F) with normal hearing (25-dB HL or better, 0.25–8 kHz) were asked to participate in 3 pre- and post-exposure sessions including: otoscopy, tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) (f2 frequencies 1–8 kHz), pure-tone audiometry (0.25–8 kHz), Words-in-Noise (WIN) test, and electrocochleography (eCochG) measurements at 70, 80, and 90-dB nHL (click and 2–4 kHz tone-bursts). The first session was used to collect baseline data, the second session was collected the day after a loud recreational event, and the third session was collected 1-week later. Of the 32 participants, 26 completed all 3 sessions. Results: The retrospective analysis did not reveal statistically significant relationships between noise exposure history and any auditory deficits. The day after new exposure, there was a statistically significant correlation between noise “dose” and WIN performance overall, and within the 4-dB signal-to-babble ratio. In contrast, there were no statistically significant correlations between noise dose and changes in threshold, DPOAE amplitude, or AP amplitude the day after new noise exposure. Additional analyses revealed a statistically significant relationship between TTS and DPOAE amplitude at 6 kHz, with temporarily decreased DPOAE amplitude observed with increasing TTS. Conclusions: There was no evidence of auditory deficits as a function of previous noise exposure history, and no permanent changes in audiometric, electrophysiologic, or functional measures after new recreational noise exposure. There were very few participants with TTS the day after exposure - a test

  9. Hidden Hearing Loss? No Effect of Common Recreational Noise Exposure on Cochlear Nerve Response Amplitude in Humans.

    PubMed

    Grinn, Sarah K; Wiseman, Kathryn B; Baker, Jason A; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-01-01

    This study tested hypothesized relationships between noise exposure and auditory deficits. Both retrospective assessment of potential associations between noise exposure history and performance on an audiologic test battery and prospective assessment of potential changes in performance after new recreational noise exposure were completed. Methods: 32 participants (13M, 19F) with normal hearing (25-dB HL or better, 0.25-8 kHz) were asked to participate in 3 pre- and post-exposure sessions including: otoscopy, tympanometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) (f2 frequencies 1-8 kHz), pure-tone audiometry (0.25-8 kHz), Words-in-Noise (WIN) test, and electrocochleography (eCochG) measurements at 70, 80, and 90-dB nHL (click and 2-4 kHz tone-bursts). The first session was used to collect baseline data, the second session was collected the day after a loud recreational event, and the third session was collected 1-week later. Of the 32 participants, 26 completed all 3 sessions. Results: The retrospective analysis did not reveal statistically significant relationships between noise exposure history and any auditory deficits. The day after new exposure, there was a statistically significant correlation between noise "dose" and WIN performance overall, and within the 4-dB signal-to-babble ratio. In contrast, there were no statistically significant correlations between noise dose and changes in threshold, DPOAE amplitude, or AP amplitude the day after new noise exposure. Additional analyses revealed a statistically significant relationship between TTS and DPOAE amplitude at 6 kHz, with temporarily decreased DPOAE amplitude observed with increasing TTS. Conclusions: There was no evidence of auditory deficits as a function of previous noise exposure history, and no permanent changes in audiometric, electrophysiologic, or functional measures after new recreational noise exposure. There were very few participants with TTS the day after exposure - a test time

  10. Noise Characterization of Supercontinuum Sources for Low Coherence Interferometry Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William J.; Kim, Sanghoon; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We examine the noise properties of supercontinuum light sources when used in low coherence interferometry applications. The first application is a multiple-scattering low-coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) system where high power and long image acquisition times are required to image deep into tissue. For this system we compare the noise characteristics of two supercontinuum sources from different suppliers. Both sources have long term drift that limits the amount of time over which signal averaging is advantageous for reducing noise. The second application is a high resolution optical coherence tomography system where broadband light is needed for high axial resolution. For this system we compare the noise performance of the two supercontinuum sources and a light source based on four superluminescent diodes (SLDs) using imaging contrast as a comparative metric. We find that the NKT SuperK has superior noise performance compared to the Fianium SC-450-4 but neither meets the performance of the SLDs. PMID:25606759

  11. Combined effects of exposure to occupational noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure in car manufacturing company workers.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Golabadi, Majid; Labbafinejad, Yasser; Mohammadi, Saber

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that occupational exposures such as noise and organic solvents may affect blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate interaction of noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure. Four hundred seventy-one workers of a car manufacturing plant were divided into four groups: group one or G1 workers exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents in the permitted limit or control group, G3 exposed to noise only, G2 exposed to solvents only, and G4 workers exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents at higher than the permitted limit or co-exposure group. Biological interaction of two variables on hypertension was calculated using the synergistic index. The workers of co-exposure group (G4), noise only group (G3), and solvents only group (G2) had significantly higher mean values of SBP and DBP than workers of control group (G1) or office workers (P < 0.05). Also logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between hypertension and exposure to noise and mixture of organic solvents. Odds ratio for hypertension in the co-exposure group and the noise only and solvents only exposed groups was 14.22, 9.43, and 4.38, respectively, compared to control group. In this study, the estimated synergism index was 1.11. Our results indicate that exposure to noise or a mixture of organic solvents may be associated with the prevalence of hypertension in car manufacturing company workers and co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in this regard. Therefore appropriate preventive programs in these workers recommended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Does aircraft noise exposure increase the risk of hypertension in the population living near airports in France?

    PubMed

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Lefèvre, Marie; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The largest study until now around 6 major European airports, the HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports) study, reported an excess risk of hypertension related to long-term aircraft noise exposure. The DEBATS (Discussion on the health effects of aircraft noise) study investigated the relationship between this exposure and the risk of hypertension in men and in women near French airports. Blood pressure of 1244 participants older than 18 years of age was measured. Information about health, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire performed at home by an interviewer. Aircraft noise exposure was assessed for each participant's home address using noise maps. They were calculated with the Integrated Noise Model with a 1 dB(A)-resolution. The major potential confounders being risk factors for hypertension were included in the logistic regression models: age, occupational activity, body mass index, physical activity and alcohol consumption. After adjustment for the main potential confounders, an exposure-response relationship was evidenced between the risk of hypertension and aircraft noise exposure at night for men only. A 10-dB(A) increase in Lnight was associated with an OR of 1.34 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.97). These findings contribute to the overall evidence suggesting that aircraft noise exposure at night-time may increase the risk of hypertension in men. Hypertension is a well-known and established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association reported in the present study between aircraft noise and hypertension implies that aircraft noise might be a risk factor also for cardiovascular disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. The value of a kurtosis metric in estimating the hazard to hearing of complex industrial noise exposures

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Hamernik, Roger P.; Davis, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    A series of Gaussian and non-Gaussian equal energy noise exposures were designed with the objective of establishing the extent to which the kurtosis statistic could be used to grade the severity of noise trauma produced by the exposures. Here, 225 chinchillas distributed in 29 groups, with 6 to 8 animals per group, were exposed at 97 dB SPL. The equal energy exposures were presented either continuously for 5 d or on an interrupted schedule for 19 d. The non-Gaussian noises all differed in the level of the kurtosis statistic or in the temporal structure of the noise, where the latter was defined by different peak, interval, and duration histograms of the impact noise transients embedded in the noise signal. Noise-induced trauma was estimated from auditory evoked potential hearing thresholds and surface preparation histology that quantified sensory cell loss. Results indicated that the equal energy hypothesis is a valid unifying principle for estimating the consequences of an exposure if and only if the equivalent energy exposures had the same kurtosis. Furthermore, for the same level of kurtosis the detailed temporal structure of an exposure does not have a strong effect on trauma. PMID:23654391

  14. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic