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Sample records for noise pollution levels

  1. Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?

    PubMed

    Arana, M

    2010-04-01

    The majority of acoustic impact studies developed over the last 50 years have used a similar acoustic parameter (L(eq), L(dn)) but the noise mapping methodology has been very uneven. The selection of the measurement points, the measurement periods, or the evaluation indices have not followed a unique criterion. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the sound pollution levels between different cities from those studies, at least in a rigorous sense. Even more, different studies carried out in the same city by different researchers during different years and using different methodologies are not conclusive whether the acoustic pollution increases or decreases. The present paper shows results, with statistical significance, about the evolution of the acoustic pollution obtained for two Spanish cities, Pamplona and Madrid. In both cases, it can be concluded that noise pollution decreases over time (P<0.01).

  2. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  3. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  4. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  5. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution.

  6. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  7. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  9. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  10. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  11. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  12. Noise Pollution in Turkish Elementary Schools: Evaluation of Noise Pollution Awareness and Sensitivity Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates noise pollution levels in two elementary schools. Also, "noise level awareness and sensitivity training" was given for reducing noise pollution, and the effects and results of this training were evaluated. "Sensitivity" training was given to 611 students and 48 teachers in a private and a public school.…

  13. Reduction of air pollution levels downwind of a road with an upwind noise barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayati Ahangar, Faraz; Heist, David; Perry, Steven; Venkatram, Akula

    2017-04-01

    We propose a dispersion model to estimate the impact of a solid noise barrier upwind of a highway on air pollution concentrations downwind of the road. The model, based on data from wind tunnel experiments conducted by Heist et al. (2009), assumes that the upwind barrier has two main effects: 1) it creates a recirculation zone behind the barrier that sweeps the emissions from the highway back towards the wall, and 2) it enhances vertical dispersion and initial mixing. By combining the upwind barrier model with the mixed wake model for a downwind barrier described in Schulte et al. (2014), we are able to model dispersion of emissions from a highway with noise barriers on both sides. The model provides a good description of measurements made in the wind tunnel. The presence of an upwind barrier causes reductions in concentrations relative to those measured downwind of a road with no barriers. The reduction can be as large as that caused by a downwind barrier if the recirculation zone covers the width of the highway. Barriers on both sides of the highway result in larger reductions downwind of the barriers than those caused by a single barrier either upwind or downwind. As expected, barrier effects are small beyond 10 barrier heights downwind of the highway. We also propose a tentative model to estimate on-road concentrations within the recirculation zone induced by the upwind barrier.

  14. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Hermann, Fredrick S

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens' perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.

  15. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Fredrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens’ perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects. PMID:27703863

  16. Sounds and Noises. A Position Paper on Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Thomas L.

    This position paper focuses on noise pollution and the problems and solutions associated with this form of pollution. The paper is divided into the following five sections: Noise and the Ear, Noise Measurement, III Effects of Noise, Acoustics and Action, and Programs and Activities. The first section identifies noise and sound, the beginnings of…

  17. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  18. Noise Levels in the Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    59-63. Hodge, B., & Thompson , J . F . (1990). Noise pollution in the operating theatre. The Lancet, 335, 891-894. Noise Levels 41...Kam, P. C. A., Kam A. C., & Thompson , J . F . (1994). Noise pollution in the anaesthetic and intensive care environment. Anaesthesia, 49, 982-986

  19. Noise Pollution--What can be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edgar A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the ratio of energy dissipated as sound to the mechanical output of devices. Considers noise levels, ranges vs. peaks, noise indexes, and health hazards. Indicates some problems vs. solutions in the technology of noise control. (GH)

  20. Aspects of legislative cognizance of noise pollution in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Brind; Oberoi, Sharad V

    2011-04-01

    The impacts of noise pollution are associated with the mental, physical, emotional and psychological well-being of an individual. Its damaging effects from various natural and man-made sources are potential hazards that need to be checked at the planning, executive and judicial levels. The paper presents an overview of the technological aspects of noise pollution, and seeks to visit its legislative aspects with respect to India. Excerpts from international laws are presented for a meaningful discussion. References are made from the conclusions of studies carried out by researchers and legislative cases involving noise pollution to make this paper useful for researchers, planners and administrators.

  1. A Literature Survey of Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, H. H.

    Physically, noise is a complex sound that has little or no periodicity. However, the essential characteristic of noise is its undesirability. Thus, noise can be defined as any annoying or unwanted sound. In recent years, the rapid increase of noise level in our environment has become a national public health hazard. Noise affects man's state of…

  2. Light and noise pollution interact to disrupt interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Rohr, Jason R; Bernal, Ximena E

    2017-02-07

    Studies on the consequences of urbanization often examine the effects of light, noise, and heat pollution independently on isolated species providing a limited understanding of how these combined stressors affect species interactions. Here, we investigate how these factors interact to affect parasitic frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.) and their túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus) hosts. A survey of túngara frog calling sites revealed that frog abundance was not significantly correlated with urbanization, light, noise, or temperature. In contrast, frog-biting midges were sensitive to light pollution and noise pollution. Increased light intensity significantly reduced midge abundance at low noise levels. At high noise intensity, there were no midges regardless of light level. Two field experiments controlling light and noise levels to examine attraction of the midges to their host and their feeding behavior confirmed the causality of these field patterns. These findings demonstrate that both light and noise pollution disrupt this host-parasite interaction and highlight the importance of considering interactions among species and types of pollutants to accurately assess the impacts of urbanization on ecological communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pninit; Potchter, Oded; Schnell, Izhak

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the influence of urban parks on air quality and noise in the city of Tel-Aviv, Israel, by investigation of an urban park, an urban square and a street canyon. Simultaneous monitoring of several air pollutants and noise levels were conducted. The results showed that urban parks can reduce NOx, CO and PM10 and increase O3 concentrations and that park's mitigation effect is greater at higher NOx and PM10 levels. During extreme events, mean values of 413 ppb NOx and 80 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the street while mean values of 89 ppb NOx and 24 μG/m3 PM10 were measured in the park. Whereas summer highest O3 values of 84 ppb were measured in the street, 94 ppb were measured in the park. The benefit of the urban park in reducing NOx and PM10 concentrations is more significant than the disadvantage of increased O3 levels. Furthermore, urban parks can reduce noise by ∼5 dB(A).

  4. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  5. Noise pollution mapping approach and accuracy on landscape scales.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Merchan, Carlos; Diaz-Balteiro, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Noise mapping allows the characterization of environmental variables, such as noise pollution or soundscape, depending on the task. Strategic noise mapping (as per Directive 2002/49/EC, 2002) is a tool intended for the assessment of noise pollution at the European level every five years. These maps are based on common methods and procedures intended for human exposure assessment in the European Union that could be also be adapted for assessing environmental noise pollution in natural parks. However, given the size of such areas, there could be an alternative approach to soundscape characterization rather than using human noise exposure procedures. It is possible to optimize the size of the mapping grid used for such work by taking into account the attributes of the area to be studied and the desired outcome. This would then optimize the mapping time and the cost. This type of optimization is important in noise assessment as well as in the study of other environmental variables. This study compares 15 models, using different grid sizes, to assess the accuracy of the noise mapping of the road traffic noise at a landscape scale, with respect to noise and landscape indicators. In a study area located in the Manzanares High River Basin Regional Park in Spain, different accuracy levels (Kappa index values from 0.725 to 0.987) were obtained depending on the terrain and noise source properties. The time taken for the calculations and the noise mapping accuracy results reveal the potential for setting the map resolution in line with decision-makers' criteria and budget considerations.

  6. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs—Noise maps and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, Paulo Eduardo Kirrian; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2015-02-15

    A study was made of some of the main traffic hubs in a Latin American metropolis, in order to determine the presence or absence of noise by means of noise measurements and acoustic mapping. To characterize noise in the evaluated road stretches, 232 measurements were taken at different points. The Predictor software package was used for the noise mapping calculations. Noise sensitive areas, e.g., hospitals, were identified in the evaluated road stretches. Noise maps were calculated for two hospitals, showing the current levels of noise that reach their facades. Hypothetical scenarios were simulated by making changes in the composition of traffic and total number of vehicles, and an assessment was made of the potential influence of these modifications in reducing the noise levels reaching the facades of the buildings in question. The simulations indicated that a 50% reduction in total traffic flow, or a 50% reduction in heavy vehicle traffic flow, would reduce the noise levels by about 3 dB(A). - Highlights: • Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs • Street systems • Environmental noise impacts • Noise mapping.

  7. Noise pollution and annoyance: An urban soundscapes study

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health. PMID:25913551

  8. Noise pollution and annoyance: an urban soundscapes study.

    PubMed

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health.

  9. Underwater noise pollution in a coastal tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, L; Carvalho, R R; Lailson-Brito, J; Azevedo, A F

    2014-06-15

    Underwater noise pollution has become a major concern in marine habitats. Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, is an impacted area of economic importance with constant vessel traffic. One hundred acoustic recording sessions took place over ten locations. Sound sources operating within 1 km radius of each location were quantified during recordings. The highest mean sound pressure level near the surface was 111.56±9.0 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency band of 187 Hz. Above 15 kHz, the highest mean sound pressure level was 76.21±8.3 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency 15.89 kHz. Noise levels correlated with number of operating vessels and vessel traffic composition influenced noise profiles. Shipping locations had the highest noise levels, while small vessels locations had the lowest noise levels. Guanabara Bay showed noise pollution similar to that of other impacted coastal regions, which is related to shipping and vessel traffic.

  10. Airport-related air pollution and noise.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Beverly S; Bronzaft, Arline L; Heikkinen, Maire; Goodman, Jerome; Nádas, Arthur

    2008-02-01

    To provide quantitative evidence of the impact on people of a neighboring metropolitan airport, La Guardia Airport (LGA) in New York City, (1) airborne particulate matter (PM) was measured to determine whether concentration differences could be detected between homes that are upwind and downwind of the airport; (2) 24-hr noise measurements were made in 12 homes near the airport; and (3) the impact of noise was assessed by a Community Wellness and Health Promotion Survey. Particulate matter concentrations were higher during active airport operating hours than during nonoperating hours, and the percent increase varied inversely with distance from the airport. Hourly differences between paired upwind and downwind sites were not remarkable. Residents living near the airport were exposed to noise levels as much as four times greater than those experienced by residents in a quiet, comparison home. Impulse noise events were detected from both aircraft and vehicular traffic. More than 55% of the people living within the flight path were bothered by aircraft noise, and 63% by highway noise; these were significantly higher percentages than for residents in the nonflight area. The change in PM concentrations with distance during operating compared with nonoperating hours; traffic-related impulse noise events; and the elevated annoyance with highway noise, as well as aircraft noise among residents in the flight path area, show airport-related motor vehicle traffic to be a major contributor to the negative impact of airports on people in the surrounding communities.

  11. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  12. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa M.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    A study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 17.83% out of the measurement sites have presented Leq levels over 65 dB(A), considered by the Preventive Medicine as the maximum level one can be exposed to without being exposed to health impairment risks, and 52.48% out of the meas sites do not satisfy the municipal law 10625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas (AV). The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people users to visit the park every 75% of them seek for the realization of a physical activity during the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of interviewed people point the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 29% of them point the local security.

  13. Noise Pollution--An Overlooked Issue in the Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Kam, Goh Ah

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for including noise pollution in the science curriculum and describes 10 activities for improving students' awareness and understanding of and concern for noise and its effects. (Author/JN)

  14. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  15. Noise Hazard Evaluation Sound Level Data on Noise Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD-A021 465 NOISE HAZARD EfALUATION SOUND LEVEL DATA ON NOISE SOURCES Jeffrey Goldstein Army Environmental Hygiene Agency Prepared for: Army Health ...A. Noise Hazard Evaluation. B. Engineering Noise Control. C. Health Education. D. Audiometry. E. Hearing Protection. This technical guide concerns the...SOUND LEVEL DATA OF NOISE SOURCES Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. jGI4A C4C SENTINEL HEALTH I 5 US ARMY ENVIROIN.MENTAL HYGIENE

  16. Influence of urban morphology on total noise pollution: multifractal description.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Villaverde, Ana B; Jiménez-Hornero, Francisco J; Gutiérrez De Ravé, Eduardo

    2014-02-15

    Exposure to ambient noise levels above 65 dB can cause public health problems. The spatial distribution of this kind of pollution is linked to various elements which make up the urban form, such as construction density, the existence of open spaces and the shape and physical position of buildings. Since urban morphology displays multifractal behaviour, the present research studies for the first time the relationship between total noise pollution and urban features, such as street width and building height by means of a joint multifractal spectrum in two neighbourhoods of the city of Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). According to the results, the joint multifractal spectrum reveals a positive correlation between the total noise pollution and the street width to building height ratio, this being more evident when urban morphology is regular. The information provided by the multifractal analysis completes the description obtained by using urban indexes and landscape metrics and might be useful for urban planning once the linkage between both frameworks has been done.

  17. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.

  18. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r < 0.41). One-week Leq correlated well with NO, NO2, and EC levels (r = 0.61 to 0.68) and less so with PM2.5 levels (r = 0.45). We observed associations between 1-week noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0

  19. A system for evaluating the impact of noise pollution on the population's health.

    PubMed

    Bressane, Adriano; Mochizuki, Patricia Satie; Caram, Rosana Maria; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a support system for the evaluation of noise pollution, applied to the central urban area of Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were obtained from noise measurements and interviews with the population, generating the following indicators: equivalent sound level (Leq ), traffic noise index (LTNI ), and a participatory diagnosis (Dp ), integrated through a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The proposed system allowed classifying the measurement points according to the degree of impact of noise pollution on the population's health (IPS ) in the study area. Impact was considered significant in 31.4% of the measurement points and very significant in 62.9%. The FIS can be adjusted to local conditions, allowing generalization and thus also supporting noise pollution evaluation and respective environmental noise management in other geographic areas.

  20. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  1. Assessment, analysis and appraisal of road traffic noise pollution in Rourkela city, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shreerup; Swain, Bijay Kumar; Panda, Santosh Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The problem of road traffic noise pollution has become a concern for both the public and the policy makers. Noise level was assessed in 12 different squares of Rourkela city during different specified times (7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., 7-10 p.m., 10 p.m.-12 midnight and 4-6 a.m.). Noise descriptors such as L,eq, traffic noise index, noise pollution level, noise climate, Lday, Levening, Lnight and Lden were assessed to reveal the extent of noise pollution due to heavy traffic in this city. The equivalent noise levels of all the 12 squares were found to be much beyond the permissible limit (70dB during day time and 55dB during night time). Appallingly, even the minimum L eq and NPL values were more than 82 dB and 96 dB during day time and 69 dB and 91 dB during night time respectively. Lden values of investigated squares ranged from 83.4 to 86.1 dB and were even more than the day time permissible limit of traffic noise. The prediction model was used in the present study to predict noise pollution level instead of Leq. Comparison of predicted with that of the actual measured data demonstrated that the model used for the prediction has the ability to calibrate the multicomponent traffic noise and yield reliable results close to that by direct measurement. Lastly, it is inferred that the dimension of the traffic generated noise pollution in Rourkela is critical.

  2. Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Clinton D.; Kleist, Nathan J.; Ortega, Catherine P.; Cruz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Noise pollution is a novel, widespread environmental force that has recently been shown to alter the behaviour and distribution of birds and other vertebrates, yet whether noise has cumulative, community-level consequences by changing critical ecological services is unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of noise pollution on pollination and seed dispersal and seedling establishment within a study system that isolated the effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to human-altered landscapes. Using observations, vegetation surveys and pollen transfer and seed removal experiments, we found that effects of noise pollution can reverberate through communities by disrupting or enhancing these ecological services. Specifically, noise pollution indirectly increased artificial flower pollination by hummingbirds, but altered the community of animals that prey upon and disperse Pinus edulis seeds, potentially explaining reduced P. edulis seedling recruitment in noisy areas. Despite evidence that some ecological services, such as pollination, may benefit indirectly owing to noise, declines in seedling recruitment for key-dominant species such as P. edulis may have dramatic long-term effects on ecosystem structure and diversity. Because the extent of noise pollution is growing, this study emphasizes that investigators should evaluate the ecological consequences of noise alongside other human-induced environmental changes that are reshaping human-altered landscapes worldwide. PMID:22438504

  3. Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Francis, Clinton D; Kleist, Nathan J; Ortega, Catherine P; Cruz, Alexander

    2012-07-22

    Noise pollution is a novel, widespread environmental force that has recently been shown to alter the behaviour and distribution of birds and other vertebrates, yet whether noise has cumulative, community-level consequences by changing critical ecological services is unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of noise pollution on pollination and seed dispersal and seedling establishment within a study system that isolated the effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to human-altered landscapes. Using observations, vegetation surveys and pollen transfer and seed removal experiments, we found that effects of noise pollution can reverberate through communities by disrupting or enhancing these ecological services. Specifically, noise pollution indirectly increased artificial flower pollination by hummingbirds, but altered the community of animals that prey upon and disperse Pinus edulis seeds, potentially explaining reduced P. edulis seedling recruitment in noisy areas. Despite evidence that some ecological services, such as pollination, may benefit indirectly owing to noise, declines in seedling recruitment for key-dominant species such as P. edulis may have dramatic long-term effects on ecosystem structure and diversity. Because the extent of noise pollution is growing, this study emphasizes that investigators should evaluate the ecological consequences of noise alongside other human-induced environmental changes that are reshaping human-altered landscapes worldwide.

  4. Annoyance due to noise and air pollution to the residents of heavily frequented streets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanner, H. U.; Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.

    1980-01-01

    The residents of different streets with varying traffic density and building density were questioned about annoyance due to traffic noise and air pollution. Results show that annoyance felt is dependent not only on the measured noise levels and/or air pollution concentrations, but that there do exist interactions between the residential quarters and annoyance. These interactions should be considered when fixing the limits and standards.

  5. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  6. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P.; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  7. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant.

  8. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  9. Noise induced hearing impairment and loss. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmentally induced acoustic trauma. Occupational, residential, aircraft-related, and automotive noise stress are examined. Articles discuss noise control and reduction, diagnosis and pathology of hearing loss, regulation and legislation regarding noise pollution, personal protection, therapy, and risk assessment. Also included are related factors such as sound levels, sound frequencies, and exposure times. (Contains a minimum of 148 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Noise in restaurants: levels and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Chung, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Noise affects the dining atmosphere and is an occupational hazard to restaurant service employees worldwide. This paper examines the levels of noise in dining areas during peak hours in different types of restaurants in Hong Kong SAR, China. A mathematical model that describes the noise level in a restaurant is presented. The 1-h equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq,1-h)) was measured using a Type-1 precision integral sound level meter while the occupancy density, the floor area of the dining area, and the ceiling height of each of the surveyed restaurants were recorded. It was found that the measured noise levels using Leq,1-h ranged from 67.6 to 79.3 dBA in Chinese restaurants, from 69.1 to 79.1 dBA in fast food restaurants, and from 66.7 to 82.6 dBA in Western restaurants. Results of the analysis of variance show that there were no significant differences between means of the measured noise levels among different types of restaurants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationships between geometrical and operational parameters and the measured noise levels. Results of the regression analysis show that the measured noise levels depended on the levels of occupancy density only. By reconciling the measured noise levels and the mathematical model, it was found that people in restaurants increased their voice levels when the occupancy density increased. Nevertheless, the maximum measured hourly noise level indicated that the noise exposure experienced by restaurant service employees was below the regulated daily noise exposure value level of 85 dBA.

  11. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2. [Noise pollution control for natural gas pipeline compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type.

  12. Evaluation studies of noise and air pollution during festival seasons in India.

    PubMed

    Battalwar, D G; Meshram, S U; Yenkie, M K N; Puri, P J

    2012-07-01

    The present research work is based on assessment of noise levels and ambient air quality at selected locations during festival seasons in Nagpur city. The noise levels were exceeding the permissible limits almost at every location during the festival period. The huge emissions of smoke arising out bursting of firecrackers have significantly resulted into air pollution; particularly in terms of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (Fine Dust). The immediate effect of increasing noise levels is impairing of hearing that may cause auditory fatigue and finally lead to deafness.

  13. An aircraft noise pollution model for trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkana, A.; Cook, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the generation of aircraft noise is developed with the ultimate purpose of reducing noise (noise-optimizing landing trajectories) in terminal areas. While the model is for a specific aircraft (Boeing 737), the methodology would be applicable to a wide variety of aircraft. The model is used to obtain a footprint on the ground inside of which the noise level is at or above 70 dB.

  14. Nuisance levels of noise effects radiologists' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Coffey, Amina; Ryan, John; O'Beirne, Aaron; Toomey, Rachel; Evanoff, Micheal; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the sound levels in Irish x-ray departments. The study then established whether these levels of noise have an impact on radiologists performance Noise levels were recorded 10 times within each of 14 environments in 4 hospitals, 11 of which were locations where radiologic images are judged. Thirty chest images were then presented to 26 senior radiologists, who were asked to detect up to three nodular lesions within 30 posteroanterior chest x-ray images in the absence and presence of noise at amplitude demonstrated in the clinical environment. The results demonstrated that noise amplitudes rarely exceeded that encountered with normal conversation with the maximum mean value for an image-viewing environment being 56.1 dB. This level of noise had no impact on the ability of radiologists to identify chest lesions with figure of merits of 0.68, 0.69, and 0.68 with noise and 0.65, 0.68, and 0.67 without noise for chest radiologists, non-chest radiologists, and all radiologists, respectively. the difference in their performance using the DBM MRMC method was significantly better with noise than in the absence of noise at the 90% confidence interval (p=0.077). Further studies are required to establish whether other aspects of diagnosis are impaired such as recall and attention and the effects of more unexpected noise on performance.

  15. Noise pollution changes avian communities and species interactions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Clinton D; Ortega, Catherine P; Cruz, Alexander

    2009-08-25

    Humans have drastically changed much of the world's acoustic background with anthropogenic sounds that are markedly different in pitch and amplitude than sounds in most natural habitats. This novel acoustic background may be detrimental for many species, particularly birds. We evaluated conservation concerns that noise limits bird distributions and reduces nesting success via a natural experiment to isolate the effects of noise from confounding stimuli and to control for the effect of noise on observer detection biases. We show that noise alone reduces nesting species richness and leads to different avian communities. Contrary to expectations, noise indirectly facilitates reproductive success of individuals nesting in noisy areas as a result of the disruption of predator-prey interactions. The higher reproductive success for birds within noisy habitats may be a previously unrecognized factor contributing to the success of urban-adapted species and the loss of birds less tolerant of noise. Additionally, our findings suggest that noise can have cascading consequences for communities through altered species interactions. Given that noise pollution is becoming ubiquitous throughout much of the world, knowledge of species-specific responses to noise and the cumulative effects of these novel acoustics may be crucial to understanding and managing human-altered landscapes.

  16. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Janssen, Sabine A

    2011-06-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

  17. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  18. Effects of noise pollution over the blood serum immunoglobulins and auditory system on the VFM airport workers, Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Körpinar, Mehmet Ali; Tulgar, Metin

    2011-06-01

    Noise pollution is a common health problem for developing countries. Especially highways and airports lead to noise pollution in different levels and in many frequencies. In this study, we focused on the effect of noise pollution in airports. This work aimed measurements of noise pollution levels in Van Ferit Melen (VFM) airport and effect of noise pollution over the immunoglobulin A, G, and M changes among VFM airport workers in Turkey. It was seen that apron and terminal workers were exposed to high noise (>80 dB(A)) without any protective precautions. Noise-induced temporary threshold shifts and noise-induced permanent threshold shifts were detected between the apron workers (p < 0.001) and terminal workers (p < 0.005). IgA values of apron terminal and control group workers were approximately the same in the morning and increased in a linear manner during the day. This increase was statistically significant (p < 0.001). IgG and IgM values of apron, terminal, and control group workers were approximately same in the morning. Apron and terminal workers IgG and IgM levels were increased until noon and then decreased until evening as compare to control group, but these changes were not statically significant (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that the noise pollution in the VFM airport could lead to hearing loss and changes in blood serum immunoglobulin levels of airport workers. Blood serum immunoglobulin changes might be due to vibrational effects of noise pollution. Airport workers should apply protective precautions against effect of noise pollution in the VFM airport.

  19. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    PubMed

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people.

  20. [Noise pollution in the OR, who should take the lead?].

    PubMed

    Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2014-01-01

    This commentary discusses the article by Engelmann on noise reduction in the OR. The investigators managed to reduce average noise levels by 5%, with a > 50% reduction in peak levels. This led to a reduction in overall complications, and promoted working satisfaction. The author of the commentary calls for awareness, and puts the surgeon in the lead in controlling noise and music in order to guarantee optimal patient safety and to stimulate working satisfaction.

  1. Preliminary information on noise pollution in commercial banks of Balasore, India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shreerup; Swain, Bijay Kumar

    2012-11-01

    The environmental noise in some commercial banks of Balasore, in terms of standard noise indices was worked out in the present study. Noise pollution was assessed in twenty different commercial banks of the city on 31st August, 2010 and during first week of September, 2010. The present noise monitoring was conducted with the help of sound level meter, which was calibrated acoustically using an external reference source, and placed over the microphone. It is inferred that the noise levels were more than the permissible limit i.e. 50 dB as prescribed in USA in all the investigated banks of Balasore and the maximum noise levels were around double of the said permissible limit, which is a contradiction with that of developed countries. Analysis of variance was also computed for all the banks during peak hour (10 a.m.-12 noon). The mean values of noise levels in different banks ranged from 75.5 to 90dB; from 69 to 83.6dB and 71.5 to 83.5dB during 10 a.m.-12 noon, 12-2 p.m. and 2-4 p.m., respectively. It was categorically observed that noise levels were more during 10 a.m.-12 noon than other investigated time intervals in all the 20 investigated banks. It is imperative to mention here that such an attemptof assessing noise in banks is first of its kind in India.

  2. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  3. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97(th) percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  4. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific. PMID:27830837

  5. Noise Pollution Filters Bird Communities Based on Vocal Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Clinton D.; Ortega, Catherine P.; Cruz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are immediately relevant to the

  6. The temporal structure of pollution levels in developed cities.

    PubMed

    Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the need for mobility can cause significant pollution levels in cities, with important effects on health and quality of life. Any approach to the study of urban pollution and its effects requires an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability. It is a crucial dilemma to obtain proven methodologies that allow an increase in the quality of the prediction and the saving of resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. This work proposes a new analytical methodology in the study of temporal structure. As a result, a model for estimating annual levels of urban traffic noise was proposed. The average errors are less than one decibel in all acoustics indicators. A new working methodology of urban noise has begun. Additionally, a general application can be found for the study of the impacts of pollution associated with traffic, with implications for urban design and possibly in economic and sociological aspects.

  7. Analysis of noise pollution in an andesite quarry with the use of simulation studies and evaluation indices.

    PubMed

    Kosała, Krzysztof; Stępień, Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the verification of two partial indices proposed for the evaluation of continuous and impulse noise pollution in quarries. These indices, together with the sound power of machines index and the noise hazard index at the workstation, are components of the global index of assessment of noise hazard in the working environment of a quarry. This paper shows the results of acoustic tests carried out in an andesite quarry. Noise generated by machines and from performed blasting works was investigated. On the basis of acoustic measurements carried out in real conditions, the sound power levels of machines and the phenomenon of explosion were determined and, based on the results, three-dimensional models of acoustic noise propagation in the quarry were developed. To assess the degree of noise pollution in the area of the quarry, the continuous and impulse noise indices were used.

  8. Noise levels associated with urban land use.

    PubMed

    King, Gavin; Roland-Mieszkowski, Marek; Jason, Timothy; Rainham, Daniel G

    2012-12-01

    Recent trends towards the intensification of urban development to increase urban densities and avoid sprawl should be accompanied by research into the potential for related health impacts from environmental exposure. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the built environment and land use on levels of environmental noise. Two different study areas were selected using a combination of small area census geography, land use information, air photography, and ground-truthing. The first study area represented residential land use and consisted of two- to three-story single-family homes. The second study area was characteristic of mixed-use urban planning with apartment buildings as well as commercial and institutional development. Study areas were subdivided into six grids, and a location was randomly selected within each grid for noise monitoring. Each location was sampled four times over a 24-h day, resulting in a total of 24 samples for each of the two areas. Results showed significant variability in noise within study areas and significantly higher levels of environmental noise in the mixed-use area. Both study areas exceeded recommended noise limits when evaluated against World Health Organization guidelines and yielded average noise events values in the moderate to serious annoyance range with the potential to obscure normal conversation and cause sleep disturbance.

  9. Assessment of noise pollution in and around a sensitive zone in North India and its non-auditory impacts.

    PubMed

    Khaiwal, Ravindra; Singh, Tanbir; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Mor, Suman; Munjal, Sanjay; Patro, Binod; Panda, Naresh

    2016-10-01

    Noise pollution in hospitals is recognized as a serious health hazard. Considering this, the current study aimed to map the noise pollution levels and to explore the self reported non-auditory effects of noise in a tertiary medical institute. The study was conducted in an 1800-bedded tertiary hospital where 27 sites (outdoor, indoor, road side and residential areas) were monitored for exposure to noise using Sound Level Meter for 24h. A detailed noise survey was also conducted around the sampling sites using a structured questionnaire to understand the opinion of the public regarding the impact of noise on their daily lives. The equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) was found higher than the permissible limits at all the sites both during daytime and night. The maximum equivalent sound pressure level (Lmax) during the day was observed higher (>80dB) at the emergency and around the main entrance of the hospital campus. Almost all the respondents (97%) regarded traffic as the major source of noise. About three-fourths (74%) reported irritation with loud noise whereas 40% of respondents reported headache due to noise. Less than one-third of respondents (29%) reported loss of sleep due to noise and 8% reported hypertension, which could be related to the disturbance caused due to noise. Noise levels in and around the hospital was well above the permissible standards. The recent Global Burden of Disease highlights the increasing risk of non communicable diseases. The non-auditory effects studied in the current work add to the risk factors associated with non communicable diseases. Hence, there is need to address the issue of noise pollution and associated health risks specially for vulnerable population.

  10. Noise measurements on the helicopter BK 117 design. Weighted noise levels and influence of airspeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Wolf R.; Anders, Klaus P.; Spiegel, Karl-Heinz

    1986-11-01

    Noise measurements on the prototype helicopter BK 117 were performed in strict compliance with the proposed international Civil Aviation Organization regulations for noise certification of helicopters. Measurement procedure, noise data acquisition, analysis and reduction as well as applied correction procedures are described. Effective perceived noise levels (EPNL) and other noise descriptors were evaluated and related to the proposed noise limits. Additional level flyover tests with variable airspeed were conducted to investigate the resulting effect on the EPNL and other noise measures.

  11. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  12. Evaluation of the noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Paz, Elaine C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2001-05-01

    This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no. 10,625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas. The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people used to visit the park every day and that 75% out of them seek for the realization of a physical activity. During the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of the interviewed people pointed to the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 28% out of them pointed the local security. In this sense, it has been verified that half of the analyzed parks were inserted in acoustically polluted areas, which incurs a real state depreciation in their vicinities.

  13. Evaluation of the noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Paz, Elaine C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2004-05-01

    This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no. 10,625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas. The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people used to visit the park every day and that 75% out of them seek for the realization of a physical activity. During the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of the interviewed people pointed to the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 28% out of them pointed the local security. In this sense, it has been verified that half of the analyzed parks were inserted in acoustically polluted areas, which incurs a real state depreciation in their vicinities.

  14. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    PubMed

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards.

  15. Neighborhood noise pollution as a determinant of displaced aggression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is still a growing public health problem with a significant impact on psychological health and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of noise on displaced aggression (DA) in different subgroups of residents in one of the neighborhoods of Plovdiv city. A cross-sectional semi-structured interview survey was conducted using specially designed data registration forms and 33 close-ended and open-ended questions, divided into two major panels - one original and a modified version of the Displaced Aggression Questionnaire (DAQ). The mean score for DA was 61.12 (±19.97). Hearing noises above the perceived normal threshold, higher noise sensitivity and continuous noises were associated with higher levels of DA. Low frequency and high intensity noises were also associated with higher DA scores. Multiple regression model supported these findings. Contradictory to previous research age was positively correlated with noise sensitivity and aggression. We speculated that this might be due to the relatively lower socio-economic standard and quality of life in Bulgaria. Therefore, social climate might be modifying the way people perceive and react to environmental noise. Finally, the DAQ proved to be a viable measurement tool of these associations and might be further implemented and modified to suit the purposes of psychoacoustic assessment.

  16. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-06-18

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.

  17. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. PMID:26095869

  18. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  19. Noise Pollution Control System in the Hospital Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa Gallo, LM; Olivera, JM

    2016-04-01

    Problems related to environmental noise are not a new subject, but they became a major issue to solve because of the increasing, in complexity and intensity, of human activities due technological advances. Numerous international studies had dealt with the exposure of critical patients to noisy environment such as the Neonatal Intensive Care Units; their results show that there are difficulties in the organization in the developing brain, it can damage the delicate auditory structures and can cause biorhythm disorders, specially in preterm infants. The objective of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a control system that includes technical-management-training aspects to regulate the levels of specific noise sources in the neonatal hospitalization environment. For this purpose, there were applied different tools like: observations, surveys, procedures, an electronic control device and a training program for a Neonatal Service Unit. As a result, all noise sources were identified -some of them are eliminable-; all the service stable staff categories participated voluntarily; environmental noise measurements yielded values between 62.5 and 64.6 dBA and maximum were between 86.1 and 89.7 dBA; it was designed and installed a noise control device and the staff is being trained in noise reduction best practices.

  20. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  1. Effect of noise pollution on testicular tissue and hormonal assessment in rat.

    PubMed

    Farzadinia, P; Bigdeli, M; Akbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, M; Daneshi, A; Bargahi, A

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have focused on the effect of noise stress on the health. So far, few studies have been conducted on the effect of noise on reproductive system. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of noise pollution on morphometric parameters of testicular tissue and hormonal assessment (ACTH, cortisol and testosterone). In this study, 40 male rats were exposed to control, 95, 105 and 115 dB noise intensity for sixty days. At the end of study, blood sampling was performed and ACTH, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. The results showed that noise stress decreased testosterone levels in the 115 dB-treated group, while it increased the ACTH and cortisol levels. Histological sections of testis showed that the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and thickness of the germinal epithelium reduced compared to the control group. Also the ratio of the interstitial tissue area to the total testicular tissue area was increased significantly. Our study shows that noise stress may have negative influences on male fertility.

  2. Spectral estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Macho, Javier

    2011-10-01

    Underlying levels of atmospheric pollutants, assumed to be governed by smoothing mechanisms due to atmospheric dispersion, can be estimated from global emissions source databases on greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds. However, spatial data may be contaminated with noise or even missing or zero-valued at many locations. Therefore, a problem that arises is how to extract the underlying smooth levels. This paper sets out a structural spatial model that assumes data evolve across a global grid constrained by second-order smoothing restrictions. The frequency-domain approach is particularly suitable for global datasets, reduces the computational burden associated with two-dimensional models and avoids cumbersome zero-inflated skewed distributions. Confidence intervals of the underlying levels are also obtained. An application to the estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic emissions illustrates the technique which may also be useful in the analysis of other environmental datasets of similar characteristics.

  3. Noise levels in an urban Asian school environment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Karen M K; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P M; Yiu, Edwin M L; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers' vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms.

  4. Noise levels in an urban Asian school environment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Karen M.K.; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P.M.; Yiu, Edwin M.L.; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers’ vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms. PMID:25599758

  5. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  6. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  7. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  8. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  9. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  10. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 US cities.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ryan W; Davies, Hugh; Cohen, Martin A; Mallach, Gary; Kaufman, Joel D; Adar, Sara D

    2009-04-01

    Traffic-generated air pollution and noise have both been linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Since traffic is a shared source, there is potential for correlated exposures that may lead to confounding in epidemiologic studies. As part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), 2-week NO and NO(2) concentrations were measured at up to 105 locations, selected primarily to characterize gradients near major roads, in each of 9 US communities. We measured 5-min A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (L(eq)) and ultrafine particle (UFP) counts at a subset of these NO/NO(2) monitoring locations in Chicago, IL (N=69 in December 2006; N=36 in April 2007) and Riverside County, CA (N=46 in April 2007). L(eq) and UFP were measured during non-"rush hour" periods (10:00-16:00) to maximize comparability between measurements. We evaluated roadway proximity exposure surrogates in relation to the measured levels, estimated noise-air pollution correlation coefficients, and evaluated the impact of regional-scale pollution gradients, wind direction, and roadway proximity on the correlations. Five-minute L(eq) measurements in December 2006 and April 2007 were highly correlated (r=0.84), and measurements made at different times of day were similar (coefficients of variation: 0.5-13%), indicating that 5-min measurements are representative of long-term L(eq). Binary and continuous roadway proximity metrics characterized L(eq) as well or better than NO or NO(2). We found strong regional-scale gradients in NO and NO(2), particularly in Chicago, but only weak regional-scale gradients in L(eq) and UFP. L(eq) was most consistently correlated with NO, but the correlations were moderate (0.20-0.60). After removing the influence of regional-scale gradients the correlations generally increased (L(eq)-NO: r=0.49-0.62), and correlations downwind of major roads (L(eq)-NO: r=0.53-0.74) were consistently higher than those upwind (0.35-0.65). There was not a

  11. Calcutta metro: is it safe from noise pollution hazards?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bandyopadhyay, P; Kashyap, S K

    1996-01-01

    A modest assessment of noise was made in Calcutta Metro, India's first ever underground tube rail system, to examine if the range of noise levels present could endanger the hearing sensitivity of workers for the Metro. Sound measuring instruments of a sound level meter, an octave band analyzer, and a sound level calibrator were used for measuring the sound pressure levels in platforms of three stations: Esplanade, Kalighat and Tollygunge. The results indicated that the averaged A-weighted SPLs in these stations were in the range of 84-87 dBA. In the coaches of the moving train the Leq values ranged 92-99 dBA and LNP 105-117 dBA, all exceeding the safe limit of day time noise exposure of 55 dBA and 85 dBA of ACGIH. The SPLs at 4,000 Hz in the coaches were also in excess of safe exposure limit of 79 dB. The findings thus posed a potential threat to the workers.

  12. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  13. The Interdisciplinary Course in the Legal Aspects of Noise Pollution at Columbia University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Cyril M.; Rosenthal, Albert J.

    1981-01-01

    A course in the legal aspects of noise pollution, cross-listed for students in Columbia University's Law and Engineering Schools, is described. Although noise is used as the major source of environmental pollution in this course, the principles and methodology discussed apply to other forms of environmental law. (MLW)

  14. Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

    2014-02-01

    The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years.

  15. Urban noise pollution. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning aspects of noise in the urban environment. Topics include noise pollution from airports, rail systems, and vehicular traffic. Abatement techniques and community response to urban noise are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. Objectives: We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. Results: RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Conclusions: Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA. Citation: De Roos AJ, Koehoorn M, Tamburic L, Davies HW, Brauer M. 2014. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community

  17. Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence: a BioSHaRE approach.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yutong; Zijlema, Wilma L; Doiron, Dany; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R; Fortier, Isabel; Gaye, Amadou; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006-2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank).Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were estimated by a pan-European Land Use Regression model for 2007. Traffic noise for 2009 was modelled at home addresses by adapting a standardised noise assessment framework (CNOSSOS-EU). A cross-sectional analysis of 646 731 participants aged ≥20 years was undertaken using DataSHIELD to pool data for individual-level analysis via a "compute to the data" approach. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effects of each exposure on lifetime and current asthma prevalence.PM10 or NO2 higher by 10 µg·m(-3) was associated with 12.8% (95% CI 9.5-16.3%) and 1.9% (95% CI 1.1-2.8%) higher lifetime asthma prevalence, respectively, independent of confounders. Effects were larger in those aged ≥50 years, ever-smokers and less educated. Noise exposure was not significantly associated with asthma prevalence.This study suggests that long-term ambient PM10 exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in western European adults. Traffic noise is not associated with asthma prevalence, but its potential to impact on asthma exacerbations needs further investigation.

  18. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-05-11

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.

  19. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population

    PubMed Central

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  20. Single-image noise level estimation for blind denoising.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2013-12-01

    Noise level is an important parameter to many image processing applications. For example, the performance of an image denoising algorithm can be much degraded due to the poor noise level estimation. Most existing denoising algorithms simply assume the noise level is known that largely prevents them from practical use. Moreover, even with the given true noise level, these denoising algorithms still cannot achieve the best performance, especially for scenes with rich texture. In this paper, we propose a patch-based noise level estimation algorithm and suggest that the noise level parameter should be tuned according to the scene complexity. Our approach includes the process of selecting low-rank patches without high frequency components from a single noisy image. The selection is based on the gradients of the patches and their statistics. Then, the noise level is estimated from the selected patches using principal component analysis. Because the true noise level does not always provide the best performance for nonblind denoising algorithms, we further tune the noise level parameter for nonblind denoising. Experiments demonstrate that both the accuracy and stability are superior to the state of the art noise level estimation algorithm for various scenes and noise levels.

  1. A vision of the environmental and occupational noise pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Foo Keng

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise remains a complex and fragmented interplay between industrialization, population growth, technological developments, and the living environment. Next to the circulatory diseases and cancer, noise pollution has been cited as the third epidemic cause of psychological and physiological disorders internationally. A reliable and firm relationship between the cumulative health implications with the traffic annoyance and occupational noise has been established. This agenda has called for an integrated, coordinated, and participatory approach to the reliable protection of noise interference. Despite several fragmented policies, legislation and global efforts have been addressed; the noise pollution complaints have been traditionally neglected in developing countries, especially in Malaysia. This paper was undertaken to postulate an initial platform to address the dynamic pressures, gigantic challenges, and tremendous impacts of noise pollution scenario in Malaysia. The emphasis is speculated on the traffic interference and assessment of industrial and occupational noise. The fundamental importance of noise monitoring and modeling is proposed. Additionally, the confronting conservation program and control measure for noise pollution control are laconically elucidated.

  2. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  3. Noise level and MPEG-2 encoder statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungwoo

    1997-01-01

    Most software in the movie and broadcasting industries are still in analog film or tape format, which typically contains random noise that originated from film, CCD camera, and tape recording. The performance of the MPEG-2 encoder may be significantly degraded by the noise. It is also affected by the scene type that includes spatial and temporal activity. The statistical property of noise originating from camera and tape player is analyzed and the models for the two types of noise are developed. The relationship between the noise, the scene type, and encoder statistics of a number of MPEG-2 parameters such as motion vector magnitude, prediction error, and quant scale are discussed. This analysis is intended to be a tool for designing robust MPEG encoding algorithms such as preprocessing and rate control.

  4. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  5. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  6. Study of noise pollution for three consecutive years during Deepawali festival in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Digvijay; Joshi, B D

    2012-07-01

    The present paper deals with monitoring of noise pollution at different places of Meerut City (India) on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The noise pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 and 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. Mainly fire crackers are used during Deepawali. The present paper is an attempt to create awareness among the people of Meerut City about the bitter truth of fire crackers.

  7. Current levels of noise in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G H

    1973-12-01

    In 1961, the International Organization for Standardization prescribed upper tolerance limits for noise generated out-of-doors in residential districts. Between 1963 and 1970, vehicular traffic in the UK increased in volume by approximately 40%. This paper describes studies made throughout 1971 in which both peak and ambient noise-levels prevailing inside and outside buildings were measured. These levels were found greatly in excess of those regarded as tolerable ten years previously. Two methods for reducing noise-levels were considered. First, a barrier designed with the primary intention of reflecting rather than absorbing noise; secondly, a relatively simple form of double-glazing fitted to existing window frames. The barrier succeeded in reducing peak noise-levels but failed to influence ambients. The double-glazing attenuated both peak and ambient noise-levels significantly. Attention is drawn to the possibility of noise generated within buildings themselves becoming a source of discomfort for occupants and of annoyance to those outside. Noise-levels rising beyond 100 dB(A) were measured during evening business in the bar of a local hotel. A summary of data referring to noise-levels in the outdoor environment reveals that the upper tolerance limits prescribed by I S O are now being exceeded by 20 dB(A), or more, throughout 18 hours of the day. The findings are discussed in relation to the inevitable limits soon to be reached in adaptation of the human hearing mechanisms to increasing environment noise.

  8. Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird.

    PubMed

    Dorado-Correa, Adriana M; Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution.

  9. Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution. PMID:27493778

  10. Noise-adaptive nonlinear diffusion filtering of MR images with spatially varying noise levels.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, Alexei A; Johnson, Chris R

    2004-10-01

    Anisotropic diffusion filtering is widely used for MR image enhancement. However, the anisotropic filter is nonoptimal for MR images with spatially varying noise levels, such as images reconstructed from sensitivity-encoded data and intensity inhomogeneity-corrected images. In this work, a new method for filtering MR images with spatially varying noise levels is presented. In the new method, a priori information regarding the image noise level spatial distribution is utilized for the local adjustment of the anisotropic diffusion filter. Our new method was validated and compared with the standard filter on simulated and real MRI data. The noise-adaptive method was demonstrated to outperform the standard anisotropic diffusion filter in both image error reduction and image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement. The method was also applied to inhomogeneity-corrected and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) images. The new filter was shown to improve segmentation of MR brain images with spatially varying noise levels.

  11. Noise levels, noise annoyance, and hearing-related problems in a dental college.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer; Ali, Wesal Jasim

    2016-04-20

    Through a cross-sectional survey and integrated sound level meter, this research examined noise exposure and auditory- and nonauditory-related problems experienced by students of a dentistry college located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A structured interview questionnaire was used to examine hearing-related problems, noise annoyance, and awareness of 114 students toward noise. The results showed that maximum noise levels were between 65 and 79 dB(A) with peak levels (high and low frequencies) ranging between 89 and 93 dB(A). Around 80% of the students experienced a certain degree of noise annoyance; 54% reported one of the hearing-related problems; and about 10% claimed to have hearing loss to a certain extent. It is recommended that sound-absorbent materials be used during the construction of dental clinics and laboratories to reduce the noise levels.

  12. Plumbing noise: Pressure levels and perception in a luxury condominium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watry, Derek

    2005-09-01

    A consulting project has recently been completed that addressed a number of noise concerns in a 9-unit, 20-year-old luxury condominium building in the San Francisco Bay Area. Among other tasks, the noise levels of four bathroom plumbing functions (flushing, showering, bath filling, bath draining) were measured in adjoining units and an inventory of noise concerns was collected. This paper reports the measured noise levels (nearly a 20-dBA range for every function!) and looks at the corresponding resident assessments not always clearly correlated with sound-pressure level.

  13. Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J Jr

    2002-01-01

    For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

  14. Techniques for Reducing Gun Blast Noise Levels: An Experimental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    gun muzzle blast noise level were in- vestigated experimentally to determine potential effectiveness and utility for existing major-caliber guns...impact on training and testing operations was to be minimized. Most of the noise reduction techniques that were investigated involve the use of some type ...shock noise level at the earth’s surface varies according to a complicated dependence upon projectile trajectory, projectile speed along the trajectory

  15. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.

  16. Noise levels in the vicinity of traffic roundabouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P. T.; James, A.

    1980-09-01

    An experimental procedure for analyzing roundabout noise is described. Measurement of the noise from accelerating and decelerating traffic streams on the approach roads to roundabouts at a total of 70 positions at three sites are reported together with a simulation study of noise from central island traffic. The results show that, in general, noise from the accelerating traffic streams is within ±1 dB(A) of the free flow level on the same road and that the noise from the decelerating stream is equal to or less than the free flow level. The propagation of noise from the central island is expressed in the form of a nomogram. Good agreement between predicted and measured levels was found.

  17. Effects of low levels of road traffic noise during the night: a laboratory study on number of events, maximum noise levels and noise sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the laboratory study presented here was to elucidate the importance of the number of noise events of a relatively low maximum noise level for sleep disturbance effects (body movements, subjective sleep quality, mood and performance). Twelve test persons slept eight nights under home-like laboratory settings. During four of these nights, each test person was exposed to 16, 32, 64 and 128 noise events respectively from recorded road traffic noise at a maximum noise level of 45 dB(A). All test persons (aged 20-42 years) considered themselves rather or very sensitive towards noise. The results show a significant decrease in subjective sleep quality at 32 noise events per night. At 64 noise events, 50% of the test persons experienced difficulties in falling asleep and, as compared with quiet nights, the time required to fall asleep was on average 12 minutes longer. The occurrence of body movements was significantly related to the reported number of awakenings, and the number of body movements was three times higher during the noisy periods of the night as compared with the quiet periods, indicating acute noise effects. The results of a vigilance test indicate that noise during the night might prolong the time needed to solve the test. Finally, and regardless of number of noise events, a significant increase in tiredness during the day was found after nights with noise exposure. In the paper comparisons are also made with earlier experiments using maximum noise levels of 50 and 60 dB(A).

  18. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  19. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  20. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  1. Relationship between Aircraft Noise Contour Area and Noise Levels at Certification Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of sound exposure level contour area reduction has been proposed as an alternative or supplemental metric of progress and success for the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program, which currently uses the average of predicted noise reductions at three community locations. As the program has expanded to include reductions in airframe noise as well as reduction due to optimization of operating procedures for lower noise, there is concern that the three-point methodology may not represent a fair measure of benefit to airport communities. This paper addresses several topics related to this proposal: (1) an analytical basis for a relationship between certification noise levels and noise contour areas for departure operations is developed, (2) the relationship between predicted noise contour area and the noise levels measured or predicted at the certification measurement points is examined for a wide range of commercial and business aircraft, and (3) reductions in contour area for low-noise approach scenarios are predicted and equivalent reductions in source noise are determined.

  2. Intrinsic Noise Level of Noise Cross-Correlation Functions and its Implication to Source Population of Ambient noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Nien; Gung, Yuancheng; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Rhie, Junkee

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe present a quantitative procedure to evaluate the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (INL) of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> cross-correlation function (NCF). The method is applied to realistic NCFs derived from the continuous data recorded by the seismic arrays in Taiwan and Korea. The obtained temporal evolution of NCF <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> follows fairly the prediction of the theoretical formulation, confirming the feasibility of the method. We then apply the obtained INL to the assessment of data quality and the source characteristics of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span>. We show that the INL-based signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio provides an exact measure for the true <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> within the NCF and better resolving power for the NCF quality, and such measurement can be implemented to any time windows of the NCFs to evaluate the quality of overtones or coda waves. Moreover, since NCF amplitudes are influenced by both the population and excitation strengths of <span class="hlt">noises</span>, while INL is primarily sensitive to the overall source population, with information from both measurements, we may better constrain the source characteristics of seismic ambient <span class="hlt">noises</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25513801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25513801"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in metalwork and woodwork industries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noweir, Madbuli H; Bafail, Abdullah O; Jomoah, Ibrahim M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted in metalwork and woodwork industries in Jeddah Industrial Estate. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of industrial <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and to propose remedial actions. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> was measured at different times of a day in 28 randomly selected factories and workshops. Results indicated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> varied according to the type and size of a factory, and the type and number of machines used. Mean <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in metalwork factories were higher than those in woodwork factories. The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were observed while manufacturing cans and forming steel reinforcement for concrete, where <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceed 90 dB(A). All mean <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in all studied metalwork factories and in 50% of studied woodwork industries were higher than the standard <span class="hlt">level</span> of 85 dB(A).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902452"><span>High ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Vadodara City, India, affected by urbanization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Neha; Dhiman, Hitesh; Shaikh, Sadaf; Shah, Purvish; Sarkar, Roma; Patel, Shashin</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The present research was conducted to study the urbanization of Vadodara city and to monitor the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in the industrial, commercial, residential and silence zones of the city. A settlement map created by unsupervised classification for the land use and land cover study of Vadodara city clearly shows the increasing pattern of urbanization in its central part, which may be the result of urban sprawl due to migration of people from the rural to the urban areas. The fluctuation in ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was recorded using an A-weighted sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter in all the four zones of Vadodara city for 3 h at regular intervals of 15 min on 3 consecutive days at the same time. The results showed the highest equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 93.7 dBA in the commercial zone followed by 85.5 dBA in the industrial zone, 73.2 dBA in silence zone, and 70.2 dBA in the residential zone. The values of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> were high in all the zones of the city increasing remarkably over the prescribed limit given in the <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> (Control and Regulation) Rules, 2000. Continuous exposure to such high <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> may lead to detrimental effect on people.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..180a2121R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MS%26E..180a2121R"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Enumeration Station in Rubber Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Siregar, I.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This research was conducted in companies engaged in the production of crumb rubber. In the rubber industry, the potential <span class="hlt">noise</span> occurs in the enumeration station. Stations enumeration use machine and equipment that potentially generated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> can be defined as an unwanted sound because it does not fit the context of space and time so that may interfere with the comfort and human health. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measured at random during the initial observation station enumeration is 101.8 dB. This value has exceeded the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Kep-51 / MEN / 1999 and SNI No. 16-7063-2004 so research must be done to measure the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the enumeration station. Quantitative methods used in the study. Observations made with the calculation method of equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Observations were made on six measurement points for one shift for three days. The results showed the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> over the Threshold Limit Value is equal to 85 dBA/8 hours. Based on the measurement results, the whole point of observation was far above the threshold Limit Value (TLV). The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> equivalent is in the observation point 6 with a value of 102, 21 dB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910186"><span>Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in tank.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>This study examined the effects of boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> (a random sequence of boat <span class="hlt">noises</span>). Exposure to the <span class="hlt">noise</span> produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat <span class="hlt">noises</span> increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arteries&pg=7&id=EJ158785','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arteries&pg=7&id=EJ158785"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> and Schools: How Much Is Too Much?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kyzar, Barney L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>At what point and to what degree does loud <span class="hlt">noise</span> interrupt or hamper the process of education? This article attempts to answer this question by presenting data relative to a school affected by the placement of a traffic artery. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1012409','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1012409"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the Operating Room</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>CRNA vigilance is crucial to the well-being of patients, and if the cause of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be identified and corrected , CRNAs in the future...64.6 52.2 85.5 107.0 56.2 23 Open shoulder GETA 64.3 48.3 88.9 112.6 54.6 24 Cancelled (before induction) 66.8 50.6 95.0 117.2 53.9 25 Osteotomy ...acromioplasty Knee arthroscopy Knee arthroscopy Knee arthroscopy Finger pinning Wrist pinning Open shoulder Cancelled before inducing Osteotomy ACL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21962592"><span>Effect of air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on species diversity and population density of forest birds at Lalpahari, West Bengal, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saha, Dulal C; Padhy, Pratap K</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>The Rajmahal-type quality stones for building purposes are found abundantly in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India, where stone mining and crushing have become the main industrial activity. Although crusher dust is injurious to health, demand for crushed stone is ever-increasing as a result of rapid infrastructural growth in the country. Most of the crusher units at Rampurhat are situated along the roadways adjacent to forest under Tumboni Beat of Rampurhat Range of Birbhum Forest Division. Excessive load of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in this area has led to degradation of this forest. The status of the ambient air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was evaluated. The effect of air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on abundance and variability of birds in this forest have been compared to an almost non-<span class="hlt">polluted</span> forest of the same bio-geographic zone. Both species diversity and population density of birds were found to decrease in the <span class="hlt">polluted</span> forest, especially in the areas adjacent to crushers. For comparing the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> status of two different forest sites and for establishing whether the density of birds have any correlation between the sites, the Student's t-test and the chi-square test were applied respectively. Most of the results proved to be significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25175843"><span>Reduction of classroom <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> using group contingencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ring, Brandon M; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Eubanks, Sean L; Silverman, Kenneth</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated <span class="hlt">noise</span> standards. Participants received real-time graphed feedback of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and had the opportunity to earn monetary group reinforcement for maintaining a low number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> violations. Results suggested that feedback and monetary reinforcement reduced the number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> violations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707461','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707461"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Associated With New York City's Mass Transit Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gershon, Robyn R. M.; Zeltser, Marina; Canton, Allison; Akram, Muhammad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with various forms of mass transit and compared them to exposure guidelines designed to protect against <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss. Methods. We used <span class="hlt">noise</span> dosimetry to measure time-integrated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a representative sample of New York City mass transit systems (subways, buses, ferries, tramway, and commuter railways) aboard transit vehicles and at vehicle boarding platforms or terminals during June and July 2007. Results. Of the transit types evaluated, subway cars and platforms had the highest associated equivalent continuous average (Leq) and maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. All transit types had Leq <span class="hlt">levels</span> appreciably above 70 A-weighted decibels, the threshold at which <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss is considered possible. Conclusions. Mass transit <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure has the potential to exceed limits recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency and thus cause <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss among riders of all forms of mass transit given sufficient exposure durations. Environmental noise–control efforts in mass transit and, in cases in which controls are infeasible, the use of personal hearing protection would benefit the ridership's hearing health. PMID:19542046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022454','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022454"><span>Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019333','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019333"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lang, J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020287&hterms=noise+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Benvironment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020287&hterms=noise+environment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Benvironment"><span>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in airport environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span>, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20762067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20762067"><span>Particle <span class="hlt">pollution</span>: current <span class="hlt">levels</span> and recent improvements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mark Schmidt</p> <p>2006-04-15</p> <p>US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality data for 2002-2004 indicate that a number of areas in the United States that meet the current fine particle (PM2.5) standards would exceed the proposed 24-hr <span class="hlt">level</span> (35 {mu}g/m{sub 3} if that standard was in place today. However, PM2.5 concentrations have been steadily declining, and new national and regional control programs designed to reduce the concentrations even further are being implemented. Coarse particle concentrations also appear to have declined in recent years. Based on 2002-2004 estimates of PM10-2.5 concentrations, it appears that most areas of the country currently would meet the proposed PM10-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAWS). This article presents a summary report on air quality status and trends for fine - PM2.5 and 'thoracic coarse' PM10-2.5 particle <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. It focuses on comparisons with the current NAAQS and revisions to those standards proposed by PEA in December 2005. 2 refs., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415279"><span>Does Traffic-related Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The authors examined whether air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and cognition. Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Moderate <span class="hlt">levels</span> of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> do not appear to confound associations of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are needed. PMID:22842719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842719"><span>Does traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> explain associations of aircraft and road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>The authors examined whether air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and cognition. Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Moderate <span class="hlt">levels</span> of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> do not appear to confound associations of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009563"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from a model turbofan engine with simulated <span class="hlt">noise</span> control measures applied</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, David G.; Woodward, Richard P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A study of estimated full-scale <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> based on measured <span class="hlt">levels</span> from the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) sub-scale model is presented. Testing of this model was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. Effective Perceived <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (EPNL) estimates for the baseline configuration are documented, and also used as the control case in a study of the potential benefits of two categories of <span class="hlt">noise</span> control. The effect of active <span class="hlt">noise</span> control is evaluated by artificially removing various rotor-stator interaction tones. Passive <span class="hlt">noise</span> control is simulated by applying a notch filter to the wind tunnel data. Cases with both techniques are included to evaluate hybrid active-passive <span class="hlt">noise</span> control. The results for EPNL values are approximate because the original source data was limited in bandwidth and in sideline angular coverage. The main emphasis is on comparisons between the baseline and configurations with simulated <span class="hlt">noise</span> control measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022453','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850022453"><span>A study of interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and transmission paths in light aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and identify principal <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source <span class="hlt">levels</span> and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for <span class="hlt">noise</span> control design are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750019994','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750019994"><span>Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of two propeller-driven light aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Catherines, J. J.; Mayes, W. H.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The relationships between aircraft operating conditions and interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> and the degree to which ground testing can be used in lieu of flight testing for performing interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> research were studied. The results show that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> inside light aircraft is strongly influenced by the rotational speed of the engine and propeller. Both the overall <span class="hlt">noise</span> and low frequency spectra <span class="hlt">levels</span> were observed to decrease with increasing high speed rpm operations during flight. This phenomenon and its significance is not presently understood. Comparison of spectra obtained in flight with spectra obtained on the ground suggests that identification of frequency components and relative amplitude of propeller and engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources may be evaluated on stationary aircraft.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146911"><span>Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> across five countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>. Three sets of vignettes with different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a <span class="hlt">pollutant</span>, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a <span class="hlt">pollutant</span>. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891787','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3891787"><span>Pilot task-based assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> among firefighters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure sources, and to use collected task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> to create <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These <span class="hlt">levels</span> were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest <span class="hlt">levels</span> resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> from a variety of firefighting tasks and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27509512"><span>The Covariance between Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> Annoyance and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason</p> <p>2016-08-06</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with <span class="hlt">noise</span> (after controlling for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>), <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>- and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>- and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance suggests that air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997478','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997478"><span>The Covariance between Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> Annoyance and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with <span class="hlt">noise</span> (after controlling for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>), <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>- and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>- and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> annoyance and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance suggests that air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. PMID:27509512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMED41A0084S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMED41A0084S"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swamy, S.; Power, J.; Pham, D.; Preston, K. B.; Iqbal, A.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The aim of our study was to determine if a direct correlation exists between the amount of particulate matter and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in select areas within the Lake Merritt Park region of downtown Oakland, California. In addition, our research was aimed at determining if the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> at various locations conforms to City of Oakland regulations. Over a four-week period we measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and particulate matter concentrations at 27 different sites within the Park region. Preliminary results indicate that at a construction site and a residential area near the lake a direct correlation between our two variables existed; high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> accompanied high particulate matter while low <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> accompanied low particulate matter, respectively. However, at the majority of the areas around the lake either indirect or no correlation was observed. Based on our results thus far, we conclude that <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are not indicative of particulate matter <span class="hlt">levels</span> and that <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> around Lake Merritt do conform to the city's regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013168','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1013168"><span>Factors Affecting <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of High-Speed Handpieces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>office communication and increase patient anxiety. Purpose: To determine if three <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reducing techniques utilized in larger scale , non- dental...hearing loss may cause confusion, fear, and loneliness , and that sometimes hearing loss is accompanied by dizziness, which would be a handicap in the...employee <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures equal or exceed an 8- hour time-weighted average sound <span class="hlt">level</span> (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MARG29005V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..MARG29005V"><span>Networking with <span class="hlt">noise</span> at the molecular, cellular, and population <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vilar, Jose</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>The intrinsic stochastic nature of biochemical reactions affects enzymatic and transcriptional networks at different <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Yet, cells are able to function effectively and consistently amidst such random fluctuations. I will discuss some molecular mechanisms that are able to reduce the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of chemical reactions, how suitable designs can make networks resistant to <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and what strategies can be used by populations to achieve precise functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6982789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6982789"><span>Urban <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. November 1981-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for November 1981-December 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This bibliography contains citations concerning aspects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the urban environment. Topics include <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> from airports, rail systems, and vehicular traffic. Abatement techniques and community response to urban <span class="hlt">noise</span> are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 122 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018137','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740018137"><span>Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that <span class="hlt">noise</span> constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower <span class="hlt">levels</span> of sideline jet <span class="hlt">noise</span> than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high <span class="hlt">level</span> of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The duct-heating turbofan with a low <span class="hlt">level</span> of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27155094"><span>Do outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> and atmospheric NO2 <span class="hlt">levels</span> spatially overlap in urban areas?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Parmentier, Anne-Laure; Boilleaut, Mathieu; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The urban environment holds numerous emission sources for air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, creating optimum conditions for environmental multi-exposure situations. Evaluation of the joint-exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> is the main obstacle for multi-exposure studies and one of the biggest challenges of the next decade. The present study aims to describe the <span class="hlt">noise</span>/NO2 multi-exposure situations in the urban environment by exploring the possible discordant and concordant situations of both exposures. Fine-scale diffusion models were developed in the European medium-sized city of Besançon (France), and a classification method was used to evaluate the multi-exposure situations in the façade perimeter of 10,825 buildings. Although correlated (Pearson's r = 0.64, p < 0.01), urban spatial distributions of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> and NO2 around buildings do not overlap, and 30% of the buildings were considered to be discordant in terms of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> and NO2 exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span>. This discrepancy is spatially structured and associated with variables describing the building's environment. Our results support the presence of several co-existing, multi-exposure situations across the city impacted by both the urban morphology and the emission and diffusion/propagation phases of each <span class="hlt">pollutant</span>. Identifying the mechanisms of discrepancy and convergence of multi-exposure situations could help improve the health risk assessment and public health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750038290&hterms=noise+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750038290&hterms=noise+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnoise%2Bpollution"><span>Judgments of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in a traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> with the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> were evaluated. For one technique, the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was changed with each aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> during a session. Subjective response to aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> was found to decrease with increasing background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, for a range of typical indoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (NPL) measurement scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970028883','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970028883"><span>Confusion <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Due to Galactic and Extragalactic Binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bender, Peter L.; Hils, Dieter</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We have revised our earlier rough estimate of the combined galactic and extragalactic binary confusion <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> curve for gravitational waves. This was done to correct some numerical errors and to allow for roughly three frequency bins worth of information about weaker sources being lost for each galactic binary signal that is removed from the data. The results are still based on the spectral amplitude estimates for different types of galactic binaries reported by Hils et al in 1990, and assume that the gravitational wave power spectral densities for other galaxies are proportional to the optical luminosities. The estimated confusion <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> drops to the LISA instrumental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at between roughly 3 and 8 MHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611060"><span>Communicating the Issue of Underwater <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span>: The Deaf as a Fish Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sebastianutto, Linda; Stocker, Michael; Picciulin, Marta</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aquatic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is largely ignored by the lay public. How experts communicate this issue is critical to move public opinion. In 2010, the Cassa di Risparmio di Gorizia (CaRiGO) bank sponsored the Deaf as a Fish project that included local underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> monitoring, a boat census, a pamphlet for nonexperts, and some seminars and public meetings. This project allowed us to raise interest in this issue. Using accurate and understandable language in a light-humored setting goes far toward cultivating trust from a public audience that can be intimidated or suspicious of complicated scientific messaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27563964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27563964"><span>Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gajdacz, M; Hilliard, A J; Kristensen, M A; Pedersen, P L; Klempt, C; Arlt, J J; Sherson, J F</p> <p>2016-08-12</p> <p>We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^{6} is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, i.e., ΔN<sqrt[N]. Based on this measurement, feedback is applied to reduce the atom number to a user-defined target, whereupon a second imaging series probes the number stabilized cloud. By this method, we show that the atom number in ultracold clouds can be prepared below the shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005928"><span>En route <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from propfan test assessment airplane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garber, Donald P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The en route <span class="hlt">noise</span> test was designed to characterize propagation of propfan <span class="hlt">noise</span> from cruise altitudes to the ground. In-flight measurements of propfan source <span class="hlt">levels</span> and directional patterns were made by a chase plane flying in formation with the propfan test assessment (PTA) airplane. Ground <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were taken during repeated flights over a distributed microphone array. The microphone array on the ground was used to provide ensemble-averaged estimates of mean flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, establish confidence limits for those means, and measure propagation-induced <span class="hlt">noise</span> variability. Even for identical nominal cruise conditions, peak sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> for individual overflights varied substantially about the average, particularly when overflights were performed on different days. Large day-to-day variations in peak <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements appeared to be caused by large day-to-day differences in propagation conditions and tended to obscure small variations arising from operating conditions. A parametric evaluation of the sensitivity of this prediction method to weather measurement and source <span class="hlt">level</span> uncertainties was also performed. In general, predictions showed good agreement with measurements. However, the method was unable to predict short-term variability of ensemble-averaged data within individual overflights. Although variations in absorption appear to be the dominant factor in variations of peak sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> recorded on the ground, accurate predictions of those <span class="hlt">levels</span> require that a complete description of operational conditions be taken into account. The comprehensive and integrated methods presented in this paper have adequately predicted ground-measured sound <span class="hlt">levels</span>. On average, peak sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> were predicted within 3 dB for each of the three different cruise conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646974"><span>Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway <span class="hlt">noise</span>: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> with respect to nighttime equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and personal characteristics including <span class="hlt">noise</span> sensitivity. Individual <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span>. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the most-exposed facade underestimated <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710923"><span>Predicting mass rapid transit <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on an elevated station.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pamanikabud, Pichai; Paoprayoon, Suwajchai</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>This study developed a <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction model for elevated mass rapid transit (MRT) platforms. Relevant physical and operational parameters (e.g. cruise speed, acceleration and deceleration rates for trains, building façade setbacks and so on) were collected from the Bangkok mass transit system (BTS), the first elevated MRT system operated in Bangkok, Thailand. The equivalent continuous sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(Aeq)) were collected from both sides of the MRT stations at the center of each platform. The relevant parameters were collected on both platforms and ground <span class="hlt">level</span>, on both sides of MRT stations. These parameters were statistically tested to determine their correlation with MRT <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The final model was built from highly correlated parameters using multiple regression analysis with a stepwise regression technique. Statistical evaluation showed a high degree of goodness-of-fit test for the model to the observed data. Therefore, it can be efficiently used for the projection of MRT <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the affected areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910062646&hterms=ionograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dionograms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910062646&hterms=ionograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dionograms"><span>Wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> observed at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> in the auroral region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Robert F.; Desch, Michael D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A sideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> event was detected at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed on four commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905, and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200-kHz to 3.5-MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high-latitude wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5152973','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5152973"><span>Wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> observed at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> in the auroral region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benson, R.F.; Desch, M.D. )</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>A sideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> event was detected at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed on four commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905, and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200-kHz to 3.5-MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high-latitude wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> events. 20 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4752708','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4752708"><span>Low stimulus environments: reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in continuing care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of intrusive background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel <span class="hlt">levels</span> with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a <span class="hlt">noise</span> meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> meter to track and report back on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the use of posters to remind staff about <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the introduction of a visual indication of current <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696462"><span>Bioindication capacity of metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> of native and transplanted Pleurozium schreberi under various <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">pollution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kosior, G; Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>During a period of 90d assays were carried out with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to 27 sites selected in one of the most <span class="hlt">polluted</span> regions of Upper Silesia (Poland). The native mosses of this species were collected from the <span class="hlt">polluted</span> sites. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in P. schreberi and in the soil of all of the sites. The sites were divided into more and less <span class="hlt">polluted</span> ones. The obtained results indicate that the native P. schreberi from the more <span class="hlt">polluted</span> sites accumulated significantly more Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn than the transplanted moss from the same sites. The transplanted P. schreberi from the less <span class="hlt">polluted</span> sites accumulated significantly more Cr, Pb, Zn, significantly less Cu and comparable amounts of Cd, as compared to the native moss. The selection of native versus transplant P. schreberi as a bioindicator depends on the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">pollution</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24810556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24810556"><span>Effect of external classroom <span class="hlt">noise</span> on schoolchildren's reading and mathematics performance: correlation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and gender.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papanikolaou, M; Skenteris, N; Piperakis, S M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The present study investigated the effect of low, medium, and high traffic road <span class="hlt">noise</span> as well as irrelevant background speech <span class="hlt">noise</span> on primary school children's reading and mathematical performance. A total of 676 participants (324 boys, 47.9% and 352 girls, 52.1%) of the 4th and 5th elementary classes participated in the project. The participants were enrolled in public primary schools from urban areas and had ages ranging from 9 to 10 years and from. Schools were selected on the basis of increasing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of exposure to road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> and then classified into three categories (Low <span class="hlt">noise</span>: 55-66 dB, Medium <span class="hlt">noise</span>: 67-77 dB, and High <span class="hlt">noise</span>: 72-80 dB). We measured reading comprehension and mathematical skills in accordance with the national guidelines for elementary education, using a test designed specifically for the purpose of this study. On the one hand, children in low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools showed statistically significant differences from children in medium- and high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools in reading performance (p<0.001). On the other hand, children in low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools differed significantly from children in high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> schools but only in mathematics performance (p=0.001). Girls in general did better in reading score than boys, especially in schools with medium- and high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Finally the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and gender were found to be two independent factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scraping&id=ED017129','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scraping&id=ED017129"><span>HOW TO KEEP SCHOOL <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> AT THE RIGHT <span class="hlt">LEVEL</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MCKAY, RONALD L.</p> <p></p> <p>DISCUSSES FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING SCHOOL PLANNING STAGES REGARDING <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> <span class="hlt">LEVELS</span> AND ACOUSTIC DESIGN IMPLICATIONS. FACTORS ARE--(1) A STAGE HOUSE IS DETRIMENTAL TO ORCHESTRAS, BANDS, CHORUSES, LECTURES, ASSEMBLIES, RECITALS, AND CERTAIN DRAMAS AND SPEECH-MUSIC PERFORMANCES. SUGGESTED IS AN AUDITORIUM WITH AUDIENCE AND PERFORMING PLATFORM…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829987','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4829987"><span>Traffic-Related Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span>, <span class="hlt">Noise</span> at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: The available evidence of the effects of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> (TRAPs) and <span class="hlt">noise</span> at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas <span class="hlt">noise</span> was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, <span class="hlt">noise</span> at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960047313"><span>Validation of Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Models at Lower <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound <span class="hlt">level</span> in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> at larger distances from the airport. including en-route <span class="hlt">noise</span>. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087938"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and call types on the source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of killer whale calls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking <span class="hlt">noise</span> by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> as a likely factor related to call source <span class="hlt">level</span> variability. The source <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background <span class="hlt">noise</span> were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and call type were significant factors on call source <span class="hlt">levels</span> (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSMTE..11..021V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSMTE..11..021V"><span>Analysis of fractional Gaussian <span class="hlt">noises</span> using <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.; Sadegh Movahed, M.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The so-called <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing analysis has been used to investigate the empirical data set, but there is a lack of interpretation for what is reflected by the <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing results. The fractional Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> as a well-defined stochastic series could be a suitable benchmark to make more sense of the <span class="hlt">level</span> crossing findings. In this paper, we calculated the average frequency of upcrossing for a wide range of fractional Gaussian <span class="hlt">noises</span> from logarithmic (zero Hurst exponent, H = 0), to Gaussian, H = 1 (0 < H < 1). By introducing the relative change of the total number of upcrossings for original data with respect to the so-called shuffled data, {R} , an empirical function for the Hurst exponent versus {R} has been established. Finally to make the concept more obvious, we applied this approach to some financial series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242804"><span>Effect of long-term outdoor air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>It has been hypothesized that air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (≥18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span>. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093410"><span>Urban <span class="hlt">noise</span> functional stratification for estimating average annual sound <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> causes many health problems and the deterioration of the quality of urban life; thus, adequate spatial <span class="hlt">noise</span> and temporal assessment methods are required. Different methods have been proposed for the spatial evaluation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in cities, including the categorization method. Until now, this method has only been applied for the study of spatial variability with measurements taken over a week. In this work, continuous measurements of 1 year carried out in 21 different locations in Madrid (Spain), which has more than three million inhabitants, were analyzed. The annual average sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the temporal variability were studied in the proposed categories. The results show that the three proposed categories highlight the spatial <span class="hlt">noise</span> stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night) and in the overall indicators (L(And), L(Aden), and L(A24)). Also, significant differences between the diurnal and nocturnal sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> show functional stratification in these categories. Therefore, this functional stratification offers advantages from both spatial and temporal perspectives by reducing the sampling points and the measurement time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354622','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354622"><span>EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">NOISE</span> <span class="hlt">LEVELS</span> IN ABUJA MUNICIPALITY USING MOBILE PHONES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ibekwe, T.; Folorunso, D.; Ebuta, A.; Amodu, J.; Nwegbu, M.; Mairami, Z.; Liman, I.; Okebaram, C.; Chimdi, C.; Durogbola, B.; Suleiman, H.; Mamven, H.; Baamlong, N.; Dahilo, E.; Gbujie, I.; Ibekwe, P.; Nwaorgu, O.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> remains a nuisance which impacts negatively on the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of man. It aggravates chronic illnesses like hypertension and other cardiopulmonary diseases. Unfortunately, increased activities from industrialization and technological transfers/drifts have tumultuously led to increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in most of our fast growing cities today and hence the need for concerted efforts in monitoring and regulating our environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Objective: To assess the equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment. Method: This is a cross-sectional community based study of the environmental Leq of Abuja municipality conducted between January 2014 and January 2016. The city was divided into 12 segments including residential, business and market areas via the Abuja Geographic Information System. The major markets were captured separately on a different scale. Measurements were taken with the mobile phone softwares having validated this with Extech 407730 digital sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter, serial no Z310135. Leq(A) were measured at different points and hours of the day and night. The average Leq(A) were classified according to localities and compared with WHO standard safety <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Results: LeqD ranged 71-92dB(A); 42-79dB(A) and 69-90dB(A) in business/ parks, residential and market places respectively. The Night measurements were similar 18dB(A)-56dB(A) and the day-night Leq(A)=77.2dB(A) and 90.4dB(A) for residential and business zones. Conclusion: The night <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are satisfactory but the day and day-night <span class="hlt">levels</span> are above the recommended tolerable values by WHO and therefore urgently call for awareness and legislative regulations. PMID:28337089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084424.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084424.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span>. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tulloch, Rodney W.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. The nature of <span class="hlt">noise</span> as a phenomenon and as a problem is clarified. Sources of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and the decibel <span class="hlt">levels</span> they produce are described. Among the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> discussed are hearing loss, annoyance, and accidental…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf"><span>49 CFR 393.94 - Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. 393.94... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources such as motor vehicles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? 149.697 Section 149.697 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... and Equipment <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 149.697 What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey? (a) A survey to determine the maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during normal operations must be conducted in each...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol5-sec393-94.pdf"><span>49 CFR 393.94 - Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. 393.94... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources such as motor vehicles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-sec91-859.pdf"><span>14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820045630&hterms=railway&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drailway','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820045630&hterms=railway&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Drailway"><span>Comparing the relationships between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and annoyance in different surveys - A railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> vs. aircraft and road traffic comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fields, J. M.; Walker, J. G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Annoyance expressed in a railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey is compared with that from two road traffic and three aircraft surveys in order to determine whether responses to various types of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> are source-specific. Railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> is found to be less annoying than other <span class="hlt">noises</span> at any given high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance rises less rapidly with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. At high <span class="hlt">levels</span>, this gap in reactions averages about 10 dB; it ranges from 4 dB to more than 20 dB. The methods used for comparing the surveys are examined. It is found that methodological uncertainties lead to imprecise comparisons and that different annoyance scales yield different estimates of intersurvey differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NaPho..11...44X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NaPho..11...44X"><span>Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-<span class="hlt">level</span> absolute timing <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Giunta, Michele; Hänsel, Wolfgang; Lezius, Matthias; Joshi, Abhay; Datta, Shubhashish; Alexandre, Christophe; Lours, Michel; Tremblin, Pierre-Alain; Santarelli, Giorgio; Holzwarth, Ronald; Le Coq, Yann</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Photonic synthesis of radiofrequency (RF) waveforms revived the quest for unrivalled microwave purity because of its ability to convey the benefits of optics to the microwave world. In this work, we perform a high-fidelity transfer of frequency stability between an optical reference and a microwave signal via a low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> fibre-based frequency comb and cutting-edge photodetection techniques. We demonstrate the generation of the purest microwave signal with a fractional frequency stability below 6.5 × 10-16 at 1 s and a timing <span class="hlt">noise</span> floor below 41 zs Hz-1/2 (phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> below -173 dBc Hz-1 for a 12 GHz carrier). This outperforms existing sources and promises a new era for state-of-the-art microwave generation. The characterization is achieved through a heterodyne cross-correlation scheme with the lowermost detection <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This unprecedented <span class="hlt">level</span> of purity can impact domains such as radar systems, telecommunications and time-frequency metrology. The measurement methods developed here can benefit the characterization of a broad range of signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6707800','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6707800"><span>Radiation threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> for <span class="hlt">noise</span> degradation of photodiodes. Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aukerman, L.W.; Vernon, F.L.; Song, Y.</p> <p>1986-09-30</p> <p>Space radiation can increase the <span class="hlt">noise</span> of photodiodes as a result of either a sustained ionizing-dose-rate effect or displacement damage. Elementary, straightforward models are presented for calculating radiation threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> and rad hit susceptibility. Radiation-effects experiments that verify these models are discussed. Calculations for room-temperature silicon p-i-n photodetectors, an avalanche photodiode, and a hypothetical cooled staring detector indicate that this damage mechanism should not be ignored for space and nuclear environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24552771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24552771"><span>Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713837V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713837V"><span>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the mean integrated acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4582459"><span>Measurement of Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> with Background Music</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Objectives Acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening <span class="hlt">level</span> and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background <span class="hlt">noise</span> (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......134K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......134K"><span>Pitch Estimation, Voicing Decision, and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Spectrum Estimation for Speech Corrupted by High <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Additive <span class="hlt">Noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krubsack, David Allan</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation presents two algorithms that extract parameters which are important to speech processing in high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The first algorithm determines whether a signal containing <span class="hlt">noise</span> corrupted human speech is voiced or not and estimates the fundamental frequency (pitch) of voiced speech. The second algorithm produces an estimate of the additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> which is corrupting the speech. Previous research related to the voicing decision and pitch estimation has been concentrated at signal-to -<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios (SNRs) above 0 dB. Consequently, speech processing requiring the extraction of these parameters in higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> could not be performed with much success. The research presented in this dissertation concentrates on SNRs around and below 0 dB. Although the algorithm, based on the autocorrelation function, is designed to work well for high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, good results for the no <span class="hlt">noise</span> case have been maintained. The idea of a confidence measure for parameter estimation is introduced. Confidence measures are defined and developed for both the voicing decision and the pitch estimation algorithms. Estimation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> that is corrupting a speech signal has been motivated by the need to enhance the corrupted speech. Previous research has concentrated on speech which is band limited to about 3500 Hz. Therefore, the estimation of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> corrupting high frequency speech had not been considered. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation algorithm presented in this dissertation considers the effects of high frequency speech on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimate in addition to the effects of low frequency speech. A new spectral averaging method is introduced which significantly reduces the corrupting effect of the speech components on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimate for SNRs above 0 dB. The algorithm is tested for stationary white <span class="hlt">noise</span>, stationary non-white <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and non-stationary white <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26411830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26411830"><span>Creating a Culture of Safety by Reducing <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the OR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hogan, Lisa J; Harvey, Renee L</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We implemented a quality improvement project to reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the OR in response to complaints from the anesthesia staff members at two community hospitals. Excessive <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been shown to increase staff member stress, fatigue, distraction, and ineffective communication, which can lead to medical errors. We measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during anesthesia induction and emergence for 118 different surgical procedures and compared <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> before and after the improvement project intervention. Staff member education and <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction strategies, which included signage, prominent <span class="hlt">noise</span> meters, and specific suggestions to staff members, helped to significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> during the anesthetic induction and emergence phases of OR procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012833"><span>Airport-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) user's guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>A guide for the use of the Airport-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO) at the Langley Research Center computer complex is provided. This document is divided into 5 primary sections, the introduction, the purpose of the model, and an in-depth description of the following subsystems: baseline, <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction simulation and track analysis. For each subsystem, the user is provided with a description of architecture, an explanation of subsystem use, sample results, and a case runner's check list. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the operations at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) computer complex, the Network Operating System (NOS 1.4) and CYBER Control Language. Incorporated within the ALAMO model is a census database system called SITE II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6076708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6076708"><span>Low <span class="hlt">level</span> atmospheric sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and childhood asthma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low <span class="hlt">level</span> SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22724316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22724316"><span>Minimum requirement of artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for using <span class="hlt">noise</span>-assisted correlation algorithm to suppress artifacts in ultrasonic Nakagami images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsui, Po-Hsiang</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Nakagami image is a complementary imaging mode for pulse-echo ultrasound B-scan to characterize tissues. White <span class="hlt">noise</span> in anechoic areas induces artifacts in the Nakagami image. Recently, we proposed a <span class="hlt">noise</span>-assisted correlation algorithm (NCA) for suppressing the Nakagami artifact. In the NCA, artificial white <span class="hlt">noise</span> is intentionally added twice to backscattered signals to produce two noisy data, which are used to establish a correlation profile for rejecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This study explored the effects of artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on the NCA to suppress the artifact of the Nakagami image. Simulations were conducted to produce B-mode images of anechoic regions under signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios (SNRs) of 20, 10 and 5 dB. Various artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> ranging from 0.1- to 1-fold of the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> amplitude were used in the NCA for constructing the Nakagami images. Phantom experiments were conducted to validate the performance of using the optimal artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> suggested by the simulation results to suppress the Nakagami artifacts by the NCA. The simulation results indicated that the artifacts of the Nakagami image in the anechoic regions can be gradually suppressed by increasing the artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> used in the NCA to improve the image contrast-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (CNR). The CNR of the Nakagami image reached 20 dB when the artificial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was 0.7-fold of the intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> amplitude. This criterion was demonstrated by the phantom results to provide the NCA with an excellent ability to obtain artifact-free Nakagami images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020442','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800020442"><span>Disturbance caused by aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Josse, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents <span class="hlt">noise</span> tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft <span class="hlt">noises</span> are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound <span class="hlt">level</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4767928','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4767928"><span>Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Test Outcome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing <span class="hlt">noise</span> while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less <span class="hlt">noise</span> was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491084"><span>Association of long-term exposure to community <span class="hlt">noise</span> and traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> with coronary heart disease mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gan, Wen Qi; Davies, Hugh W; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In metropolitan areas, road traffic is a major contributor to ambient air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and the dominant source of community <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The authors investigated the independent and joint influences of community <span class="hlt">noise</span> and traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period (January 1994-December 1998) and a 4-year follow-up period (January 1999-December 2002). Individuals who were 45-85 years of age and resided in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known CHD at baseline were included (n = 445,868). Individual exposures to community <span class="hlt">noise</span> and traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, including black carbon, particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide, were estimated at each person's residence using a <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction model and land-use regression models, respectively. CHD deaths were identified from the provincial death registration database. After adjustment for potential confounders, including traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> or <span class="hlt">noise</span>, elevations in <span class="hlt">noise</span> and black carbon equal to the interquartile ranges were associated with 6% (95% confidence interval: 1, 11) and 4% (95% confidence interval: 1, 8) increases, respectively, in CHD mortality. Subjects in the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> decile had a 22% (95% confidence interval: 4, 43) increase in CHD mortality compared with persons in the lowest decile. These findings suggest that there are independent effects of traffic-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on CHD mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8534E..09S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8534E..09S"><span>Mixing layer height and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in urban area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground <span class="hlt">level</span> emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> network LANUV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title42-vol1-sec84-202.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-140.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title42-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title42-vol1-sec84-1139.pdf"><span>42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572703"><span>Are the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Governments all over the world have enacted environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> directives and <span class="hlt">noise</span> control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey. Outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at or above ANLs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900474','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900474"><span>Are the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Governments all over the world have enacted environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> directives and <span class="hlt">noise</span> control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide <span class="hlt">noise</span> survey. Outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953881"><span>Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>: a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is one of the four major <span class="hlt">pollutions</span> in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological <span class="hlt">noise</span> attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of <span class="hlt">noise</span> (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1111270"><span>Study of some parameters affecting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in textile spinning and weaving mills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>el-Dakhakhny, A A; Noweir, M H; Kamel, N R</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> was evaluated in six spinning and five weaving halls located in three textile mills in Egypt. Spindle speed (rpm) and loom speed (picks per minutes) were found to be important parameters affecting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in these mills. Reduction of the number of spinning machines to five spindles per square meter of floor area will probably bring the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> below the TLV. In the weaving departments, the decrease in the number of looms will not effectively reduce the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..659Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..419..659Z"><span>Optimising threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> for information transmission in binary threshold networks: Independent multiplicative <span class="hlt">noise</span> on each threshold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Bingchang; McDonnell, Mark D.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The problem of optimising the threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> in multilevel threshold system subject to multiplicative Gaussian and uniform <span class="hlt">noise</span> is considered. Similar to previous results for additive <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we find a bifurcation phenomenon in the optimal threshold values, as the <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity changes. This occurs when the number of threshold units is greater than one. We also study the optimal thresholds for combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and find that all threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> need to be identical to optimise the system when the additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity is a constant. However, this identical value is not equal to the signal mean, unlike the case of additive <span class="hlt">noise</span>. When the multiplicative <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity is instead held constant, the optimal threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> are not all identical for small additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity but are all equal to zero for large additive <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity. The model and our results are potentially relevant for sensor network design and understanding neurobiological sensory neurons such as in the peripheral auditory system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430051','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430051"><span>Overweight, air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>: Universal risk factors for pediatric pre-hypertension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz; Keramatian, Kasra</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Pediatric pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) has a complex multifactorial etiology. Although most cases are secondary to other disorders, a substantial number of children and adolescents have primary or essential HTN and pre-HTN. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions should be considered in this context. The strong relationship of pre-HTN with environmental factors such as air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and passive smoking and obesity suggest that its prevalence will be escalating. Exposure to ambient particulate matters may increase blood pressure (BP) within hours to days. The underlying biologic pathways include autonomic nervous system imbalance and arterial vascular dysfunction or vasoconstriction because of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, tobacco smoke exposure of pregnant mothers increases systolic BP of their offspring in early infancy. Parental smoking also independently affects systolic BP among healthy preschool children. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure, notably in night, is associated with catecholamine secretion, increased BP and a pre-HTN state even in pre-school age children. Excess weight is associated with dysfunction of the adipose tissue, consisting of enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and variations in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. These changes would result in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic response, and ultimately to pre-HTN from childhood. Prevention and control of the modifiable risk factors of pre-HTN from prenatal period can have long-term health impact on primordial and primary prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. This review presents a general view on the diagnosis, prevalence and etiology of pre-HTN along with practical measures for its prevention and control. PMID:22973395</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034970&hterms=routes+Administration&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droutes%2BAdministration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034970&hterms=routes+Administration&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droutes%2BAdministration"><span>The prediction of en route <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for a DC-9 aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weir, Donald S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>En route <span class="hlt">noise</span> for advanced propfan powered aircraft has become an issue of concern for the Federal Aviation Administration. The NASA Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Prediction Program (ANOPP) is used to demonstrate the source <span class="hlt">noise</span> and propagation effects for an aircraft in <span class="hlt">level</span> flight up to 35,000 feet altitude. One-third octave band spectra of the source <span class="hlt">noise</span>, atmospheric absorption loss, and received <span class="hlt">noise</span> are presented. The predicted maximum A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> is compared to measured data from the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. ANOPP is shown to be an effective tool in evaluating the en route <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics of a DC-9 aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395787"><span>Anomalously high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a fibre Bragg grating semiconductor laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V</p> <p>2015-01-31</p> <p>Taking into account gain nonlinearity allows one to obtain anomalously high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode. This paper examines the effect of the gain nonlinearity due to spectral hole burning on <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics. (lasers)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27188302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27188302"><span>Heavy metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in sediments and mussels: assessment by using <span class="hlt">pollution</span> indices and metallothionein <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> was evaluated by determining the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and effect, the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...66..715N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...66..715N"><span>Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of wind turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Wind turbines <span class="hlt">noise</span> effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical <span class="hlt">noise</span> of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of wind turbine blades is the main source of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation. Numerical simulations of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994692"><span>Community response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Social surveys on <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> (three airports) and road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> are nearly identical to those presented in the European <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/<span class="hlt">noise</span>/directive.htm]. For road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22908745"><span>[Are intensive care units (ICU) loud? Discrepancies between the perception of professionals and patients and the measurement of real <span class="hlt">noise</span> with sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escuté, Mercé Revuelta; Martínez, Javier Rodríguez</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>In the hospital the WHO advises placing the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> between 30 and 45 dB, either rooms or halls, which would be equivalent to the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> allowed in a library. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in units both have harmful effects on health and the evolution of the patient, and also on the workers, making it an occupational hazard. The combination of these factors affects both in the patient safety, and in the quality of our care. The aim of this project is to detect the sources of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in an ICU, in order to establish a plan of prevention and reduction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and trying to get the Guideline Value recommended by WHO. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is a major health problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091991"><span>Sound-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Measurements of a Light Airplane Modified to Reduce <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Reaching the Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vogeley, A W</p> <p>1949-01-01</p> <p>An Army liaison-type airplane, representative of personal airplanes in the 150 to 200 horsepower class, has been modified to reduce propeller and engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> according to known principles of airplane-<span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction. <span class="hlt">Noise-level</span> measurements demonstrate that, with reference to an observer on the ground, a noisy airplane of this class can be made quiet -- perhaps more quiet than necessary. In order to avoid extreme and unnecessary modifications, acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729143"><span>Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2015-12-29</p> <p>There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, and to total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> (A-weighted outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical <span class="hlt">noise</span> model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train <span class="hlt">noise</span> was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> significantly decreased. When applying the statistical <span class="hlt">noise</span> model we found a relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span>, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275629"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of dental equipment used in dental college of Damascus University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qsaibati, Mhd. Loutify; Ibrahim, Ousama</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: In dental practical classes, the acoustic environment is characterized by high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in relation to other teaching areas. The aims of this study were to measure <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> produced during the different dental learning clinics, by equipments used in dental learning areas under different working conditions and by used and brand new handpieces under different working conditions. Materials and Methods: The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured by using a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> meter with a microphone, which was placed at a distance of 15 cm from a main <span class="hlt">noise</span> source in pre-clinical and clinical areas. In laboratories, the microphone was placed at a distance of 15 cm and another reading was taken 2 m away. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of dental learning clinics were measured by placing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> meter at clinic center. The data were collected, tabulated and statistically analyzed using t-tests. Significance <span class="hlt">level</span> was set at 5%. Results: In dental clinics, the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> was produced by micro motor handpiece while cutting on acrylic (92.2 dB) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> (51.7 dB) was created by ultrasonic scaler without suction pump. The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> in laboratories was caused by sandblaster (96 dB at a distance of 15 cm) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> by stone trimmer when only turned on (61.8 dB at a distance of 2 m). There was significant differences in <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the equipment's used in dental laboratories and dental learning clinics (P = 0.007). The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> recorded in clinics was at pedodontic clinic (67.37 dB). Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> detected in this study were considered to be close to the limit of risk of hearing loss 85 dB. PMID:25540655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187519"><span>[Equivalent continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in neonatal intensive care unit associated to burnout syndrome].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garrido Galindo, A P; Camargo Caicedo, Y; Vélez-Pereira, A M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in neonatal intensive care units allow the appearance of symptoms associated with burnout such as stress, irritability, fatigue and emotional instability on health care personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the equivalent continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the neonatal intensive care unit and compare the results with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with the occurrence of burnout syndrome on the care team. Continuous sampling was conducted for 20 days using a type I sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter on the unit. The maximum, the ninetieth percentile and the equivalent continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (Leq) values were recorded. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is reported in the range of 51.4-77.6 decibels A (dBA) with an average of 64 dBA, 100.6 dBA maximum, and average background <span class="hlt">noise</span> from 57.9 dBA. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceed the standards suggested for neonatal intensive care units, are close to maximum values referred for <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in the occupational standards and to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with the onset of burnout; thus allowing to infer the probability of occurrence of high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> present in the unit on the development of burnout in caregivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/129600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/129600"><span>[<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements of the air <span class="hlt">noise</span> during drilling and grinding on the fresh isolated temporal bone (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paulsen, K; Vietor, K</p> <p>1975-10-01</p> <p>Aerial sound measurements with different drilling instruments were performed during dry running and preparations of the bone. Registered were the values of the small drilling instruments Sirona, Dentatus-Air, and Electro-Torque-Ritter. Also tested were the KaVo-Technique-machine, the Hall-machine, the Air-Orbit-turbine, and the Sirona-turbine. During dry running most of them already reached the allowed marginal value of <span class="hlt">noise</span> nuisance for the ear of 85 dB (A) at a distance of 35 cm. Only the Air-Orbit-machine showed a slightly lower value of 80 dB (A). The <span class="hlt">level</span> increases with the used handpieces. Normal handpieces 1:1 exert only a minimal influence, gear handpieces 2:1, however, markedly increase the <span class="hlt">level</span>. The verticity is of no importance in the range of normal rotations between 10,000 r/min. and 80,000 r/min. Only rotations in the lower frequency range of 2,000 r/min. markedly decrease the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. During bone drilling, the kind and size of the drilling bit have an influence on the intensity of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Quadruple wing milling cutters create a very high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (at a distance of 15 cm still above 110 dB [A!]), big rose cutters (R 16) create <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 95 dB (A) and above, and only diamond round bits create less <span class="hlt">noise</span> (approximately 88 db [A]). Small drilling bits make such a faint <span class="hlt">noise</span>, that it is overroared by the drilling instrument. The turbines create only slightly higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> than during dry running. Larger drilling bits cannot be employed here on principle. Wing milling cutters can lead to persistent damages of the inner ear. The frequent use of dental drilling instruments for bone preparations can also lead to a hearing loss of the operator in the long run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917637','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3917637"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a dental teaching institute - A matter of concern!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Simarpreet; Singh, Gurminder; Sharma, Sumit; Kaur, Amarinder</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To measure and assess the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> produced by various dental equipments in different areas of a dental institution and to recommend improvements if <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are not within permissible limits. Material and Methods: Sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured at three different areas of a dental institution where learning and teaching activities are organized. The sound <span class="hlt">level</span> was measured using a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter known as ‘decibulolmeter’. In each area the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was assessed at two positions-one, at 6 inches from the operators ear and second, at the chairside instrument trolley. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also assessed from a central location of the clinic area when multiple equipments were in operation simultaneously. Results: Dental laboratory machine, dental hand-piece, ultrasonic scalers, amalgamators, high speed evacuation, and other items produce <span class="hlt">noise</span> at different sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> which is appreciable. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated varied between 72.6 dB in pre-clinics and 87.2 dB in prosthesis laboratory. The results are comparable to the results of other studies which are conducted elsewhere. Although the risk to the dentists is lesser, but damage to the hearing is possible over prolonged periods. Conclusion: Higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are potentially hazardous to the persons working in such environments especially in the laboratory areas where <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are exceeding the permissible limits. Key words:<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, equipment, hearing loss, risk, working areas. PMID:24558544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TeEng..12....1Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TeEng..12....1Z"><span>The Development And Implementation Of A Concept To Permanent Reduction Of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> In Production Taking Into Account The Legal And Economic Framework Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaušková, Lucia; Czán, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Piešová, Marianna</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Article deals with the issue of reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact in real conditions of industrial production. The solution includes measurements and calculations of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> the person is exposed to and developing proposals for effective reduction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at the specific workplace. When assessing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and design to reduce it to an acceptable <span class="hlt">level</span> we will consider the legal, safety and economic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25831924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25831924"><span>[Field investigations of the air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of populated territories].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinokurov, M V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169372"><span>Shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum of open dissipative quantum two-<span class="hlt">level</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aguado, Ramón; Brandes, Tobias</p> <p>2004-05-21</p> <p>We study the current <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum of qubits under transport conditions in a dissipative bosonic environment. We combine (non-)Markovian master equations with correlation functions in Laplace space to derive a <span class="hlt">noise</span> formula for both weak and strong coupling to the bath. The coherence-induced reduction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> is diminished by weak dissipation and/or a large <span class="hlt">level</span> separation (bias). For weak dissipation, we demonstrate that the dephasing and relaxation rates of the two-<span class="hlt">level</span> systems can be extracted from <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In the strong dissipation regime, the localization-delocalization transition becomes visible in the low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534855"><span>Performance of different types of hearing protectors undergoing high-<span class="hlt">level</span> impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buck, Karl</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes the problems that may occur when hearing protectors, usually designed for industrial <span class="hlt">noise</span> environments, are used for high-<span class="hlt">level</span> impulse (weapon) <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The military impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment is described, as are the different types of passive and active hearing protectors and the measurement procedures. The different mechanisms that may alter the effectiveness of the hearing protectors as well as their global efficiency when submitted to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span> are presented. The paper also discusses how the performance values accessible to the user may be used in different damage risk criteria for continuous and impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9473860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9473860"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and hearing ability of female workers in a textile factory in Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, A L; Nguyen, T C; Van, T L; Hoang, M H; Nguyen, S; Jonai, H; Villanueva, M B; Matsuda, S; Sotoyama, M; Sudo, A</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and hearing ability profiles were determined in a textile factory in Vietnam. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> mapping done in the weaving section showed that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the Vietnamese standard of 90 dBA by as much as 9 dBA in some areas. Audiometric tests performed on 69 female workers from the weaving section revealed that workers with more than 10 years of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure had the worst hearing threshold <span class="hlt">levels</span> at 1,000 and 4,000 Hz. Similar findings were observed for workers greater than 35 years old. The 4,000 Hz notch, suggestive of exposure to intense <span class="hlt">noise</span>, was noted in the audiograms of 26 subjects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380.1151S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLA..380.1151S"><span>Estimating the <span class="hlt">level</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span> in time series by using fractal dimensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sase, Takumi; Ramírez, Jonatán Peña; Kitajo, Keiichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We present a method for estimating the dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of a 'short' time series even if the dynamical system is unknown. The proposed method estimates the <span class="hlt">level</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span> by calculating the fractal dimensions of the time series. Additionally, the method is applied to EEG data to demonstrate its possible effectiveness as an indicator of temporal changes in the <span class="hlt">level</span> of dynamical <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJAME..21..511I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJAME..21..511I"><span>Industrial <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> study in a wheat processing factory in ilorin, nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ibrahim, I.; Ajao, K. R.; Aremu, S. A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>An industrial process such as wheat processing generates significant <span class="hlt">noise</span> which can cause adverse effects on workers and the general public. This study assessed the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at a wheat processing mill in Ilorin, Nigeria. A portable digital sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter HD600 manufactured by Extech Inc., USA was used to determine the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> around various machines, sections and offices in the factory at pre-determined distances. Subjective assessment was also mode using a World Health Organization (WHO) standard questionnaire to obtain information regarding <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratings, effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on personnel and <span class="hlt">noise</span> preventive measures. The result of the study shows that the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 99.4 dBA was recorded at a pressure blower when compared to other machines. WHO Class-4 hearing protector is recommended for workers on the shop floor and room acoustics should be upgraded to absorb some sounds transmitted to offices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026920','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026920"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the continental United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McNamara, D.E.; Buland, R.P.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The results of our <span class="hlt">noise</span> analysis are useful for characterizing the performance of existing broadband stations and for detecting operational problems and should be relevant to the future siting of ANSS backbone stations. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> maps at body-wave frequencies should be useful for estimating the magnitude threshold for the ANSS backbone and regional networks or conversely for optimizing the distribution of regional network stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022127','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022127"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center <span class="hlt">noise</span> test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the <span class="hlt">noise</span> results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field <span class="hlt">noise</span> around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf"><span>14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and other information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>..., weights, configurations, and other information or data employed for obtaining the certified <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> prescribed by this part, including equivalent procedures used for flight, testing, and analysis, must...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec36-1501.pdf"><span>14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and other information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>..., weights, configurations, and other information or data employed for obtaining the certified <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> prescribed by this part, including equivalent procedures used for flight, testing, and analysis, must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MeScT..18.2131T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MeScT..18.2131T"><span>Combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> assessment in direct injection Diesel engines by means of in-cylinder pressure components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torregrosa, A. J.; Broatch, A.; Martín, J.; Monelletta, L.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The low consumption achievable with Diesel engines and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions, together with the new technologies allowing to meet present and future legislation for <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> emission reduction, make them attractive from an environmental viewpoint. However, current and future Diesel concepts are intrinsically noisy, and thus in the past few years, combustion <span class="hlt">noise</span> was considered as an additional factor in engine development alongside performance, emissions and driveability. Otherwise, due to this negative issue intrinsic to Diesel combustion, end-users could be reluctant to drive Diesel-powered vehicles and their potential for environment preservation could thus be lost or underused. Evaluation procedures are then required, both for <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and sound quality, that may be integrated into the global engine development process, avoiding the need to resort to long and expensive acoustic tests. In this paper, such a procedure, based on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> source diagnostic through the definition of suitable components extracted from in-cylinder pressure, is proposed and validated. An innovative decomposition of the in-cylinder pressure signal is used to obtain such components, so that features associated with the excitation inside the cylinder may be properly identified. These combustion components, significant of the rate of heat release in the cylinder and the resonance in the combustion chamber, may be correlated with the overall <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. A prediction of the radiated engine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> more accurate than that obtained from the classical 'block attenuation' approach is achieved, while combustion process features related to the resulting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> can be identified and thus corrective actions may be proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1411787R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1411787R"><span>Surface gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current <span class="hlt">levels</span> and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in Lhasa, various gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high <span class="hlt">level</span> of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410721R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410721R"><span>Surface gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current <span class="hlt">levels</span> and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in Lhasa, various gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high <span class="hlt">level</span> of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840010980','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840010980"><span>An empirical method for predicting the mixing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of subsonic circular and coaxial jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, J. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An empirical method for predicting the static free field source <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet <span class="hlt">noise</span> in terms of four components which are overall power <span class="hlt">level</span>, power spectrum <span class="hlt">level</span>, directivity index, and relative spectrum <span class="hlt">level</span>. The values of these <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at each of these grid points is called a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> coordinates define the component <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5030705"><span>Switching Correlation and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Pr3+:YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> correlation and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other. PMID:27650423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650423"><span>Switching Correlation and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Pr(3+):YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> correlation and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014729','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870014729"><span>Guidelines for <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the space station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Human habitability <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration guidelines for the Space Station are presented. These were developed by a working group of experts established by the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure limits are suggested that will permit adequate speech communication, sleep, and hearing safety. Vibration exposure limits are suggested which will provide adequate comfort and permit adequate task performance. These are provided for guidance only for setting criteria. The exact criteria will depend on Space Station design and duty cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080075"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in primary schools of medium sized city in Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarantopoulos, George; Lykoudis, Spyros; Kassomenos, Pavlos</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This study presents and evaluates <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> recorded at 15 school complexes in order to describe the indoor as well as the outdoor acoustic environment of schools and gain insight on controlling factors. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at the roadside in front of the school, the schoolyard, and 41 classrooms, both occupied and unoccupied, were simultaneously and continuously recorded through the course of a daily timetable (08:20-13:10). The average speech <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of teachers was separately measured for 1min periods. Indoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, in all cases, were much higher than internationally recommended values: LAeq,5min averaged 69.0dB in occupied classrooms, and 47.1dB in unoccupied ones. Average speech-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (SNR) was estimated to be 12.0dB(A) during teaching, whereas both indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were significantly elevated during break time and outdoor physical-educational activities. Corresponding measurements of indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> suggest that <span class="hlt">noise</span> from the outside (road and schoolyard) affects the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in the classrooms, however in varying degrees, depending on the specific layout and road traffic characteristics. Using double glazing diminishes this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529260"><span>Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Montreal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2016-08-11</p> <p>The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> and total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> source was also used as an indicator of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road <span class="hlt">noise</span> when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548881"><span>Analyzing nocturnal <span class="hlt">noise</span> stratification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Pollution</span> associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant <span class="hlt">pollution</span> sources in our cities; <span class="hlt">noise</span> is one of the major components of traffic <span class="hlt">pollution</span>; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate <span class="hlt">noise</span> assessment methods and low <span class="hlt">pollution</span> city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal <span class="hlt">noise</span> presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the <span class="hlt">noise</span> stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for <span class="hlt">noise</span> evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of <span class="hlt">pollution</span> prevention policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349105"><span>A <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction method is effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........24T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........24T"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in principal component analysis with an application to ozone <span class="hlt">pollution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsakiri, Katerina G.</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis analyzes the effect of independent <span class="hlt">noise</span> in principal components of k normally distributed random variables defined by a covariance matrix. We prove that the principal components as well as the canonical variate pairs determined from joint distribution of original sample affected by <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be essentially different in comparison with those determined from the original sample. However when the differences between the eigenvalues of the original covariance matrix are sufficiently large compared to the <span class="hlt">level</span> of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>, the effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in principal components and canonical variate pairs proved to be negligible. The theoretical results are supported by simulation study and examples. Moreover, we compare our results about the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in the two dimensional case with other models examined before. This theory can be applied in any field for the decomposition of the components in multivariate analysis. One application is the detection and prediction of the main atmospheric factor of ozone concentrations on the example of Albany, New York. Using daily ozone, solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and precipitation data, we determine the main atmospheric factor for the explanation and prediction of ozone concentrations. A methodology is described for the decomposition of the time series of ozone and other atmospheric variables into the global term component which describes the long term trend and the seasonal variations, and the synoptic scale component which describes the short term variations. By using the Canonical Correlation Analysis, we show that solar radiation is the only main factor between the atmospheric variables considered here for the explanation and prediction of the global and synoptic scale component of ozone. The global term components are modeled by a linear regression model, while the synoptic scale components by a vector autoregressive model and the Kalman filter. The coefficient of determination, R2, for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aerobic+AND+exercise&pg=6&id=EJ808593','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aerobic+AND+exercise&pg=6&id=EJ808593"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to measure <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=American+AND+Psycho&pg=6&id=ED046725','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=American+AND+Psycho&pg=6&id=ED046725"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span>, AMA Congress on Environmental Health (6th, Chicago, Illinois, April 28-29, 1969).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.</p> <p></p> <p>Contained are 15 papers presented at the sixth annual AMA Congress on Environmental Health. Three papers are concerned with <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss as it relates to pathological effects, the role of physicians in workmen's compensation cases, and exposure to steady-state <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Five papers deal with <span class="hlt">noise</span> control as it relates to medical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&id=EJ1047166','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&id=EJ1047166"><span>Reduction of Classroom <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Using Group Contingencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ring, Brandon M.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Eubanks, Sean L.; Silverman, Kenneth</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated <span class="hlt">noise</span> standards. Participants…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=class+AND+insulation&pg=2&id=EJ130979','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=class+AND+insulation&pg=2&id=EJ130979"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Annoyance in Open Plan Educational Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walsh, David P.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the special considerations in defining an acoustical environment acceptable for educational purposes. Reviews various approaches for anticipating the degree of dissatisfaction or annoyance in school spaces, including statistical distributions of class <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and deals with some design recommendations. (Author/MLF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22542692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22542692"><span>Fish discards management: <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and best available removal techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924625','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4924625"><span>Pure-tone audiometric threshold assessment with in-ear monitoring of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buckey, Jay C.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G.; Maro, Isaac I.; Moshi, Ndeserua; Turk, Marvee; Clavier, Odile H.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective Our objective was to obtain reliable threshold measurements without a sound booth by using a passive <span class="hlt">noise</span>-attenuating hearing protector combined with in-ear 1/3-octave band <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements to verify the ear canal was suitably quiet. Design We deployed laptop-based hearing testing systems to Tanzania as part of a study of HIV infection and hearing. An in-ear probe containing a microphone was used under the hearing protector for both the in-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements and threshold audiometry. The 1/3-octave band <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum from the microphone was displayed on the operator’s screen with acceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> in grey and unacceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> in red. Operators attempted to make all bars grey, but focused on achieving grey bars at 2000 Hz and above. Study Sample 624 adults and 260 children provided 3381 in-ear octave band measurements. Repeated measurements from 144 individuals who returned for testing on 3 separate occasions were also analyzed. Results In-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the minimal permissible ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (MPANL) for ears not covered, but not the dB SPL <span class="hlt">levels</span> corresponding to 0 dB HL between 2–4 kHz. In-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were repeatable over time. Conclusions Reliable audiometry can be performed using a passive <span class="hlt">noise</span>-attenuating hearing protector and in-ear <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. PMID:23992487</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ffcd.confE.105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ffcd.confE.105S"><span><span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Fog at the Chilean Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3507061','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3507061"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in 200 Mosques in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al Shimemeri, S. A.; Patel, Chirag B.; Abdulrahman, Al Fayez</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a recognized concern within the context of occupational and general health. However, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are seldom studied at nonworkplace and nonabode sites that are visited regularly, e.g., places of worship. The purpose of this study was to assess the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> inside and outside of mosque prayer rooms and to compare the <span class="hlt">levels</span> with established <span class="hlt">noise</span> tolerance limits. Materials and Methods: A portable digital sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter was used to determine the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (measured in dB) inside and outside of mosque prayer rooms. The highest (peak) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from each recording were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). Results: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured at 200 mosque prayer rooms from all 15 municipal districts of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Of these, 151 prayer rooms (75.5%) had both inside and outside <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements and the remaining 49 prayer rooms (24.5%) had only inside <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements. There was significantly greater <span class="hlt">noise</span> outside compared to inside the prayer rooms, for both the highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (outside: 87.8 ± 4.8 dB compared to inside: 85.8 ± 5.4 dB, P < 0.0001) and lowest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (outside: 58.4 ± 3.8 dB compared to inside: 56.6 ± 3.6 dB, P < 0.00001). In all, 112 of the inside highest <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements (56%) and 113 of the outside highest <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements (74.8%) were greater than 85 dB, the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> at which NIHL has been shown to occur in occupational settings. Conclusion: A large proportion (56%) of mosque prayer rooms with inside peak <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were above acceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> (85 dB), however, prayers certainly do not last for 8 continuous hours. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> at mosques is acceptable and in compliance with international norms of hearing safety; moreover, it does not present any risk to hearing in the long run. PMID:23210007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611053"><span>Assessing the Underwater Ship <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the North Tyrrhenian Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rossi, Eduardo; Licitra, Gaetano; Iacoponi, Andrea; Taburni, Daniele</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research was to assess the anthropic underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> caused by ships within the Cetacean Sanctuary, a wide area in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> from low-frequency continuous sounds has been investigated within the 1/3-octave bands centered at 63 and 125 Hz. All the information about <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and sound attenuation have been organized in a database; a tool automatically extracts useful information from it and feeds a ray-tracing model to estimate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The results show average <span class="hlt">levels</span> generally over the 100 dB re 1 μPa value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356370"><span>Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in preschools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress <span class="hlt">level</span>, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress <span class="hlt">level</span> was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740017450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740017450"><span>Civil helicopter <span class="hlt">noise</span> assessment study Boeing-Vertol model 347. [recommendations for reduction of helicopter <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to forecast the <span class="hlt">noise</span> restrictions which may be imposed on civil transport helicopters in the 1975-1985 time period. Certification and community acceptance criteria were predicted. A 50 passenger tandem rotor helicopter based on the Boeing-Vertol Model 347 was studied to determine the <span class="hlt">noise</span> reductions required, and the means of achieving them. Some of the important study recommendations are: (1) certification limits should be equivalent to 95 EPNdb at data points located at 500 feet to each side of the touchdown/takeoff point, and 1000 feet from this point directly under the approach and departure flight path. (2) community acceptance should be measured as Equivalent <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (Leq), based on dBA, with separate limits for day and night operations, and (3) in order to comply with the above guidelines, the Model 347 helicopter will require studies and tests leading to several modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020277&hterms=Deafness&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDeafness','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020277&hterms=Deafness&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDeafness"><span><span class="hlt">Level</span>, peculiarities and effects of coal mine <span class="hlt">noise</span> on pit workers. [correlation between <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity and hearing impairment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Darlea, I. G.; Bitir, P.; Coculescu, M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>There exists a correlation between <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity and spectrum and degree of hearing impairment in the different professional categories in the pit. Most affected are dross miners and drillers. In these, the first degree of hypoacusia sets in within the first five years of exposure. Deafness begins at a frequency of 4,000 Hz, but often enough (20%) at 2,000 Hz as well, progressively evolving through the classical stages if exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> continues. In the coal bearing basins investigated, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is, on the whole, 31.2%, but the conventional zone is not involved by more than 6.3%. Technological and medical measures are proposed for the purpose of avoiding these troubles in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JSV...127..431I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JSV...127..431I"><span>The plasma cyclic-AMP response to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in humans and rats—short-term exposure to various <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwamoto, M.; Dodo, H.; Ishii, F.; Yoneda, J.; Yamazaki, S.; Goto, H.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>Rats were exposed to short-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> which was found to activate the hypothalamohypophyseal-adrenal system and result in a decrease of adrenal ascorbic acid (AAA) and an increase of serum corticosterone (SCS). The threshold limit value lay between 60 and 70 dB(A). To characterize better the effect of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the human hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system, a large group of subjects was exposed to short-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 85 dB(A) and higher, and tested for <span class="hlt">levels</span> of adrenocortical steroid (cortisol) and anterior pituitary hormones such as ACTH, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Results in humans showed hyperfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary system. However, as the responses in rats and humans differed, a further experiment was performed using C-AMP, a second messenger mediating many of the effects of a variety of hormones. Plasma C-AMP in humans and rats increased significantly after exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> greater than 70 dB(A). We suggest that plasma C-AMP could be useful as a sensitive index for <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related stress in the daily living environment of humans and rats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880014855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880014855"><span>Sources and <span class="hlt">levels</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Soderman, Paul T.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel following installation of a sound-absorbent lining on the test-section walls. Results show that the fan-drive <span class="hlt">noise</span> dominated the empty test-section background <span class="hlt">noise</span> at airspeeds below 120 knots. Above 120 knots, the test-section broadband background <span class="hlt">noise</span> was dominated by wind-induced dipole <span class="hlt">noise</span> (except at lower harmonics of fan blade-passage tones) most likely generated at the microphone or microphone support strut. Third-octave band and narrow-band spectra are presented for several fan operating conditions and test-section airspeeds. The background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> can be reduced by making improvements to the microphone wind screen or support strut. Empirical equations are presented relating variations of fan <span class="hlt">noise</span> with fan speed or blade-pitch angle. An empirical expression for typical fan <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra is also presented. Fan motor electric power consumption is related to the <span class="hlt">noise</span> generation. Preliminary measurements of sound absorption by the test-section lining indicate that the 152 mm thick lining will adequately absorb test-section model <span class="hlt">noise</span> at frequencies above 300 Hz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007066','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007066"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and their effects on Shuttle crewmembers' performance: Operational concerns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koros, Anton S.; Adam, Susan C.; Wheelwright, Charles D.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>When excessive, <span class="hlt">noise</span> can result in sleep interference, fatigue, interference with verbal communication, and hearing damage. Shuttle crewmembers are exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> throughout their mission. The contribution of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to decrements in crew performance over these extended exposure durations was the focus of this study. On the STS-40/SLS-1, mission <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were evaluated through the use of a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter and a crew questionnaire. Crewmembers noted that sleep, concentration, and relaxation were negatively impacted by high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Speech Interference <span class="hlt">Levels</span> (SIL's), calculated from the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements, suggested that crewmembers were required to raise their voice in order to be heard. No difficulty detecting caution and warning alarms was noted. The higher than desirable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Spacelab were attributed to flight specific payloads for which acoustic waivers were granted. It is recommended that current <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> be reduced in Spacelab and the Orbiter Middeck especially as longer missions are planned for the buildup of Space Station Freedom. <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of NC 50 are recommended in areas where speech communication is required and NC 40 in sleep areas. These <span class="hlt">levels</span> are in accordance with the NASA Man-Systems Integration Standards. Measurements proposed for subsequent orbiter missions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005624"><span>Effects of sound <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuations on annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccurdy, D. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of variations in the rate and magnitude of sound <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuations on the annoyance caused by aircraft-flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The effects of tonal content, <span class="hlt">noise</span> duration, and sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> on annoyance were also studied. An aircraft-<span class="hlt">noise</span> synthesis system was used to synthesize 32 aircraft-flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimuli representing the factorial combinations of 2 tone conditions, 2 <span class="hlt">noise</span> durations, 2 sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>, 2 <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation rates, and 2 <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation magnitudes. Thirty-two test subjects made annoyance judgements on a total of 64 stimuli in a subjective listening test facility simulating an outdoor acoustic environment. Variations in the rate and magnitude of <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuations were found to have little, if any, effect on annoyance. Tonal content, <span class="hlt">noise</span> duration, sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>, and the interaction of tonal content with sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> were found to affect the judged annoyance significantly. The addition of tone corrections and/or duration corrections significantly improved the annoyance prediction ability of <span class="hlt">noise</span> rating scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2438M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2438M"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the learning-teaching activities in a dental medicine school</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matos, Andreia; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Fernandes, Joao C. S.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> made by different clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are considered to be the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal, and acrylic). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were determined using a precision sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter, which was positioned at ear <span class="hlt">level</span> and also at one-meter distance from the operator. Some of the handpieces were brand new and the others had a few years of use. The sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> encountered were between 60 and 99 dB(A) and were compared with the <span class="hlt">noise</span> limits in A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> for mechanical equipments installed in educational buildings included in the Portuguese <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Code and in other European countries codes. The daily personal <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> (LEP,d) of the students and professors were calculated to be between 85 and 90 dB(A) and were compared with the European legal limits. Some <span class="hlt">noise</span> limits for this type of environment are proposed and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23008255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23008255"><span>Additive white Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation in SVD domain for images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Wei; Lin, Weisi</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Accurate estimation of Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is of fundamental interest in a wide variety of vision and image processing applications as it is critical to the processing techniques that follow. In this paper, a new effective <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation method is proposed on the basis of the study of singular values of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-corrupted images. Two novel aspects of this paper address the major challenges in <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation: 1) the use of the tail of singular values for <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation to alleviate the influence of the signal on the data basis for the <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation process and 2) the addition of known <span class="hlt">noise</span> to estimate the content-dependent parameter, so that the proposed scheme is adaptive to visual signals, thereby enabling a wider application scope of the proposed scheme. The analysis and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reliably infer <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and show robust behavior over a wide range of visual content and <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions, and that is outperforms relevant existing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1910M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1910M"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> and transient <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were highest. The animals also responded to the transient <span class="hlt">noise</span> of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19275337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19275337"><span>Manatee (Trichechus manatus) vocalization usage in relation to environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Tyack, Peter L</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> can interfere with acoustic communication by masking signals that contain biologically important information. Communication theory recognizes several ways a sender can modify its acoustic signal to compensate for <span class="hlt">noise</span>, including increasing the source <span class="hlt">level</span> of a signal, its repetition, its duration, shifting frequency outside that of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> band, or shifting the timing of signal emission outside of <span class="hlt">noise</span> periods. The extent to which animals would be expected to use these compensation mechanisms depends on the benefit of successful communication, risk of failure, and the cost of compensation. Here we study whether a coastal marine mammal, the manatee, can modify vocalizations as a function of behavioral context and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. To investigate whether and how manatees modify their vocalizations, natural vocalization usage and structure were examined in terms of vocalization rate, duration, frequency, and source <span class="hlt">level</span>. Vocalizations were classified into two call types, chirps and squeaks, which were analyzed independently. In conditions of elevated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, call rates decreased during feeding and social behaviors, and the duration of each call type was differently influenced by the presence of calves. These results suggest that ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> do have a detectable effect on manatee communication and that manatees modify their vocalizations as a function of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in specific behavioral contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8493E..0LZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8493E..0LZ"><span>Analyzing of fringe patterns <span class="hlt">polluted</span> by <span class="hlt">noise</span> and nonlinearity using S-Transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, Min; Chen, Wenjing</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The S-transform, a time frequency representation proposed in 1996 by R.G. Stockwell, can be conceptually thought of either as a variable window short-time Fourier transform or a phase corrected Wavelet transform. Whose window size verifies with the frequency and here both the local amplitude and local phase spectrum of a time varying signal can be simultaneously estimated. As a reversible time-frequency analysis tool, it is well suited to analyzing of non-stationary signals and has many desirable characteristics. Distinct from the wavelet transformation, averaging the local S spectra over the direction of time can correctly form the Fourier transform spectra of the signal. Therefore S transform have direct relationship with the Fourier transform. In recent years, the S-transform has been introduced in three-dimensional optical measurement based on a fringe projection technique and attracted many researchers to work on the field. In this paper, for verifying the advantages of S transform, we compare the reconstruction of S transform, including S transform ridge method and S transform filtering method, with that of other methods, such as Fourier transform method, wavelet transform method for eliminating phase errors caused by the existences of both nonlinear factor and <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In addition, we have a discussion and make a comparison on these methods by means of computer simulations appearing robust within different white Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. It shows that S-transform profilometry based on the filtering way is helpful to the enhancement of measurement accuracy, which is verified by experiments for its better reconstruction results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA175977','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA175977"><span>Radiation Threshold <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Degradation of Photodiodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-09-30</p> <p>for <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Degradation of Photodiodes L. W. AUKERMAN , F. L. VERNON, Jr., and Y. SONG Electronics Research Laboratory Laboratory Operations The...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER TR-0086 (6925-04)-2 7. AUTHOR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Lee W. Aukerman , Frank L. Vernon, Jr., and Yeong Song...Agency, Washington, D.C. (December 1971). 8. D. H. Seib and L. W. Aukerman , "Photodetectors for the 0.1 to 1.0 4m Spectral Region," Advances in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23998505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23998505"><span>Modeling of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and estimated human exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport in Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">level</span> of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was calculated according to the European <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive. These calculations were based on the actual flight data for each flight in the year 2011. The study area was selected to cover of 25km radius centered on the Aerodrome Reference Point of the airport. The geographical data around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was used to prepare elevation, residential building, auxiliary building, hospital and school layers in SoundPlan software. It was found that 1.2% of the land area of İstanbul City exceeds the threshold of 55dB(A) during daytime. However, when the exceedance of threshold of 65dB(A)is investigated, the affected area is found quite small (0.2% of land area of city). About 0.3% of the land area of İstanbul City has <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeding 55dB(A) during night-time. Our results show that about 4% of the resident population was exposed to 55dB(A) or higher <span class="hlt">noises</span> during daytime in İstanbul. When applying the second threshhold criteria, nearly 1% of the population is exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> greater than 65dB(A). At night-time, 1.3% of the population is exposed to 55dB(A) or higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000068518','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000068518"><span>Validation of Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Prediction Models at Low <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Page, Juliet A.; Hobbs, Christopher M.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Stusnick, Eric; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were made at Denver International Airport for a period of four weeks. Detailed operational information was provided by airline operators which enabled <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> to be predicted using the FAA's Integrated <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model. Several thrust prediction techniques were evaluated. Measured sound exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> for departure operations were found to be 4 to 10 dB higher than predicted, depending on the thrust prediction technique employed. Differences between measured and predicted <span class="hlt">levels</span> are shown to be related to atmospheric conditions present at the aircraft altitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670443','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4670443"><span>Effects of voice style, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Speakers adjust their vocal effort when communicating in different room acoustic and <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions and when instructed to speak at different volumes. The present paper reports on the effects of voice style, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, and acoustic feedback on vocal effort, evaluated as sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>, and self-reported vocal fatigue, comfort, and control. Speakers increased their <span class="hlt">level</span> in the presence of babble and when instructed to talk in a loud style, and lowered it when acoustic feedback was increased and when talking in a soft style. Self-reported responses indicated a preference for the normal style without babble <span class="hlt">noise</span>. PMID:26723357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780960"><span>Preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on "double <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures" such as environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> plus recreational <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The present study measures the preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a mobile phone program with subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants' earphone volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were analyzed using a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> than for the other programs. Higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume <span class="hlt">level</span> was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> is still needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918671','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918671"><span>Preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on “double <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures” such as environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> plus recreational <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The present study measures the preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a mobile phone program with subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants’ earphone volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were analyzed using a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> than for the other programs. Higher volume <span class="hlt">levels</span> were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume <span class="hlt">level</span> was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> is still needed. PMID:26780960</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014927','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014927"><span>Measurement of speech <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the presence of time varying background <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pearsons, K. S.; Horonjeff, R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Short-term speech <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements which could be used to note changes in vocal effort in a time varying <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment were studied. Knowing the changes in speech <span class="hlt">level</span> would in turn allow prediction of intelligibility in the presence of aircraft flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Tests indicated that it is possible to use two second samples of speech to estimate long term root mean square speech <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Other tests were also performed in which people read out loud during aircraft flyover <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Results of these tests indicate that people do indeed raise their voice during flyovers at a rate of about 3-1/2 dB for each 10 dB increase in background <span class="hlt">level</span>. This finding is in agreement with other tests of speech <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the presence of steady state background <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26629916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26629916"><span>The Relationship between Vessel Traffic and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Received by Killer Whales (Orcinus orca).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Houghton, Juliana; Holt, Marla M; Giles, Deborah A; Hanson, M Bradley; Emmons, Candice K; Hogan, Jeffrey T; Branch, Trevor A; VanBlaricom, Glenn R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span> on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in <span class="hlt">noise</span> was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in this population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4667929"><span>The Relationship between Vessel Traffic and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Received by Killer Whales (Orcinus orca)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Houghton, Juliana; Holt, Marla M.; Giles, Deborah A.; Hanson, M. Bradley; Emmons, Candice K.; Hogan, Jeffrey T.; Branch, Trevor A.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span> on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in <span class="hlt">noise</span> was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in this population. PMID:26629916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173493','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70173493"><span>The relationship between vessel traffic and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by killer whales (Orcinus orca)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Houghton, Juliana; Holt, Marla M.; Giles, Deborah A.; Hanson, M. Bradley; Emmons, Candice K.; Hogan, Jeffrey T.; Branch, Trevor A.; Vanblaricom, Glenn R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Whale watching has become increasingly popular as an ecotourism activity around the globe and is beneficial for environmental education and local economies. Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) comprise an endangered population that is frequently observed by a large whale watching fleet in the inland waters of Washington state and British Columbia. One of the factors identified as a risk to recovery for the population is the effect of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span>. An examination of the effects of vessels and associated <span class="hlt">noise</span> on whale behavior utilized novel equipment to address limitations of previous studies. Digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGs) measured the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> the tagged whales received while laser positioning systems allowed collection of geo-referenced data for tagged whales and all vessels within 1000 m of the tagged whale. The objective of the current study was to compare vessel data and DTAG recordings to relate vessel traffic to the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by tagged whales. Two analyses were conducted, one including all recording intervals, and one that excluded intervals when only the research vessel was present. For all data, significant predictors of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were length (inverse relationship), number of propellers, and vessel speed, but only 15% of the variation in <span class="hlt">noise</span> was explained by this model. When research-vessel-only intervals were excluded, vessel speed was the only significant predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and explained 42% of the variation. Simple linear regressions (ignoring covariates) found that average vessel speed and number of propellers were the only significant correlates with <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We conclude that vessel speed is the most important predictor of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> received by whales in this study. Thus, measures that reduce vessel speed in the vicinity of killer whales would reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in this population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227021','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227021"><span>Modeling Signal-to-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Ratio of Otoacoustic Emissions in Workers Exposed to Different Industrial <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R.; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SPL) and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.3154K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.3154K"><span>Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: Effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and duration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, Colleen Reichmuth</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Behavioral psychophysical techniques were used to evaluate the residual effects of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the hearing sensitivity of three pinnipeds: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as the difference between auditory thresholds obtained before and after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, was assessed. The subjects were exposed to octave-band <span class="hlt">noise</span> centered at 2500 Hz at two sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>: 80 and 95 dB SL (re: auditory threshold at 2500 Hz). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure durations were 22, 25, and 50 min. Threshold shifts were assessed at 2500 and 3530 Hz. Mean threshold shifts ranged from 2.9-12.2 dB. Full recovery of auditory sensitivity occurred within 24 h of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Control sequences, comprising sham <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures, did not result in significant mean threshold shifts for any subject. Threshold shift magnitudes increased with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SEL) for two of the three subjects. The results underscore the importance of including sound exposure metrics (incorporating sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> and exposure duration) in order to fully assess the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on marine mammal hearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4476045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4476045"><span>Harbour porpoises react to low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dyndo, Monika; Wiśniewska, Danuta Maria; Rojano-Doñate, Laia; Madsen, Peter Teglberg</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cetaceans rely critically on sound for navigation, foraging and communication and are therefore potentially affected by increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from human activities at sea. Shipping is the main contributor of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwater, but studies of shipping <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects have primarily considered baleen whales due to their good hearing at low frequencies, where ships produce most <span class="hlt">noise</span> power. Conversely, the possible effects of vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> on small toothed whales have been largely ignored due to their poor low-frequency hearing. Prompted by recent findings of energy at medium- to high-frequencies in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we conducted an exposure study where the behaviour of four porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a net-pen was logged while they were exposed to 133 vessel passages. Using a multivariate generalised linear mixed-effects model, we show that low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency components in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> elicit strong, stereotyped behavioural responses in porpoises. Such low <span class="hlt">levels</span> will routinely be experienced by porpoises in the wild at ranges of more than 1000 meters from vessels, suggesting that vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> is a, so far, largely overlooked, but substantial source of disturbance in shallow water areas with high densities of both porpoises and vessels. PMID:26095689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511083D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511083D"><span>Harbour porpoises react to low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyndo, Monika; Wiśniewska, Danuta Maria; Rojano-Doñate, Laia; Madsen, Peter Teglberg</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Cetaceans rely critically on sound for navigation, foraging and communication and are therefore potentially affected by increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from human activities at sea. Shipping is the main contributor of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwater, but studies of shipping <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects have primarily considered baleen whales due to their good hearing at low frequencies, where ships produce most <span class="hlt">noise</span> power. Conversely, the possible effects of vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> on small toothed whales have been largely ignored due to their poor low-frequency hearing. Prompted by recent findings of energy at medium- to high-frequencies in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span>, we conducted an exposure study where the behaviour of four porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a net-pen was logged while they were exposed to 133 vessel passages. Using a multivariate generalised linear mixed-effects model, we show that low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of high frequency components in vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> elicit strong, stereotyped behavioural responses in porpoises. Such low <span class="hlt">levels</span> will routinely be experienced by porpoises in the wild at ranges of more than 1000 meters from vessels, suggesting that vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> is a, so far, largely overlooked, but substantial source of disturbance in shallow water areas with high densities of both porpoises and vessels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16334695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16334695"><span>Underwater temporary threshold shift in pinnipeds: effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and duration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, Colleen Reichmuth</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Behavioral psychophysical techniques were used to evaluate the residual effects of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the hearing sensitivity of three pinnipeds: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Temporary threshold shift (TTS), defined as the difference between auditory thresholds obtained before and after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, was assessed. The subjects were exposed to octave-band <span class="hlt">noise</span> centered at 2500 Hz at two sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>: 80 and 95 dB SL (re: auditory threshold at 2500 Hz). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure durations were 22, 25, and 50 min. Threshold shifts were assessed at 2500 and 3530 Hz. Mean threshold shifts ranged from 2.9-12.2 dB. Full recovery of auditory sensitivity occurred within 24 h of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Control sequences, comprising sham <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures, did not result in significant mean threshold shifts for any subject. Threshold shift magnitudes increased with increasing <span class="hlt">noise</span> sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SEL) for two of the three subjects. The results underscore the importance of including sound exposure metrics (incorporating sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> and exposure duration) in order to fully assess the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on marine mammal hearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918653','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918653"><span>The impact of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognitive performance in attention-based tasks depends on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> even within moderate-<span class="hlt">level</span> ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schlittmeier, Sabine J.; Feil, Alexandra; Liebl, Andreas; Hellbrück, Jürgen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little empirical evidence is available regarding the effects of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognitive performance in adults, although traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> can be heard at many offices and home office workplaces. Our study tested the impact of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at different <span class="hlt">levels</span> (50 dB(A), 60 dB(A), 70 dB(A)) on performance in three tasks that differed with respect to their dependency on attentional and storage functions, as follows: The Stroop task, in which performance relied predominantly on attentional functions (e.g., inhibition of automated responses; Experiment 1: n = 24); a non-automated multistage mental arithmetic task calling for both attentional and storage functions (Exp. 2: n = 18); and verbal serial recall, which placed a burden predominantly on storage functions (Experiment 3: n = 18). Better performance was observed during moderate road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 50 dB(A) compared to loud traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 70 dB(A) in attention-based tasks (Experiments 1-2). This contrasted with the effects of irrelevant speech (60 dB(A)), which was included in the experiments as a well-explored and common <span class="hlt">noise</span> source in office settings. A disturbance impact of background speech was only given in the two tasks that called for storage functions (Experiments 2-3). In addition to the performance data, subjective annoyance ratings were collected. Consistent with the <span class="hlt">level</span> effect of road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> found in the performance data, a moderate road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 50 dB(A) was perceived as significantly less annoying than a loud road traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 70 dB(A), which was found, however, independently of the task at hand. Furthermore, the background sound condition with the highest detrimental performance effect in a task was also rated as most annoying in this task, i.e., traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 70 dB(A) in the Stroop task, and background speech in the mental arithmetic and serial recall tasks. PMID:25913554</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16366470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16366470"><span>[Eutrophication and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of microcystin in Dianshan Lake].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Wei; Wu, He-Yan; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Qi, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Hui-Gang</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>A survey was conducted in Dianshan Lake to study the eutrophication indexes including total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), pH, temperature, diaphaneity and chlorophyll-a <span class="hlt">level</span> and dominant algae in seasons. The impacts of temperature, light, nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of and microcystin LR production by Microcystis aeraginosa strain under laboratory conditions were studied. Relationship between algal cell density and concentration of microcystin LR were studied. Results suggest that water in Dianshan Lake was eutrophicated. The suitable seasons for algae growth are the end of spring and summer. The annual average of TP and TN were 1.93 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L respectively. And 93.5 and 92.2 percent of TP and TN were higher than the criteria for the third class water body. Significant impact from agriculture was indicated since the peak of algae laged one month after the maxium use of fertilizer. The dominant algae in Dianshan Lake were cyanobacteria, bacillariophyta, cryptophyta and euglenophyta. Microcystis, anabaena and synedra, which excrete toxins and indicate water <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, and are dominant algae species in summer. M. aeraginosa strain had a biggest growth rate at temperature of 25 degrees C and light intensity of 3 0001x, while microcystin LR production contents reached maximum at 20 degrees C and 5000lx respectively. The optimum TP and TN concentrations for growth of and toxin production by M. aeraginosa were found to be 650 micromol/L and 6.5 micromol/L respectively. TP is suspected to be the limiting factor for the growth of algae both in field and laboratory conditions. Positive correlations between total microcystin LR concentrations and algae cell density or M. aeraginosa cell densities are found. The algae cell density can be used to predict the <span class="hlt">level</span> of algal toxins in water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515634"><span>Excessive <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are noted in kindergarten classrooms in the island of Crete.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chatzakis, Nikolaos S; Karatzanis, Alexander D; Helidoni, Meropi E; Velegrakis, Stelios G; Christodoulou, Panagiotis; Velegrakis, Georgios A</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> in classrooms may present a serious obstacle to the academic achievement of children. There is relatively little information on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in teaching facilities in Greece and particularly in the island of Crete. The purpose of this study was to provide objective data on the internal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> inside kindergartens in Crete. The study was conducted in the city of Heraklion in the island of Crete, Greece. Ten kindergartens were selected and a total of 18 classrooms were chosen. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured in occupied and unoccupied classrooms. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in occupied classrooms ranged from 71.6 to 82.9 dBA with an average of 75.8 dBA. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in empty classrooms varied from 48.2 to 59.6 dBA with an average of 53.1 dBA. All values are well above international standards. Excessive classroom <span class="hlt">noise</span> seems to be very common in kindergartens. Results may indicate that school facilities are not built in compliance with international standards. School administrators and local authorities should become aware of the problem, and make any necessary interventions to improve the learning capabilities of children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641522"><span>Relationship between container ship underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Low-frequency ocean ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> is dominated by <span class="hlt">noise</span> from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship <span class="hlt">noise</span> in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source <span class="hlt">level</span> was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative <span class="hlt">noise</span> was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> from container ships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17715651"><span>Influence of music and music preference on acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in listeners with normal hearing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Moore, Robert E</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) is defined as the maximum <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> that an individual is willing to accept while listening to speech. The type of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> does not affect ANL results with the possible exception of music. The purpose of this study was to determine if ANL for music was different from ANL for twelve-talker babble and investigate if there was a correlation between ANL for music samples and preference for those music samples. Results demonstrated that ANL for music tended to be better than ANL for twelve-talker babble, indicating listeners were more willing to accept music as a background <span class="hlt">noise</span> than speech babble. The results further demonstrated that ANL for the music samples were not correlated with preference for the music samples, indicating that ANL for music was not related to music preference. Therefore, music appeared to be processed differently as a background <span class="hlt">noise</span> than twelve-talker babble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25454773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25454773"><span>Timing vocal behavior: lack of temporal overlap avoidance to fluctuating <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in singing Eurasian wrens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiao-Jing; Slabbekoorn, Hans</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Many animals live in or near urban areas that have become increasingly widespread and noisy over the last century. Especially those species that rely heavily on acoustics for communication may be affected by these elevated anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Many bird species that sing to defend their territories and to attract mates may have to exploit specific <span class="hlt">noise</span> coping strategies to persist in such acoustically challenging conditions. Eurasian wrens (Troglodytes troglodytes), like several other bird species, have been shown in a previous experiment to time their vocalizations such that they avoid overlap with other singing birds. Here, we tested whether Eurasian wrens also time their songs to avoid overlap with fluctuating anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. However, we did not find any evidence in favor of this potential phenomenon. Territorial wrens persisted in singing without temporal adjustments in noisy territories with 'natural' fluctuations of traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> as well as during experimental exposure to intermittent white <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24275001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24275001"><span>Recent and long-term occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and salivary cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Environmental and occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span> measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every <span class="hlt">noise</span> recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated <span class="hlt">level</span> at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span>, time since occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were associated with increased cortisol <span class="hlt">level</span> off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27989389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27989389"><span>An environmental index of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and light <span class="hlt">pollution</span> at EU by spatial correlation of quiet and unlit areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Pantis, Ioannis D</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Quietness exists in places without human induced <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources and could offer multiple benefits to citizens. Unlit areas are sites free of human intense interference at night time. The aim of this research is to develop an integrated environmental index of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and light <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. In order to achieve this goal the spatial pattern of quietness and darkness of Europe was identified, as well as their overlap. The environmental index revealed that the spatial patterns of Quiet and Unlit Areas differ to a great extent highlighting the importance of preserving quietness as well as darkness in EU. The spatial overlap of these two environmental characteristics covers 32.06% of EU surface area, which could be considered a feasible threshold for protection. This diurnal and nocturnal metric of environmental quality accompanied with all direct and indirect benefits to human well-being could indicate a target for environmental protection in the EU policy and practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865218','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865218"><span>Effect of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on neuronal coding of interaural <span class="hlt">level</span> difference cues in rat inferior colliculus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mokri, Yasamin; Worland, Kate; Ford, Mark; Rajan, Ramesh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Humans can accurately localize sounds even in unfavourable signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this, we studied the effect of background wide-band <span class="hlt">noise</span> on neural sensitivity to variations in interaural <span class="hlt">level</span> difference (ILD), the predominant cue for sound localization in azimuth for high-frequency sounds, at the characteristic frequency of cells in rat inferior colliculus (IC). Binaural <span class="hlt">noise</span> at high <span class="hlt">levels</span> generally resulted in suppression of responses (55.8%), but at lower <span class="hlt">levels</span> resulted in enhancement (34.8%) as well as suppression (30.3%). When recording conditions permitted, we then examined if any binaural <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects were related to selective <span class="hlt">noise</span> effects at each of the two ears, which we interpreted in light of well-known differences in input type (excitation and inhibition) from each ear shaping particular forms of ILD sensitivity in the IC. At high signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios (SNR), in most ILD functions (41%), the effect of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> appeared to be due to effects on inputs from both ears, while for a large percentage (35.8%) appeared to be accounted for by effects on excitatory input. However, as SNR decreased, change in excitation became the dominant contributor to the change due to binaural background <span class="hlt">noise</span> (63.6%). These novel findings shed light on the IC neural mechanisms for sound localization in the presence of continuous background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. They also suggest that some effects of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> on encoding of sound location reported to be emergent in upstream auditory areas can also be observed at the <span class="hlt">level</span> of the midbrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997495','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997495"><span>Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Montreal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> and total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> source was also used as an indicator of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway <span class="hlt">noise</span> was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road <span class="hlt">noise</span> when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation <span class="hlt">noise</span>. PMID:27529260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec149-697.pdf"><span>33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> survey?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design... accommodation spaces, must be designed to limit the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in those areas so that personnel wearing...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213147"><span>Measurement of SQUID <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for SuperCDMS SNOLAB detectors - Final Paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Maxwell</p> <p>2015-08-27</p> <p>SuperCDMS SNOLAB is a second generation direct dark matter search. In the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, detectors are able to pick up from signals from dark matter nuclear recoil interactions which occur inside the bulk of the detectors. These interactions produce both phonon and charge signals. HEMTs read out charge signals whereas TES are used to detect phonon signals which are then read out by SQUID amplifiers. SQUID amplifiers must add negligible <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the TES intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> which has been previously measured and is approximately 50pA/√Hz down to 100Hz for ease of signal distinguishability in dark matter nuclear interactions. The intrinsic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the SQUID was tested in the SLAC 300mK fridge and determined to provide adequately low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> with a floor of approximately 3pA/√Hz. Furthermore, a 10x amplifier was tested for addition of extraneous <span class="hlt">noise</span>. This <span class="hlt">noise</span> was investigated with and without this amplifier, and it was found that it did not add a significant amount of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the intrinsic SQUID <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22135145"><span>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> affects their behaviors, plasma NE <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3232429','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3232429"><span>Aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> affects their behaviors, plasma NE <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22759906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22759906"><span>Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R</p> <p>2012-08-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014387"><span>The relative importance of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and number of events on human reactions to <span class="hlt">noise</span>: Community survey findings and study methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fields, J. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The data from seven surveys of community response to environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> are reanalyzed to assess the relative influence of peak <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the numbers of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events on human response. The surveys do not agree on the value of the tradeoff between the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and numbers of events. The value of the tradeoff cannot be confidently specified in any survey because the tradeoff estimate may have a large standard error of estimate and because the tradeoff estimate may be seriously biased by unknown <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement errors. Some evidence suggests a decrease in annoyance with very high numbers of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events but this evidence is not strong enough to lead to the rejection of the conventionally accepted assumption that annoyance is related to a log transformation of the number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900493','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900493"><span>Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in preschools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M.; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr.; Sala, Eeva</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called “Hjalli model”, and in six public preschools. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress <span class="hlt">level</span>, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the “Hjalli model”) experienced lower activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured in the “Hjalli model” preschool and fewer “Hjalli model” teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than “Hjalli model” teachers and the stress <span class="hlt">level</span> was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its consequences. PMID:26356370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fertilizer&pg=4&id=EJ088276','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fertilizer&pg=4&id=EJ088276"><span><span class="hlt">Pollution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rowbotham, N.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, water <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec... equivalent procedures, must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-part36-appB.pdf"><span>14 CFR Appendix B to Part 36 - <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... Airplanes Under § 36.103 B Appendix B to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., App. B Appendix B to Part 36—<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> for Transport Category and Jet Airplanes Under § 36.103 Sec..., must be used to determine <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an airplane. These <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> must be used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JSV....84..573Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JSV....84..573Y"><span>Criteria for acceptable <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the Shinkansen Super Express train <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration in residential areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamanaka, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Kobayashi, F.; Kanada, S.; Tanahashi, M.; Muramatsu, T.; Yamada, S.</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>A survey of 1187 housewives living in 18 areas along the Shinkansen Super Express (bullet train) railway was conducted by means of a self-administered health questionnaire (modified Cornell Medical Index). In addition, geographically corresponding measurements of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and vibration intensity were taken. The relationship of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration to positive responses (health complaints) related to bodily symptoms, illness and emotional disturbances was analyzed. The factors which correlated with an increase in the average number of positive responses included <span class="hlt">noise</span>, vibration, age and health status. Such factors as marital status, educational <span class="hlt">level</span>, part time work, duration of inhabitancy and occupation of the head of the houshold correlated poorly with the number of positive responses. Unhealthy respondents compared to healthy respondents are more frequently affected by <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration. The rate of positive responses in the visual, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems, sleep disturbances and emotional disturbances increased accordingly as <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration increased. Combined effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and vibration stimuli on the total number of positive responses (an indicator of general health) were found. This study has produced results indicating that the maximum permissible <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> should not exceed 70 dB(A) in the residential areas along the Shinkansen railway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25472993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25472993"><span>Pediatric asthma and ambient <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in industrializing nations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jassal, Mandeep S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental <span class="hlt">pollution</span> have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27324167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27324167"><span>Comparing Loudness Tolerance and Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Listeners With Hearing Loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franklin, Clifford A; White, Letitia J; Franklin, Thomas C; Livengood, Lindsay G</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The present study was a follow-up investigation to a previous study exploring the relationship between listeners' loudness tolerance and listeners' acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> among normally hearing adults. The present study compared the same two measures, but data were obtained from listeners with hearing loss; 12 adults with sensorineural hearing loss participated in a loudness tolerance measure using a scaling technique initially established for setting hearing aid output limits, in addition to an acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measure. The acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> procedure used in this study quantified the listeners' acceptance of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> while listening to speech. As with the research involving listeners with normal hearing, the Pearson correlation procedure indicated a lack of any statistically significant correlation between the two measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176048"><span>Influences of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and respiration rate on the accuracy of acoustic respiration rate monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yabuki, Shizuha; Toyama, Hiroaki; Takei, Yusuke; Wagatsuma, Toshihiro; Yabuki, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Masanori</p> <p>2017-02-07</p> <p>We tested the hypothesis that the environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> generated by a forced-air warming system reduces the monitoring accuracy of acoustic respiration rate (RRa). <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were adjusted to 45-55, 56-65, 66-75, and 76-85 dB. Healthy participants breathed at set respiration rates (RRset) of 6, 12, and 30/min. Under each <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at each RRset, the respiration rates by manual counting (RRm) and RRa were recorded. Any appearance of the alarm display on the RRa monitor was also recorded. Each RRm of all participants agreed with each RRset at each <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. At 45-55 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span>, the RRa of 13, 17, and 17 participants agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. The RRa of 14, 17, and 16 participants at 56-65 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span>, agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. At 66-75 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span>, the RRa of 9, 15, and 16 participants agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively. The RRa of one, nine, and nine participants at 76-85 dB <span class="hlt">noise</span> agreed with RRset of 6, 12, and 30/min, respectively, which was significantly less than the other <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (P < 0.05). Overall, 72.9% of alarm displays highlighted incorrect values of RRa. In a noisy situation involving the operation of a forced-air warming system, the acoustic respiration monitoring should be used carefully especially in patients with a low respiration rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006586"><span>Recovery of otoacoustic emissions after high-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure in the American bullfrog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Simmons, Dwayne D.; Lohr, Rachel; Wotring, Helena; Burton, Miriam D.; Hooper, Rebecca A.; Baird, Richard A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has an amphibian papilla (AP) that senses airborne, low-frequency sound and generates distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) similar to other vertebrate species. Although ranid frogs are typically found in noisy environments, the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the AP have not been studied. First, we determined the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> that diminished DPOAE at 2f1–f2 using an f2 stimulus <span class="hlt">level</span> at 80 dB SPL and that also produced morphological damage of the sensory epithelium. Second, we compared DPOAE (2f1–f2) responses with histopathologic changes occurring in bullfrogs after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Consistent morphological damage, such as fragmented hair cells and missing bundles, as well as elimination of DPOAE responses were seen only after very high-<span class="hlt">level</span> (>150 dB SPL) sound exposures. The morphological response of hair cells to <span class="hlt">noise</span> differed along the mediolateral AP axis: medial hair cells were sensitive to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and lateral hair cells were relatively insensitive to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Renewed or repaired hair cells were not observed until 9 days post-exposure. Following <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, DPOAE responses disappeared within 24 h and then recovered to normal pre-exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> within 3–4 days. Our results suggest that DPOAEs in the bullfrog are sensitive to the initial period of hair cell damage. After <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced damage, the bullfrog AP has functional recovery mechanisms that do not depend on substantial hair cell regeneration or repair. Thus, the bullfrog auditory system might serve as an interesting model for investigation of ways to prevent <span class="hlt">noise</span> damage. PMID:24501139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5187653','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5187653"><span>Determination of the <span class="hlt">Level</span> of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> in Nurseries and Pre-schools and the Teachers’ <span class="hlt">Level</span> of Annoyance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gokdogan, Ozan; Gokdogan, Cagil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The aim of this article is to determine the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in nurseries and pre-schools and also to compare measured <span class="hlt">levels</span> with standard <span class="hlt">levels</span> and evaluate the teachers’ <span class="hlt">level</span> of annoyance. Materials and Methods: The <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> was measured in three different schools. A total of 162 students, whose ages were between 3 and 6 years, and 12 teachers were included the study. Every age groups’ <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> was measured during sleeping, gaming, and eating activity. In addition, teachers’ annoyance was assessed in different age groups. Results: The 4- to 6-year-old groups were found to have higher <span class="hlt">level</span> of sounds than 3-year-old group. Eating period was found to be the highest <span class="hlt">level</span> of sound whereas sleeping was found the lowest. Furthermore, teachers’ annoyance was found higher as the age decreased. Conclusion: Nurseries and pre-schools have noisy environment both for the students and the teachers. High <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which has bad effects on health, is a public health problem. Both the students’ families and teachers must be aware of this annoying situation. PMID:27762254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=detection+AND+advanced+AND+waves&id=EJ688624','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=detection+AND+advanced+AND+waves&id=EJ688624"><span>A Temporal Model of <span class="hlt">Level</span>-Invariant, Tone-in-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berg, Bruce G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Level</span>-invariant detection refers to findings that thresholds in tone-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> detection are unaffected by roving-<span class="hlt">level</span> procedures that degrade energy cues. Such data are inconsistent with ideas that detection is based on the energy passed by an auditory filter. A hypothesis that detection is based on a <span class="hlt">level</span>-invariant temporal cue is advanced.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10875369','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10875369"><span>Community reaction to aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span>: time-of-day penalty and tradeoff between <span class="hlt">levels</span> of overflights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miedema, H M; Vos, H; de Jong, R G</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>A decrease in the <span class="hlt">level</span> of sound events can compensate for an increase in the <span class="hlt">level</span> of other events, but <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics assume different tradeoffs. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> metrics also differ in the penalty applied to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the evening and to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the night, and in the definition of these periods. These two aspects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics, i.e., the tradeoff and the penalty for the nighttime (23-7h), are investigated. A general model of the relation between SELs of sound events (aircraft overflights) and <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance is presented which allows for a wide range of tradeoffs and time-of-day penalties. The (tradeoff and time-of-day penalty) parameters of the model are fitted to the data from an aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> study conducted around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, which is especially suited for investigating the tradeoff and time-of-day penalties. It was found that in this study the tradeoff between the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of events in metrics based on L(Aeq)'s, such as L(Aeq)(24 h), DNL, and DENL, is approximately correct for the prediction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> annoyance. Furthermore, it was found that the strongest correlation with annoyance is obtained with a nighttime penalty of circa 10 dB. No suitable data were available for further tests of the tradeoff. The result with respect to the nighttime penalty was weakly further supported by the outcome of analyses of the original data from four other aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> surveys (one survey conducted around British airports, and three coordinated surveys carried out around Paris Orly, Amsterdam Schiphol, and Glasgow Abbotsinch).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918667','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4918667"><span>Exposures to road traffic, <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to Lden 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM)2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). Lden remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria. PMID:27157686</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27157686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27157686"><span>Exposures to road traffic, <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: A feasibility study in Bulgaria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem in Bulgaria. While individual and lifestyle determinants have been researched; till date there has been no study on environmental risks such as road traffic, <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. As a first step toward designing a large-scale population-based survey, we aimed at exploring the overall associations of prevalent T2DM with exposures to road traffic, <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. A total of 513 residents of Plovdiv city, Bulgaria were recruited. Individual data on self-reported doctor-diagnosed T2DM and confounding factors were linked to objective and self-rated exposure indicators. Logistic and log-link Poisson regressions were conducted. In the fully adjusted logistic models, T2DM was positively associated with exposures to L(den) 71-80 dB (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 14.68), fine particulate matter (PM) 2.5 25.0-66.8 μg/m 3 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 6.24), benzo alpha pyrene 6.0-14.02 ng/m 3 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.52, 5.98) and high road traffic (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.48, 4.07). L(den) remained a significant risk factor in the: Poisson regression model. Other covariates with consistently high multivariate effects were age, gender, body mass index, family history of T2DM, subjective sleep disturbance, and especially bedroom location. We concluded that residential <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure might be associated with elevated risk of prevalent T2DM. The inferences made by this research and the lessons learned from its limitations could guide the designing of a longitudinal epidemiological survey in Bulgaria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9902E..0EZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9902E..0EZ"><span>Extracting fingerprint of wireless devices based on phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> and multiple <span class="hlt">level</span> wavelet decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Weichen; Sun, Zhuo; Kong, Song</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Wireless devices can be identified by the fingerprint extracted from the signal transmitted, which is useful in wireless communication security and other fields. This paper presents a method that extracts fingerprint based on phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> of signal and multiple <span class="hlt">level</span> wavelet decomposition. The phase of signal will be extracted first and then decomposed by multiple <span class="hlt">level</span> wavelet decomposition. The statistic value of each wavelet coefficient vector is utilized for constructing fingerprint. Besides, the relationship between wavelet decomposition <span class="hlt">level</span> and recognition accuracy is simulated. And advertised decomposition <span class="hlt">level</span> is revealed as well. Compared with previous methods, our method is simpler and the accuracy of recognition remains high when Signal <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Ratio (SNR) is low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2595637','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2595637"><span>Risks Caused by Low <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wilson, Richard</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The concept has arisen that <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in almost any concentration cause a small risk of death. This arises from a consideration of cancer and contrasts with earlier work where a threshold is assumed. The theoretical and experimental evidence for this concept is reviewed, and some important consequences are drawn for societal decision making. PMID:676350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19587398','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19587398"><span>Modeling highway runoff <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> using a data driven model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Opher, T; Ostfeld, A; Friedler, E</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Pollutants</span> accumulated on road pavement during dry periods are washed off the surface with runoff water during rainfall events, presenting a potentially hazardous non-point source of <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Estimation of <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> loads in these runoff waters is required for developing mitigation and management strategies, yet the numerous factors involved and their complex interconnected influences make straightforward assessment almost impossible. Data driven models (DDMs) have lately been used in water and environmental research and have shown very good prediction ability. The proposed methodology of a coupled MT-GA model provides an effective, accurate and easily calibrated predictive model for EMC of highway runoff <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>. The models were trained and verified using a comprehensive data set of runoff events monitored in various highways in California, USA. EMCs of Cr, Pb, Zn, TOC and TSS were modeled, using different combinations of explanatory variables. The models' prediction ability in terms of correlation between predicted and actual values of both training and verification data was mostly higher than previously reported values. Pb(Total) was modeled with an outcome of R2 of 0.95 on training data and 0.43 on verification data. The developed model for TOC achieved R2 values of 0.91 and 0.49 on training and verification data respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581747"><span>Vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This study examined the effects of boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background <span class="hlt">noise</span>) and 10 days of <span class="hlt">noise</span> derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> treatment). The exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel <span class="hlt">noise</span> for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global <span class="hlt">pollutant</span>. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015177','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015177"><span>Cumulative annoyance due to multiple aircraft flyover with differing peak <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shepherd, K. P.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory study in which 160 subjects judged the annoyance of 30 minute sessions of aircraft <span class="hlt">noise</span> is described. Each session contained nine flyovers consisting of various combinations of three takeoff recordings of Boeing 727. The subjects were asked to judge their annoyance in the simulated living room environment of the laboratory and also to assess how annoyed they would be if they heard the <span class="hlt">noise</span> in their home during the day, evening, and night periods. The standard deviation of the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> did not improve the predictive ability of L sub eq (equivalent continuous sound <span class="hlt">level</span>) which performed as well or better than other <span class="hlt">noise</span> measured. Differences were found between the projected home responses for the day, evening, and nighttime periods. Time of day penalties derived from these results showed reasonable agreement with those currently used in community <span class="hlt">noise</span> indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820023195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820023195"><span>Airport <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pendley, R. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The problem of airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> at several airports and air bases is detailed. Community reactions to the <span class="hlt">noise</span>, steps taken to reduce jet engine <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and the effect of airport use restrictions and curfews on air transportation are discussed. The adverse effect of changes in allowable operational <span class="hlt">noise</span> on airport safety and altenative means for reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> are considered. Community-airport relations and public relations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3518M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3518M"><span>Compact and lightweight VLF/LF magnetic antenna with femtotesla <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marusenkov, Andriy</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The measurements of the electromagnetic field in the frequency band 3-300 kHz are widely used for subsurface geophysical surveys, investigations of the various phenomena in the Earth-ionosphere cavity, in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere, including those connected with seismic and lightning activity. The instrumental <span class="hlt">noise</span> has to be as low as possible in order to reliably detect the weakest electromagnetic signals, which magnitude could be only a few femtoteslas. In order to decrease magnetic antenna <span class="hlt">noises</span> the size and mass of the probe has to be increased. However, such approach could be hardly applied for development of mobile sensors. In this report the efforts to achieve the minimal possible <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the restricted weight and size of the magnetic antenna are presented. Applying the minimal mass criteria the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the induction coil with a high permeability magnetic core, used as a probe, was optimized. The new pre-amplifier, based on the ultra low <span class="hlt">noise</span> field effect transistor, was developed. The special attention was paid to the design of the electrostatic screen, which has to generate negligible magnetic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. As a result, the 300 mm long, 25 mm diameter antenna has the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> approximately 1 fT/sqrt(Hz) in the frequency band 50 - 200 kHz and <5 fT/sqrt(Hz) in the band 3 - 500 kHz. The mass of the antenna is equal to 0.27 kg for the weather protected version and 0.15 kg for the indoor version. The possibilities to achieve even lower <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> at the same size of the instrument will be also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7521E..0FG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7521E..0FG"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> suppression in three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atomic system driven by quantized field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gelman, A.; Mironov, V.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Numerically by the Monte-Carlo wave function (MCWF) method and analytically by the Heisenberg-Langevin method the interaction of three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atom with quantized electromagnetic field is investigated in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions. A possibility of <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression in atomic system by means of quantum features of squeezed light is examined in detail. The characteristics of atomic system responsible for relaxation processes and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in EIT are found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7521E..0FG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7521E..0FG"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> suppression in three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atomic system driven by quantized field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gelman, A.; Mironov, V.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Numerically by the Monte-Carlo wave function (MCWF) method and analytically by the Heisenberg-Langevin method the interaction of three-<span class="hlt">level</span> atom with quantized electromagnetic field is investigated in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions. A possibility of <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression in atomic system by means of quantum features of squeezed light is examined in detail. The characteristics of atomic system responsible for relaxation processes and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in EIT are found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25518688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25518688"><span>[Study on feasible emission control <span class="hlt">level</span> of air <span class="hlt">pollutions</span> for cement industry ].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The revised National Emission Standard of Air <span class="hlt">Pollutions</span> for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control <span class="hlt">level</span> of air <span class="hlt">pollutions</span>. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, improving the particulate and NO emissions control <span class="hlt">level</span>, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>. The standard will become the gripper of <span class="hlt">pollution</span> prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618049"><span>A survey of acoustic conditions and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in secondary school classrooms in England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shield, Bridget; Conetta, Robert; Dockrell, Julie; Connolly, Daniel; Cox, Trevor; Mydlarz, Charles</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An acoustic survey of secondary schools in England has been undertaken. Room acoustic parameters and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured in 185 unoccupied spaces in 13 schools to provide information on the typical acoustic environment of secondary schools. The unoccupied acoustic and <span class="hlt">noise</span> data were correlated with various physical characteristics of the spaces. Room height and the amount of glazing were related to the unoccupied reverberation time and therefore need to be controlled to reduce reverberation to suitable <span class="hlt">levels</span> for teaching and learning. Further analysis of the unoccupied data showed that the introduction of legislation relating to school acoustics in England and Wales in 2003 approximately doubled the number of school spaces complying with current standards. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also measured during 274 lessons to examine typical <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated during teaching activities in secondary schools and to investigate the influence of acoustic design on working <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the classroom. Comparison of unoccupied and occupied data showed that unoccupied acoustic conditions affect the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> occurring during lessons. They were also related to the time spent in disruption to the lessons (e.g., students talking or shouting) and so may also have an impact upon student behavior in the classroom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5278244','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5278244"><span>Do perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to air and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> predict incident self-rated poor health? A prospective analysis of independent and joint associations using a German national representative cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Riedel, Natalie; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bolte, Gabriele; Li, Jian</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Current economic and social change has contributed to increasing job insecurity and traffic-related <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in residential areas. Both job insecurity and exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> are known determinants of population health and can concur in peoples' lives. This may hold true particularly for socially disadvantaged subpopulations. Nevertheless, the potential independent and joint links of those exposures to health have been rarely examined so far. We aimed to contribute to the scarce body of evidence. Methods Information on perceived job insecurity and exposures to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> as expressed by annoyance as well as on self-rated health were gathered from 2 waves of the population-based German Socio-Economic Panel (2009 and 2011, N=6544). We performed multivariable Poisson regression to examine the independent and joint risk of poor health in 2011 by perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in 2009. Results After the 2-year follow-up in 2011, 571 (8.7%) participants rated their health as poor. The risk of reporting incident poor health was increased by roughly 40% in employees reporting high versus low perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, respectively. This risk increased when both exposures were present at higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> (risk ratio=1.95 (1.49 to 2.55)). Conclusions Work-related and environmental exposures may accumulate and have a joint health impact. Elaboration on the link between occupational and residential exposures is warranted in the light of their concurrence and their implications for health inequities. PMID:28115332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19274486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19274486"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in sundry processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In this work, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in five selected processing and manufacturing industries in Ilorin are evaluated and compared. Emphasis is given to <span class="hlt">noise</span> emitted by individual industrial machinery from the selected industries. Event L(Aeq) and L(N) cycles were studied to identify the noisy machines and to generate baseline data. Findings show that hammer mill machine from mineral-bearing rock-crushing mills produced the highest average <span class="hlt">noise</span> [98.4 dB(A)], an electric generator 1 [95.6 dB(A)] from the soft drink bottling industry, an electric generator [97.7 dB(A)] from the beer brewing and bottling industry, a vacuum pump [93.1 dB(A)] from the tobacco making industry, and an electric generator 2 [94.1 dB(A)] from the mattress-making industry. The highest and lowest average <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span> are recorded in mineral-bearing rock-crushing mills [93.16 dB(A)] and the mattress making industry [84.69 dB(A)], respectively. The study shows that, at 95% confidence <span class="hlt">level</span>, there is significant difference (P < 0.05) in <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the industries surveyed. The percentages of machines that emit <span class="hlt">noise</span> above Federal Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration recommendations [90 dB(A)] are from the soft drink bottling industry (83.3%), the beer brewing and bottling industry (42.9%), the tobacco making industry (71.4%), the mattress making industry (11.1%), and minerals crushing mills (87.5%). In the past 20 years, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the soft drink bottling industry were reduced by 0.58 dB(A), and those of the beer brewing and bottling industry were reduced by 9.66 dB(A). However, that of the mattress making industry increased by 2.69 dB(A). On average, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in these industries has been reduced by 2.52 dB(A). The results of this study show that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> control measures put in place have significant impacts on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> in the industries surveyed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820284','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4820284"><span>Pilot study of methods and equipment for in-home <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neitzel, Richard L.; Heikkinen, Maire S.A.; Williams, Christopher C.; Viet, Susan Marie; Dellarco, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the auditory and non-auditory effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> has increased dramatically over the past decade, but indoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure measurement methods have not advanced appreciably, despite the introduction of applicable new technologies. This study evaluated various conventional and smart devices for exposure assessment in the National Children's Study. Three devices were tested: a sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter (SLM), a dosimeter, and a smart device with a <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement application installed. Instrument performance was evaluated in a series of semi-controlled tests in office environments over 96-hour periods, followed by measurements made continuously in two rooms (a child's bedroom and a most used room) in nine participating homes over a 7-day period with subsequent computation of a range of <span class="hlt">noise</span> metrics. The SLMs and dosimeters yielded similar A-weighted average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. <span class="hlt">Levels</span> measured by the smart devices often differed substantially (showing both positive and negative bias, depending on the metric) from those measured via SLM and dosimeter, and demonstrated attenuation in some frequency bands in spectral analysis compared to SLM results. Virtually all measurements exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's 45 dBA day-night limit for indoor residential exposures. The measurement protocol developed here can be employed in homes, demonstrates the possibility of measuring long-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures in homes with technologies beyond traditional SLMs, and highlights potential pitfalls associated with measurements made by smart devices. PMID:27053775</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12593149"><span>[Effects of peak <span class="hlt">levels</span> and number of <span class="hlt">noise</span> impulses on hearing among forge hammering workers].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suvorov, G A; Denisov, E I; Antipin, V G; Kharitonov, V I; Starck, Iu; Pyykko, I; Toppila, E</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The work was aimed (1) to compare actual and expected values of hearing loss in forge hammering workers, using risk evaluation patterns based on impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements, and (2) to simulate harmful hearing changes caused by impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Study of exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and hearing loss covered forge hammering workers in 2 major blacksmith workshops of automobile enterprise, where equivalent <span class="hlt">levels</span> of acoustic pressure (104 and 106 dB) were equal, but peak <span class="hlt">levels</span> and impalse degrees reliably differed. Hearing thresholds for 2 selected groups of workers (97 and 235 subjects) were evaluated. When compared, actual and expected values of hearing loss calculated according to ISO standard appeared different with excess of 1 dB and 3 dB for the workers in shops 1 and 2 respectively. Excessive hearing loss corresponds to <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure increased by 3.5 years. Hearing loss in the workers subjected to less impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span> were readily forecasted by ISO standard 1999-1990. Hearing loss in the workers subjected to more impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span> were in reliable correlation with combination of peak <span class="hlt">level</span> and impulses number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3857221','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3857221"><span>A <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Prediction Method Based on Electro-Mechanical Frequency Response Function for Capacitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible <span class="hlt">noise</span> is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction method is effective. PMID:24349105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARB25002N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARB25002N"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> from Two-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Systems in Superconducting Resonators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neill, C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Ohya, S.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Two-<span class="hlt">level</span> systems (TLSs) present in amorphous dielectrics and surface interfaces are a significant source of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Linear microwave resonators offer a valuable instrument for characterizing the strongly power-dependent response of these TLSs. Using quarter-wavelength coplanar waveguide resonators, we monitored the microwave response of the resonator at a single near-resonant frequency versus time at varying microwave drive powers. We observe a time dependent variation of the resonator's internal dissipation and resonance frequency. The amplitude of these variations saturates with power in a manner similar to loss from TLSs. These results provide a means for quantifying the number and distribution of TLSs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2555D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2555D"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and site response at Mt. Etna volcano and Aeolian Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D Amico, S.; Giampiccolo, E.; Maiolino, V.; Patanè, D.; Ursino, A.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to test the quality of the sites where the stations of the INGV-CT seismic network are installed. This because most of the installations will be soon improved with new broad-band sensors, which require a low <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Therefore, we investigated the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and estimated the site response at the seismic stations deployed at Mt. Etna and at Aeolian Islands, in order to evidence possible disturbs which can be related to anthropic activity, environmental factors and/or to the local soil conditions. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements were carried out using a portable digital seismic station equipped with a 3-component, 20 s sensor. The acquisition was performed both inside the vault structures where the remote stations are located and in proximity of them, on the outcropping terrain. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra were compared with the NLNM (New Low <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) and NHNM (New High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) models described by Peterson (1993). A preliminary estimate of site response at each station, by applying the Nakamura (1989) technique, was also performed. The obtained results show, for some stations, higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> mainly due to volcanic tremor and/or bad soil conditions. Moreover, in several cases, vault design need to be deeply reviewed and for some installations the substitution of the sites is required. References Nakamura, Y., (1989). A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface. Quarterly R of Report RTRI, 30, 25-33. Peterson, J., (1993). Observations and modelling of background seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Open File Report 93-322, U. S. Geological Survey, Albuquerque, NM.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557274"><span>Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and infant hearing screening programs in developing countries: an observational report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olusanya, Bolajoko O</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Considering that current newborn/infant hearing screening (NHS) instruments were designed primarily for use in developed countries, this study set out to ascertain the potential effects of higher ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) in sub-Saharan Africa. Data was drawn from two hospital-based and community-based NHS programs in Lagos, Nigeria, with a total screened population of 11 893 infants. Two automated TEOAE screening devices-Echo-Screen and ECHOCHECK-were available for this study. Ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> ranged from 61.0-90.5 dBA in the hospital wards and 55.6-82.5 dBA in the community health centers. One TEOAE model could not be activated at the prevailing <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. No significant pattern was observed in average <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and overall TEOAE referrals across all screening sites. However, the false-positive rates ranged from 1.4-13.8%. This study suggests that valid TEOAE screening is attainable in the Negroid race in settings with ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> up to 68 dBA but the associated high false-positive rates may necessitate additional screening with auditory brainstem response to achieve acceptable overall referral rates for timely diagnostic evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16897549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16897549"><span>A fuzzy logic approach to assess groundwater <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below agricultural fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muhammetoglu, Ayse; Yardimci, Ahmet</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>A fuzzy logic approach has been developed to assess the groundwater <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below agricultural fields. The data collected for Kumluca Plain of Turkey have been utilized to develop the approach. The plain is known with its intensive agricultural activities, which imply excessive application of fertilizers. The characteristics of the soils and underlying groundwater for this plain were monitored during the years 1999 and 2000. Additionally, an extensive field survey related to the types and yields of crops, fertilizer application and irrigation water was carried out. Both the soil and groundwater have exhibited high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of nitrogen, phosphorus and salinity with considerable spatial and temporal variations. The <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of groundwater at several established stations within the plain were assessed using Fuzzy Logic. Water <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> Index (WPI) values are calculated by Fuzzy Logic utilizing the most significant groundwater <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in the area namely nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphate together with the groundwater vulnerability to <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. The results of the calculated WPI and the monitoring study have yielded good agreement. WPI indicated high to moderate water <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at Kumluca plain depending on factors such as agricultural age, depth to groundwater, soil characteristics and vulnerability of groundwater to <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Fuzzy Logic approach has shown to be a practical, simple and useful tool to assess groundwater <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..3JN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE10155E..3JN"><span>Object reconstruction from thermal and shot <span class="hlt">noises</span> corrupted block-based compressive ultra-low-light-<span class="hlt">level</span> imaging measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niu, Sen; Ke, Jun</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, block-based compressive ultra low-light-<span class="hlt">level</span> imaging (BCU-imaging) is studied. Objects are divided into blocks. Features, or linear combinations of block pixels, instead of pixels, are measured for each block to improve system measurement SNR and thus object reconstructions. Thermal <span class="hlt">noise</span> and shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> are discussed for object reconstruction. The former is modeled as Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The latter is modeled as Poisson <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Linear Wiener operator and linearized iterative Bregman algorithm are used to reconstruct objects from measurements corrupted by thermal <span class="hlt">noise</span>. SPIRAL algorithm is used to reconstruct object from measurements with shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Linear Wiener operator is also studied for measurements with shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>, because Poisson <span class="hlt">noise</span> is similar to Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span> at large signal <span class="hlt">level</span> and feature values are large enough to make this assumption feasible. Root mean square error (RMSE) is used to quantify system reconstruction quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3726297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3726297"><span>[The <span class="hlt">level</span> of the musical loud sound and <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing impairment].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ono, H; Deguchi, T; Ino, T; Okamoto, K; Takyu, H</p> <p>1986-03-20</p> <p> examined the relationship between these loud sound and <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced temporary threshold shift (NITTS) in discotheques and <span class="hlt">noise</span> proof room using simulation of loud sound exposure. Moreover, we measured the most comfortable loudness <span class="hlt">level</span> of head phones in each examine and different types of music with environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in consideration, thus examining the relationship between musical loud sound and the hearing impairment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045080','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045080"><span>Temporal variations in Global Seismic Stations ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> power <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Hutt, C.R.; McNamara, D.E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Recent concerns about time-dependent response changes in broadband seismometers have motivated the need for methods to monitor sensor health at Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations. We present two new methods for monitoring temporal changes in data quality and instrument response transfer functions that are independent of Earth seismic velocity and attenuation models by comparing power <span class="hlt">levels</span> against different baseline values. Our methods can resolve changes in both horizontal and vertical components in a broad range of periods (∼0.05 to 1,000 seconds) in near real time. In this report, we compare our methods with existing techniques and demonstrate how to resolve instrument response changes in long-period data (>100 seconds) as well as in the microseism bands (5 to 20 seconds).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250719','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22250719"><span>Adaptive nonlocal means filtering based on local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for CT denoising</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Zhoubo; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Lake, David S.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Manduca, Armando; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.</p> <p>2014-01-15</p> <p>Purpose: To develop and evaluate an image-domain <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction method based on a modified nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that is adaptive to local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of CT images and to implement this method in a time frame consistent with clinical workflow. Methods: A computationally efficient technique for local <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimation directly from CT images was developed. A forward projection, based on a 2D fan-beam approximation, was used to generate the projection data, with a <span class="hlt">noise</span> model incorporating the effects of the bowtie filter and automatic exposure control. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> propagation from projection data to images was analytically derived. The analytical <span class="hlt">noise</span> map was validated using repeated scans of a phantom. A 3D NLM denoising algorithm was modified to adapt its denoising strength locally based on this <span class="hlt">noise</span> map. The performance of this adaptive NLM filter was evaluated in phantom studies in terms of in-plane and cross-plane high-contrast spatial resolution, <span class="hlt">noise</span> power spectrum (NPS), subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom, and objective low-contrast spatial resolution using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO). Graphical processing units (GPU) implementation of this <span class="hlt">noise</span> map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering were developed to meet demands of clinical workflow. Adaptive NLM was piloted on lower dose scans in clinical practice. Results: The local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation matches the <span class="hlt">noise</span> distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom, demonstrated by small variations in the ratio map between the analytical <span class="hlt">noise</span> map and the one calculated from repeated scans. The phantom studies demonstrated that the adaptive NLM filter can reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> substantially without degrading the high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by modulation transfer function and slice sensitivity profile results. The NPS results show that adaptive NLM denoising preserves the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9689E..2IC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9689E..2IC"><span>Combination therapy using antioxidants and low <span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy (LLLT) on <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (NIHL)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, So-Young; Lim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Min young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun; Rhee, Chung-Ku</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>One of the most common factors that cause hearing disorders is <span class="hlt">noise</span> trauma. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> is an increasing hazard and it is pervasive, which makes it difficult to take precautions and prevent <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The prevalence of hearing loss among factory workers to be 42 %[1]. Ocupational <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (ONIHL) continues to be a significant occupational hazard. ONIHL is permanent and may cause significant disability, for which there currently exists no cure, but is largely preventable. More than 30 million Americans are potentially exposed to hazardous <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in occupations such as transportation, construction, and coal mining, as well as recreationally. In the mainstream setting, exposure avoidance strategies aimed to reduce the incidence of ONIHL remain the focus of public health and occupational medicine approaches[2]. In military conditions this is most often caused by such things as explosions, blasts, or loud <span class="hlt">noises</span> from vehicles ranging from 100 to 140 dB[3] and military weapons generating approximately 140-185 dB peak sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span>[4].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25825390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25825390"><span>Pink <span class="hlt">Noise</span> in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Den Hartigh, Ruud J; Cox, Ralf F; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L</p> <p>2015-03-27</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers' (natural) ergometer strokes in order to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill <span class="hlt">level</span>. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> suggests that rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in <span class="hlt">noise</span> pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes' motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559647"><span>Pink <span class="hlt">Noise</span> in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill <span class="hlt">Level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Cox, Ralf F A; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L C</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill <span class="hlt">level</span>. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink <span class="hlt">noise</span> suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in <span class="hlt">noise</span> pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes’ motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890031543&hterms=advancing+blade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dadvancing%2Bblade','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890031543&hterms=advancing+blade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dadvancing%2Bblade"><span>Tip-path-plane angle effects on rotor blade-vortex interaction <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and directivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burley, Casey L.; Martin, Ruth M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Acoustic data of a scale model BO-105 main rotor acquired in a large aeroacoustic wind tunnel are presented to investigate the parametric effects of rotor operating conditions on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Contours of a BVI <span class="hlt">noise</span> metric are employed to quantify the effects of rotor advance ratio and tip-path-plane angle on BVI <span class="hlt">noise</span> directivity and amplitude. Acoustic time history data are presented to illustrate the variations in impulsive characteristics. The directionality, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and impulsive content of both advancing and retreating side BVI are shown to vary significantly with tip-path-plane angle and advance ratio over the range of low and moderate flight speeds considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611055"><span>Impact of Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabet, Saeed Shafiei; Neo, Yik Yaw; Slabbekoorn, Hans</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> underwater is on the rise and may affect aquatic animals of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many recent studies concern some sort of impact assessment of a single species. Few studies addressed the <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact on species interactions underwater, whereas there are some studies that address community-<span class="hlt">level</span> impact but only on land in air. Key processes such as predator-prey or competitor interactions may be affected by the masking of auditory cues, <span class="hlt">noise</span>-related disturbance, or attentional interference. <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-associated changes in these interactions can cause shifts in species abundance and modify communities, leading to fundamental ecosystem changes. To gain further insight into the mechanism and generality of earlier findings, we investigated the impact on both a predator and a prey species in captivity, zebrafish (Danio rerio) preying on waterfleas (Daphnia magna).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17902830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17902830"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and annoyance from aircraft run-ups at Vancouver International Airport.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scherebnyj, Katrina; Hodgson, Murray</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Annoyance complaints resulting from engine run-ups have been increasing at Vancouver International Airport for several years. To assist the Airport in managing run-up <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, a prediction tool based on a Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) model has been consolidated, evaluated, and applied. It was extended to include more realistic atmospheric and ground input parameters. Measurements were made of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-radiation characteristics of a CRJ200 jet aircraft. The GFPE model was validated by comparing predictions with results in the literature. A sensitivity analysis showed that predicted <span class="hlt">levels</span> are relatively insensitive to small variations in geometry and ground impedance, but relatively sensitive to variations in wind speed, atmosphere type, and aircraft heading and power setting. Predicted <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were compared with <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured at <span class="hlt">noise</span> monitoring terminals. For the four cases for which all input information was available, agreement was within 10 dBA. For events for which some information had to be estimated, predictions were within 20 dBA. The predicted annoyance corresponding to the run-up events considered ranged from 1.8% to 9.5% of people awoken, suggesting that <span class="hlt">noise</span> complaints can be expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Chaos..18b3115J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Chaos..18b3115J"><span>A method of estimating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in a chaotic time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jayawardena, A. W.; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, W. K.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>An attempt is made in this study to estimate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> present in a chaotic time series. This is achieved by employing a linear least-squares method that is based on the correlation integral form obtained by Diks in 1999. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using five artificial chaotic time series, the Hénon map, the Lorenz equation, the Duffing equation, the Rossler equation and the Chua's circuit whose dynamical characteristics are known a priori. Different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> are added to the artificial chaotic time series and the estimated results indicate good performance of the proposed method. Finally, the proposed method is applied to estimate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> present in some real world data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26857123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26857123"><span>How Important Is Research on <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Antarctica? Historical Approach, Difficulties and Current Trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szopińska, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Polkowska, Żaneta</p> <p></p> <p>Despite the fact that Antarctica is a continent notably free from large negative impact of human activities, literature data can be the basis for concluding that this is not an area free from anthropogenic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>. <span class="hlt">Pollutants</span>, which are identified in various elements of the environment of Antarctica, are mostly connected with long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and deposition in this area. The study presents: a historical overview of research pertaining to the presence of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in entire Antarctica; a description of the development of research on <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in various environmental samples conducted in this area since 1960; a detailed description of contemporary analytical research (2000-2014); information on concentration <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a broad range of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> present in various elements of the environment. The data collected can provide grounds for concluding that <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> present in this area can contribute to gradual degradation of Antarctic ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..111.2441B"><span>School cafeteria <span class="hlt">noise</span>-The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility on children's voice <span class="hlt">levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bridger, Joseph F.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The impact of room acoustics and speech intelligibility conditions of different school cafeterias on the voice <span class="hlt">levels</span> of children is examined. Methods of evaluating cafeteria designs and predicting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are discussed. Children are shown to modify their voice <span class="hlt">levels</span> with changes in speech intelligibility like adults. Reverberation and signal to <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio are the important acoustical factors affecting speech intelligibility. Children have much more difficulty than adults in conditions where <span class="hlt">noise</span> and reverberation are present. To evaluate the relationship of voice <span class="hlt">level</span> and speech intelligibility, a database of real sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> and room acoustics data was generated from measurements and data recorded during visits to a variety of existing cafeterias under different occupancy conditions. The effects of speech intelligibility and room acoustics on childrens voice <span class="hlt">levels</span> are demonstrated. A new method is presented for predicting speech intelligibility conditions and resulting <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the design of new cafeterias and renovation of existing facilities. Measurements are provided for an existing school cafeteria before and after new room acoustics treatments were added. This will be helpful for acousticians, architects, school systems, regulatory agencies, and Parent Teacher Associations to create less noisy cafeteria environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26409886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26409886"><span>China's air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone <span class="hlt">levels</span> in highly <span class="hlt">polluted</span> areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. To tackle air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global <span class="hlt">level</span> (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly <span class="hlt">polluted</span> areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> reduction guidelines for China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014613','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014613"><span>An exploratory survey of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with a 100kW wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Balombin, J. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements of a 125-foot diameter, 100 kW wind turbine are presented. The data include measurements as functions of distance from the turbine and directivity angle and cover a frequency range from 1 Hz to several kHz. Potential community impact is discussed in terms of A-weighted <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> relative to background <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and the intrasonic spectral content. Finally, the change in the sound power spectrum associated with a change in the rotor speed in described. The acoustic impact of this size wind turbine is judged to be minimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970004793','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970004793"><span>The Influences of Lamination Angles on the Interior <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of an Aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fernholz, Christian M.; Robinson, Jay H.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of reducing the interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of an aircraft passenger cabin through optimization of the composite lay up of the fuselage is investigated. MSC/NASTRAN, a commercially available finite element code, is used to perform the dynamic analysis and subsequent optimization of the fuselage. The numerical calculation of sensitivity of acoustic pressure to lamination angle is verified using a simple thin, cylindrical shell with point force excitations as <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources. The thin shell used represents a geometry similar to the fuselage and analytic solutions are available for the cylindrical thin shell equations of motion. Optimization of lamination angle for the reduction of interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> is performed using a finite element model of an actual aircraft fuselage. The aircraft modeled for this study is the Beech Starship. Point forces simulate the structure borne <span class="hlt">noise</span> produced by the engines and are applied to the fuselage at the wing mounting locations. These forces are the <span class="hlt">noise</span> source for the optimization problem. The acoustic pressure response is reduced at a number of points in the fuselage and over a number of frequencies. The objective function is minimized with the constraint that it be larger than the maximum sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> at the response points in the passenger cabin for all excitation frequencies in the range of interest. Results from the study of the fuselage model indicate that a reduction in interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> is possible over a finite frequency range through optimal configuration of the lamination angles in the fuselage. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> reductions of roughly 4 dB were attained. For frequencies outside the optimization range, the acoustic pressure response may increase after optimization. The effects of changing lamination angle on the overall structural integrity of the airframe are not considered in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24349796"><span>The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: A Pilot Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable <span class="hlt">level</span> for speech and the loudest <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more <span class="hlt">noise</span> and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less <span class="hlt">noise</span> and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0214/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1989/0214/report.pdf"><span>A Direct Method for Calculating Instrument <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Side-by-Side Seismometer Evaluations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Holcomb, L. Gary</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The subject of determining the inherent system <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> present in modem broadband closed loop seismic sensors has been an evolving topic ever since closed loop systems became available. Closed loop systems are unique in that the system <span class="hlt">noise</span> can not be determined via a blocked mass test as in older conventional open loop seismic sensors. Instead, most investigators have resorted to performing measurements on two or more systems operating in close proximity to one another and to analyzing the outputs of these systems with respect to one another to ascertain their relative <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The analysis of side-by-side relative performance is inherently dependent on the accuracy of the mathematical modeling of the test configuration. This report presents a direct approach to extracting the system <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of two linear systems with a common coherent input signal. The mathematical solution to the problem is incredibly simple; however the practical application of the method encounters some difficulties. Examples of expected accuracies are presented as derived by simulating real systems performance using computer generated random <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In addition, examples of the performance of the method when applied to real experimental test data are shown.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848050','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848050"><span>The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: A Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; Franklin, Clay</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable <span class="hlt">level</span> for speech and the loudest <span class="hlt">level</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more <span class="hlt">noise</span> and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less <span class="hlt">noise</span> and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids. PMID:24349796</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9d4010C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9d4010C"><span>Australia’s first national <span class="hlt">level</span> quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air <span class="hlt">pollution</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This study presents the first national <span class="hlt">level</span> quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial <span class="hlt">pollution</span> sources derived from the National <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial <span class="hlt">pollution</span> sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of <span class="hlt">polluting</span> sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> are particularly higher in communities with the lowest <span class="hlt">levels</span> of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6192992','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6192992"><span>Wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> observed at ground-<span class="hlt">level</span> in the auroral region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benson, R.F.; Desch, M.D.</p> <p>1990-05-03</p> <p>A wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> event was detected at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> from the Andoya Rocket Range in Norway in January 1989. The signals were observed using 4 commercial communication receivers (tuned to 159, 515, 905 and 1200 kHz), an ionosonde (200 kHz to 3.5 MHz interference-free observations) and a riometer (32.5 MHz). The event, which occurred during a period of magnetic disturbance near magnetic midnight, was the only one observed during nearly 3 weeks of operations. This low frequency-of-occurrence is attributed partly to high local <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The ease with which this event was identified on the ionograms produced by the local ionosonde suggests that routine ionosonde recordings should be inspected in search for such events. Such an effort would enhance existing research directed toward developing techniques for identifying quiet communication channels and help to identify the origin and frequency-of-occurrence of high latitude wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5429S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5429S"><span>Shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> in magnetic tunneling structures with two-<span class="hlt">level</span> quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szczepański, T.; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaś, J.; Martinez, I.; Cascales, J. P.; Hong, J.-Y.; Lin, M.-T.; Aliev, F. G.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We analyze shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> in a magnetic tunnel junction with a two-<span class="hlt">level</span> quantum dot attached to the magnetic electrodes. The considerations are limited to the case when some transport channels are suppressed at low temperatures. Coupling of the two dot's <span class="hlt">levels</span> to the electrodes are assumed to be generally different and also spin dependent. To calculate the shot <span class="hlt">noise</span> we apply the approach based on the full counting statistics. The approach is used to account for experimental data obtained in magnetic tunnel junctions with organic barriers. The experimentally observed Fano factors correspond to the super-Poissonian statistics, and also depend on relative orientation of the electrodes' magnetic moments. We have also calculated the corresponding spin shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which is associated with fluctuations of spin current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23556567"><span>Underwater radiated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a research icebreaker in the central Arctic Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roth, Ethan H; Schmidt, Val; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy's underwater radiated <span class="hlt">noise</span> signature was characterized in the central Arctic Ocean during different types of ice-breaking operations. Propulsion modes included transit in variable ice cover, breaking heavy ice with backing-and-ramming maneuvers, and dynamic positioning with the bow thruster in operation. Compared to open-water transit, Healy's <span class="hlt">noise</span> signature increased approximately 10 dB between 20 Hz and 2 kHz when breaking ice. The highest <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> resulted while the ship was engaged in backing-and-ramming maneuvers, owing to cavitation when operating the propellers astern or in opposing directions. In frequency bands centered near 10, 50, and 100 Hz, source <span class="hlt">levels</span> reached 190-200 dB re: 1 μPa at 1 m (full octave band) during ice-breaking operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672659"><span>Intelligibility of speech in <span class="hlt">noise</span> at high presentation <span class="hlt">levels</span>: effects of hearing loss and frequency region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Summers, Van; Cord, Mary T</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>These experiments examined how high presentation <span class="hlt">levels</span> influence speech recognition for high- and low-frequency stimuli in <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Normally hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners were tested. In Experiment 1, high- and low-frequency bandwidths yielding 70%-correct word recognition in quiet were determined at <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with broadband speech at 75 dB SPL. In Experiment 2, broadband and band-limited sentences (based on passbands measured in Experiment 1) were presented at this <span class="hlt">level</span> in speech-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span> filtered to the same frequency bandwidths as targets. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were adjusted to produce approximately 30%-correct word recognition. Frequency bandwidths and signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios supporting criterion performance in Experiment 2 were tested at 75, 87.5, and 100 dB SPL in Experiment 3. Performance tended to decrease as <span class="hlt">levels</span> increased. For NH listeners, this "rollover" effect was greater for high-frequency and broadband materials than for low-frequency stimuli. For HI listeners, the 75- to 87.5-dB increase improved signal audibility for high-frequency stimuli and rollover was not observed. However, the 87.5- to 100-dB increase produced qualitatively similar results for both groups: scores decreased most for high-frequency stimuli and least for low-frequency materials. Predictions of speech intelligibility by quantitative methods such as the Speech Intelligibility Index may be improved if rollover effects are modeled as frequency dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1405713','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1405713"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and upper respiratory infections in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jaakkola, J J; Paunio, M; Virtanen, M; Heinonen, O P</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Effects of low-<span class="hlt">level</span> air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> were studied in one <span class="hlt">polluted</span> city and two reference cities in northern Finland by comparing the frequency of upper respiratory infections over a 12-month period in 1982 as reported by parents of children ages 14 through 18 months (n = 679) and 6 years (n = 759). A similar comparison was carried out between children living in the more <span class="hlt">polluted</span> and less <span class="hlt">polluted</span> areas of the <span class="hlt">polluted</span> city. The annual mean and the greatest half-hour concentrations of sulfur dioxide (23 and 807 micrograms/m3), particulates (31 and 291 micrograms/m3), nitrogen oxides (15 and 160 micrograms/m3), and hydrogen sulfide (2 and 177 micrograms/m3) in the <span class="hlt">polluted</span> city were mainly due to industrial sources. In the reference cities, air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> was produced mainly by traffic and heating. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for one or more upper respiratory infections of residents in the <span class="hlt">polluted</span> city vs those in the reference cities were 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2) in the younger age group and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.1) in the older age group. Within the <span class="hlt">polluted</span> city, OR calculated for living in more vs less <span class="hlt">polluted</span> areas were 2.0 (95% CI = 1.0-4.0) in the younger and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0-2.7) in the older children. The present results suggests that, for children, air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> can be hazardous in concentrations lower than those recorded in earlier studies from Britain and central Europe. The synergistic effect of sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, and other <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> may be a contributing factor. PMID:1854003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780025930','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780025930"><span>Comparison of low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the Concorde supersonic transport with other commercial service airplanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Powell, C. A.; Mccurdy, D. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Fifty-two airplane <span class="hlt">noise</span> recordings, made at several locations around Dulles International Airport, were analyzed to compare the low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the Concorde supersonic transport with those of other commercial jet airplanes. Comparisons of the relative low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> which were produced at close and distant locations for departures and arrivals were made for three <span class="hlt">noise</span> measures: the sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> in the 1/3 octave band centered at 20 Hz, the total sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> in the 1/3 octave bands with center frequencies less than or equal to 125 Hz, and the total sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> in the 1/3 octave bands with center frequencies less than or equal to 500 Hz. Although the absolute <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for Concorde were found, in general, to be higher than those for the other airplane types, the <span class="hlt">level</span> of low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the Concorde relative to the perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (PNL), effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (EPNL), and overall sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (OASPL) was within the range established by the other airplane types, except for the arrival operations of four-engine, narrow-body airplanes. The measure OASPL was found to be a significantly better predictor of low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> than PNL or EPNL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS43A1956B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNS43A1956B"><span>Processing of Surface-NMR Data From Sites With High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Behroozmand, A. A.; Larsen, J. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The applicability of surface NMR in investigations of groundwater is often limited by high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in many areas of interest. In this paper we present measurements from a high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> area in Ristrup, Denmark. Standard multichannel filtering techniques for <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction are inadequate for several data sets acquired in this area and surface-NMR signals cannot be resolved from the acquired data. With a careful assessment of the frequency content of the data, we show how a model-based approach can be used to subtract two harmonic <span class="hlt">noise</span> components from the data and reliable surface-NMR data can be extracted from the <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reduced data. Moreover, we show the impact of the proposed processing approaches on the inversion results and also present an example where the proposed methodology allows us to reveal and avoid an otherwise overlooked contamination of the reference coil signals with surface-NMR signal. The results of this study show that a careful processing of the data makes it possible to extract surface-NMR data in more places of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819755','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3819755"><span>Relationship between Lighting and <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Productivity of the Occupants in Automotive Assembly Industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akbari, Jafar; Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Work environment affects human productivity and his performance. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of lighting and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on human productivity in the automotive assembly industry. Method. Subjects were 181 workers from different parts of an automobile assembly industry. Illuminance (Lx) at the height of 30 inches from the surface of work station and <span class="hlt">noise</span> (dBA) were locally measured. Also human productivity by the Goldsmith and Hersey scale (1980) was measured. Data were analyzed by using SPSS v20 Pearson correlation coefficient. Results. The results showed that the relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and human productivity is negative and significant (P < 0.05, r = −0.178), but there was no significant relationship between lighting and human productivity (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Based on the results, in assembly tasks, <span class="hlt">noise</span> has a negative impact on human productivity, and lighting does not affect this. So, in order to increase employee productivity, <span class="hlt">noise</span> control and reduction to less than the standard values (less than 85 dB) is necessary. PMID:24250340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMOp...63.2114M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMOp...63.2114M"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> property of a four-<span class="hlt">level</span> system in vee + ladder configuration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ming, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yang, Rong-Can</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present the results of a theoretical study of the output amplitude <span class="hlt">noises</span> of a four-<span class="hlt">level</span> atomic system in vee + ladder configuration. The difference and connection of electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting effects are investigated theoretically. The output amplitude <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the probe field of two effects were compared, the quantum properties of the input field of the thin medium and the thick medium under Autler-Townes splitting or electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) condition are maintained, the higher fidelity is obtained in the storage of the thick medium under the condition of EIT in non-classical states. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> characteristics of the squeezed vacuum field after four-<span class="hlt">level</span> coherent medium are studied; the <span class="hlt">noise</span> of the output field is lowest when the detection light is far away from detuning. The double split of EIT window was made by the dynamic Stark splitting on the ground state of control field, the quantum properties of the input field in the strong-control field and strong-coupling field were maintained. The output <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectrum is divided with the increase in the field strength, the maximum output squeezing is far away from the resonance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020268&hterms=mathematical+functions&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmathematical%2Bfunctions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740020268&hterms=mathematical+functions&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmathematical%2Bfunctions"><span>Load influence on gear <span class="hlt">noise</span>. [mathematical model for determining acoustic pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> as function of load</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Merticaru, V.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An original mathematical model is proposed to derive equations for calculation of gear <span class="hlt">noise</span>. These equations permit the acoustic pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> to be determined as a function of load. Application of this method to three parallel gears is reported. The logical calculation scheme is given, as well as the results obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Statistical+AND+Methods+AND+Clinical+AND+Trials&pg=2&id=EJ1059970','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Statistical+AND+Methods+AND+Clinical+AND+Trials&pg=2&id=EJ1059970"><span>Acceptance <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span>: Effects of the Speech Signal, Babble, and Listener Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shi, Lu-Feng; Azcona, Gabrielly; Buten, Lupe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The acceptable <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (ANL) measure has gained much research/clinical interest in recent years. The present study examined how the characteristics of the speech signal and the babble used in the measure may affect the ANL in listeners with different native languages. Method: Fifteen English monolingual, 16 Russian-English bilingual,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012834','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012834"><span>Airport-<span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The airport-<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26627791"><span>A <span class="hlt">noise</span> delivery system for multi-animal multi-<span class="hlt">level</span> whole body ototoxicity studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stubbs, John E; Slagley, Jeremy M; Reboulet, James E</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton (NAMRU-D) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force, studied ototoxic effects of JP-8 in rats. NAMRU-D used a multi-chamber whole body exposure facility for up to 96 test animals and 32 control animals at different exposure <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The objective was to design a <span class="hlt">noise</span> delivery system that could provide a white <span class="hlt">noise</span> source one octave band wide, centered at 8 kHz frequency, delivered from outside the exposure chambers. Sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> were required to be within ±2 dB at all exposure points within each chamber and within ±2 dB over a 6-h run. Electrodynamic shakers were used to produce input <span class="hlt">noise</span> in exposure chambers by inducing vibration in chamber plenums. Distribution of sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> across exposure points was controlled within a ±1.5dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. Stability at a central reference point was controlled over 6-h runs within a ±1 dB prediction interval (α = 0.05) or better. The final system allowed NAMRU-D to deliver <span class="hlt">noise</span> and whole-body aerosol exposures to multiple animals at different <span class="hlt">levels</span> simultaneously and study the effects that ototoxins may have on hearing loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461071"><span>A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-<span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> using feature selection and machine learning methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The prediction of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> and environmental-<span class="hlt">noise</span> magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-<span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-<span class="hlt">noise</span> modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA244805','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA244805"><span>Analysis of Measured Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: An Assessment of the Effects of Airbase Operational Model Variables on Predicted <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> data was used in an effort to quantify the complicating factors relevant to airbase enviromental <span class="hlt">noise</span> prediction. These factors are...were used to optimize the operational profiles influencing the <span class="hlt">noise</span> predictions at that location. Some marginal benefit from this effort was realized...Records The McChord measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> data was originally recorded on printed paper tapes. The measured <span class="hlt">noise</span> events’ data were entered into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840023156','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840023156"><span>Effect of external pressure environment on the internal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> due to a source inside a cylindrical tank</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea <span class="hlt">level</span>) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (<span class="hlt">noise</span>) <span class="hlt">level</span> differences in the interior. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23955128"><span>Distortion product otoacoustic emission <span class="hlt">level</span> maps from normal and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-damaged cochleae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meinke, Deanna K; Clavier, Odile H; Norris, Jesse; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Allen, Lindsay; Buckey, Jay C</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping may be useful for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) early. Employing DPOAE mapping effectively requires knowledge of the optimal mapping parameters to use for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced changes. The goal of this project was to show the map regions that differ most between normal and <span class="hlt">noise</span>-damaged cochlea to determine the optimal mapping parameters for detecting NIHL. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps were generated for the 2f 1 -f 2 and the 2f 2 -f 1 DPOAEs for 17 normal hearing male subjects and 19 male subjects with NIHL. DPOAEs were measured in DPOAE frequency steps of approximately 44 Hz from 0.5 kHz to 6 kHz using constant f 2 /f 1 ratios incremented in 0.025 steps from 1.025 to 1.5 using both unequal-<span class="hlt">level</span> (L1,L2 = 65,55 dB sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (SPL)) and equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> (L1,L2 = 75,75 dB SPL) stimulus paradigms. Maximal responses for the 2f 2 -f 1 emission at L1,L2 = 65,55 dB SPL were found at lower ratios compared to previous studies. The map regions where NIHL eliminated or reduced DPOAE magnitude were identified. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping using higher-<span class="hlt">level</span>, equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> primaries produced significantly more detectable emissions particularly for the 2f 2 -f 1 emission. The data from this study can be used to optimize DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping parameters for tracking <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed subjects longitudinally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5034279','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5034279"><span>Origin of multi-<span class="hlt">level</span> switching and telegraphic <span class="hlt">noise</span> in organic nanocomposite memory devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Younggul; Jeong, Hyunhak; Chung, Seungjun; Ahn, Geun Ho; Kim, Tae-Young; Jang, Jingon; Yoo, Daekyoung; Jeong, Heejun; Javey, Ali; Lee, Takhee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The origin of negative differential resistance (NDR) and its derivative intermediate resistive states (IRSs) of nanocomposite memory systems have not been clearly analyzed for the past decade. To address this issue, we investigate the current fluctuations of organic nanocomposite memory devices with NDR and the IRSs under various temperature conditions. The 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> scaling behaviors at various temperature conditions in the IRSs and telegraphic <span class="hlt">noise</span> in NDR indicate the localized current pathways in the organic nanocomposite layers for each IRS. The clearly observed telegraphic <span class="hlt">noise</span> with a long characteristic time in NDR at low temperature indicates that the localized current pathways for the IRSs are attributed to trapping/de-trapping at the deep trap <span class="hlt">levels</span> in NDR. This study will be useful for the development and tuning of multi-bit storable organic nanocomposite memory device systems. PMID:27659298</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22978870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22978870"><span>Listening <span class="hlt">level</span> of music through headphones in train car <span class="hlt">noise</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening <span class="hlt">level</span> of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (L(train)) and type of train <span class="hlt">noise</span> (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train <span class="hlt">noise</span> type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train <span class="hlt">noise</span>, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653907"><span>Organic <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water <span class="hlt">pollution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse <span class="hlt">pollution</span> sources. <span class="hlt">Pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total <span class="hlt">levels</span> (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE <span class="hlt">pollution</span> was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering <span class="hlt">levels</span> in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23972900"><span>Measuring the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Airport <span class="hlt">noise</span> and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>. In the setting the <span class="hlt">noise</span> model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the <span class="hlt">noise</span> source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For <span class="hlt">noise</span> model validation, the daily <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated <span class="hlt">noise</span> model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20017679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20017679"><span>What is the influence of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> and exercise on the listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> of iPod users?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodgetts, William; Szarko, Ryan; Rieger, Jana</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The widespread use of portable listening devices (PLDs) has increased concern about the potential for hearing impairment caused by their use. The current study investigated the effects of external <span class="hlt">noise</span> and exercise on the use of PLDs. The 24 participants listened to the same song on an iPod during rest-in-quiet, rest-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span>, and exercise-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. Preferred listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> (PLLs) were recorded and participants' maximum <span class="hlt">noise</span> doses were calculated. Participants selected significantly higher listening <span class="hlt">levels</span> in both <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions than in the quiet condition. The variability of volume selection was reduced significantly in the <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. The maximum daily <span class="hlt">noise</span> dose would have been exceeded by seven participants in the rest-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> condition and by eight in the exercise-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> condition compared to one participant in the rest-in-quiet condition. These results indicated that increased background <span class="hlt">noise</span> causes individuals to increase the volume on their PLDs to potentially dangerous <span class="hlt">levels</span> and that increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> alone was not the only factor affecting the participants as the addition of exercise induced even further increases in PLLs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740055094&hterms=pollution+environmental&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpollution%2Benvironmental','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740055094&hterms=pollution+environmental&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpollution%2Benvironmental"><span>Statistical interpretation of <span class="hlt">pollution</span> data from satellites. [for <span class="hlt">levels</span> distribution over metropolitan area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The <span class="hlt">pollution</span> concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870065878&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870065878&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span>Remote detection of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> stress to vegetation - Laboratory-<span class="hlt">level</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a <span class="hlt">level</span> of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a <span class="hlt">level</span> of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with <span class="hlt">pollution</span> stress. Under more severe <span class="hlt">pollution</span> stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1918R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118.1918R"><span>Meeting 2006, outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> directive (OND) <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rowe, David F.</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>In January 2006, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``<span class="hlt">Noise</span> Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing <span class="hlt">noise</span> on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND <span class="hlt">noise</span> limit of 100 LwA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723364"><span>Empirical prediction of peak pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> in anthropogenic impulsive <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Part I: Airgun arrays signals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galindo-Romero, Marta; Lippert, Tristan; Gavrilov, Alexander</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper presents an empirical linear equation to predict peak pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> of anthropogenic impulsive signals based on its correlation with the sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span>. The regression coefficients are shown to be weakly dependent on the environmental characteristics but governed by the source type and parameters. The equation can be applied to values of the sound exposure <span class="hlt">level</span> predicted with a numerical model, which provides a significant improvement in the prediction of the peak pressure <span class="hlt">level</span>. Part I presents the analysis for airgun arrays signals, and Part II considers the application of the empirical equation to offshore impact piling <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2376J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2376J"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> present in the Colonia Auditorium (October 2001)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jalisco, Zapopan; Palafox, Lourdes; Orozco, Martha; Rodriguez, Erika</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The study area is located in the city of Guadalajara, defined by: delimited in the north by the Gonzlez Gallo street; in the south by the Anillo Perifrico street; in the east by Avenida Mezquitan; and in the west by Avenida Alcalde. There were 38 measurement points outside the auditorium and 25 inside. A poll was conducted among the neighbors and visitors in both areas, getting 70 replies. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were between 41-101 dB(A) on the outside, average Leq on the outside was 64.5 dB(A), and inside was 80.15 dB(A). The conclusion is that the whole area is affected by traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, as well by the huge number of visitors, the electric games, and the electric generators that supply energy to them. On the outside 21 points were above 65 dB(A), which means that 55% were above the average; on the inside, 100% were above 65 dB(A). Thus the neighbors are exposed to high <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> due to the festivities during October. The biggest problem, however, is the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure of the workers inside the auditorium, due to music, games, people, and electric generators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029917"><span>Assessment and analysis of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in and around Ib river coalfield, Orissa, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohapatra, Haraprasad; Goswami, Shreerup</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Heavy earth moving machineries, different capacities of dumpers and loaders, blasting and drilling make the mining environment noisy. A study was carried out to assess the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in different opencast projects in and around Belpahar and Brajarajnagar areas of Ib river coalfield. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> assessment was carried out in various residential, commercial and industrial places. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, especially L(eq) values of different wheel loaders, dumpers, shovel and crusher units were also assessed and were more than permissible limit (90dB) in some of their operating conditions. Sound ressure <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements while drilling into coal and overburden at Lakhanpur opencast project yielded <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L(eq)) of 81.33 to 96.2 dB. Thus, these L(eq) values of drilling machines in most of the operating conditions were above permissible limit. The average <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensities (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 51.6-60.875dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 42.6-49.8dB) and L(eq) values (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 50.9-67.0dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 40.8-53.3dB) during both day and night time of the residential areas around the Ib river coalfield were in close proximity or beyond the permissible limit. The L(eq) values at some of the commercial and industrial places were beyond (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 61.6-88.3 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 55.4-64.8dB) permissible limit. However, in most of the cases, the L(max) <span class="hlt">noise</span> values were more (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 68.5-91.4 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 69.3-76.4dB) than the permissible limit. Analysis of variance was also computed for heavy earth moving machineries in different operating conditions and also for different residential, commercial and industrial places to infer the <span class="hlt">level</span> of significance. The difference of <span class="hlt">noise</span> intensity produced by different wheel loaders at Lakhanpur and Lilari opencast projects, drilling machines at Lakhanpur opencast project, 50 tons capacity dumpers at various conditions of Ib river coalfield within the same operating condition was significant at both 5% and 1% <span class="hlt">levels</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118..914D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ASAJ..118..914D"><span>Word recognition in <span class="hlt">noise</span> at higher-than-normal <span class="hlt">levels</span>: Decreases in scores and increases in masking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubno, Judy R.; Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Under certain conditions, speech recognition in <span class="hlt">noise</span> decreases above conversational <span class="hlt">levels</span> when signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio is held constant. The current study was undertaken to determine if nonlinear growth of masking and the subsequent reduction in ``effective'' signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio accounts for this decline. Nine young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllabic words at three <span class="hlt">levels</span> in each of three <span class="hlt">levels</span> of a masker shaped to match the speech spectrum. An additional low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">noise</span> equated audibility by producing equivalent masked thresholds for all subjects. If word recognition was determined entirely by signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio and was independent of overall speech and masker <span class="hlt">levels</span>, scores at a given signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio should remain constant with increasing <span class="hlt">level</span>. Masked pure-tone thresholds measured in the speech-shaped maskers increased linearly with increasing masker <span class="hlt">level</span> at lower frequencies but nonlinearly at higher frequencies, consistent with nonlinear growth of upward spread of masking that followed the peaks in the spectrum of the speech-shaped masker. Word recognition declined significantly with increasing <span class="hlt">level</span> when signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio was held constant which was attributed to nonlinear growth of masking and reduced ``effective'' signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio at high speech-shaped masker <span class="hlt">levels</span>, as indicated by audibility estimates based on the Articulation Index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...76..677S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MSSP...76..677S"><span>Design method of automotive powertrain mounting system based on vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> limitations of vehicle <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shangguan, Wen-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Ang; Lv, Zhao-Ping; Rakheja, Subhash</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The design logic and calculation method for determining mount stiffness and damping for a Powertrain Mounting System (PMS) based on reductions of vehicle vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> contributed by mounts is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the design target for a PMS with regard to vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> limitations of vehicle <span class="hlt">level</span> contributed form mounts is described. Then a vehicle model with 13 Degree of Freedoms (DOFs) is proposed, which includes 6DOFs for the powertrain, 3 DOFs for the car body and 4DOFs for the four unsprung mass, and the dynamic equation for the model is derived. Some widely used models, such as the 6 DOFs model of the powertrain for the design calculation of a PMS, the 7 DOFs model (Body's 3 DOFs; unsprung mass's 4 DOFs) and the 9 DOFs model (powertrain's 6 DOFs; Body's 3 DOFs) for ride analysis of a vehicle, are the specific cases of the presented model of 13 DOF. Thirdly, the calculation method for obtaining the vibration of seat track and evaluation point and the <span class="hlt">noise</span> at driver right ear is presented based on the mount forces and the vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> transfer functions. An optimization process is proposed to get the mount stiffness and damping based on minimization of vehicle vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and the optimized stiffness is validated by comparing the calculated vibration and <span class="hlt">noise</span> and limitations. In the end of this paper, the natural frequencies and mode energies for the powertrain, the body and the unsprung mass are calculated using different models and the results are compared and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5149497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5149497"><span>Non-auditory Effect of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> and Its Risk on Human Brain Activity in Different Audio Frequency Using Electroencephalogram Complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>ALLAHVERDY, Armin; JAFARI, Amir Homayoun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is one of the most harmful ambiance disturbances. It may cause many deficits in ability and activity of persons in the urban and industrial areas. It also may cause many kinds of psychopathies. Therefore, it is very important to measure the risk of this <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in different area. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to September of 2015, in which, different frequencies of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> were played for volunteers. 16-channel EEG signal was recorded synchronously, then by using fractal dimension and relative power of Beta sub-band of EEG, the complexity of EEG signals was measured. Results: As the results, it is observed that the average complexity of brain activity is increased in the middle of audio frequency range and the complexity map of brain activity changes in different frequencies, which can show the effects of frequency changes on human brain activity. Conclusion: The complexity of EEG is a good measure for ranking the annoyance and non-auditory risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on human brain activity. PMID:27957440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12535972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12535972"><span>Emergent effects of heavy metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> at a population <span class="hlt">level</span>: Littorina brevicula a study case.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Sook-Jung; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Song, Jun-Im</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Changes in genetic variability and allele frequency can be responses from natural populations when encountering a novel contaminated environment. The genetic diversity and population structuring of natural populations of the gastropod Littorina brevicula from heavy-metal <span class="hlt">polluted</span> and unpolluted environments along the southeast coast of Korea were examined using two mtDNA markers, cyt b and ND6. This study applied a nested clade analysis to test the existence of structuring association of haplotype distribution with environments (<span class="hlt">polluted</span> and unpolluted). No genetic differences within cyt b mtDNA were detected between environments. On the other hand, differences in population haplotype diversity and structuring were found within ND6 mtDNA between <span class="hlt">polluted</span> and unpolluted environments. The ND6-mtDNA haplotype (=genetic) diversity was significant lower in <span class="hlt">polluted</span> environments. This decreased genetic diversity along with differences in the haplotype distribution within heavy-metal <span class="hlt">polluted</span> environments compared to those unpolluted ones stand out as emergent effects from <span class="hlt">pollution</span> at a population <span class="hlt">level</span>. In this study, we propose the use of different approaches, such as the NCA, that takes into account the rare haplotypes, when assessing the effects of <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on population genetic structuring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27924705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27924705"><span>Long-term air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures and cognitive function:A cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna; Sugiri, Dorothee; Schikowski, Tamara; Jakobs, Hermann; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weimar, Christian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Investigations of adverse effects of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> (AP) and ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> (weighted 24-h (LDEN) and nighttime (LNIGHT) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC. Multiple regression models were calculated for the relationship of environmental exposures with a global cognitive score (GCS) and in five cognitive subtests, using single- and two-exposure models. In fully adjusted models, several AP metrics were negatively associated with four of five subtests and with GCS. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 was correlated with verbal fluency, labyrinth test, and immediate and delayed verbal recall. A 10 dB(A) elevation in LDEN and LNIGHT was associated with GCS. Similar but not significant associations were found for the cognitive subtests. In two-exposure models including <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> simultaneously, the associations did not change markedly for air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, but attenuated numerically for <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Long-term exposures to AP and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> are negatively correlated with subtests related to memory and executive functions. There appears to be little evidence for mutual confounding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S33D2812H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S33D2812H"><span>Estimation of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We evaluated the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic <span class="hlt">noise</span> of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) and NLNM (New Low <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.128..304B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcAau.128..304B"><span>A simple indicator for estimating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of a hyperspectral data cube for earth observation missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ben-Dor, Eyal; Notesco, Gila</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A method for estimating the <span class="hlt">level</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> of a hyperspectral data cube is proposed. The method includes <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction using the Minimum <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Fraction (MNF) transform and mapping the spectral dissimilarity between the pixels in the resulting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-reduced radiance image, as well as in the original noisy radiance image, using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Comparing the two maps, on a pixel by pixel basis, gives a value indicating the addition of <span class="hlt">noise</span> to the spectrum of each pixel. An average value for the entire image is calculated, defined as the Image <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Indicator (INI). In practice, this value indicates the quality of the data. Combining the INI value with the <span class="hlt">level</span> of radiance enables estimating the Image <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> (INL). The method was applied and examined on a noisy synthetic image and then implemented for over 20 acquired images from different hyperspectral sensors and their <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was estimated. Further examination showed that the INI value is independent of the heterogeneity of the hyperspectral data cube. The INI value, indicating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, might increase as a geo-reference procedure is applied to hyperspectral data cube. The INI-INL can also be used as a quality indicator (QI) in the ongoing effort to objectively certify hyperspectral remote sensing images for practical usages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800051329&hterms=wind+turbine+impact&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Bturbine%2Bimpact','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800051329&hterms=wind+turbine+impact&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Bturbine%2Bimpact"><span>An exploratory survey of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> associated with a 100 kW wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Balombin, J. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>During performance tests of a 125-foot diameter, 100 kW wind turbine at the NASA Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio, the opportunity arose to make exploratory <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements and results of those surveys are presented. The data include measurements as functions of distance from the turbine, and directivity angle, and cover a frequency range from 1 Hz to several kHz. Potential community impact is discussed in terms of A-weighted <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> relative to background <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and the infrasonic spectral content. Finally, the change in the sound power spectrum associated with a change in the rotor speed is described. The acoustic impact of this size wind turbine is judged to be minimal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5234804','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5234804"><span>Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD) and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a <span class="hlt">noise</span> free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by <span class="hlt">noise</span> were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA) features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against <span class="hlt">noise</span> contamination. PMID:28085953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085953"><span>Classification of Partial Discharge Measured under Different <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Contamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jee Keen Raymond, Wong; Illias, Hazlee Azil; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cable joint insulation breakdown may cause a huge loss to power companies. Therefore, it is vital to diagnose the insulation quality to detect early signs of insulation failure. It is well known that there is a correlation between Partial discharge (PD) and the insulation quality. Although many works have been done on PD pattern recognition, it is usually performed in a <span class="hlt">noise</span> free environment. Also, works on PD pattern recognition in actual cable joint are less likely to be found in literature. Therefore, in this work, classifications of actual cable joint defect types from partial discharge data contaminated by <span class="hlt">noise</span> were performed. Five cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joints with artificially created defects were prepared based on the defects commonly encountered on site. Three different types of input feature were extracted from the PD pattern under artificially created noisy environment. These include statistical features, fractal features and principal component analysis (PCA) features. These input features were used to train the classifiers to classify each PD defect types. Classifications were performed using three different artificial intelligence classifiers, which include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). It was found that the classification accuracy decreases with higher <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> but PCA features used in SVM and ANN showed the strongest tolerance against <span class="hlt">noise</span> contamination.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/302237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/302237"><span>Short-term effects of low-<span class="hlt">level</span> winter <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on respiratory health of asthmatic adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Neukirch, F.; Segala, C.; Korobaeff, M.; Le Moullec, Y.; Aubier, M.</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The authors studied the short-term effects of Paris winter air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> (i.e., sulfur dioxide, Black Smoke, suspended particulates with an aerodynamic diameter close to 10 {micro}m, and nitrogen dioxide) in 40 nonsmoking mild to moderate asthmatics. During a 6-mo period, subjects recorded asthma symptoms and three daily peak expiratory flow measurements. Statistical analysis revealed consistent and significant associations between the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> and asthma attacks and symptoms in the entire study group, especially in the subgroup of individuals who took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed. <span class="hlt">Pollutants</span> correlated negatively with morning peak expiratory flow in the subgroup that took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed, and they correlated positively with daily variability in asthmatics who received regularly scheduled inhaled {beta}2 agonists. The effects lingered several days after exposure occurred. Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> has consistent measurable effects on nonsmoking adults who have well-treated mild or moderate asthma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA110592','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA110592"><span>Use of Aqueous Foam to Reduce Shoulder-Launched Rocket <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span>: Feasibility Investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>1 tj~ * UNCLASSIFIED SECUflITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (**en Dese Entered) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COOTRUTIONS I. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT...assistance and cooperation of Mr. Jerry Arszman of U.S. Army MIRADCOM (Missile Research and Development Command) and Mr. Charles Carter and Mr. George...REFERENCES 1. A. Clark, et al., The Reduction of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> from Explosive Test Facilities Using Aqueous Foan, Royal Armament Research and Development</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031265&hterms=dick&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddick','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100031265&hterms=dick&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddick"><span>Fundamental <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-Limited Optical Phase Locking at Femtowatt Light <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dick, John; Tu, Meirong; Birnbaum, Kevin; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We describe an optical phase lock loop (PLL) designed to recover an optical carrier at powers below one picowatt in a Deep Space optical transponder. Previous low power optical phase lock has been reported with powers down to about 1 pW. We report the demonstration and characterization of the optical phase locking at femtowatt <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We achieved a phase slip rate below one cycle-slip/second at powers down to 60 femtowatts. This phase slip rate corresponds to a frequency stability of 1 10(exp -14) at 1 s, a value better than any frequency standard available today for measuring times equal to a typical two-way delay between Earth and Mars. The PLL shows very robust stability at these power <span class="hlt">levels</span>. We developed simulation software to optimize parameters of the second order PLL loop in the presence of laser flicker frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> and white phase (photon) <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and verified the software with a white phase <span class="hlt">noise</span> model by Viterbi. We also demonstrated precise Doppler tracking at femtowatt <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22559390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22559390"><span>Sound <span class="hlt">level</span> discrimination by gray treefrogs in the presence and absence of chorus-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bee, Mark A; Vélez, Alejandro; Forester, James D</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>An important aspect of hearing and acoustic communication is the ability to discriminate differences in sound <span class="hlt">level</span>. Little is known about <span class="hlt">level</span> discrimination in anuran amphibians (frogs and toads), for which vocal communication in noisy social environments is often critical for reproduction. This study used two-choice phonotaxis tests to investigate the ability of females of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) to discriminate between two advertisement calls differing only in sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> by 2, 4, or 6 dB. Tests were conducted in the presence and absence of chorus-shaped <span class="hlt">noise</span> (73 dB) and using two different ranges of signal <span class="hlt">levels</span> (73-79 dB and 79-85 dB). Females discriminated between two signals differing by as little as 2-4 dB. In contrast to expectations based on the "near miss to Weber's law" in birds and mammals, <span class="hlt">level</span> discrimination was slightly better at the lower range of signal amplitudes, a finding consistent with earlier studies of frogs and insects. Realistic <span class="hlt">levels</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> simulating a breeding chorus had no discernable effect on discrimination at the sound <span class="hlt">level</span> differences tested in this study. These results have important implications for studies of auditory masking and signaling behavior in the contexts of anuran hearing and sound communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24183515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24183515"><span>The associations between traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> with blood pressure in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chuang; Fuertes, Elaine; Tiesler, Carla M T; Birk, Matthias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Heinrich, Joachim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although traffic emits both air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span>, studies jointly examining the effects of both of these exposures on blood pressure (BP) in children are scarce. We investigated associations between land-use regression modeled long-term traffic-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and BP in 2368 children aged 10 years from Germany (1454 from Munich and 914 from Wesel). We also studied this association with adjustment of long-term <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure (defined as day-evening-night <span class="hlt">noise</span> indicator "Lden" and night <span class="hlt">noise</span> indicator "Lnight") in a subgroup of 605 children from Munich inner city. In the overall analysis including 2368 children, NO2, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm), PM10 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) and PM2.5 absorbance were not associated with BP. When restricting the analysis to the subgroup of children with <span class="hlt">noise</span> information (N=605), a significant association between NO2 and diastolic BP was observed (-0.88 (95% confidence interval: -1.67, -0.08)). However, upon adjusting the models for <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, only <span class="hlt">noise</span> remained independently and significantly positively associated with diastolic BP. Diastolic BP increased by 0.50 (-0.03, 1.02), 0.59 (0.05, 1.13), 0.55 (0.03, 1.07), and 0.58 (0.05, 1.11)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lden and by 0.59 (-0.05, 1.22), 0.69 (0.04, 1.33), 0.64 (0.02, 1.27), and 0.68 (0.05, 1.32)mmHg for every five decibel increase in Lnight, in different models of NO2, PM2.5 mass, PM10 mass and PM2.5 absorbance as the main exposure, respectively. In conclusion, air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> was not consistently associated with BP with adjustment for <span class="hlt">noise</span>, <span class="hlt">noise</span> was independently and positively associated with BP in children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850145"><span>Halogenated <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> profiles, and impacts and risks from high <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M; Quinn, Laura P; Polder, Anuschka</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We investigated the presence, <span class="hlt">levels</span>, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT <span class="hlt">levels</span> reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical <span class="hlt">levels</span> for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect <span class="hlt">level</span> estimated at 500 ng/g wm. Even higher ΣDDT <span class="hlt">levels</span> at 16,000 ng/g wm were found in House Sparrow eggs (possibly the highest ever recorded for sparrows), with a maximum of 24,400 ng/g wm. Significant eggshell thinning in Cattle Egrets (33% between thickest and thinnest) was associated with increased <span class="hlt">levels</span> of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. There were indications of unknown use of DDT and lindane. Relative to DDT, PCBs and BFRs <span class="hlt">levels</span> were quite low. Ordinated data showed that different terrestrial <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> profiles converged to a homogenised aquatic profile. Converging profiles, high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of DDT in heron and sparrow eggs, and thinning eggs shells, indicate risk and impacts at release, in the aquatic environment, and in between. If characteristic life-strategies of birds in warm areas (e.g. longer-lived and fewer eggs per clutch) increases the risk compared with similar birds living in colder regions when both experience the same environmental <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, then malaria control using DDT probably has more significant impacts on biota than previously realised. Therefore, risk assessment and modelling without hard data may miss crucial impacts and risks, as the chemical use patterns and ecologies in Africa and elsewhere may differ from the conditions and assumptions of existing risk assessment and modelling parameters. Consideration of other findings associated with DDT from the same area (intersex in fish and urogental birth defects in baby boys), together with the findings of this study (high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FNL....1350031V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FNL....1350031V"><span>Assessment of Traffic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> on Highway Passing from Urban Agglomeration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vijay, Ritesh; Kori, Chandan; Kumar, Manoj; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Assessment of traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in developing countries is complex due to heterogeneity in traffic conditions like traffic volume, road width, honking, etc. To analyze the impact of such variables, a research study was carried out on a national highway passing from an urban agglomeration. Traffic volume and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> (L10, Lmin, Lmax, Leq and L90) were measured during morning and evening peak hours. Contribution of <span class="hlt">noise</span> by individual vehicle was estimated using passenger car <span class="hlt">noise</span> unit. Extent of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and impact of noisy vehicles were estimated using <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> index, respectively. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were observed to be above the prescribed Indian and International standards. As per audio spectrum analysis of traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span>, honking contributed an additional 3-4 dB(A) <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Based on data analysis, a positive relationship was observed between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and honking while negative correlation was observed between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and road width. The study suggests that proper monitoring and analysis of traffic data is required for better planning of <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17051770"><span>Alternative normalization method of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> recorded by tree bark.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yuli; Wang, Qiuquan; Yang, Limin; Li, Zhenji; Satake, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>An alternative normalization method was developed for evaluating atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> when using tree bark as a passive sampling medium. Perylene (PER), which mainly stems from natural biogenic processes, was proposed as a "natural internal compound" (NIC) of atmospheric PAHs accumulation processes from air into the bark, and a concentration ratio of target PAH to PER (RPAH/PER) was used to minimize the uncertainty in the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Systematic investigation of the effects of intrinsic bark characteristics and extrinsic seasonal meteorological conditions on the partition processes of atmospheric PAHs indicated that RPAH/PER is as an alternative index as compared to bark mass concentration (BMCPAH, ng/g dry bark), lipid mass concentration (LMCPAH, ng/g lipid of bark), and area mass concentration (AMCPAH, ng/m2 surface area of bark) for the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and that it allows more flexible sampling of tree barks. Clearly, the methodology should be expected to be useful for the objective evaluation of atmospheric <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of other persistent organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> when using tree bark and other passive sampling media if corresponding NICs are found in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20803251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20803251"><span>Bacterial communities reflect the spatial variation in <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Brazilian mangrove sediment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peixoto, R; Chaer, G M; Carmo, F L; Araújo, F V; Paes, J E; Volpon, A; Santiago, G A; Rosado, A S</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests. A major challenge to mangrove bioremediation is defining the mangrove's <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and measuring its recuperation from <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Bioindicators can provide a welcome tool for defining such recovery. To determine if the microbial profiles reflected variation in the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, samples from different locations within a single mangrove with a history of exposure to oil were chemically characterised, and the microbial populations were evaluated by a comprehensive range of conventional and molecular methods. Multivariate ordination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the sediment and rhizosphere samples for all analysed bacterial communities (Bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Pseudomonas). A Mantel test revealed significant relationships between the sediment chemical fertility and oil-derived <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, most of the bacterial community fingerprints from sediment samples, and the counts by different cultivation strategies. The <span class="hlt">level</span> of total petroleum hydrocarbons was significantly associated with the Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria fingerprints, whereas anthracene and the total <span class="hlt">level</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were associated with the Actinobacteria. These results show that microbial communities from the studied mangrove reflect the spatial variation of the chemicals in the sediment, demonstrating the specific influences of oil-derived <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27262129','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27262129"><span>Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely <span class="hlt">polluted</span> oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less <span class="hlt">polluted</span> oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4846432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4846432"><span>Global marine <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental <span class="hlt">levels</span>, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental <span class="hlt">levels</span> in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6303510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6303510"><span>Measurement of outdoor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rodman, C.W.</p> <p>1981-08-27</p> <p>In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance <span class="hlt">levels</span>. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound <span class="hlt">level</span> in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984maph...10..205S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984maph...10..205S"><span>Solar terrestrial influences on the D region as shown by the <span class="hlt">level</span> of atmospheric radio <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Satori, G.; Schaning, B.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>Measurements of the integrated atmospheric radio <span class="hlt">noise</span> field strength at 27 kHz, used here, were made from 1965 to 1975 at Uppsala, Kuhlungsborn, and Prague-Panska Ves. The large scale meteorological situation was considered by comparing solar disturbed and undisturbed periods under similar weather situations. In order to show the effects of the precipitating high energy particle (HEP) flux and of the Forbush decrease on the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> between pairs of stations were computed as deviations from the monthly median. Delta E (dB), day by day for all six periods was studied. The correlation coefficients for noon as well as for night values were computed. The correlation coefficients were compared with those for solar undisturbed periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27460892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27460892"><span>Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part I-epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and effects of mitigation strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Münzel, Thomas; Sørensen, Mette; Gori, Tommaso; Schmidt, Frank P; Rao, Xiaoquan; Brook, Jeffrey; Chen, Lung Chi; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay</p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>Traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> together represent the two most important environmental risk factors in urbanized societies. The first of this two-part review discusses the epidemiologic evidence in support of the existence of an association between these risk factors with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. While independent effects of these risk factors have now clearly been shown, recent studies also suggest that the two exposures may interact with each other and with traditional risk factors such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes. From a societal and policy perspective, the health effects of both air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> are observed for exposures well below the thresholds currently accepted as being safe. Current gaps in knowledge, effects of intervention and their impact on cardiovascular disease, will be discussed in the last section of this review. Increased awareness of the societal burden posed by these novel risk factors and acknowledgement in traditional risk factor guidelines may intensify the efforts required for effective legislation to reduce air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33C..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33C..04R"><span>Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> critical <span class="hlt">levels</span> in central México protected natural areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical <span class="hlt">levels</span> for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical <span class="hlt">level</span> maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24816202"><span>Effects of subtle <span class="hlt">pollution</span> at different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of biological organisation on species-rich assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Reis, Pedro A; Bertocci, Iacopo; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We investigated effects of subtle nutrient enrichment and metal <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of biological organization (i.e. whole assemblage, population and individual) of species-rich assemblages. We used rockpools as model system, applying a multi-factorial sampling design to test hypotheses on differences between disturbed and reference locations. Results indicated that disturbed and reference locations supported similar assemblages, as well as individual fitness-related life-traits were ineffective to discriminate between the two conditions. In contrast, assemblages responded to <span class="hlt">pollution</span> through a reduction of the abundance of sensitive species and a proliferation of tolerant species, although these alterations were detectable only once the influence of dominant taxa was down-weighed by data transformation. Present findings suggest that, contrarily to individual <span class="hlt">level</span> variables, assemblage structure after data transformation and patterns of distribution and abundance of differently sensitive taxa would be a powerful tool to detect effects of subtle <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on species-rich assemblages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5547..103M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5547..103M"><span>Study on particulate matter air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in Beijing with MODIS aerosol <span class="hlt">level</span> 2 products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal <span class="hlt">levels</span> are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving <span class="hlt">polluting</span> factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS <span class="hlt">level</span> 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> sources from inner city can't fully solve the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> situation in Beijing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26402068"><span>Intermittent <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> (playback of boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> of various temporal dynamics and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent <span class="hlt">noise</span>, but not to continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at which physiological responses occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581866','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4581866"><span>Intermittent <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širović, Ana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> (playback of boat <span class="hlt">noise</span> recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> of various temporal dynamics and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent <span class="hlt">noise</span>, but not to continuous <span class="hlt">noise</span> or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28241674"><span>[Association between serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> and risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiao, J; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zheng, Y X; Zhang, H L; Geng, Q; Cheng, Y B; Yu, S F</p> <p>2016-12-20</p> <p>Objective: To investigate the association between serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> and risk of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) . Methods: Acohort study was performed for 7 445 workers exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the steelmaking and steel rolling workshops of an iron and steel enterprise in Henan Province, China. The follow-up time was from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015. The workers with a binaural average high-frequency hearing threshold of ≥40 dB (HL) were enrolled as case group, and those with a binaural average high-frequency hearing threshold of <35 dB (HL) and a binaural average speech frequency of ≤25 dB (HL) were enrolled as control group. After being matched for age, working years of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure, sex, and type of work at a ratio of 1∶1, 187 workers each were enrolled in the case group and the control group. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the serum magnesium ionlevel. Aconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association of serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span>, body mass index, cumulative <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure (CNE) , smoking, drinking, hypertension, and physical exercise with NIHL, as well as the association between serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> and risk of NIHL after the adjustment for covariants. Results: There was no significant difference in the serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> between the case group and the control group (24.63±7.92 mg/m(3) vs 24.91±7.33 mg/m(3), P>0.05) . Smoking (OR=1.687, 95%CI 1.090-2.613) was a risk factor for NIHL, and physical exercise (OR=0.509, 95%CI 0.325-0.796) reduced the risk of NIHL. In the workers with CNE>98 dB (A) ·year, the risk of NIHL in the workers with higher CNE was 1.305 times (95%CI 1.051-1.620) that in those with lower CNE. After the adjustment for CNE, smoking, and physical exercise, there was no significant difference in the influence of serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> on the risk of NIHL between the two groups (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Serum magnesium ion <span class="hlt">level</span> may not be</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286610','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286610"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and Low-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Dynamics Can Coordinate Multicomponent Bet Hedging Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garcia-Bernardo, Javier; Dunlop, Mary J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To counter future uncertainty, cells can stochastically express stress response mechanisms to diversify their population and hedge against stress. This approach allows a small subset of the population to survive without the prohibitive cost of constantly expressing resistance machinery at the population <span class="hlt">level</span>. However, expression of multiple genes in concert is often needed to ensure survival, requiring coordination of infrequent events across many downstream targets. This raises the question of how cells orchestrate the timing of multiple rare events without adding cost. To investigate this, we used a stochastic model to study regulation of downstream target genes by a transcription factor. We compared several upstream regulator profiles, including constant expression, pulsatile dynamics, and noisy expression. We found that pulsatile dynamics and <span class="hlt">noise</span> are sufficient to coordinate expression of multiple downstream genes. Notably, this is true even when fluctuations in the upstream regulator are far below the dissociation constants of the regulated genes, as with infrequently activated genes. As an example, we simulated the dynamics of the multiple antibiotic resistance activator (MarA) and 40 diverse downstream genes it regulates, determining that low-<span class="hlt">level</span> dynamics in MarA are sufficient to coordinate expression of resistance mechanisms. We also demonstrated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> can play a similar coordinating role. Importantly, we found that these benefits are present without a corresponding increase in the population-<span class="hlt">level</span> cost. Therefore, our model suggests that low-<span class="hlt">level</span> dynamics or <span class="hlt">noise</span> in a transcription factor can coordinate expression of multiple stress response mechanisms by engaging them simultaneously without adding to the overall cost. PMID:25564865</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1310930','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1310930"><span>Decline of Ambient Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and Improved Respiratory Health in Swiss Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The causality of observed associations between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-μg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60–0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Current air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children’s health can be improved further. PMID:16263523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263523"><span>Decline of ambient air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and improved respiratory health in Swiss children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The causality of observed associations between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-microg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Current air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children's health can be improved further.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3954697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3954697"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in cockpits of aircraft during normal cruise and considerations of auditory risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gasaway, D C</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> data, including A-<span class="hlt">levels</span> and C-minus-A values, are summarized for exposures associated with normal cruise flight in 13 groups of 593 aircraft; means and standard deviations are reported; degrees of auditory risk using OSHA-1983 criterion are presented; and at-the-ear protected and unprotected exposures are revealed. Mean A-<span class="hlt">levels</span> were 95.0 for 528 fixed-wing; 100.9 for 65 rotary-wing; and 95.7 for all 593 aircraft. Of 13 sub-groups, the lowest mean A-<span class="hlt">level</span> (85.5) was exhibited in the cockpits of tail-mounted turbojet/fan-powered aircraft, and the highest (105.0) was found in both reciprocating and turbine-powered twin-rotor helicopters. All mean A-<span class="hlt">levels</span> exceeded the OSHA damage-risk criterion for 8 h.d-1 exposures. At-the-ear exposures while wearing hearing protection are presented. Results clearly illustrate the potential for auditory damage of unprotected aircrews. Hearing protection must be considered to effectively control routinely encountered exposures. The material and illustrations resulting from this study will help health and safety monitors during indoctrination and counseling of aircrews concerning the need to protect their hearing against <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposures during normal and routine flight operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62..127W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62..127W"><span>Impact of physiological <span class="hlt">noise</span> correction on detecting blood oxygenation <span class="hlt">level</span>-dependent contrast in the breast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wallace, Tess E.; Manavaki, Roido; Graves, Martin J.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Fiona J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Physiological fluctuations are expected to be a dominant source of <span class="hlt">noise</span> in blood oxygenation <span class="hlt">level</span>-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments to assess tumour oxygenation and angiogenesis. This work investigates the impact of various physiological <span class="hlt">noise</span> regressors: retrospective image correction (RETROICOR), heart rate (HR) and respiratory volume per unit time (RVT), on signal variance and the detection of BOLD contrast in the breast in response to a modulated respiratory stimulus. BOLD MRI was performed at 3 T in ten volunteers at rest and during cycles of oxygen and carbogen gas breathing. RETROICOR was optimized using F-tests to determine which cardiac and respiratory phase terms accounted for a significant amount of signal variance. A nested regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of RETROICOR, HR and RVT on the model fit residuals, temporal signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio, and BOLD activation parameters. The optimized RETROICOR model accounted for the largest amount of signal variance ( Δ R\\text{adj}2   =  3.3  ±  2.1%) and improved the detection of BOLD activation (P  =  0.002). Inclusion of HR and RVT regressors explained additional signal variance, but had a negative impact on activation parameter estimation (P  <  0.001). Fluctuations in HR and RVT appeared to be correlated with the stimulus and may contribute to apparent BOLD signal reactivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797186"><span>Low-<span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy for prevention of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamura, Atsushi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Mizutari, Kunio; Niwa, Katsuki; Kurioka, Takaomi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Shunichi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Satoh, Yasushi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Shiotani, Akihiro</p> <p>2015-05-19</p> <p>Noninvasive low-<span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy (LLLT) is neuroprotective, but the mechanism of this effect is not fully understood. In this study, the use of LLLT as a novel treatment for <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intense <span class="hlt">noise</span> and their right ears were irradiated with an 808nm diode laser at an output power density of 110 or 165mW/cm(2) for a 30min period for 5 consecutive days. Measurement of the auditory brainstem response revealed an accelerated recovery of auditory function in the groups treated with LLLT compared with the non-treatment group at days 2, 4, 7 and 14 after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure. Morphological observations also revealed a significantly higher outer hair cell survival rate in the LLLT groups. Immunohistochemical analyses for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cleaved caspase-3 were used to examine oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strong immunoreactivities were observed in the inner ear tissues of the non-treatment group, whereas these signals were decreased in the LLLT group at 165mW/cm(2) power density. Our findings suggest that LLLT has cytoprotective effects against NIHL via the inhibition of iNOS expression and apoptosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22834257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22834257"><span>[Effect of the increasing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of soil radioactive <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on the biochemical composition of plants].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gromova, V S; Pchelenok, O A; Kozlova, N M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The study was undertaken to study a relationship between the changes of some parameters of the biochemical and mineral composition of different plants, such as rape, pods, and lentil, and the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of soil radiation <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, by using the conventional methods. Radioactive <span class="hlt">pollution</span> of dark-grey forest soils was found to cause a change in the biochemical composition of plant seeds even at the <span class="hlt">level</span> of cesium 137 (137Cs) within the present temporary permissible <span class="hlt">levels</span> (TPL) (600 Bq/kg): there were elevated concentrations of salts of potassium, phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, catechols, sucrose, and some amino acids. With the radioactive cesium <span class="hlt">level</span> exceeding the TPL, biochemical changes in the seeds depended on the species of the plants: in the rape seeds, the additional formation of sucrose and amino acids continued, but less intensively than with its lower radiation; the pod beans were significantly positively correlated with the increasing amounts of catechols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........91N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........91N"><span>Low frequency critical current <span class="hlt">noise</span> and two <span class="hlt">level</span> system defects in Josephson junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nugroho, Christopher Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>The critical current in a Josephson junction is known to exhibit a 1/falpha low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Implemented as a superconducting qubit, this low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> can lead to decoherence. While the 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been known to arise from an ensemble of two <span class="hlt">level</span> systems connected to the tunnel barrier, the precise microscopic nature of these TLSs remain a mystery. In this thesis we will present measurements of the 1/f alpha low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the critical current and tunneling resistance of Al-AlOx-Al Josephson junctions. Measurements in a wide range of resistively shunted and unshunted junctions confirm the equality of critical current and tunneling resistance <span class="hlt">noise</span>. That is the critical current fluctuation corresponds to fluctuations of the tunneling resistance. In not too small Al-AlOx-Al junctions we have found that the fractional power spectral density scales linearly with temperature. We confirmed that the 1/falpha power spectrum is the result of a large number of two <span class="hlt">level</span> systems modulating the tunneling resistance. At small junction areas and low temperatures, the number of thermally active TLSs is insufficient to integrate out a featureless 1/ f spectral shape. By analyzing the spectral variance in small junction areas, we have been able to deduce the TLS defect density, n ≈ 2.53 per micrometer squared per Kelvin spread in the TLS energy per factor e in the TLS lifetimes. This density is consistent with the density of tunneling TLSs found in glassy insulators, as well as the density deduced from coherent TLSs interacting at qubit frequencies. The deduced TLS density combined with the magnitude of the 1/f power spectral density in large area junctions, gives an average TLS effective area, A ˜ 0.3 nanometer squared. In ultra small tunnel junctions, we have studied the time-domain dynamics of isolated TLSs. We have found a TLS whose dynamics is described by the quantum tunneling between the two localized wells, and a one-phonon absorption</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28176524"><span>Carrier-Number-Fluctuation Induced Ultralow 1/f <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Top-Gated Graphene Field Effect Transistor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Songang; Jin, Zhi; Zhang, Dayong; Shi, Jingyuan; Mao, Dacheng; Wang, Shaoqing; Yu, Guanghui</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A top-gated graphene FET with an ultralow 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of 1.8 × 10(-12) μm(2)Hz(1-) (f = 10 Hz) has been fabricated. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> has the least value at Dirac point, it then increases fast when the current deviates from that at Dirac point, the <span class="hlt">noise</span> slightly decreases at large current. The phenomenon can be understood by the carrier-number-fluctuation induced low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span>, which caused by the trapping-detrapping processes of the carriers. Further analysis suggests that the effect trap density depends on the location of Fermi <span class="hlt">level</span> in graphene channel. The study has provided guidance for suppressing the 1/f <span class="hlt">noise</span> in graphene-based applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620758','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620758"><span>Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> at <span class="hlt">Levels</span> below Current Air Quality Guidelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-<span class="hlt">level</span> exposure to air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-<span class="hlt">level</span> exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750028731&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750028731&hterms=Air+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAir%2Bpollution"><span>On evaluating compliance with air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> 'not to be exceeded more than once a year'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Under a sampling program operated in conformity with EPA guidelines, calculational procedures are described for estimating the corresponding ambient <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The statistical independence of the data, the commutativity of expectation and exponential operations, and the statistical variability of the calculated results are quantitatively evaluated. It is shown that the recommended sampling frequencies of every third to every sixth day are inadequate in determining conformity when the standards are expressed as <span class="hlt">levels</span> not to be exceeded more than once a year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900494','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4900494"><span>DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced cochlear damage from short-duration music exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buckey, Jay C.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Clavier, Odile H.; Allen, Lindsay V.; Brooks, Chris A.; Norris, Jesse A.; Gui, Jiang; Meinke, Deanna K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides a comprehensive picture of cochlear responses over a range of DP frequencies and f2/f1 ratios. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> sound would show changes detectable by DPOAE mapping, but not apparent on a standard DP-gram. Thirteen normal hearing subjects were studied before and after attending music concerts. Pure-tone audiometry (500-8,000 Hz), DP-grams (0.3-10 kHz) at 1.22 ratio, and DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps were collected prior to, as soon as possible after, and the day after the concerts. All maps covered the range of 2,000-6,000 Hz in DP frequency and from 1.3 to -1.3 in ratio using equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> primary tone stimuli. Changes in the pure-tone audiogram were significant (P ≤ 0.01) immediately after the concert at 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 6,000 Hz. The DP-gram showed significant differences only at f2 = 4,066 (P = 0.01) and f2 = 4,348 (P = 0.04). The postconcert changes were readily apparent both visually and statistically (P ≤ 0.01) on the mean DP <span class="hlt">level</span> maps, and remained statistically significantly different from baseline the day after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure although no significant changes from baseline were seen on the DP-gram or audiogram the day after exposure. Although both the DP-gram and audiogram showed recovery by the next day, the average DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps remained significantly different from baseline. The mapping data showed changes in the cochlea that were not detected from the DP-gram obtained at a single ratio. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides comprehensive information on subtle cochlear responses, which may offer advantages for studying and tracking <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL). PMID:26356368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26356368"><span>DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping for detecting <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced cochlear damage from short-duration music exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckey, Jay C; Fellows, Abigail M; Clavier, Odile H; Allen, Lindsay V; Brooks, Chris A; Norris, Jesse A; Gui, Jiang; Meinke, Deanna K</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides a comprehensive picture of cochlear responses over a range of DP frequencies and f₂/f₁ratios. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to high-<span class="hlt">level</span> sound would show changes detectable by DPOAE mapping, but not apparent on a standard DP-gram. Thirteen normal hearing subjects were studied before and after attending music concerts. Pure-tone audiometry (500-8,000 Hz), DP-grams (0.3-10 kHz) at 1.22 ratio, and DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps were collected prior to, as soon as possible after, and the day after the concerts. All maps covered the range of 2,000-6,000 Hz in DP frequency and from 1.3 to -1.3 in ratio using equi-<span class="hlt">level</span> primary tone stimuli. Changes in the pure-tone audiogram were significant (P ≤ 0.01) immediately after the concert at 1,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, and 6,000 Hz. The DP-gram showed significant differences only at f₂= 4,066 (P = 0.01) and f₂= 4,348 (P = 0.04). The postconcert changes were readily apparent both visually and statistically (P ≤ 0.01) on the mean DP <span class="hlt">level</span> maps, and remained statistically significantly different from baseline the day after <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure although no significant changes from baseline were seen on the DP-gram or audiogram the day after exposure. Although both the DP-gram and audiogram showed recovery by the next day, the average DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> maps remained significantly different from baseline. The mapping data showed changes in the cochlea that were not detected from the DP-gram obtained at a single ratio. DPOAE <span class="hlt">level</span> mapping provides comprehensive information on subtle cochlear responses, which may offer advantages for studying and tracking <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15189073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15189073"><span>Combustion process in a spark ignition engine: dynamics and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaminski, T; Wendeker, M; Urbanowicz, K; Litak, G</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>We analyze the experimental time series of internal pressure in a four cylinder spark ignition engine. In our experiment, performed for different spark advance angles, apart from the usual cyclic changes of engine pressure we observed additional oscillations. These oscillations are with longer time scales ranging from one to several hundred engine cycles depending on engine working conditions. Based on the pressure time dependence we have calculated the heat released per combustion cycle. Using the time series of heat release to calculate the correlation coarse-grained entropy we estimated the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for internal combustion process. Our results show that for a larger spark advance angle the system is more deterministic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ElL....24..643A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ElL....24..643A"><span>Performance of mean-<span class="hlt">level</span> detector in presence of multiple-tone interference plus <span class="hlt">noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Hussaini, E. K.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>Performance of the adaptive mean-<span class="hlt">level</span> constant false alarm rate detector is derived in the presence of multiple-tone interference plus Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Such signals may result from jamming, interference, or multipath propagation. A square-law envelope detector is employed and a single sweep or hit is processed. The target signal envelope fluctuates according to a Rayleigh probability density function. The results show that the probability of a false alarm decreases monotonically with increasing interfering tonal SNR per pulse for one tone. The probability is unaffected when there is an infinite number of tones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26938911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26938911"><span>Improving patients' sleep: reducing light and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> on wards at night.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hewart, Carol; Fethney, Loveday</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>There is much research concerning the psychological and physical effects of sleep deprivation on patients in healthcare systems, yet interrupted sleep on hospital wards at night remains a problem. Staff at Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Devon, wanted to identify the factors that prevent patients from sleeping well at night. Two audits were carried out, between April and August 2015, to assess <span class="hlt">noise</span> and light <span class="hlt">levels</span> on wards at night, and to engage nurses in ways of reducing these. A number of recommendations were made based on the audit findings, many of which have been put into practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18712485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18712485"><span>Indoor air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Levels</span> of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of all <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.2982L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.2982L"><span>Ambient air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and annoyance responses from pregnant women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort</p> <p></p> <p>ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 <span class="hlt">levels</span> were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and 13.1% high annoyance caused by <span class="hlt">noise</span>. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span> depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality <span class="hlt">level</span> (air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>: r=0.53; <span class="hlt">noise</span>: r=0.44) than at the individual <span class="hlt">level</span> (air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and <span class="hlt">noise</span>: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 <span class="hlt">levels</span> and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to <span class="hlt">noise</span> and air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Annoyance caused by environmental <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S71A1052S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S71A1052S"><span>Ambient Seismic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of the Seafloor Borehole Broadband Seismic Observatories in the Northwestern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Araki, E.; Suyehiro, K.; Shiobara, H.; Yamada, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Mikada, H.; Fukao, Y.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>In 2000 and 2001, the seafloor borehole seismological observatories WP-1 and WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific were successfully installed. The WP-1 site is in the west Philippine Basin west of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. The WP-2 observatory is situated on a normal oceanic Mesozoic crust in the northwestern Pacific Basin. Both the observatories fill important observational gaps, since no other land site can replace this site. Each observatory has two identical broadband seismometers (Guralp, CMG-1T), which are cemented, near the bottom of the hole. All the necessary power for the WP-1 is supplied from the Lithium Battery System with a capacity of 5.2 kAh. For the WP-2 observatory, the Sea Water Battery (SWB) System mainly supplies the power to the system. Additional lithium batteries were used as a backup system. Both seismometers are operational, but we are operating only one seismometer for both the observatories to reduce the consuming power of the system. The WP-2 observatory was activated in October 2000 using an ROV KAIKO. In August 2001, the KAIKO re-visited the WP-2 site. From the first observation, we obtained about three-months continuous data (Oct. 29th, 2000 - Jan. 27th, 2001). The KAIKO visited the WP-2 site again in June 2002 and approximately eleven-months continuous data (Aug. 3rd, 2001 - Jun. 29th, 2002) were retrieved for second observation period. The KAIKO also recovered the monitoring data for the SWB system. It was confirmed that the SWB system continued working for almost one year. The observation at the WP-1 was started from March 2002. We now have the preliminary data (about 20 minutes long) from during the ROV dive for the activation. A re-visit of the WP-1 site is planned in October 2002. The long-term variations of broadband seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz) in the northwestern Pacific Basin were revealed. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> above 10 s is stable all the year round. The vertical component of the WP-2 has the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> about -145 db (re: 1 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2377R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ASAJ..112.2377R"><span>Analysis of a <span class="hlt">pollution</span> problem of ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> and bases for a municipality inspection in the center of Talquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Erika; Orozco, Martha; Palafox, Lourdes</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The city of Tlaquepaque is delimited at the north by Guadalajara city, at the west side by Zapopan, at the south side by Tlajomulco and El Salto, and in its east side by Tonala. Our purpose in this study is to create the first <span class="hlt">noise</span> map of Tlaquepaque, being the study area between the streets: Avenida Ninos Heroes, Revolucion, Florida, and Marcos Montero. We take 53 points of which 77.3% are above 65 dBA, the Leq average of the points was 69.7 dBA, having as a minium 44.8 dBA and as a maximum 108.6 dBA. Nowadays Tlaquepaque does not have any <span class="hlt">noise</span> map, so we are trying to identify its more complex areas. The high dB <span class="hlt">levels</span> found in the study show us how high the <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the street is, and this is reflected by several citizen complaints about <span class="hlt">noise</span> received by the municipality. Because of this it is necessary to have an ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> diagnostic program, and do the necessary modifications to the current inspection and monitoring system. The preliminary results of this first <span class="hlt">noise</span> map show a really serious problem with ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> caused by vehicular traffic, bad urbanization, and the existence of commercial centers that raise the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51C2701H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51C2701H"><span>Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background <span class="hlt">noise</span> (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic <span class="hlt">noise</span> associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030004791','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030004791"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> Protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling <span class="hlt">noise</span>, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a <span class="hlt">noise</span> protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for <span class="hlt">noise</span> protection use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11H1253S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H11H1253S"><span>Transfer Function <span class="hlt">Noise</span> (TFN) Modeling of Dynamic Groundwater <span class="hlt">Level</span> Fluctuation using Deseasonalized Rainfall Series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shanmugam, M.; Kumar, G.; Narasimhan, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A study to examine the effect of rainfall variable on groundwater <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation was analyzed using transfer function <span class="hlt">noise</span> (TFN) models for five representative wells from the study area of Adyar basin located in the north-east coastal part of Tamil Nadu, India. Five representative wells out of 43 were chosen based on maximum coefficient of determination (R2) value by simple linear regression analysis where rainfall and water <span class="hlt">level</span> rise time series were used as independent and dependent variables respectively. An alternative method of zone wise Thiessen rainfall (ZTR), where the zones were separated by Thiessen method and the wells contained in the zones were regressed upon that particular zone station rainfall values with 100% weightage, was giving maximum R2 value compared to other traditional ways of estimating areal average rainfall methods such as simple arithmetic average (SAA) and Thiessen polygon (TP) methods. Water <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation was further modeled using TFN modeling approach in which missing rainfall was filled using normal ratio (NR) method as it was giving maximum R2 value compared to simple station average (SSA) and inverse distance (ID) methods. A deseasonalized transfer function <span class="hlt">noise</span> modeling (DS-TFN) approach has been adopted in the study which minimizes the number of numerator and denominator polynomial parameters and assures an improved method of forecasting groundwater <span class="hlt">level</span> fluctuation in terms of maximum R2 and minimum root mean square error (RMSE) values compared to other traditional TFN models such as ARIMAX and SARIMAX. Before identifying suitable TFN model structure for input-output data, the data was analyzed for seasonality. Since both rainfall series and selected water <span class="hlt">level</span> data show the seasonality behavior, it was adjusted with deseasonalizing process. Deseasonalizing process was carried out after detrending the data with 13-term moving average process and estimating seasonal component from the detrended series using seasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206896"><span>Variability in ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and call parameters of North Atlantic right whales in three habitat areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parks, Susan E; Urazghildiiev, Ildar; Clark, Christopher W</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The North Atlantic right whale inhabits the coastal waters off the east coasts of the United States and Canada, areas characterized by high <span class="hlt">levels</span> of shipping and fishing activities. Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of these whales and increases in low-frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> may be leading to changes in their calling behavior. This study characterizes the ambient <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, including both natural and anthropogenic sources, and right whale upcall parameters in three right whale habitat areas. Continuous recordings were made seasonally using autonomous bottom-mounted recorders in the Bay of Fundy, Canada (2004, 2005), Cape Cod Bay, (2005, 2006), and off the coast of Georgia (2004-2005, 2006-2007). Consistent interannual trends in <span class="hlt">noise</span> parameters were found for each habitat area, with both the band <span class="hlt">level</span> and spectrum <span class="hlt">level</span> measurements higher in the Bay of Fundy than in the other areas. Measured call parameters varied between habitats and between years within the same habitat area, indicating that habitat area and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> alone are not sufficient to predict variability in call parameters. These results suggest that right whales may be responding to the peak frequency of <span class="hlt">noise</span>, rather than the absolute <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in their environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031365','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000031365"><span>Piloted Simulation Study of a Dual Thrust-Cutback Procedure for Reducing High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Riley, Donald R.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A piloted simulation study was performed for the purpose of indicating the <span class="hlt">noise</span> reduction benefits and piloting performance that could occur for a typical 4-engine high-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration during takeoff when a dual thrust-cutback procedure was employed with throttle operation under direct computer control. Two thrust cutbacks were employed with the first cutback performed while the vehicle was accelerating on the run-way and the second cutback performed at a distance farther downrange. Added vehicle performance improvements included the incorporation of high-lift increments into the aerodynamic database of the vehicle and the use of limited engine oversizing. Four single-stream turbine bypass engines that had no <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression of any kind were used with this configuration. This approach permitted establishing the additional <span class="hlt">noise</span> suppression <span class="hlt">level</span> that was needed to meet Federal Air Regulation Part 36 Stage 3 <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> for subsonic commercial jet aircraft. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> results were calculated with the jet mixing and shock <span class="hlt">noise</span> modules of the Aircraft <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Prediction Program (ANOPP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1221049"><span>Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on <span class="hlt">Pollutant</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in California Homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than <span class="hlt">levels</span> measured outdoors, at <span class="hlt">levels</span> of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 <span class="hlt">levels</span> that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO <span class="hlt">level</span> measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde <span class="hlt">levels</span> indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure <span class="hlt">Level</span> set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20673958"><span>Decrease in the abundance and viability of oceanic phytoplankton due to trace <span class="hlt">levels</span> of complex mixtures of organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Echeveste, Pedro; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Long range atmospheric transport and deposition is a significant introduction pathway of organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> to remote oceanic regions, leading to their subsequent accumulation in marine organisms. Persistent organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> (POPs) bioconcentrate in planktonic food webs and these exert a biogeochemical control on the regional and global cycling of POPs. Therefore, an important issue is to determine whether the anthropogenic chemical perturbation of the biosphere introduced by the myriad of organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> present in seawater influences phytoplankton abundance and productivity. The results reported here from five sets of experiments performed in the NE Atlantic Ocean show that there is a toxic effect induced by trace <span class="hlt">levels</span> of complex mixtures of organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> on phytoplankton oceanic communities. The <span class="hlt">levels</span> of single <span class="hlt">pollutant</span>, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, at which lethality of phytoplankton is observed are high in comparison to field <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Complex mixtures of organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, however, have an important toxic effect on phytoplankton abundances, viability and concentrations of Chlorophyll a at <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations 20-40 folds those found in the open ocean. The toxicity of these complex mixtures of organic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> exceeds by 10(3) times the toxicity expected for a single <span class="hlt">pollutant</span>. Therefore, our results point out the need for a systematic investigation of the influence of complex mixtures of organic hydrophobic <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> to oceanic phytoplankton communities, a perturbation not accounted for on previous assessments of anthropogenic pressures in the marine environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21830066"><span>An air quality balance index estimating the total amount of air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> at ground <span class="hlt">level</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trivero, Paolo; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; Musa, Maya; Rinaudo, Caterina; Sesia, Veronica</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A new index named Air Quality Balance Index (AQBI), which is able to characterise the amount of <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> in a selected area, is proposed. This index is a function of the ratios between <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentration values and their standards; it aims at identifying all situations in which there is a possible environmental risk even when several <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> are below their limit values but air quality is reduced. AQBI is evaluated by using a high-resolution three-dimensional dispersion model: the air concentration for each substance is computed starting from detailed emissions sources: point, line and area emissions hourly modulated. This model is driven with accurate meteorological data from ground stations and remote sensing systems providing vertical profiles of temperature and wind; these data are integrated with wind and temperature profiles at higher altitudes obtained by a Local Area Model. The outputs of the dispersion model are compared with <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> concentrations provided by measuring stations, in order to recalibrate emission data. A three-dimensional high resolution grid of AQBI data is evaluated for an industrial area close to Alessandria (Northern Italy), assessing air quality and environmental conditions. Performance of AQBI is compared with the Air Quality Index (AQI) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. AQBI, computed taking into account all <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, is able to point out situations not evidenced by AQI, based on a preset limited number of substances; therefore, AQBI is a good tool for evaluating the air quality either in urban and in industrial areas. The AQBI values at ground <span class="hlt">level</span>, in selected points, are in agreement with in situ observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25504115"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> monitoring and adverse health effects in residents in different functional areas of Luzhou, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Zhi-Xia; Lei, Zhang-Heng; Zhang, Chun-Lian; Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong-Lin; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Qing-Bi</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> situation and the resulting adverse effect on residents' health in Luzhou, China, to provide data for <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> prevention policies and interventions. Four different functional areas (commercial, construction, residential, and transportation hub areas) were chosen to monitor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> for 3 months. The survey was performed by questionnaire on the spot on randomly selected individuals; it collected data on the impact of <span class="hlt">noise</span> on residents' health (quality of sleep, high blood pressure, subjective feeling of nervous system damage, and attention) as well as the knowledge of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced health damage, the degree of adaptation to <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and their solutions. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> of residential, commercial, transportation, and construction areas exceeded the national standards (P < .001). Sleep quality, prevalence of hypertension, and attention in transportation hub areas were significantly different from those in the other 3 areas (P < .05); only 24.46% of people knew the health hazards associated with <span class="hlt">noise</span>; 64.57% of residents have adapted to the current <span class="hlt">noise</span> environment. Most of them have to close the doors and windows to reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> situation in Luzhou, China, is serious, especially the traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. Residents pay less attention to it and adopt single measures to reduce the <span class="hlt">noise</span>. We should work toward the prevention and control of traffic <span class="hlt">noise</span> and improve the residents' awareness to reduce the adverse health effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118880','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3118880"><span>Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> in a Turkish City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different <span class="hlt">pollution</span> characteristics were chosen based on the <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone <span class="hlt">levels</span> were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NaPho..10..406L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NaPho..10..406L"><span>Efficient and low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> single-photon-<span class="hlt">level</span> frequency conversion interfaces using silicon nanophotonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qing; Davanço, Marcelo; Srinivasan, Kartik</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Optical frequency conversion has applications ranging from tunable light sources to telecommunications-band interfaces for quantum information science. Here, we demonstrate efficient, low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> frequency conversion on a nanophotonic chip through four-wave-mixing Bragg scattering in compact (footprint <0.5 × 10-4 cm2) Si3N4 microring resonators. We investigate three frequency conversion configurations: spectral translation over a few nanometres within the 980 nm band; upconversion from 1,550 nm to 980 nm and downconversion from 980 nm to 1,550 nm. With conversion efficiencies ranging from 25% for the first process to >60% for the last two processes, a signal conversion bandwidth of >1 GHz, a required continuous-wave pump power of <60 mW and background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> between a few femtowatts and a few picowatts, these devices are suitable for quantum frequency conversion of single-photon states from InAs/GaAs quantum dots. Simulations based on coupled mode equations and the Lugiato-Lefever equation are used to model device performance, and show quantitative agreement with measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3384249"><span>Mathematical explanation of the predictive power of the X-<span class="hlt">level</span> approach reaction <span class="hlt">noise</span> estimator method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The X-<span class="hlt">level</span> Approach Reaction <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Estimator (XARNES) method has been developed previously to study reaction <span class="hlt">noise</span> in well mixed reaction volumes. The method is a typical moment closure method and it works by closing the infinite hierarchy of equations that describe moments of the particle number distribution function. This is done by using correlation forms which describe correlation effects in a strict mathematical way. The variable X is used to specify which correlation effects (forms) are included in the description. Previously, it was argued, in a rather informal way, that the method should work well in situations where the particle number distribution function is Poisson-like. Numerical tests confirmed this. It was shown that the predictive power of the method increases, i.e. the agreement between the theory and simulations improves, if X is increased. In here, these features of the method are explained by using rigorous mathematical reasoning. Three derivative matching theoremsare proven which show that the observed numerical behavior is generic to the method. PMID:22500492</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2939612','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2939612"><span>A Dynamic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Level</span> Algorithm for Spectral Screening of Peptide MS/MS Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background High-throughput shotgun proteomics data contain a significant number of spectra from non-peptide ions or spectra of too poor quality to obtain highly confident peptide identifications. These spectra cannot be identified with any positive peptide matches in some database search programs or are identified with false positives in others. Removing these spectra can improve the database search results and lower computational expense. Results A new algorithm has been developed to filter tandem mass spectra of poor quality from shotgun proteomic experiments. The algorithm determines the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> dynamically and independently for each spectrum in a tandem mass spectrometric data set. Spectra are filtered based on a minimum number of required signal peaks with a signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio of 2. The algorithm was tested with 23 sample data sets containing 62,117 total spectra. Conclusions The spectral screening removed 89.0% of the tandem mass spectra that did not yield a peptide match when searched with the MassMatrix database search software. Only 6.0% of tandem mass spectra that yielded peptide matches considered to be true positive matches were lost after spectral screening. The algorithm was found to be very effective at removal of unidentified spectra in other database search programs including Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem (75.93%-91.00%) with a small loss (3.59%-9.40%) of true positive matches. PMID:20731867</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solution+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ074464','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=solution+AND+pollution&pg=3&id=EJ074464"><span>Propagation of Environmental <span class="hlt">Noise</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lyon, R. H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Solutions for environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> lie in systematic study of many basic processes such as reflection, scattering, and spreading. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> propagation processes should be identified in different situations and assessed for their relative importance. (PS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.3563M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.3563M"><span>Finding candidate locations for aerosol <span class="hlt">pollution</span> monitoring at street <span class="hlt">level</span> using a data-driven methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moosavi, V.; Aschwanden, G.; Velasco, E.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Finding the number and best locations of fixed air quality monitoring stations at street <span class="hlt">level</span> is challenging because of the complexity of the urban environment and the large number of factors affecting the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> concentration. Data sets of such urban parameters as land use, building morphology and street geometry in high-resolution grid cells in combination with direct measurements of airborne <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> at high frequency (1-10 s) along a reasonable number of streets can be used to interpolate concentration of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in a whole gridded domain and determine the optimum number of monitoring sites and best locations for a network of fixed monitors at ground <span class="hlt">level</span>. In this context, a data-driven modeling methodology is developed based on the application of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to approximate the nonlinear relations between urban parameters (80 in this work) and aerosol <span class="hlt">pollution</span> data, such as mass and number concentrations measured along streets of a commercial/residential neighborhood of Singapore. Cross-validations between measured and predicted aerosol concentrations based on the urban parameters at each individual grid cell showed satisfying results. This proof of concept study showed that the selected urban parameters proved to be an appropriate indirect measure of aerosol concentrations within the studied area. The potential locations for fixed air quality monitors are identified through clustering of areas (i.e., group of cells) with similar urban patterns. The typological center of each cluster corresponds to the most representative cell for all other cells in the cluster. In the studied neighborhood four different clusters were identified and for each cluster potential sites for air quality monitoring at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> are identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.3321M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMTD....8.3321M"><span>Finding candidate locations for aerosol <span class="hlt">pollution</span> monitoring at street <span class="hlt">level</span> using a data-driven methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moosavi, V.; Aschwanden, G.; Velasco, E.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Finding the number and significant locations of fixed air quality monitoring stations at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> is challenging because of the complexity of the urban environment and the large number of factors affecting the <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> concentration. Datasets of urban parameters such as land use, building morphology and street geometry in high resolution grid cells in combination with direct measurements of airborne <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in high frequency (1-10 s) along a reasonable number of streets can be used to interpolate concentration of <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in a whole gridded domain and determine the optimum number of monitoring sites and best locations for a network of fixed monitors at ground <span class="hlt">level</span>. In this context, a data-driven modeling methodology is developed based on the application of Self Organizing Map (SOM) to approximate the nonlinear relations between urban parameters (80 in this work) and aerosol <span class="hlt">pollution</span> data, such as mass and number concentrations measured along streets of a commercial/residential neighborhood of Singapore. Cross-validations between measured and predicted aerosol concentrations based on the urban parameters at each individual grid cell showed satisfying results. The urban parameters used in this case proved to be an appropriate indirect measure of aerosol concentrations within the studied area. The potential locations for fixed air quality monitors are identified through clustering of areas (i.e. group of cells) with similar urban patterns. The typological center of each cluster corresponds to the most representative cell for all other cells in the cluster. In the studied neighborhood four different clusters were identified and for each cluster potential sites for air quality monitoring at ground <span class="hlt">level</span> are identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5226700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5226700"><span>Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low <span class="hlt">Levels</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p> further control efforts. Citation: Schwartz J, Bind MA, Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> on daily deaths: effect of low <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Environ Health Perspect 125:23–29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232 PMID:27203595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5010391"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure on Systemic and Tissue-<span class="hlt">Level</span> Markers of Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lijie; Wang, Fanfan; Lu, Haiying; Cao, Shuangfeng; Du, Ziwei; Wang, Yongfang; Feng, Xian; Gao, Ye; Zha, Mingming; Guo, Min; Sun, Zilin; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Epidemiological studies have indicated that <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the nature of the connection between <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and T2DM remains to be explored. Objectives: We explored whether and how <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure affects glucose homeostasis in mice as the initial step toward T2DM development. Methods: Male ICR mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the control group and three <span class="hlt">noise</span> groups (N20D, N10D, and N1D), in which the animals were exposed to white <span class="hlt">noise</span> at 95 decibel sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (dB SPL) for 4 hr per day for 20 successive days, 10 successive days, or 1 day, respectively. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the final <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure (1DPN, 1WPN, and 1MPN). Standard immunoblots, immunohistochemical methods, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to assess insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, the morphology of β cells, and plasma corticosterone <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Results: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure for 1 day caused transient glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure for 10 and 20 days had no effect on glucose tolerance but did cause prolonged insulin resistance and an increased insulin response to glucose challenge. Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in response to exogenous insulin were decreased in the skeletal muscle of <span class="hlt">noise</span>-exposed animals. Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure at 95 dB SPL caused insulin resistance in male ICR mice, which was prolonged with longer <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and was likely related to the observed blunted insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Citation: Liu L, Wang F, Lu H, Cao S, Du Z, Wang Y, Feng X, Gao Y, Zha M, Guo M, Sun Z, Wang J. 2016. Effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure on systemic and tissue-<span class="hlt">level</span> markers of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in male mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1390–1398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP162 PMID:27128844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEI....25a3029X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEI....25a3029X"><span>Quality-aware features-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimator for block matching and three-dimensional filtering algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Shaoping; Hu, Lingyan; Yang, Xiaohui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The performance of conventional denoising algorithms is usually controlled by one or several parameters whose optimal settings depend on the contents of the processed images and the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">noises</span>. Among these parameters, <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is a fundamental parameter that is always assumed to be known by most of the existing denoising algorithms (so-called nonblind denoising algorithms), which largely limits the applicability of these nonblind denoising algorithms in many applications. Moreover, these nonblind algorithms do not always achieve the best denoised images in visual quality even when fed with the actual <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter. To address these shortcomings, in this paper we propose a new quality-aware features-based <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> estimator (NLE), which consists of quality-aware features extraction and optimal <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter prediction. First, considering that image local contrast features convey important structural information that is closely related to image perceptual quality, we utilize the marginal statistics of two local contrast operators, i.e., the gradient magnitude and the Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), to extract quality-aware features. The proposed quality-aware features have very low computational complexity, making them well suited for time-constrained applications. Then we propose a learning-based framework where the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter is estimated based on the quality-aware features. Based on the proposed NLE, we develop a blind block matching and three-dimensional filtering (BBM3D) denoising algorithm which is capable of effectively removing additive white Gaussian <span class="hlt">noise</span>, even coupled with impulse <span class="hlt">noise</span>. The <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> parameter of the BBM3D algorithm is automatically tuned according to the quality-aware features, guaranteeing the best performance. As such, the classical block matching and three-dimensional algorithm can be transformed into a blind one in an unsupervised manner. Experimental results demonstrate that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960784"><span>Comparison of staff and family perceptions of causes of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and suggested intervention strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaur, Harsheen; Rohlik, Gina M; Nemergut, Michael E; Tripathi, Sandeep</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> and excessive, unwanted sound in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) is common and has a major impact on patients' sleep and recovery. Previous research has focused mostly on absolute <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> or included only staff as respondents to acknowledge the causes of <span class="hlt">noise</span> and to plan for its reduction. Thus far, the suggested interventions have not ameliorated <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and it continues to serve as a barrier to recovery. In addition to surveying PICU providers through internet-based software, patients' families were evaluated through in-person interviews utilizing a pretested instrument over 3 months. Families of patients admitted for more than 24 h were considered eligible for evaluation. Participants were asked to rank causes of <span class="hlt">noise</span> from 1 to 8, with eight being highest, and identified potential interventions as effective or ineffective. In total, 50 families from 251 admissions and 65 staff completed the survey. Medical alarms were rated highest (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 4.9 ± 2.1 [2.8-7.0]), followed by <span class="hlt">noise</span> from medical equipment (mean ± SD, 4.7 ± 2.1 [2.5-6.8]). This response was consistent among PICU providers and families. Suggested interventions to reduce <span class="hlt">noise</span> included keeping a patient's room door closed, considered effective by 93% of respondents (98% of staff; 88% of families), and designated quiet times, considered effective by 82% (80% of staff; 84% of families). Keeping the patient's door closed was the most effective strategy among survey respondents. Most families and staff considered medical alarms an important contributor to <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. Because decreasing the volume of alarms such that it cannot be heard is inappropriate, alternative strategies to alert staff of changes in vital signs should be explored.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5227017"><span>Arterial Indices and Serum Cystatin C <span class="hlt">Level</span> in Individuals With Occupational Wide Band <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khoshdel, Ali R.; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Chronic exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span> is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band <span class="hlt">noise</span> (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 <span class="hlt">level</span>. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C <span class="hlt">level</span> was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups. Conclusion: We could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4109949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4109949"><span>Increased <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Have Different Impacts on the Anti-Predator Behaviour of Two Sympatric Fish Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Voellmy, Irene K.; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic) factors can influence predator−prey relationships. Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional <span class="hlt">noise</span> (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour), compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship <span class="hlt">noise</span>), affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, and to determine survival and population consequences. PMID:25058618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058618"><span>Increased <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> have different impacts on the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic) factors can influence predator-prey relationships. Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">noise</span> has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional <span class="hlt">noise</span> (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour), compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship <span class="hlt">noise</span>), affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-<span class="hlt">noise</span> playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world <span class="hlt">noise</span> sources, and to determine survival and population consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A31H..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A31H..01L"><span>Using Mobile Monitoring to Assess Spatial Variability in Urban Air <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span>: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larson, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Measuring air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> concentrations from a moving platform is not a new idea. Historically, however, most information on the spatial variability of air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> have been derived from fixed site networks operating simultaneously over space. While this approach has obvious advantages from a regulatory perspective, with the increasing need to understand ever finer scales of spatial variability in urban <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, the use of mobile monitoring to supplement fixed site networks has received increasing attention. Here we present examples of the use of this approach: 1) to assess existing fixed-site fine particle networks in Seattle, WA, including the establishment of new fixed-site monitoring locations; 2) to assess the effectiveness of a regulatory intervention, a wood stove burning ban, on the reduction of fine particle <span class="hlt">levels</span> in the greater Puget Sound region; and 3) to assess spatial variability of both wood smoke and mobile source impacts in both Vancouver, B.C. and Tacoma, WA. Deducing spatial information from the inherently spatio-temporal measurements taken from a mobile platform is an area that deserves further attention. We discuss the use of “fuzzy” points to address the fine-scale spatio-temporal variability in the concentration of mobile source <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, specifically to deduce the broader distribution and sources of fine particle soot in the summer in Vancouver, B.C. We also discuss the use of principal component analysis to assess the spatial variability in multivariate, source-related features deduced from simultaneous measurements of light scattering, light absorption and particle-bound PAHs in Tacoma, WA. With increasing miniaturization and decreasing power requirements of air monitoring instruments, the number of simultaneous measurements that can easily be made from a mobile platform is rapidly increasing. Hopefully the methods used to design mobile monitoring experiments for differing purposes, and the methods used to interpret those</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8180434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8180434"><span>Preferred real-ear insertion gain on a commercial hearing aid at different speech and <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuk, F K; Harper, T; Doubek, K</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>In the present study, we measured preferred real-ear insertion gain (REIG) under different <span class="hlt">levels</span> of speech and <span class="hlt">noise</span> to assess whether current automatic gain control (AGC) and automatic signal processing (ASP) hearing aids are operating optimally. Preferred REIG for optimal speech clarity was determined under seven speech and <span class="hlt">noise</span> conditions. In four conditions, speech (discourse passages) was varied from 55 dB SPL to 85 dB SPL in 10-dB steps at a fixed signal-to-<span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio (S/N) of +5. In the remaining conditions, speech was fixed at 65 dB SPL while the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> was varied in 5-dB steps to yield S/Ns from +10 to -5. The results showed that subjects selected less gain as speech or <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were increased. In general, less overall gain was selected as speech <span class="hlt">level</span> was increased, and less overall gain, especially in the low-frequency region, was selected as the S/N ratio became progressively poorer. These results are discussed in relation to how hearing aids with adaptive frequency/gain responses should respond to varying input <span class="hlt">levels</span> to achieve optimal clarity of speech.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000101661','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000101661"><span>Current Background <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Sources and <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: A Status Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen; Soderman, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">noise</span> measurements were made of the acoustic environment in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements were acquired subsequent to the 40x80 Aeroacoustic Modernization Project, which was undertaken to improve the anechoic characteristics of the 40x80's closed test section as well as reduce the <span class="hlt">levels</span> of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the facility. The resulting 40x80 anechoic environment was described by Soderman et. al., and the current paper describes the resulting 40x80 background <span class="hlt">noise</span>, discusses the sources of the <span class="hlt">noise</span>, and draws comparisons to previous 40x80 background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> measurements. At low wind speeds or low frequencies, the 40x80 background <span class="hlt">noise</span> is dominated by the fan drive system. To obtain the lowest fan drive <span class="hlt">noise</span> for a given tunnel condition, it is possible in the 40x80 to reduce the fans' rotational speed and adjust the fans' blade pitch, as described by Schmidtz et. al. This idea is not new, but has now been operationally implemented with modifications for increased power at low rotational speeds. At low to mid-frequencies and at higher wind speeds, the dominant <span class="hlt">noise</span> mechanism was thought to be caused by the surface interface of the previous test section floor acoustic lining. In order to reduce this <span class="hlt">noise</span> mechanism, the new test section floor lining was designed to resist the pumping of flow in and out of the space between the grating slats required to support heavy equipment. In addition, the lining/flow interface over the entire test section was designed to be smoother and quieter than the previous design. At high wind speeds or high frequencies, the dominant source of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> in the 40x80 is believed to be caused by the response of the in-flow microphone probes (required by the nature of the closed test section) to the fluctuations in the freestream flow. The resulting background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> are also different for probes of various</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2015B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2015B"><span>Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> concentration <span class="hlt">level</span> in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bekhet, <author >Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin, <author</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> are showing value less than 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1690b0004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1690b0004B"><span>On the use of non-Gaussian models for prediction of extreme <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in environmental studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berg, D. B.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Taubayev, A. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this work is to study the distribution of contamination at the territory on the data of snow samples analysis, in order to find an approach to forecasting of the extreme <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>. The hypothesis of normal distribution of the values of <span class="hlt">pollution</span> index (the intensity of dust fallout on the territory, mg /m2/day) is not confirmed on the results of statistical analysis of the data for six different experimental sites (from 81 to 256 values of the index for each site). For the set of 243 values of the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> index at the territory of a city, there is made an attempt of forecast of its possible extreme values not detected on the results of the snow sampling. For this, the linear dependence "<span class="hlt">pollution</span> index - the number of points with the given <span class="hlt">pollution</span> index" built in double logarithmic coordinates, is extrapolated into the area of high values of the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&pg=6&id=EJ811675','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=noise+AND+environment&pg=6&id=EJ811675"><span>Sound Pressure <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Measured in a University Concert Band: A Risk of <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-Induced Hearing Loss?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holland, Nicholas V., III</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have reported public school band directors as experiencing <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss. Little research has focused on collegiate band directors and university student musicians. The present study measures the sound pressure <span class="hlt">levels</span> generated within a university concert band and compares sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> with the criteria set by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5369M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5369M"><span>Improvement of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the Split Langmuir Probe - a spatial current density meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marusenkov, Andriy; Dudkin, Fedor; Shuvalov, Valentyn</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> laboratory test bench as well as in the plasma-dynamic vacuum chamber. These test show that the sensor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> is decreased approximately 3-5 times. This study was supported by the SSAU contract # 1550.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6161073','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6161073"><span>Reducing environmental <span class="hlt">noise</span> impacts: A USAREUR <span class="hlt">noise</span>-management program handbook. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. <span class="hlt">Noise</span>-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a <span class="hlt">noise</span> management program. A successful <span class="hlt">noise</span> management program will limit the impact of unavoidable <span class="hlt">noise</span> on the populace. This report, a component of the <span class="hlt">noise</span> management program, is a reference document for <span class="hlt">noise</span> management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for <span class="hlt">noise</span> management. This document contains procedures which operation and training <span class="hlt">level</span> personnel can understand and apply in their day to day <span class="hlt">noise</span> management planning. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding <span class="hlt">noise</span> mitigation is provided along with <span class="hlt">noise</span> management through land use planning. <span class="hlt">Noise</span> management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of <span class="hlt">noise</span> generated, means of <span class="hlt">noise</span> abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51A2281E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51A2281E"><span>Ambient seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>: A survey of the permanent and temporary seismographic networks in Morocco, North Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Fellah, Y.; Khairy Abd Ed-Aal, A.; El Moudnib, L.; Mimoun, H.; Villasenor, A.; Gallart, J.; Thomas, C.; Elouai, D.; Mimoun, C.; Himmi, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Abstract The results, of a conducted study carried out to analyze variations in ambient seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at sites of the installed broadband stations in Morocco, North Africa, are obtained. The permanent and the temporary seismic stations installed in Morocco of the Scientific Institute ( IS, Rabat, Morocco), institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera (ICTJA, Barcelona, Spain) and Institut für Geophysik (Munster, Germany) were used in this study. In this work, we used 23 broadband seismic stations installed in different structural domains covering all Morocco from south to north. The main purposes of the current study are: 1) to present a catalog of seismic background <span class="hlt">noise</span> spectra for Morocco obtained from recently installed broadband stations, 2) to assess the effects of experimental temporary seismic vault construction, 3) to determine the time needed for <span class="hlt">noise</span> at sites to stabilize, 4) to establish characteristics and origin of seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> at those sites. We calculated power spectral densities of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites and then compared them with the high-<span class="hlt">noise</span> model and low-<span class="hlt">noise</span> Model of Peterson (1993). All segments from day and night local time windows were included in the calculation without parsing out earthquakes. The obtained results of the current study could be used forthcoming to evaluate permanent station quality. Moreover, this study could be considered as a first step to develop new seismic <span class="hlt">noise</span> models in North Africa not included in Peterson (1993). Keywords Background <span class="hlt">noise</span>; Power spectral density; Model of Peterson; Scientific Institute; Institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera; Institut für Geophysik</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24606254"><span>Long term estimations of low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> over water from an off-shore wind farm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolin, Karl; Almgren, Martin; Ohlsson, Esbjörn; Karasalo, Ilkka</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This article focuses on computations of low frequency sound propagation from an off-shore wind farm. Two different methods for sound propagation calculations are combined with meteorological data for every 3 hours in the year 2010 to examine the varying <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at a reception point at 13 km distance. It is shown that sound propagation conditions play a vital role in the <span class="hlt">noise</span> impact from the off-shore wind farm and ordinary assessment methods can become inaccurate at longer propagation distances over water. Therefore, this paper suggests that methodologies to calculate <span class="hlt">noise</span> immission with realistic sound speed profiles need to be combined with meteorological data over extended time periods to evaluate the impact of low frequency <span class="hlt">noise</span> from modern off-shore wind farms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16227076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16227076"><span>Diffuse and point <span class="hlt">pollution</span> impacts on the pathogen indicator organism <span class="hlt">level</span> in the Geum River, Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Geonha; Choi, Euiso; Lee, Dongryul</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The pathogens originating from diffuse <span class="hlt">pollution</span> have raised much concern recently. In many countries, pathogen <span class="hlt">levels</span> are monitored in surface water by measuring the pathogen indicator organism <span class="hlt">level</span>, which indicates the concentration of pathogen associated microorganisms to determine contamination. Among indicator organisms, total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were selected for study, and their concentration as well as their flow rate were monitored at monitoring stations from October, 2001 to April, 2003. Monitoring stations include six sampling stations in the Geum River, two small watersheds used for forestry and agricultural land, one large wastewater treatment plant, one separate sewer overflow site, and one separate sewer overflow site in the Geum River basin. The coliform concentration of the combined sewer overflow was the highest, followed by the runoff from agricultural land use, the separate sewer overflow, and the runoff from forestry land use. The Pearson correlation coefficient for flow rate against total coliform concentration was 0.71 and was significant at 0.01 <span class="hlt">level</span>, while the Pearson coefficient for other water quality constituents showed weak correlation (-0.36 to +0.37) against flow rate. Coliform concentration showed higher correlation against suspended solid concentration or flow rate during storm flow condition than during low flow condition. Two different relationship lines could explain the relationships between the flow rate and coliform loadings. Load duration curve technique was presented to assess the relative contributions of diffuse and point source <span class="hlt">pollution</span> to the pathogen <span class="hlt">level</span> at monitoring sites in the Geum River.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108967','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4108967"><span>Using community <span class="hlt">level</span> strategies to reduce asthma attacks triggered by outdoor air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>: a case crossover analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> exposure is important to effectively attribute risk for triggering of an asthma attack, especially as concentrations increase. Improved asthma action plans for Houston individuals should warn of these <span class="hlt">pollutants</span>, their trends, correlation and cumulative effects. Our Houston based study identifies nitrogen dioxide <span class="hlt">levels</span> and the three-day exposure to ozone to be of concern whereas current single <span class="hlt">pollutant</span> based national standards do not. PMID:25012280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440220"><span>Global Gray Water Footprint and Water <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y</p> <p>2015-11-03</p> <p>This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in river basins with a specification of the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859870"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> during the showing of 25 films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The harmful effects of <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound <span class="hlt">levels</span> of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20609135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20609135"><span>Exposure to air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in critical prenatal time windows and IgE <span class="hlt">levels</span> in newborns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) <span class="hlt">levels</span> and maternal air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE <span class="hlt">levels</span> by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (≥0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064894','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4064894"><span>Acoustic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> of Dental Equipments and Its Association with Fear and Annoyance <span class="hlt">Levels</span> among Patients Attending Different Dental Clinic Setups in Jaipur, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Atri, Mansi; Singh, Kushpal; Sidiq, Mohsin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: <span class="hlt">Noise</span> is a source of pervasive occupational hazard for practicing dentists and the patients. The sources of dental sounds by various dental equipments can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system and add to the annoyance <span class="hlt">levels</span> of the patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> from various equipments and evaluate the effect of acoustic <span class="hlt">noise</span> stimulus on dental fear and annoyance <span class="hlt">levels</span> among patients attending different dental clinic setups in Jaipur, India. Methodology: The sampling frame comprised of 180 patients, which included 90 patients attending 10 different private clinics and 90 patients attending a Dental College in Jaipur. The <span class="hlt">levels</span> of Acoustic <span class="hlt">Noise</span> Stimulus originating from different equipments were determined using a precision sound <span class="hlt">level</span> meter/decibulometer. Dental fear among patients was measured using Dental Fear Scale (DFS). Results: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test and unpaired t-test. The mean background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> were found to be maximum in the pre-clinical setup/ laboratory areas (69.23+2.20). Females and the patients attending dental college setup encountered more fear on seeing the drill as compared to the patients attending private clinics (p<0.001). Conclusion: The sources of dental sounds can pose as a potential hazard to hearing system. It was analyzed that the environment in the clinics can directly have an effect on the fear and annoyance <span class="hlt">levels</span> of patients. Hence it is necessary control the <span class="hlt">noise</span> from various dental equipments to reduce the fear of patients from visiting a dental clinic. PMID:24959512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029915"><span>Assessment of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> tolerance <span class="hlt">levels</span> of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance <span class="hlt">levels</span> by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 <span class="hlt">level</span> of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high <span class="hlt">pollution</span> exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance <span class="hlt">levels</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19936799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19936799"><span>Temperature, comfort and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as <span class="hlt">pollution</span> data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 <span class="hlt">levels</span>. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort <span class="hlt">levels</span> are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911605"><span>Feedback damping of a microcantilever at room temperature to the minimum vibration amplitude limited by the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kawamura, Y.; Kanegae, R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cooling the vibration amplitude of a microcantilever as low as possible is important to improve the sensitivity and resolutions of various types of scanning type microscopes and sensors making use of it. When the vibration amplitude is controlled to be smaller using a feed back control system, it is known that the obtainable minimum amplitude of the vibration is limited by the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the detection system. In this study, we demonstrated that the amplitude of the thermal vibration of a microcantilever was suppressed to be about 0.15 pmHz−1/2, which is the same value with the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, without the assistance of external cryogenic cooling. We think that one of the reason why we could reach the smaller amplitude at room temperature is due to stiffer spring constant of the lever, which leads to higher natural frequency and consequently lower floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The other reason is considered to be due to the increase in the laser power for the diagnostics, which lead to the decrease in the signal to <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio determined by the optical shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>. PMID:27312284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627843K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627843K"><span>Feedback damping of a microcantilever at room temperature to the minimum vibration amplitude limited by the <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawamura, Y.; Kanegae, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Cooling the vibration amplitude of a microcantilever as low as possible is important to improve the sensitivity and resolutions of various types of scanning type microscopes and sensors making use of it. When the vibration amplitude is controlled to be smaller using a feed back control system, it is known that the obtainable minimum amplitude of the vibration is limited by the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> of the detection system. In this study, we demonstrated that the amplitude of the thermal vibration of a microcantilever was suppressed to be about 0.15 pmHz‑1/2, which is the same value with the floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, without the assistance of external cryogenic cooling. We think that one of the reason why we could reach the smaller amplitude at room temperature is due to stiffer spring constant of the lever, which leads to higher natural frequency and consequently lower floor <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>. The other reason is considered to be due to the increase in the laser power for the diagnostics, which lead to the decrease in the signal to <span class="hlt">noise</span> ratio determined by the optical shot <span class="hlt">noise</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760019862','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760019862"><span><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft during 3 deg approaches and <span class="hlt">level</span> flyovers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Noise</span> measurements have been made with a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft making 3 deg approaches and <span class="hlt">level</span> flyovers. The flight-test data showed that, in the standard 3 deg approach configuration with 40 deg flaps, effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> (EPNL) had a value of 109.5 effective perceived <span class="hlt">noise</span> decibels (EPNdB). This result was in agreement with unpublished data obtained with the same type of aircraft during <span class="hlt">noise</span> certification tests; the 3 deg approaches made with 30 deg flaps and slightly reduced thrust reduced the EPNL value by 1 EPNdB. Extended center-line <span class="hlt">noise</span> determined during the 3 deg approaches with 40 deg flaps showed that the maximum reference A-weighted sound pressure <span class="hlt">level</span> (LA,max)ref varied from 100.0 A-weighted decibels 2.01 km (108 n. mi.) from the threshold to 87.4 db(A) at 6.12 km (3.30 n. mi.) from the threshold. These test values were about 3 db(A) higher than estimates used for comparison. The test data along the extended center line during approaches with 30 deg flaps were 1 db(A) lower than those for approaches with 40 deg flaps. Flight-test data correlating (LA,max)ref with thrust at altitudes of 122 m (400 ft) and 610 m (2000 ft) were in agreement with reference data used for comparison.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24721134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24721134"><span>Mercury <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in fish from South China Sea: <span class="hlt">levels</span>, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) <span class="hlt">levels</span> in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher <span class="hlt">levels</span> of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg <span class="hlt">levels</span> in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25234891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25234891"><span>Binaural detection with narrowband and wideband reproducible <span class="hlt">noise</span> maskers. IV. Models using interaural time, <span class="hlt">level</span>, and envelope differences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mao, Junwen; Carney, Laurel H</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The addition of out-of-phase tones to in-phase <span class="hlt">noises</span> results in dynamic interaural <span class="hlt">level</span> difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD) cues for the dichotic tone-in-<span class="hlt">noise</span> detection task. Several models have been used to predict listeners' detection performance based on ILD, ITD, or different combinations of the two cues. The models can be tested using detection performance from an ensemble of reproducible-<span class="hlt">noise</span> maskers. Previous models cannot predict listeners' detection performance for reproducible-<span class="hlt">noise</span> maskers without fitting the data. Here, two models were tested for narrowband and wideband reproducible-<span class="hlt">noise</span> experiments. One model was a linear combination of ILD and ITD that included the generally ignored correlation between the two cues. The other model was based on a newly proposed cue, the slope of the interaural envelope difference (SIED). Predictions from both models explained a significant portion of listeners' performance for detection of a 500-Hz tone in wideband <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Predictions based on the SIED approached the predictable variance in the wideband condition. The SIED represented a nonlinear combination of ILD and ITD, with the latter cue dominating. Listeners did not use a common strategy (cue) to detect tones in the narrowband condition and may use different single frequencies or different combinations of frequency channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469544','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3469544"><span>The Relationship between Particulate <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> <span class="hlt">Levels</span> in Australian Cities, Meteorology, and Landscape Fire Activity Detected from MODIS Hotspots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Price, Owen F.; Williamson, Grant J.; Henderson, Sarah B.; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M. J. S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as “hotspots”), <span class="hlt">pollution</span> concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23071788"><span>The relationship between particulate <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), <span class="hlt">pollution</span> concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span> around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in <span class="hlt">pollution</span> <span class="hlt">levels</span>, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. <span class="hlt">Pollution</span> was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the <span class="hlt">pollution</span> monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16455832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16455832"><span>Low <span class="hlt">levels</span> of air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> induce changes of lung function in a panel of schoolchildren.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moshammer, H; Hutter, H-P; Hauck, H; Neuberger, M</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>In search of sensitive screening parameters for assessing acute effects of ambient air <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> in young schoolchildren, the impact of 8-h average air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> before lung function testing was investigated by oscillatory measurements of resistance and spirometry with flow-volume loops. At a central elementary school in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria, 163 children aged 7-10 yrs underwent repeated examinations at the same time of day during 1 school year, yielding a total of 11-12 lung function tests per child. Associations to mass concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) measured continuously at a nearby monitoring station were tested, applying the Generalised Estimating Equations model. Reductions per 10 microg.m(-3) (both for particles and for NO(2)) were in the magnitude of 1% for most lung function parameters. The most sensitive indicator for acute effects of combustion-related <span class="hlt">pollutants</span> was a change in maximal expiratory flow in small airways. NO(2) at concentrations below current standards reduced (in the multipollutant model) the forced expiratory volume in one second by 1.01%, maximal instantaneous forced flow when 50% of the forced vital capacity remains to be exhaled (MEF(50%)) by 1.99% and MEF(25%) by 1.96%. Peripheral resistance increased by 1.03% per 10 microg.m(-3) of particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mum (PM(2.5)). Resistance is less influenced by the child's cooperation and should be utilised more often in environmental epidemiology when screening for early signs of small airway dysfunction from urban air <span class="hlt">pollution</span>, but cannot replace the measurement of MEF(50%) and MEF(25%). In the basic model, the reduction of these parameters per 10 microg.m(-3) was highest for NO(2), followed by PM(1), PM(2.5) and PM(10), while exposure to coarse dust (PM(10)-PM(2.5)) did not change end-expiratory flow significantly. All acute effects of urban air <span class="hlt">pollution</span> found on the lung function of healthy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNEng...8d6006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JNEng...8d6006C"><span>Automatic subthalamic nucleus detection from microelectrode recordings based on <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span> and neuronal activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cagnan, Hayriye; Dolan, Kevin; He, Xuan; Fiorella Contarino, Maria; Schuurman, Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Wadman, Wytse J.; Bour, Lo; Martens, Hubert C. F.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Microelectrode recording (MER) along surgical trajectories is commonly applied for refinement of the target location during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. In this study, we utilize automatically detected MER features in order to locate the subthalamic nucleus (STN) employing an unsupervised algorithm. The automated algorithm makes use of background <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">level</span>, compound firing rate and power spectral density along the trajectory and applies a threshold-based method to detect the dorsal and the ventral borders of the STN. Depending on the combination of measures used for detection of the borders, the algorithm allocates confidence <span class="hlt">levels</span> for the annotation made (i.e. high, medium and low). The algorithm has been applied to 258 trajectories obtained from 84 STN DBS implantations. MERs used in this study have not been pre-selected or pre-processed and include all the viable measurements made. Out of 258 trajectories, 239 trajectories were annotated by the surgical team as containing the STN versus 238 trajectories by the automated algorithm. The agreement <span class="hlt">level</span> between the automatic annotations and the surgical annotations is 88%. Taking the surgical annotations as the golden standard, across all trajectories, the algorithm made true positive annotations in 231 trajectories, true negative annotations in 12 trajectories, false positive annotations in 7 trajectories and false negative annotations in 8 trajectories. We conclude that our algorithm is accurate and reliable in automatically identifying the STN and locating the dorsal and ventral borders of the nucleus, and in a near future could be implemented for on-line intra-operative use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ091678.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ091678.pdf"><span>Controlling Technically Produced <span class="hlt">Noise</span> to Reduce Psychological Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carlestam, Gosta</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the causes and problems associated with increasing <span class="hlt">levels</span> of <span class="hlt">noise</span> <span class="hlt">pollution</span> in urban societies. Particular attention is given to <span class="hlt">noise</span> emanating from aircraft and to possible means of reducing this problem and its resulting psychological stress and social strain. (JR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8207E..27C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8207E..27C"><span>The optimal window time to treat <span class="hlt">noise</span>-induced hearing loss (NIHL) with low <span class="hlt">level</span> laser therapy (LLLT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, So-Young; Suh, Myung-Whan; Bahk, Chan Woong; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Rhee, Chung-Ku</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The transcanal LLLT was found to recover <span class="hlt">noise</span> induced hearing loss (NIHL) but the LLLT was performed immediately after the induction of NIHL. The aim of this study was to find an optimal window time to treat and recover a NIHL with LLLT. Bilateral ears of 6SD rats (12ears) were exposed to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Left ears of the rats were irradiated with a LLLT (830 nm, 594 J/cm2 per day) for 12 days, starting 3 days and 7 days post exposure to <span class="hlt">noise</span>. Right ears were used as control ears. The hearing <span class="hlt">levels</span> were measured at each frequency of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 32 kHz before and after the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure and post 12th irradiations. The initial hearing <span class="hlt">levels</span> in all frequencies before and after the <span class="hlt">noise</span> exposure were 26.5, 24.5, 24.0, 24.0 and 24.5 dB SPL and 63.5, 64,