Ultimate Precision Limits for Noisy Frequency Estimation.
Smirne, Andrea; Kołodyński, Jan; Huelga, Susana F; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2016-03-25
Quantum metrology protocols allow us to surpass precision limits typical to classical statistics. However, in recent years, no-go theorems have been formulated, which state that typical forms of uncorrelated noise can constrain the quantum enhancement to a constant factor and, thus, bound the error to the standard asymptotic scaling. In particular, that is the case of time-homogeneous (Lindbladian) dephasing and, more generally, all semigroup dynamics that include phase covariant terms, which commute with the system Hamiltonian. We show that the standard scaling can be surpassed when the dynamics is no longer ruled by a semigroup and becomes time inhomogeneous. In this case, the ultimate precision is determined by the system short-time behavior, which when exhibiting the natural Zeno regime leads to a nonstandard asymptotic resolution. In particular, we demonstrate that the relevant noise feature dictating the precision is the violation of the semigroup property at short time scales, while non-Markovianity does not play any specific role.
1984-04-01
RECONSTRUCTION OF PARTIALLY KNOWN, BAND - LIMITED FOURIER TRANSFORM PAIRS FROM NOISY DATA 0 Richard Baraka - Contractor: RGB Associates, Inc. Contract Number...is the archetypical linear problem in transform reconstruction. A number of algorithms have been proposed for its solution, either by iterative means ...Gerschberg and Saxton 11], Papoulis 121, Youla [3] or by direct means : Cadzow [4], Sabri and Steenaart [5]. Exampte 2, The Phone PAobZem. Given a
Distributed Compressive CSIT Estimation and Feedback for FDD Multi-User Massive MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.
2014-06-01
To fully utilize the spatial multiplexing gains or array gains of massive MIMO, the channel state information must be obtained at the transmitter side (CSIT). However, conventional CSIT estimation approaches are not suitable for FDD massive MIMO systems because of the overwhelming training and feedback overhead. In this paper, we consider multi-user massive MIMO systems and deploy the compressive sensing (CS) technique to reduce the training as well as the feedback overhead in the CSIT estimation. The multi-user massive MIMO systems exhibits a hidden joint sparsity structure in the user channel matrices due to the shared local scatterers in the physical propagation environment. As such, instead of naively applying the conventional CS to the CSIT estimation, we propose a distributed compressive CSIT estimation scheme so that the compressed measurements are observed at the users locally, while the CSIT recovery is performed at the base station jointly. A joint orthogonal matching pursuit recovery algorithm is proposed to perform the CSIT recovery, with the capability of exploiting the hidden joint sparsity in the user channel matrices. We analyze the obtained CSIT quality in terms of the normalized mean absolute error, and through the closed-form expressions, we obtain simple insights into how the joint channel sparsity can be exploited to improve the CSIT recovery performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Eugene
2007-04-01
Although a great deal of research effort has been focused on the forward prediction of the dispersion of contaminants (e.g., chemical and biological warfare agents) released into the turbulent atmosphere, much less work has been directed toward the inverse prediction of agent source location and strength from the measured concentration, even though the importance of this problem for a number of practical applications is obvious. In general, the inverse problem of source reconstruction is ill-posed and unsolvable without additional information. It is demonstrated that a Bayesian probabilistic inferential framework provides a natural and logically consistent method for source reconstruction from a limited number of noisy concentration data. In particular, the Bayesian approach permits one to incorporate prior knowledge about the source as well as additional information regarding both model and data errors. The latter enables a rigorous determination of the uncertainty in the inference of the source parameters (e.g., spatial location, emission rate, release time, etc.), hence extending the potential of the methodology as a tool for quantitative source reconstruction. A model (or, source-receptor relationship) that relates the source distribution to the concentration data measured by a number of sensors is formulated, and Bayesian probability theory is used to derive the posterior probability density function of the source parameters. A computationally efficient methodology for determination of the likelihood function for the problem, based on an adjoint representation of the source-receptor relationship, is described. Furthermore, we describe the application of efficient stochastic algorithms based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for sampling from the posterior distribution of the source parameters, the latter of which is required to undertake the Bayesian computation. The Bayesian inferential methodology for source reconstruction is validated against real
Achievable degrees of freedom of MIMO two-way relay interference channel with delayed CSIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qingyun; Wu, Gang; Li, Shaoqian
2016-10-01
In this paper, assuming each node has delayed channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), we investigate the achievable degrees of freedom (DOF) of MIMO two-way relay interference channel in frequency division duplex (FDD) systems, where there are K user pairs (i.e., 2K users) and each user in a user pair exchanges messages with the other user in the same user pair simultaneously via an intermediate relay. We propose a two-stage transmission scheme and derive the closed-form expressions for its achievable DOF.
NoisyGOA: Noisy GO annotations prediction using taxonomic and semantic similarity.
Lu, Chang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zili; Yang, Pengyi; Yu, Guoxian
2016-12-01
Gene Ontology (GO) provides GO annotations (GOA) that associate gene products with GO terms that summarize their cellular, molecular and functional aspects in the context of biological pathways. GO Consortium (GOC) resorts to various quality assurances to ensure the correctness of annotations. Due to resources limitations, only a small portion of annotations are manually added/checked by GO curators, and a large portion of available annotations are computationally inferred. While computationally inferred annotations provide greater coverage of known genes, they may also introduce annotation errors (noise) that could mislead the interpretation of the gene functions and their roles in cellular and biological processes. In this paper, we investigate how to identify noisy annotations, a rarely addressed problem, and propose a novel approach called NoisyGOA. NoisyGOA first measures taxonomic similarity between ontological terms using the GO hierarchy and semantic similarity between genes. Next, it leverages the taxonomic similarity and semantic similarity to predict noisy annotations. We compare NoisyGOA with other alternative methods on identifying noisy annotations under different simulated cases of noisy annotations, and on archived GO annotations. NoisyGOA achieved higher accuracy than other alternative methods in comparison. These results demonstrated both taxonomic similarity and semantic similarity contribute to the identification of noisy annotations. Our study shows that annotation errors are predictable and removing noisy annotations improves the performance of gene function prediction. This study can prompt the community to study methods for removing inaccurate annotations, a critical step for annotating gene and pathway functions.
Vinciarelli, Alessandro
2005-12-01
This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (Word Error Rate between approximately 10 and approximately 50 percent) versions of the same documents is compared. The noisy texts are obtained through handwriting recognition and simulation of optical character recognition. The results show that the performance loss is acceptable for Recall values up to 60-70 percent depending on the noise sources. New measures of the extraction process performance, allowing a better explanation of the categorization results, are proposed.
Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.
Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou
2016-04-06
Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.
Optimal entrainment of heterogeneous noisy neurons.
Wilson, Dan; Holt, Abbey B; Netoff, Theoden I; Moehlis, Jeff
2015-01-01
We develop a methodology to design a stimulus optimized to entrain nonlinear, noisy limit cycle oscillators with uncertain properties. Conditions are derived which guarantee that the stimulus will entrain the oscillators despite these uncertainties. Using these conditions, we develop an energy optimal control strategy to design an efficient entraining stimulus and apply it to numerical models of noisy phase oscillators and to in vitro hippocampal neurons. In both instances, the optimal stimuli outperform other similar but suboptimal entraining stimuli. Because this control strategy explicitly accounts for both noise and inherent uncertainty of model parameters, it could have experimental relevance to neural circuits where robust spike timing plays an important role.
Reentrant transition in coupled noisy oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kori, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
We report on a synchronization-breaking instability observed in a noisy oscillator unidirectionally coupled to a pacemaker. Using a phase oscillator model, we find that, as the coupling strength is increased, the noisy oscillator lags behind the pacemaker more frequently and the phase slip rate increases, which may not be observed in averaged phase models such as the Kuramoto model. Investigation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation enables us to obtain the reentrant transition line between the synchronized state and the phase slip state. We verify our theory using the Brusselator model, suggesting that this reentrant transition can be found in a wide range of limit cycle oscillators.
Purification of noisy quantum measurements
Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2010-10-15
We consider the problem of improving noisy quantum measurements by suitable preprocessing strategies making many noisy detectors equivalent to a single ideal detector. For observables pertaining to finite-dimensional systems (e.g., qubits or spins) we consider preprocessing strategies that are reminiscent of quantum error correction procedures and allow one to perfectly measure an observable on a single quantum system for increasing number of inefficient detectors. For measurements of observables with an unbounded spectrum (e.g., photon number and homodyne and heterodyne detection), the purification of noisy quantum measurements can be achieved by preamplification as suggested by Yuen [Opt. Lett. 12, 789 (1987)].
Communicating in a Noisy World.
1983-04-18
among us; we could not band together in groups to coprt nachieving mutual goals. The following words encapsulate this important fact, "With communication ...AD-AI72 754 COMMUNICATING IN A NOISY WQRLD(U) ARMY WAR CO LL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA P M GAYNOR 18 APR 83 U LNCLASSIFIED FG52 N 1 j 2.2 11111111111.8...TITLE (and Subtitle) 3. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED COMMUNICATING IN A NOISY WORLD Student Essay 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S
Pros and cons of swimming in a noisy environment.
Olla, Piero
2014-03-01
The problem of optimal microscopic swimming in a noisy environment is analyzed. A simplified model in which propulsion is generated by the relative motion of three spheres connected by immaterial links has been considered. We show that an optimized noisy microswimmer requires less power for propulsion (on average) than an optimal noiseless counterpart migrating with identical mean velocity and swimming stroke amplitude. We also show that noise can be used to overcome some of the limitations of the scallop theorem and have a swimmer that is able to propel itself with control over just one degree of freedom.
Pros and cons of swimming in a noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olla, Piero
2014-03-01
The problem of optimal microscopic swimming in a noisy environment is analyzed. A simplified model in which propulsion is generated by the relative motion of three spheres connected by immaterial links has been considered. We show that an optimized noisy microswimmer requires less power for propulsion (on average) than an optimal noiseless counterpart migrating with identical mean velocity and swimming stroke amplitude. We also show that noise can be used to overcome some of the limitations of the scallop theorem and have a swimmer that is able to propel itself with control over just one degree of freedom.
Neuromorphic Learning From Noisy Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, Walter C.; Troudet, Terry
1993-01-01
Two reports present numerical study of performance of feedforward neural network trained by back-propagation algorithm in learning continuous-valued mappings from data corrupted by noise. Two types of noise considered: plant noise which affects dynamics of controlled process and data-processing noise, which occurs during analog processing and digital sampling of signals. Study performed with view toward use of neural networks as neurocontrollers to substitute for, or enhance, performances of human experts in controlling mechanical devices in presence of sensor and actuator noise and to enhance performances of more-conventional digital feedback electronic process controllers in noisy environments.
Abnormality detection in noisy biosignals.
Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya
2013-01-01
Although great strides have been achieved in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) research, a major remaining problem is the ability to perform well under the presence of significant noise. In this work, we propose a mechanism to find instances of potential interest in time series for further analysis. Adaptive Kalman filters are employed in parallel among different feature axes. Lung sounds recorded in noisy conditions are used as an example application, with spectro-temporal feature extraction to capture the complex variabilities in sound. We demonstrate that both disease indicators and distortion events can be detected, reducing long time series signals into a sparse set of relevant events.
Quantum error correction via less noisy qubits.
Fujiwara, Yuichiro
2013-04-26
Known quantum error correction schemes are typically able to take advantage of only a limited class of classical error-correcting codes. Entanglement-assisted quantum error correction is a partial solution which made it possible to exploit any classical linear codes over the binary or quaternary finite field. However, the known entanglement-assisted scheme requires noiseless qubits that help correct quantum errors on noisy qubits, which can be too severe an assumption. We prove that a more relaxed and realistic assumption is sufficient by presenting encoding and decoding operations assisted by qubits on which quantum errors of one particular kind may occur. As in entanglement assistance, our scheme can import any binary or quaternary linear codes. If the auxiliary qubits are noiseless, our codes become entanglement-assisted codes, and saturate the quantum Singleton bound when the underlying classical codes are maximum distance separable.
Extracting insight from noisy cellular networks.
Landry, Christian R; Levy, Emmanuel D; Abd Rabbo, Diala; Tarassov, Kirill; Michnick, Stephen W
2013-11-21
Network biologists attempt to extract meaningful relationships among genes or their products from very noisy data. We argue that what we categorize as noisy data may sometimes reflect noisy biology and therefore may shield a hidden meaning about how networks evolve and how matter is organized in the cell. We present practical solutions, based on existing evolutionary and biophysical concepts, through which our understanding of cell biology can be enormously enriched.
The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
2015-08-01
As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.
Numerical Differentiation of Noisy, Nonsmooth Data
Chartrand, Rick
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of differentiating a function specified by noisy data. Regularizing the differentiation process avoids the noise amplification of finite-difference methods. We use total-variation regularization, which allows for discontinuous solutions. The resulting simple algorithm accurately differentiates noisy functions, including those which have a discontinuous derivative.
Object Detection under Noisy Condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halkarnikar, P. P.; Khandagle, H. P.; Talbar, S. N.; Vasambekar, P. N.
2010-11-01
Identifying moving objects from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. Such automatic object detection soft wares have many applications in surveillance, auto navigation and robotics. A common approach is to perform background subtraction, which identifies the moving object from portion of video sequences. These soft wares work good under normal condition but tend to give false alarms when tested in real life conditions. Such a condition arises due to fog, smoke, glares ect. These situations are termed as noisy conditions and objects are detected under such conditions. In this paper we created noise by addition of standard Gaussian noise in clean video and compare the response of the detection system to various noise level.
Sparse Poisson noisy image deblurring.
Carlavan, Mikael; Blanc-Féraud, Laure
2012-04-01
Deblurring noisy Poisson images has recently been a subject of an increasing amount of works in many areas such as astronomy and biological imaging. In this paper, we focus on confocal microscopy, which is a very popular technique for 3-D imaging of biological living specimens that gives images with a very good resolution (several hundreds of nanometers), although degraded by both blur and Poisson noise. Deconvolution methods have been proposed to reduce these degradations, and in this paper, we focus on techniques that promote the introduction of an explicit prior on the solution. One difficulty of these techniques is to set the value of the parameter, which weights the tradeoff between the data term and the regularizing term. Only few works have been devoted to the research of an automatic selection of this regularizing parameter when considering Poisson noise; therefore, it is often set manually such that it gives the best visual results. We present here two recent methods to estimate this regularizing parameter, and we first propose an improvement of these estimators, which takes advantage of confocal images. Following these estimators, we secondly propose to express the problem of the deconvolution of Poisson noisy images as the minimization of a new constrained problem. The proposed constrained formulation is well suited to this application domain since it is directly expressed using the antilog likelihood of the Poisson distribution and therefore does not require any approximation. We show how to solve the unconstrained and constrained problems using the recent alternating-direction technique, and we present results on synthetic and real data using well-known priors, such as total variation and wavelet transforms. Among these wavelet transforms, we specially focus on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform and on the dictionary composed of curvelets and an undecimated wavelet transform.
A practical test for noisy chaotic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BenSaïda, Ahmed
2015-12-01
This code computes the largest Lyapunov exponent and tests for the presence of a chaotic dynamics, as opposed to stochastic dynamics, in a noisy scalar series. The program runs under MATLAB® programming language.
Quantum walks with coins undergoing different quantum noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Qin; Xue, Peng
2016-01-01
Quantum walks have significantly different properties compared to classical random walks, which have potential applications in quantum computation and quantum simulation. We study Hadamard quantum walks with coins undergoing different quantum noisy channels and deduce the analytical expressions of the first two moments of position in the long-time limit. Numerical simulations have been done, the results are compared with the analytical results, and they match extremely well. We show that the variance of the position distributions of the walks grows linearly with time when enough steps are taken and the linear coefficient is affected by the strength of the quantum noisy channels. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174052 and 11474049) and the CAST Innovation Fund, China.
Collective Chemotaxis through Noisy Multicellular Gradient Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varennes, Julien; Han, Bumsoo; Mugler, Andrew
2016-08-01
Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue occurs in many biological processes such as morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Clusters of migratory cells in these systems are capable of responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell length. Multicellular systems are extremely sensitive to their environment and while the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, how this information leads to coherent migration remains poorly understood. We develop a computational model of multicellular sensing and migration in which groups of cells collectively measure noisy chemical gradients. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells polarization to model migratory behavior. Through the use of numerical simulations, we find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias, but larger clusters also induce more drag on collective motion. The trade-off between these two effects leads to an optimal cluster size for most efficient migration. We discuss how our model could be validated using simple, phenomenological experiments.
Nanotubes for noisy signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ian Yenyin
Nanotubes can process noisy signals. We present two central results in support of this general thesis and make an informed extrapolation that uses nanotubes to improve body armor. The first result is that noise can help nanotubes detect weak signals. The finding confirmed a stochastic-resonance theoretical prediction that noise can enhance detection at the nano-level. Laboratory experiments with nanotubes showed that three types of noise improved three measures of detection. Small amounts of Gaussian, uniform, and Cauchy additive white noise increased mutual-information, cross-correlation, and bit-error-rate measures before degrading them with further increases in noise. Nanotubes can apply this noise-enhancement and nanotube electrical and mechanical properties to improve signal processing. Similar noise enhancement may benefit a proposed nanotube-array cochlear-model spectral processing. The second result is that nanotube antennas can directly detect narrowband electromagnetic (EM) signals. The finding showed that nanotube and thin-wire dipoles are similar: They are resonant and narrowband and can implement linear-array designs if the EM waves in the nanotubes propagate at or near the free-space velocity of light. The nanotube-antenna prediction is based on a Fresnel-zone or near-zone analysis of antenna impedance using a quantum-conductor model. The analysis also predicts a failure to resonate if the nanotube EM-wave propagation is much slower than free-space light propagation. We extrapolate based on applied and theoretical analysis of body armor. Field experiments used a baseball comparison and statistical and other techniques to model body-armor bruising effects. A baseball comparison showed that a large caliber handgun bullet can hit an armored chest as hard as a fast baseball can hit a bare chest. Adaptive fuzzy systems learned to predict a bruise profile directly from the experimental data and also from statistical analysis of the data. Nanotube signal
Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
2013-03-01
A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.
Consolidation of visuomotor adaptation memory with consistent and noisy environments.
Maeda, Rodrigo S; McGee, Steven E; Marigold, Daniel S
2017-01-01
Our understanding of how we learn and retain motor behaviors is still limited. For instance, there is conflicting evidence as to whether the memory of a learned visuomotor perturbation consolidates; i.e., the motor memory becomes resistant to interference from learning a competing perturbation over time. Here, we sought to determine the factors that influence consolidation during visually guided walking. Subjects learned a novel mapping relationship, created by prism lenses, between the perceived location of two targets and the motor commands necessary to direct the feet to their positions. Subjects relearned this mapping 1 wk later. Different groups experienced protocols with or without a competing mapping (and with and without washout trials), presented either on the same day as initial learning or before relearning on day 2 We tested identical protocols under constant and noisy mapping structures. In the latter, we varied, on a trial-by-trial basis, the strength of prism lenses around a non-zero mean. We found that a novel visuomotor mapping is retained at least 1 wk after initial learning. We also found reduced foot-placement error with relearning in constant and noisy mapping groups, despite learning a competing mapping beforehand, and with the exception of one protocol, with and without washout trials. Exposure to noisy mappings led to similar performance on relearning compared with the equivalent constant mapping groups for most protocols. Overall, our results support the idea of motor memory consolidation during visually guided walking and suggest that constant and noisy practices are effective for motor learning.
Hearing impaired speech in noisy classrooms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahin, Kimary; McKellin, William H.; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen
2005-04-01
Noisy classrooms have been shown to induce among students patterns of interaction similar to those used by hearing impaired people [W. H. McKellin et al., GURT (2003)]. In this research, the speech of children in a noisy classroom setting was investigated to determine if noisy classrooms have an effect on students' speech. Audio recordings were made of the speech of students during group work in their regular classrooms (grades 1-7), and of the speech of the same students in a sound booth. Noise level readings in the classrooms were also recorded. Each student's noisy and quiet environment speech samples were acoustically analyzed for prosodic and segmental properties (f0, pitch range, pitch variation, phoneme duration, vowel formants), and compared. The analysis showed that the students' speech in the noisy classrooms had characteristics of the speech of hearing-impaired persons [e.g., R. O'Halpin, Clin. Ling. and Phon. 15, 529-550 (2001)]. Some educational implications of our findings were identified. [Work supported by the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.
Critical fluctuations of noisy period-doubling maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noble, Andrew E.; Karimeddiny, Saba; Hastings, Alan; Machta, Jonathan
2017-01-01
We extend the theory of quasipotentials in dynamical systems by calculating, within a broad class of period-doubling maps, an exact potential for the critical fluctuations of pitchfork bifurcations in the weak noise limit. These far-from-equilibrium fluctuations are described by finite-size mean field theory, placing their static properties in the same universality class as the Ising model on a complete graph. We demonstrate that the effective system size of noisy period-doubling bifurcations exhibits universal scaling behavior along period-doubling routes to chaos.
Array Imaging of Noisy Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, P. D.
2011-06-01
The ultimate limit on ultrasonic defect detectability is the coherent noise due to material backscatter. A model of such noise in ultrasonic array images is developed based on the single scattering assumption. The implications of the model are discussed and supported with some experimental examples. In the case of a copper specimen, it is shown that an improvement in signal to coherent noise ratio of over 30 dB can be obtained by optimization of imaging parameters.
On covariance structure in noisy, big data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paffenroth, Randy C.; Nong, Ryan; Du Toit, Philip C.
2013-09-01
Herein we describe theory and algorithms for detecting covariance structures in large, noisy data sets. Our work uses ideas from matrix completion and robust principal component analysis to detect the presence of low-rank covariance matrices, even when the data is noisy, distorted by large corruptions, and only partially observed. In fact, the ability to handle partial observations combined with ideas from randomized algorithms for matrix decomposition enables us to produce asymptotically fast algorithms. Herein we will provide numerical demonstrations of the methods and their convergence properties. While such methods have applicability to many problems, including mathematical finance, crime analysis, and other large-scale sensor fusion problems, our inspiration arises from applying these methods in the context of cyber network intrusion detection.
Neural network approaches for noisy language modeling.
Li, Jun; Ouazzane, Karim; Kazemian, Hassan B; Afzal, Muhammad Sajid
2013-11-01
Text entry from people is not only grammatical and distinct, but also noisy. For example, a user's typing stream contains all the information about the user's interaction with computer using a QWERTY keyboard, which may include the user's typing mistakes as well as specific vocabulary, typing habit, and typing performance. In particular, these features are obvious in disabled users' typing streams. This paper proposes a new concept called noisy language modeling by further developing information theory and applies neural networks to one of its specific application-typing stream. This paper experimentally uses a neural network approach to analyze the disabled users' typing streams both in general and specific ways to identify their typing behaviors and subsequently, to make typing predictions and typing corrections. In this paper, a focused time-delay neural network (FTDNN) language model, a time gap model, a prediction model based on time gap, and a probabilistic neural network model (PNN) are developed. A 38% first hitting rate (HR) and a 53% first three HR in symbol prediction are obtained based on the analysis of a user's typing history through the FTDNN language modeling, while the modeling results using the time gap prediction model and the PNN model demonstrate that the correction rates lie predominantly in between 65% and 90% with the current testing samples, and 70% of all test scores above basic correction rates, respectively. The modeling process demonstrates that a neural network is a suitable and robust language modeling tool to analyze the noisy language stream. The research also paves the way for practical application development in areas such as informational analysis, text prediction, and error correction by providing a theoretical basis of neural network approaches for noisy language modeling.
Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.
1984-10-19
A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.
Multi Agent Reward Analysis for Learning in Noisy Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.
2005-01-01
In many multi agent learning problems, it is difficult to determine, a priori, the agent reward structure that will lead to good performance. This problem is particularly pronounced in continuous, noisy domains ill-suited to simple table backup schemes commonly used in TD(lambda)/Q-learning. In this paper, we present a new reward evaluation method that allows the tradeoff between coordination among the agents and the difficulty of the learning problem each agent faces to be visualized. This method is independent of the learning algorithm and is only a function of the problem domain and the agents reward structure. We then use this reward efficiency visualization method to determine an effective reward without performing extensive simulations. We test this method in both a static and a dynamic multi-rover learning domain where the agents have continuous state spaces and where their actions are noisy (e.g., the agents movement decisions are not always carried out properly). Our results show that in the more difficult dynamic domain, the reward efficiency visualization method provides a two order of magnitude speedup in selecting a good reward. Most importantly it allows one to quickly create and verify rewards tailored to the observational limitations of the domain.
Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.
1986-01-01
A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.
Period variability of coupled noisy oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Fumito; Kori, Hiroshi
2013-03-01
Period variability, quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the cycle-to-cycle period, is investigated for noisy phase oscillators. We define the checkpoint phase as the beginning or end point of one oscillation cycle and derive an expression for the SD as a function of this phase. We find that the SD is dependent on the checkpoint phase only when oscillators are coupled. The applicability of our theory is verified using a realistic model. Our work clarifies the relationship between period variability and synchronization from which valuable information regarding coupling can be inferred.
Robust vector quantization for noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demarca, J. R. B.; Farvardin, N.; Jayant, N. S.; Shoham, Y.
1988-01-01
The paper briefly discusses techniques for making vector quantizers more tolerant to tranmsission errors. Two algorithms are presented for obtaining an efficient binary word assignment to the vector quantizer codewords without increasing the transmission rate. It is shown that about 4.5 dB gain over random assignment can be achieved with these algorithms. It is also proposed to reduce the effects of error propagation in vector-predictive quantizers by appropriately constraining the response of the predictive loop. The constrained system is shown to have about 4 dB of SNR gain over an unconstrained system in a noisy channel, with a small loss of clean-channel performance.
A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database
Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya
2011-06-06
Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
Schaefer, Bastian; Goedecker, Stefan; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu
2015-01-21
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan; Goedecker Group Team
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most frequently performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or the identification of chemical reaction pathways can require the computation of hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle points. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. In this talk a recently published technique that allows to obtain significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces is presented. This technique was used to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. With the help of benchmarks both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach were demonstrated to be superior to comparable existing methods.
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Alireza Ghasemi, S.; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan
2015-01-01
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are superior to comparable existing methods.
Normal and Feature Approximations from Noisy Point Clouds
2005-02-01
Normal and Feature Approximations from Noisy Point Clouds Tamal K. Dey Jian Sun Abstract We consider the problem of approximating normal and...normal and, in partic- ular, feature size approximations for noisy point clouds . In the noise-free case the choice of the Delaunay balls is not an issue...axis from noisy point clouds ex- ists [7]. This algorithm approximates the medial axis with Voronoi faces under a stringent uniform sampling
Rigid body constrained noisy point pattern matching.
Morgera, S D; Cheong, P C
1995-01-01
Noisy pattern matching problems arise in many areas, e.g., computational vision, robotics, guidance and control, stereophotogrammetry, astronomy, genetics, and high-energy physics. Least-squares pattern matching over the Euclidean space E(n) for unordered sets of cardinalities p and q is commonly formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem having complexity p(p-1)...(p-q+1), q=/
A segmentation algorithm for noisy images
Xu, Y.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.
1996-12-31
This paper presents a 2-D image segmentation algorithm and addresses issues related to its performance on noisy images. The algorithm segments an image by first constructing a minimum spanning tree representation of the image and then partitioning the spanning tree into sub-trees representing different homogeneous regions. The spanning tree is partitioned in such a way that the sum of gray-level variations over all partitioned subtrees is minimized under the constraints that each subtree has at least a specified number of pixels and two adjacent subtrees have significantly different ``average`` gray-levels. Two types of noise, transmission errors and Gaussian additive noise. are considered and their effects on the segmentation algorithm are studied. Evaluation results have shown that the segmentation algorithm is robust in the presence of these two types of noise.
A Statistical Detection of an Anomaly from a Few Noisy Tomographic Projections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fillatre, Lionel; Nikiforov, Igor
2005-12-01
The problem of detecting an anomaly/target from a very limited number of noisy tomographic projections is addressed from the statistical point of view. The imaged object is composed of an environment, considered as a nuisance parameter, with a possibly hidden anomaly/target. The GLR test is used to solve the problem. When the projection linearly depends on the nuisance parameters, the GLR test coincides with an optimal statistical invariant test.
2015-07-01
limited sensor data is one of the important research challenges in robotic sensing. This thesis develops techniques for detecting and characterizing...patterns in noisy sensor data. Our Bayesian Aggregation (BA) algorithmic framework can leverage data fusion from multiple low Signal-To-Noise Ratio (SNR... sensor observations to boost the capability to detect and characterize the properties of a signal generating source or process of interest. We
Learning from Weak and Noisy Labels for Semantic Segmentation.
Lu, Zhiwu; Fu, Zhenyong; Xiang, Tao; Han, Peng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Xin
2016-04-08
A weakly supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) method aims to learn a segmentation model from weak (image-level) as opposed to strong (pixel-level) labels. By avoiding the tedious pixel-level annotation process, it can exploit the unlimited supply of user-tagged images from media-sharing sites such as Flickr for large scale applications. However, these 'free' tags/labels are often noisy and few existing works address the problem of learning with both weak and noisy labels. In this work, we cast the WSSS problem into a label noise reduction problem. Specifically, after segmenting each image into a set of superpixels, the weak and potentially noisy image-level labels are propagated to the superpixel level resulting in highly noisy labels; the key to semantic segmentation is thus to identify and correct the superpixel noisy labels. To this end, a novel L1-optimisation based sparse learning model is formulated to directly and explicitly detect noisy labels. To solve the L1-optimisation problem, we further develop an efficient learning algorithm by introducing an intermediate labelling variable. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our method yields state-of-the-art results given noise-free labels, whilst significantly outperforming the existing methods when the weak labels are also noisy.
Noisy signaling through promoter logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerstung, Moritz; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian
2009-01-01
We study the influence of noisy transcription factor signals on cis-regulatory promoter elements. These elements process the probability of binary binding events analogous to computer logic gates. At equilibrium, this probability is given by the so-called input function. We show that transcription factor noise causes deviations from the equilibrium value due to the nonlinearity of the input function. For a single binding site, the correction is always negative resulting in an occupancy below the mean-field level. Yet for more complex promoters it depends on the correlation of the transcription factor signals and the geometry of the input function. We present explicit solutions for the basic types of AND and OR gates. The correction size varies among these different types of gates and signal types, mainly being larger in AND gates and for correlated fluctuations. In all cases we find excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. We also study the E. coli Lac operon as an example of an AND NOR gate. We present a consistent mathematical method that allows one to separate different sources of noise and quantifies their effect on promoter occupation. A surprising result of our analysis is that Poissonian molecular fluctuations, in contrast to external fluctuations, do no contribute to the correction.
Quantum computing with realistically noisy devices.
Knill, E
2005-03-03
In theory, quantum computers offer a means of solving problems that would be intractable on conventional computers. Assuming that a quantum computer could be constructed, it would in practice be required to function with noisy devices called 'gates'. These gates cause decoherence of the fragile quantum states that are central to the computer's operation. The goal of so-called 'fault-tolerant quantum computing' is therefore to compute accurately even when the error probability per gate (EPG) is high. Here we report a simple architecture for fault-tolerant quantum computing, providing evidence that accurate quantum computing is possible for EPGs as high as three per cent. Such EPGs have been experimentally demonstrated, but to avoid excessive resource overheads required by the necessary architecture, lower EPGs are needed. Assuming the availability of quantum resources comparable to the digital resources available in today's computers, we show that non-trivial quantum computations at EPGs of as high as one per cent could be implemented.
Dead regions and noisiness of pure tones.
Huss, Martina; Moore, Brian C J
2005-10-01
Some hearing-impaired subjects report pure tones as sounding highly distorted and noise-like. We assessed whether such reports indicate that the tone frequency falls inside a dead region (DR). Nine hearing-impaired and four normally hearing subjects rated pure tones on a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 indicates clear tone and 7 indicates noise. A white noise was presented as a reference for a sound that should be rated as 7. Stimuli covered the whole audible range of frequencies and levels. The noisiness ratings were, on average, higher for hearing-impaired subjects than for normally hearing subjects. For the former, the ratings were not markedly different for tones with frequencies just outside or inside a DR. However, ratings always exceeded 3 for tones falling more than 1.5 octaves inside a DR. The results indicate that judgement of a tone as sounding noise-like does not reliably indicate that the tone frequency falls in a DR. Both normally hearing and hearing-impaired subjects rated 0.125 kHz and 12 kHz tones as somewhat noise-like, independently of the existence of a DR.
Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels
Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.
2011-02-15
Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.
Hearing conservation practices in eight noisy industries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniell, William E.; Swan, Susan S.; Camp, Janice; Cohen, Martin; McDaniel, Mary M.; Stebbins, John; Leo, Robert
2005-04-01
This study evaluated noise exposures and hearing conservation practices at 76 companies in eight industries with high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Nearly all companies had exposures that required a hearing conservation program, and more than half had exposures that required consideration of noise controls. The use of noise measurements and consideration of controls was low in all industries. The completeness of hearing conservation programs was strongly associated with the extent of exposure in an industry, although practices varied widely within industries. Most companies had substantial deficiencies. More than one-third did not conduct annual training, and training had shortcomings at many others. One-third had not conducted audiometry. Hearing protection was commonly underused. Reported use was highest at companies with relatively complete programs, and in industries where exposure was most prevalent and least intermittent. Many employees had difficulty estimating how often, and presumably when, their exposure was excessive. There is a need for new strategies to promote and maintain hearing conservation efforts in noisy industries. The industries with greatest margin for improvement are not the noisiest industries but those where exposure is moderate or intermittent. [Work supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Optimal control in a noisy system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asenjo, F.; Toledo, B. A.; Muñoz, V.; Rogan, J.; Valdivia, J. A.
2008-09-01
We describe a simple method to control a known unstable periodic orbit (UPO) in the presence of noise. The strategy is based on regarding the control method as an optimization problem, which allows us to calculate a control matrix A. We illustrate the idea with the Rossler system, the Lorenz system, and a hyperchaotic system that has two exponents with positive real parts. Initially, a UPO and the corresponding control matrix are found in the absence of noise in these systems. It is shown that the strategy is useful even if noise is added as control is applied. For low noise, it is enough to find a control matrix such that the maximum Lyapunov exponent λmax<0, and with a single non-null entry. If noise is increased, however, this is not the case, and the full control matrix A may be required to keep the UPO under control. Besides the Lyapunov spectrum, a characterization of the control strategies is given in terms of the average distance to the UPO and the control effort required to keep the orbit under control. Finally, particular attention is given to the problem of handling noise, which can affect considerably the estimation of the UPO itself and its exponents, and a cleaning strategy based on singular value decomposition was developed. This strategy gives a consistent manner to approach noisy systems, and may be easily adapted as a parametric control strategy, and to experimental situations, where noise is unavoidable.
Neural networks optimally trained with noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, K. Y. Michael; Sherrington, David
1993-06-01
We study the retrieval behaviors of neural networks which are trained to optimize their performance for an ensemble of noisy example patterns. In particular, we consider (1) the performance overlap, which reflects the performance of the network in an operating condition identical to the training condition; (2) the storage overlap, which reflects the ability of the network to merely memorize the stored information; (3) the attractor overlap, which reflects the precision of retrieval for dilute feedback networks; and (4) the boundary overlap, which defines the boundary of the basin of attraction, and hence the associative ability for dilute feedback networks. We find that for sufficiently low training noise, the network optimizes its overall performance by sacrificing the individual performance of a minority of patterns, resulting in a two-band distribution of the aligning fields. For a narrow range of storage level, the network loses and then regains its retrieval capability when the training noise level increases, and we interpret that this reentrant retrieval behavior is related to competing tendencies in structuring the basins of attraction for the stored patterns. Reentrant behavior is also observed in the space of synaptic interactions, in which the replica symmetric solution of the optimal network destabilizes and then restabilizes when the training noise level increases. We summarize these observations by picturing training noises as an instrument for widening the basins of attractions of the stored patterns at the expense of reducing the precision of retrieval.
The Noisiness of Low Frequency Bands of Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, B. W.
1975-01-01
The relative noisiness of low frequency 1/3-octave bands of noise was examined. The frequency range investigated was bounded by the bands centered at 25 and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 to 95 db (SPL). Thirty-two subjects used a method of adjustment technique, producing comparison band intensities as noisy as 100 and 200 Hz standard bands at 60 and 72 db. The work resulted in contours of equal noisiness for 1/3-octave bands, ranging in intensity from approximately 58 to 86 db (SPL). These contours were compared with the standard equal noisiness contours; in the region of overlap, between 50 and 200 Hz, the agreement was good.
Exploring the Noisy Threshold Function in Designing Bayesian Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurgelenaite, Rasa; Lucas, Peter; Heskes, Tom
Causal independence modelling is a well-known method both for reducing the size of probability tables and for explaining the underlying mechanisms in Bayesian networks. Many Bayesian network models incorporate causal independence assumptions; however, only the noisy OR and noisy AND, two examples of causal independence models, are used in practice. Their underlying assumption that either at least one cause, or all causes together, give rise to an effect, however, seems unnecessarily restrictive. In the present paper a new, more flexible, causal independence model is proposed, based on the Boolean threshold function. A connection is established between conditional probability distributions based on the noisy threshold model and Poisson binomial distributions, and the basic properties of this probability distribution are studied in some depth. The successful application of the noisy threshold model in the refinement of a Bayesian network for the diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia demo nstrates the practical value of the presented theory.
Phase and amplitude imaging from noisy images by Kalman filtering.
Waller, Laura; Tsang, Mankei; Ponda, Sameera; Yang, Se Young; Barbastathis, George
2011-01-31
We propose and demonstrate a computational method for complex-field imaging from many noisy intensity images with varying defocus, using an extended complex Kalman filter. The technique offers dynamic smoothing of noisy measurements and is recursive rather than iterative, so is suitable for adaptive measurements. The Kalman filter provides near-optimal results in very low-light situations and may be adapted to propagation through turbulent, scattering, or nonlinear media.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-05-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-01-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Equivalence between learning in noisy perceptrons and tree committee machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copelli, Mauro; Kinouchi, Osame; Caticha, Nestor
1996-06-01
We study learning from single presentation of examples (on-line learning) in single-layer perceptrons and tree committee machines (TCMs). Lower bounds for the perceptron generalization error as a function of the noise level ɛ in the teacher output are calculated. We find that local learning in a TCM with K hidden units is simply related to learning in a simple perceptron with a corresponding noise level ɛ(K). For a large number of examples and finite K the generalization error decays as α-1CM, where αCM is the number of examples per adjustable weight in the TCM. We also show that on-line learning is possible even in the K-->∞ limit, but with the generalization error decaying as α-1/2CM. The simple Hebb rule can also be applied to the TCM, but now the error decays as α-1/2CM for finite K and α-1/4CM for K-->∞. Exponential decay of the generalization error in both the noisy perceptron learning and in the TCM is obtained by using the learning by queries strategy.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-05-18
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Joint Segmentation and Recognition of Categorized Objects from Noisy Web Image Collection.
Wang, Le; Hua, Gang; Xue, Jianru; Gao, Zhanning; Zheng, Nanning
2014-07-14
The segmentation of categorized objects addresses the problem of joint segmentation of a single category of object across a collection of images, where categorized objects are referred to objects in the same category. Most existing methods of segmentation of categorized objects made the assumption that all images in the given image collection contain the target object. In other words, the given image collection is noise free. Therefore, they may not work well when there are some noisy images which are not in the same category, such as those image collections gathered by a text query from modern image search engines. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method for automatic segmentation and recognition of categorized objects from noisy Web image collections. This is achieved by cotraining an automatic object segmentation algorithm that operates directly on a collection of images, and an object category recognition algorithm that identifies which images contain the target object. The object segmentation algorithm is trained on a subset of images from the given image collection which are recognized to contain the target object with high confidence, while training the object category recognition model is guided by the intermediate segmentation results obtained from the object segmentation algorithm. This way, our co-training algorithm automatically identifies the set of true positives in the noisy Web image collection, and simultaneously extracts the target objects from all the identified images. Extensive experiments validated the efficacy of our proposed approach on four datasets: 1) the Weizmann horse dataset, 2) the MSRC object category dataset, 3) the iCoseg dataset, and 4) a new 30-categories dataset including 15,634 Web images with both hand-annotated category labels and ground truth segmentation labels. It is shown that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art, and has the ability to deal with noisy image collections.
Pandemics and immune memory in the noisy Penna model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cebrat, Stanisław; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Biecek, Przemysław
2007-06-01
In the noisy Penna model of ageing, instead of counting the number of defective loci which eventually kill an individual, the noise describing the health status of individuals is introduced. This white noise is composed of two components: the environmental one and the personal one. If the sum of both trespasses the limit set for the individuals homeodynamics the individual dies. The energy of personal fluctuations depends on the number of defective loci expressed in the individuals genome. Environmental fluctuations, the same for all individuals can include some signals, corresponding to the exposition to pathogens which could be dangerous for a fraction of the organisms. Personal noise and the component of random environmental fluctuations, when superimposed on the signal can be life threatening if they are stronger than the limit set for individuals homeodynamics. Nevertheless, some organisms survive the period of dangerous signal and they may remember the signal in the future, like antigens are remembered by our immune systems. Unfortunately, this memory weakens with time and, even worse, some additional defective genes are switched on during the ageing. If the same pathogens (signals) emerge during the lifespan of the population, a fraction of the population could remember it and could respond by increasing the resistance to it. Again, unfortunately for some individuals, their memory could be too weak and their own health status has worsened due to the accumulated mutations, they have to die. Though, a fraction of individuals can survive the pandemics due to the immune memory, but a fraction of population has no such a memory because they were born after the last pandemic or they didnt notice this pandemic. Our simple model, by implementing the noise instead of deterministic threshold of genetic defects, describes how the impact of pandemics on populations depends on the time which elapsed between the two incidents and how the different age groups of
Smoothing of, and Parameter Estimation from, Noisy Biophysical Recordings
Huys, Quentin J. M.; Paninski, Liam
2009-01-01
Biophysically detailed models of single cells are difficult to fit to real data. Recent advances in imaging techniques allow simultaneous access to various intracellular variables, and these data can be used to significantly facilitate the modelling task. These data, however, are noisy, and current approaches to building biophysically detailed models are not designed to deal with this. We extend previous techniques to take the noisy nature of the measurements into account. Sequential Monte Carlo (“particle filtering”) methods, in combination with a detailed biophysical description of a cell, are used for principled, model-based smoothing of noisy recording data. We also provide an alternative formulation of smoothing where the neural nonlinearities are estimated in a non-parametric manner. Biophysically important parameters of detailed models (such as channel densities, intercompartmental conductances, input resistances, and observation noise) are inferred automatically from noisy data via expectation-maximisation. Overall, we find that model-based smoothing is a powerful, robust technique for smoothing of noisy biophysical data and for inference of biophysical parameters in the face of recording noise. PMID:19424506
Extortion under uncertainty: Zero-determinant strategies in noisy games.
Hao, Dong; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao
2015-05-01
Repeated game theory has been one of the most prevailing tools for understanding long-running relationships, which are the foundation in building human society. Recent works have revealed a new set of "zero-determinant" (ZD) strategies, which is an important advance in repeated games. A ZD strategy player can exert unilateral control on two players' payoffs. In particular, he can deterministically set the opponent's payoff or enforce an unfair linear relationship between the players' payoffs, thereby always seizing an advantageous share of payoffs. One of the limitations of the original ZD strategy, however, is that it does not capture the notion of robustness when the game is subjected to stochastic errors. In this paper, we propose a general model of ZD strategies for noisy repeated games and find that ZD strategies have high robustness against errors. We further derive the pinning strategy under noise, by which the ZD strategy player coercively sets the opponent's expected payoff to his desired level, although his payoff control ability declines with the increase of noise strength. Due to the uncertainty caused by noise, the ZD strategy player cannot ensure his payoff to be permanently higher than the opponent's, which implies dominant extortions do not exist even under low noise. While we show that the ZD strategy player can still establish a novel kind of extortions, named contingent extortions, where any increase of his own payoff always exceeds that of the opponent's by a fixed percentage, and the conditions under which the contingent extortions can be realized are more stringent as the noise becomes stronger.
Modified correlation entropy estimation for a noisy chaotic time series.
Jayawardena, A W; Xu, Pengcheng; Li, W K
2010-06-01
A method of estimating the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy, herein referred to as the modified correlation entropy, is presented. The method can be applied to both noise-free and noisy chaotic time series. It has been applied to some clean and noisy data sets and the numerical results show that the modified correlation entropy is closer to the KS entropy of the nonlinear system calculated by the Lyapunov spectrum than the general correlation entropy. Moreover, the modified correlation entropy is more robust to noise than the correlation entropy.
Noisy traveling waves: Effect of selection on genealogies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunet, E.; Derrida, B.; Mueller, A. H.; Munier, S.
2006-10-01
For a family of models of evolving population under selection, which can be described by noisy traveling-wave equations, the coalescence times along the genealogical tree scale like ln αN, where N is the size of the population, in contrast with neutral models for which they scale like N. An argument relating this time scale to the diffusion constant of the noisy traveling wave leads to a prediction for α which agrees with our simulations. An exactly soluble case gives trees with statistics identical to those predicted for mean-field spin glasses by Parisi's theory.
Noisy threshold in neuronal models: connections with the noisy leaky integrate-and-fire model.
Dumont, G; Henry, J; Tarniceriu, C O
2016-12-01
Providing an analytical treatment to the stochastic feature of neurons' dynamics is one of the current biggest challenges in mathematical biology. The noisy leaky integrate-and-fire model and its associated Fokker-Planck equation are probably the most popular way to deal with neural variability. Another well-known formalism is the escape-rate model: a model giving the probability that a neuron fires at a certain time knowing the time elapsed since its last action potential. This model leads to a so-called age-structured system, a partial differential equation with non-local boundary condition famous in the field of population dynamics, where the age of a neuron is the amount of time passed by since its previous spike. In this theoretical paper, we investigate the mathematical connection between the two formalisms. We shall derive an integral transform of the solution to the age-structured model into the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. This integral transform highlights the link between the two stochastic processes. As far as we know, an explicit mathematical correspondence between the two solutions has not been introduced until now.
The Effects of Noisy Data on Text Retrieval.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taghva, Kazem; And Others
1994-01-01
Discusses the use of optical character recognition (OCR) for inputting documents in an information retrieval system and describes a study that used an OCR-generated database and its corresponding corrected version to examine query evaluation in the presence of noisy data. Scanning technology, recognition technology, and retrieval technology are…
Discovering Knowledge from Noisy Databases Using Genetic Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Man Leung; Leung, Kwong Sak; Cheng, Jack C. Y.
2000-01-01
Presents a framework that combines Genetic Programming and Inductive Logic Programming, two approaches in data mining, to induce knowledge from noisy databases. The framework is based on a formalism of logic grammars and is implemented as a data mining system called LOGENPRO (Logic Grammar-based Genetic Programming System). (Contains 34…
Data and Network Science for Noisy Heterogeneous Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rider, Andrew Kent
2013-01-01
Data in many growing fields has an underlying network structure that can be taken advantage of. In this dissertation we apply data and network science to problems in the domains of systems biology and healthcare. Data challenges in these fields include noisy, heterogeneous data, and a lack of ground truth. The primary thesis of this work is that…
Coordinating Multi-Rover Systems: Evaluation Functions for Dynamic and Noisy Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian
2005-01-01
This paper addresses the evolution of control strategies for a collective: a set of entities that collectively strives to maximize a global evaluation function that rates the performance of the full system. Directly addressing such problems by having a population of collectives and applying the evolutionary algorithm to that population is appealing, but the search space is prohibitively large in most cases. Instead, we focus on evolving control policies for each member of the collective. The fundamental issue in this approach is how to create an evaluation function for each member of the collective that is both aligned with the global evaluation function and is sensitive to the fitness changes of the member, while relatively insensitive to the fitness changes of other members. We show how to construct evaluation functions in dynamic, noisy and communication-limited collective environments. On a rover coordination problem, a control policy evolved using aligned and member-sensitive evaluations outperfoms global evaluation methods by up to 400%. More notably, in the presence of a larger number of rovers or rovers with noisy and communication limited sensors, the proposed method outperforms global evaluation by a higher percentage than in noise-free conditions with a small number of rovers.
Synchronization and stability in noisy population dynamics.
Araujo, Sabrina B L; de Aguiar, M A M
2008-02-01
We study the stability and synchronization of predator-prey populations subjected to noise. The system is described by patches of local populations coupled by migration and predation over a neighborhood. When a single patch is considered, random perturbations tend to destabilize the populations, leading to extinction. If the number of patches is small, stabilization in the presence of noise is maintained at the expense of synchronization. As the number of patches increases, both the stability and the synchrony among patches increase. However, a residual asynchrony, large compared with the noise amplitude, seems to persist even in the limit of an infinite number of patches. Therefore, the mechanism of stabilization by asynchrony recently proposed by Abta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098104 (2007)], combining noise, diffusion, and nonlinearities, seems to be more general than first proposed.
Desert ants achieve reliable recruitment across noisy interactions.
Razin, Nitzan; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Feinerman, Ofer
2013-05-06
We study how desert ants, Cataglyphis niger, a species that lacks pheromone-based recruitment mechanisms, inform each other about the presence of food. Our results are based on automated tracking that allows us to collect a large database of ant trajectories and interactions. We find that interactions affect an ant's speed within the nest. Fast ants tend to slow down, whereas slow ones increase their speed when encountering a faster ant. Faster ants tend to exit the nest more frequently than slower ones. So, if an ant gains enough speed through encounters with others, then she tends to leave the nest and look for food. On the other hand, we find that the probability for her to leave the nest depends only on her speed, but not on whether she had recently interacted with a recruiter that has found the food. This suggests a recruitment system in which ants communicate their state by very simple interactions. Based on this assumption, we estimate the information-theoretical channel capacity of the ants' pairwise interactions. We find that the response to the speed of an interacting nest-mate is very noisy. The question is then how random interactions with ants within the nest can be distinguished from those interactions with a recruiter who has found food. Our measurements and model suggest that this distinction does not depend on reliable communication but on behavioural differences between ants that have found the food and those that have not. Recruiters retain high speeds throughout the experiment, regardless of the ants they interact with; non-recruiters communicate with a limited number of nest-mates and adjust their speed following these interactions. These simple rules lead to the formation of a bistable switch on the level of the group that allows the distinction between recruitment and random noise in the nest. A consequence of the mechanism we propose is a negative effect of ant density on exit rates and recruitment success. This is, indeed, confirmed by our
Identification of determinism in noisy neuronal systems.
Slutzky, Marc W; Cvitanovic, Predrag; Mogul, David J
2002-08-30
Most neuronal ensembles are nonlinear excitable systems. Thus it is becoming common to apply principles derived from nonlinear dynamics to characterize neuronal systems. One important characterization is whether such systems contain deterministic behavior or are purely stochastic. Unfortunately, many methods used to make this distinction do not perform well when both determinism and high-amplitude noise are present which is often the case in physiological systems. Therefore, we propose two novel techniques for identifying determinism in experimental systems. The first, called short-time expansion analysis, examines the expansion rate of small groups of points in state space. The second, called state point forcing, derives from the technique of chaos control. The system state is forced onto a fixed point, and the subsequent behavior is analyzed. This technique can be used to verify the presence of fixed points (or unstable periodic orbits) and to assess stationarity. If these are present, it implies that the system contains determinism. We demonstrate the use and possible limitations of these two techniques in two systems: the Hénon map, a classic example of a chaotic system, and spontaneous epileptiform bursting in the rat hippocampal slice. Identifying the presence of determinism in a physiological system assists in the understanding of the system's dynamics and provides a mechanism for manipulating this behavior.
Quantum states tomography with noisy measurement channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Yu. I.; Bantysh, B. I.; Bogdanova, N. A.; Kvasnyy, A. B.; Lukichev, V. F.
2016-12-01
We consider realistic measurement systems, where measurements are accompanied by decoherence processes. The aim of this work is the construction of methods and algorithms for precise quantum measurements with fidelity close to the fundamental limit. In the present work the notions of ideal and non-ideal quantum measurements are strictly formalized. It is shown that non-ideal quantum measurements could be represented as a mixture of ideal measurements. Based on root approach the quantum state reconstruction method is developed. Informational accuracy theory of non-ideal quantum measurements is proposed. The monitoring of the amount of information about the quantum state parameters is examined, including the analysis of the information degradation under the noise influence. The study of achievable fidelity in non-ideal quantum measurements is performed. The results of simulation of fidelity characteristics of a wide class of quantum protocols based on polyhedrons geometry with high level of symmetry are presented. The impact of different decoherence mechanisms, including qubit amplitude and phase relaxation, bit-flip and phase-flip, is considered.
Emergence of a negative resistance in noisy coupled linear oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiroz-Juárez, M. A.; Aragón, J. L.; León-Montiel, R. de J.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Domínguez-Juárez, J. L.; Quintero-Torres, R.
2016-12-01
We report on the experimental observation of an emerging negative resistance in a system of coupled linear electronic RLC harmonic oscillators under the influence of multiplicative noise with long correlation time. When two oscillators are coupled by a noisy inductor, an analysis in the Fourier space of the electrical variables unveils the presence of an effective negative resistance, which acts as an energy transport facilitator. This might constitute a simple explanation of the now fashionable problem of energy transport assisted by noise in classical systems. The experimental setup is based on the working principle of an analog computer and by itself constitutes a versatile platform for studying energy transport in noisy systems by means of coupled electrical oscillator systems.
Restoration of noisy blurred images by a smoothing spline filter.
Peyrovian, M J; Sawchuk, A A
1977-12-01
For the restoration of noisy blurred images, a controllable smoothing criterion based on the locally variable statistics and minimization of the second derivative is defined, and the corresponding filter, applicable to both space-variant and space-invariant degradations, is obtained. The output of this filter is a cubic spline function. The parameters of the filter determine the local smoothing window and over-all extent of smoothing, and thus the tradeoff between resolution and smoothing is controllable in a spatially nonstationary manner. The interesting properties of this filter have made it capable of restoring signal-dependent noisy images, and it has been successfully applied for filtering images degraded by film-grain noise. Since the matrices of this filter are banded circulant or Toeplitz, efficient algorithms are used for matrix manipulations.
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2014-01-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Noisy Oscillations in the Actin Cytoskeleton of Chemotactic Amoeba
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negrete, Jose; Pumir, Alain; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Westendorf, Christian; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2016-09-01
Biological systems with their complex biochemical networks are known to be intrinsically noisy. Here we investigate the dynamics of actin polymerization of amoeboid cells, which are close to the onset of oscillations. We show that the large phenotypic variability in the polymerization dynamics can be accurately captured by a generic nonlinear oscillator model in the presence of noise. We determine the relative role of the noise with a single dimensionless, experimentally accessible parameter, thus providing a quantitative description of the variability in a population of cells. Our approach, which rests on a generic description of a system close to a Hopf bifurcation and includes the effect of noise, can characterize the dynamics of a large class of noisy systems close to an oscillatory instability.
Quantum state transfer through noisy quantum cellular automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avalle, Michele; Genoni, Marco G.; Serafini, Alessio
2015-05-01
We model the transport of an unknown quantum state on one dimensional qubit lattices by means of a quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolution. We do this by first introducing a class of discrete noisy dynamics, in the first excitation sector, in which a wide group of classical stochastic dynamics is embedded within the more general formalism of quantum operations. We then extend the Hilbert space of the system to accommodate a global vacuum state, thus allowing for the transport of initial on-site coherences besides excitations, and determine the dynamical constraints that define the class of noisy QCA in this subspace. We then study the transport performance through numerical simulations, showing that for some instances of the dynamics perfect quantum state transfer is attainable. Our approach provides one with a natural description of both unitary and open quantum evolutions, where the homogeneity and locality of interactions allow one to take into account several forms of quantum noise in a plausible scenario.
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication.
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C H
2014-11-26
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Nonlinear dynamics approach to speech detection in noisy signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronakowski, Lukasz J.
2009-06-01
The presented paper describes a novel approach to detection of speech corrupted by noise. The proposed procedure is based on fractal dimension, which is being evaluated directly from speech signal samples using two different methods: box-counting and the approach proposed by Katz. The recordings, taken from TIMIT database, were corrupted by five different types of noise (white, pink, hf-channel, babble and factory) with four noise amplitudes (5,10,15,20 dB). The resulting noisy speech was the subject of the analysis. The Otsu's method was used to determine a threshold value for differentiating between noise-only and noisy-speech segments. It has been shown that fractal dimension-based approach provides good basis for detecting speech under a presence of noise.
Excitation of coherent oscillations in a noisy medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Köhler, Jan; Mayer, Jörg; Schuster, Heinz Georg
2008-02-01
We numerically study the influence of neuronal threshold modulation on the properties of cortical traveling waves. For that reason we simplify a Wilson-Cowan-type integrodifferential equation model of propagating neocortical activity to a spatially discrete version. Further we introduce a noisy threshold. Depending on the noise level we find different states of the network activity, ranging from asynchronous oscillations, traveling waves, to synchronous oscillations. Finally, we induce the transition between these different states by an external modulation.
Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre
2003-03-01
Recent studies inspired by results from random matrix theory (Galluccio et al.: Physica A 259 (1998) 449; Laloux et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1467; Risk 12 (3) (1999) 69; Plerou et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1471) found that covariance matrices determined from empirical financial time series appear to contain such a high amount of noise that their structure can essentially be regarded as random. This seems, however, to be in contradiction with the fundamental role played by covariance matrices in finance, which constitute the pillars of modern investment theory and have also gained industry-wide applications in risk management. Our paper is an attempt to resolve this embarrassing paradox. The key observation is that the effect of noise strongly depends on the ratio r= n/ T, where n is the size of the portfolio and T the length of the available time series. On the basis of numerical experiments and analytic results for some toy portfolio models we show that for relatively large values of r (e.g. 0.6) noise does, indeed, have the pronounced effect suggested by Galluccio et al. (1998), Laloux et al. (1999) and Plerou et al. (1999) and illustrated later by Laloux et al. (Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 3 (2000) 391), Plerou et al. (Phys. Rev. E, e-print cond-mat/0108023) and Rosenow et al. (Europhys. Lett., e-print cond-mat/0111537) in a portfolio optimization context, while for smaller r (around 0.2 or below), the error due to noise drops to acceptable levels. Since the length of available time series is for obvious reasons limited in any practical application, any bound imposed on the noise-induced error translates into a bound on the size of the portfolio. In a related set of experiments we find that the effect of noise depends also on whether the problem arises in asset allocation or in a risk measurement context: if covariance matrices are used simply for measuring the risk of portfolios with a fixed composition rather than as inputs to optimization, the
Magnitude Estimation with Noisy Integrators Linked by an Adaptive Reference.
Thurley, Kay
2016-01-01
Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect). Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims toward answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural) integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes.
Shape adaptive, robust iris feature extraction from noisy iris images.
Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah
2013-10-01
In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate.
Sciancalepore, M; Coslovich, T; Lorenzon, P; Ziraldo, G; Taccola, G
2015-10-01
Electrical stimulation (ES) of skeletal muscle partially mimics the benefits of physical activity. However, the stimulation protocols applied clinically to date, often cause unpleasant symptoms and muscle fatigue. Here, we compared the efficiency of a "noisy" stimulus waveform derived from human electromyographic (EMG) muscle patterns, with stereotyped 45 and 1 Hz electrical stimulations applied to mouse myotubes in vitro. Human gastrocnemius medialis electromyograms recorded from volunteers during real locomotor activity were used as a template for a noisy stimulation, called EMGstim. The stimulus-induced electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and mechanical twitches in the myotubes were assessed using whole-cell perforated patch-clamp, Ca(2+) imaging and optical visualization techniques. EMGstim was more efficient in inducing myotube cell firing, [Ca(2+)]i changes and contractions compared with more conventional electrical stimulation. Its stimulation strength was also much lower than the minimum required to induce contractions via stereotyped stimulation protocols. We conclude that muscle cells in vitro can be more efficiently depolarized using the "noisy" stochastic stimulation pattern, EMGstim, a finding that suggests a way to favor a higher level of electrical activity in a larger number of cells.
Quantum resource control for noisy Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering with qubit measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiukas, Jukka; Burgarth, Daniel
2016-03-01
We demonstrate how quantum optimal control can be used to enhance quantum resources for bipartite one-way protocols, specifically Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering with qubit measurements. Steering is relevant for one-sided device-independent key distribution, the realistic implementations of which necessitate the study of noisy scenarios. So far, mainly the case of imperfect detection efficiency has been considered; here we look at the effect of dynamical noise responsible for decoherence and dissipation. In order to set up the optimization, we map the steering problem into the equivalent joint measurability problem and employ quantum resource-theoretic robustness monotones from that context. The advantage is that incompatibility (hence steerability) with arbitrary pairs of noisy qubit measurements has been completely characterized through an analytical expression, which can be turned into a computable cost function with exact gradient. Furthermore, dynamical loss of incompatibility has recently been illustrated by using these monotones. We demonstrate resource control numerically by using a special gradient-based software showing, in particular, the advantage over naive control with cost function chosen as a fidelity in relation to a specific target. We subsequently illustrate the complexity of the control landscapes with a simplified two-variable scheme. The results contribute to the theoretical understanding of the limitations in realistic implementations of quantum information protocols, also paving the way to practical use of the rather abstract quantum resource theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Ostrove, Corey I.
2017-01-01
This paper describes a novel approach to solving unstructured search problems using a classical, signal-based emulation of a quantum computer. The classical nature of the representation allows one to perform subspace projections in addition to the usual unitary gate operations. Although bandwidth requirements will limit the scale of problems that can be solved by this method, it can nevertheless provide a significant computational advantage for problems of limited size. In particular, we find that, for the same number of noisy oracle calls, the proposed subspace projection method provides a higher probability of success for finding a solution than does an single application of Grover's algorithm on the same device.
Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, R.; Ourmazd, A.; Hanna, A. M.; Vendrell, O.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, T.; Santra, R.; Ourmazd, A.
2016-04-01
Imperfect knowledge of the times at which ‘snapshots’ of a system are recorded degrades our ability to recover dynamical information, and can scramble the sequence of events. In X-ray free-electron lasers, for example, the uncertainty—the so-called timing jitter—between the arrival of an optical trigger (‘pump’) pulse and a probing X-ray pulse can exceed the length of the X-ray pulse by up to two orders of magnitude, marring the otherwise precise time-resolution capabilities of this class of instruments. The widespread notion that little dynamical information is available on timescales shorter than the timing uncertainty has led to various hardware schemes to reduce timing uncertainty. These schemes are expensive, tend to be specific to one experimental approach and cannot be used when the record was created under ill-defined or uncontrolled conditions such as during geological events. Here we present a data-analytical approach, based on singular-value decomposition and nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis, that can recover the history and dynamics of a system from a dense collection of noisy snapshots spanning a sufficiently large multiple of the timing uncertainty. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by extracting the underlying dynamics on the few-femtosecond timescale from noisy experimental X-ray free-electron laser data recorded with 300-femtosecond timing uncertainty. Using a noisy dataset from a pump-probe experiment on the Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules, our analysis reveals vibrational wave-packets consisting of components with periods as short as 15 femtoseconds, as well as more rapid changes, which have yet to be fully explored. Our approach can potentially be applied whenever dynamical or historical information is tainted by timing uncertainty.
Experimental Extraction of Secure Correlations from a Noisy Private State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobek, K.; Karpiński, M.; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R.; Banaszek, K.; Horodecki, P.
2011-01-01
We report experimental generation of a noisy entangled four-photon state that exhibits a separation between the secure key contents and distillable entanglement, a hallmark feature of the recently established quantum theory of private states. The privacy analysis, based on the full tomographic reconstruction of the prepared state, is utilized in a proof-of-principle key generation. The inferiority of distillation-based strategies to extract the key is exposed by an implementation of an entanglement distillation protocol for the produced state.
Rotation Matrix Method for Analyzing Noisy Nonlinear Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, P. C.; Ivanov, L. M.; Margolina, T. M.
2005-12-01
Analysis on noisy nonlinear data is to solve a set of algebraic equations. Three factors affect the accuracy of reconstruction: (a) large condition number of the coefficient matrix, (b) high noise-to-signal ratio in the source term, and (c) no a-priori knowledge of noise statistics. To improve the reconstruction accuracy, the set of linear algebraic equations is transformed into a new one with minimum condition number and noise-to-signal ratio using the rotation matrix. The procedure does not require any knowledge of low-order statistics of noises. Several examples including highly distorted Lorenz attractor, Black Sea circulations illustrate the benefit of using this procedure.
Teleportation in a noisy environment: a quantum trajectories approach.
Carlo, Gabriel G; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio
2003-12-19
We study the fidelity of quantum teleportation for the situation in which quantum logic gates are used to provide the long distance entanglement required in the protocol, and where the effect of a noisy environment is modeled by means of a generalized amplitude damping channel. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum trajectories approach, which allows the simulation of open systems with a large number of qubits (up to 24). This shows that the method is suitable for modeling quantum information protocols in realistic environments.
Fast Object Recognition in Noisy Images Using Simulated Annealing.
1994-12-01
correlation coefficient is used as a measure of the match between a hypothesized object and an image. Templates are generated on-line during the search by transforming model images. Simulated annealing reduces the search time by orders of magnitude with respect to an exhaustive search. The algorithm is applied to the problem of how landmarks, for example, traffic signs, can be recognized by an autonomous vehicle or a navigating robot. The algorithm works well in noisy, real-world images of complicated scenes for model images with high information
Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools
Thompson, Sandra E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy J.; Foster, Nancy S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Amonette, James E.
2005-06-04
The potential use of chemicals, biotoxins and biological pathogens are a threat to military and police forces as well as the general public. Rapid identification of these agents is made difficult due to the noisy nature of the signal that can be obtained from portable, in-field sensors. In previously published articles, we created a flowchart that illustrated a method for triaging bacterial identification by combining standard statistical techniques for discrimination and identification with mid-infrared spectroscopic data. The present work documents the process of characterizing and eliminating the sources of the noise and outlines how multidisciplinary teams are necessary to accomplish that goal.
Noisy quantum cellular automata for quantum versus classical excitation transfer.
Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio
2014-05-02
We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.
Direct characterization of quantum dynamics with noisy ancilla
Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Humble, Travis S.
2015-11-23
We present methods for the direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) in which both the principal and ancilla systems undergo noisy processes. Using a concatenated error detection code, we discriminate between located and unlocated errors on the principal system in what amounts to filtering of ancilla noise. The example of composite noise involving amplitude damping and depolarizing channels is used to demonstrate the method, while we find the rate of noise filtering is more generally dependent on code distance. Furthermore our results indicate the accuracy of quantum process characterization can be greatly improved while remaining within reach of current experimentalmore » capabilities.« less
Direct characterization of quantum dynamics with noisy ancilla
Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Humble, Travis S.
2015-11-23
We present methods for the direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) in which both the principal and ancilla systems undergo noisy processes. Using a concatenated error detection code, we discriminate between located and unlocated errors on the principal system in what amounts to filtering of ancilla noise. The example of composite noise involving amplitude damping and depolarizing channels is used to demonstrate the method, while we find the rate of noise filtering is more generally dependent on code distance. Furthermore our results indicate the accuracy of quantum process characterization can be greatly improved while remaining within reach of current experimental capabilities.
Noisy Quantum Cellular Automata for Quantum versus Classical Excitation Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avalle, Michele; Serafini, Alessio
2014-05-01
We introduce a class of noisy quantum cellular automata on a qubit lattice that includes all classical Markov chains, as well as maps where quantum coherence between sites is allowed to build up over time. We apply such a construction to the problem of excitation transfer through 1D lattices, and compare the performance of classical and quantum dynamics with equal local transition probabilities. Our discrete approach has the merits of stripping down the complications of the open system dynamics, of clearly isolating coherent effects, and of allowing for an exact treatment of conditional dynamics, all while capturing a rich variety of dynamical behaviors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajeeb, R.; Manohar, C. S.; Roy, D.
2007-09-01
The problem of active control of nonlinear structural dynamical systems, in the presence of both process and measurement noises, is considered. The focus of the study is on the use of particle filters for state estimation in feedback control algorithms for nonlinear structures, when a limited number of noisy output measurements are available. The control design is done using the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) method. The stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing the dynamical systems are discretized using explicit forms of Ito-Taylor expansions. The Bayesian bootstrap filter and that based on sequential important sampling (SIS) are employed for state estimation. The simulation results show the feasibility of using particle filters and SDRE techniques in control of nonlinear structural dynamical systems.
Objectivity in a noisy photonic environment through quantum state information broadcasting.
Korbicz, J K; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R
2014-03-28
Recently, the emergence of classical objectivity as a property of a quantum state has been explicitly derived for a small object embedded in a photonic environment in terms of a spectrum broadcast form-a specific classically correlated state, redundantly encoding information about the preferred states of the object in the environment. However, the environment was in a pure state and the fundamental problem was how generic and robust is the conclusion. Here, we prove that despite the initial environmental noise, the emergence of the broadcast structure still holds, leading to the perceived objectivity of the state of the object. We also show how this leads to a quantum Darwinism-type condition, reflecting the classicality of proliferated information in terms of a limit behavior of the mutual information. Quite surprisingly, we find "singular points" of the decoherence, which can be used to faithfully broadcast a specific classical message through the noisy environment.
Entanglement and communication-reducing properties of noisy N-qubit states
Laskowski, Wieslaw; Paterek, Tomasz; Brukner, Caslav; Zukowski, Marek
2010-04-15
We consider properties of states of many qubits, which arise after sending certain entangled states via various noisy channels (white noise, colored noise, local depolarization, dephasing, and amplitude damping). Entanglement of these states and their ability to violate certain classes of Bell inequalities are studied. States which violate them allow a higher than classical efficiency in solving related distributed computational tasks with constrained communication. This is a direct property of such states--not requiring their further modification via stochastic local operations and classical communication such as entanglement purification or distillation procedures. We identify families of multiparticle states which are entangled but nevertheless allow the local realistic description of specific Bell experiments. For some of them, the 'gap' between the critical values for entanglement and violation of Bell inequality remains finite even in the limit of infinitely many qubits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Billings, S. A.
This paper investigates the identification of global models from chaotic data corrupted by additive noise. It is verified that noise has a strong influence on the identification of chaotic systems. In particular, there seems to be a critical noise level beyond which the accurate estimation of polynomial models from chaotic data becomes very difficult. Similarities with the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from noisy data suggest that part of the problem might be related to the limited ability of predicting the data records when these are chaotic. A nonlinear filtering scheme is suggested in order to reduce the noise in the data and thereby enable the estimation of good models. This prediction-based filtering incorporates a resetting mechanism which enables the filtering of chaotic data and which is also applicable to non-chaotic data.
Objectivity in a Noisy Photonic Environment through Quantum State Information Broadcasting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.
2014-03-01
Recently, the emergence of classical objectivity as a property of a quantum state has been explicitly derived for a small object embedded in a photonic environment in terms of a spectrum broadcast form—a specific classically correlated state, redundantly encoding information about the preferred states of the object in the environment. However, the environment was in a pure state and the fundamental problem was how generic and robust is the conclusion. Here, we prove that despite the initial environmental noise, the emergence of the broadcast structure still holds, leading to the perceived objectivity of the state of the object. We also show how this leads to a quantum Darwinism-type condition, reflecting the classicality of proliferated information in terms of a limit behavior of the mutual information. Quite surprisingly, we find "singular points" of the decoherence, which can be used to faithfully broadcast a specific classical message through the noisy environment.
Extreme fluctuations in noisy task-completion landscapes on scale-free networks.
Guclu, H; Korniss, G; Toroczkai, Z
2007-06-01
We study the statistics and scaling of extreme fluctuations in noisy task-completion landscapes, such as those emerging in synchronized distributed-computing networks, or generic causally constrained queuing networks, with scale-free topology. In these networks the average size of the fluctuations becomes finite (synchronized state) and the extreme fluctuations typically diverge only logarithmically in the large system-size limit ensuring synchronization in a practical sense. Provided that local fluctuations in the network are short tailed, the statistics of the extremes are governed by the Gumbel distribution. We present large-scale simulation results using the exact algorithmic rules, supported by mean-field arguments based on a coarse-grained description.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayak, Anantha S.; Sudha; Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.
2017-02-01
We employ the conditional version of sandwiched Tsallis relative entropy to determine 1:N-1 separability range in the noisy one-parameter families of pseudopure and Werner-like N-qubit W, GHZ states. The range of the noisy parameter, for which the conditional sandwiched Tsallis relative entropy is positive, reveals perfect agreement with the necessary and sufficient criteria for separability in the 1:N-1 partition of these one parameter noisy states.
A multistaged automatic restoration of noisy microscopy cell images.
Xu, Jinwei; Hu, Jiankun; Jia, Xiuping
2015-01-01
Automated cell segmentation for microscopy cell images has recently become an initial step for further image analysis in cell biology. However, microscopy cell images are easily degraded by noise during the readout procedure via optical-electronic imaging systems. Such noise degradations result in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and poor image quality for cell identification. In order to improve SNR for subsequent segmentation and image-based quantitative analysis, the commonly used state-of-art restoration techniques are applied but few of them are suitable for corrupted microscopy cell images. In this paper, we propose a multistaged method based on a novel integration of trend surface analysis, quantile-quantile plot, bootstrapping, and the Gaussian spatial kernel for the restoration of noisy microscopy cell images. We show this multistaged approach achieves higher performance compared with other state-of-art restoration techniques in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio and structure similarity in synthetic noise experiments. This paper also reports an experiment on real noisy microscopy data which demonstrated the advantages of the proposed restoration method for improving segmentation performance.
Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live
Duarte, Marina H. L.; Vecci, Marco A.; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J.
2011-01-01
Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396
AveBoost2: Boosting for Noisy Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, Nikunj C.
2004-01-01
AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the pre- vious base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. In previous work, we developed an algorithm, AveBoost, that constructed distributions orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous models, and then averaged them to create the next base model s distribution. Our experiments demonstrated the superior accuracy of our approach. In this paper, we slightly revise our algorithm to allow us to obtain non-trivial theoretical results: bounds on the training error and generalization error (difference between training and test error). Our averaging process has a regularizing effect which, as expected, leads us to a worse training error bound for our algorithm than for AdaBoost but a superior generalization error bound. For this paper, we experimented with the data that we used in both as originally supplied and with added label noise-a small fraction of the data has its original label changed. Noisy data are notoriously difficult for AdaBoost to learn. Our algorithm's performance improvement over AdaBoost is even greater on the noisy data than the original data.
Extensions to minimum relative entropy inversion for noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulrych, Tadeusz J.; Woodbury, Allan D.
2003-12-01
Minimum relative entropy (MRE) and Tikhonov regularization (TR) were compared by Neupauer et al. [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 2469] on the basis of an example plume source reconstruction problem originally proposed by Skaggs and Kabala [Water Resour. Res. 30 (1994) 71] and a boxcar-like function. Although Neupauer et al. [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 2469] were careful in their conclusions to note the basis of these comparisons, we show that TR does not perform well on problems in which delta-like sources are convolved with diffuse-groundwater contamination response functions, particularly in the presence of noise. We also show that it is relatively easy to estimate an appropriate value for ɛ, the hyperparameter needed in the minimum relative entropy solution for the inverse problem in the presence of noise. This can be estimated in a variety of ways, including estimation from the data themselves, analysis of data residuals, and a rigorous approach using the real cepstrum and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Regardless of the approach chosen, for the sample problem reported herein, excellent resolution of multiple delta-like spikes is produced from MRE from noisy, diffuse data. The usefulness of MRE for noisy inverse problems has been demonstrated.
Extensions to minimum relative entropy inversion for noisy data.
Ulrych, Tadeusz J; Woodbury, Allan D
2003-12-01
Minimum relative entropy (MRE) and Tikhonov regularization (TR) were compared by Neupauer et al. [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 2469] on the basis of an example plume source reconstruction problem originally proposed by Skaggs and Kabala [Water Resour. Res. 30 (1994) 71] and a boxcar-like function. Although Neupauer et al. [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 2469] were careful in their conclusions to note the basis of these comparisons, we show that TR does not perform well on problems in which delta-like sources are convolved with diffuse-groundwater contamination response functions, particularly in the presence of noise. We also show that it is relatively easy to estimate an appropriate value for epsilon, the hyperparameter needed in the minimum relative entropy solution for the inverse problem in the presence of noise. This can be estimated in a variety of ways, including estimation from the data themselves, analysis of data residuals, and a rigorous approach using the real cepstrum and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Regardless of the approach chosen, for the sample problem reported herein, excellent resolution of multiple delta-like spikes is produced from MRE from noisy, diffuse data. The usefulness of MRE for noisy inverse problems has been demonstrated.
Graph ensemble boosting for imbalanced noisy graph stream classification.
Pan, Shirui; Wu, Jia; Zhu, Xingquan; Zhang, Chengqi
2015-05-01
Many applications involve stream data with structural dependency, graph representations, and continuously increasing volumes. For these applications, it is very common that their class distributions are imbalanced with minority (or positive) samples being only a small portion of the population, which imposes significant challenges for learning models to accurately identify minority samples. This problem is further complicated with the presence of noise, because they are similar to minority samples and any treatment for the class imbalance may falsely focus on the noise and result in deterioration of accuracy. In this paper, we propose a classification model to tackle imbalanced graph streams with noise. Our method, graph ensemble boosting, employs an ensemble-based framework to partition graph stream into chunks each containing a number of noisy graphs with imbalanced class distributions. For each individual chunk, we propose a boosting algorithm to combine discriminative subgraph pattern selection and model learning as a unified framework for graph classification. To tackle concept drifting in graph streams, an instance level weighting mechanism is used to dynamically adjust the instance weight, through which the boosting framework can emphasize on difficult graph samples. The classifiers built from different graph chunks form an ensemble for graph stream classification. Experiments on real-life imbalanced graph streams demonstrate clear benefits of our boosting design for handling imbalanced noisy graph stream.
Blur kernel estimate in single noisy image deblurring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shijie; Zhao, Huaici; Li, Bo
2014-11-01
Restoring blurred images is challenging because both the blur kernel and the sharp image are unknown, which makes this problem severely under constrained. Recently many single image blind deconvolution methods have been proposed, but these state-of-the-art single image deblurring techniques are still sensitive to image noise, and can degrade their performance rapidly especially when the noise level of the input blurred images increases. In this work, we estimate the blur kernel accurately by applying a series of directional low-pass filters in different orientations to the input blurred image, and effectively constructing the Radon transform of the blur kernel from each filtered image. Finally, we use a robust non-blind deconvolution method with outlier handling, which can effectively reduce ringing artifacts, to generate the final results. Our experimental results on both synthetic and real-world examples show that our method achieves comparable quality to existing approaches on blurry noisy-free images, and higher quality outputs than previous approaches on blurry and noisy images.
Optimal block cosine transform image coding for noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaishampayan, V.; Farvardin, N.
1986-01-01
The two dimensional block transform coding scheme based on the discrete cosine transform was studied extensively for image coding applications. While this scheme has proven to be efficient in the absence of channel errors, its performance degrades rapidly over noisy channels. A method is presented for the joint source channel coding optimization of a scheme based on the 2-D block cosine transform when the output of the encoder is to be transmitted via a memoryless design of the quantizers used for encoding the transform coefficients. This algorithm produces a set of locally optimum quantizers and the corresponding binary code assignment for the assumed transform coefficient statistics. To determine the optimum bit assignment among the transform coefficients, an algorithm was used based on the steepest descent method, which under certain convexity conditions on the performance of the channel optimized quantizers, yields the optimal bit allocation. Comprehensive simulation results for the performance of this locally optimum system over noisy channels were obtained and appropriate comparisons against a reference system designed for no channel error were rendered.
The dynamic mechanism of noisy signal decoding in gene regulation
Liu, Peijiang; Wang, Haohua; Huang, Lifang; Zhou, Tianshou
2017-01-01
Experimental evidence supports that signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation, but how an input signal is encoded by such a dynamic, noisy TF and further decoded by downstream genes remains largely unclear. Here, using a system of stochastic transcription with signal regulation, we show that (1) keeping the intensity of the signal noise invariant but prolonging the signal duration can both enhance the mutual information (MI) and reduce the energetic cost (EC); (2) if the signal duration is fixed, the larger MI needs the larger EC, but if the signal period is fixed, there is an optimal time that the signal spends at one lower branch, such that MI reaches the maximum; (3) if both the period and the duration are simultaneously fixed, increasing the input noise can always enhance MI in the case of transcription regulation rather than in the case of degradation regulation. In addition, we find that the input noise can induce stochastic focusing in a regulation-dependent manner. These results reveal not only the dynamic mechanism of noisy signal decoding in gene regulation but also the essential role of external noise in controlling gene expression levels. PMID:28176840
Forecasting turbulent modes with nonparametric diffusion models: Learning from noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, Tyrus; Harlim, John
2016-04-01
In this paper, we apply a recently developed nonparametric modeling approach, the "diffusion forecast", to predict the time-evolution of Fourier modes of turbulent dynamical systems. While the diffusion forecasting method assumes the availability of a noise-free training data set observing the full state space of the dynamics, in real applications we often have only partial observations which are corrupted by noise. To alleviate these practical issues, following the theory of embedology, the diffusion model is built using the delay-embedding coordinates of the data. We show that this delay embedding biases the geometry of the data in a way which extracts the most stable component of the dynamics and reduces the influence of independent additive observation noise. The resulting diffusion forecast model approximates the semigroup solutions of the generator of the underlying dynamics in the limit of large data and when the observation noise vanishes. As in any standard forecasting problem, the forecasting skill depends crucially on the accuracy of the initial conditions. We introduce a novel Bayesian method for filtering the discrete-time noisy observations which works with the diffusion forecast to determine the forecast initial densities. Numerically, we compare this nonparametric approach with standard stochastic parametric models on a wide-range of well-studied turbulent modes, including the Lorenz-96 model in weakly chaotic to fully turbulent regimes and the barotropic modes of a quasi-geostrophic model with baroclinic instabilities. We show that when the only available data is the low-dimensional set of noisy modes that are being modeled, the diffusion forecast is indeed competitive to the perfect model.
Real time speech enhancement for the noisy MRI environment.
Pathak, Nishank; Panahi, Issa; Devineni, P; Briggs, Richard
2009-01-01
Performance of two Adaptive (nLMS and Normalized Sign-error LMS) and a single channel (LogMMSE) speech enhancement algorithms are tested on a floating point DSP to reveal their effectiveness in enhancing speech corrupted in noisy MRI environment with very low SNR. The purpose of experiments is to reduce the fatigue of the listener by eliminating the strong MRI noise. The experiments use actual data set collected from a 3-Tesla MRI machine. Results of the experiments and performance of the speech enhancement system are presented in this paper. The speech enhancement system is automated. Our experiments reveal that after enhancement of the speech signal using Sign-Error LMS, the residual noise shows characteristics of white noise in contrast to the residual noise of the other algorithms which is more structured. It is also shown that the Sign-Error LMS offers fast convergence in comparison to the other two methods.
Noisy quantum walks of two indistinguishable interacting particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siloi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Claudia; Piccinini, Enrico; Piilo, Jyrki; Maniscalco, Sabrina; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Bordone, Paolo
2017-02-01
We investigate the dynamics of continuous-time two-particle quantum walks on a one-dimensional noisy lattice. Depending on the initial condition, we show how the interplay between particle indistinguishability and interaction determines distinct propagation regimes. A realistic model for the environment is considered by introducing non-Gaussian noise as time-dependent fluctuations of the tunneling amplitudes between adjacent sites. We observe that the combined effect of particle interaction and fast noise (weak coupling with the environment) provides a faster propagation compared to the noiseless case. This effect can be understood in terms of the band structure of the Hubbard model, and a detailed analysis as a function of both noise and system parameters is presented.
Genetic Redundancies Enhance Information Transfer in Noisy Regulatory Circuits
Rodrigo, Guillermo; Poyatos, Juan F.
2016-01-01
Cellular decision making is based on regulatory circuits that associate signal thresholds to specific physiological actions. This transmission of information is subjected to molecular noise what can decrease its fidelity. Here, we show instead how such intrinsic noise enhances information transfer in the presence of multiple circuit copies. The result is due to the contribution of noise to the generation of autonomous responses by each copy, which are altogether associated with a common decision. Moreover, factors that correlate the responses of the redundant units (extrinsic noise or regulatory cross-talk) contribute to reduce fidelity, while those that further uncouple them (heterogeneity within the copies) can lead to stronger information gain. Overall, our study emphasizes how the interplay of signal thresholding, redundancy, and noise influences the accuracy of cellular decision making. Understanding this interplay provides a basis to explain collective cell signaling mechanisms, and to engineer robust decisions with noisy genetic circuits. PMID:27741249
Traveling phase waves in asymmetric networks of noisy chaotic attractors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Kurths, Jürgen; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Sonnenschein, Bernard
2016-10-01
We explore identical Rössler systems organized into two equally sized groups, among which differing positive and negative in- and out-coupling strengths are allowed. With this asymmetric coupling, we analyze patterns in the phase dynamics that coexist with chaotic amplitudes. We specifically investigate traveling phase waves where the oscillators settle on a new rhythm different from their own. We show that these waves are possible even without coherence in the phase angles. It is further demonstrated that the emergence of these incoherent traveling waves depends on the type of coupling, not on the individual dynamics of the Rössler systems. Together with the study of noise effects, our results suggest a promising new avenue toward the interplay of chaotic, noisy, coherent, and incoherent collective dynamics.
Modulated noisy light propagated on dispersive fiber in optical links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salehi, M. R.; Dehghani, M. J.
2008-12-01
The intensity spectrum of modulated noisy light on optical microwave signal processing and on conversion of FM noise to intensity noise in optical links is investigated theoretically and experimentally with a good agreement. We have applied a model that uses a 1550 nm distributed feedback (DFB) laser and an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI) considering the external phase modulator. Numerical calculations show the influence of the phase modulation index, modulation frequency, and interferometric delay in the phase-to-intensity noise conversion by lowest-order group-velocity dispersion in optical fiber. The results can be employed to estimate the influence of the chromatic dispersion in phase-to-intensity noise conversion, which use either self-delayed interferences or interferometers.
Trading in markets with noisy information: an evolutionary analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloembergen, Daan; Hennes, Daniel; McBurney, Peter; Tuyls, Karl
2015-07-01
We analyse the value of information in a stock market where information can be noisy and costly, using techniques from empirical game theory. Previous work has shown that the value of information follows a J-curve, where averagely informed traders perform below market average, and only insiders prevail. Here we show that both noise and cost can change this picture, in several cases leading to opposite results where insiders perform below market average, and averagely informed traders prevail. Moreover, we investigate the effect of random explorative actions on the market dynamics, showing how these lead to a mix of traders being sustained in equilibrium. These results provide insight into the complexity of real marketplaces, and show under which conditions a broad mix of different trading strategies might be sustainable.
Reconstruction of pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance
Han, Jing; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan
2015-01-01
We investigate a practical technology for reconstructing nanosecond pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance, which is based on the modulation instability. A theoretical model of this method for optical pulse signal is built to effectively recover the pulse image. The nanosecond noise-hidden images grow at the expense of noise during the stochastic resonance process in a photorefractive medium. The properties of output images are mainly determined by the input signal-to-noise intensity ratio, the applied voltage across the medium, and the correlation length of noise background. A high cross-correlation gain is obtained by optimizing these parameters. This provides a potential method for detecting low-level or hidden pulse images in various imaging applications. PMID:26067911
Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato
2017-02-01
Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.
Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Shalchi, A.; Hussein, M. E-mail: m_hussein@physics.umanitoba.ca
2014-10-10
A model for noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence was recently proposed. This model was already used to study the random walk of magnetic field lines. In the current article we use the same model to investigate the diffusion of energetic particles across the mean magnetic field. To compute the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, two analytical theories are used, namely, the Non-Linear Guiding Center theory and the Unified Non-Linear Transport (UNLT) theory. It is shown that the two theories provide different results for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. We also perform test-particle simulations for the aforementioned turbulence model. We show that only the UNLT theory describes perpendicular transport accurately, confirming that this is a powerful tool in diffusion theory.
Grothendieck's constant and local models for noisy entangled quantum states
Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Toner, Benjamin
2006-06-15
We relate the nonlocal properties of noisy entangled states to Grothendieck's constant, a mathematical constant appearing in Banach space theory. For two-qubit Werner states {rho}{sub p}{sup W}=p|{psi}{sup -}><{psi}{sup -}|+(1-p)1/4, we show that there is a local model for projective measurements if and only if p{<=}1/K{sub G}(3), where K{sub G}(3) is Grothendieck's constant of order 3. Known bounds on K{sub G}(3) prove the existence of this model at least for p < or approx. 0.66, quite close to the current region of Bell violation, p{approx}0.71. We generalize this result to arbitrary quantum states.
Symplectic geometry spectrum regression for prediction of noisy time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Hong-Bo; Dokos, Socrates; Sivakumar, Bellie; Mengersen, Kerrie
2016-05-01
We present the symplectic geometry spectrum regression (SGSR) technique as well as a regularized method based on SGSR for prediction of nonlinear time series. The main tool of analysis is the symplectic geometry spectrum analysis, which decomposes a time series into the sum of a small number of independent and interpretable components. The key to successful regularization is to damp higher order symplectic geometry spectrum components. The effectiveness of SGSR and its superiority over local approximation using ordinary least squares are demonstrated through prediction of two noisy synthetic chaotic time series (Lorenz and Rössler series), and then tested for prediction of three real-world data sets (Mississippi River flow data and electromyographic and mechanomyographic signal recorded from human body).
Information jet: Handling noisy big data from weakly disconnected network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurongzeb, Deeder
Sudden aggregation (information jet) of large amount of data is ubiquitous around connected social networks, driven by sudden interacting and non-interacting events, network security threat attacks, online sales channel etc. Clustering of information jet based on time series analysis and graph theory is not new but little work is done to connect them with particle jet statistics. We show pre-clustering based on context can element soft network or network of information which is critical to minimize time to calculate results from noisy big data. We show difference between, stochastic gradient boosting and time series-graph clustering. For disconnected higher dimensional information jet, we use Kallenberg representation theorem (Kallenberg, 2005, arXiv:1401.1137) to identify and eliminate jet similarities from dense or sparse graph.
Traveling phase waves in asymmetric networks of noisy chaotic attractors.
Peron, Thomas K Dm; Kurths, Jürgen; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Sonnenschein, Bernard
2016-10-01
We explore identical Rössler systems organized into two equally sized groups, among which differing positive and negative in- and out-coupling strengths are allowed. With this asymmetric coupling, we analyze patterns in the phase dynamics that coexist with chaotic amplitudes. We specifically investigate traveling phase waves where the oscillators settle on a new rhythm different from their own. We show that these waves are possible even without coherence in the phase angles. It is further demonstrated that the emergence of these incoherent traveling waves depends on the type of coupling, not on the individual dynamics of the Rössler systems. Together with the study of noise effects, our results suggest a promising new avenue toward the interplay of chaotic, noisy, coherent, and incoherent collective dynamics.
Evolving Multi Rover Systems in Dynamic and Noisy Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian
2005-01-01
In this chapter, we address how to evolve control strategies for a collective: a set of entities that collectively strives to maximize a global evaluation function that rates the performance of the full system. Addressing such problems by directly applying a global evolutionary algorithm to a population of collectives is unworkable because the search space is prohibitively large. Instead, we focus on evolving control policies for each member of the collective, where each member is trying to maximize the fitness of its own population. The main difficulty with this approach is creating fitness evaluation functions for the members of the collective that induce the collective to achieve high performance with respect to the system level goal. To overcome this difficulty, we derive member evaluation functions that are both aligned with the global evaluation function (ensuring that members trying to achieve high fitness results in a collective with high fitness) and sensitive to the fitness of each member (a member's fitness depends more on its own actions than on actions of other members). In a difficult rover coordination problem in dynamic and noisy environments, we show how to construct evaluation functions that lead to good collective behavior. The control policy evolved using aligned and member-sensitive evaluations outperforms global evaluation methods by up to a factor of four. in addition we show that the collective continues to perform well in the presence of high noise levels and when the environment is highly dynamic. More notably, in the presence of a larger number of rovers or rovers with noisy sensors, the improvements due to the proposed method become significantly more pronounced.
Synchronization of coupled noisy oscillators: Coarse graining from continuous to discrete phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escaff, Daniel; Rosas, Alexandre; Toral, Raúl; Lindenberg, Katja
2016-11-01
The theoretical description of synchronization phenomena often relies on coupled units of continuous time noisy Markov chains with a small number of states in each unit. It is frequently assumed, either explicitly or implicitly, that coupled discrete-state noisy Markov units can be used to model mathematically more complex coupled noisy continuous phase oscillators. In this work we explore conditions that justify this assumption by coarse graining continuous phase units. In particular, we determine the minimum number of states necessary to justify this correspondence for Kuramoto-like oscillators.
Synchronization of coupled noisy oscillators: Coarse graining from continuous to discrete phases.
Escaff, Daniel; Rosas, Alexandre; Toral, Raúl; Lindenberg, Katja
2016-11-01
The theoretical description of synchronization phenomena often relies on coupled units of continuous time noisy Markov chains with a small number of states in each unit. It is frequently assumed, either explicitly or implicitly, that coupled discrete-state noisy Markov units can be used to model mathematically more complex coupled noisy continuous phase oscillators. In this work we explore conditions that justify this assumption by coarse graining continuous phase units. In particular, we determine the minimum number of states necessary to justify this correspondence for Kuramoto-like oscillators.
Secret sharing of a known arbitrary quantum state with noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ming-Ming; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin-Guang; Farouk, Ahmed
2015-11-01
We study quantum state sharing (QSTS) with noisy environment in this paper. As an example, we present a QSTS scheme of a known state whose information is hold by the dealer and then investigate the noisy influence process of the scheme. Taking the amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise as typical noisy channels, we show that the secret state can be shared among agents with some information lost. Our research connects the areas of quantum state sharing and remote state preparation.
Friction-induced Resonance in a Noisy Fractional Oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laas, K.; Mankin, R.
2010-11-01
The influence of the friction coefficient on the long-time behavior of the spectral amplification, variance, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) found for the output signal of a fractional oscillator with fluctuating eigenfrequency subjected to a periodic force is considered. The influence of the fluctuating environment is modeled by a multiplicative white noise and by an additive noise with a zero mean. The viscoelastic friction kernel with memory is assumed as a power-law function of time. The study is a follow-up of a previous investigation of a noisy fractional oscillator [Phys. Rev. E 81, 041122 (2010)]. On the basis of exact formulas it is demonstrated that an interplay of multiplicative noise and memory can generate a multiresonance of SNR versus the friction coefficient. The necessary and sufficient conditions for such a resonance effect are also discussed. Particularly, it is shown that resonance-like behavior of SNR versus the friction coefficient is qualitatively different in the cases of external and internal additive noises.
Spectra of delay-coupled heterogeneous noisy nonlinear oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vüllings, Andrea; Schöll, Eckehard; Lindner, Benjamin
2014-02-01
Nonlinear oscillators that are subject to noise and delayed interaction have been used to describe a number of dynamical phenomena in Physics and beyond. Here we study the spectral statistics (power and cross-spectral densities) of a small number of noisy nonlinear oscillators and derive analytical approximations for these spectra. In our paper, individual oscillators are described by the normal form of a supercritical or subcritical Hopf bifurcation supplemented by Gaussian white noise. Oscillators can be distinguished from each other by their frequency, bifurcation parameter, and noise intensity. Extending previous results from the literature, we first calculate in linear response theory the power spectral density and response function of the single oscillator in both super- and subcritical parameter regime and test them against numerical simulations. For small heterogeneous groups of oscillators (N = 2 or 3), which are coupled by a delayed linear term, we use a linear response ansatz to derive approximations for the power and cross-spectral densities of the oscillators within this small network. These approximations are confirmed by comparison with extensive numerical simulations. Using the theory we relate the peaks in the spectra of the homogeneous system (identical oscillators) to periodic solutions of the deterministic (noiseless) system. For two delay-coupled subcritical Hopf oscillators, we show that the coupling can enhance the coherence resonance effect, which is known to occur for the single subcritical oscillator. In the case of heterogeneous oscillators, we find that the delay-induced characteristic profile of the spectra is conserved for moderate frequency detuning.
Blurred and noisy image pairs in parallel optics.
Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David
2014-11-01
In previous works we have shown that parallel optics (PO) architecture can be used to improve the system matrix condition, which results in improving its immunity to additive noise in the image restoration process. PO is composed of a "main" system and an "auxiliary" system. Previously, we suggested the "trajectories" method to realize PO. In that method, a required auxiliary system is composed from auxiliary optics with a pixel confined response, followed by signal processing. In this paper, we emphasize the important secondary effects of the trajectories method. We show that in such a system, where the postprocessing comes after the detection, the postprocessing acts as a noise filter, hence allowing us to work with noisy data in the auxiliary channel. Roughly speaking, the SNR of an imaging system depends on the numerical aperture (NA). It follows that the main system, which typically has a higher NA, also has a higher SNR. Hence in the PO system, the ratio between the NA values of the main and auxiliary systems is expected to dictate the gap between their SNR values. In this paper, we show that when the system is implemented by the trajectories method, this expectation is too conservative. It is shown that due to the noise filtering, the auxiliary system can be noisier than expected. This claim is proved analytically and verified and exemplified by using experimental measurements.
The evolution of cooperation by negotiation in a noisy world.
Ito, K; McNamara, J M; Yamauchi, A; Higginson, A D
2017-03-01
Cooperative interactions among individuals are ubiquitous despite the possibility of exploitation by selfish free riders. One mechanism that may promote cooperation is 'negotiation': individuals altering their behaviour in response to the behaviour of others. Negotiating individuals decide their actions through a recursive process of reciprocal observation, thereby reducing the possibility of free riding. Evolutionary games with response rules have shown that infinitely many forms of the rule can be evolutionarily stable simultaneously, unless there is variation in individual quality. This potentially restricts the conditions under which negotiation could maintain cooperation. Organisms interact with one another in a noisy world in which cooperative effort and the assessment of effort may be subject to error. Here, we show that such noise can make the number of evolutionarily stable rules finite, even without quality variation, and so noise could help maintain cooperative behaviour. We show that the curvature of the benefit function is the key factor determining whether individuals invest more or less as their partner's investment increases, investing less when the benefit to investment has diminishing returns. If the benefits of low investment are very small then behavioural flexibility tends to promote cooperation, because negotiation enables cooperators to reach large benefits. Under some conditions, this leads to a repeating cycle in which cooperative behaviour rises and falls over time, which may explain between-population differences in cooperative behaviour. In other conditions, negotiation leads to extremely high levels of cooperative behaviour, suggesting that behavioural flexibility could facilitate the evolution of eusociality in the absence of high relatedness.
The noisy Hegselmann-Krause model for opinion dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pineda, Miguel; Toral, Raúl; Hernández-García, Emilio
2013-12-01
In the model for continuous opinion dynamics introduced by Hegselmann and Krause, each individual moves to the average opinion of all individuals within an area of confidence. In this work we study the effects of noise in this system. With certain probability, individuals are given the opportunity to change spontaneously their opinion to another one selected randomly inside the opinion space with different rules. If the random jump does not occur, individuals interact through the Hegselmann-Krause's rule. We analyze two cases, one where individuals can carry out opinion random jumps inside the whole opinion space, and other where they are allowed to perform jumps just inside a small interval centered around the current opinion. We found that these opinion random jumps change the model behavior inducing interesting phenomena. Using pattern formation techniques, we obtain approximate analytical results for critical conditions of opinion cluster formation. Finally, we compare the results of this work with the noisy version of the Deffuant et al. model [G. Deffuant, D. Neu, F. Amblard, G. Weisbuch, Adv. Compl. Syst. 3, 87 (2000)] for continuous-opinion dynamics.
Optimal block cosine transform image coding for noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaishampayan, Vinay A.; Farvardin, Nariman
1990-01-01
The two dimensional block transform coding scheme based on the discrete cosine transform was studied extensively for image coding applications. While this scheme has proven to be efficient in the absence of channel errors, its performance degrades rapidly over noisy channels. A method is presented for the joint source channel coding optimiaation of a scheme based on the 2-D block cosine transorm when the output of the encoder is to be transmitted via a memoryless design of the quantizers used for encoding the transform coefficients. This algorithm produces a set of locally optimum quantizers and the corresponding binary code assignment for the assumed transform coefficient statistics. To determine the optimum bit assignment among the transform coefficients, an algorithm was used based on the steepest descent method, which under certain convexity conditions on the performance of the channel optimized quantizers, yields the optimal bit allocation. Comprehensive simulation results for the performance of this locally optimum system over noise channels were obtained and appropriate comparisons against a reference system designed for no channel error were rendered.
Retrieval of noisy fingerprint patterns using metric attractor networks.
González, Mario; Dominguez, David; Rodríguez, Francisco B; Sánchez, Ángel
2014-11-01
This work experimentally analyzes the learning and retrieval capabilities of the diluted metric attractor neural network when applied to collections of fingerprint images. The computational cost of the network decreases with the dilution, so we can increase the region of interest to cover almost the complete fingerprint. The network retrieval was successfully tested for different noisy configurations of the fingerprints, and proved to be robust with a large basin of attraction. We showed that network topologies with a 2D-Grid arrangement adapt better to the fingerprints spatial structure, outperforming the typical 1D-Ring configuration. An optimal ratio of local connections to random shortcuts that better represent the intrinsic spatial structure of the fingerprints was found, and its influence on the retrieval quality was characterized in a phase diagram. Since the present model is a set of nonlinear equations, it is possible to go beyond the naïve static solution (consisting in matching two fingerprints using a fixed distance threshold value), and a crossing evolution of similarities was shown, leading to the retrieval of the right fingerprint from an apparently more distant candidate. This feature could be very useful for fingerprint verification to discriminate between fingerprints pairs.
Convexity, Jensen's inequality and benefits of noisy mechanical ventilation.
Brewster, John F; Graham, M Ruth; Mutch, W Alan C
2005-09-22
Mechanical ventilators breathe for you when you cannot or when your lungs are too sick to do their job. Most ventilators monotonously deliver the same-sized breaths, like clockwork; however, healthy people do not breathe this way. This has led to the development of a biologically variable ventilator--one that incorporates noise. There are indications that such a noisy ventilator may be beneficial for patients with very sick lungs. In this paper we use a probabilistic argument, based on Jensen's inequality, to identify the circumstances in which the addition of noise may be beneficial and, equally important, the circumstances in which it may not be beneficial. Using the local convexity of the relationship between airway pressure and tidal volume in the lung, we show that the addition of noise at low volume or low pressure results in higher mean volume (at the same mean pressure) or lower mean pressure (at the same mean volume). The consequence is enhanced gas exchange or less stress on the lungs, both clinically desirable. The argument has implications for other life support devices, such as cardiopulmonary bypass pumps. This paper illustrates the benefits of research that takes place at the interface between mathematics and medicine.
Reconstructing Breakage Fusion Bridge Architectures Using Noisy Copy Numbers
Bafna, Vineet
2015-01-01
Abstract The Breakage Fusion Bridge (BFB) process is a key marker for genomic instability, producing highly rearranged genomes in relatively small numbers of cell cycles. While the process itself was observed during the late 1930s, little is known about the extent of BFB in tumor genome evolution. Moreover, BFB can dramatically increase copy numbers of chromosomal segments, which in turn hardens the tasks of both reference-assisted and ab initio genome assembly. Based on available data such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) data, we show here how BFB evidence may be identified, and how to enumerate all possible evolutions of the process with respect to observed data. Specifically, we describe practical algorithms that, given a chromosomal arm segmentation and noisy segment copy number estimates, produce all segment count vectors supported by the data that can be produced by BFB, and all corresponding BFB architectures. This extends the scope of analyses described in our previous work, which produced a single count vector and architecture per instance. We apply these analyses to a comprehensive human cancer dataset, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the computation, and suggest methods for further assertions of candidate BFB samples. Source code of our tool can be found online. PMID:26020441
An edge detection method for strong noisy image using shearlets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuming; Cao, Hanqiang; Xu, Zijian
2011-11-01
Numerous edge detection methods have been proposed to detect image edges. However, these methods are not very effective in detecting edges in strong noisy images. Recent years, multiscale analysis has been introduced to the realm of image processing. As the third generation wavelet, shearlets have their own superiority. Anisotropic dilation operator and shear operator are introduced to overcome the shortcomings of traditional wavelets. Because of their sensitivity to directions, shearlets are apt to do the job of edge detection. Based on shearlets, in this paper, a new edge detection method is proposed. The main idea about this new method is combining the shearlet denoising method with the edge detecting method based on shearlets. Analyzing results show that edges are characterized as zerocrossing points in shearlet domain and can be extracted from shearlet transform coefficients by detecting zero crossing points and using boundary tracking method. Many experiments are conducted to test this novel approach and we also compare Sobel, Log and Canny operators with this new method. Experiments demonstrate that when an image existing high deviation Gaussian noise, this method are much better than ordinary edge detection operators in time domain.
Genetic programming model for forecast of short and noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivapragasam, C.; Vincent, P.; Vasudevan, G.
2007-01-01
Though forecasting of river flow has received a great deal of attention from engineers and researchers throughout the world, this still continues to be a challenging task owing to the complexity of the process. In the last decade or so, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely applied, and their ability to model complex phenomena has been clearly demonstrated. However, the success of ANNs depends very crucially on having representative records of sufficient length. Further, the forecast accuracy decreases rapidly with an increase in the forecast horizon. In this study, the use of the Darwinian theory-based recent evolutionary technique of genetic programming (GP) is suggested to forecast fortnightly flow up to 4-lead. It is demonstrated that short lead predictions can be significantly improved from a short and noisy time series if the stochastic (noise) component is appropriately filtered out. The deterministic component can then be easily modelled. Further, only the immediate antecedent exogenous and/or non-exogenous inputs can be assumed to control the process. With an increase in the forecast horizon, the stochastic components also play an important role in the forecast, besides the inherent difficulty in ascertaining the appropriate input variables which can be assumed to govern the underlying process. GP is found to be an efficient tool to identify the most appropriate input variables to achieve reasonable prediction accuracy for higher lead-period forecasts. A comparison with ANNs suggests that though there is no significant difference in the prediction accuracy, GP does offer some unique advantages. Copyright
Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan
2016-01-01
In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.
Control of noisy quantum systems: Field-theory approach to error mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hipolito, Rafael; Goldbart, Paul M.
2016-04-01
We consider the basic quantum-control task of obtaining a target unitary operation (i.e., a quantum gate) via control fields that couple to the quantum system and are chosen to best mitigate errors resulting from time-dependent noise, which frustrate this task. We allow for two sources of noise: fluctuations in the control fields and fluctuations arising from the environment. We address the issue of control-error mitigation by means of a formulation rooted in the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) approach to noisy, classical statistical-mechanical systems. To do this, we express the noisy control problem in terms of a path integral, and integrate out the noise to arrive at an effective, noise-free description. We characterize the degree of success in error mitigation via a fidelity metric, which characterizes the proximity of the sought-after evolution to ones that are achievable in the presence of noise. Error mitigation is then best accomplished by applying the optimal control fields, i.e., those that maximize the fidelity subject to any constraints obeyed by the control fields. To make connection with MSR, we reformulate the fidelity in terms of a Schwinger-Keldysh (SK) path integral, with the added twist that the "forward" and "backward" branches of the time contour are inequivalent with respect to the noise. The present approach naturally and readily allows the incorporation of constraints on the control fields—a useful feature in practice, given that constraints feature in all real experiments. In addition to addressing the noise average of the fidelity, we consider its full probability distribution. The information content present in this distribution allows one to address more complex questions regarding error mitigation, including, in principle, questions of extreme value statistics, i.e., the likelihood and impact of rare instances of the fidelity and how to harness or cope with their influence. We illustrate this MSR-SK reformulation by considering a model
2010-12-01
R. M. Murray, “ Consensus problems in networks of agents with switching topology and time -delays,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 49, no. 9, pp... Distributed Tracking with Consensus on Noisy Time -varying Graphs: Convergence Results and Applications Sudharman K. Jayaweera and Y. Ruan ECE... distributed tracking with consensus on a time -varying graph with noisy communications links and sensing constraints. We develop a framework to handle the
Brunet, Eric; Derrida, Bernard
2004-01-01
We calculate exactly the velocity and diffusion constant of a microscopic stochastic model of N evolving particles which can be described by a noisy traveling-wave equation with a noise of order N(-1/2). Our model can be viewed as the infinite range limit of a directed polymer in random medium with N sites in the transverse direction. Despite some peculiarities of the traveling-wave equations in the absence of noise, our exact solution allows us to test the validity of a simple cutoff approximation and to show that, in the weak noise limit, the position of the front can be completely described by the effect of the noise on the first particle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunet, Éric; Derrida, Bernard
2004-07-01
We calculate exactly the velocity and diffusion constant of a microscopic stochastic model of N evolving particles which can be described by a noisy traveling-wave equation with a noise of order N-1/2 . Our model can be viewed as the infinite range limit of a directed polymer in random medium with N sites in the transverse direction. Despite some peculiarities of the traveling-wave equations in the absence of noise, our exact solution allows us to test the validity of a simple cutoff approximation and to show that, in the weak noise limit, the position of the front can be completely described by the effect of the noise on the first particle.
Estimating signal features from noisy images with stochastic backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitaker, Meredith Kathryn
Imaging is often used in scientific applications as a measurement tool. The location of a target, brightness of a star, and size of a tumor are all examples of object features that are sought after in various imaging applications. A perfect measurement of these quantities from image data is impossible because of, most notably, detector noise fluctuations, finite resolution, sensitivity of the imaging instrument, and obscuration by undesirable object structures. For these reasons, sophisticated image-processing techniques are designed to treat images as random variables. Quantities calculated from an image are subject to error and fluctuation; implied by calling them estimates of object features. This research focuses on estimator error for tasks common to imaging applications. Computer simulations of imaging systems are employed to compare the estimates to the true values. These computations allow for algorithm performance tests and subsequent development. Estimating the location, size, and strength of a signal embedded in a background structure from noisy image data is the basic task of interest. The estimation task's degree of difficulty is adjusted to discover the simplest data-processing necessary to yield successful estimates. Even when using an idealized imaging model, linear Wiener estimation was found to be insufficient for estimating signal location and shape. These results motivated the investigation of more complex data processing. A new method (named the scanning-linear estimator because it maximizes a linear functional) is successful in cases where linear estimation fails. This method has also demonstrated positive results when tested in realistic simulations of tomographic SPECT imaging systems. A comparison to a model of current clinical estimation practices found that the scanning-linear method offers substantial gains in performance.
Identifying Ionized Regions in Noisy Redshifted 21 cm Data Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam
2013-04-01
One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signal during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which ~20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z ~ 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as ~150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.
Optimum Mixed-State Discrimination for Noisy Entanglement-Enhanced Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2017-01-01
Quantum metrology utilizes nonclassical resources, such as entanglement or squeezed light, to realize sensors whose performance exceeds that afforded by classical-state systems. Environmental loss and noise, however, easily destroy nonclassical resources and, thus, nullify the performance advantages of most quantum-enhanced sensors. Quantum illumination (QI) is different. It is a robust entanglement-enhanced sensing scheme whose 6 dB performance advantage over a coherent-state sensor of the same average transmitted photon number survives the initial entanglement's eradication by loss and noise. Unfortunately, an implementation of the optimum quantum receiver that would reap QI's full performance advantage has remained elusive, owing to its having to deal with a huge number of very noisy optical modes. We show how sum-frequency generation (SFG) can be fruitfully applied to optimum multimode Gaussian-mixed-state discrimination. Applied to QI, our analysis and numerical evaluations demonstrate that our SFG receiver saturates QI's quantum Chernoff bound. Moreover, augmenting our SFG receiver with a feedforward (FF) mechanism pushes its performance to the Helstrom bound in the limit of low signal brightness. The FF-SFG receiver, thus, opens the door to optimum quantum-enhanced imaging, radar detection, state and channel tomography, and communication in practical Gaussian-state situations.
Köndgen, Harold; Geisler, Caroline; Fusi, Stefano; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Lüscher, Hans-Rudolf; Giugliano, Michele
2008-09-01
Cortical neurons are often classified by current-frequency relationship. Such a static description is inadequate to interpret neuronal responses to time-varying stimuli. Theoretical studies suggested that single-cell dynamical response properties are necessary to interpret ensemble responses to fast input transients. Further, it was shown that input-noise linearizes and boosts the response bandwidth, and that the interplay between the barrage of noisy synaptic currents and the spike-initiation mechanisms determine the dynamical properties of the firing rate. To test these model predictions, we estimated the linear response properties of layer 5 pyramidal cells by injecting a superposition of a small-amplitude sinusoidal wave and a background noise. We characterized the evoked firing probability across many stimulation trials and a range of oscillation frequencies (1-1000 Hz), quantifying response amplitude and phase-shift while changing noise statistics. We found that neurons track unexpectedly fast transients, as their response amplitude has no attenuation up to 200 Hz. This cut-off frequency is higher than the limits set by passive membrane properties (approximately 50 Hz) and average firing rate (approximately 20 Hz) and is not affected by the rate of change of the input. Finally, above 200 Hz, the response amplitude decays as a power-law with an exponent that is independent of voltage fluctuations induced by the background noise.
A variational ensemble scheme for noisy image data assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yin; Robinson, Cordelia; Heitz, Dominique; Mémin, Etienne
2014-05-01
Data assimilation techniques aim at recovering a system state variables trajectory denoted as X, along time from partially observed noisy measurements of the system denoted as Y. These procedures, which couple dynamics and noisy measurements of the system, fulfill indeed a twofold objective. On one hand, they provide a denoising - or reconstruction - procedure of the data through a given model framework and on the other hand, they provide estimation procedures for unknown parameters of the dynamics. A standard variational data assimilation problem can be formulated as the minimization of the following objective function with respect to the initial discrepancy, η, from the background initial guess: δ« J(η(x)) = 1∥Xb (x) - X (t ,x)∥2 + 1 tf∥H(X (t,x ))- Y (t,x)∥2dt. 2 0 0 B 2 t0 R (1) where the observation operator H links the state variable and the measurements. The cost function can be interpreted as the log likelihood function associated to the a posteriori distribution of the state given the past history of measurements and the background. In this work, we aim at studying ensemble based optimal control strategies for data assimilation. Such formulation nicely combines the ingredients of ensemble Kalman filters and variational data assimilation (4DVar). It is also formulated as the minimization of the objective function (1), but similarly to ensemble filter, it introduces in its objective function an empirical ensemble-based background-error covariance defined as: B ≡ <(Xb -
Fuzzy Logic Based Edge Detection in Smooth and Noisy Clinical Images.
Haq, Izhar; Anwar, Shahzad; Shah, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Shah, Shaukat Ali
2015-01-01
Edge detection has beneficial applications in the fields such as machine vision, pattern recognition and biomedical imaging etc. Edge detection highlights high frequency components in the image. Edge detection is a challenging task. It becomes more arduous when it comes to noisy images. This study focuses on fuzzy logic based edge detection in smooth and noisy clinical images. The proposed method (in noisy images) employs a 3 × 3 mask guided by fuzzy rule set. Moreover, in case of smooth clinical images, an extra mask of contrast adjustment is integrated with edge detection mask to intensify the smooth images. The developed method was tested on noise-free, smooth and noisy images. The results were compared with other established edge detection techniques like Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), Roberts and Canny. When the developed edge detection technique was applied to a smooth clinical image of size 270 × 290 pixels having 24 dB 'salt and pepper' noise, it detected very few (22) false edge pixels, compared to Sobel (1931), Prewitt (2741), LOG (3102), Roberts (1451) and Canny (1045) false edge pixels. Therefore it is evident that the developed method offers improved solution to the edge detection problem in smooth and noisy clinical images.
Quantum teleportation through noisy channels with multi-qubit GHZ states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espoukeh, Pakhshan; Pedram, Pouria
2014-08-01
We investigate two-party quantum teleportation through noisy channels for multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and find which state loses less quantum information in the process. The dynamics of states is described by the master equation with the noisy channels that lead to the quantum channels to be mixed states. We analytically solve the Lindblad equation for -qubit GHZ states where Lindblad operators correspond to the Pauli matrices and describe the decoherence of states. Using the average fidelity, we show that 3GHZ state is more robust than GHZ state under most noisy channels. However, GHZ state preserves same quantum information with respect to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen and 3GHZ states where the noise is in direction in which the fidelity remains unchanged. We explicitly show that Jung et al.'s conjecture (Phys Rev A 78:012312, 2008), namely "average fidelity with same-axis noisy channels is in general larger than average fidelity with different-axes noisy channels," is not valid for 3GHZ and 4GHZ states.
Fuzzy Logic Based Edge Detection in Smooth and Noisy Clinical Images
Haq, Izhar
2015-01-01
Edge detection has beneficial applications in the fields such as machine vision, pattern recognition and biomedical imaging etc. Edge detection highlights high frequency components in the image. Edge detection is a challenging task. It becomes more arduous when it comes to noisy images. This study focuses on fuzzy logic based edge detection in smooth and noisy clinical images. The proposed method (in noisy images) employs a 3×3 mask guided by fuzzy rule set. Moreover, in case of smooth clinical images, an extra mask of contrast adjustment is integrated with edge detection mask to intensify the smooth images. The developed method was tested on noise-free, smooth and noisy images. The results were compared with other established edge detection techniques like Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), Roberts and Canny. When the developed edge detection technique was applied to a smooth clinical image of size 270×290 pixels having 24 dB ‘salt and pepper’ noise, it detected very few (22) false edge pixels, compared to Sobel (1931), Prewitt (2741), LOG (3102), Roberts (1451) and Canny (1045) false edge pixels. Therefore it is evident that the developed method offers improved solution to the edge detection problem in smooth and noisy clinical images. PMID:26407133
Generation of entanglement and its decay in a noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jiehui
Entanglement plays a central role in distinguishing quantum mechanics from classical physics. Due to its fantastic properties and many potential applications in quantum information science, entanglement is attracting more and more attention. This thesis focuses on the generation of entanglement and its decay in a noisy environment. In the first experimental scheme to entangle two thermal fields, an atomic ensemble, composed of many identical four-level atoms, is employed. In the first Raman scattering, this atomic ensemble emits write signal photons after the pumping by a weak write pulse, accompanied by the transfer from one lower level to the other for some atoms. Similarly, the atomic ensemble emits read signal photons after the driving by a strong read pulse, and the ensemble turns back to its ground state after the second Raman scattering. The coherence between the two lower atomic levels plays a key role in establishing the quantum correlation between two emission fields, which is verified through the violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. In particular, the controllable time delay between the two emission fields actually means the storage time of photonic information in this system, which sheds light on some potential applications, such as quantum memory. In the second experimental scheme for the generation of spatially separated multiphoton entanglement, two or more identical optical cavities are aligned along a bee-line, and a four-level atom runs through these cavities sequentially. By appropriately adjusting the passage time of the atom in each cavity or the Rabi frequency of the classical pumping laser, a photon can be generated via the interaction between the excited atom and the cavity modes. This adiabatic passage model is an effective method to map atomic coherence to photonic state in cavity QED, thus all photons in different cavities quantum-mechanically correlate with the moving atom. When a final detection is made on this atom, a generalized n
Characterization of emergent synaptic topologies in noisy neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Aaron James
of a LIF neuron subjected to Gaussian white noise (GWN). The system reduces to the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck first passage time problem, the solution of which we build into the mapping method of Chapter 2. We demonstrate that simulations using the stochastic mapping have reduced computation time compared to traditional Runge-Kutta methods by more than a factor of 150. In Chapter 4, we use the stochastic mapping to study the dynamics of emerging synaptic topologies in noisy networks. With the addition of membrane noise, networks with dynamical synapses can admit states in which the distribution of the synaptic weights is static under spontaneous activity, but the random connectivity between neurons is dynamical. The widely cited problem of instabilities in networks with STDP is avoided with the implementation of a synaptic decay and an activation threshold on each synapse. When such networks are presented with stimulus modeled by a focused excitatory current, chain-like networks can emerge with the addition of an axon-remodeling plasticity rule, a topological constraint on the connectivity modeling the finite resources available to each neuron. The emergent topologies are the result of an iterative stochastic process. The dynamics of the growth process suggest a strong interplay between the network topology and the spike sequences they produce during development. Namely, the existence of an embedded spike sequence alters the distribution of synaptic weights through the entire network. The roles of model parameters that affect the interplay between network structure and activity are elucidated. Finally, we propose two mathematical growth models, which are complementary, that capture the essence of the growth dynamics observed in simulations. In Chapter 5, we present an extension of the stochastic mapping that allows the possibility of neuronal cooperation. We demonstrate that synaptic topologies admitting stereotypical sequences can emerge in yet higher, biologically
Park, Jinsoo; Kim, Wooil; Han, David K; Ko, Hanseok
2014-01-01
A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.
Quantum Dynamics in Noisy Backgrounds: from Sampling to Dissipation and Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, O.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.; Hussein, M. S.
2016-08-01
We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system coupled linearly to Gaussian white noise using functional methods. By performing the integration over the noisy field in the evolution operator, we get an equivalent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, which evolves the quantum state with a dissipative dynamics. We also show that if the integration over the noisy field is done for the time evolution of the density matrix, a gain contribution from the fluctuations can be accessed in addition to the loss one from the non-hermitian Hamiltonian dynamics. We illustrate our study by computing analytically the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, which we found to be the complex frequency harmonic oscillator, with a known evolution operator. It leads to space and time localisation, a common feature of noisy quantum systems in general applications.
Stochastic P-bifurcation and stochastic resonance in a noisy bistable fractional-order system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J. H.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Liu, H. G.; Litak, G.; Li, X.
2016-12-01
We investigate the stochastic response of a noisy bistable fractional-order system when the fractional-order lies in the interval (0, 2]. We focus mainly on the stochastic P-bifurcation and the phenomenon of the stochastic resonance. We compare the generalized Euler algorithm and the predictor-corrector approach which are commonly used for numerical calculations of fractional-order nonlinear equations. Based on the predictor-corrector approach, the stochastic P-bifurcation and the stochastic resonance are investigated. Both the fractional-order value and the noise intensity can induce an stochastic P-bifurcation. The fractional-order may lead the stationary probability density function to turn from a single-peak mode to a double-peak mode. However, the noise intensity may transform the stationary probability density function from a double-peak mode to a single-peak mode. The stochastic resonance is investigated thoroughly, according to the linear and the nonlinear response theory. In the linear response theory, the optimal stochastic resonance may occur when the value of the fractional-order is larger than one. In previous works, the fractional-order is usually limited to the interval (0, 1]. Moreover, the stochastic resonance at the subharmonic frequency and the superharmonic frequency are investigated respectively, by using the nonlinear response theory. When it occurs at the subharmonic frequency, the resonance may be strong and cannot be ignored. When it occurs at the superharmonic frequency, the resonance is weak. We believe that the results in this paper might be useful for the signal processing of nonlinear systems.
The estimation of time-invariant parameters of noisy nonlinear oscillatory systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, Mohammad; Sarkar, Abhijit; Adhikari, Sondipon; Poirel, Dominique
2015-05-01
The inverse problem of estimating time-invariant (static) parameters of a nonlinear system exhibiting noisy oscillation is considered in this paper. Firstly, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is used for the time-invariant parameter estimation which exploits a non-Gaussian filter, namely the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) for state estimation required to compute the likelihood function. Secondly, a recently proposed Particle Filter (PF) (that uses the EnKF for its proposal density for the state estimation) has been adapted for combined state and parameter estimation. Numerical illustrations highlight the strengths and limitations of the MCMC, EnKF and PF algorithms for time-invariant parameter estimation. For low measurement noise and dense measurement data, the performances of the MCMC, EnKF and PF algorithms are comparable. For high measurement noise and sparse observational data, the EnKF fails to provide accurate parameter estimates. Hence the adapted PF algorithm becomes necessary in order to obtain parameter estimates comparable in accuracy to the MCMC simulation with EnKF. It highlights the fact that the augmented state space model for the combined state and parameter estimation contains stronger nonlinearity than the original state space model. Hence the EnKF effectively handles the state estimation of the original state space model, but it fails for the combined state and parameter estimation using the augmented system. The effectiveness of the EnKF for the state estimation is therefore leveraged in the MCMC simulation for the time-invariant parameter estimation. In order to obtain accurate parameter estimates using the augmented system, the adapted PF becomes necessary to match the parameter estimates obtained using the MCMC simulation complemented by EnKF for likelihood function computation.
Optimized control of quantum state transfer from noisy to quiet qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escher, B. M.; Bensky, G.; Clausen, J.; Kurizki, G.
2011-08-01
Existing optimal control methods of open quantum systems rely on extensive numerical simulations of the dynamics in the presence of a bath, or alternatively ignore the exact bath dynamics. If the bath effects are to be treated properly on both Markovian and non-Markovian timescales using numerical simulations, the number of bath modes cannot be large. This may affect the ability to simulate realistic scenarios. Even if realistic, such simulations are hard to interpret physically. An alternative approach advocated here is to resort to a perturbative analysis provided the system-bath coupling is weak. This analysis would allow for the effects of any given bath (finite or infinite, Markovian or non-Markovian) and any control at our disposal. This poses the challenge of constructing a method for the optimization of various operations requiring proper manipulation of the system, based on a general perturbative treatment to second order in the system-bath coupling. This proposed treatment yields a universal tool for optimizing the fidelity of a given operation. It involves a fidelity-control matrix: a construct that allows us to prioritize the use of available control resources so as to maximize the operation fidelity in any given bath. As an analytically solvable example of this general method, we analyse quantum state-transfer optimization, from a 'noisy' (write-in) qubit to its 'quiet' counterpart (storage qubit). Intriguing interplay is revealed between our ability to avoid bath-induced errors that profoundly depend on the bath-memory time and the limitations imposed by leakage out of the operational subspace. Counterintuitively, under no circumstances is the fastest transfer optimal (for a given transfer energy).
Noisy-flow-induced instability in a reaction-diffusion system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Shibashis; Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2016-12-01
We consider a generic reaction-diffusion-advection system where the flow velocity of the advection term is subjected to dichotomous noise with zero mean and Ornstein-Zernike correlation. A general condition for noisy-flow-induced instability is derived in the flow velocity-correlation rate parameter plane. Full numerical simulations on Gierer-Meinhardt model with activator-inhibitor kinetics have been performed to show how noisy differential flow can lead to symmetry breaking of a homogeneous stable state in the presence of noise resulting in traveling waves.
Lowry, Hélène; Lill, Alan; Wong, Bob B. M.
2012-01-01
Background Urban environments generate constant loud noise, which creates a formidable challenge for many animals relying on acoustic communication. Some birds make vocal adjustments that reduce auditory masking by altering, for example, the frequency (kHz) or timing of vocalizations. Another adjustment, well documented for birds under laboratory and natural field conditions, is a noise level-dependent change in sound signal amplitude (the ‘Lombard effect’). To date, however, field research on amplitude adjustments in urban environments has focused exclusively on bird song. Methods We investigated amplitude regulation of alarm calls using, as our model, a successful urban ‘adapter’ species, the Noisy miner, Manorina melanocephala. We compared several different alarm calls under contrasting noise conditions. Results Individuals at noisier locations (arterial roads) alarm called significantly more loudly than those at quieter locations (residential streets). Other mechanisms known to improve sound signal transmission in ‘noise’, namely use of higher perches and in-flight calling, did not differ between site types. Intriguingly, the observed preferential use of different alarm calls by Noisy miners inhabiting arterial roads and residential streets was unlikely to have constituted a vocal modification made in response to sound-masking in the urban environment because the calls involved fell within the main frequency range of background anthropogenic noise. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that a species, which has the ability to adjust the amplitude of its signals, might have a ‘natural’ advantage in noisy urban environments. PMID:22238684
Dutta, Anirban; Rahmani, Armin; Del Campo, Adolfo
2016-08-19
We show that a thermally isolated system driven across a quantum phase transition by a noisy control field exhibits anti-Kibble-Zurek behavior, whereby slower driving results in higher excitations. We characterize the density of excitations as a function of the ramping rate and the noise strength. The optimal driving time to minimize excitations is shown to scale as a universal power law of the noise strength. Our findings reveal the limitations of adiabatic protocols such as quantum annealing and demonstrate the universality of the optimal ramping rate.
Boström, Jan; Elger, Christian E.; Mormann, Florian
2016-01-01
Recording extracellulary from neurons in the brains of animals in vivo is among the most established experimental techniques in neuroscience, and has recently become feasible in humans. Many interesting scientific questions can be addressed only when extracellular recordings last several hours, and when individual neurons are tracked throughout the entire recording. Such questions regard, for example, neuronal mechanisms of learning and memory consolidation, and the generation of epileptic seizures. Several difficulties have so far limited the use of extracellular multi-hour recordings in neuroscience: Datasets become huge, and data are necessarily noisy in clinical recording environments. No methods for spike sorting of such recordings have been available. Spike sorting refers to the process of identifying the contributions of several neurons to the signal recorded in one electrode. To overcome these difficulties, we developed Combinato: a complete data-analysis framework for spike sorting in noisy recordings lasting twelve hours or more. Our framework includes software for artifact rejection, automatic spike sorting, manual optimization, and efficient visualization of results. Our completely automatic framework excels at two tasks: It outperforms existing methods when tested on simulated and real data, and it enables researchers to analyze multi-hour recordings. We evaluated our methods on both short and multi-hour simulated datasets. To evaluate the performance of our methods in an actual neuroscientific experiment, we used data from from neurosurgical patients, recorded in order to identify visually responsive neurons in the medial temporal lobe. These neurons responded to the semantic content, rather than to visual features, of a given stimulus. To test our methods with multi-hour recordings, we made use of neurons in the human medial temporal lobe that respond selectively to the same stimulus in the evening and next morning. PMID:27930664
Information transduction capacity of noisy biochemical signaling networks
Cheong, Raymond; Rhee, Alex; Wang, Chiaochun Joanne; Nemenman, Ilya; Levchenko, Andre
2014-01-01
Molecular noise restricts the ability of an individual cell to resolve input signals of different strengths and gather information about the external environment. Transmitting information through complex signaling networks with redundancies can overcome this limitation. We developed an integrative theoretical and experimental framework, based on the formalism of information theory, to quantitatively predict and measure the amount of information transduced by molecular and cellular networks. Analyzing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling revealed that individual TNF signaling pathways transduce information sufficient for accurate binary decisions, and an upstream bottleneck limits the information gained via multiple pathways together. Negative feedback to this bottleneck could both alleviate and enhance its limiting effect, despite decreasing noise. Bottlenecks likewise constrain information attained by networks signaling through multiple genes or cells. PMID:21921160
FALSE DETERMINATIONS OF CHAOS IN SHORT NOISY TIME SERIES. (R828745)
A method (NEMG) proposed in 1992 for diagnosing chaos in noisy time series with 50 or fewer observations entails fitting the time series with an empirical function which predicts an observation in the series from previous observations, and then estimating the rate of divergenc...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winstone, Naomi; Davis, Alyson; De Bruyn, Bart
2012-01-01
Young children are frequently exposed to sounds such as speech and music in noisy listening conditions, which have the potential to disrupt their learning. Missing input that is masked by louder sounds can, under the right conditions, be "filled in" by the perceptual system using a process known as perceptual restoration. This experiment…
An Empirical Validation of Recursive Noisy OR (RNOR) Rule for Asthma Prediction.
Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M
2010-11-13
In 2004, an extension of the Noisy-OR formalism termed the Recursive Noisy-OR (RNOR) rule was published for estimating complex probabilistic interactions in a Bayesian Network (BN). The RNOR rule presents an algorithm to construct a complete conditional probability distribution (CPD) of a node while allowing domain causal relationships over and above causal independence to be tractably captured in a semantically meaningful way. However, to the best of our knowledge, the accuracy of this rule has not been tested empirically. In this paper, we report the results of a study that compares the performance of a data-trained expert BN (empiric BN) with the reformulated BN, using the RNOR rule. The original empiric BN was trained with a large dataset from the Regenstrief Medical Record System (RMRS). Furthermore, we evaluate conditions in our dataset which render the RNOR rule inapplicable and discuss our use of Noisy-OR calculations in such situations. We call this approach "Adaptive Recursive Noisy-OR".
Analog circuit for the measurement of phase difference between two noisy sine-wave signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.
1989-01-01
A simple circuit was designed to measure the phase difference between two noisy sine waves. It locks over a wide range of frequencies and produces an output proportional to the phase difference of rapidly varying signals. A square wave locked in frequency and phase to the first signal is produced by a phase-locked loop and is amplified by an operational amplifier.
2017-01-01
Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out of the realm of control of the experimenter. To amend this situation we propose a novel approach coined “lock-in feedback” which is based on a method that is routinely used in high-precision physics experiments to extract small signals out of a noisy environment. Here, we adapt the method to noisy social signals in multiple dimensions and evaluate it by studying an inherently noisy topic: the perception of (subjective) beauty. We show that the lock-in feedback approach allows one to select optimal treatment levels despite the presence of considerable noise. Furthermore, through the introduction of an external contextual shock we demonstrate that we can find relationships between noisy variables that were hitherto unknown. We therefore argue that lock-in methods may provide a valuable addition to the social scientist’s experimental toolbox and we explicitly discuss a number of future applications. PMID:28306728
Rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation
Gibson, Edward; Bergen, Leon; Piantadosi, Steven T.
2013-01-01
Sentence processing theories typically assume that the input to our language processing mechanisms is an error-free sequence of words. However, this assumption is an oversimplification because noise is present in typical language use (for instance, due to a noisy environment, producer errors, or perceiver errors). A complete theory of human sentence comprehension therefore needs to explain how humans understand language given imperfect input. Indeed, like many cognitive systems, language processing mechanisms may even be “well designed”–in this case for the task of recovering intended meaning from noisy utterances. In particular, comprehension mechanisms may be sensitive to the types of information that an idealized statistical comprehender would be sensitive to. Here, we evaluate four predictions about such a rational (Bayesian) noisy-channel language comprehender in a sentence comprehension task: (i) semantic cues should pull sentence interpretation towards plausible meanings, especially if the wording of the more plausible meaning is close to the observed utterance in terms of the number of edits; (ii) this process should asymmetrically treat insertions and deletions due to the Bayesian “size principle”; such nonliteral interpretation of sentences should (iii) increase with the perceived noise rate of the communicative situation and (iv) decrease if semantically anomalous meanings are more likely to be communicated. These predictions are borne out, strongly suggesting that human language relies on rational statistical inference over a noisy channel. PMID:23637344
Kaptein, Maurits; van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide
2017-01-01
Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out of the realm of control of the experimenter. To amend this situation we propose a novel approach coined "lock-in feedback" which is based on a method that is routinely used in high-precision physics experiments to extract small signals out of a noisy environment. Here, we adapt the method to noisy social signals in multiple dimensions and evaluate it by studying an inherently noisy topic: the perception of (subjective) beauty. We show that the lock-in feedback approach allows one to select optimal treatment levels despite the presence of considerable noise. Furthermore, through the introduction of an external contextual shock we demonstrate that we can find relationships between noisy variables that were hitherto unknown. We therefore argue that lock-in methods may provide a valuable addition to the social scientist's experimental toolbox and we explicitly discuss a number of future applications.
Lee, Norman; Ward, Jessica L; Vélez, Alejandro; Micheyl, Christophe; Bee, Mark A
2017-03-06
Noise is a ubiquitous source of errors in all forms of communication [1]. Noise-induced errors in speech communication, for example, make it difficult for humans to converse in noisy social settings, a challenge aptly named the "cocktail party problem" [2]. Many nonhuman animals also communicate acoustically in noisy social groups and thus face biologically analogous problems [3]. However, we know little about how the perceptual systems of receivers are evolutionarily adapted to avoid the costs of noise-induced errors in communication. In this study of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis; Hylidae), we investigated whether receivers exploit a potential statistical regularity present in noisy acoustic scenes to reduce errors in signal recognition and discrimination. We developed an anatomical/physiological model of the peripheral auditory system to show that temporal correlation in amplitude fluctuations across the frequency spectrum ("comodulation") [4-6] is a feature of the noise generated by large breeding choruses of sexually advertising males. In four psychophysical experiments, we investigated whether females exploit comodulation in background noise to mitigate noise-induced errors in evolutionarily critical mate-choice decisions. Subjects experienced fewer errors in recognizing conspecific calls and in selecting the calls of high-quality mates in the presence of simulated chorus noise that was comodulated. These data show unequivocally, and for the first time, that exploiting statistical regularities present in noisy acoustic scenes is an important biological strategy for solving cocktail-party-like problems in nonhuman animal communication.
Mildren, Robyn Lynne; Peters, Ryan M; Hill, Aimee J; Blouin, Jean-Sebastien; Carpenter, Mark Gregory; Inglis, J Timothy
2017-02-16
Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine proprioceptive reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults (n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied two-minutes of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG). Vibration amplitude was varied to characterize reflex scaling and to examine how different stimulus levels affected postural sway. Muscle activity from the soleus and gastrocnemii were significantly correlated with the tendon vibration across a broad frequency range (~10-80 Hz), with a peak located at ~40 Hz. Vibration-EMG coherence positively scaled with stimulus amplitude in all three muscles, with soleus displaying the strongest coupling and steepest scaling. EMG responses lagged the vibration by ~38 ms, a delay that paralleled observed response latencies to tendon taps. Vibration-evoked cortical oscillations were observed at frequencies ~40-70 Hz (peak ~54 Hz) in most subjects, a finding in line with previous reports of sensory evoked γ-band oscillations. Further examination of the method revealed a) accurate reflex estimates could be obtained with <60 s of low-level (RMS=10 m/s(2)) vibration, b) responses did not habituate over two-minutes of exposure, and importantly c) noisy vibration had a minimal influence on standing balance. Our findings suggest noisy tendon vibration is an effective novel approach to characterize proprioceptive reflexes.
Noisy inverted pendulums with time-delayed feedback: Statistical Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milton, John G.
2001-03-01
The question of how an inverted pendulum can be stabilized has puzzled scientists for over 300 years. Studies of postural sway and stick balancing at the fingertip provide insights into how the human nervous system solves this problem. Time delays and noise are intrinsic features of the neural control and thus models are in the form of stochastic delay-differential equations. Examples are presented to show that the statistical properties of the fluctuations in posture and stick balancing are dominated by noise-dependent, nonlinear phenomena: noise-induced switching between limit cycle attractors (postural sway) and "on-off intermittency" arising from the stochastic forcing of a control parameter across a stability boundary (stick balancing). The existence of these phenomena is difficult to reconcile with classical concepts of neural feedback control.
Multiscale Morphological Filtering for Analysis of Noisy and Complex Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kher, A.; Mitra, S.
1993-01-01
Images acquired with passive sensing techniques suffer from illumination variations and poor local contrasts that create major difficulties in interpretation and identification tasks. On the other hand, images acquired with active sensing techniques based on monochromatic illumination are degraded with speckle noise. Mathematical morphology offers elegant techniques to handle a wide range of image degradation problems. Unlike linear filters, morphological filters do not blur the edges and hence maintain higher image resolution. Their rich mathematical framework facilitates the design and analysis of these filters as well as their hardware implementation. Morphological filters are easier to implement and are more cost effective and efficient than several conventional linear filters. Morphological filters to remove speckle noise while maintaining high resolution and preserving thin image regions that are particularly vulnerable to speckle noise were developed and applied to SAR imagery. These filters used combination of linear (one-dimensional) structuring elements in different (typically four) orientations. Although this approach preserves more details than the simple morphological filters using two-dimensional structuring elements, the limited orientations of one-dimensional elements approximate the fine details of the region boundaries. A more robust filter designed recently overcomes the limitation of the fixed orientations. This filter uses a combination of concave and convex structuring elements. Morphological operators are also useful in extracting features from visible and infrared imagery. A multiresolution image pyramid obtained with successive filtering and a subsampling process aids in the removal of the illumination variations and enhances local contrasts. A morphology-based interpolation scheme was also introduced to reduce intensity discontinuities created in any morphological filtering task. The generality of morphological filtering techniques in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Shiraj; Bandyopadhyay, Sharba; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Saigal, Sunil; Erickson, David J., III; Protopopescu, Vladimir; Ostrouchov, George
2007-08-01
Commonly used dependence measures, such as linear correlation, cross-correlogram, or Kendall’s τ , cannot capture the complete dependence structure in data unless the structure is restricted to linear, periodic, or monotonic. Mutual information (MI) has been frequently utilized for capturing the complete dependence structure including nonlinear dependence. Recently, several methods have been proposed for the MI estimation, such as kernel density estimators (KDEs), k -nearest neighbors (KNNs), Edgeworth approximation of differential entropy, and adaptive partitioning of the XY plane. However, outstanding gaps in the current literature have precluded the ability to effectively automate these methods, which, in turn, have caused limited adoptions by the application communities. This study attempts to address a key gap in the literature—specifically, the evaluation of the above methods to choose the best method, particularly in terms of their robustness for short and noisy data, based on comparisons with the theoretical MI estimates, which can be computed analytically, as well with linear correlation and Kendall’s τ . Here we consider smaller data sizes, such as 50, 100, and 1000, and within this study we characterize 50 and 100 data points as very short and 1000 as short. We consider a broader class of functions, specifically linear, quadratic, periodic, and chaotic, contaminated with artificial noise with varying noise-to-signal ratios. Our results indicate KDEs as the best choice for very short data at relatively high noise-to-signal levels whereas the performance of KNNs is the best for very short data at relatively low noise levels as well as for short data consistently across noise levels. In addition, the optimal smoothing parameter of a Gaussian kernel appears to be the best choice for KDEs while three nearest neighbors appear optimal for KNNs. Thus, in situations where the approximate data sizes are known in advance and exploratory data analysis and
Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters
Whitaker, Meredith Kathryn; Clarkson, Eric; Barrett, Harrison H.
2008-01-01
In a pure estimation task, an object of interest is known to be present, and we wish to determine numerical values for parameters that describe the object. This paper compares the theoretical framework, implementation method, and performance of two estimation procedures. We examined the performance of these estimators for tasks such as estimating signal location, signal volume, signal amplitude, or any combination of these parameters. The signal is embedded in a random background to simulate the effect of nuisance parameters. First, we explore the classical Wiener estimator, which operates linearly on the data and minimizes the ensemble mean-squared error. The results of our performance tests indicate that the Wiener estimator can estimate amplitude and shape once a signal has been located, but is fundamentally unable to locate a signal regardless of the quality of the image. Given these new results on the fundamental limitations of Wiener estimation, we extend our methods to include more complex data processing. We introduce and evaluate a scanning-linear estimator that performs impressively for location estimation. The scanning action of the estimator refers to seeking a solution that maximizes a linear metric, thereby requiring a global-extremum search. The linear metric to be optimized can be derived as a special case of maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation when the likelihood is Gaussian and a slowly varying covariance approximation is made. PMID:18545527
Wireless medical ultrasound video transmission through noisy channels.
Panayides, A; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S
2008-01-01
Recent advances in video compression such as the current state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard in conjunction with increasingly available bitrate through new technologies like 3G, and WiMax have brought mobile health (m-Health) healthcare systems and services closer to reality. Despite this momentum towards m-Health systems and especially e-Emergency systems, wireless channels remain error prone, while the absence of objective quality metrics limits the ability of providing medical video of adequate diagnostic quality at a required bitrate. In this paper we investigate different encoding schemes and loss rates in medical ultrasound video transmission and come to conclusions involving efficiency, the trade-off between bitrate and quality, while we highlight the relationship linking video quality and the error ratio of corrupted P and B frames. More specifically, we investigate IPPP, IBPBP and IBBPBBP coding structures under packet loss rates of 2%, 5%, 8% and 10% and derive that the latter attains higher SNR ratings in all tested cases. A preliminary clinical evaluation shows that for SNR ratings higher than 30 db, video diagnostic quality may be adequate, while above 30.5 db the diagnostic information available in the reconstructed ultrasound video is close to that of the original.
Quantum gates with optimal bandwidth in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Guang Hao; Theodore, Yoder; Chuang, Isaac
The traditional approach of open-loop quantum error correction suppresses certain systematic imperfections ɛ in quantum control to higher orders ɛ (L) by a well-designed sequence of L imperfect quantum gates. However, this philosophy of maximal flatness leads to an ɛ-bandwidth that scales poorly with length and a residual that is easily overwhelmed by unaccounted sources of noise. We advance the paradigm of equiripple compensated gates that directly optimize for bandwidth given the limitations imposed by noise of magnitude δ, leading to dramatically improved performance. Where ɛ represent amplitude errors, we provide a formalism that generalizes both approaches and is effective at finding such gates. With it, we provide in closed-form the phase angles for an optimal family of population inversion gates with an ɛ -bandwidth of (logδ-1/L) - a quadratic improvement over optimal maximally flat variants. We also construct optimal NOT gates and discuss extensions to other gates and error models.
Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments
Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan
2014-01-01
It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schöniger, Anneli; Wöhling, Thomas; Nowak, Wolfgang
2014-05-01
Bayesian model averaging ranks the predictive capabilities of alternative conceptual models based on Bayes' theorem. The individual models are weighted with their posterior probability to be the best one in the considered set of models. Finally, their predictions are combined into a robust weighted average and the predictive uncertainty can be quantified. This rigorous procedure does, however, not yet account for possible instabilities due to measurement noise in the calibration data set. This is a major drawback, since posterior model weights may suffer a lack of robustness related to the uncertainty in noisy data, which may compromise the reliability of model ranking. We present a new statistical concept to account for measurement noise as source of uncertainty for the weights in Bayesian model averaging. Our suggested upgrade reflects the limited information content of data for the purpose of model selection. It allows us to assess the significance of the determined posterior model weights, the confidence in model selection, and the accuracy of the quantified predictive uncertainty. Our approach rests on a brute-force Monte Carlo framework. We determine the robustness of model weights against measurement noise by repeatedly perturbing the observed data with random realizations of measurement error. Then, we analyze the induced variability in posterior model weights and introduce this "weighting variance" as an additional term into the overall prediction uncertainty analysis scheme. We further determine the theoretical upper limit in performance of the model set which is imposed by measurement noise. As an extension to the merely relative model ranking, this analysis provides a measure of absolute model performance. To finally decide, whether better data or longer time series are needed to ensure a robust basis for model selection, we resample the measurement time series and assess the convergence of model weights for increasing time series length. We illustrate
Avoiding disentanglement of multipartite entangled optical beams with a correlated noisy channel
Deng, Xiaowei; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde
2017-01-01
A quantum communication network can be constructed by distributing a multipartite entangled state to space-separated nodes. Entangled optical beams with highest flying speed and measurable brightness can be used as carriers to convey information in quantum communication networks. Losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy entanglement. The phenomenon of disentanglement will result in the complete failure of quantum communication. Here, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disentanglement and the entanglement revival of tripartite entangled optical beams used in a quantum network. We experimentally demonstrate that symmetric tripartite entangled optical beams are robust in pure lossy but noiseless channels. In a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disentanglement and the destroyed entanglement can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The presented results provide useful technical references for establishing quantum networks. PMID:28295024
Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Aspridou, Zafiro
2017-01-02
Gene expression is a fundamentally noisy process giving rise to a significant cell to cell variability at the phenotype level. The phenotypic noise is manifested in a wide range of microbial traits. Heterogeneous behavior of individual cells is observed at the growth, survival and inactivation responses and should be taken into account in the context of Predictive Food Microbiology (PMF). Recent methodological advances can be employed for the study and modeling of single cell dynamics leading to a new generation of mechanistic models which can provide insight into the link between phenotype, gene-expression, protein and metabolic functional units at the single cell level. Such models however, need to deal with an enormous amount of interactions and processes that influence each other, forming an extremely complex system. In this review paper, we discuss the importance of noise and present the future challenges in predicting the "noisy" microbial responses in foods.
Avoiding disentanglement of multipartite entangled optical beams with a correlated noisy channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiaowei; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde
2017-03-01
A quantum communication network can be constructed by distributing a multipartite entangled state to space-separated nodes. Entangled optical beams with highest flying speed and measurable brightness can be used as carriers to convey information in quantum communication networks. Losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy entanglement. The phenomenon of disentanglement will result in the complete failure of quantum communication. Here, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disentanglement and the entanglement revival of tripartite entangled optical beams used in a quantum network. We experimentally demonstrate that symmetric tripartite entangled optical beams are robust in pure lossy but noiseless channels. In a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disentanglement and the destroyed entanglement can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The presented results provide useful technical references for establishing quantum networks.
Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model
Schaffner, Christian
2010-09-15
We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. Koenig, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from Koenig et al. suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from Koenig et al. requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our ''canonical'' protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters. Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.
Security of modified Ping-Pong protocol in noisy and lossy channel
Han, Yun-Guang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-01-01
The “Ping-Pong” (PP) protocol is a two-way quantum key protocol based on entanglement. In this protocol, Bob prepares one maximally entangled pair of qubits, and sends one qubit to Alice. Then, Alice performs some necessary operations on this qubit and sends it back to Bob. Although this protocol was proposed in 2002, its security in the noisy and lossy channel has not been proven. In this report, we add a simple and experimentally feasible modification to the original PP protocol, and prove the security of this modified PP protocol against collective attacks when the noisy and lossy channel is taken into account. Simulation results show that our protocol is practical. PMID:24816899
Scared and less noisy: glucocorticoids are associated with alarm call entropy
Blumstein, Daniel T.; Chi, Yvonne Y.
2012-01-01
The nonlinearity and arousal hypothesis predicts that highly aroused mammals will produce nonlinear, noisy vocalizations. We tested this prediction by measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in adult yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris), and asking if variation in GCMs was positively correlated with Wiener entropy—a measure of noise. Contrary to our prediction, we found a significant negative relationship: marmots with more faecal GCMs produced calls with less noise than those with lower levels of GCMs. A previous study suggested that glucocorticoids modulate the probability that a marmot will emit a call. This study suggests that, like some other species, calls emitted from highly aroused individuals are less noisy. Glucocorticoids thus play an important, yet underappreciated role, in alarm call production. PMID:21976625
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2016-07-01
We investigate the inactive-active phase transition in an array of additive (exclusive-or) cellular automata (CA) under noise. The model is closely related with the Domany-Kinzel (DK) probabilistic cellular automaton (PCA), for which there are rigorous as well as numerical estimates on the transition probabilities. Here, we characterize the critical behavior of the noisy additive cellular automaton by mean field analysis and finite-size scaling and show that its phase transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behavior. As a by-product of our analysis, we argue that the critical behavior of the noisy elementary CA 90 and 102 (in Wolfram’s enumeration scheme) must be the same. We also perform an empirical investigation of the mean field equations to assess their quality and find that away from the critical point (but not necessarily very far away) the mean field approximations provide a reasonably good description of the dynamics of the PCA.
Sensing of Particular Speakers for the Construction of Voice Interface Utilized in Noisy Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Hideyuki; Ohkado, Minoru
Human is able to exchange information smoothly using voice under different situations such as noisy environment in a crowd and with the existence of plural speakers. We are able to detect the position of a source sound in 3D space, extract a particular sound from mixed sounds, and recognize who is talking. By realizing this mechanism with a computer, new applications will be presented for recording a sound with high quality by reducing noise, presenting a clarified sound, and realizing a microphone-free speech recognition by extracting particular sound. The paper will introduce a realtime detection and identification of particular speaker in noisy environment using a microphone array based on the location of a speaker and the individual voice characteristics. The study will be applied to develop an adaptive auditory system of a mobile robot which collaborates with a factory worker.
Chen, Yuhang
2016-01-01
Quantitative evaluation of dimensional parameters from noisy atomic force microscopy (AFM) images was investigated. Non-local means (NLM) denoising was adopted to reduce noise and maintain fine image structures. Major tuning parameters in NLM filtering, such as the patch size and the window size, were optimized on simulated surface structures. The ability of dimensional evaluation from noisy data was demonstrated to be improved by almost 15 times. Finally, NLM filtering with optimal settings was applied on experimental AFM images, which were scanned on a patterned few-layer graphene specimen. Evaluations of the step height and the pattern size were verified to be much more accurate and robust. Such a data processing method can enhance the AFM dimensional measurements, particularly when the noise-level is reached.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beitone, C.; Balandraud, X.; Delpueyo, D.; Grédiac, M.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a post-processing technique for noisy temperature maps based on a gradient anisotropic diffusion (GAD) filter in the context of heat source reconstruction. The aim is to reconstruct heat source maps from temperature maps measured using infrared (IR) thermography. Synthetic temperature fields corrupted by added noise are first considered. The GAD filter, which relies on a diffusion process, is optimized to retrieve as well as possible a heat source concentration in a two-dimensional plate. The influence of the dimensions and the intensity of the heat source concentration are discussed. The results obtained are also compared with two other types of filters: averaging filter and Gaussian derivative filter. The second part of this study presents an application for experimental temperature maps measured with an IR camera. The results demonstrate the relevancy of the GAD filter in extracting heat sources from noisy temperature fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-02-01
Squeezed state can increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum communication and quantum measurement. However, losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy the squeezing. The phenomenon of disappearance of the squeezing will result in the failure of quantum communication. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disappearance and revival of the squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state. The experimental results show that the squeezed light is robust (squeezing never disappears) in a pure lossy but noiseless channel. While in a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disappearance of the squeezing, and the squeezing can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The channel capacity of quantum communication is increased after the squeezing is revived. The presented results provide useful technical references for quantum communication with squeezed light.
Noisy image magnification with total variation regularization and order-changed dictionary learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jian; Chang, Zhiguo; Fan, Jiulun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Wang, Yanzi
2015-12-01
Noisy low resolution (LR) images are always obtained in real applications, but many existing image magnification algorithms can not get good result from a noisy LR image. We propose a two-step image magnification algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm takes the advantages of both regularization-based method and learning-based method. The first step is based on total variation (TV) regularization and the second step is based on sparse representation. In the first step, we add a constraint on the TV regularization model to magnify the LR image and at the same time to suppress the noise in it. In the second step, we propose an order-changed dictionary training algorithm to train the dictionaries which is dominated by texture details. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than many other algorithms when the noise is not serious. The proposed algorithm can also provide better visual quality on natural LR images.
Statistics of actin-propelled trajectories in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Fu-Lai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Leung, Kwan-tai
2016-06-01
Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories. Specifically, the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the trajectories is computed and found to show a super-ballistic scaling with an exponent 3 in the early stage, followed by a crossover to a normal, diffusive scaling of exponent 1 in the late stage. For open-end trajectories such as straights and S-shaped curves, the time of crossover matches the decay time of orientational order of the velocities along trajectories, suggesting that it is the spreading of velocities that leads to the crossover. We show that the super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from the initial, linearly increasing correlation of velocities, before time translational symmetry is established. When the spreading of velocities reaches a steady state in the long-time limit, short-range correlation then yields a diffusive scaling in MSD. In contrast, close-loop trajectories like circles exhibit localized periodic motion, which inhibits spreading. The initial super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from velocity correlation that both linearly increases and oscillates in time. Finally, we find that the above statistical features of the trajectories transcend the nature of noises, be it additive or multiplicative, and generalize to other self-propelled systems that are not necessarily actin based.
A robust hidden Markov Gauss mixture vector quantizer for a noisy source.
Pyun, Kyungsuk Peter; Lim, Johan; Gray, Robert M
2009-07-01
Noise is ubiquitous in real life and changes image acquisition, communication, and processing characteristics in an uncontrolled manner. Gaussian noise and Salt and Pepper noise, in particular, are prevalent in noisy communication channels, camera and scanner sensors, and medical MRI images. It is not unusual for highly sophisticated image processing algorithms developed for clean images to malfunction when used on noisy images. For example, hidden Markov Gauss mixture models (HMGMM) have been shown to perform well in image segmentation applications, but they are quite sensitive to image noise. We propose a modified HMGMM procedure specifically designed to improve performance in the presence of noise. The key feature of the proposed procedure is the adjustment of covariance matrices in Gauss mixture vector quantizer codebooks to minimize an overall minimum discrimination information distortion (MDI). In adjusting covariance matrices, we expand or shrink their elements based on the noisy image. While most results reported in the literature assume a particular noise type, we propose a framework without assuming particular noise characteristics. Without denoising the corrupted source, we apply our method directly to the segmentation of noisy sources. We apply the proposed procedure to the segmentation of aerial images with Salt and Pepper noise and with independent Gaussian noise, and we compare our results with those of the median filter restoration method and the blind deconvolution-based method, respectively. We show that our procedure has better performance than image restoration-based techniques and closely matches to the performance of HMGMM for clean images in terms of both visual segmentation results and error rate.
Clustering of noisy image data using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pemmaraju, Surya; Mitra, Sunanda
1992-01-01
Identification of outliers or noise in a real data set is often quite difficult. A recently developed adaptive fuzzy leader clustering (AFLC) algorithm has been modified to separate the outliers from real data sets while finding the clusters within the data sets. The capability of this modified AFLC algorithm to identify the outliers in a number of real data sets indicates the potential strength of this algorithm in correct classification of noisy real data.
A noisy linear map underlies oscillations in cell size and gene expression in bacteria
Tanouchi, Yu; Pai, Anand; Park, Heungwon; Huang, Shuqiang; Stamatov, Rumen; Buchler, Nicolas E.; You, Lingchong
2016-01-01
During bacterial growth, a cell approximately doubles in size prior to division, upon which it splits into two daughter cells. This process is subjected to the inherent perturbations of cellular noise1,2 and thus requires regulation for cell-size homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying cell-size control and their dynamics consequences remain poorly understood due to the difficulty in sizing individual bacteria over long periods of time in a high-throughput manner. Here, we measured and analyzed long-term, single-cell growth and division across different Escherichia coli strains and growth conditions3. We found that a subset of cells in a population exhibited transient oscillations in cell size with periods that stretch across multiple (>10) generations. Our analysis revealed that a simple law governing cell size control – a noisy linear map – explains the origins of these cell-size oscillations across all strains. This noisy linear map implements a negative feedback on cell-size control: a cell with a larger initial size tends to divide earlier, whereas one with a smaller initial size tends to divide later. Combining simulations of cell growth and division with experimental data, we demonstrate that this noisy linear map generates transient oscillations, not just in cell size, but also in constitutive gene expression. Our work provides new insights into the dynamics of bacterial cell-size regulation with implications for the physiological processes involved. PMID:26040722
Does finite-temperature decoding deliver better optima for noisy Hamiltonians?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, Andrew J.; Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
The minimization of an Ising spin-glass Hamiltonian is an NP-hard problem. Because many problems across disciplines can be mapped onto this class of Hamiltonian, novel efficient computing techniques are highly sought after. The recent development of quantum annealing machines promises to minimize these difficult problems more efficiently. However, the inherent noise found in these analog devices makes the minimization procedure difficult. While the machine might be working correctly, it might be minimizing a different Hamiltonian due to the inherent noise. This means that, in general, the ground-state configuration that correctly minimizes a noisy Hamiltonian might not minimize the noise-less Hamiltonian. Inspired by rigorous results that the energy of the noise-less ground-state configuration is equal to the expectation value of the energy of the noisy Hamiltonian at the (nonzero) Nishimori temperature [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 62, 40132930 (1993)], we numerically study the decoding probability of the original noise-less ground state with noisy Hamiltonians in two space dimensions, as well as the D-Wave Inc. Chimera topology. Our results suggest that thermal fluctuations might be beneficial during the optimization process in analog quantum annealing machines.
Ma, Jianfen; Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C
2009-05-01
The articulation index (AI), speech-transmission index (STI), and coherence-based intelligibility metrics have been evaluated primarily in steady-state noisy conditions and have not been tested extensively in fluctuating noise conditions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the performance of new speech-based STI measures, modified coherence-based measures, and AI-based measures operating on short-term (30 ms) intervals in realistic noisy conditions. Much emphasis is placed on the design of new band-importance weighting functions which can be used in situations wherein speech is corrupted by fluctuating maskers. The proposed measures were evaluated with intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech (consonants and sentences) corrupted by four different maskers (car, babble, train, and street interferences). Of all the measures considered, the modified coherence-based measures and speech-based STI measures incorporating signal-specific band-importance functions yielded the highest correlations (r=0.89-0.94). The modified coherence measure, in particular, that only included vowel/consonant transitions and weak consonant information yielded the highest correlation (r=0.94) with sentence recognition scores. The results from this study clearly suggest that the traditional AI and STI indices could benefit from the use of the proposed signal- and segment-dependent band-importance functions.
Time-bin-encoding-based remote states generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers through noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Shi-Lei; Chen, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2015-02-01
We design proposals to generate a remote Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and a W state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to microtoroidal resonators (MTRs) through noisy channels by utilizing time-bin encoding processes and fast-optical-switch-based polarization rotation operations. The polarization and phase noise induced by noisy channels generally affect the time of state generation but not its success probability and fidelity. Besides, the above proposals can be generalized to n-qubit between two or among n remote nodes with success probability unity under ideal conditions. Furthermore, the proposals are robust for regular noise-changeable channels for the n-node case. This method is also useful in other remote quantum information processing tasks through noisy channels. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264042, 61465013, 11465020, and 11165015), the Program for Chun Miao Excellent Talents of Jilin Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 201316), and the Talent Program of Yanbian University of China (Grant No. 950010001).
Fuzzy difference-of-Gaussian-based iris recognition method for noisy iris images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Yoo, Jang-Hee; Moon, Kiyoung
2010-06-01
Iris recognition is used for information security with a high confidence level because it shows outstanding recognition accuracy by using human iris patterns with high degrees of freedom. However, iris recognition accuracy can be reduced by noisy iris images with optical and motion blurring. We propose a new iris recognition method based on the fuzzy difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) for noisy iris images. This study is novel in three ways compared to previous works: (1) The proposed method extracts iris feature values using the DOG method, which is robust to local variations of illumination and shows fine texture information, including various frequency components. (2) When determining iris binary codes, image noises that cause the quantization error of the feature values are reduced with the fuzzy membership function. (3) The optimal parameters of the DOG filter and the fuzzy membership function are determined in terms of iris recognition accuracy. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed method was better than that of previous methods for noisy iris images.
Robust optical flow using adaptive Lorentzian filter for image reconstruction under noisy condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesrarat, Darun; Patanavijit, Vorapoj
2017-02-01
In optical flow for motion allocation, the efficient result in Motion Vector (MV) is an important issue. Several noisy conditions may cause the unreliable result in optical flow algorithms. We discover that many classical optical flows algorithms perform better result under noisy condition when combined with modern optimized model. This paper introduces effective robust models of optical flow by using Robust high reliability spatial based optical flow algorithms using the adaptive Lorentzian norm influence function in computation on simple spatial temporal optical flows algorithm. Experiment on our proposed models confirm better noise tolerance in optical flow's MV under noisy condition when they are applied over simple spatial temporal optical flow algorithms as a filtering model in simple frame-to-frame correlation technique. We illustrate the performance of our models by performing an experiment on several typical sequences with differences in movement speed of foreground and background where the experiment sequences are contaminated by the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) at different noise decibels (dB). This paper shows very high effectiveness of noise tolerance models that they are indicated by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).
Sequence-Based Pronunciation Variation Modeling for Spontaneous ASR Using a Noisy Channel Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Hansjörg; Sakti, Sakriani; Hori, Chiori; Kashioka, Hideki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Minker, Wolfgang
The performance of English automatic speech recognition systems decreases when recognizing spontaneous speech mainly due to multiple pronunciation variants in the utterances. Previous approaches address this problem by modeling the alteration of the pronunciation on a phoneme to phoneme level. However, the phonetic transformation effects induced by the pronunciation of the whole sentence have not yet been considered. In this article, the sequence-based pronunciation variation is modeled using a noisy channel approach where the spontaneous phoneme sequence is considered as a “noisy” string and the goal is to recover the “clean” string of the word sequence. Hereby, the whole word sequence and its effect on the alternation of the phonemes will be taken into consideration. Moreover, the system not only learns the phoneme transformation but also the mapping from the phoneme to the word directly. In this study, first the phonemes will be recognized with the present recognition system and afterwards the pronunciation variation model based on the noisy channel approach will map from the phoneme to the word level. Two well-known natural language processing approaches are adopted and derived from the noisy channel model theory: Joint-sequence models and statistical machine translation. Both of them are applied and various experiments are conducted using microphone and telephone of spontaneous speech.
A rating scale experiment on loudness, noisiness and annoyance of environmental sounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiramatsu, K.; Takagi, K.; Yamamoto, T.
1988-12-01
How people judge loudness, noisiness and annoyance of sounds was investigated by using a variety of environmental sounds. Fifty male and female subjects, aged from 18 to 60 years, heard 59 environmental sounds as well as seven kinds of white noise and judged their loudness, noisiness and annoyance on rating scales. Average scores on the three concepts given to the steady white noises are approximately in linear proportion to the level of the noise, with high correlation coefficients. The relationships were used to convert the scores given to the sounds to the levels of white noise which would have the same scores and can be regarded as points of subjective equality ( PSE's) of the sounds. It is found that the PSE thus obtained concerning loudness is best correlated among the three with Perceived Level and that concerning annoyance is least correlated with the level. Scattergrams of PSE's between the three concepts plotted against each other showed considerably high correlations. They are more correlated when sounds such as music, church bell, birds, etc., being on average judged pleasant or neutral, are excluded. This suggests that the human responses concerning those three concepts of auditory sensation and/or perception are mutually correlated. Lower correlation between loudness and annoyance, however, suggests sounds heard as equally loud could be differently annoying. More detailed analysis of the results showed that the judgement of loudness was not independent of noisiness and/or annoyance of the sound.
Effects of listening to music with headphones on hearing--especially under noisy conditions.
Miyake, S; Kumashiro, M
1986-12-01
The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of exposure to music using headphones under noisy conditions on hearing. The most comfortable loudness (MCL) for three kinds of music (Rock, Popular, Japanese songs) decided by two normal hearing subjects was measured under 6 noisy conditions (Train, Subway, Tram, Bus, Underground, Street) in a soundproof room. In the same manner, the MCL of favorite tunes of five subjects were measured. Temporary threshold shift 2 min after exposure (TTS2) to music for 30 min at the highest MCL was obtained. Furthermore, the characteristics such as spectral structures in one-third octave band or level fluctuations (coefficient of variation) were obtained for noise and music and compared. Statistical analysis revealed that MCL in Street was significantly higher than under other conditions and there was no significant differences in MCL among the various types of music. However, the highest MCL was found for Rock. About 20 dB of TTS was observed in one ear and the hazardous of headphones use in noisy conditions was suggested.
Blind noisy image quality evaluation using a deformable ant colony algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li; Huang, Xiaotong; Tian, Jing; Fu, Xiaowei
2014-04-01
The objective of blind noisy image quality assessment is to evaluate the quality of the degraded noisy image without the knowledge of the ground truth image. Its performance relies on the accuracy of the noise statistics estimated from homogenous blocks. The major challenge of block-based approaches lies in the block size selection, as it affects the local noise derivation. To tackle this challenge, a deformable ant colony optimization (DACO) approach is proposed in this paper to adaptively adjust the ant size for image block selection. The proposed DACO approach considers that the size of the ant is adjustable during foraging. For the smooth image blocks, more pheromone is deposited, and then the size of ant is increased. Therefore, this strategy enables the ants to have dynamic food-search capability, leading to more accurate selection of homogeneous blocks. Furthermore, the regression analysis is used to obtain image quality score by exploiting the above-estimated noise statistics. Experimental results are provided to justify that the proposed approach outperforms conventional approaches to provide more accurate noise statistics estimation and achieve a consistent image quality evaluation performance for both the artificially generated and real-world noisy images.
Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan
2016-01-01
Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.
Estimation of Speech Components by Acf Analysis in a Noisy Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazama, M.; Tohyama, M.
2001-03-01
A speech signal can be decomposed into the fundamental frequency and harmonics, and the autocorrelation function (ACF) is an effective tool for identifying the fundamental frequency and the harmonics. This paper, thus, explains how ACF harmonic analysis can be applied to speech detection and reconstruction when speech communication technologies are used in noisy environments. The dominant sinusoidal components used for the ACF analysis can be picked out from the short-time Fourier spectrum records of a noisy speech signal by using a peak-picking method. Because the number of components usable for speech reconstruction depends on the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, we authors developed new methods for peak-picking method and for harmonic sieving. The number of components picked out is adjusted frame by frame depending on the short-time S/N ratio, and harmonics are extracted from the short-time Fourier spectrum record by changing the frame length adaptively according to the fundamental frequency. Consequently, intelligible speech without 'musical noise' could be reconstructed from noisy speech signals.
The Noisiness of Low-Frequency One-Third Octave Bands of Noise. M.S. Thesis - Southampton Univ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, B. W.
1975-01-01
This study examined the relative noisiness of low frequency one-third octave bands of noise bounded by the bands centered at 25 Hz and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 db sound pressure level (SPL) to 95 db SPL. The thirty-two subjects used a method-of-adjustment technique, producing comparison-band intensities as noisy as standard bands centered at 100 Hz and 200 Hz with intensities of 60 db SPL and 72 db SPL. Four contours of equal noisiness were developed for one-third octave bands, extending down to 25 Hz and ranging in intensity from approximately 58 db SPL to 86 db SPL. These curves were compared with the contours of equal noisiness of Kryter and Pearsons. In the region of overlap (between 50 Hz and 200 Hz) the agreement was good.
Limitations on quantum key repeaters.
Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas
2015-04-23
A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.
Limitations on quantum key repeaters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas
2015-04-01
A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araújo, Mario; Areán, Daniel; Lizana, Javier M.
2016-07-01
We study the effects of disorder on strongly coupled compressible matter in 2+1 dimensions. Our system consists of a D3/D5 intersection at finite temperature and in the presence of a disordered chemical potential. We first study the impact of disorder on the charge density and the quark condensate. Next, we focus on the DC conductivity and derive analytic expressions for the corrections induced by weak disorder. It is found that disorder enhances the DC conductivity at low charge density, while for large charge density the conductivity is reduced. We present numerical simulations both for weak and strong disorder. Finally, we show how disorder gives rise to a sublinear behavior for the conductivity as a function of the charge density, a behavior qualitatively similar to predictions and observations for electric transport in graphene.
Rodriguez, Jose A; Xu, Rui; Chen, Chien-Chun; Zou, Yunfei; Miao, Jianwei
2013-04-01
Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is high-resolution lensless microscopy that has been applied to image a wide range of specimens using synchrotron radiation, X-ray free-electron lasers, high harmonic generation, soft X-ray lasers and electrons. Despite recent rapid advances, it remains a challenge to reconstruct fine features in weakly scattering objects such as biological specimens from noisy data. Here an effective iterative algorithm, termed oversampling smoothness (OSS), for phase retrieval of noisy diffraction intensities is presented. OSS exploits the correlation information among the pixels or voxels in the region outside of a support in real space. By properly applying spatial frequency filters to the pixels or voxels outside the support at different stages of the iterative process (i.e. a smoothness constraint), OSS finds a balance between the hybrid input-output (HIO) and error reduction (ER) algorithms to search for a global minimum in solution space, while reducing the oscillations in the reconstruction. Both numerical simulations with Poisson noise and experimental data from a biological cell indicate that OSS consistently outperforms the HIO, ER-HIO and noise robust (NR)-HIO algorithms at all noise levels in terms of accuracy and consistency of the reconstructions. It is expected that OSS will find application in the rapidly growing CDI field, as well as other disciplines where phase retrieval from noisy Fourier magnitudes is needed. The MATLAB (The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) source code of the OSS algorithm is freely available from http://www.physics.ucla.edu/research/imaging.
Retrieving squeezing from classically noisy light in second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ralph, T. C.; White, A. G.
1995-05-01
We report the results of a study of the quantum noise properties of a squeezing system involving a three-level laser pumping two similar second-harmonic-generating crystals. We show that squeezing that has been obscured by intensity and phase noise from the pump laser may be retrieved by difference detection of both second-harmonic outputs. Similarly, the squeezed vacuum formed by combining the two outputs on a 50/50 beam splitter will be squeezed at frequencies that are classically noisy in the individual beams.
Performance of unbalanced QPSK in the presence of noisy reference and crosstalk
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divsalar, D.; Yuen, J. H.
1979-01-01
The problem of transmitting two telemetry data streams having different rates and different powers using unbalanced quadriphase shift keying (UQPSK) signaling is considered. It is noted that the presence of a noisy carrier phase reference causes a degradation in detection performance in coherent communications systems and that imperfect carrier synchronization not only attenuates the main demodulated signal voltage in UQPSK but also produces interchannel interference (crosstalk) which degrades the performance still further. Exact analytical expressions for symbol error probability of UQPSK in the presence of noise phase reference are derived.
Noisy bases in Hilbert space: A new class of thermal coherent states and their properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vourdas, A.; Bishop, R. F.
1995-01-01
Coherent mixed states (or thermal coherent states) associated with the displaced harmonic oscillator at finite temperature, are introduced as a 'random' (or 'thermal' or 'noisy') basis in Hilbert space. A resolution of the identity for these states is proved and used to generalize the usual coherent state formalism for the finite temperature case. The Bargmann representation of an operator is introduced and its relation to the P and Q representations is studied. Generalized P and Q representations for the finite temperature case are also considered and several interesting relations among them are derived.
Study and Simulation of Enhancements for TCP Performance Over Noisy High Latency Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Craig
1999-01-01
The goal of this study is to better understand how TCP behaves over noisy, high-latency links such as satellite links and propose improvements to TCP implementations such that TCP might better handle such links. This report is comprised of a series of smaller reports, presentations and recommendations. Included in these documents are a summary of the TCP enhancement techniques for large windows, protect against wrap around (PAWS), use of selective acknowledgements (SACK), increasing TCP's initial window and recommendations to implement TCP pacing.
Romano, Raffaele; Loock, Peter van
2010-07-15
Quantum teleportation enables deterministic and faithful transmission of quantum states, provided a maximally entangled state is preshared between sender and receiver, and a one-way classical channel is available. Here, we prove that these resources are not only sufficient, but also necessary, for deterministically and faithfully sending quantum states through any fixed noisy channel of maximal rank, when a single use of the cannel is admitted. In other words, for this family of channels, there are no other protocols, based on different (and possibly cheaper) sets of resources, capable of replacing quantum teleportation.
Critical avalanches and subsampling in map-based neural networks coupled with noisy synapses.
Girardi-Schappo, M; Kinouchi, O; Tragtenberg, M H R
2013-08-01
Many different kinds of noise are experimentally observed in the brain. Among them, we study a model of noisy chemical synapse and obtain critical avalanches for the spatiotemporal activity of the neural network. Neurons and synapses are modeled by dynamical maps. We discuss the relevant neuronal and synaptic properties to achieve the critical state. We verify that networks of functionally excitable neurons with fast synapses present power-law avalanches, due to rebound spiking dynamics. We also discuss the measuring of neuronal avalanches by subsampling our data, shedding light on the experimental search for self-organized criticality in neural networks.
Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esquef, Paulo A. A.; Karjalainen, Matti; Välimäki, Vesa
2003-12-01
This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR) modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA) modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.
2012-03-30
procedure for parameter estimation from noisy data. To cite this article: A.T. Patera, E.M. Rønquist, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser . I XXX (2012...une formulation moindres carrés. Les erreurs induites par les données bruitées dans les coefficients EIM aussi bien que les sorties fonctionelle...Paris, Ser . I XXX (2012). Email addresses: patera@mit.edu (Anthony T. Patera), ronquist@math.ntnu.no (Einar M. Rønquist). Preprint submitted to the
Probability density of the empirical wavelet coefficients of a noisy chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique
2014-05-01
We are interested in the random empirical wavelet coefficients of a noisy signal when this signal is a unidimensional or multidimensional chaos. More precisely we provide an expression of the conditional probability density of such coefficients, given a discrete observation grid. The noise is assumed to be described by a symmetric alpha-stable random variable. If the noise is a dynamic noise, then we present the exact expression of the probability density of each wavelet coefficient of the noisy signal. If we face a measurement noise, then the noise has a non-linear influence and we propose two approximations. The first one relies on a Taylor expansion whereas the second one, relying on an Edgeworth expansion, improves the first general Taylor approximation if the cumulants of the noise are defined. We give some illustrations of these theoretical results for the logistic map, the tent map and a multidimensional chaos, the Hénon map, disrupted by a Gaussian or a Cauchy noise.
Dynamical complexity of short and noisy time series - Compression-Complexity vs. Shannon entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraj, Nithin; Balasubramanian, Karthi
2017-01-01
Shannon entropy has been extensively used for characterizing complexity of time series arising from chaotic dynamical systems and stochastic processes such as Markov chains. However, for short and noisy time series, Shannon entropy performs poorly. Complexity measures which are based on lossless compression algorithms are a good substitute in such scenarios. We evaluate the performance of two such Compression-Complexity Measures namely Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZ) and Effort-To-Compress (ETC) on short time series from chaotic dynamical systems in the presence of noise. Both LZ and ETC outperform Shannon entropy (H) in accurately characterizing the dynamical complexity of such systems. For very short binary sequences (which arise in neuroscience applications), ETC has higher number of distinct complexity values than LZ and H, thus enabling a finer resolution. For two-state ergodic Markov chains, we empirically show that ETC converges to a steady state value faster than LZ. Compression-Complexity measures are promising for applications which involve short and noisy time series.
Noisy transcription factor NF-κB oscillations stabilize and sensitize cytokine signaling in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangstad, Sirin W.; Feldager, Cilie W.; Juul, Jeppe; Trusina, Ala
2013-02-01
NF-κB is a major transcription factor mediating inflammatory response. In response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, it exhibits a characteristic response—a pulse followed by noisy oscillations in concentrations of considerably smaller amplitude. NF-κB is an important mediator of cellular communication, as it is both activated by and upregulates production of cytokines, signals used by white blood cells to find the source of inflammation. While the oscillatory dynamics of NF-κB has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, the role of the noise and the lower secondary amplitude has not been addressed. We use a cellular automaton model to address these issues in the context of spatially distributed communicating cells. We find that noisy secondary oscillations stabilize concentric wave patterns, thus improving signal quality. Furthermore, both lower secondary amplitude as well as noise in the oscillation period might be working against chronic inflammation, the state of self-sustained and stimulus-independent excitations. Our findings suggest that the characteristic irregular secondary oscillations of lower amplitude are not accidental. On the contrary, they might have evolved to increase robustness of the inflammatory response and the system's ability to return to a pre-stimulated state.
Localization of a sound source in a noisy environment by hyperbolic curves in quefrency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Choon-Su; Jeon, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hann
2014-10-01
Time Difference of Arrivals (TDOAs) of sound waves between microphones have to do with source localization. How well a sound source can be localized depends on how precisely the TDOAs are estimated. Although many ways to estimate TDOA have been proposed, noise always prevents us from finding exact time differences more or less in practice. Cross correlation has been the most prevalent way to estimate time difference, and various cross correlations robust to noise have also been developed. Nevertheless, much remains to be done for exact TDOA estimation under noisy environments. A novel way to show time delays in quefrency domain by removing noise has been proposed, which is called Minimum Variance Cepstrum (MVC). In particular, it is practically desirable to visualize source position with as few number of sensors as possible. Once TDOAs are obtained precisely, it is enough to show the source position in a 2-D plane using hyperbolic curves with only three sensors. In this work, the MVC is adopted to accurately estimate TDOAs under noise, and a way to localize an acoustic source by intersecting hyperbolic curves using the TDOAs between three microphones is proposed. Numerical simulations on TDOA estimation and source localization with white Gaussian noise demonstrated that the proposed method worked well under the noisy environment, and we compared the results with those of other old but well-established cross correlation estimators. In addition, experiments to detect a leaking point on a pipe successfully showed where the leak sound was generated.
How Do Honeybees Attract Nestmates Using Waggle Dances in Dark and Noisy Hives?
Hasegawa, Yuji; Ikeno, Hidetoshi
2011-01-01
It is well known that honeybees share information related to food sources with nestmates using a dance language that is representative of symbolic communication among non-primates. Some honeybee species engage in visually apparent behavior, walking in a figure-eight pattern inside their dark hives. It has been suggested that sounds play an important role in this dance language, even though a variety of wing vibration sounds are produced by honeybee behaviors in hives. It has been shown that dances emit sounds primarily at about 250–300 Hz, which is in the same frequency range as honeybees' flight sounds. Thus the exact mechanism whereby honeybees attract nestmates using waggle dances in such a dark and noisy hive is as yet unclear. In this study, we used a flight simulator in which honeybees were attached to a torque meter in order to analyze the component of bees' orienting response caused only by sounds, and not by odor or by vibrations sensed by their legs. We showed using single sound localization that honeybees preferred sounds around 265 Hz. Furthermore, according to sound discrimination tests using sounds of the same frequency, honeybees preferred rhythmic sounds. Our results demonstrate that frequency and rhythmic components play a complementary role in localizing dance sounds. Dance sounds were presumably developed to share information in a dark and noisy environment. PMID:21603608
Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein
2014-01-01
Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noisy sensor data are used by both the human and the information analysis automation to make judgments. In a simplified air traffic conflict prediction experiment, 32 participants made probability of horizontal conflict judgments under different display content conditions. After being exposed to the information analysis automation, judgment achievement significantly improved for all participants as compared to judgments without any of the automation's information. Participants provided with additional display content pertaining to cue variability in the task environment had significantly higher aided judgment achievement compared to those provided with only the automation's judgment of a probability of conflict. When designing information analysis automation for environments where the automation's judgment achievement is impacted by noisy environmental data, it may be beneficial to show additional task environment information to the human judge in order to improve judgment performance. PMID:24847184
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, S.; Yuan, X.
2016-06-01
A generic probabilistic model, under fundamental Bayes' rule and Markov assumption, is introduced to integrate the process of mobile platform localization with optical sensors. And based on it, three relative independent solutions, bundle adjustment, Kalman filtering and particle filtering are deduced under different and additional restrictions. We want to prove that first, Kalman filtering, may be a better initial-value supplier for bundle adjustment than traditional relative orientation in irregular strips and networks or failed tie-point extraction. Second, in high noisy conditions, particle filtering can act as a bridge for gap binding when a large number of gross errors fail a Kalman filtering or a bundle adjustment. Third, both filtering methods, which help reduce the error propagation and eliminate gross errors, guarantee a global and static bundle adjustment, who requires the strictest initial values and control conditions. The main innovation is about the integrated processing of stochastic errors and gross errors in sensor observations, and the integration of the three most used solutions, bundle adjustment, Kalman filtering and particle filtering into a generic probabilistic localization model. The tests in noisy and restricted situations are designed and examined to prove them.
Effects of auditory and tactile warning on response to visual hazards under a noisy environment.
Murata, Atsuo; Kuroda, Takashi; Karwowski, Waldemar
2017-04-01
A warning signal presented via a visual or an auditory cue might interfere with auditory or visual information inside and outside a vehicle. On the other hand, such interference would be certainly reduced if a tactile cue is used. Therefore, it is expected that tactile cues would be promising as warning signals, especially in a noisy environment. In order to determine the most suitable modality of cue (warning) to a visual hazard in noisy environments, auditory and tactile cues were examined in this study. The condition of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was set to 0ms, 500ms, and 1000ms. Two types of noises were used: white noise and noise outside a vehicle recorded in a real-world driving environment. The noise level LAeq (equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level) inside the experimental chamber of each type of noise was adjusted to approximately 60 dB (A), 70 dB (A), and 80 dB (A). As a result, it was verified that tactile warning was more effective than auditory warning. When the noise outside a vehicle from a real-driving environment was used as the noise inside the experimental chamber, the reaction time to the auditory warning was not affected by the noise level.
Multi-objective optimization with estimation of distribution algorithm in a noisy environment.
Shim, Vui Ann; Tan, Kay Chen; Chia, Jun Yong; Al Mamun, Abdullah
2013-01-01
Many real-world optimization problems are subjected to uncertainties that may be characterized by the presence of noise in the objective functions. The estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA), which models the global distribution of the population for searching tasks, is one of the evolutionary computation techniques that deals with noisy information. This paper studies the potential of EDAs; particularly an EDA based on restricted Boltzmann machines that handles multi-objective optimization problems in a noisy environment. Noise is introduced to the objective functions in the form of a Gaussian distribution. In order to reduce the detrimental effect of noise, a likelihood correction feature is proposed to tune the marginal probability distribution of each decision variable. The EDA is subsequently hybridized with a particle swarm optimization algorithm in a discrete domain to improve its search ability. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is examined via eight benchmark instances with different characteristics and shapes of the Pareto optimal front. The scalability, hybridization, and computational time are rigorously studied. Comparative studies show that the proposed approach outperforms other state of the art algorithms.
A hybrid algorithm for robust acoustic source localization in noisy and reverberant environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopalan, Ramesh; Dessonville, Timothy
2014-09-01
Acoustic source localization using microphone arrays is widely used in videoconferencing and surveillance systems. However, it still remains a challenging task to develop efficient algorithms for accurate estimation of source location using distributed data processing. In this work, we propose a new algorithm for efficient localization of a speaker in noisy and reverberant environments such as videoconferencing. We propose a hybrid algorithm that combines generalized cross correlation based phase transform method (GCC-PHAT) and Tabu search to obtain a robust and accurate estimate of the speaker location. The Tabu Search algorithm iteratively improves the time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimate of GCC-PHAT by examining the neighboring solutions until a convergence in the TDOA value is obtained. Experiments were performed based on real world data recorded from a meeting room in the presence of noise such as computer and fans. Our results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms GCC-PHAT especially when the noise level is high. This shows the robustness of the proposed algorithm in noisy and realistic videoconferencing systems.
Daily Sleep Changes in a Noisy Environment Assessed by Subjective and Polygraphic Sleep Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.
1997-08-01
Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency, REM cycle, REM duration, frequency and duration in minutes of awakening during sleep, total sleep time, number of sleep stage shifts, sleep efficiency, number of sleep spindles and density. The differences between reaction times before sleep that night and the following morning were also examined. The subjects were twelve students aged 19 to 21 who were tested a total of 96 nights. Each subject slept in an experimental room and was exposed to recorded passing truck noise with peak levels of 45, 50, 55 and 60 dB(A) at intervals of 15 min. Significant changes were recognized in Stage 1, MT, frequency of awakening and number of sleep stage shifts. The authors speculate that the decrease in the shallow stage as noisy nights were repeated reflects habituation of night sleep to repeated passing truck noise, whose interval, duration and nature was constant.
Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong
2015-05-01
The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.
Noisy decision thresholds can account for suboptimal detection of low coherence motion.
Price, Nicholas S C; VanCuylenberg, John B
2016-01-04
Noise in sensory signals can vary over both space and time. Moving random dot stimuli are commonly used to quantify how the visual system accounts for spatial noise. In these stimuli, a fixed proportion of "signal" dots move in the same direction and the remaining "noise" dots are randomly replotted. The spatial coherence, or proportion of signal versus noise dots, is fixed across time; however, this means that little is known about how temporally-noisy signals are integrated. Here we use a stimulus with low temporal coherence; the signal direction is only presented on a fraction of frames. Human observers are able to reliably detect and discriminate the direction of a 200 ms motion pulse, even when just 25% of frames within the pulse move in the signal direction. Using psychophysical reverse-correlation analyses, we show that observers are strongly influenced by the number of near-target directions spread throughout the pulse, and that consecutive signal frames have only a small additional influence on perception. Finally, we develop a model inspired by the leaky integration of the responses of direction-selective neurons, which reliably represents motion direction, and which can account for observers' sub-optimal detection of motion pulses by incorporating a noisy decision threshold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rfifi, Saad
2016-10-01
The eavesdropping attacks applied in the quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols through a phase-damping noisy environment are very easy to be realized. In fact, the QSS fidelity has an ordinary behaviour with just one peak according to the noise rate value for many values of the quantum message amplitude. The present work employs a Fock cavity field in such protocols to complicate any eavesdropping attacks through a phase-damping noisy environment. Indeed, only the legitimate users who can adjust the cavity parameters to reach periodically the fidelity peaks.
Implementation of two-party protocols in the noisy-storage model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehner, Stephanie; Curty, Marcos; Schaffner, Christian; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2010-05-01
The noisy-storage model allows the implementation of secure two-party protocols under the sole assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. No quantum storage is thereby required for the honest parties. Examples of such protocols include bit commitment, oblivious transfer, and secure identification. Here, we provide a guideline for the practical implementation of such protocols. In particular, we analyze security in a practical setting where the honest parties themselves are unable to perform perfect operations and need to deal with practical problems such as errors during transmission and detector inefficiencies. We provide explicit security parameters for two different experimental setups using weak coherent, and parametric down-conversion sources. In addition, we analyze a modification of the protocols based on decoy states.
SOM-based nonlinear least squares twin SVM via active contours for noisy image segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiaomin; Wang, Tingting
2017-02-01
In this paper, a nonlinear least square twin support vector machine (NLSTSVM) with the integration of active contour model (ACM) is proposed for noisy image segmentation. Efforts have been made to seek the kernel-generated surfaces instead of hyper-planes for the pixels belonging to the foreground and background, respectively, using the kernel trick to enhance the performance. The concurrent self organizing maps (SOMs) are applied to approximate the intensity distributions in a supervised way, so as to establish the original training sets for the NLSTSVM. Further, the two sets are updated by adding the global region average intensities at each iteration. Moreover, a local variable regional term rather than edge stop function is adopted in the energy function to ameliorate the noise robustness. Experiment results demonstrate that our model holds the higher segmentation accuracy and more noise robustness.
Decision forests for machine learning classification of large, noisy seafloor feature sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, Ed; Smith, Denson; Sofge, Donald; Elmore, Paul; Petry, Frederick
2017-02-01
Extremely randomized trees (ET) classifiers, an extension of random forests (RF) are applied to classification of features such as seamounts derived from bathymetry data. This data is characterized by sparse training data from by large noisy features sets such as often found in other geospatial data. A variety of feature metrics may be useful for this task and we use a large number of metrics relevant to the task of finding seamounts. The major significant results to be described include: an outstanding seamount classification accuracy of 97%; an automated process to produce the most useful classification features that are relevant to geophysical scientists (as represented by the feature metrics); demonstration that topography provides the most important data representation for classification. As well as achieving good accuracy in classification, the human-understandable set of metrics generated by the classifier that are most relevant for the results are discussed.
An improved teaching-learning based robust edge detection algorithm for noisy images.
Thirumavalavan, Sasirooba; Jayaraman, Sasikala
2016-11-01
This paper presents an improved Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLO) and a methodology for obtaining the edge maps of the noisy real life digital images. TLO is a population based algorithm that simulates the teaching-learning mechanism in class rooms, comprising two phases of teaching and learning. The 'Teaching Phase' represents learning from the teacher and 'Learning Phase' indicates learning by the interaction between learners. This paper introduces a third phase denoted by "Avoiding Phase" that helps to keep the learners away from the worst students with a view of exploring the problem space more effectively and escaping from the sub-optimal solutions. The improved TLO (ITLO) explores the solution space and provides the global best solution. The edge detection problem is formulated as an optimization problem and solved using the ITLO. The results of real life and medical images illustrate the performance of the developed method.
Unwrapping noisy phase maps by use of a minimum-cost-matching algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckland, J. R.; Huntley, J. M.; Turner, S. R. E.
1995-08-01
An algorithm for unwrapping noisy phase maps by means of branch cuts has been proposed recently. These cuts join discontinuity sources that mark the beginning or end of a 2 pi phase discontinuity. After the placement of branch cuts, the unwrapped phase map is unique and independent of the unwrapping route. We show how a minimum-cost-matching graph-theory method can be used to find the set of cuts that has the global minimum of total cut length, in time approximately proportional to the square of the number of sources. The method enables one to unwrap unfiltered speckle-interferometry phase maps at higher source densities (0.1 sources pixel-1) than any previous branch-cut placement algorithm.
A revisit to non-maximally entangled mixed states: teleportation witness, noisy channel and discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sovik; Ghosh, Biplab
2017-04-01
We constructed a class of non-maximally entangled mixed states (Adhikari et al. in Quantum Inf Comput 10:0398, 2010) and extensively studied their entanglement properties and also their usefulness as teleportation channels. In this article, we have revisited our constructed state and have studied it from three different perspectives. Since every entangled state is associated with a witness operator, we have found a suitable entanglement as well as teleportation witness operator for our non-maximally entangled mixed states. We considered the noisy channel's effects on our constructed states to see how much it affects the states' capacities as teleportation channels. For this purpose, we have mainly focussed on amplitude damping channel. A comparative study on concurrence and quantum discord of our constructed state of Adhikari et al. (2010) has also been carried out here.
Nickerson, Naomi H; Li, Ying; Benjamin, Simon C
2013-01-01
A scalable quantum computer could be built by networking together many simple processor cells, thus avoiding the need to create a single complex structure. The difficulty is that realistic quantum links are very error prone. A solution is for cells to repeatedly communicate with each other and so purify any imperfections; however prior studies suggest that the cells themselves must then have prohibitively low internal error rates. Here we describe a method by which even error-prone cells can perform purification: groups of cells generate shared resource states, which then enable stabilization of topologically encoded data. Given a realistically noisy network (≥10% error rate) we find that our protocol can succeed provided that intra-cell error rates for initialisation, state manipulation and measurement are below 0.82%. This level of fidelity is already achievable in several laboratory systems.
Mackey-Glass noisy chaotic time series prediction by a swarm-optimized neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Caraballo, C. H.; Salfate, I.; Lazzús, J. A.; Rojas, P.; Rivera, M.; Palma-Chilla, L.
2016-05-01
In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) was developed for the time series prediction. The hybrid ANN+PSO algorithm was applied on Mackey-Glass noiseless chaotic time series in the short-term and long-term prediction. The performance prediction is evaluated and compared with similar work in the literature, particularly for the long-term forecast. Also, we present properties of the dynamical system via the study of chaotic behaviour obtained from the time series prediction. Then, this standard hybrid ANN+PSO algorithm was complemented with a Gaussian stochastic procedure (called stochastic hybrid ANN+PSO) in order to obtain a new estimator of the predictions that also allowed us compute uncertainties of predictions for noisy Mackey-Glass chaotic time series. We study the impact of noise for three cases with a white noise level (σ N ) contribution of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian
2004-03-01
Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.
Spurious Doppler maps from noisy spectra and zero-field inversions★
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.
2017-03-01
Empirical abundance maps derived with the help of Zeeman Doppler mapping are found to be at variance with the predictions of numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars. Although theory has often been made responsible for this lack of agreement, direct spectral synthesis based on the published abundance maps reveals that all the chemical inhomogeneities claimed for HD 3980 are entirely spurious, and those of HD 50773 to a large extent. In the former case, this is shown to be due to the neglect of a strong magnetic field, and in the latter case, due to noisy spectra in combination with considerable rotational broadening and ensuing strong line blending. Doppler maps for other magnetic ApBp stars could be affected by similar problems. It is also pointed out that the patchy, extreme overabundances in HD 3980 cannot be reconciled with the theory of stellar atmospheres.
Texture mapping 3D models of indoor environments with noisy camera poses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Peter; Anderson, Michael; He, Stewart; Zakhor, Avideh
2013-03-01
Automated 3D modeling of building interiors is used in applications such as virtual reality and environment mapping. Texturing these models allows for photo-realistic visualizations of the data collected by such modeling systems. While data acquisition times for mobile mapping systems are considerably shorter than for static ones, their recovered camera poses often suffer from inaccuracies, resulting in visible discontinuities when successive images are projected onto a surface for texturing. We present a method for texture mapping models of indoor environments that starts by selecting images whose camera poses are well-aligned in two dimensions. We then align images to geometry as well as to each other, producing visually consistent textures even in the presence of inaccurate surface geometry and noisy camera poses. Images are then composited into a final texture mosaic and projected onto surface geometry for visualization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a number of different indoor environments.
A non-Gaussian Ensemble Filter for Assimilating Infrequent Noisy Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlim, John; Hunt, Brian R.
2007-03-01
We present a modified ensemble Kalman filter that allows a non-Gaussian background error distribution. Using a distribution that decays more slowly than a Gaussian allows the filter to make a larger correction to the background state in cases where it deviates significantly from the truth. For high-dimensional systems, this approach can be used locally. We compare this non-Gaussian filter to its Gaussian counterpart (with multiplicative variance inflation) with the three-dimensional Lorenz-63 model, the 40-dimensional Lorenz-96 model, and Molteni's SPEEDY model, a global model with ~105 state variables. When observations are sufficiently infrequent and noisy, the non-Gaussian filter yields a significant improvement in analysis and forecast errors.
Mobile robot trajectory tracking using noisy RSS measurements: an RFID approach.
Miah, M Suruz; Gueaieb, Wail
2014-03-01
Most RF beacons-based mobile robot navigation techniques rely on approximating line-of-sight (LOS) distances between the beacons and the robot. This is mostly performed using the robot's received signal strength (RSS) measurements from the beacons. However, accurate mapping between the RSS measurements and the LOS distance is almost impossible to achieve in reverberant environments. This paper presents a partially-observed feedback controller for a wheeled mobile robot where the feedback signal is in the form of noisy RSS measurements emitted from radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed controller requires neither an accurate mapping between the LOS distance and the RSS measurements, nor the linearization of the robot model. The controller performance is demonstrated through numerical simulations and real-time experiments.
JRSP of three-particle state via three tripartite GHZ class in quantum noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Camacho-Nieto, Oscar; Dong, Shi-Hai
2016-10-01
We present a scheme for joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of three-particle state via three tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states as the quantum channel linking the parties. We use eight-qubit mutually orthogonal basis vector as measurement point of departure. The likelihood of success for this scheme has been found to be 1/8. However, by putting some special cases into consideration, the chances can be ameliorated to 1/4 and 1. The effects of amplitude-damping noise, phase-damping noise and depolarizing noise on this scheme have been scrutinized and the analytical derivations of fidelities for the quantum noisy channels have been presented. We found that for 0.55≤η≤1, the states conveyed through depolarizing channel lose more information than phase-damping channel while the information loss through amplitude damping channel is most minimal.
Inferring solutions of differential equations using noisy multi-fidelity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raissi, Maziar; Perdikaris, Paris; Karniadakis, George Em
2017-04-01
For more than two centuries, solutions of differential equations have been obtained either analytically or numerically based on typically well-behaved forcing and boundary conditions for well-posed problems. We are changing this paradigm in a fundamental way by establishing an interface between probabilistic machine learning and differential equations. We develop data-driven algorithms for general linear equations using Gaussian process priors tailored to the corresponding integro-differential operators. The only observables are scarce noisy multi-fidelity data for the forcing and solution that are not required to reside on the domain boundary. The resulting predictive posterior distributions quantify uncertainty and naturally lead to adaptive solution refinement via active learning. This general framework circumvents the tyranny of numerical discretization as well as the consistency and stability issues of time-integration, and is scalable to high-dimensions.
Theory of magnetic field line random walk in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2013-01-15
When a magnetic field consists of a mean part and fluctuations, the stochastic wandering of its field lines is often treated as a diffusive process. Under suitable conditions, a stable value is found for the mean square transverse displacement per unit parallel displacement relative to the mean field. Here, we compute the associated field line diffusion coefficient for a highly anisotropic 'noisy' reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of the magnetic field, which is useful in describing low frequency turbulence in the presence of a strong applied DC mean magnetic field, as may be found, for example, in the solar corona, or in certain laboratory devices. Our approach is nonperturbative, based on Corrsin's independence hypothesis, and makes use of recent advances in understanding factors that control decorrelation over a range of parameters described by the Kubo number. Both Bohm and quasilinear regimes are identified.
Enhancement of noisy EDX HRSTEM spectrum-images by combination of filtering and PCA.
Potapov, Pavel; Longo, Paolo; Okunishi, Eiji
2017-05-01
STEM spectrum-imaging with collecting EDX signal is considered in view of the extraction of maximum information from very noisy data. It is emphasized that spectrum-images with weak EDX signal often suffer from information loss in the course of PCA treatment. The loss occurs when the level of random noise exceeds a certain threshold. Weighted PCA, though potentially helpful in isolation of meaningful variations from noise, might provoke the complete loss of information in the situation of weak EDX signal. Filtering datasets prior PCA can improve the situation and recover the lost information. In particular, Gaussian kernel filters are found to be efficient. A new filter useful in the case of sparse atomic-resolution EDX spectrum-images is suggested.
Emergent kinetic constraints, ergodicity breaking, and cooperative dynamics in noisy quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everest, B.; Marcuzzi, M.; Garrahan, J. P.; Lesanovsky, I.
2016-11-01
Kinetically constrained spin systems play an important role in understanding key properties of the dynamics of slowly relaxing materials, such as glasses. Recent experimental studies have revealed that manifest kinetic constraints govern the evolution of strongly interacting gases of highly excited atoms in a noisy environment. Motivated by this development we explore which types of kinetically constrained dynamics can generally emerge in quantum spin systems subject to strong noise and show how, in this framework, constraints are accompanied by conservation laws. We discuss an experimentally realizable case of a lattice gas, where the interplay between those and the geometry of the lattice leads to collective behavior and time-scale separation even at infinite temperature. This is in contrast to models of glass-forming substances which typically rely on low temperatures and the consequent suppression of thermal activation.
Parameter estimation of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model using noisy measurements for membrane potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Yanqiu; Geng, Li-Hui; Han, Chunxiao; Cui, Shigang; Wang, Jiang
2012-06-01
This paper proposes an identification method to estimate the parameters of the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model for a neuron using noisy measurements available from a voltage-clamp experiment. By eliminating an unmeasurable recovery variable from the FHN model, a parametric second order ordinary differential equation for the only measurable membrane potential variable can be obtained. In the presence of the measurement noise, a simple least squares method is employed to estimate the associated parameters involved in the FHN model. Although the available measurements for the membrane potential are contaminated with noises, the proposed identification method aided by wavelet denoising can also give the FHN model parameters with satisfactory accuracy. Finally, two simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Communication in a noisy environment: Perception of one's own voice and speech enhancement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Cocq, Cecile
Workers in noisy industrial environments are often confronted to communication problems. Lost of workers complain about not being able to communicate easily with their coworkers when they wear hearing protectors. In consequence, they tend to remove their protectors, which expose them to the risk of hearing loss. In fact this communication problem is a double one: first the hearing protectors modify one's own voice perception; second they interfere with understanding speech from others. This double problem is examined in this thesis. When wearing hearing protectors, the modification of one's own voice perception is partly due to the occlusion effect which is produced when an earplug is inserted in the car canal. This occlusion effect has two main consequences: first the physiological noises in low frequencies are better perceived, second the perception of one's own voice is modified. In order to have a better understanding of this phenomenon, the literature results are analyzed systematically, and a new method to quantify the occlusion effect is developed. Instead of stimulating the skull with a bone vibrator or asking the subject to speak as is usually done in the literature, it has been decided to excite the buccal cavity with an acoustic wave. The experiment has been designed in such a way that the acoustic wave which excites the buccal cavity does not excite the external car or the rest of the body directly. The measurement of the hearing threshold in open and occluded car has been used to quantify the subjective occlusion effect for an acoustic wave in the buccal cavity. These experimental results as well as those reported in the literature have lead to a better understanding of the occlusion effect and an evaluation of the role of each internal path from the acoustic source to the internal car. The speech intelligibility from others is altered by both the high sound levels of noisy industrial environments and the speech signal attenuation due to hearing
Graph-regularized 3D shape reconstruction from highly anisotropic and noisy images
Heinrich, Stephanie; Drewe, Philipp; Lou, Xinghua; Umrania, Shefali; Rätsch, Gunnar
2014-01-01
Analysis of microscopy images can provide insight into many biological processes. One particularly challenging problem is cellular nuclear segmentation in highly anisotropic and noisy 3D image data. Manually localizing and segmenting each and every cellular nucleus is very time-consuming, which remains a bottleneck in large-scale biological experiments. In this work, we present a tool for automated segmentation of cellular nuclei from 3D fluorescent microscopic data. Our tool is based on state-of-the-art image processing and machine learning techniques and provides a user-friendly graphical user interface. We show that our tool is as accurate as manual annotation and greatly reduces the time for the registration. PMID:25866587
Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Analysis of Noisy and Incomplete Images
Zhou, Mingyuan; Chen, Haojun; Paisley, John; Ren, Lu; Li, Lingbo; Xing, Zhengming; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence
2013-01-01
Nonparametric Bayesian methods are considered for recovery of imagery based upon compressive, incomplete, and/or noisy measurements. A truncated beta-Bernoulli process is employed to infer an appropriate dictionary for the data under test and also for image recovery. In the context of compressive sensing, significant improvements in image recovery are manifested using learned dictionaries, relative to using standard orthonormal image expansions. The compressive-measurement projections are also optimized for the learned dictionary. Additionally, we consider simpler (incomplete) measurements, defined by measuring a subset of image pixels, uniformly selected at random. Spatial interrelationships within imagery are exploited through use of the Dirichlet and probit stick-breaking processes. Several example results are presented, with comparisons to other methods in the literature. PMID:21693421
Stochastic resonant damping in a noisy monostable system: theory and experiment.
Volpe, Giovanni; Perrone, Sandro; Rubi, J Miguel; Petrov, Dmitri
2008-05-01
Usually in the presence of a background noise an increased effort put in controlling a system stabilizes its behavior. Rarely it is thought that an increased control of the system can lead to a looser response and, therefore, to a poorer performance. Strikingly there are many systems that show this weird behavior; examples can be drawn form physical, biological, and social systems. Until now no simple and general mechanism underlying such behaviors has been identified. Here we show that such a mechanism, named stochastic resonant damping, can be provided by the interplay between the background noise and the control exerted on the system. We experimentally verify our prediction on a physical model system based on a colloidal particle held in an oscillating optical potential. Our result adds a tool for the study of intrinsically noisy phenomena, joining the many constructive facets of noise identified in the past decades-for example, stochastic resonance, noise-induced activation, and Brownian ratchets.
Multi-Robot, Multi-Target Particle Swarm Optimization Search in Noisy Wireless Environments
Kurt Derr; Milos Manic
2009-05-01
Multiple small robots (swarms) can work together using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for a single robot to accomplish. The problem considered in this paper is exploration of an unknown environment with the goal of finding a target(s) at an unknown location(s) using multiple small mobile robots. This work demonstrates the use of a distributed PSO algorithm with a novel adaptive RSS weighting factor to guide robots for locating target(s) in high risk environments. The approach was developed and analyzed on multiple robot single and multiple target search. The approach was further enhanced by the multi-robot-multi-target search in noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrated how the availability of radio frequency signal can significantly affect robot search time to reach a target.
Quantum Privacy Amplification and the Security of Quantum Cryptography over Noisy Channels
Deutsch, D.; Ekert, A.; Jozsa, R.; Macchiavello, C.; Popescu, S.; Sanpera, A. ||
1996-09-01
Existing quantum cryptographic schemes are not, as they stand, operable in the presence of noise on the quantum communication channel. Although they become operable if they are supplemented by classical privacy-amplification techniques, the resulting schemes are difficult to analyze and have not been proved secure. We introduce the concept of quantum privacy amplification and a cryptographic scheme incorporating it which is provably secure over a noisy channel. The scheme uses an {open_quote}{open_quote}entanglement purification{close_quote}{close_quote} procedure which, because it requires only a few quantum controlled-not and single-qubit operations, could be implemented using technology that is currently being developed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of two-qubit equatorial state in quantum noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adepoju, Adenike Grace; Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Camacho-Nieto, Oscar; Dong, Shi-Hai
2017-02-01
This letter reports the influence of noisy channels on JRSP of two-qubit equatorial state. We present a protocol for JRSP of two-qubit equatorial state. Afterward, we investigate the effects of five quantum noises on the protocol. We find that the system loses some of its properties as consequence of unwanted interactions with environment. For instance, within the domain 0 < λ < 0.65, the information lost via transmission of qubits in amplitude channel is most minimal, while for 0.65 < λ ≤ 1, the information lost in phase flip channel becomes the most minimal. Also, for any given λ, the information transmitted through depolarizing channel has the least chance of success.
Purity of Gaussian states: Measurement schemes and time evolution in noisy channels
Paris, Matteo G.A.; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Serafini, Alessio; De Siena, Silvio
2003-07-01
We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme are tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and in squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state.
Collective dynamics in two populations of noisy oscillators with asymmetric interactions.
Sonnenschein, Bernard; Peron, Thomas K Dm; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz
2015-06-01
We study two intertwined globally coupled networks of noisy Kuramoto phase oscillators that have the same natural frequency but differ in their perception of the mean field and their contribution to it. Such a give-and-take mechanism is given by asymmetric in- and out-coupling strengths which can be both positive and negative. We uncover in this minimal network of networks intriguing patterns of discordance, where the ensemble splits into two clusters separated by a constant phase lag. If it differs from π, then traveling wave solutions emerge. We observe a second route to traveling waves via traditional one-cluster states. Bistability is found between the various collective states. Analytical results and bifurcation diagrams are derived with a reduced system.
Everest, B; Marcuzzi, M; Garrahan, J P; Lesanovsky, I
2016-11-01
Kinetically constrained spin systems play an important role in understanding key properties of the dynamics of slowly relaxing materials, such as glasses. Recent experimental studies have revealed that manifest kinetic constraints govern the evolution of strongly interacting gases of highly excited atoms in a noisy environment. Motivated by this development we explore which types of kinetically constrained dynamics can generally emerge in quantum spin systems subject to strong noise and show how, in this framework, constraints are accompanied by conservation laws. We discuss an experimentally realizable case of a lattice gas, where the interplay between those and the geometry of the lattice leads to collective behavior and time-scale separation even at infinite temperature. This is in contrast to models of glass-forming substances which typically rely on low temperatures and the consequent suppression of thermal activation.
The efficient solution of the (quietly constrained) noisy, linear regulator problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, John; Hughes, H. R.
2007-09-01
In a previous paper we gave a new, natural extension of the calculus of variations/optimal control theory to a (strong) stochastic setting. We now extend the theory of this most fundamental chapter of optimal control in several directions. Most importantly we present a new method of stochastic control, adding Brownian motion which makes the problem "noisy." Secondly, we show how to obtain efficient solutions: direct stochastic integration for simpler problems and/or efficient and accurate numerical methods with a global a priori error of O(h3/2) for more complex problems. Finally, we include "quiet" constraints, i.e. deterministic relationships between the state and control variables. Our theory and results can be immediately restricted to the non "noisy" (deterministic) case yielding efficient, numerical solution techniques and an a priori error of O(h2)E In this event we obtain the most efficient method of solving the (constrained) classical Linear Regulator Problem. Our methods are different from the standard theory of stochastic control. In some cases the solutions coincide or at least are closely related. However, our methods have many advantages including those mentioned above. In addition, our methods more directly follow the motivation and theory of classical (deterministic) optimization which is perhaps the most important area of physical and engineering science. Our results follow from related ideas in the deterministic theory. Thus, our approximation methods follow by guessing at an algorithm, but the proof of global convergence uses stochastic techniques because our trajectories are not differentiable. Along these lines, a general drift term in the trajectory equation is properly viewed as an added constraint and extends ideas given in the deterministic case by the first author.
MRS experiments in a noisy area of a detrital aquifer in the south of Spain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plata, Juan; Rubio, Felix
2002-05-01
The signal measured in a Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) is of very low amplitude, of the order of tens of nanovolts and is very easily disturbed by the presence of electromagnetic noise of industrial or natural origin. To expand the capabilities of this new geophysical method, it is of great importance to develop field and analytical techniques to reduce the influence of noise in the final results of the MRS. Some field techniques are analyzed in this paper, for several MRS taken in a noisy area at a detrital aquifer in the south of Spain. Two kinds of noise are present, both of amplitude higher than 1500 nV: continuous random noise and spiky noise, with bursts of very high amplitude and occurrence depending on the site and on the time of the day. Trial records made at these places are of little significance, and only complete records taken with the most suitable size, shape and orientation of the antenna, and with a large stacking number, allow to detect the decay pattern of the signal coming from the water-rich layers. The appropriate design of these recording parameters have proven capable of diminishing the effect of random noise, but the results are not as good for spikes, which demand the use of different techniques. The knowledge of the noise pattern obtained in the MRS measurement could be used to design digital filters to attenuate noise influence, together with the aid of surgical muting. The interpretation of the field data has been made without any prior knowledge of the geological information. Despite the high noise level observed on this site, the inversion result achieved present a remarkable correlation with geological data for the water content distribution and are worse for the decay time determination, which seems to be more affected by the existence of noise. Phase and frequency seem to be good quality control parameters before inverting the data, regardless the noisy aspect of the recorded values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, C. M., Jr.; Monopoli, R. V.
1974-01-01
A linear system identification technique developed by Lion is adapted for use on a third-order system with six unknown parameters and noisy input-output measurements. A digital computer is employed so that rapid identification takes place with only two state variable filters. Bias in the parameter estimates is partially eliminated by a signal-to-noise ratio testing procedure.
Long-distance quantum communication over noisy networks without long-time quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazurek, Paweł; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Łodyga, Justyna; Pankowski, Łukasz; PrzysieŻna, Anna
2014-12-01
The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long-distance entanglement sharing and quantum communication exploits networks whose nodes share Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. In Perseguers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062324 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.062324] the authors put forward an important isomorphism between storing quantum information in a dimension D and transmission of quantum information in a D +1 -dimensional network. We show that it is possible to obtain long-distance entanglement in a noisy two-dimensional (2D) network, even when taking into account that encoding and decoding of a state is exposed to an error. For 3D networks we propose a simple encoding and decoding scheme based solely on syndrome measurements on 2D Kitaev topological quantum memory. Our procedure constitutes an alternative scheme of state injection that can be used for universal quantum computation on 2D Kitaev code. It is shown that the encoding scheme is equivalent to teleporting the state, from a specific node into a whole two-dimensional network, through some virtual EPR pair existing within the rest of network qubits. We present an analytic lower bound on fidelity of the encoding and decoding procedure, using as our main tool a modified metric on space-time lattice, deviating from a taxicab metric at the first and the last time slices.
Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Süel, Gürol M.
2011-01-01
Cells must make reliable decisions under fluctuating extracellular conditions, but also be flexible enough to adapt to such changes. How cells reconcile these seemingly contradictory requirements through the dynamics of cellular decision-making is poorly understood. To study this issue we quantitatively measured gene expression and protein localization in single cells of the model organism Bacillus subtilis during the progression to spore formation. We found that sporulation proceeded through noisy and reversible steps towards an irreversible, all-or-none commitment point. Specifically, we observed cell-autonomous and spontaneous bursts of gene expression and transient protein localization events during sporulation. Based on these measurements we developed mathematical population models to investigate how the degree of reversibility affects cellular decision-making. In particular, we evaluated the effect of reversibility on the 1) reliability in the progression to sporulation, and 2) adaptability under changing extracellular stress conditions. Results show that reversible progression allows cells to remain responsive to long-term environmental fluctuations. In contrast, the irreversible commitment point supports reliable execution of cell fate choice that is robust against short-term reductions in stress. This combination of opposite dynamic behaviors (reversible and irreversible) thus maximizes both adaptable and reliable decision-making over a broad range of changes in environmental conditions. These results suggest that decision-making systems might employ a general hybrid strategy to cope with unpredictably fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:22102806
A Robust Supervised Variable Selection for Noisy High-Dimensional Data
Kalina, Jan; Schlenker, Anna
2015-01-01
The Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (MRMR) approach to supervised variable selection represents a successful methodology for dimensionality reduction, which is suitable for high-dimensional data observed in two or more different groups. Various available versions of the MRMR approach have been designed to search for variables with the largest relevance for a classification task while controlling for redundancy of the selected set of variables. However, usual relevance and redundancy criteria have the disadvantages of being too sensitive to the presence of outlying measurements and/or being inefficient. We propose a novel approach called Minimum Regularized Redundancy Maximum Robust Relevance (MRRMRR), suitable for noisy high-dimensional data observed in two groups. It combines principles of regularization and robust statistics. Particularly, redundancy is measured by a new regularized version of the coefficient of multiple correlation and relevance is measured by a highly robust correlation coefficient based on the least weighted squares regression with data-adaptive weights. We compare various dimensionality reduction methods on three real data sets. To investigate the influence of noise or outliers on the data, we perform the computations also for data artificially contaminated by severe noise of various forms. The experimental results confirm the robustness of the method with respect to outliers. PMID:26137474
Tekin, Ramazan; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin
2017-03-01
Physiological rhythms play a critical role in the functional development of living beings. Many biological functions are executed with an interaction of rhythms produced by internal characteristics of scores of cells. While synchronized oscillations may be associated with normal brain functions, anomalies in these oscillations may cause or relate the emergence of some neurological or neuropsychological pathologies. This study was designed to investigate the effects of topological structure and synaptic conductivity noise on the spatial synchronization and temporal rhythmicity of the waves generated by cells in the network. Because of holding the ability of clustering and randomizing with change of parameters, small-world (SW) network topology was chosen. The oscillatory activity of network was tried out by manipulating an insulated SW, cortical network model whose morphology is very close to real world. According to the obtained results, it was observed that at the optimal probabilistic rates of conductivity noise and rewiring of SW, powerful synchronized oscillatory small waves are generated in relation to the internal dynamics of cells, which are in line with the network's input. These two parameters were observed to be quite effective on the excitation-inhibition balance of the network. Accordingly, it may be suggested that the topological dynamics of SW and noisy synaptic conductivity may be associated with the normal and abnormal development of neurobiological structure.
Broadband Processing in a Noisy Shallow Ocean Environment: A Particle Filtering Approach
Candy, J. V.
2016-04-14
Here we report that when a broadband source propagates sound in a shallow ocean the received data can become quite complicated due to temperature-related sound-speed variations and therefore a highly dispersive environment. Noise and uncertainties disrupt this already chaotic environment even further because disturbances propagate through the same inherent acoustic channel. The broadband (signal) estimation/detection problem can be decomposed into a set of narrowband solutions that are processed separately and then combined to achieve more enhancement of signal levels than that available from a single frequency, thereby allowing more information to be extracted leading to a more reliable source detection. A Bayesian solution to the broadband modal function tracking, pressure-field enhancement, and source detection problem is developed that leads to nonparametric estimates of desired posterior distributions enabling the estimation of useful statistics and an improved processor/detector. In conclusion, to investigate the processor capabilities, we synthesize an ensemble of noisy, broadband, shallow-ocean measurements to evaluate its overall performance using an information theoretical metric for the preprocessor and the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detector.
Broadband Processing in a Noisy Shallow Ocean Environment: A Particle Filtering Approach
Candy, J. V.
2016-04-14
Here we report that when a broadband source propagates sound in a shallow ocean the received data can become quite complicated due to temperature-related sound-speed variations and therefore a highly dispersive environment. Noise and uncertainties disrupt this already chaotic environment even further because disturbances propagate through the same inherent acoustic channel. The broadband (signal) estimation/detection problem can be decomposed into a set of narrowband solutions that are processed separately and then combined to achieve more enhancement of signal levels than that available from a single frequency, thereby allowing more information to be extracted leading to a more reliable source detection.more » A Bayesian solution to the broadband modal function tracking, pressure-field enhancement, and source detection problem is developed that leads to nonparametric estimates of desired posterior distributions enabling the estimation of useful statistics and an improved processor/detector. In conclusion, to investigate the processor capabilities, we synthesize an ensemble of noisy, broadband, shallow-ocean measurements to evaluate its overall performance using an information theoretical metric for the preprocessor and the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detector.« less
EXTRACTING PERIODIC TRANSIT SIGNALS FROM NOISY LIGHT CURVES USING FOURIER SERIES
Samsing, Johan
2015-07-01
We present a simple and powerful method for extracting transit signals associated with a known transiting planet from noisy light curves. Assuming the orbital period of the planet is known and the signal is periodic, we illustrate that systematic noise can be removed in Fourier space at all frequencies by only using data within a fixed time frame with a width equal to an integer number of orbital periods. This results in a reconstruction of the full transit signal, which on average is unbiased despite no prior knowledge of either the noise or the transit signal itself being used in the analysis. The method therefore has clear advantages over standard phase folding, which normally requires external input such as nearby stars or noise models for removing systematic components. In addition, we can extract the full orbital transit signal (360°) simultaneously, and Kepler-like data can be analyzed in just a few seconds. We illustrate the performance of our method by applying it to a dataset composed of light curves from Kepler with a fake injected signal emulating a planet with rings. For extracting periodic transit signals, our presented method is in general the optimal and least biased estimator and could therefore lead the way toward the first detections of, e.g., planet rings and exo-trojan asteroids.
Information extraction from noisy televiewer logs of inclined holes in hard rock
Burns, K.L.
1985-01-01
A feature-extraction method was adapted from satellite image-processing to the problem of extracting information from extremely noisy and narrow-range televiewer imagery from GT-2 at Fenton Hill. From televiewer logs, 733 structures were recovered, compared with 42 from core. The average spacings were 3.13 and 0.55 feet, respectively, indicating that the televiewer yielded only 17.5% of the information available from core. Two televiewer runs overlapped between 4000 and 4275 feet depth, but no detectable structures were repeated on both runs. The lack of repetition was explained as due to random processes arising from thermally-induced electronic noise and manually-operated narrow-range recording. Two new coefficients of association were defined, termed ''coplanarity'' P, and ''collinearity'', L, respectively. The coplanarity of foliations demonstrated that, despite no repetition of individuals, the two runs could be correlated. The coplanarity averaged 60 degrees, falling to 43.5 degrees at match, at a lag of -4.5 feet. There was no systematic maximum in the coplanarity for fractures, indicating that these were not serially-correlated. A periodicity in the collinearity for foliations indicated a set of folds with wavelength of 80 feet. 8 refs., 10 figs.
Stochastic versus chaotic behaviour in the noisy generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gotoda, Hiroshi; Pradas, Marc; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-11-01
Random fluctuations are well-known to have significant impact on the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in a wide spectrum of biological, engineering and physical environments, including fluid systems such Rayleigh-Bénard convection, contact line dynamics, or waves in free-surface thin film flows. Many of these systems can be modeled by stochastic partial differential equations in large or unbounded domains, a simple prototype of which is the generalised Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (gKS) equation. Its deterministic version has been used in a wide variety of fluid flow contexts, such as two-phase flows with surfactants, free falling films and films in the presence chemical reactions, heating effects and curved substrates, amongst others. Here we study the dynamical states of the noisy gKS equation by making use of time series techniques based on chaos theory, in particular permutation entropy and nonlinear forecasting. We focus on analyzing temporal signals of global measure in the spatiotemporal pattern as the dispersion parameter of the gKS equation and the strength of the noise are varied, observing a rich variety of different emerging regimes, from high-dimensional chaos to purely stochastic behaviour.
Processing strategies for noisy land-based controlled-source electromagnetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streich, R.; Becken, M.; Ritter, O.
2011-12-01
Controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data acquired on land are commonly contaminated by high levels of cultural noise. To extract interpretable transfer functions from noisy land CSEM data, we combine a novel three-electrode current transmitter with processing concepts adopted from natural-source magnetotellurics. By using three grounded transmitter electrodes, we can generate multi-polarization data without physically moving the transmitter. In this way, we achieve more uniform source field distributions than is common with dipole transmitters that are typically deployed at two distinct orientations. From the multi-polarization data, transfer functions with respect to two independent source configurations can be determined using statistical methods. To this end, we first stack the data of each transmission sequence in the time domain after eliminating spikes and the noisiest time windows. We then compute transfer functions in the frequency domain using robust least-squares techniques, averaging over the known spectral peaks of the source signal within narrow frequency bands. This allows us to combine data from different source polarizations and waveforms. We present results of applying this procedure to land CSEM data collected in Germany across an area with abundant sources of noise, including pipelines, power lines, and wind power plants. The obtained transfer functions vary consistently in frequency and space to transmitter-receiver distances of more than 10 km.
Errors, correlations and fidelity for noisy Hamilton flows. Theory and numerical examples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turchetti, G.; Sinigardi, S.; Servizi, G.; Panichi, F.; Vaienti, S.
2017-02-01
We analyse the asymptotic growth of the error for Hamiltonian flows due to small random perturbations. We compare the forward error with the reversibility error, showing their equivalence for linear flows on a compact phase space. The forward error, given by the root mean square deviation σ (t) of the noisy flow, grows according to a power law if the system is integrable and according to an exponential law if it is chaotic. The autocorrelation and the fidelity, defined as the correlation of the perturbed flow with respect to the unperturbed one, exhibit an exponential decay as \\exp ≤ft(-2{π2}{σ2}(t)\\right) . Some numerical examples such as the anharmonic oscillator and the Hénon Heiles model confirm these results. We finally consider the effect of the observational noise on an integrable system, and show that the decay of correlations can only be observed after a sequence of measurements and that the multiplicative noise is more effective if the delay between two measurements is large.
Noisy Hegselmann-Krause Systems: Phase Transition and the 2 R-Conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chu; Li, Qianxiao; E, Weinan; Chazelle, Bernard
2017-03-01
The classic Hegselmann-Krause ( HK) model for opinion dynamics consists of a set of agents on the real line, each one instructed to move, at every time step, to the mass center of the agents within a fixed distance R. In this work, we investigate the effects of noise in the continuous-time version of the model as described by its mean-field Fokker-Planck equation. In the presence of a finite number of agents, the system exhibits a phase transition from order to disorder as the noise increases. We introduce an order parameter to track the phase transition and resolve the corresponding phase diagram. The system undergoes a phase transition for small R but none for larger R. Based on the stability analysis of the mean-field equation, we derive the existence of a forbidden zone for the disordered phase to emerge. We also provide a theoretical explanation for the well-known 2 R conjecture, which states that, for a random initial distribution in a fixed interval, the final configuration consists of clusters separated by a distance of roughly 2 R. Our theoretical analysis confirms previous simulations and predicts properties of the noisy HK model in higher dimension.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi
2005-04-01
Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapeau-Blondeau, François
2017-04-01
Benefit from entanglement in quantum parameter estimation in the presence of noise or decoherence is investigated, with the quantum Fisher information to asses the performance. When an input probe experiences any (noisy) transformation introducing the parameter dependence, the performance is always maximized by a pure probe. As a generic estimation task, for estimating the phase of a unitary transformation on a qubit affected by depolarizing noise, the optimal separable probe and its performance are characterized as a function of the level of noise. By entangling qubits in pairs, enhancements of performance over that of the optimal separable probe are quantified, in various settings of the entangled pair. In particular, in the presence of the noise, enhancement over the performance of the one-qubit optimal probe can always be obtained with a second entangled qubit although never interacting with the process to be estimated. Also, enhancement over the performance of the two-qubit optimal separable probe can always be achieved by a two-qubit entangled probe, either partially or maximally entangled depending on the level of the depolarizing noise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutch, W. Alan C.
2005-05-01
Life support with a mechanical ventilator is used to manage patients with a variety of lung diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recently, management of ARDS has concentrated on ventilating at lower airway pressure using lower tidal volume. A large international study demonstrated a 22% reduction in mortality with the low tidal volume approach. The potential advantages of adding physiologic noise with fractal characteristics to the respiratory rate and tidal volume as delivered by a mechanical ventilator are discussed. A so-called biologically variable ventilator (BVV), incorporating such noise, has been developed. Here we show that the benefits of noisy ventilation - at lower tidal volumes - can be deduced from a simple probabilistic result known as Jensen"s Inequality. Using the local convexity of the pressure-volume relationship in the lung we demonstrate that the addition of noise results in higher mean tidal volume or lower mean airway pressure. The consequence is enhanced gas exchange or less stress on the lungs, both clinically desirable. Jensen"s Inequality has important considerations in engineering, information theory and thermodynamics. Here is an example of the concept applied to medicine that may have important considerations for the clinical management of critically ill patients. Life support devices, such as mechanical ventilators, are of vital use in critical care units and operating rooms. These devices usually have monotonous output. Improving mechanical ventilators and other life support devices may be as simple as adding noise to their output signals.
The outbreak of cooperation among success-driven individuals under noisy conditions
Helbing, Dirk; Yu, Wenjian
2009-01-01
According to Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan [1651; 2008 (Touchstone, New York), English Ed], “the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short,” and it would need powerful social institutions to establish social order. In reality, however, social cooperation can also arise spontaneously, based on local interactions rather than centralized control. The self-organization of cooperative behavior is particularly puzzling for social dilemmas related to sharing natural resources or creating common goods. Such situations are often described by the prisoner's dilemma. Here, we report the sudden outbreak of predominant cooperation in a noisy world dominated by selfishness and defection, when individuals imitate superior strategies and show success-driven migration. In our model, individuals are unrelated, and do not inherit behavioral traits. They defect or cooperate selfishly when the opportunity arises, and they do not know how often they will interact or have interacted with someone else. Moreover, our individuals have no reputation mechanism to form friendship networks, nor do they have the option of voluntary interaction or costly punishment. Therefore, the outbreak of prevailing cooperation, when directed motion is integrated in a game-theoretical model, is remarkable, particularly when random strategy mutations and random relocations challenge the formation and survival of cooperative clusters. Our results suggest that mobility is significant for the evolution of social order, and essential for its stabilization and maintenance. PMID:19237576
The outbreak of cooperation among success-driven individuals under noisy conditions.
Helbing, Dirk; Yu, Wenjian
2009-03-10
According to Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan [1651; 2008 (Touchstone, New York), English Ed], "the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short," and it would need powerful social institutions to establish social order. In reality, however, social cooperation can also arise spontaneously, based on local interactions rather than centralized control. The self-organization of cooperative behavior is particularly puzzling for social dilemmas related to sharing natural resources or creating common goods. Such situations are often described by the prisoner's dilemma. Here, we report the sudden outbreak of predominant cooperation in a noisy world dominated by selfishness and defection, when individuals imitate superior strategies and show success-driven migration. In our model, individuals are unrelated, and do not inherit behavioral traits. They defect or cooperate selfishly when the opportunity arises, and they do not know how often they will interact or have interacted with someone else. Moreover, our individuals have no reputation mechanism to form friendship networks, nor do they have the option of voluntary interaction or costly punishment. Therefore, the outbreak of prevailing cooperation, when directed motion is integrated in a game-theoretical model, is remarkable, particularly when random strategy mutations and random relocations challenge the formation and survival of cooperative clusters. Our results suggest that mobility is significant for the evolution of social order, and essential for its stabilization and maintenance.
Impact source localization on an elastic plate in a noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Yang-Hann
2006-10-01
Conventional source localization techniques when the source is located on a dispersive medium require both the time-of-arrival differences (TOADs) between the transducer signals and the group velocities. Furthermore, they are only practically applicable if we have a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In practice, the material properties or the geometry of a medium are not fully known; therefore the group velocity is not available. The transducers' signals are usually very small or embedded in noise. In this paper, we propose a novel impact source localization method, in the case where we have the source on an elastic plate. The method is applicable even if we do not know the group velocity and we have a relatively small SNR. The group velocities are obtained by estimating a source location based on the measured TOADs. The estimated group velocities have a minimum variance at the impact source location. However, this estimation degrades as the SNR decreases. To reduce the noise effect, an exponential function is asymmetrically weighted in smoothed Wigner-Ville distributions (WVDs). Experiments and simulations are carried out to verify the validity of this technique. As a result, the proposed technique is found to be effective even in a relatively noisy environment.
Crack detection in beams in noisy conditions using scale fractal dimension analysis of mode shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, R. B.; Ostachowicz, W.; Cao, M. S.; Su, Z.
2014-06-01
Fractal dimension analysis of mode shapes has been actively studied in the area of structural damage detection. The most prominent features of fractal dimension analysis are high sensitivity to damage and instant determination of damage location. However, an intrinsic deficiency is its susceptibility to measurement noise, likely obscuring the features of damage. To address this deficiency, this study develops a novel damage detection method, scale fractal dimension (SFD) analysis of mode shapes, based on combining the complementary merits of a stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and Katz’s fractal dimension in damage characterization. With this method, the SWT is used to decompose a mode shape into a set of scale mode shapes at scale levels, with damage information and noise separated into distinct scale mode shapes because of their dissimilar scale characteristics; the Katz’s fractal dimension individually runs on every scale mode shape in the noise-adaptive condition provided by the SWT to canvass damage. Proof of concept for the SFD analysis is performed on cracked beams simulated by the spectral finite element method; the reliability of the method is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation to mimic the operational variability in realistic damage diagnosis. The proposed method is further experimentally validated on a cracked aluminum beam with mode shapes acquired by a scanning laser vibrometer. The results show that the SFD analysis of mode shapes provides a new strategy for damage identification in noisy conditions.
A knowledge-based, two-step procedure for extracting channel networks from noisy dem data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Terence R.; Zhan, Cixiang; Gao, Peng
We present a new procedure for extracting channel networks from noisy DEM data. The procedure is a knowledge-based, two-step procedure employing both local and nonlocal information. In particular, we employ a model of an ideal drainage network as a source of constraints that must be satisfied by the output of the procedure. We embed these constraints as part of the network extraction procedure. In a first step, the procedure employs the facet model of Haralick to extract valley information from digital images. The constraints employed at this stage relate to conditions indicating reliable valley pixels. In a second step, the procedure applies knowledge of drainage networks to integrate reliable valley points discovered into a network of single-pixel width lines. This network satisfies the constraints imposed by viewing a drainage network as a binary tree in which the channel segments have a one-pixel width. The procedure performs well on DEM data in the example investigated. The overall worst-case performance of the procedure is O( N) log N), but the most computationally intensive step in the procedure is parallelized easily. Hence the procedure is a good candidate for automation.
Tsunami Lead Wave Reconstruction Based on Noisy Sea Surface Height Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kegen
2016-06-01
This paper presents a Tsunami lead wave reconstruction method using noisy sea surface height (SSH) measurements such as observed by a satellite-carried GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) sensor. It is proposed to utilize wavelet theory to mitigate the strong noise in the GNSS-R based SSH measurements. Through extracting the noise components by high-pass filters at decomposition stage and shrinking the noise by thresholding prior to reconstruction, the noise is greatly reduced. Real Tsunami data based simulation results demonstrate that in presence of SSH measurement error of standard deviation 50 cm the accuracy in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) of the lead wave height (true value 145.5 cm) and wavelength (true value 592.0 km) estimation is 21.5 cm and 56.2 km, respectively. The results also show that the proposed wavelet based method considerably outperforms the Kalman filter based method on average. The results demonstrate that the proposed wave reconstruction approach has the potential for Tsunami detection and parameter estimation to assist in achieving reliable Tsunami warning.
Fujimoto, Chisato; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Kamogashira, Teru; Kinoshita, Makoto; Egami, Naoya; Uemura, Yukari; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Shinichi
2016-01-01
Vestibular dysfunction causes postural instability, which is prevalent in the elderly. We previously showed that an imperceptible level of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (nGVS) can improve postural stability in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy during the stimulus, presumably by enhancing vestibular information processing. In this study, we investigated the after-effects of an imperceptible long-duration nGVS on body balance in elderly adults. Thirty elderly participants underwent two nGVS sessions in a randomised order. In Session 1, participants received nGVS for 30 min twice with a 4-h interval. In Session 2, participants received nGVS for 3 h. Two-legged stance tasks were performed with eyes closed while participants stood on a foam rubber surface, with and without nGVS, and parameters related to postural stability were measured using posturography. In both sessions, the postural stability was markedly improved for more than 2 h after the cessation of the stimulus and tended to decrease thereafter. The second stimulation in Session 1 caused a moderate additional improvement in body balance and promoted the sustainability of the improvement. These results suggest that nGVS can lead to a postural stability improvement in elderly adults that lasts for several hours after the cessation of the stimulus, probably via vestibular neuroplasticity. PMID:27869225
Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin
2016-01-01
Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization.
Kernel estimation for robust motion deblurring of noisy and blurry images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shijie; Zhao, Huaici; Li, Bo; Hao, Mingguo; Lv, Jinfeng
2016-05-01
Most state-of-the-art single image blind deblurring techniques are still sensitive to image noise, leading to serious performance degradation in their blur kernel estimation when the input image noise increases. We found that reliable kernel estimation could not be given by directly using denoising and existing deblurring algorithms in many cases. We focus on how to estimate a good blur kernel from a noisy blurred image via using the image structure. First, we applied denoising as a preprocess to remove the input image noise and then computed salient image structure of the denoised result based on the total variation model. We also applied a gradient selection method to remove those salient edges that have a possible adverse effect on blur kernel estimation. Next, we adopted a two-phase estimation strategy to obtain higher quality blur kernel estimation by jointly applying kernel estimation from salient image structure and iterative support detection (ISD) kernel refinement. Finally, we used the nonblind deconvolution method based on sparse prior knowledge to restore the latent image. Extensive experiments testify to the superiority of the proposed method over state-of-the-art algorithms, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Making sense of information in noisy networks: human communication, gossip, and distortion.
Laidre, Mark E; Lamb, Alex; Shultz, Susanne; Olsen, Megan
2013-01-21
Information from others can be unreliable. Humans nevertheless act on such information, including gossip, to make various social calculations, thus raising the question of whether individuals can sort through social information to identify what is, in fact, true. Inspired by empirical literature on people's decision-making when considering gossip, we built an agent-based simulation model to examine how well simple decision rules could make sense of information as it propagated through a network. Our simulations revealed that a minimalistic decision-rule 'Bit-wise mode' - which compared information from multiple sources and then sought a consensus majority for each component bit within the message - was consistently the most successful at converging upon the truth. This decision rule attained high relative fitness even in maximally noisy networks, composed entirely of nodes that distorted the message. The rule was also superior to other decision rules regardless of its frequency in the population. Simulations carried out with variable agent memory constraints, different numbers of observers who initiated information propagation, and a variety of network types suggested that the single most important factor in making sense of information was the number of independent sources that agents could consult. Broadly, our model suggests that despite the distortion information is subject to in the real world, it is nevertheless possible to make sense of it based on simple Darwinian computations that integrate multiple sources.
Wavelet shrinkage of a noisy dynamical system with non-linear noise impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique
2016-06-01
By filtering wavelet coefficients, it is possible to construct a good estimate of a pure signal from noisy data. Especially, for a simple linear noise influence, Donoho and Johnstone (1994) have already defined an optimal filter design in the sense of a minimization of the error made when estimating the pure signal. We set here a different framework where the influence of the noise is non-linear. In particular, we propose a method to filter the wavelet coefficients of a discrete dynamical system disrupted by a weak noise, in order to construct good estimates of the pure signal, including Bayes' estimate, minimax estimate, oracular estimate or thresholding estimate. We present the example of a logistic and a Lorenz chaotic dynamical system as well as an adaptation of our technique in order to show empirically the robustness of the thresholding method in presence of leptokurtic noise. Moreover, we test both the hard and the soft thresholding and also another kind of smoother thresholding which seems to have almost the same reconstruction power as the hard thresholding. Finally, besides the tests on an estimated dataset, the method is tested on financial data: oil prices and NOK/USD exchange rate.
Dual-microphone Sounds of Daily Life classification for telemonitoring in a noisy environment.
Maunder, David; Ambikairajah, Eliathamby; Epps, Julien; Celler, Branko
2008-01-01
Telemonitoring of elderly people in their homes using video cameras is complicated by privacy concerns, and hence sound has emerged as a promising alternative that is more acceptable to users. We investigate methods to address the accuracy degradation of sound classification that arises in the presence of background noise typical of a practical telemonitoring situation. A dual microphone configuration is used to record a database of Sounds of Daily Life (SDL) in a kitchen. We introduce a new algorithm employing the eigenvalues of the cross-spectral matrix of the recorded signals to detect the endpoints of a SDL in the presence of background noise. Independent component analysis is also used to improve the signal to noise ratio of the SDL. Results on a 7-class noisy SDL classification problem show that the error rate the proposed SDL classification system can be improved by up to 97% relative to a single-microphone system without noise reduction techniques, when evaluated on a large SDL database with SNRs in the range 0-28 dB.
A data mining approach to evolutionary optimisation of noisy multi-objective problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chia, J. Y.; Goh, C. K.; Shim, V. A.; Tan, K. C.
2012-07-01
Many real world optimisation problems have opposing objective functions which are subjected to the influence of noise. Noise in the objective functions can adversely affect the stability, performance and convergence of evolutionary optimisers. This article proposes a Bayesian frequent data mining (DM) approach to identify optimal regions to guide the population amidst the presence of noise. The aggregated information provided by all the solutions helped to average out the effects of noise. This article proposes a DM crossover operator to make use of the rules mined. After implementation of this operator, a better convergence to the true Pareto front is achieved at the expense of the diversity of the solution. Consequently, an ExtremalExploration operator will be proposed in the later part of this article to help curb the loss in diversity caused by the DM operator. The result is a more directive search with a faster convergence rate. The search is effective in decision space where the Pareto set is in a tight cluster. A further investigation of the performance of the proposed algorithm in noisy and noiseless environment will also be studied with respect to non-convexity, discontinuity, multi-modality and uniformity. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on ZDT and other benchmarks problems. The results of the simulations indicate that the proposed method is effective in handling noise and is competitive against the other noise tolerant algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo, José Antonio; Perthame, Benoît; Salort, Delphine; Smets, Didier
2015-09-01
The Noisy Integrate-and-Fire equation is a standard non-linear Fokker-Planck equation used to describe the activity of a homogeneous neural network characterized by its connectivity b (each neuron connected to all others through synaptic weights); b > 0 describes excitatory networks and b < 0 inhibitory networks. In the excitatory case, it was proved that, once the proportion of neurons that are close to their action potential {{V}\\text{F}} is too high, solutions cannot exist for all times. In this paper, we show a priori uniform bounds in time on the firing rate to discard the scenario of blow-up, and, for small connectivity, we prove qualitative properties on the long time behavior of solutions. The methods are based on the one hand on relative entropy and Poincaré inequalities leading to L2 estimates and on the other hand, on the notion of ‘universal super-solution’ and parabolic regularizing effects to obtain {{L}∞} bounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Mao-Sen; Xu, Wei; Ren, Wei-Xin; Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Sha, Gang-Gang; Pan, Li-Xia
2016-08-01
Detection of multiple damage using modal curvature in noisy environments has become a research focus of considerable challenge and great significance over the last few years. However, a noticeable deficiency of modal curvature is its susceptibility to noise, which usually results in a noisy modal curvature with obscured damage signature. To address this deficiency, this study formulates a new concept of complex-wavelet modal curvature. Complex-wavelet modal curvature features the ability to reveal and delineate damage under noisy conditions. The effectiveness of the concept is analytically verified using cracked beams with various types of boundary conditions. The applicability is further experimentally validated by an aluminum beam with a single crack and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite beam with three cracks in the laboratory with mode shapes measured by a scanning laser vibrometer. Both analytical and experimental results have demonstrated that the complex-wavelet modal curvature is capable of revealing slight damage by eliminating noise interference, with no need for prior knowledge of either material properties or boundary conditions of the beam under inspection.
Adel Ghahraman, Mansoureh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Pourbakht, Akram; Seifi, Behjat; Jalaie, Shohreh; Adeli, Soheila; Niknami, Zohreh
2016-04-01
There are several anatomical connections between vestibular system and brain areas construct spatial memory. Since subliminal noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been demonstrated to enhance some types of memory, we speculated that application of noisy GVS may improve spatial memory in a rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, we attempted to determine the effect of repeated exposure to GVS on spatial memory performance. The spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. The groups received 1 (ICV-STZ/GVS-I) or 5 (ICV-STZ/GVS-II) sessions, each lasting 30 min, of low amplitude noisy GVS, or no GVS at all (Control, ICV-saline, ICV-STZ/noGVS). Hippocampal morphological changes investigated with cresyl violet staining and the immediate early gene product c-Fos, as a neuronal activity marker, was measured. Hippocampal c-Fos positive cells increased in both GVS stimulated groups. We observed significantly improved spatial performance only in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group. Histological evaluation showed normal density in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group whereas degeneration observed in ICV-STZ/GVS-I group similar to ICV-STZ/noGVS. The results showed the improvement of memory impairment after repeated exposure to GVS. This effect may be due in part to frequent activation of the vestibular neurons and the hippocampal regions connected to them. Our current study suggests the potential role of GVS as a practical method to combat cognitive decline induced by sporadic Alzheimer disease.
Jati, A; Singh, G; Koley, S; Konar, A; Ray, A K; Chakraborty, C
2015-03-01
Medical image segmentation demands higher segmentation accuracy especially when the images are affected by noise. This paper proposes a novel technique to segment medical images efficiently using an intuitionistic fuzzy divergence-based thresholding. A neighbourhood-based membership function is defined here. The intuitionistic fuzzy divergence-based image thresholding technique using the neighbourhood-based membership functions yield lesser degradation of segmentation performance in noisy environment. Its ability in handling noisy images has been validated. The algorithm is independent of any parameter selection. Moreover, it provides robustness to both additive and multiplicative noise. The proposed scheme has been applied on three types of medical image datasets in order to establish its novelty and generality. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with other standard algorithms viz. Otsu's method, fuzzy C-means clustering, and fuzzy divergence-based thresholding with respect to (1) noise-free images and (2) ground truth images labelled by experts/clinicians. Experiments show that the proposed methodology is effective, more accurate and efficient for segmenting noisy images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soares, Edward J.; Gifford, Howard C.; Glick, Stephen J.
2003-05-01
We investigated the estimation of the ensemble channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for ordered-subset (OS) image reconstruction using noisy projection data. Previously, we computed the ensemble CHO SNR using a method for approximating the channelized covariance of OS reconstruction, which requires knowledge of the noise-free projection data. Here, we use a "plug-in" approach, in which noisy data is used in place of the noise-free data in the aforementioned channelized covariance approximation. Additionally, we evaluated the use of smoothing of the noisy projections before use in the covariance approximation. Additionally, we evaluated the use of smoothing of the noisy projections before use in the covariance calculation. The task was detection of a 10% contrast Gaussian signal within a slice of the MCAT phantom. Simulated projections of the MCAT phantom were scaled and Poisson noise was added to create 100 noisy signal-absent data sets. Simulated projections of the scaled signal were then added to the noisy background projections to create 100 noisy signal-present data set. These noisy data sets were then used to generate 100 estimates of the ensemble CHO SNR for reconstructions at various iterates. For comparison purposes, the same calculation was repeated with the noise-free data. The results, reported as plots of the average CHO SNR generated in this fashion, along with 95% confidence intervals, demonstrate that this approach works very well, and would allow optimization of imaging systems and reconstruction methods using a more accurate object model (i.e., real patient data).
Neuroscience-inspired computational systems for speech recognition under noisy conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schafer, Phillip B.
advantage of the neural representation's invariance in noise. The scheme centers on a speech similarity measure based on the longest common subsequence between spike sequences. The combined encoding and decoding scheme outperforms a benchmark system in extremely noisy acoustic conditions. Finally, I consider methods for decoding spike representations of continuous speech. To help guide the alignment of templates to words, I design a syllable detection scheme that robustly marks the locations of syllabic nuclei. The scheme combines SVM-based training with a peak selection algorithm designed to improve noise tolerance. By incorporating syllable information into the ASR system, I obtain strong recognition results in noisy conditions, although the performance in noiseless conditions is below the state of the art. The work presented here constitutes a novel approach to the problem of ASR that can be applied in the many challenging acoustic environments in which we use computer technologies today. The proposed spike-based processing methods can potentially be exploited in effcient hardware implementations and could significantly reduce the computational costs of ASR. The work also provides a framework for understanding the advantages of spike-based acoustic coding in the human brain.
Sequential quantum secret sharing in a noisy environment aided with weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Maharshi; Chatterjee, Sourav; Chakrabarty, Indranil
2016-05-01
In this work we give a (n,n)-threshold protocol for sequential secret sharing of quantum information for the first time. By sequential secret sharing we refer to a situation where the dealer is not having all the secrets at the same time, at the beginning of the protocol; however if the dealer wishes to share secrets at subsequent phases she/he can realize it with the help of our protocol. First of all we present our protocol for three parties and later we generalize it for the situation where we have more (n> 3) parties. Interestingly, we show that our protocol of sequential secret sharing requires less amount of quantum as well as classical resource as compared to the situation wherein existing protocols are repeatedly used. Further in a much more realistic situation, we consider the sharing of qubits through two kinds of noisy channels, namely the phase damping channel (PDC) and the amplitude damping channel (ADC). When we carry out the sequential secret sharing in the presence of noise we observe that the fidelity of secret sharing at the kth iteration is independent of the effect of noise at the (k - 1)th iteration. In case of ADC we have seen that the average fidelity of secret sharing drops down to ½ which is equivalent to a random guess of the quantum secret. Interestingly, we find that by applying weak measurements one can enhance the average fidelity. This increase of the average fidelity can be achieved with certain trade off with the success probability of the weak measurements.
Critical initial-slip scaling for the noisy complex Ginzburg-Landau equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weigang; Täuber, Uwe C.
2016-10-01
We employ the perturbative fieldtheoretic renormalization group method to investigate the universal critical behavior near the continuous non-equilibrium phase transition in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with additive white noise. This stochastic partial differential describes a remarkably wide range of physical systems: coupled nonlinear oscillators subject to external noise near a Hopf bifurcation instability; spontaneous structure formation in non-equilibrium systems, e.g., in cyclically competing populations; and driven-dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation, realized in open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, such as cold atomic gases and exciton-polaritons in pumped semiconductor quantum wells in optical cavities. Our starting point is a noisy, dissipative Gross-Pitaevski or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, or equivalently purely relaxational kinetics originating from a complex-valued Landau-Ginzburg functional, which generalizes the standard equilibrium model A critical dynamics of a non-conserved complex order parameter field. We study the universal critical behavior of this system in the early stages of its relaxation from a Gaussian-weighted fully randomized initial state. In this critical aging regime, time translation invariance is broken, and the dynamics is characterized by the stationary static and dynamic critical exponents, as well as an independent ‘initial-slip’ exponent. We show that to first order in the dimensional expansion about the upper critical dimension, this initial-slip exponent in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation is identical to its equilibrium model A counterpart. We furthermore employ the renormalization group flow equations as well as construct a suitable complex spherical model extension to argue that this conclusion likely remains true to all orders in the perturbation expansion.
Automatic Identification of Application I/O Signatures from Noisy Server-Side Traces
Liu, Yang; Gunasekaran, Raghul; Ma, Xiaosong; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S
2014-01-01
Competing workloads on a shared storage system cause I/O resource contention and application performance vagaries. This problem is already evident in today s HPC storage systems and is likely to become acute at exascale. We need more interaction between application I/O requirements and system software tools to help alleviate the I/O bottleneck, moving towards I/O-aware job scheduling. However, this requires rich techniques to capture application I/O characteristics, which remain evasive in production systems. Traditionally, I/O characteristics have been obtained using client-side tracing tools, with drawbacks such as non-trivial instrumentation/development costs, large trace traffic, and inconsistent adoption. We present a novel approach, I/O Signature Identifier (IOSI), to characterize the I/O behavior of data-intensive applications. IOSI extracts signatures from noisy, zero-overhead server-side I/O throughput logs that are already collected on today s supercomputers, without interfering with the compiling/execution of applications. We evaluated IOSI using the Spider storage system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the S3D turbulence application (running on 18,000 Titan nodes), and benchmark-based pseudo-applications. Through our ex- periments we confirmed that IOSI effectively extracts an application s I/O signature despite significant server-side noise. Compared to client-side tracing tools, IOSI is transparent, interface-agnostic, and incurs no overhead. Compared to alternative data alignment techniques (e.g., dynamic time warping), it offers higher signature accuracy and shorter processing time.
Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M
2015-06-01
Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats.
Detection of bifurcations in noisy coupled systems from multiple time series
Williamson, Mark S. Lenton, Timothy M.
2015-03-15
We generalize a method of detecting an approaching bifurcation in a time series of a noisy system from the special case of one dynamical variable to multiple dynamical variables. For a system described by a stochastic differential equation consisting of an autonomous deterministic part with one dynamical variable and an additive white noise term, small perturbations away from the system's fixed point will decay slower the closer the system is to a bifurcation. This phenomenon is known as critical slowing down and all such systems exhibit this decay-type behaviour. However, when the deterministic part has multiple coupled dynamical variables, the possible dynamics can be much richer, exhibiting oscillatory and chaotic behaviour. In our generalization to the multi-variable case, we find additional indicators to decay rate, such as frequency of oscillation. In the case of approaching a homoclinic bifurcation, there is no change in decay rate but there is a decrease in frequency of oscillations. The expanded method therefore adds extra tools to help detect and classify approaching bifurcations given multiple time series, where the underlying dynamics are not fully known. Our generalisation also allows bifurcation detection to be applied spatially if one treats each spatial location as a new dynamical variable. One may then determine the unstable spatial mode(s). This is also something that has not been possible with the single variable method. The method is applicable to any set of time series regardless of its origin, but may be particularly useful when anticipating abrupt changes in the multi-dimensional climate system.
An efficient system for reliably transmitting image and video data over low bit rate noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Huang, Y. F.; Stevenson, Robert L.
1994-01-01
This research project is intended to develop an efficient system for reliably transmitting image and video data over low bit rate noisy channels. The basic ideas behind the proposed approach are the following: employ statistical-based image modeling to facilitate pre- and post-processing and error detection, use spare redundancy that the source compression did not remove to add robustness, and implement coded modulation to improve bandwidth efficiency and noise rejection. Over the last six months, progress has been made on various aspects of the project. Through our studies of the integrated system, a list-based iterative Trellis decoder has been developed. The decoder accepts feedback from a post-processor which can detect channel errors in the reconstructed image. The error detection is based on the Huber Markov random field image model for the compressed image. The compression scheme used here is that of JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group). Experiments were performed and the results are quite encouraging. The principal ideas here are extendable to other compression techniques. In addition, research was also performed on unequal error protection channel coding, subband vector quantization as a means of source coding, and post processing for reducing coding artifacts. Our studies on unequal error protection (UEP) coding for image transmission focused on examining the properties of the UEP capabilities of convolutional codes. The investigation of subband vector quantization employed a wavelet transform with special emphasis on exploiting interband redundancy. The outcome of this investigation included the development of three algorithms for subband vector quantization. The reduction of transform coding artifacts was studied with the aid of a non-Gaussian Markov random field model. This results in improved image decompression. These studies are summarized and the technical papers included in the appendices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandremmenou, K.; Tziortziotis, N.; Paluri, S.; Zhang, W.; Blekas, K.; Kondi, L. P.; Kumar, S.
2015-03-01
We propose the use of the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression method in order to predict the Cumulative Mean Squared Error (CMSE), incurred by the loss of individual slices in video transmission. We extract a number of quality-relevant features from the H.264/AVC video sequences, which are given as input to the LASSO. This method has the benefit of not only keeping a subset of the features that have the strongest effects towards video quality, but also produces accurate CMSE predictions. Particularly, we study the LASSO regression through two different architectures; the Global LASSO (G.LASSO) and Local LASSO (L.LASSO). In G.LASSO, a single regression model is trained for all slice types together, while in L.LASSO, motivated by the fact that the values for some features are closely dependent on the considered slice type, each slice type has its own regression model, in an e ort to improve LASSO's prediction capability. Based on the predicted CMSE values, we group the video slices into four priority classes. Additionally, we consider a video transmission scenario over a noisy channel, where Unequal Error Protection (UEP) is applied to all prioritized slices. The provided results demonstrate the efficiency of LASSO in estimating CMSE with high accuracy, using only a few features. les that typically contain high-entropy data, producing a footprint that is far less conspicuous than existing methods. The system uses a local web server to provide a le system, user interface and applications through an web architecture.
Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.
1996-09-01
The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.
Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.
The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and
A Methodology for the Parametric Reconstruction of Non-Steady and Noisy Meteorological Time Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovira, F.; Palau, J. L.; Millán, M.
2009-09-01
Climatic and meteorological time series often show some persistence (in time) in the variability of certain features. One could regard annual, seasonal and diurnal time variability as trivial persistence in the variability of some meteorological magnitudes (as, e.g., global radiation, air temperature above surface, etc.). In these cases, the traditional Fourier transform into frequency space will show the principal harmonics as the components with the largest amplitude. Nevertheless, meteorological measurements often show other non-steady (in time) variability. Some fluctuations in measurements (at different time scales) are driven by processes that prevail on some days (or months) of the year but disappear on others. By decomposing a time series into time-frequency space through the continuous wavelet transformation, one is able to determine both the dominant modes of variability and how those modes vary in time. This study is based on a numerical methodology to analyse non-steady principal harmonics in noisy meteorological time series. This methodology combines both the continuous wavelet transform and the development of a parametric model that includes the time evolution of the principal and the most statistically significant harmonics of the original time series. The parameterisation scheme proposed in this study consists of reproducing the original time series by means of a statistically significant finite sum of sinusoidal signals (waves), each defined by using the three usual parameters: amplitude, frequency and phase. To ensure the statistical significance of the parametric reconstruction of the original signal, we propose a standard statistical t-student analysis of the confidence level of the amplitude in the parametric spectrum for the different wave components. Once we have assured the level of significance of the different waves composing the parametric model, we can obtain the statistically significant principal harmonics (in time) of the original
Oprisan, Sorinel A.; Buhusi, Catalin V.
2011-01-01
In most species, the capability of perceiving and using the passage of time in the seconds-to-minutes range (interval timing) is not only accurate but also scalar: errors in time estimation are linearly related to the estimated duration. The ubiquity of scalar timing extends over behavioral, lesion, and pharmacological manipulations. For example, in mammals, dopaminergic drugs induce an immediate, scalar change in the perceived time (clock pattern), whereas cholinergic drugs induce a gradual, scalar change in perceived time (memory pattern). How do these properties emerge from unreliable, noisy neurons firing in the milliseconds range? Neurobiological information relative to the brain circuits involved in interval timing provide support for an striatal beat frequency (SBF) model, in which time is coded by the coincidental activation of striatal spiny neurons by cortical neural oscillators. While biologically plausible, the impracticality of perfect oscillators, or their lack thereof, questions this mechanism in a brain with noisy neurons. We explored the computational mechanisms required for the clock and memory patterns in an SBF model with biophysically realistic and noisy Morris–Lecar neurons (SBF–ML). Under the assumption that dopaminergic drugs modulate the firing frequency of cortical oscillators, and that cholinergic drugs modulate the memory representation of the criterion time, we show that our SBF–ML model can reproduce the pharmacological clock and memory patterns observed in the literature. Numerical results also indicate that parameter variability (noise) – which is ubiquitous in the form of small fluctuations in the intrinsic frequencies of neural oscillators within and between trials, and in the errors in recording/retrieving stored information related to criterion time – seems to be critical for the time-scale invariance of the clock and memory patterns. PMID:21977014
Schmidt, Sein; Scholz, Michael; Obermayer, Klaus; Brandt, Stephan A.
2013-01-01
Brain stimulation is having remarkable impact on clinical neurology. Brain stimulation can modulate neuronal activity in functionally segregated circumscribed regions of the human brain. Polarity, frequency, and noise specific stimulation can induce specific manipulations on neural activity. In contrast to neocortical stimulation, deep-brain stimulation has become a tool that can dramatically improve the impact clinicians can possibly have on movement disorders. In contrast, neocortical brain stimulation is proving to be remarkably susceptible to intrinsic brain-states. Although evidence is accumulating that brain stimulation can facilitate recovery processes in patients with cerebral stroke, the high variability of results impedes successful clinical implementation. Interestingly, recent data in healthy subjects suggests that brain-state dependent patterned stimulation might help resolve some of the intrinsic variability found in previous studies. In parallel, other studies suggest that noisy “stochastic resonance” (SR)-like processes are a non-negligible component in non-invasive brain stimulation studies. The hypothesis developed in this manuscript is that stimulation patterning with noisy and oscillatory components will help patients recover from stroke related deficits more reliably. To address this hypothesis we focus on two factors common to both neural computation (intrinsic variables) as well as brain stimulation (extrinsic variables): noise and oscillation. We review diverse theoretical and experimental evidence that demonstrates that subject-function specific brain-states are associated with specific oscillatory activity patterns. These states are transient and can be maintained by noisy processes. The resulting control procedures can resemble homeostatic or SR processes. In this context we try to extend awareness for inter-individual differences and the use of individualized stimulation in the recovery maximization of stroke patients. PMID:23825456
Schmidt, Sein; Scholz, Michael; Obermayer, Klaus; Brandt, Stephan A
2013-01-01
Brain stimulation is having remarkable impact on clinical neurology. Brain stimulation can modulate neuronal activity in functionally segregated circumscribed regions of the human brain. Polarity, frequency, and noise specific stimulation can induce specific manipulations on neural activity. In contrast to neocortical stimulation, deep-brain stimulation has become a tool that can dramatically improve the impact clinicians can possibly have on movement disorders. In contrast, neocortical brain stimulation is proving to be remarkably susceptible to intrinsic brain-states. Although evidence is accumulating that brain stimulation can facilitate recovery processes in patients with cerebral stroke, the high variability of results impedes successful clinical implementation. Interestingly, recent data in healthy subjects suggests that brain-state dependent patterned stimulation might help resolve some of the intrinsic variability found in previous studies. In parallel, other studies suggest that noisy "stochastic resonance" (SR)-like processes are a non-negligible component in non-invasive brain stimulation studies. The hypothesis developed in this manuscript is that stimulation patterning with noisy and oscillatory components will help patients recover from stroke related deficits more reliably. To address this hypothesis we focus on two factors common to both neural computation (intrinsic variables) as well as brain stimulation (extrinsic variables): noise and oscillation. We review diverse theoretical and experimental evidence that demonstrates that subject-function specific brain-states are associated with specific oscillatory activity patterns. These states are transient and can be maintained by noisy processes. The resulting control procedures can resemble homeostatic or SR processes. In this context we try to extend awareness for inter-individual differences and the use of individualized stimulation in the recovery maximization of stroke patients.
Neo, Yik Yaw; Parie, Lisa; Bakker, Frederique; Snelderwaard, Peter; Tudorache, Christian; Schaaf, Marcel; Slabbekoorn, Hans
2015-01-01
Auditory sensitivity in fish serves various important functions, but also makes fish susceptible to noise pollution. Human-generated sounds may affect behavioral patterns of fish, both in natural conditions and in captivity. Fish are often kept for consumption in aquaculture, on display in zoos and hobby aquaria, and for medical sciences in research facilities, but little is known about the impact of ambient sounds in fish tanks. In this study, we conducted two indoor exposure experiments with zebrafish (Danio rerio). The first experiment demonstrated that exposure to moderate sound levels (112 dB re 1 μPa) can affect the swimming behavior of fish by changing group cohesion, swimming speed and swimming height. Effects were brief for both continuous and intermittent noise treatments. In the second experiment, fish could influence exposure to higher sound levels by swimming freely between an artificially noisy fish tank (120–140 dB re 1 μPa) and another with ambient noise levels (89 dB re 1 μPa). Despite initial startle responses, and a brief period in which many individuals in the noisy tank dived down to the bottom, there was no spatial avoidance or noise-dependent tank preference at all. The frequent exchange rate of about 60 fish passages per hour between tanks was not affected by continuous or intermittent exposures. In conclusion, small groups of captive zebrafish were able to detect sounds already at relatively low sound levels and adjust their behavior to it. Relatively high sound levels were at least at the on-set disturbing, but did not lead to spatial avoidance. Further research is needed to show whether zebrafish are not able to avoid noisy areas or just not bothered. Quantitatively, these data are not directly applicable to other fish species or other fish tanks, but they do indicate that sound exposure may affect fish behavior in any captive condition. PMID:25741256
Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Mugler, Andrew
2016-03-01
In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this receptor input noise as much as possible. These networks, however, are also intrinsically stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, which is the timescale over which fluctuations in the state of the receptor, arising from the stochastic receptor-ligand binding, decay. We then describe how downstream signaling pathways integrate these receptor-state fluctuations, and how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time set by the downstream network, together impose a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor input noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes (groups) of resources—receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy—and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade
Albocher, U; Barbone, P E; Richards, M S; Oberai, A A; Harari, I
2014-01-01
We apply the adjoint weighted equation method (AWE) to the direct solution of inverse problems of incompressible plane strain elasticity. We show that based on untreated noisy displacements, the reconstruction of the shear modulus can be very poor. We link this poor performance to loss of coercivity of the weak form when treating problems with discontinuous coefficients. We demonstrate that by smoothing the displacements and appending a regularization term to the AWE formulation, a dramatic improvement in the reconstruction can be achieved. With these improvements, the advantages of the AWE method as a direct solution approach can be extended to a wider range of problems.
Albocher, U.; Barbone, P.E.; Richards, M.S.; Oberai, A.A.; Harari, I.
2014-01-01
We apply the adjoint weighted equation method (AWE) to the direct solution of inverse problems of incompressible plane strain elasticity. We show that based on untreated noisy displacements, the reconstruction of the shear modulus can be very poor. We link this poor performance to loss of coercivity of the weak form when treating problems with discontinuous coefficients. We demonstrate that by smoothing the displacements and appending a regularization term to the AWE formulation, a dramatic improvement in the reconstruction can be achieved. With these improvements, the advantages of the AWE method as a direct solution approach can be extended to a wider range of problems. PMID:25383085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Shang; Jiang, Weikang; Pan, Siwei
2015-12-01
A modified inverse patch transfer function (iPTF) method is used to reconstruct the normal velocities of the target source in a noisy environment. The iPTF method simplifies the Helmholtz integral equation to one term by constructing a Green's function satisfying Neumann boundary conditions for an enclosure, which is generally constructed by slowly convergent modal expansions. The main objective of the present work is to provide an evanescent Green's function to improve the convergence of calculations. A brief description of the iPTF method and two sets of Green's functions for a rectangular cavity are presented firstly. In simulations, both the Green's functions are used to calculate the condition numbers of impedance matrices describing the relation between source and measurement patches, and the time cost of calculation based on the two sets of Green's functions at 450 Hz is compared. Double pressure measurements are then employed as the input data instead of pressure and velocity measurements. The normal velocities of two baffled loudspeakers are reconstructed by the combination of a measurement method and a Green's function in the presence of a disturbing source in the frequency range of 50-1000 Hz. In addition, the double pressure measurements are examined by an experiment. The precise identification of the sources indicates that the double pressure measurements are capable of localizing sources in a noisy environment. It is also found that the reconstruction with the evanescent Green's functions is slightly better than that with the modal expansions.
Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R
2014-08-01
The upstart is a fundamental skill in gymnastics, requiring whole body coordination to transfer the gymnast from a swing beneath the bar to a support position above the bar. The aim of this study was to determine the solution space within which a gymnast could successfully perform an upstart. A previous study had shown that the underlying control strategy for the upstart could be accounted for by maximizing the likelihood of success while operating in a noisy environment. In the current study, data were collected on a senior gymnast and a computer simulation model of a gymnast and bar was used to determine the solution space for maximizing success while operating in a noisy environment. The effects of timing important actions, gymnast strength, and movement execution noise on the success of the upstart were then systematically determined. The solution space for the senior gymnast was relatively large. Decreasing strength and increasing movement execution noise reduced the size of the solution space. A weaker gymnast would have to use a different technique than that used by the senior gymnast to produce an acceptable success rate.
Choi, Yong-Sun; Lee, Soo-Young
2013-09-01
A nonlinear speech feature extraction algorithm was developed by modeling human cochlear functions, and demonstrated as a noise-robust front-end for speech recognition systems. The algorithm was based on a model of the Organ of Corti in the human cochlea with such features as such as basilar membrane (BM), outer hair cells (OHCs), and inner hair cells (IHCs). Frequency-dependent nonlinear compression and amplification of OHCs were modeled by lateral inhibition to enhance spectral contrasts. In particular, the compression coefficients had frequency dependency based on the psychoacoustic evidence. Spectral subtraction and temporal adaptation were applied in the time-frame domain. With long-term and short-term adaptation characteristics, these factors remove stationary or slowly varying components and amplify the temporal changes such as onset or offset. The proposed features were evaluated with a noisy speech database and showed better performance than the baseline methods such as mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and RASTA-PLP in unknown noisy conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moosavi, S. Amin; Montakhab, Afshin
2014-05-01
Motivated by recent experiments in neuroscience which indicate that neuronal avalanches exhibit scale invariant behavior similar to self-organized critical systems, we study the role of noisy (nonconservative) local dynamics on the critical behavior of a sandpile model which can be taken to mimic the dynamics of neuronal avalanches. We find that despite the fact that noise breaks the strict local conservation required to attain criticality, our system exhibits true criticality for a wide range of noise in various dimensions, given that conservation is respected on the average. Although the system remains critical, exhibiting finite-size scaling, the value of critical exponents change depending on the intensity of local noise. Interestingly, for a sufficiently strong noise level, the critical exponents approach and saturate at their mean-field values, consistent with empirical measurements of neuronal avalanches. This is confirmed for both two and three dimensional models. However, the addition of noise does not affect the exponents at the upper critical dimension (D =4). In addition to an extensive finite-size scaling analysis of our systems, we also employ a useful time-series analysis method to establish true criticality of noisy systems. Finally, we discuss the implications of our work in neuroscience as well as some implications for the general phenomena of criticality in nonequilibrium systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzmann, Gerard J.
2008-01-01
In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, S. J.; Van Buren, R.
2013-12-01
Airborne geophysical methods play an important role in the exploration for kimberlites. As regions become more intensively explored, smaller kimberlites, which can be extremely difficult to find, are being targeted. These smaller kimberlites, as evidenced by the M-1 Maarsfontein pipe in the Klipspringer cluster in South Africa, can be highly profitable. The Goedgevonden and Syferfontein pipes are small kimberlites (~0.2 ha) ~25 km NNE of Klerksdorp in South Africa. The Goedgevonden pipe has been known since the 1930s and is diamondiferous, but not commercially viable due to small stone size and low quality of stones. In the early 1990s, Gold Fields used this pipe as a typical kimberlite to collect example geophysical data. The nearby (~1 km to the east) Syferfontein pipe is not diamondiferous but was discovered in 1994 as part of a speculative airborne EM survey conducted by Gold Fields and Geodass (now CGG) as part of their case study investigations. Both kimberlites have had extensive ground geophysical survey data collected and have prominent magnetic, gravity and EM responses that aided in the delineation of the pipes. These pipes represent a realistic and challenging case study target due to their small size and the magnetically noisy environment into which they have been emplaced. The discovery of the Syferfontein pipe in 1994 stimulated further testing of airborne methods, especially as the surface was undisturbed. These pipes are located in a region that hosts highly variably magnetized Hospital Hill shales, dolerite dykes and Ventersdorp lavas, a 2-3 m thick resistive ferricrete cap and significant cultural features such as an electric railroad and high tension power line. Although the kimberlites both show prominent magnetic anomalies on ground surveys, the airborne data are significantly noisy and the pipes do not show up as well determined targets. However, the clay-rich weathered zone of the pipes provides an ideal target for the EM method, and both
Geophysical Prospection of Archaeological Structures in a Noisy Area in Shayzar, Syria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seren, S.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Bayirli, E.
2009-04-01
Site The roman town "Caesarea", which was named "Sezer" and used as a citadel in middle ages, is located within the modern town "Shayzar" in the north-west of Syria. The modern buildings, power lines and the streets with a lot of cars cause a very noisy environment for geophysical prospection. A football ground of about 50x90 m was chosen for testing both methods, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR), to detect archaeological structures. Instruments and survey area The magnetic survey was carried out using a fluxgate magnetic acquisition system with 4 sensors in gradient array from the manufacturer FÖRSTER® mounted on a one wheel cart. The cart was developed in our institute and allows to record high quality data in areas with difficult field conditions. An optical distance measurement system on the wheel ensures an exact positioning of the magnetic data. The measurement grid was 50x10 cm. GPR survey was carried out using a NOGGIN system with 250 MHz antenna from the manufacturer Sensors & Software. A new base plate was mounted on the antenna for the easy moving at rough surface conditions. The measurement grid was 50x5 cm. Data processing The magnetic data are processed using the self developed software ApMag. The main steps of the processing are filtering, removing of the line pattern, interpolation to a grid of 10x10 cm, geo-referencing and producing of a grey scale magnetogramm for visualizing in a geographical information system (GIS). The GPR data are automatically processed using the self developed software package ApRadar. Several pre-processing steps were carried out including removing of constant shifts, automatic detection of the starting point (time zero), frequency dependent high-pass filtering and a background removal filter to get the best results for each measurement. There is no gain control algorithm applied to the traces of a section but a statistical correction of each depth-slice for each section. This is equal to an automatic gain
Katkovnik, Vladimir; Shevkunov, Igor; Petrov, Nikolay V; Egiazarian, Karen
2016-10-31
A variational algorithm to object wavefront reconstruction from noisy intensity observations is developed for the off-axis holography scenario with imaging in the acquisition plane. The algorithm is based on the local least square technique proposed in paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A21, 367 (2004)]. First, multiple reconstructions of the wavefront are produced for various size and various directional windows applied for localization of estimation. At the second stage, a special statistical rule is applied in order to select the best window size estimate for each pixel of the image and for each of the directional windows. At the third final stage the estimates of the different directions obtained for each pixel are aggregated in the final one. Simulation experiments and real data processing prove that the developed algorithm demonstrate the performance of the extraordinary quality and accuracy for both the phase and amplitude of the object wavefront.
Whole Sentence Spelling and Grammar Correction Using a Noisy Channel Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Yonghahk Albert
2013-01-01
Automated grammar correction techniques have seen improvement over the years, but there is still much room for increased performance. Current correction techniques mainly focus on identifying and correcting a specific type of error, such as verb form misuse or preposition misuse, which restricts the corrections to a limited scope. We introduce a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Huong Thi Thien
2011-01-01
The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiment 1 was…
Antfolk, Jan
2017-03-01
Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.
2012-09-01
mission demands in the context of a combat scenario. The current approach employs a linear program that maximizes value over a 14 finite - time horizon...modification to ensure convergence is to gradually decay the learning rate as a function of time or samples. Note that Sutton makes a claim that the...1992). Convergence in the limit does not provide practical benefit in most real- world applications and this measure while relevant to the theoretical
Multiscale Analysis of Photon-Limited Astronomical Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willett, R.
2007-11-01
Many astronomical studies rely upon the accurate reconstruction of spatially distributed phenomena from photon-limited data. These measurements are inherently ``noisy'' due to low photon counts. In addition, the behavior of the underlying photon intensity functions can be very rich and complex, and consequently difficult to model a priori. Nonparametric multiscale reconstruction methods overcome these challenges and facilitate characterization of fundamental performance limits. In this paper, we review several multiscale approaches to photon-limited image reconstruction, including wavelets combined with variance stabilizing transforms, corrected Haar wavelet transforms, multiplicative multiscale innovations, platelets, and the à trous wavelet transform. We discuss the performance of these methods in simulation studies, and describe statistical analyses of their performances.
How input noise limits biochemical sensing in ultrasensitive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bo; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert
2014-09-01
Many biological processes are regulated by molecular devices that respond in an ultrasensitive fashion to upstream signals. An important question is whether such ultrasensitivity improves or limits its ability to read out the (noisy) input stimuli. Here, we develop a simple model to study the statistical properties of ultrasensitive signaling systems. We demonstrate that the output sensory noise is always bounded, in contrast to earlier theories using the small noise approximation, which tends to overestimate the impact of noise in ultrasensitive pathways. Our analysis also shows that the apparent sensitivity of the system is ultimately constrained by the input signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, ultrasensitivity can improve the precision of biochemical sensing only to a finite extent. This corresponds to a new limit for ultrasensitive signaling systems, which is strictly tighter than the Berg-Purcell limit.
Renewal Approach to the Analysis of the Asynchronous State for Coupled Noisy Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farkhooi, Farzad; van Vreeswijk, Carl
2015-07-01
We develop a framework in which the activity of nonlinear pulse-coupled oscillators is posed within the renewal theory. In this approach, the evolution of the interevent density allows for a self-consistent calculation that determines the asynchronous state and its stability. This framework can readily be extended to the analysis of systems with more state variables and provides a population density treatment to evolve them in their thermodynamical limits. To demonstrate this we study a nonlinear pulse-coupled system, where couplings are dynamic and activity dependent. We investigate its stability and numerically study the nonequilibrium behavior of the system after the bifurcation. We show that this system undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation to collective synchronization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.
2015-08-01
Principal limitations of the standard THz-TDS method for the detection and identification are demonstrated under real conditions (at long distance of about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) using neutral substances thick paper bag, paper napkins and chocolate. We show also that the THz-TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even if the THz signals were measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); silicon-based semiconductors were used as the samples. However, the integral correlation criteria, based on SDA method, allows us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the neutral substances. The discussed algorithm shows high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice, especially for security applications and non-destructive testing.
Detecting and estimating signals in noisy cable structures, II: information theoretical analysis.
Manwani, A; Koch, C
1999-11-15
This is the second in a series of articles that seek to recast classical single-neuron biophysics in information-theoretical terms. Classical cable theory focuses on analyzing the voltage or current attenuation of a synaptic signal as it propagates from its dendritic input location to the spike initiation zone. On the other hand, we are interested in analyzing the amount of information lost about the signal in this process due to the presence of various noise sources distributed throughout the neuronal membrane. We use a stochastic version of the linear one-dimensional cable equation to derive closed-form expressions for the second-order moments of the fluctuations of the membrane potential associated with different membrane current noise sources: thermal noise, noise due to the random opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels, and noise due to the presence of "spontaneous" synaptic input. We consider two different scenarios. In the signal estimation paradigm, the time course of the membrane potential at a location on the cable is used to reconstruct the detailed time course of a random, band-limited current injected some distance away. Estimation performance is characterized in terms of the coding fraction and the mutual information. In the signal detection paradigm, the membrane potential is used to determine whether a distant synaptic event occurred within a given observation interval. In the light of our analytical results, we speculate that the length of weakly active apical dendrites might be limited by the information loss due to the accumulated noise between distal synaptic input sites and the soma and that the presence of dendritic nonlinearities probably serves to increase dendritic information transfer.
Kercel, Stephen W.
1998-10-11
For several reasons, Bayesian parameter estimation is superior to other methods for extracting features of a weak signal from noise. Since it exploits prior knowledge, the analysis begins from a more advantageous starting point than other methods. Also, since ''nuisance parameters'' can be dropped out of the Bayesian analysis, the description of the model need not be as complete as is necessary for such methods as matched filtering. In the limit for perfectly random noise and a perfect description of the model, the signal-to-noise ratio improves as the square root of the number of samples in the data. Even with the imperfections of real-world data, Bayesian approaches this ideal limit of performance more closely than other methods. A major unsolved problem in landmine detection is the fusion of data from multiple sensor types. Bayesian data fusion is only beginning to be explored as a solution to the problem. In single sensor processes Bayesian analysis can sense multiple parameters from the data stream of the one sensor. It does so by computing a joint probability density function of a set of parameter values from the sensor output. However, there is no inherent requirement that the information must come from a single sensor. If multiple sensors are applied to a single process, where several different parameters are implicit in each sensor output data stream, the joint probability density function of all the parameters of interest can be computed in exactly the same manner as the single sensor case. Thus, it is just as practical to base decisions on multiple sensor outputs as it is for single sensors. This should provide a practical way to combine the outputs of dissimilar sensors, such as ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction devices, producing a better detection decision than could be provided by either sensor alone.
Chen, Jingyuan E; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Glover, Gary H
2017-02-01
Recently, emerging studies have demonstrated the existence of brain resting-state spontaneous activity at frequencies higher than the conventional 0.1 Hz. A few groups utilizing accelerated acquisitions have reported persisting signals beyond 1 Hz, which seems too high to be accommodated by the sluggish hemodynamic process underpinning blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts (the upper limit of the canonical model is ∼0.3 Hz). It is thus questionable whether the observed high-frequency (HF) functional connectivity originates from alternative mechanisms (e.g., inflow effects, proton density changes in or near activated neural tissue) or rather is artificially introduced by improper preprocessing operations. In this study, we examined the influence of a common preprocessing step-whole-band linear nuisance regression (WB-LNR)-on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and demonstrated through both simulation and analysis of real dataset that WB-LNR can introduce spurious network structures into the HF bands of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. Findings of present study call into question whether published observations on HF-RSFC are partly attributable to improper data preprocessing instead of actual neural activities.
Quantum Fisher information of an open and noisy system in the steady state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altintas, Azmi Ali
2016-04-01
We study the quantum Fisher information (QFI) per particle of an open (particles can enter and leave the system) and dissipative (far from thermodynamical equilibrium) steady state system of two qubits in a noise which is decoherence. We show the behavior of QFI per particle of the system due to changes of reset and decoherence parameters r and γ respectively. The parameter r is the strength of the reset mechanism, γ is the strength of decoherence and in our case it is dephasing channel. The parameters γ and r are real numbers. We observe that the reset parameter must be bigger than decoherence parameter. We have found that by choosing coupling parameter g as 5 γ the QFI per particle is 1.00226 which is greater than shot noise limit at γ = 0.5 and r = 14. Also the concurrence and negativity of the such state have been calculated and they are found as 0.0992486 and 0.0496243 respectively. We have shown that when the concurrence and negativity of some specific states different than zero, which means the state is entangled, the QFI of the system is greater than 1. The QFI per particle, concurrence and negativity shows that the chosen case is weakly entangled. We discovered that the optimal direction depends on the parameters r and γ and a change in the direction affects the behavior of the QFI of the system.
Probabilistic characteristics of noisy Van der Pol type oscillator with nonlinear damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubkov, A. A.; Litovsky, I. A.
2016-05-01
The exact Fokker-Planck equation for the joint probability distribution of amplitude and phase of a Van der Pol oscillator perturbed by both additive and multiplicative noise sources with arbitrary nonlinear damping is first derived by the method of functional splitting of averages. We truncate this equation in the usual manner using the smallness of the damping parameter and obtain a general expression for the stationary probability density function of oscillation amplitude, which is valid for any nonlinearity in the feedback loop of the oscillator. We analyze the dependence of this stationary solution on system parameters and intensities of noise sources for two different situations: (i) Van der Pol generator with soft and hard excitation regimes; (ii) Van der Pol oscillator with negative nonlinear damping. As shown, in the first case the probability distribution of amplitude demonstrates one characteristic maximum, which indicates the presence of a stable limit cycle in the system. The non-monotonic dependence of stationary probability density function on oscillation frequency is also detected. In the second case we examine separately three situations: linear oscillator with two noise sources, nonlinear oscillator with additive noise and nonlinear oscillator with frequency fluctuations. For the last two situations, noise-induced transitions in the system under consideration are found.
Richardson, Wade; Wilkinson, Dan; Wu, Ling; Petrigliano, Frank; Dunn, Bruce; Evseenko, Denis
2015-07-01
The development of new methods for the early diagnosis of cartilage disease could offer significant improvement in patient care. Raman spectroscopy is an emerging biomedical technology with unique potential to recognize disease tissues, though difficulty in obtaining the samples needed to train a diagnostic and excessive signal noise could slow its development into a clinical tool. In the current report we detail the use of principal component analysis--linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) on spectra from pairs of materials modeling cartilage disease to create multiple spectral scoring metrics, which could limit the reliance on primary training data for identifying disease in low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) Raman spectra. Our proof-of-concept experiments show that combinations of these model-metrics has the potential to improve the classification of low-SNR Raman spectra from human normal and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage over a single metric trained with spectra from the same healthy and OA tissues. Scatter plot showing the PCA-LDA derived human-disease-metric scores versus rat-model-metric scores for 7656 low signal-to-noise spectra from healthy (blue) and osteoarthritic (red) cartilage. Light vertical and horizontal lines represent the optimized single metric classification boundary. Dark diagonal line represents the classification of boundary resulting from the optimized combination of the two metrics.
Perceptual effects of noise reduction by time-frequency masking of noisy speech.
Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A
2012-10-01
Time-frequency masking is a method for noise reduction that is based on the time-frequency representation of a speech in noise signal. Depending on the estimated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), each time-frequency unit is either attenuated or not. A special type of a time-frequency mask is the ideal binary mask (IBM), which has access to the real SNR (ideal). The IBM either retains or removes each time-frequency unit (binary mask). The IBM provides large improvements in speech intelligibility and is a valuable tool for investigating how different factors influence intelligibility. This study extends the standard outcome measure (speech intelligibility) with additional perceptual measures relevant for noise reduction: listening effort, noise annoyance, speech naturalness, and overall preference. Four types of time-frequency masking were evaluated: the original IBM, a tempered version of the IBM (called ITM) which applies limited and non-binary attenuation, and non-ideal masking (also tempered) with two different types of noise-estimation algorithms. The results from ideal masking imply that there is a trade-off between intelligibility and sound quality, which depends on the attenuation strength. Additionally, the results for non-ideal masking suggest that subjective measures can show effects of noise reduction even if noise reduction does not lead to differences in intelligibility.
Lymperopoulos, Ilias N; Ioannou, George D
2016-10-01
We develop and validate a model of the micro-level dynamics underlying the formation of macro-level information propagation patterns in online social networks. In particular, we address the dynamics at the level of the mechanism regulating a user's participation in an online information propagation process. We demonstrate that this mechanism can be realistically described by the dynamics of noisy spiking neurons driven by endogenous and exogenous, deterministic and stochastic stimuli representing the influence modulating one's intention to be an information spreader. Depending on the dynamically changing influence characteristics, time-varying propagation patterns emerge reflecting the temporal structure, strength, and signal-to-noise ratio characteristics of the stimulation driving the online users' information sharing activity. The proposed model constitutes an overarching, novel, and flexible approach to the modeling of the micro-level mechanisms whereby information propagates in online social networks. As such, it can be used for a comprehensive understanding of the online transmission of information, a process integral to the sociocultural evolution of modern societies. The proposed model is highly adaptable and suitable for the study of the propagation patterns of behavior, opinions, and innovations among others.
Moore, Steven T.; Dilda, Valentina; Morris, Tiffany R.; Yungher, Don A.; MacDougall, Hamish G.
2015-01-01
Performance on a visuomotor task in the presence of novel vestibular stimulation was assessed in nine healthy subjects. Four subjects had previously been adapted to 120 min exposure to noisy Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) over 12 weekly sessions of 10 min; the remaining five subjects had never experienced GVS. Subjects were seated in a flight simulator and asked to null the roll motion of a visual bar presented on a screen using a joystick. Both the visual bar and the simulator cabin were moving in roll with a pseudorandom (sum of sines) waveform that were uncorrelated. The cross correlation coefficient, which ranges from 1 (identical waveforms) to 0 (unrelated waveforms), was calculated for the ideal (perfect nulling of bar motion) and actual joystick input waveform for each subject. The cross correlation coefficient for the GVS-adapted group (0.90 [SD 0.04]) was significantly higher (t[8] = 3.162; p = 0.013) than the control group (0.82 [SD 0.04]), suggesting that prior adaptation to GVS was associated with an enhanced ability to perform the visuomotor task in the presence of novel vestibular noise. PMID:26106308
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, David A.; Moody, Stephen E.; Peccoud, Jean
2010-02-01
We have developed a fundamentally new type of cytometer to track the statistics of dynamic molecular interactions in hundreds of individual live cells within a single experiment. This entirely new high-throughput experimental system, which we have named Cyto•IQ, reports statistical, rather than image-based data for a large cellular population. Like a flow cytometer, Cyto•IQ rapidly measures several fluorescent probes in a large population of cells to yield a reduced statistical model that is matched to the experimental goals set by the user. However, Cyto•IQ moves beyond flow cytometry by tracking multiple probes in individual cells over time. Using adaptive learning algorithms, we process data in real time to maximize the convergence of the statistical model parameter estimators. Software controlling Cyto•IQ integrates existing open source applications to interface hardware components, process images, and adapt the data acquisition strategy based on previously acquired data. These innovations allow the study of larger populations of cells, and molecular interactions with more complex dynamics, than is possible with traditional microscope-based approaches. Cyto•IQ supports research to characterize the noisy dynamics of molecular interactions controlling biological processes.
Liu, Liangbing; Tao, Chao; Liu, XiaoJun; Deng, Mingxi; Wang, Senhua; Liu, Jun
2015-10-19
Photoacoustic tomography is a promising and rapidly developed methodology of biomedical imaging. It confronts an increasing urgent problem to reconstruct the image from weak and noisy photoacoustic signals, owing to its high benefit in extending the imaging depth and decreasing the dose of laser exposure. Based on the time-domain characteristics of photoacoustic signals, a pulse decomposition algorithm is proposed to reconstruct a photoacoustic image from signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this method, a photoacoustic signal is decomposed as the weighted summation of a set of pulses in the time-domain. Images are reconstructed from the weight factors, which are directly related to the optical absorption coefficient. Both simulation and experiment are conducted to test the performance of the method. Numerical simulations show that when the signal-to-noise ratio is -4 dB, the proposed method decreases the reconstruction error to about 17%, in comparison with the conventional back-projection method. Moreover, it can produce acceptable images even when the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased to -10 dB. Experiments show that, when the laser influence level is low, the proposed method achieves a relatively clean image of a hair phantom with some well preserved pattern details. The proposed method demonstrates imaging potential of photoacoustic tomography in expanding applications.
Algorithm based on the short-term Rényi entropy and IF estimation for noisy EEG signals analysis.
Lerga, Jonatan; Saulig, Nicoletta; Mozetič, Vladimir
2017-01-01
Stochastic electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are known to be nonstationary and often multicomponential. Detecting and extracting their components may help clinicians to localize brain neurological dysfunctionalities for patients with motor control disorders due to the fact that movement-related cortical activities are reflected in spectral EEG changes. A new algorithm for EEG signal components detection from its time-frequency distribution (TFD) has been proposed in this paper. The algorithm utilizes the modification of the Rényi entropy-based technique for number of components estimation, called short-term Rényi entropy (STRE), and upgraded by an iterative algorithm which was shown to enhance existing approaches. Combined with instantaneous frequency (IF) estimation, the proposed method was applied to EEG signal analysis both in noise-free and noisy environments for limb movements EEG signals, and was shown to be an efficient technique providing spectral description of brain activities at each electrode location up to moderate additive noise levels. Furthermore, the obtained information concerning the number of EEG signal components and their IFs show potentials to enhance diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders for patients with motor control illnesses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.
2015-05-01
We show possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance (several metres, for example) using the THz pulse reflected from the object under the real conditions: at room temperature and humidity of about 70%. The main feature of this report consists in a demonstration of the detection and identification of substance using the computer processing of the noisy THz pulse. Amplitude of the useful signal is less than the amplitude of a noise. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect "fingerprint" frequencies of substance if these frequencies are known and the SDA method is used together with new assessments for probability estimation for presence of detected frequencies. Essential restrictions of the commonly used THz TDS method for the detection and identification under real conditions (at long distance about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) are demonstrated using the physical experiment with chocolate bar and thick paper bag. We show also that the THz TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even in the THz signals measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); the n-Si and p-Si semiconductors were used as neutral substances. However, the integral correlation and likeness criteria, based on SDA method, allow us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the samples. Current results show feasibility of using the discussed method of the THz pulsed spectroscopy for the counter-terrorism problem.
Scheinker, Alexander; Baily, Scott; Young, Daniel; ...
2014-08-01
In this work, an implementation of a recently developed model-independent adaptive control scheme, for tuning uncertain and time varying systems, is demonstrated on the Los Alamos linear particle accelerator. The main benefits of the algorithm are its simplicity, ability to handle an arbitrary number of components without increased complexity, and the approach is extremely robust to measurement noise, a property which is both analytically proven and demonstrated in the experiments performed. We report on the application of this algorithm for simultaneous tuning of two buncher radio frequency (RF) cavities, in order to maximize beam acceptance into the accelerating electromagnetic fieldmore » cavities of the machine, with the tuning based only on a noisy measurement of the surviving beam current downstream from the two bunching cavities. The algorithm automatically responds to arbitrary phase shift of the cavity phases, automatically re-tuning the cavity settings and maximizing beam acceptance. Because it is model independent it can be utilized for continuous adaptation to time-variation of a large system, such as due to thermal drift, or damage to components, in which the remaining, functional components would be automatically re-tuned to compensate for the failing ones. We start by discussing the general model-independent adaptive scheme and how it may be digitally applied to a large class of multi-parameter uncertain systems, and then present our experimental results.« less
Scheinker, Alexander; Baily, Scott; Young, Daniel; Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Prokop, Mark
2014-08-01
In this work, an implementation of a recently developed model-independent adaptive control scheme, for tuning uncertain and time varying systems, is demonstrated on the Los Alamos linear particle accelerator. The main benefits of the algorithm are its simplicity, ability to handle an arbitrary number of components without increased complexity, and the approach is extremely robust to measurement noise, a property which is both analytically proven and demonstrated in the experiments performed. We report on the application of this algorithm for simultaneous tuning of two buncher radio frequency (RF) cavities, in order to maximize beam acceptance into the accelerating electromagnetic field cavities of the machine, with the tuning based only on a noisy measurement of the surviving beam current downstream from the two bunching cavities. The algorithm automatically responds to arbitrary phase shift of the cavity phases, automatically re-tuning the cavity settings and maximizing beam acceptance. Because it is model independent it can be utilized for continuous adaptation to time-variation of a large system, such as due to thermal drift, or damage to components, in which the remaining, functional components would be automatically re-tuned to compensate for the failing ones. We start by discussing the general model-independent adaptive scheme and how it may be digitally applied to a large class of multi-parameter uncertain systems, and then present our experimental results.
Sadati, Monirosadat; Luap, Clarisse; Kroeger, Martin; Gusev, Andrei A.; Oettinger, Hans Christian
2011-03-15
We present a method combining generalized Tikhonov regularization with a finite element approximation for reconstructing smooth velocity and velocity gradient fields from spatially scattered and noisy velocity data in a two-dimensional complex flow domain. Synthetic velocity data for a cross-slot geometry are generated using the Oldroyd-B solution, subsequently perturbed by random noise. Performances of diverse finite element continuity-regularization criterion combinations are tested against noise-free data, while the optimum regularization parameter is determined using generalized cross-validation. The best performance is achieved for the velocity field and its gradients simultaneously by C{sup 2} continuous Hermite finite elements and minimization of a norm of the velocity's third derivative. The standard regularization criterion based on the second derivative is shown to lead to systematic distortions in boundary regions, allowing therefore a lower reduction in the statistical error. Furthermore, optical fields are calculated by applying a differential constitutive equation directly to the reconstructed flow kinematics; high quality velocity gradient fields are shown to be an essential prerequisite for their reliable prediction. Overall, the method is expedient to implement and does not require boundary conditions.
Sarkar, Ram Rup; Malchow, Horst
2005-12-01
A phytoplankton-zooplankton prey-predator model has been investigated for temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal dissipative pattern formation in a deterministic and noisy environment, respectively. The overall carrying capacity for the phytoplankton population depends on the nutrient level. The role of nutrient concentrations and toxin producing phytoplankton for controlling the algal blooms has been discussed. The local analysis yields a number of stationary and/or oscillatory regimes and their combinations. Correspondingly interesting is the spatio-temporal behaviour, modelled by stochastic reaction-diffusion equations. The present study also reveals the fact that the rate of toxin production by toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP) plays an important role for controlling oscillations in the plankton system. We also observe that different mortality functions of zooplankton due to TPP have significant influence in controlling oscillations, coexistence, survival or extinction of the zoo-plankton population. External noise can enhance the survival and spread of zooplankton that would go extinct in the deterministic system due to a high rate of toxin production.
Assessing uncertainty in model parameters based on sparse and noisy experimental data.
Hiroi, Noriko; Swat, Maciej; Funahashi, Akira
2014-01-01
To perform parametric identification of mathematical models of biological events, experimental data are rare to be sufficient to estimate target behaviors produced by complex non-linear systems. We performed parameter fitting to a cell cycle model with experimental data as an in silico experiment. We calibrated model parameters with the generalized least squares method with randomized initial values and checked local and global sensitivity of the model. Sensitivity analyses showed that parameter optimization induced less sensitivity except for those related to the metabolism of the transcription factors c-Myc and E2F, which are required to overcome a restriction point (R-point). We performed bifurcation analyses with the optimized parameters and found the bimodality was lost. This result suggests that accumulation of c-Myc and E2F induced dysfunction of R-point. We performed a second parameter optimization based on the results of sensitivity analyses and incorporating additional derived from recent in vivo data. This optimization returned the bimodal characteristics of the model with a narrower range of hysteresis than the original. This result suggests that the optimized model can more easily go through R-point and come back to the gap phase after once having overcome it. Two parameter space analyses showed metabolism of c-Myc is transformed as it can allow cell bimodal behavior with weak stimuli of growth factors. This result is compatible with the character of the cell line used in our experiments. At the same time, Rb, an inhibitor of E2F, can allow cell bimodal behavior with only a limited range of stimuli when it is activated, but with a wider range of stimuli when it is inactive. These results provide two insights; biologically, the two transcription factors play an essential role in malignant cells to overcome R-point with weaker growth factor stimuli, and theoretically, sparse time-course data can be used to change a model to a biologically expected state.
Assessing uncertainty in model parameters based on sparse and noisy experimental data
Swat, Maciej; Funahashi, Akira
2014-01-01
To perform parametric identification of mathematical models of biological events, experimental data are rare to be sufficient to estimate target behaviors produced by complex non-linear systems. We performed parameter fitting to a cell cycle model with experimental data as an in silico experiment. We calibrated model parameters with the generalized least squares method with randomized initial values and checked local and global sensitivity of the model. Sensitivity analyses showed that parameter optimization induced less sensitivity except for those related to the metabolism of the transcription factors c-Myc and E2F, which are required to overcome a restriction point (R-point). We performed bifurcation analyses with the optimized parameters and found the bimodality was lost. This result suggests that accumulation of c-Myc and E2F induced dysfunction of R-point. We performed a second parameter optimization based on the results of sensitivity analyses and incorporating additional derived from recent in vivo data. This optimization returned the bimodal characteristics of the model with a narrower range of hysteresis than the original. This result suggests that the optimized model can more easily go through R-point and come back to the gap phase after once having overcome it. Two parameter space analyses showed metabolism of c-Myc is transformed as it can allow cell bimodal behavior with weak stimuli of growth factors. This result is compatible with the character of the cell line used in our experiments. At the same time, Rb, an inhibitor of E2F, can allow cell bimodal behavior with only a limited range of stimuli when it is activated, but with a wider range of stimuli when it is inactive. These results provide two insights; biologically, the two transcription factors play an essential role in malignant cells to overcome R-point with weaker growth factor stimuli, and theoretically, sparse time-course data can be used to change a model to a biologically expected state
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hellman, R. P.
1985-01-01
A large scale laboratory investigation of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness produced by single-tone-noise complexes was undertaken to establish a broader data base for quanitification and prediction of perceived annoyance of sounds containing tonal components. Loudness, annoyance, and noisiness were distinguished as separate, distinct, attributes of sound. Three different spectral patterns of broadband noise with and without added tones were studied: broadband-flat, low-pass, and high-pass. Judgments were obtained by absolute magnitude estimation supplement by loudness matching. The data were examined and evaluated to determine the potential effects of (1) the overall sound pressure level (SPL) of the noise-tone complex, (2) tone SPL, (3) noise SPL, (4) tone-to-noise ratio, (5) the frequency of the added tone, (6) noise spectral shape, and (7) subjective attribute judged on absolute magnitude of annoyance. Results showed that, in contrast to noisiness, loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the noise. The close correspondence between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the noise. The close correspondence between loundness and annoyance suggests that, to better understand perceived annoyance of sound mixtures, it is necessary to relate the results to basic auditory mechanisms governing loudness and masking.
Detecting harmonic signals in a noisy time-series: the z-domain Autoregressive (AR-z) spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Hao; Chao, Benjamin F.
2015-06-01
We develop a new method referred to as the AR-z spectrum for detecting harmonic signals with exponential decay/growth contained in a noisy time-series by extending the autoregressive (AR) method of Chao & Gilbert. The method consists of (i) `blindly' forcing one 2nd-order AR fit to the signal content in the frequency domain for any chosen frequency whether or not there is truly a signal; (ii) finding the corresponding AR (complex-conjugate pair of) poles in the complex z-domain; (iii) converting the pole locations into the corresponding complex frequencies of the harmonic signals via the Prony's relation and (iv) constructing the Lorentzian power spectrum in the z-domain, conceptually constituting the analytical continuation of the spectrum from the (real) frequency domain to the complex z-domain, where a true harmonic signal is manifested as a Lorentzian peak. The AR-z spectrum can be further enhanced by forming the product spectrum from multiple records as available. We apply the AR-z spectral method to detect and to estimate the complex frequencies of the Earth's normal-modes of free oscillation using superconducting gravimeter records after recent large earthquakes. Specifically we show examples of detection and precise estimation of the frequencies and Q values of the split singlets of the spheroidal modes 0S2, 2S1, 1S2 and 0S0, and report the mode couplings manifested by the gravimeter recording of the toroidal modes 0T2, 0T3 and 0T4. The AR-z spectrum proves to be highly sensitive for harmonic signal of decaying sinusoids in comparison to the conventional Fourier-based spectrum, particularly when the signal in question is weak and where high spectral resolution is desired.
Waiblinger, Christian; Brugger, Dominik; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Stanley, Garrett B; Schwarz, Cornelius
2015-01-01
Rodents use active whisker movements to explore their environment. The "slip hypothesis" of whisker-related tactile perception entails that short-lived kinematic events (abrupt whisker movements, called "slips", due to bioelastic whisker properties that occur during active touch of textures) carry the decisive texture information. Supporting this hypothesis, previous studies have shown that slip amplitude and frequency occur in a texture-dependent way. Further, experiments employing passive pulsatile whisker deflections revealed that perceptual performance based on pulse kinematics (i.e., signatures that resemble slips) is far superior to the one based on time-integrated variables like frequency and intensity. So far, pulsatile stimuli were employed in a noise free environment. However, the realistic scenario involves background noise (e.g., evoked by rubbing across the texture). Therefore, if slips are used for tactile perception, the tactile neuronal system would need to differentiate slip-evoked spikes from those evoked by noise. To test the animals under these more realistic conditions, we presented passive whisker-deflections to head-fixed trained rats, consisting of "slip-like" events (waveforms mimicking slips occurring with touch of real textures) embedded into background noise. Varying the (i) shapes (ramp or pulse); (ii) kinematics (amplitude, velocity, etc.); and (iii) the probabilities of occurrence of slip-like events, we observed that rats could readily detect slip-like events of different shapes against noisy background. Psychophysical curves revealed that the difference of slip event and noise amplitude determined perception, while increased probability of occurrence (frequency) had barely any effect. These results strongly support the notion that encoding of kinematics dominantly determines whisker-related tactile perception while the computation of frequency or intensity plays a minor role.
Waiblinger, Christian; Brugger, Dominik; Whitmire, Clarissa J.; Stanley, Garrett B.; Schwarz, Cornelius
2015-01-01
Rodents use active whisker movements to explore their environment. The “slip hypothesis” of whisker-related tactile perception entails that short-lived kinematic events (abrupt whisker movements, called “slips”, due to bioelastic whisker properties that occur during active touch of textures) carry the decisive texture information. Supporting this hypothesis, previous studies have shown that slip amplitude and frequency occur in a texture-dependent way. Further, experiments employing passive pulsatile whisker deflections revealed that perceptual performance based on pulse kinematics (i.e., signatures that resemble slips) is far superior to the one based on time-integrated variables like frequency and intensity. So far, pulsatile stimuli were employed in a noise free environment. However, the realistic scenario involves background noise (e.g., evoked by rubbing across the texture). Therefore, if slips are used for tactile perception, the tactile neuronal system would need to differentiate slip-evoked spikes from those evoked by noise. To test the animals under these more realistic conditions, we presented passive whisker-deflections to head-fixed trained rats, consisting of “slip-like” events (waveforms mimicking slips occurring with touch of real textures) embedded into background noise. Varying the (i) shapes (ramp or pulse); (ii) kinematics (amplitude, velocity, etc.); and (iii) the probabilities of occurrence of slip-like events, we observed that rats could readily detect slip-like events of different shapes against noisy background. Psychophysical curves revealed that the difference of slip event and noise amplitude determined perception, while increased probability of occurrence (frequency) had barely any effect. These results strongly support the notion that encoding of kinematics dominantly determines whisker-related tactile perception while the computation of frequency or intensity plays a minor role. PMID:26528148
Taillefumier, Thibaud; Magnasco, Marcelo
2014-05-01
The firing activity of intracellularly stimulated neurons in cortical slices has been demonstrated to be profoundly affected by the temporal structure of the injected current (Mainen & Sejnowski, 1995 ). This suggests that the timing features of the neural response may be controlled as much by its own biophysical characteristics as by how a neuron is wired within a circuit. Modeling studies have shown that the interplay between internal noise and the fluctuations of the driving input controls the reliability and the precision of neuronal spiking (Cecchi et al., 2000 ; Tiesinga, 2002 ; Fellous, Rudolph, Destexhe, & Sejnowski, 2003 ). In order to investigate this interplay, we focus on the stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire neuron and identify the Hölder exponent H of the integrated input as the key mathematical property dictating the regime of firing of a single-unit neuron. We have recently provided numerical evidence (Taillefumier & Magnasco, 2013 ) for the existence of a phase transition when [Formula: see text] becomes less than the statistical Hölder exponent associated with internal gaussian white noise (H=1/2). Here we describe the theoretical and numerical framework devised for the study of a neuron that is periodically driven by frozen noisy inputs with exponent H>0. In doing so, we account for the existence of a transition between two regimes of firing when H=1/2, and we show that spiking times have a continuous density when the Hölder exponent satisfies H>1/2. The transition at H=1/2 formally separates rate codes, for which the neural firing probability varies smoothly, from temporal codes, for which the neuron fires at sharply defined times regardless of the intensity of internal noise.
Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira
2015-01-01
Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound
Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony
2011-01-01
Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called “earless” frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bothma, Jacques P.; Gilmore, Joel B.; McKenzie, Ross H.
2010-05-01
We consider the role of quantum effects in the transfer of hydrogen-like species in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. This review is stimulated by claims that the observed magnitude and temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) implies that quantum tunneling below the energy barrier associated with the transition state significantly enhances the reaction rate in many enzymes. We review the path integral approach and the Caldeira-Leggett model, which provides a general framework to describe and understand tunneling in a quantum system that interacts with a noisy environment at nonzero temperature. Here the quantum system is the active site of the enzyme, and the environment is the surrounding protein and water. Tunneling well below the barrier only occurs for temperatures less than a temperature T0, which is determined by the curvature of the potential energy surface near the top of the barrier. We argue that for most enzymes this temperature is less than room temperature. We review typical values for the parameters in the Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian, including the frequency-dependent friction and noise due to the environment. For physically reasonable parameters, we show that quantum transition state theory gives a quantitative description of the temperature dependence and magnitude of KIEs for two classes of enzymes that have been claimed to exhibit signatures of quantum tunneling. The only quantum effects are those associated with the transition state, both reflection at the barrier top and tunneling just below the barrier. We establish that the friction and noise due to the environment are weak and only slightly modify the reaction rate. Furthermore, at room temperature and for typical energy barriers environmental fluctuations with frequencies much less than 1000 cm-1 do not have a significant effect on quantum corrections to the reaction rate. This is essentially because the time scales associated with the dynamics of proton transfer are faster than
1980-06-01
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Noisy homoclinic pulse dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eaves, T. S.; Balmforth, Neil J.
2016-04-01
The effect of stochastic perturbations on nearly homoclinic pulse trains is considered for three model systems: a Duffing oscillator, the Lorenz-like Shimizu-Morioka model, and a co-dimension-three normal form. Using the Duffing model as an example, it is demonstrated that the main effect of noise does not originate from the neighbourhood of the fixed point, as is commonly assumed, but due to the perturbation of the trajectory outside that region. Singular perturbation theory is used to quantify this noise effect and is applied to construct maps of pulse spacing for the Shimizu-Morioka and normal form models. The dynamics of these stochastic maps is then explored to examine how noise influences the sequence of bifurcations that take place adjacent to homoclinic connections in Lorenz-like and Shilnikov-type flows.
Limits to Chemically Guided Multicellular Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varennes, Julien; Han, Bumsoo; Mugler, Andrew
Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue requires both multicellular sensing of chemical gradients and coordinated mechanical action. Examples from morphogenesis and cancer metastasis demonstrate that clusters of migratory cells are extremely sensitive, responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell body. While the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, the ensuing consequences for coherent migration remain poorly understood. We develop a model of multicellular sensing and migration based on the cellular Potts model. Multicellular sensing of noisy chemical gradients is modeled as a process of local excitation and global inhibition (LEGI) among communicating cells. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells' polarization to model migratory behavior. We find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias. At the same time, larger clusters are also accompanied by less coherent collective motion. The trade-off between these two effects leads to an optimally efficient cluster size. We discuss how our results relate to cancer metastasis.
Helmer, Markus; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Stephan, Valeska; Treue, Stefan; Geisel, Theo; Battaglia, Demian
2016-01-01
Tuning curves are the functions that relate the responses of sensory neurons to various values within one continuous stimulus dimension (such as the orientation of a bar in the visual domain or the frequency of a tone in the auditory domain). They are commonly determined by fitting a model e.g. a Gaussian or other bell-shaped curves to the measured responses to a small subset of discrete stimuli in the relevant dimension. However, as neuronal responses are irregular and experimental measurements noisy, it is often difficult to determine reliably the appropriate model from the data. We illustrate this general problem by fitting diverse models to representative recordings from area MT in rhesus monkey visual cortex during multiple attentional tasks involving complex composite stimuli. We find that all models can be well-fitted, that the best model generally varies between neurons and that statistical comparisons between neuronal responses across different experimental conditions are affected quantitatively and qualitatively by specific model choices. As a robust alternative to an often arbitrary model selection, we introduce a model-free approach, in which features of interest are extracted directly from the measured response data without the need of fitting any model. In our attentional datasets, we demonstrate that data-driven methods provide descriptions of tuning curve features such as preferred stimulus direction or attentional gain modulations which are in agreement with fit-based approaches when a good fit exists. Furthermore, these methods naturally extend to the frequent cases of uncertain model selection. We show that model-free approaches can identify attentional modulation patterns, such as general alterations of the irregular shape of tuning curves, which cannot be captured by fitting stereotyped conventional models. Finally, by comparing datasets across different conditions, we demonstrate effects of attention that are cell- and even stimulus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kong, Jeffrey
1994-01-01
This thesis focuses on the subject of the accuracy of parameter estimation and system identification techniques. Motivated by a complicated load measurement from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, advanced system identification techniques are needed. The objective of this problem is to accurately predict the load experienced by the aircraft wing structure during flight determined from a set of calibrated load and gage response relationship. We can then model the problem as a black box input-output system identification from which the system parameter has to be estimated. Traditional LS (Least Square) techniques and the issues of noisy data and model accuracy are addressed. A statistical bound reflecting the change in residual is derived in order to understand the effects of the perturbations on the data. Due to the intrinsic nature of the LS problem, LS solution faces the dilemma of the trade off between model accuracy and noise sensitivity. A method of conflicting performance indices is presented, thus allowing us to improve the noise sensitivity while at the same time configuring the degredation of the model accuracy. SVD techniques for data reduction are studied and the equivalence of the Correspondence Analysis (CA) and Total Least Squares Criteria are proved. We also looked at nonlinear LS problems with NASA F-111 data set as an example. Conventional methods are neither easily applicable nor suitable for the specific load problem since the exact model of the system is unknown. Neural Network (NN) does not require prior information on the model of the system. This robustness motivated us to apply the NN techniques on our load problem. Simulation results for the NN methods used in both the single load and the 'warning signal' problems are both useful and encouraging. The performance of the NN (for single load estimate) is better than the LS approach, whereas no conventional approach was tried for the 'warning signals' problems. The NN design methodology is also
On the extrapolation of band-limited signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamzas, C. C.
1980-12-01
The determination of the Fourier Transform of a band-limited signal in terms of a finite segment is examined. The Papoulis' Extrapolation Algorithm is extended in a broader class of signals and its convergence is considerably improved by a multiplication with an adaptive constant, chosen to minimize the mean square error in the extrapolation interval. The discrete version of the iteration is examined and then modified in order to converge to the best linear mean square estimator of the unknown signal when noise is added to the given data. The problem of determining the frequencies, amplitudes and phases of a sinusoidal signal from incomplete noisy data, is considered and the extrapolation algorithm is properly modified to estimate these quantities. The obtained iteration is nonlinear and adaptively reduces the spectral components due to noise. The adaptive extrapolation technique is applied to the problem of image restoration for objects consisting of point or line sources, and to an ultrasonic problem.
Miller, R.; Black, W.; Miele, M.; Morgan, T.; Ivanov, J.; Xia, J.; Peterie, S.
2011-01-01
A high-resolution seismic reflection investigation mapped reflectors and identified characteristics potentially influencing the interpretation of the hydrogeology underlying a portion of the Oxnard Plain in Ventura County, California. Design and implementation of this study was heavily influenced by high levels of cultural noise from vehicles, power lines, roads, manufacturing facilities, and underground utilities/vaults. Acquisition and processing flows were tailored to this noisy environment and relatively shallow target interval. Layering within both upper and lower aquifer systems was delineated at a vertical resolution potential of around 2.5 m at 350 m depth. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Quantum limits on optical phase estimation accuracy from classical rate-distortion theory
Nair, Ranjith
2014-12-04
The classical information-theoretic lower bound on the distortion of a random variable upon transmission through a noisy channel is applied to quantum-optical phase estimation. An approach for obtaining Bayesian lower bounds on the phase estimation accuracy is described that employs estimates of the classical capacity of the relevant quantum-optical channels. The Heisenberg limit for lossless phase estimation is derived for arbitrary probe state and prior distributions of the phase, and shot-noise scaling of the phase accuracy is established in the presence of nonzero loss for a parallel entanglement-assisted strategy with a single probe mode.
A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-09-01
Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Hong-Bo; Dokos, Socrates
2013-06-01
We present a hybrid symplectic geometry and central tendency measure (CTM) method for detection of determinism in noisy time series. CTM is effective for detecting determinism in short time series and has been applied in many areas of nonlinear analysis. However, its performance significantly degrades in the presence of strong noise. In order to circumvent this difficulty, we propose to use symplectic principal component analysis (SPCA), a new chaotic signal de-noising method, as the first step to recover the system dynamics. CTM is then applied to determine whether the time series arises from a stochastic process or has a deterministic component. Results from numerical experiments, ranging from six benchmark deterministic models to 1/f noise, suggest that the hybrid method can significantly improve detection of determinism in noisy time series by about 20 dB when the data are contaminated by Gaussian noise. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to study the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals arising from contraction of human skeletal muscle. Results obtained from the hybrid symplectic principal component analysis and central tendency measure demonstrate that the skeletal muscle motor unit dynamics can indeed be deterministic, in agreement with previous studies. However, the conventional CTM method was not able to definitely detect the underlying deterministic dynamics. This result on MMG signal analysis is helpful in understanding neuromuscular control mechanisms and developing MMG-based engineering control applications.
Adaptive limit margin detection and limit avoidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yavrucuk, Ilkay
This thesis concerns the development of methods, algorithms, and control laws for the development of an adaptive flight envelope protection system to be used for both manned and unmanned aircraft. The proposed method lifts the requirement for detailed a priori information of aircraft dynamics by enabling adaptation to system uncertainty. The system can be used for limits that can be either measured or related to selected measurable quantities. Specifically, an adaptive technique for predicting limit margins and calculating the corresponding allowable control or controller command margins of an aircraft is described in an effort to enable true carefree maneuvering. This new approach utilizes adaptive neural network based loops for the approximation of required aircraft dynamics. For limits that reach their maximum value in steady state, a constructed estimator model is used to predict the maneuvering quasi-steady response behavior---the so called dynamic trim---of the limit parameters and the corresponding control or command margins. Linearly Parameterized Neural Networks as well as Single Hidden Layer Neural Networks are used for on-line adaptation. The approach does not require any off-line training of the neural networks, instead all learning is achieved during flight. Lyapunov based weight update laws are derived. The method is extended for multi-channelled control limiting for aircraft subject to multiple limits, and for automatic control and command limiting for UAV's. Simulation evaluations of the method using a linear helicopter model and a nonlinear Generalized Tiltrotor Simulation (GTRSIM) model are presented. Limit avoidance methods are integrated and tested through the implementation of an artificial pilot model and an active-stick controller model for tactile cueing in the tiltrotor simulation, GTRSIM. Load factor, angle-of-attack, and torque limits are considered as examples. Similarly, the method is applied to the Georgia Tech's Yamaha R-Max (GTMax
Chowdhury, Debashish
2014-01-01
Cytoskeletal motor proteins move on filamentous tracks by converting input chemical energy that they derive by catalyzing the hydrolysis of ATP. The ATPase site is the analogue of an engine and hydrolysis of ATP is the analogue of burning of chemical fuel. Moreover, the functional role of a segment of the motor is analogous to that of the transmission system of an automobile, which consists of a shaft, gear, clutch, etc. The operation of the engine is intrinsically 'noisy' and the motor faces a molecular 'hailstorm' in the aqueous medium. In this commemorative review, we celebrate the centenary of Michaelis and Menten's landmark paper of 1913 and the golden jubilee of Monod and colleagues classic paper of 1963 by highlighting their relevance with respect to explaining the operational mechanisms of the engine and the transmission system, respectively, of cytoskeletal motors.
Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D
2012-11-01
Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-01
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-15
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
Gallegos, F.R.
1996-06-01
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.
Gallegos, F.R.
1997-01-01
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Thresholds and noise limitations of colour vision in dim light.
Kelber, Almut; Yovanovich, Carola; Olsson, Peter
2017-04-05
Colour discrimination is based on opponent photoreceptor interactions, and limited by receptor noise. In dim light, photon shot noise impairs colour vision, and in vertebrates, the absolute threshold of colour vision is set by dark noise in cones. Nocturnal insects (e.g. moths and nocturnal bees) and vertebrates lacking rods (geckos) have adaptations to reduce receptor noise and use chromatic vision even in very dim light. In contrast, vertebrates with duplex retinae use colour-blind rod vision when noisy cone signals become unreliable, and their transition from cone- to rod-based vision is marked by the Purkinje shift. Rod-cone interactions have not been shown to improve colour vision in dim light, but may contribute to colour vision in mesopic light intensities. Frogs and toads that have two types of rods use opponent signals from these rods to control phototaxis even at their visual threshold. However, for tasks such as prey or mate choice, their colour discrimination abilities fail at brighter light intensities, similar to other vertebrates, probably limited by the dark noise in cones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.
Optimally combined confidence limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janot, P.; Le Diberder, F.
1998-02-01
An analytical and optimal procedure to combine statistically independent sets of confidence levels on a quantity is presented. This procedure does not impose any constraint on the methods followed by each analysis to derive its own limit. It incorporates the a priori statistical power of each of the analyses to be combined, in order to optimize the overall sensitivity. It can, in particular, be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several analyses searching for the Higgs boson in different decay channels, with different selection efficiencies, mass resolution and expected background. It can also be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several experiments (e.g. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, at LEP 2) independently of the method followed by each of these experiments to derive their own limit. A method to derive the limit set by one analysis is also presented, along with an unbiased prescription to optimize the expected mass limit in the no-signal-hypothesis.
Underwood, D. G.
1998-07-13
Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biggs, Robert E.
1991-01-01
Confidence Limits Program (CLP) calculates upper and lower confidence limits associated with observed outcome of N independent trials with M occurrences of event of interest. Calculates probability of event of interest for confidence levels of 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, and 99 percent. Provides graphical presentation of all limits and how they relate to maximum-likelihood value. Written in IBM PC BASIC.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Janne Hedegaard
2012-01-01
In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everling, E
1923-01-01
This paper is restricted to the question of attainable speed limits and attacks the problem from different angles. Theoretical limits due to air resistance are presented along with design factors which may affect speed such as wing loads, wing areas, wing section shifting, landing speeds, drag-lift ratios, and power coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinclair, W. K.
2000-01-01
Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.
Characterizing limit order prices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon
2013-11-01
A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.
Deneux, Thomas; Kaszas, Attila; Szalay, Gergely; Katona, Gergely; Lakner, Tamás; Grinvald, Amiram; Rózsa, Balázs; Vanzetta, Ivo
2016-01-01
Extracting neuronal spiking activity from large-scale two-photon recordings remains challenging, especially in mammals in vivo, where large noises often contaminate the signals. We propose a method, MLspike, which returns the most likely spike train underlying the measured calcium fluorescence. It relies on a physiological model including baseline fluctuations and distinct nonlinearities for synthetic and genetically encoded indicators. Model parameters can be either provided by the user or estimated from the data themselves. MLspike is computationally efficient thanks to its original discretization of probability representations; moreover, it can also return spike probabilities or samples. Benchmarked on extensive simulations and real data from seven different preparations, it outperformed state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with the finding obtained from systematic data investigation (noise level, spiking rate and so on) that photonic noise is not necessarily the main limiting factor, our method allows spike extraction from large-scale recordings, as demonstrated on acousto-optical three-dimensional recordings of over 1,000 neurons in vivo. PMID:27432255
Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Van Lishout, François; Van Steen, Kristel
2011-06-01
Detecting gene-gene interactions or epistasis in studies of human complex diseases is a big challenge in the area of epidemiology. To address this problem, several methods have been developed, mainly in the context of data dimensionality reduction. One of these methods, Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction, has so far mainly been applied to case-control studies. In this study, we evaluate the power of Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction for quantitative traits to detect gene-gene interactions (epistasis) in the presence of error-free and noisy data. Considered sources of error are genotyping errors, missing genotypes, phenotypic mixtures and genetic heterogeneity. Our simulation study encompasses a variety of settings with varying minor allele frequencies and genetic variance for different epistasis models. On each simulated data, we have performed Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction in two ways: with and without adjustment for main effects of (known) functional SNPs. In line with binary trait counterparts, our simulations show that the power is lowest in the presence of phenotypic mixtures or genetic heterogeneity compared to scenarios with missing genotypes or genotyping errors. In addition, empirical power estimates reduce even further with main effects corrections, but at the same time, false-positive percentages are reduced as well. In conclusion, phenotypic mixtures and genetic heterogeneity remain challenging for epistasis detection, and careful thought must be given to the way important lower-order effects are accounted for in the analysis.
Force Limited Vibration Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.
2005-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test
McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.
1998-01-01
Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.
DeShong, J.A.
1960-03-01
A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.
Schultz, J.H.
1981-01-01
The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure.
Limited Scleroderma (CREST Syndrome)
... small, frequent meals Avoid spicy or fatty foods, chocolate, caffeine, and alcohol Don't exercise immediately before ... also may be helpful. Because limited scleroderma can affect your appearance and your ability to perform simple ...
Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.
1984-07-01
A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, C. P.
1972-01-01
Device is described that limits accelerations by shutting off shaker table power very rapidly in acceleration tests. Absolute value of accelerometer signal is used to trigger electronic switch which terminates test and sounds alarm.
Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.
1959-03-31
A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.
Physical limits on kinesin-5–mediated chromosome congression in the smallest mitotic spindles
McCoy, Kelsey M.; Tubman, Emily S.; Claas, Allison; Tank, Damien; Clancy, Shelly Applen; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Berman, Judith; Odde, David J.
2015-01-01
A characteristic feature of mitotic spindles is the congression of chromosomes near the spindle equator, a process mediated by dynamic kinetochore microtubules. A major challenge is to understand how precise, submicrometer-scale control of kinetochore microtubule dynamics is achieved in the smallest mitotic spindles, where the noisiness of microtubule assembly/disassembly will potentially act to overwhelm the spatial information that controls microtubule plus end–tip positioning to mediate congression. To better understand this fundamental limit, we conducted an integrated live fluorescence, electron microscopy, and modeling analysis of the polymorphic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which contains one of the smallest known mitotic spindles (<1 μm). Previously, ScCin8p (kinesin-5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was shown to mediate chromosome congression by promoting catastrophe of long kinetochore microtubules (kMTs). Using C. albicans yeast and hyphal kinesin-5 (Kip1p) heterozygotes (KIP1/kip1∆), we found that mutant spindles have longer kMTs than wild-type spindles, consistent with a less-organized spindle. By contrast, kinesin-8 heterozygous mutant (KIP3/kip3∆) spindles exhibited the same spindle organization as wild type. Of interest, spindle organization in the yeast and hyphal states was indistinguishable, even though yeast and hyphal cell lengths differ by two- to fivefold, demonstrating that spindle length regulation and chromosome congression are intrinsic to the spindle and largely independent of cell size. Together these results are consistent with a kinesin-5–mediated, length-dependent depolymerase activity that organizes chromosomes at the spindle equator in C. albicans to overcome fundamental noisiness in microtubule self-assembly. More generally, we define a dimensionless number that sets a fundamental physical limit for maintaining congression in small spindles in the face of assembly noise and find that C. albicans operates very close to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliynyk, Todd A.
2016-12-01
We introduce a new approach to analyzing the interaction between classical and quantum systems that is based on a limiting procedure applied to multi-particle Schrödinger equations. The limit equations obtained by this procedure, which we refer to as the classical-quantum limit, govern the interaction between classical and quantum systems, and they possess many desirable properties that are inherited in the limit from the multi-particle quantum system. As an application, we use the classical-quantum limit equations to identify the source of the non-local signalling that is known to occur in the classical-quantum hybrid scheme of Hall and Reginatto. We also derive the first order correction to the classical-quantum limit equation to obtain a fully consistent first order approximation to the Schrödinger equation that should be accurate for modeling the interaction between particles of disparate mass in the regime where the particles with the larger masses are effectively classical.
Limited-data computed tomography algorithms for the physical sciences.
Verhoeven, D
1993-07-10
Five limited-data computed tomography algorithms are compared. The algorithms used are adapted versions of the algebraic reconstruction technique, the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm, a spectral extrapolation algorithm descended from that of Harris [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 931-936 (1964)], and an algorithm based on the singular value decomposition technique. These algorithms were used to reconstruct phantom data with realistic levels of noise from a number of different imaging geometries. The phantoms, the imaging geometries, and the noise were chosen to simulate the conditions encountered in typical computed tomography applications in the physical sciences, and the implementations of the algorithms were optimized for these applications. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm gave the best results overall; the algebraic reconstruction technique gave the best results for very smooth objects or very noisy (20-dB signal-to-noise ratio) data. My implementations of both of these algorithms incorporate apriori knowledge of the sign of the object, its extent, and its smoothness. The smoothness of the reconstruction is enforced through the use of an appropriate object model (by use of cubic B-spline basis functions and a number of object coefficients appropriate to the object being reconstructed). The average reconstruction error was 1.7% of the maximum phantom value with the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique of a phantom with moderate-to-steep gradients by use of data from five viewing angles with a 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio.
Information-limiting correlations
Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Beck, Jeffrey; Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Pitkow, Xaq; Latham, Peter; Pouget, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Computational strategies used by the brain strongly depend on the amount of information that can be stored in population activity, which in turn strongly depends on the pattern of noise correlations. In vivo, noise correlations tend to be positive and proportional to the similarity in tuning properties. Such correlations are thought to limit information, which has led to the suggestion that decorrelation increases information. In contrast, we found, analytically and numerically, that decorrelation does not imply an increase in information. Instead, the only information-limiting correlations are what we refer to as differential correlations: correlations proportional to the product of the derivatives of the tuning curves. Unfortunately, differential correlations are likely to be very small and buried under correlations that do not limit information, making them particularly difficult to detect. We found, however, that the effect of differential correlations on information can be detected with relatively simple decoders. PMID:25195105
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabbir, Saroosh; Björk, Gunnar
2016-05-01
Although progress has been made recently in defining nontrivial uncertainty limits for the SU(2) group, a description of the intermediate states bound by these limits remains lacking. In this paper we enumerate possible uncertainty relations for the SU(2) group that involve all three observables and that are, moreover, invariant under SU(2) transformations. We demonstrate that these relations however, even taken as a group, do not provide sharp, saturable bounds. To find sharp bounds, we systematically calculate the variance of the SU(2) operators for all pure states belonging to the N =2 and N =3 polarization excitation manifold (corresponding to spin 1 and spin 3/2). Lastly, and perhaps counter to expectation, we note that even pure states can reach the maximum uncertainty limit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank
2011-01-01
The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.
Optimal Limited Contingency Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.
2003-01-01
For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arriola, Sonya; Murphy, Katy
2010-01-01
Undocumented students are a population defined by limitations. Their lack of legal residency and any supporting paperwork (e.g., Social Security number, government issued identification) renders them essentially invisible to the American and state governments. They cannot legally work. In many states, they cannot legally drive. After the age of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cottey, Alan
2012-01-01
The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billingsley, J. P.
2002-07-01
A threshold particle velocity, Vf, derived by Professor E.R. Fitzgerald for the onset of atomic lattice Disintegration Phenomena (LDP) is shown to exceed and/or compare rather well with the maximum experimental Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) particle (mass) velocities (UpHEL) for selected hard strong mineral/ceramic materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hardy, Lee
2006-01-01
David Horner, a recent president of North Park College and Theological Seminary has suggested that, in light of the tension between the demands of free inquiry and the need for religious inculcation, Christian colleges have two options: either redefine academic freedom or limit it and be up front and principled about it. In this article, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hart, Susan; Dixon, Annabelle; Drummond, Mary Jane; McIntyre, Donald
2004-01-01
This book explores ways of teaching that are free from determinist beliefs about ability. In a detailed critique of the practices of ability labelling and ability-focused teaching, "Learning without Limits" examines the damage these practices can do to young people, teachers and the curriculum. Drawing on a research project at the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mindess, Harvey
1983-01-01
Three incidents which elucidate the limits of laughter are described. Most persons enjoy humor as comic relief, but when humor strikes a blow at something they hold dear, they find it very hard to laugh. People are upset by an irreverent attitude toward things they hold in esteem. (RM)
Fracture mechanics validity limits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.
1994-01-01
Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in
Telescopic limiting magnitudes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, Bradley E.
1990-01-01
The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.
Harris, William G.
1985-01-01
A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.
Respiratory factors limiting exercise.
Bye, P T; Farkas, G A; Roussos, C
1983-01-01
The question of respiratory factors limiting exercise has been examined in terms of possible limitations arising from the function of gas exchange, the respiratory mechanics, the energetics of the respiratory muscles, or the development of respiratory muscle fatigue. Exercise capacity is curtailed in the presence of marked hypoxia, and this is readily observed in patients with chronic airflow limitation and interstitial lung disease and in some athletes at high intensities of exercise. In patients with interstitial lung disease, gas exchange abnormality--partly the result of diffusion disequilibrium for oxygen transfer--occurs during exercise despite abnormally high ventilations. In contrast, in certain athletes arterial hypoxemia has been documented during heavy exercise, apparently as a result of relative hypoventilation. During strenuous exercise the maximum expiratory flow volume curves are attained both by patients with chronic airflow limitation and by normal subjects, in particular when they breathe dense gas, so that a mechanical constraint is imposed on further increases in ventilation. Similarly, the force velocity characteristics of the inspiratory muscles may also impose a constraint to further increases in inspiratory flows that affects the ability to increase ventilation. In addition, the oxygen cost of maintaining high ventilations is large. Analysis of results from blood flow experiments reveal a substantial increase in blood flow to the respiratory muscles during exercise, with the result that oxygen supply to the rest of the body may be lessened. Alternatively, high exercise ventilations may not be sustained indefinitely owing to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue that results in hypoventilation and reduced arterial oxygen tension.
Stace, Thomas M.
2010-07-15
The precision of typical thermometers consisting of N particles scales as {approx}1/{radical}(N). For high-precision thermometry and thermometric standards, this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to {approx}1/N, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.
Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad
2013-01-01
The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719
Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W.; Gimeno, German
2013-09-10
Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.
Limits of social mobilization.
Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad
2013-04-16
The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability.
Enhancing Communication in Noisy Environments
2009-10-01
speech, an Active Noise Reduction (ANR) component, and a hearing-protective earpiece to deliver the processed signal to the wearer. The microphone array...it is gradually replaced by the ANR system. The hearing protective earpiece will be interfaced also with the soldier’s radio communication unit
Voicing Concern about Noisy Classrooms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Karen L.
2001-01-01
Background noise from loud ventilation systems, outdoor activities, and poor acoustics can lead to voice problems for teachers, worsen hearing-impaired students' listening ability, and create unhealthy learning environments. Solutions include providing teachers with a sound-field amplification system and improving classroom acoustics. (MLH)
Adaptive sampling for noisy problems
Cantu-Paz, E
2004-03-26
The usual approach to deal with noise present in many real-world optimization problems is to take an arbitrary number of samples of the objective function and use the sample average as an estimate of the true objective value. The number of samples is typically chosen arbitrarily and remains constant for the entire optimization process. This paper studies an adaptive sampling technique that varies the number of samples based on the uncertainty of deciding between two individuals. Experiments demonstrate the effect of adaptive sampling on the final solution quality reached by a genetic algorithm and the computational cost required to find the solution. The results suggest that the adaptive technique can effectively eliminate the need to set the sample size a priori, but in many cases it requires high computational costs.
Security Inference from Noisy Data
2008-04-08
2005, Google further discussed a distributed computation infrastructure called MapReduce that transparently distributes data processing tasks over...BIBLIOGRAPHY [Dean and Ghemawat, 2004] Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat. Mapreduce : Sim- plified Data Processing on Large Clusters . In OSDI’04: Proceedings of...recent developments in the areas of applied data mining, statistical learning, and distributed data analysis. The approaches we discuss are easily
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kimbrough, Doris R.
1999-01-01
Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, Jan; Dejori, Mathäus; Stetter, Martin; Greiner, Martin
2005-05-01
The impact of observational noise on the analysis of scale-free networks is studied. Various noise sources are modeled as random link removal, random link exchange and random link addition. Emphasis is on the resulting modifications for the node-degree distribution and for a functional ranking based on betweenness centrality. The implications for estimated gene-expressed networks for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia are discussed.
Modeling noisy resonant system response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weber, Patrick Thomas; Walrath, David Edwin
2017-02-01
In this paper, a theory-based model replicating empirical acoustic resonant signals is presented and studied to understand sources of noise present in acoustic signals. Statistical properties of empirical signals are quantified and a noise amplitude parameter, which models frequency and amplitude-based noise, is created, defined, and presented. This theory-driven model isolates each phenomenon and allows for parameters to be independently studied. Using seven independent degrees of freedom, this model will accurately reproduce qualitative and quantitative properties measured from laboratory data. Results are presented and demonstrate success in replicating qualitative and quantitative properties of experimental data.
Identification of noisy response latency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr
2012-08-01
In many physical systems there is a time delay before an applied input (stimulation) has an impact on the output (response), and the quantification of this delay is of paramount interest. If the response can only be observed on top of an indistinguishable background signal, the estimation can be highly unreliable, unless the background signal is accounted for in the analysis. In fact, if the background signal is ignored, however small it is compared to the response and however large the delay is, the estimate of the time delay will go to zero for any reasonable estimator when increasing the number of observations. Here we propose a unified concept of response latency identification in event data corrupted by a background signal. It is done in the context of information transfer within a neural system, more specifically on spike trains from single neurons. The estimators are compared on simulated data and the most suitable for specific situations are recommended.
Limits to growth reconsidered.
Hagen, E E
1972-01-01
In their book, ''The Limits of Growth,'' the authors conclude that through pollution, exhaustion of natural resources, and limits to the food supply, the world faces a catastrophic fall in population and in living standards by the middle of the 21st century. The authors fail to state, however, 1 centrally important assumption underlying their results, but which is present through their omission of the contrary assumption. In their model the continuing technical progress that has been a primary feature of the material world for the past 200 years suddenly ceases. The assumptions of the model presented in ''Limits of Growth'' are not the assumptions other analysts make - these are strangely unrealistic. These assumptions require closer examination. The assumption concerning population assumes that the sole determinants of birthrates are the level of industrialization and the food supply. This is not good demography, for demographers have long recognized that it may have been the decrease in death rates, not industrialization or the rise in income, that caused the decrease in birthrates. Furthermore, their theory that many of the natural resources are irreplacable is like the belief that the sun revolves around the earth. It is obvious and false. It neglects that part of technical process which includes invention of new natural resources. Technical advance is needed and the following are some of the problems that technical advance must overcome: 1) a need to discover how to increase food production progressively while preventing the runoff of chemical fertilizers from the soil into waterways, 2) the ''natural'' minerals on which until recently all have depended are ''biodegradable,'' 3) there is a similar problem with radioactive nuclear wastes; 4) energy must dissipate into heat; and 5) there is a need to hasten the decline in birthrates throughout the world. In conclusion, indefinitely continuing growth is not regarded as desirable only as possible.
Limits to Cloud Susceptibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coakley, James A., Jr.
2002-01-01
1-kilometer AVHRR observations of ship tracks in low-level clouds off the west coast of the U S. were used to determine limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases in anthropogenic aerosols. Hundreds of tracks were analyzed to determine whether the changes in droplet radii, visible optical depths, and cloud top altitudes that result from the influx of particles from underlying ships were consistent with expectations based on simple models for the indirect effect of aerosols. The models predict substantial increases in sunlight reflected by polluted clouds due to the increases in droplet numbers and cloud liquid water that result from the elevated particle concentrations. Contrary to the model predictions, the analysis of ship tracks revealed a 15-20% reduction in liquid water for the polluted clouds. Studies performed with a large-eddy cloud simulation model suggested that the shortfall in cloud liquid water found in the satellite observations might be attributed to the restriction that the 1-kilometer pixels be completely covered by either polluted or unpolluted cloud. The simulation model revealed that a substantial fraction of the indirect effect is caused by a horizontal redistribution of cloud water in the polluted clouds. Cloud-free gaps in polluted clouds fill in with cloud water while the cloud-free gaps in the surrounding unpolluted clouds remain cloud-free. By limiting the analysis to only overcast pixels, the current study failed to account for the gap-filling predicted by the simulation model. This finding and an analysis of the spatial variability of marine stratus suggest new ways to analyze ship tracks to determine the limit to which particle pollution will alter the amount of sunlight reflected by clouds.
Darmann, Francis Anthony
2013-10-08
A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billingsley, James
2001-06-01
A threshold particle velocity, Vf, derived by Professor E.R. Fitzgerald for the onset of atomic lattice disintegration phenomena (LDP) is shown to exceed or compare rather well with the maximum experimentally observed Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) particle or mass velocities (Uphel) for certain hard and strong mineral/ceramic materials. They are: diamond, quartz, sapphire, alumina, silicon carbide, titanium diboride, and partially stabilized zirconia. The LDP is caused by a conflict between the DeBroglie momentum-wavelength relation and the minimum wavelength allowed in a lattice row of atoms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Law, C. K.
1984-01-01
The concept of flammability limits in the presence of flame interaction, and the existence of negative flame speeds are discussed. Downstream interaction between two counterflow premixed flames of different stoichiometries are experimentally studied. Various flame configurations are observed and quantified; these include the binary system of two lean or rich flames, the triplet system of a lean and a rich flame separated by a diffusion flame, and single diffusion flames with some degree of premixedness. Extinction limits are determined for methane/air and butane/air mixtures over the entire range of mixture concentrations. The results show that the extent of flame interaction depends on the separation distance between the flames which are functions of the mixtures' concentrations, the stretch rate, and the effective Lewis numbers (Le). In particular, in a positively-stretched flow field Le 1 ( 1) mixtures tend to interact strongly (weakly), while the converse holds for flames in a negatively-stretched flow. Also established was the existence of negative flames whose propagation velocity is in the same general direction as that of the bulk convective flow, being supported by diffusion alone. Their existence demonstrates the tendency of flames to resist extinction, and further emphasizes the possibility of very lean or rich mixtures to undergo combustion.
(Limiting the greenhouse effect)
Rayner, S.
1991-01-07
Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, S.
2013-06-01
Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.
Clinical limitations of Invisalign.
Phan, Xiem; Ling, Paul H
2007-04-01
Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations. The majority of these patients reject wearing labial fixed appliances and are looking instead to more esthetic treatment options, including lingual orthodontics and Invisalign appliances. Since Align Technology introduced the Invisalign appliance in 1999 in an extensive public campaign, the appliance has gained tremendous attention from adult patients and dental professionals. The transparency of the Invisalign appliance enhances its esthetic appeal for those adult patients who are averse to wearing conventional labial fixed orthodontic appliances. Although guidelines about the types of malocclusions that this technique can treat exist, few clinical studies have assessed the effectiveness of the appliance. A few recent studies have outlined some of the limitations associated with this technique that clinicians should recognize early before choosing treatment options.
Limiting magnitude of hypertelescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surya, Arun
Optical stellar interferometers have demonstrated milli-arcsecond resolution with few apertures spaced hundreds of meters apart. To obtain rich direct images, many apertures will be needed, for a better sampling of the incoming wavefront. The coherent imaging thus achievable improves the sensitivity with respect to the incoherent combination of successive fringed exposures, heretofore achieved in the form of optical aperture synthesis. For efficient use of highly diluted apertures, this can be done with pupil densification, a technique also called ``Hypertelescope Imaging". Using numerical simulations we have found out the limiting magnitude of hypertelescopes over different baselines and pupil densifications. Here we discuss the advantages of using hypertelescope systems over classical pairwise optical interferometry.
[Limitations of anticoagulant therapy].
Martí-Fàbregas, J; Delgado-Mederos, R; Mateo, J
2012-03-01
Vitamin K antagonists have been shown to be effective in the primary and secondary prevention of systemic and cerebral emboli in patients with cardiac causes of embolism, especially atrial fibrillation. The reduced risk of stroke is greater in secondary prevention, although this reduction is accompanied by an inherent risk of hemorrhagic complications, among which cerebral hemorrhage is especially serious. The therapeutic window of these agents is limited and the best benefit/risk profile is obtained with an INR of between 2 and 3. The anticoagulant effect obtained shows marked variability, requiring frequent clinical and laboratory monitoring of the treatment. The introduction of oral anticoagulants that would aid the administration of these agents with equal or greater efficacy and lower risk is required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averill, M.; Briggle, A.
2006-12-01
Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.
Limits to the precision of gradient sensing with spatial communication and temporal integration
Mugler, Andrew; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya
2016-01-01
Gradient sensing requires at least two measurements at different points in space. These measurements must then be communicated to a common location to be compared, which is unavoidably noisy. Although much is known about the limits of measurement precision by cells, the limits placed by the communication are not understood. Motivated by recent experiments, we derive the fundamental limits to the precision of gradient sensing in a multicellular system, accounting for communication and temporal integration. The gradient is estimated by comparing a “local” and a “global” molecular reporter of the external concentration, where the global reporter is exchanged between neighboring cells. Using the fluctuation–dissipation framework, we find, in contrast to the case when communication is ignored, that precision saturates with the number of cells independently of the measurement time duration, because communication establishes a maximum length scale over which sensory information can be reliably conveyed. Surprisingly, we also find that precision is improved if the local reporter is exchanged between cells as well, albeit more slowly than the global reporter. The reason is that whereas exchange of the local reporter weakens the comparison, it decreases the measurement noise. We term such a model “regional excitation–global inhibition.” Our results demonstrate that fundamental sensing limits are necessarily sharpened when the need to communicate information is taken into account. PMID:26792517
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...
A compact 64-pixel CsI(T1)/Si PIN photodiode imaging module with IC readout
Gruber, Gregory J.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio; Krieger, Brad; Mandelli, Emanuele; Meddeler, Gerrit; Wang, Nadine W.
2001-08-09
We characterize the performance of a complete 64-pixel compact gamma camera imaging module consisting of optically isolated 3 mm 3 mm 5 mm CsI(Tl) crystals coupled to a custom array of low-noise Si PIN photodiodes read out by a custom IC. At 50 V bias the custom 64-pixel photodiode arrays demonstrate an average leakage current of 28 pA per 3 mm 3 mm pixel, a 98.5 percent yield of pixels with <100 pA leakage, and a quantum efficiency of about 80 percent for 540 nm CsI(Tl) scintillation photons. The custom 64-channel readout IC uses low-noise preamplifiers, shaper amplifiers, and a winner-take-all (WTA) multiplexer. The IC demonstrates maximum gain of 120 mV / 1000 e-, the ability to select the largest input signal in less than 150 ns, and low electronic noise at 8 ms peaking time ranging from 25 e- rms (unloaded) to an estimated 180 e- rms (photodiode load of 3 pF, 50 pA). At room temperature a complete 64-pixel detector module employing a custom photodiode array and readout IC demonstrates an average energy resolution of 23.4 percent fwhm and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 3.3 mm fwhm for the 140 keV emissions of 99mTc. Construction of an array of such imaging modules is straightforward, hence this technology shows strong potential for numerous compact gamma camera applications, including scintimammography.
Physical limits to magnetogenetics
Meister, Markus
2016-01-01
This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17210.001 PMID:27529126
Limits of computational biology.
Bray, Dennis
2015-01-01
Are we close to a complete inventory of living processes so that we might expect in the near future to reproduce every essential aspect necessary for life? Or are there mechanisms and processes in cells and organisms that are presently inaccessible to us? Here I argue that a close examination of a particularly well-understood system--that of Escherichia coli chemotaxis--shows we are still a long way from a complete description. There is a level of molecular uncertainty, particularly that responsible for fine-tuning and adaptation to myriad external conditions, which we presently cannot resolve or reproduce on a computer. Moreover, the same uncertainty exists for any process in any organism and is especially pronounced and important in higher animals such as humans. Embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune recognition, memory formation, and survival in the real world, all depend on vast numbers of subtle variations in cell chemistry most of which are presently unknown or only poorly characterized. Overcoming these limitations will require us to not only accumulate large quantities of highly detailed data but also develop new computational methods able to recapitulate the massively parallel processing of living cells.
Limits of computational biology
Bray, Dennis
2015-01-01
Abstract Are we close to a complete inventory of living processes so that we might expect in the near future to reproduce every essential aspect necessary for life? Or are there mechanisms and processes in cells and organisms that are presently inaccessible to us? Here I argue that a close examination of a particularly well-understood system— that of Escherichia coli chemotaxis— shows we are still a long way from a complete description. There is a level of molecular uncertainty, particularly that responsible for fine-tuning and adaptation to myriad external conditions, which we presently cannot resolve or reproduce on a computer. Moreover, the same uncertainty exists for any process in any organism and is especially pronounced and important in higher animals such as humans. Embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune recognition, memory formation, and survival in the real world, all depend on vast numbers of subtle variations in cell chemistry most of which are presently unknown or only poorly characterized. Overcoming these limitations will require us to not only accumulate large quantities of highly detailed data but also develop new computational methods able to recapitulate the massively parallel processing of living cells. PMID:25318467
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pappalardo, S.; Alfonso, M. M.; Mirabella, I. B.
2011-10-01
The LCL has been extensively used in ESA scientific satellites and since a few years ago is being also the baseline device for earth observation satellites such as CRYOSAT 1 and 2, SENTINAL 1, 2 and 3, EARTWATCH, etc. It seems that the use of this LCL is also being considered as an alternative to fuse approach for commercial telecommunication satellites. Scope of this document is to provide a technical description of the Integrated Current Limiter device (shortly ICL later on) developed inside the domain of ESTECContract22049-09-NL-A Twith STMicroelectronics s.r.l. (ref. Invitation to Tender AO/1-5784/08/NL/A T). The design of the ICL device takes into account both ESA and power electronics designer's experience. This experience is more than 25 years long in Europe. The ICL design has been leaded in order to be fully compliant with the applicable specification issued by ESA and the major European power electronics manufacturers that have participated in its edition.
Confidence limits and their errors
Rajendran Raja
2002-03-22
Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.
Stabilizing Spatially-Structured Populations through Adaptive Limiter Control
Sah, Pratha; Dey, Sutirth
2014-01-01
Stabilizing the dynamics of complex, non-linear systems is a major concern across several scientific disciplines including ecology and conservation biology. Unfortunately, most methods proposed to reduce the fluctuations in chaotic systems are not applicable to real, biological populations. This is because such methods typically require detailed knowledge of system specific parameters and the ability to manipulate them in real time; conditions often not met by most real populations. Moreover, real populations are often noisy and extinction-prone, which can sometimes render such methods ineffective. Here, we investigate a control strategy, which works by perturbing the population size, and is robust to reasonable amounts of noise and extinction probability. This strategy, called the Adaptive Limiter Control (ALC), has been previously shown to increase constancy and persistence of laboratory populations and metapopulations of Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the effects of ALC on the fluctuations and persistence of metapopulations. We show that at high migration rates, application of ALC does not require a priori information about the population growth rates. We also show that ALC can stabilize metapopulations even when applied to as low as one-tenth of the total number of subpopulations. Moreover, ALC is effective even when the subpopulations have high extinction rates: conditions under which another control algorithm had previously failed to attain stability. Importantly, ALC not only reduces the fluctuation in metapopulation sizes, but also the global extinction probability. Finally, the method is robust to moderate levels of noise in the dynamics and the carrying capacity of the environment. These results, coupled with our earlier empirical findings, establish ALC to be a strong candidate for stabilizing real biological metapopulations. PMID:25153073
Force limit specifications vs. design limit loads in vibration testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, K. Y.
2000-01-01
The purpose of the work presented herein is to discuss the results of force limit notching during vibration testing with respect to the traditional limit load design criteria. By using a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system approach, this work shows that with an appropriate force specification the notched response due to force limiting will result in loads comparable with the structural design limit criteria.
COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation
Preston, Benjamin L
2013-01-01
An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.
Limits to Open Class Performance?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowers, Albion H.
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.
Updates on Force Limiting Improvements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.; Scharton, Terry
2013-01-01
The following conventional force limiting methods currently practiced in deriving force limiting specifications assume one-dimensional translation source and load apparent masses: Simple TDOF model; Semi-empirical force limits; Apparent mass, etc.; Impedance method. Uncorrelated motion of the mounting points for components mounted on panels and correlated, but out-of-phase, motions of the support structures are important and should be considered in deriving force limiting specifications. In this presentation "rock-n-roll" motions of the components supported by panels, which leads to a more realistic force limiting specifications are discussed.
[Severe limitation of mouth opening].
Reiter, S; Winocur, E; Gavish, A; Eli, I
2004-10-01
Limitation of mouth opening is a common source of referral to an orofacial pain clinic with a proposed diagnosis of Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction (TMD). The word "trismus" is defined by the American academy of orofacial pain as: "Myospasm of masticatory muscles specifically causing limited jaw opening; early symptom of tetanus". Therefore, once trismus is suspected, TMD should be ruled out. However, it is not uncommon to find the usage of this term to describe severe limitation of opening by causes other than myospasm, therefore posing the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of this article is to describe the differential diagnosis of hard end limitation of opening with emphasis on the clinical tools used to differentiate between muscle source of hard end limitation and other sources of hard end limitation. Several cases of hard end limitation of mouth opening are presented and through them major principles of orofacial diagnosis are discussed.
Exercise Ventilatory Limitation: The Role Of Expiratory Flow Limitation
Babb, Tony G.
2012-01-01
Ventilatory limitation to exercise remains an important unresolved clinical issue; as a result, many individuals misinterpret the effects of expiratory flow limitation as an all-or-nothing phenomenon. Expiratory flow limitation is not all-or-none; approaching maximal expiratory flow can have important effects not only on ventilatory capacity but also on breathing mechanics, ventilatory control, and possibly exertional dyspnea and exercise intolerance. PMID:23038244
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Junghoon; Zheng, Yili; Yin, Zhye; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.
2010-08-01
Cryo electron microscopy is frequently used on biological specimens that show a mixture of different types of object. Because the electron beam rapidly destroys the specimen, the beam current is minimized which leads to noisy images (SNR substantially less than 1) and only one projection image per object (with an unknown projection direction) is collected. For situations where the objects can reasonably be described as coming from a finite set of classes, an approach based on joint maximum likelihood estimation of the reconstruction of each class and then use of the reconstructions to label the class of each image is described and demonstrated on two challenging problems: an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22.
Limits to Causal Inference with State-Space Reconstruction for Infectious Disease.
Cobey, Sarah; Baskerville, Edward B
2016-01-01
Infectious diseases are notorious for their complex dynamics, which make it difficult to fit models to test hypotheses. Methods based on state-space reconstruction have been proposed to infer causal interactions in noisy, nonlinear dynamical systems. These "model-free" methods are collectively known as convergent cross-mapping (CCM). Although CCM has theoretical support, natural systems routinely violate its assumptions. To identify the practical limits of causal inference under CCM, we simulated the dynamics of two pathogen strains with varying interaction strengths. The original method of CCM is extremely sensitive to periodic fluctuations, inferring interactions between independent strains that oscillate with similar frequencies. This sensitivity vanishes with alternative criteria for inferring causality. However, CCM remains sensitive to high levels of process noise and changes to the deterministic attractor. This sensitivity is problematic because it remains challenging to gauge noise and dynamical changes in natural systems, including the quality of reconstructed attractors that underlie cross-mapping. We illustrate these challenges by analyzing time series of reportable childhood infections in New York City and Chicago during the pre-vaccine era. We comment on the statistical and conceptual challenges that currently limit the use of state-space reconstruction in causal inference.
Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Maragos, Petros; Papandreou, George
2009-08-01
We present an improved statistical model for analyzing Poisson processes, with applications to photon-limited imaging. We build on previous work, adopting a multiscale representation of the Poisson process in which the ratios of the underlying Poisson intensities (rates) in adjacent scales are modeled as mixtures of conjugate parametric distributions. Our main contributions include: 1) a rigorous and robust regularized expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for maximum-likelihood estimation of the rate-ratio density parameters directly from the noisy observed Poisson data (counts); 2) extension of the method to work under a multiscale hidden Markov tree model (HMT) which couples the mixture label assignments in consecutive scales, thus modeling interscale coefficient dependencies in the vicinity of image edges; 3) exploration of a 2-D recursive quad-tree image representation, involving Dirichlet-mixture rate-ratio densities, instead of the conventional separable binary-tree image representation involving beta-mixture rate-ratio densities; and 4) a novel multiscale image representation, which we term Poisson-Haar decomposition, that better models the image edge structure, thus yielding improved performance. Experimental results on standard images with artificially simulated Poisson noise and on real photon-limited images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.
Limits to Causal Inference with State-Space Reconstruction for Infectious Disease
2016-01-01
Infectious diseases are notorious for their complex dynamics, which make it difficult to fit models to test hypotheses. Methods based on state-space reconstruction have been proposed to infer causal interactions in noisy, nonlinear dynamical systems. These “model-free” methods are collectively known as convergent cross-mapping (CCM). Although CCM has theoretical support, natural systems routinely violate its assumptions. To identify the practical limits of causal inference under CCM, we simulated the dynamics of two pathogen strains with varying interaction strengths. The original method of CCM is extremely sensitive to periodic fluctuations, inferring interactions between independent strains that oscillate with similar frequencies. This sensitivity vanishes with alternative criteria for inferring causality. However, CCM remains sensitive to high levels of process noise and changes to the deterministic attractor. This sensitivity is problematic because it remains challenging to gauge noise and dynamical changes in natural systems, including the quality of reconstructed attractors that underlie cross-mapping. We illustrate these challenges by analyzing time series of reportable childhood infections in New York City and Chicago during the pre-vaccine era. We comment on the statistical and conceptual challenges that currently limit the use of state-space reconstruction in causal inference. PMID:28030639
Recursive adaptive frame integration limited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafailov, Michael K.
2006-05-01
Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.
Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation
Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson
2008-01-01
Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., Tulving & Patkau, 1962; Cowan, Chen, & Rouder, 2004), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan, 1975). We investigated this question by teaching new paired associations between words to create two-word chunks. The results suggest that both chunk capacity limits and length limits come into play. For the free recall of 12-word lists, 6 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 6 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a chunk limit. However, for the serially-ordered recall of 8-word lists, 4 pre-learned pairs could be recalled about as well as 8 pre-exposed singletons, suggesting a length limit. Other conditions yielded intermediate results suggesting that sometimes both limits may operate together. PMID:16393043
The limits of crop productivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bugbee, Bruce; Monje, Oscar
1992-01-01
The component processes that govern yield limits in food crops are reviewed and how each process can be individually measured is described. The processes considered include absorption of photosynthetic radiation by green tissue, carbon-fixation efficiency in photosynthesis, carbon use efficiency in respiration, biomass allocation to edible products, and efficiency of photosynthesis and respiration. The factors limiting yields in optimal environments are considered.
FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES
Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R
2009-02-09
Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.
Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution
Kerrisk, J.F.
1984-12-31
This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.
Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks
Macek, R.J.
1996-04-01
This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.
Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry D.
1997-01-01
The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.
LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)
Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.
1997-01-01
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.
Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis
Gaston, Kevin J.
2009-01-01
Understanding of the determinants of species' geographic range limits remains poorly integrated. In part, this is because of the diversity of perspectives on the issue, and because empirical studies have lagged substantially behind developments in theory. Here, I provide a broad overview, drawing together many of the disparate threads, considering, in turn, how influences on the terms of a simple single-population equation can determine range limits. There is theoretical and empirical evidence for systematic changes towards range limits under some circumstances in each of the demographic parameters. However, under other circumstances, no such changes may take place in particular parameters, or they may occur in a different direction, with limitation still occurring. This suggests that (i) little about range limitation can categorically be inferred from many empirical studies, which document change in only one demographic parameter, (ii) there is a need for studies that document variation in all of the parameters, and (iii) in agreement with theoretical evidence that range limits can be formed in the presence or absence of hard boundaries, environmental gradients or biotic interactions, there may be few general patterns as to the determinants of these limits, with most claimed generalities at least having many exceptions. PMID:19324809
Physical limits in semiconductor electronics.
Keyes, R W
1977-03-18
Although the limitations of the methods of lithography in use at a particular time are easily recognized and attract substantial attention, experience shows that technological ingenuity keeps pushing them to ever-smaller dimensions. There seems to be no fundamental reason to expect that lithographic limits will not continue to recede. The limits to the advance of miniaturization are to be found in the ability of materials to withstand high electric fields and in the ability of packaging technology to remove heat from active components and provide for power distribution, signal interconnection, and flexible mechanical assembly.
Nuclear Structure at the Limits
Nazarewicz, Witold
1997-12-31
One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2011-01-01
In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1972
1972-01-01
Comments by two reviewers (Garrett Hardin and Stephen Berry) on the book The Limits to Growth'' by Meadows and others. The nature of the models used, and the reactions of book reviewers are discussed. (AL)
Goals for limited strategic defenses
Canavan, G.H.
1989-05-01
This report reviews the nature of near and mid-term accidental, third-country, and limited threats, discusses the technologies available to defend against them, and examines the development programs required. 22 refs.
Model Misunderstandings. Teach the Limitations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schamp, Homer W., Jr.
1990-01-01
Discussed is the idea that models should be taught by emphasizing limitations rather than focusing on their generality. Two examples of gas behavior models are included--the kinetic and static models. (KR)
Limits to Open Class Performance?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowers, Albion H.
2008-01-01
This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.
OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator
With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orton, Tony; Reynolds, Charles
1986-01-01
Advocated is developing intuitive ideas of limits whenever the opportunity arises in elementary mathematics. Examples are given for geometry, fractions, sequences and series, areas, probability, graphing, and the golden section. (MNS)
Limiting technology by negotiated agreement
Carnesale, A.
1983-01-01
The author concentrates on anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems as an example of a continuing effort to limit technology by negotiated agreement. He first discusses the ABM treaty of 1972, ratified by both the US and the USSR. Afterwards, he briefly treats each of the following: ballistic missile defense (BMD) dilemmas; nature of the BMD choice; technology; economics; deterrence; nuclear warfighting; relations with allies; arms control; Star Wars; and on limiting technology.
Limit cycle vibrations in turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, S. G.
1991-01-01
The focus is on an examination of rotordynamic systems which are simultaneously susceptible to limit cycle instability and subharmonic response. Characteristics of each phenomenon are determined as well as their interrelationship. A normalized, single mass rotor model is examined as well as a complex model of the high pressure fuel turbopump and the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Entrainment of limit cycle instability by subharmonic response is demonstrated for both models. The nonuniqueness of the solution is also demonstrated.
Automatic noise limiter-blanker
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burhans, R. W.
1976-01-01
A blanker system that may be used with audio noise limiters or automatic noise limiters was described. The system employs a pair of silicon diodes and two RC filters connected across the feedback impedance of an operational amplifier so as to counteract impulse noise interference caused by local spherics activity or 60 Hz harmonics radiated from ac motor control systems. The following information is given: circuit diagram and description, operating details, evaluation, discussion of other noise blanking methods.
Passive fault current limiting device
Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.
1999-04-06
A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.
Passive fault current limiting device
Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.
1999-01-01
A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.
The hydraulic limitation hypothesis revisited.
Ryan, Michael G; Phillips, Nathan; Bond, Barbara J
2006-03-01
We proposed the hydraulic limitation hypothesis (HLH) as a mechanism to explain universal patterns in tree height, and tree and stand biomass growth: height growth slows down as trees grow taller, maximum height is lower for trees of the same species on resource-poor sites and annual wood production declines after canopy closure for even-aged forests. Our review of 51 studies that measured one or more of the components necessary for testing the hypothesis showed that taller trees differ physiologically from shorter, younger trees. Stomatal conductance to water vapour (g(s)), photosynthesis (A) and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (K L) are often, but not always, lower in taller trees. Additionally, leaf mass per area is often greater in taller trees, and leaf area:sapwood area ratio changes with tree height. We conclude that hydraulic limitation of gas exchange with increasing tree size is common, but not universal. Where hydraulic limitations to A do occur, no evidence supports the original expectation that hydraulic limitation of carbon assimilation is sufficient to explain observed declines in wood production. Any limit to height or height growth does not appear to be related to the so-called age-related decline in wood production of forests after canopy closure. Future work on this problem should explicitly link leaf or canopy gas exchange with tree and stand growth, and consider a more fundamental assumption: whether tree biomass growth is limited by carbon availability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, A.; Moreno, E.; Rubio, B.; Calas, H.; Galarza, N.; Rubio, J.; Diez, L.; Castellanos, L.; Gómez, T.
Some technical aspects of two Spanish cooperation projects, funded by DPI and Innpacto Programs of the R&D National Plan, are discussed. The objective is to analyze the common belief about than the ultrasonic testing in MHz range is not a tool utilizable to detect internal flaws in highly attenuating pieces made of coarse-grained steel. In fact high-strength steels, used in some safe industrial infrastructures of energy & transport sectors, are difficult to be inspected using the conventional "state of the art" in ultrasonic technology, due to their internal microstructures are very attenuating and coarse-grained. It is studied if this inspection difficulty could be overcome by finding intense interrogating pulses and advanced signal processing of the acquired echoes. A possible solution would depend on drastically improving signal-to-noise-ratios, by applying new advances on: ultrasonic transduction, HV electronics for intense pulsed driving of the testing probes, and an "ad-hoc" digital processing or focusing of the received noisy signals, in function of each material to be inspected. To attain this challenging aim on robust steel pieces would open the possibility of obtaining improvements in inspecting critical industrial components made of highly attenuating & dispersive materials, as new composites in aeronautic and motorway bridges, or new metallic alloys in nuclear area, where additional testing limitations often appear.
Application of vertical-mode initialization to a limited-area model in flux form
Sashegyi, K.D. ); Madala, R.V. )
1993-01-01
The vertical-mode initialization procedure of Bourke and McGregor is applied to a limited-area weather prediction model that is formulated in flux form and is shown to be successful in reducing the undesirable gravity-wave oscillations in integrations of the numerical model. Alternative boundary conditions are developed for the scheme so that the changes to the wind at the lateral boundaries of the model are consistent with the changes in the integrated mass divergence and vorticity over the domain. The convergence of the modified scheme is shown to be rapid for two different grids. For a grid with significant topography along the lateral boundaries, use of increased diffusion in the boundary zone is shown to negatively impact the convergence of the scheme. Model integrations are performed to show the effectiveness of the scheme with improved boundary conditions in removing the gravity-wave oscillations. The results are compared with the damping of the gravity waves in the boundary zone by the time-integration scheme and by different lateral boundary treatments. The influence of noisy boundary values is also tested. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.
2016-04-01
The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.
Thermodynamic Limit in Statistical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2014-03-01
The thermodynamic limit in statistical thermodynamics of many-particle systems is an important but often overlooked issue in the various applied studies of condensed matter physics. To settle this issue, we review tersely the past and present disposition of thermodynamic limiting procedure in the structure of the contemporary statistical mechanics and our current understanding of this problem. We pick out the ingenious approach by Bogoliubov, who developed a general formalism for establishing the limiting distribution functions in the form of formal series in powers of the density. In that study, he outlined the method of justification of the thermodynamic limit when he derived the generalized Boltzmann equations. To enrich and to weave our discussion, we take this opportunity to give a brief survey of the closely related problems, such as the equipartition of energy and the equivalence and nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. The validity of the equipartition of energy permits one to decide what are the boundaries of applicability of statistical mechanics. The major aim of this work is to provide a better qualitative understanding of the physical significance of the thermodynamic limit in modern statistical physics of the infinite and "small" many-particle systems.
Iterative CT reconstruction on limited angle trajectories applied to robotic inspection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banjak, H.; Costin, M.; Vienne, C.; Guillamet, R.; Kaftandjian, V.
2017-02-01
Robotic inspection is one of the acknowledged new trends in X-ray Non Destructive testing (NDT) since it allows more flexibility in the acquisition trajectory and therefore a valued adaptability to object and environment constraints. In this context, we are developing an advanced Computed Tomography (CT) robotic platform consisting of two robots equipped, with a micro-focus X-ray tube and a flat panel detector, respectively. In parallel to the equipment installation, we propose to address the new challenges brought by this robotic inspection. In particular we focus on 3D iterative reconstruction algorithms that deal with few and limited-angle data. For this purpose, we consider regularized algebraic methods. In particular, we propose two algorithms named SART-FISTA-TV and DART-FISTA-TV. The first one is based on the common used SART [1] algorithm and the second is based on Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (DART) [2] which is an algebraic algorithm that incorporates prior knowledge about the different materials (attenuation coefficient) of the scanned object into the reconstruction process. The two proposed algorithms use Total Variation (TV) regularization and Fast Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (FISTA) to increase the convergence speed. For performance evaluation, we illustrate a numerical comparison of these algorithms from both complete (noiseless and noisy) and truncated data generated on a reverse helix of angular range limited to 150 degrees. CIVA [3] software is used to simulate these projection data. We also show reconstruction results using the robotic inspection platform with a view angle limited to 150 degrees and a reduced number of projections.
Paradox of simple limiter control.
Hilker, Frank M; Westerhoff, Frank H
2006-05-01
Chaos control by simple limiters is an easy-to-implement and effective method of stabilizing irregular fluctuations. Here we show that applying limiter control to a state variable can significantly shift its mean value. In many situations, this is a countereffective as well as unexpected result, when the aim of control is also to restrict the dynamics. We discuss this effect on the basis of a model of population dynamics and conclude that it can have severe implications for the management of pest species and epidemic spread.
Freedman, Michael H.
1998-01-01
We introduce “ultrafilter limits” into the classical Turing model of computation and develop a paradigm for interpreting the problem of distinguishing the class P from NP as a logical problem of decidability. We use P(NP) to denote decision problems which can be solved on a (nondeterministic) Turing machine in polynomial time. The concept is that in an appropriate limit it may be possible to prove that problems in P are still decidable, so a problem whose limit is undecidable would be established as lying outside of P. PMID:9419334
Density limit experiments on FTU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.; Apicella, M. L.; Apruzzese, G.; Artaserse, G.; Belli, F.; Bin, W.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Buratti, P.; Calabrò, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cianfarani, C.; Cocilovo, V.; Dimatteo, L.; Esposito, B.; Frigione, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Granucci, G.; Marinucci, M.; Marocco, D.; Martines, E.; Mazzitelli, G.; Mazzotta, C.; Nowak, S.; Ramogida, G.; Romano, A.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Zeng, L.; Zuin, M.
2013-08-01
One of the main problems in tokamak fusion devices concerns the capability to operate at a high plasma density, which is observed to be limited by the appearance of catastrophic events causing loss of plasma confinement. The commonly used empirical scaling law for the density limit is the Greenwald limit, predicting that the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord depends only on the average plasma current density. However, the Greenwald density limit has been exceeded in tokamak experiments in the case of peaked density profiles, indicating that the edge density is the real parameter responsible for the density limit. Recently, it has been shown on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) that the Greenwald density limit is exceeded in gas-fuelled discharges with a high value of the edge safety factor. In order to understand this behaviour, dedicated density limit experiments were performed on FTU, in which the high density domain was explored in a wide range of values of plasma current (Ip = 500-900 kA) and toroidal magnetic field (BT = 4-8 T). These experiments confirm the edge nature of the density limit, as a Greenwald-like scaling holds for the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a peripheral chord passing at r/a ≃ 4/5. On the other hand, the maximum achievable line-averaged density along a central chord does not depend on the average plasma current density and essentially depends on the toroidal magnetic field only. This behaviour is explained in terms of density profile peaking in the high density domain, with a peaking factor at the disruption depending on the edge safety factor. The possibility that the MARFE (multifaced asymmetric radiation from the edge) phenomenon is the cause of the peaking has been considered, with the MARFE believed to form a channel for the penetration of the neutral particles into deeper layers of the plasma. Finally, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis has shown that also the central line
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J.
2011-01-01
It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of time on a test with given parameters as a function…
Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corcoran, Mimi
2016-01-01
Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…
Teaching "The Limits to Growth"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Nancy E.
1974-01-01
Classroom use of "Limits to Growth" and related materials to integrate a course on population growth, food problems, resource problems and environmental issues is described in a journal available from the Foreign Area Materials Center, State Ed. Dept., 60 East 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 10017. (JH)