NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gattringer, Christof; Marchis, Carlotta
2017-03-01
We propose a new approach to strong coupling series and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories using the SU(2) case as an example. The Wilson gauge action is written as a sum over ;abelian color cycles; (ACC) which correspond to loops in color space around plaquettes. The ACCs are complex numbers which can be commuted freely such that the strong coupling series and the dual representation can be obtained as in the abelian case. Using a suitable representation of the SU(2) gauge variables we integrate out all original gauge links and identify the constraints for the dual variables in the SU(2) case. We show that the construction can be generalized to the case of SU(2) gauge fields with staggered fermions. The result is a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form and we discuss its applicability for possible dual simulations. The abelian color cycle concept can be generalized to other non-abelian gauge groups such as SU(3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-07-01
interesting and related effect, which arises from the interplay between strong magnetic field and lattice potentials, is the famous Hofstadter butterfly: the energy spectrum of a single particle moving on a lattice and subjected to a strong magnetic field displays a beautiful fractal structure as a function of the magnetic flux penetrating each elementary plaquette of the lattice. When the effects of interparticle interactions become dominant, two-dimensional gases of electrons exhibit even more exotic behaviour leading to the fractional quantum Hall effect. In certain conditions such a strongly interacting electron gas may form a highly correlated state of matter, the prototypical example being the celebrated Laughlin quantum liquid. Even more fascinating is the behaviour of bulk excitations (quasi-hole and quasi-particles): they are neither fermionic nor bosonic, but rather behave as anyons with fractional statistics intermediate between the two. Moreover, for some specific filling factors (ratio between the electronic density and the flux density), these anyons are proven to have an internal structure (several components) and non-Abelian braiding properties. Many of the above statements concern theoretical predictions—they have never been observed in condensed matter systems. For instance, the fractional values of the Hall conductance is seen as a direct consequence of the fractional statistics, but to date direct observation of anyons has not been possible in two-dimensional semiconductors. Realizing these predictions in experiments with atoms, ions, photons etc, which potentially allow the experimentalist to perform measurements complementary to those made in condensed matter systems, is thus highly desirable! Non-Abelian gauge fields couple the motional states of the particles to their internal degrees of freedom (such as hyperfine states for atoms or ions, electronic spins for electrons, etc). In this sense external non-Abelian fields extend the concept of spin
Commutator of gauge generators in non-abelian chiral theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jo, S.
1985-09-01
Commutators among non-abelian fermion currents are calculated using the BJL limit. The relation between the covariant seagull and the gauge dependence of the fermion current is derived for a canonical non-abelian theory using the path integral formulation. We observe that in a non-abelian theory with coupling to chiral fermions this relation is violated and this produces a non-trivial commutator of gauge group generators.
Special issue on non-Abelian gauge fields Special issue on non-Abelian gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerbier, Fabrice; Goldman, Nathan; Lewenstein, Maciej; Sengstock, Klaus
2012-09-01
Building a universal quantum computer is a central goal of emerging quantum technologies and it is expected to revolutionize science and technology. Unfortunately, this future does not seem very close, however, quantum computers built for a special purpose, i.e., quantum simulators, are currently being developed in many leading laboratories. Numerous schemes for quantum simulation have been proposed and realized using, e.g., ultracold atoms in optical lattices, ultracold trapped ions, atoms in arrays of cavities, atoms/ions in arrays of traps, quantum dots or superconducting circuits. The progress in experimental implementations is more than spectacular. Particularly interesting are those systems that simulate quantum matter evolving in artificial, or synthetic, Abelian or even non-Abelian gauge fields. Abelian gauge fields are analogues to the standard magnetic field and lead to fascinating effects such as the integer or fractional quantum Hall effects (IQHE, FQHE) and vortex lattices. Non-Abelian gauge fields couple the motional states of the particles to their internal degrees of freedom (such as hyperfine states for atoms or ions, electronic spins for electrons, etc). In this sense, external non-Abelian fields extend the concept of spin-orbit coupling, which is familiar from AMO and condensed matter physics. They lead to yet another variety of fascinating novel phenomena such as the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE), 3D topological insulators, topological superconductors and superfluids of various kinds. Even more fascinating is the possibility of generating synthetic gauge fields that are dynamical, i.e., that evolve in time according to the corresponding lattice gauge theory (LGT). These dynamical gauge fields can also couple to matter fields, allowing the quantum simulation of such complex systems (notoriously hard to simulate using 'traditional' computers), which are particularly relevant for modern high-energy physics. So far there are only theoretical
Anisotropic inflation with non-abelian gauge kinetic function
Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2011-06-01
We study an anisotropic inflation model with a gauge kinetic function for a non-abelian gauge field. We find that, in contrast to abelian models, the anisotropy can be either a prolate or an oblate type, which could lead to a different prediction from abelian models for the statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of cosmological fluctuations. During a reheating phase, we find chaotic behaviour of the non-abelian gauge field which is caused by the nonlinear self-coupling of the gauge field. We compute a Lyapunov exponent of the chaos which turns out to be uncorrelated with the anisotropy.
Schwinger effect for non-Abelian gauge bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas
2017-08-01
We investigate the Schwinger effect for the gauge bosons in an unbroken non-Abelian gauge theory (e.g. the gluons of QCD). We consider both constant “color electric” fields and “color magnetic” fields as backgrounds. As in the Abelian Schwinger effect we find there is production of “gluons” for the color electric field, but no particle production for the color magnetic field case. Since the non-Abelian gauge bosons are massless there is no exponential suppression of particle production due to the mass of the electron/positron that one finds in the Abelian Schwinger effect. Despite the lack of an exponential suppression of the gluon production rate due to the masslessness of the gluons, we find that the critical field strength is even larger in the non-Abelian case as compared to the Abelian case. This is the result of the confinement phenomenon on QCD.
Non-Abelian gauge theory on q-Quantum spaces
Schraml, Stefan L.
2002-08-23
Gauge theories on q-deformed spaces are constructed using covariant derivatives. For this purpose a ''vielbein'' is introduced, which transforms under gauge transformations. The non-Abelian case is treated by establishing a connection to gauge theories on commutative spaces, i.e. by a Seiberg-Witten map. As an example we consider the Manin plane. Remarks are made concerning the relation between covariant coordinates and covariant derivatives.
Supersymmetry breaking on gauged non-Abelian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, Kenichi; Nitta, Muneto; Vinci, Walter
2012-09-01
There is a great number of systems characterized by a completely broken gauge symmetry, but with an unbroken global color-flavor diagonal symmetry, i.e., systems in the so-called color-flavor locked phase. If the gauge symmetry breaking supports vortices, the latter develop non-Abelian orientational zero-modes and become non-Abelian vortices, a subject of intense study in the last several years. In this paper we consider the effects of weakly gauging the full exact global flavor symmetry in such systems, deriving an effective description of the light excitations in the presence of a vortex. Surprising consequences are shown to follow. The fluctuations of the vortex orientational modes get diffused to bulk modes through tunneling processes. When the model is embedded in an {N} = 2 supersymmetric theory, the vortex is still 1/2 BPS saturated, but the vortex effective action breaks supersymmetry spontaneously.
Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-01-01
The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops.
Sun, Fadi; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Ye, Jinwu; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-01-01
The method of synthetic gauge potentials opens up a new avenue for our understanding and discovering novel quantum states of matter. We investigate the topological quantum phase transition of Fermi gases trapped in a honeycomb lattice in the presence of a synthetic non-Abelian gauge potential. We develop a systematic fermionic effective field theory to describe a topological quantum phase transition tuned by the non-Abelian gauge potential and explore its various important experimental consequences. Numerical calculations on lattice scales are performed to compare with the results achieved by the fermionic effective field theory. Several possible experimental detection methods of topological quantum phase transition are proposed. In contrast to condensed matter experiments where only gauge invariant quantities can be measured, both gauge invariant and non-gauge invariant quantities can be measured by experimentally generating various non-Abelian gauges corresponding to the same set of Wilson loops. PMID:23846153
Three-loop calculations in non-abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, O. V.; Vladimirov, A. A.
2013-09-01
A detailed description of the method for analytical evaluation of the three-loop contributions to renormalization group functions is presented. This method is employed to calculate the charge renormalization function and anomalous dimensions for non-Abelian gauge theories with fermions in the three-loop approximation. A three-loop expression for the effective charge of QCD is given. Charge renormalization effects in the SU(4)-supersymmetric gauge model is shown to vanish at this level. A complete list of required formulas is given in Appendix. The above-mentioned results of three-loop calculations were published by the present authors (with A.Yu. Zharkov and L.V. Avdeev) in 1980 in Physics Letters B. The present text, which treats the subject in more details and contains a lot of calculational techniques, was also published in 1980 as the JINR Communication E2-80-483.
Dual potentials in non-Abelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caticha, Ariel
1988-04-01
Motivated by the possibility that confinement and superconductivity are similar phenomena, dual potentials are introduced into Yang-Mills theory in two different ways. Both are extensions of Zwanziger's two-potential formalism for Abelian charges and monopoles to the non-Abelian case. In the first approach the dual potentials carry a color index and there is a rather simple, although nonlocal, dual-variable formulation. In the second approach dual variables are introduced into the so-called Abelian projection of the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. An interesting feature is that the quartic contact interactions are absent and there is a special gauge choice for which the theory takes on a ``purely electromagnetic'' form. More important, however, is the appearance of an additional Abelian magnetic gauge symmetry the dynamical breaking of which may be associated with confinement.
Non-Abelian gauge field theory in scale relativity
Nottale, Laurent; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle; Lehner, Thierry
2006-03-15
Gauge field theory is developed in the framework of scale relativity. In this theory, space-time is described as a nondifferentiable continuum, which implies it is fractal, i.e., explicitly dependent on internal scale variables. Owing to the principle of relativity that has been extended to scales, these scale variables can themselves become functions of the space-time coordinates. Therefore, a coupling is expected between displacements in the fractal space-time and the transformations of these scale variables. In previous works, an Abelian gauge theory (electromagnetism) has been derived as a consequence of this coupling for global dilations and/or contractions. We consider here more general transformations of the scale variables by taking into account separate dilations for each of them, which yield non-Abelian gauge theories. We identify these transformations with the usual gauge transformations. The gauge fields naturally appear as a new geometric contribution to the total variation of the action involving these scale variables, while the gauge charges emerge as the generators of the scale transformation group. A generalized action is identified with the scale-relativistic invariant. The gauge charges are the conservative quantities, conjugates of the scale variables through the action, which find their origin in the symmetries of the ''scale-space.'' We thus found in a geometric way and recover the expression for the covariant derivative of gauge theory. Adding the requirement that under the scale transformations the fermion multiplets and the boson fields transform such that the derived Lagrangian remains invariant, we obtain gauge theories as a consequence of scale symmetries issued from a geometric space-time description.
Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials: From the Hofstadter Moth to Lattice Gauge Theory
Osterloh, K.; Baig, M.; Santos, L.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-07-01
We demonstrate how to create artificial external non-Abelian gauge potentials acting on cold atoms in optical lattices. The method employs atoms with k internal states, and laser assisted state sensitive tunneling, described by unitary kxk matrices. The single-particle dynamics in the case of intense U(2) vector potentials lead to a generalized Hofstadter butterfly spectrum which shows a complex mothlike structure. We discuss the possibility to realize non-Abelian interferometry (Aharonov-Bohm effect) and to study many-body dynamics of ultracold matter in external lattice gauge fields.
Non-abelian higher gauge theory and categorical bundle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, David
2016-12-01
A gauge theory is associated with a principal bundle endowed with a connection permitting to define horizontal lifts of paths. The horizontal lifts of surfaces cannot be defined into a principal bundle structure. An higher gauge theory is an attempt to generalize the bundle structure in order to describe horizontal lifts of surfaces. A such attempt is particularly difficult for the non-abelian case. Some structures have been proposed to realize this goal (twisted bundle, gerbes with connection, bundle gerbe, 2-bundle). Each of them uses a category in place of the total space manifold of the usual principal bundle structure. Some of them replace also the structure group by a category (more precisely a Lie crossed module viewed as a category). But the base space remains still a simple manifold (possibly viewed as a trivial category with only identity arrows). We propose a new principal categorical bundle structure, with a Lie crossed module as structure groupoid, but with a base space belonging to a bigger class of categories (which includes non-trivial categories), that we called affine 2-spaces. We study the geometric structure of the categorical bundles built on these categories (which are a more complicated structure than the 2-bundles) and the connective structures on these bundles. Finally we treat an example interesting for quantum dynamics which is associated with the Bloch wave operator theory.
Non-Abelian SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theories in Superconducting Circuits.
Mezzacapo, A; Rico, E; Sabín, C; Egusquiza, I L; Lamata, L; Solano, E
2015-12-11
We propose a digital quantum simulator of non-Abelian pure-gauge models with a superconducting circuit setup. Within the framework of quantum link models, we build a minimal instance of a pure SU(2) gauge theory, using triangular plaquettes involving geometric frustration. This realization is the least demanding, in terms of quantum simulation resources, of a non-Abelian gauge dynamics. We present two superconducting architectures that can host the quantum simulation, estimating the requirements needed to run possible experiments. The proposal establishes a path to the experimental simulation of non-Abelian physics with solid-state quantum platforms.
Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers
McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske
2010-01-15
We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.
Non-Abelian gauge fields as components of gravity in the discretized Kaluza-Klein theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Ai Viet; Pham, Tien Du
2017-06-01
Discretized Kaluza-Klein theory in ℳ2 × Z 2 spacetime can be constructed based on the concepts of noncommutative geometry. In this paper, we show that it is possible to incorporate the non-Abelian gauge fields in this framework. The generalized Hilbert-Einstein action is gauge invariant only in two cases. In the first case, the gauge group must be Abelian on one sheet of spacetime and non-Abelian on the other one. In the second case, the gauge group must be the same on two sheets of spacetime. Actually, the theories of electroweak and strong interactions can fit into these two cases.
Effective Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials in cavity QED.
Larson, Jonas; Levin, Sergey
2009-07-03
Cavity QED models are analyzed in terms of field quadrature operators. We demonstrate that in such representation, the problem can be formulated in terms of effective gauge potentials. In this respect, it presents a completely new system in which gauge fields arise, possessing the advantages of purity, high control of system parameters as well as preparation and detection methods. Studying three well-known models, it is shown that either Abelian or non-Abelian gauge potentials can be constructed. The non-Abelian characteristics are confirmed via numerical simulations utilizing experimental parameters.
Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.
2011-01-01
AdS/QCD, light-front holography, and the nonperturbative running coupling / Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy de Teramond and Alexandre Deur -- New results on non-abelian vortices - Further insights into monopole, vortex and confinement / K. Konishi -- Study on exotic hadrons at B-factories / Toru Iijima -- Cold compressed baryonic matter with hidden local symmetry and holography / Mannque Rho -- Aspects of baryons in holographic QCD / T. Sakai -- Nuclear force from string theory / K. Hashimoto -- Integrating out holographic QCD back to hidden local symmetry / Masayasu Harada, Shinya Matsuzaki and Koichi Yamawaki -- Holographic heavy quarks and the giant Polyakov loop / Gianluca Grignani, Joanna Karczmarek and Gordon W. Semenoff -- Effect of vector-axial-vector mixing to dilepton spectrum in hot and/or dense matter / Masayasu Harada and Chihiro Sasaki -- Infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators compatible with color confinement in Yang-Mills theory with the Gribov horizon / Kei-Ichi Kondo -- Chiral symmetry breaking on the lattice / Hidenori Fukaya [for JLQCD and TWQCD collaborations] -- Gauge-Higgs unification: Stable Higgs bosons as cold dark matter / Yutaka Hosotani -- The limits of custodial symmetry / R. Sekhar Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Higgs searches at the tevatron / Kazuhiro Yamamoto [for the CDF and D[symbol] collaborations] -- The top triangle moose / R. S. Chivukula ... [et al.] -- Conformal phase transition in QCD like theories and beyond / V. A. Miransky -- Gauge-Higgs unification at LHC / Nobuhito Maru and Nobuchika Okada -- W[symbol]W[symbol] scattering in Higgsless models: Identifying better effective theories / Alexander S. Belyaev ... [et al.] -- Holographic estimate of Muon g - 2 / Deog Ki Hong -- Gauge-Higgs dark matter / T. Yamashita -- Topological and curvature effects in a multi-fermion interaction model / T. Inagaki and M. Hayashi -- A model of soft mass generation / J. Hosek -- TeV physics and conformality / Thomas Appelquist -- Conformal
Controlling and probing non-abelian emergent gauge potentials in spinor Bose-Fermi mixtures
Phuc, Nguyen Thanh; Tatara, Gen; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2015-01-01
Gauge fields, typified by the electromagnetic field, often appear as emergent phenomena due to geometrical properties of a curved Hilbert subspace, and provide a key mechanism for understanding such exotic phenomena as the anomalous and topological Hall effects. Non-abelian gauge potentials serve as a source of non-singular magnetic monopoles. Here we show that unlike conventional solid materials, the non-abelianness of emergent gauge potentials in spinor Bose-Fermi atomic mixtures can be continuously varied by changing the relative particle-number densities of bosons and fermions. The non-abelian feature is captured by an explicit dependence of the measurable spin current density of fermions in the mixture on the variable coupling constant. Spinor mixtures also provide us with a method to coherently and spontaneously generate a pure spin current without relying on the spin Hall effect. Such a spin current is expected to have potential applications in the new generation of atomtronic devices. PMID:26330292
Gauge equivalence of two different IAnsaaumlItze Rfor non-Abelian charged vortices
Paul, S.K.
1987-05-15
Recently the existence of non-Abelian charged vortices has been established by taking two different Ansa$uml: tze in SU(2) gauge theories. We point out that these two Ansa$uml: tze are in two topologically equivalent prescriptions. We show that they are gauge equivalent only at infinity. We also show that this gauge equivalence is not possible for Z/sub N/ vortices in SU(N) gauge theories for Ngreater than or equal to3.
Quantum magnetism of spinor bosons in optical lattices with synthetic non-Abelian gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-10-01
We study quantum magnetism of interacting spinor bosons at integer fillings hopping in a square lattice in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. In the strong-coupling limit, this leads to the rotated ferromagnetic Heisenberg model, which is a new class of quantum spin model. We introduce Wilson loops to characterize frustrations and gauge equivalent classes. For a special equivalent class, we identify a spin-orbital entangled commensurate ground state. It supports not only commensurate magnons, but also a gapped elementary excitation: incommensurate magnons with two gap minima continuously tuned by the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength. At low temperatures, these magnons lead to dramatic effects in many physical quantities such as density of states, specific heat, magnetization, uniform susceptibility, staggered susceptibility, and various spin-correlation functions. The commensurate magnons lead to a pinned central peak in the angle-resolved light or atom Bragg spectroscopy. However, the incommensurate magnons split it into two located at their two gap minima. At high temperatures, the transverse spin-structure factors depend on the SOC strength explicitly. The whole set of Wilson loops can be mapped out by measuring the specific heat at the corresponding orders in the high-temperature expansion. We argue that one gauge may be realized in current experiments and other gauges may also be realized in future experiments. The results achieved along the exact solvable line sets up the stage to investigate dramatic effects when tuning away from it by various means. We sketch the crucial roles to be played by these magnons at other equivalent classes, with spin anisotropic interactions and in the presence of finite magnetic fields. Various experimental detections of these phenomena are discussed.
Quantum walks and non-Abelian discrete gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnault, Pablo; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Brachet, Marc; Debbasch, Fabrice
2016-07-01
A family of discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) on the line with an exact discrete U(N ) gauge invariance is introduced. It is shown that the continuous limit of these DTQWs, when it exists, coincides with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to usual U(N ) gauge fields in two-dimensional spacetime. A discrete generalization of the usual U(N ) curvature is also constructed. An alternate interpretation of these results in terms of superimposed U(1 ) Maxwell fields and SU(N ) gauge fields is discussed in the Appendix. Numerical simulations are also presented, which explore the convergence of the DTQWs towards their continuous limit and which also compare the DTQWs with classical (i.e., nonquantum) motions in classical SU(2 ) fields. The results presented in this paper constitute a first step towards quantum simulations of generic Yang-Mills gauge theories through DTQWs.
Particle coupled to a heat bath in non-Abelian gauge potentials.
Guingarey, Issoufou; Avossevou, Gabriel Y H
2015-12-01
We derive the quantum Langevin equation (QLE) for a harmonically single trapped cold atom subjected to artificial non-Abelian gauge potentials and linearly coupled to a heat bath. The independent-oscillator (IO) and the momentum-momenta coupling models are studied. In each case, the non-Abelian effect on the QLE is pointed out for a U(2) gauge transformation. For the IO model, only the generalized Lorentz force is modified by the appearance of an additive term. For the momentum-momenta coupling model, the generalized Lorentz force as well as the friction force are subjected to modifications. The dependence of the system on the magnetic field is explicit even if the gauge potential is uniform in space.
Pauli-Villars Regularization of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiller, J. R.
2016-07-01
As an extension of earlier work on QED, we construct a BRST-invariant Lagrangian for SU(N) Yang-Mills theory with fundamental matter, regulated by the inclusion of massive Pauli-Villars (PV) gluons and PV quarks. The underlying gauge symmetry for massless PV gluons is generalized to accommodate the PV-index-changing currents that are required by the regularization. Auxiliary adjoint scalars are used, in a mechanism due to Stueckelberg, to attribute mass to the PV gluons and the PV quarks. The addition of Faddeev-Popov ghosts then establishes a residual BRST symmetry. Although there are drawbacks to the approach, in particular the computational load of a large number of PV fields and a nonlocal interaction of the ghost fields, this formulation could provide a foundation for renormalizable nonperturbative solutions of light-front QCD in an arbitrary covariant gauge.
Magnetic structures and Z2 vortices in a non-Abelian gauge model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabra, Daniel; Lozano, Gustavo S.; Schaposnik, Fidel A.
2015-12-01
The magnetic order of the triangular lattice with antiferromagnetic interactions is described by an S O (3 ) field and allows for the presence of Z2 magnetic vortices as defects. In this work we show how these Z2 vortices can be fitted into a local S U (2 ) gauge theory. We propose simple Ansätze for vortex configurations and calculate their energies using well-known results of the Abelian gauge model. We comment on how Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions could be derived from a non-Abelian gauge theory and speculate on their effect on nontrivial configurations.
Electric-magnetic dualities in non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Jun-Kai; Ma, Chen-Te
2016-08-01
Electric-magnetic dualities are equivalence between strong and weak coupling constants. A standard example is the exchange of electric and magnetic fields in an abelian gauge theory. We show three methods to perform electric-magnetic dualities in the case of the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory. The first method is to use covariant field strengths to be the electric and magnetic fields. We find an invariant form of an equation of motion after performing the electric-magnetic duality. The second method is to use the Seiberg-Witten map to rewrite the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory in terms of abelian field strength. The third method is to use the large Neveu Schwarz-Neveu Schwarz (NS-NS) background limit (non-commutativity parameter only has one degree of freedom) to consider the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory or D3-brane. In this limit, we introduce or dualize a new one-form gauge potential to get a D3-brane in a large Ramond-Ramond (R-R) background via field redefinition. We also use perturbation to study the equivalence between two D3-brane theories. Comparison of these methods in the non-commutative U (1) gauge theory gives different physical implications. The comparison reflects the differences between the non-abelian and non-commutative gauge theories in the electric-magnetic dualities. For a complete study, we also extend our studies to the simplest abelian and non-abelian p-form gauge theories, and a non-commutative theory with the non-abelian structure.
Double Weyl points and Fermi arcs of topological semimetals in non-Abelian gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lepori, L.; Fulga, I. C.; Trombettoni, A.; Burrello, M.
2016-11-01
We study the effect of a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge potential mimicking spin-orbit coupling on the topological semimetal induced by a magnetic field having π flux per plaquette and acting on fermions in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice. The Abelian π -flux term gives rise to a spectrum characterized by Weyl points. The non-Abelian term is chosen to be gauge equivalent to both a 2D Rashba and a Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. As a result of the anisotropic nature of the coupling between spin and momentum and of the presence of a C4 rotation symmetry, when the non-Abelian part is turned on, the Weyl points assume a quadratic dispersion along two directions and constitute double monopoles for the Berry curvature. We examine the main features of this system both analytically and numerically, focusing on its gapless surface modes, the so-called Fermi arcs. We discuss the stability of the system under confining hard-wall and harmonic potentials, relevant for the implementation in ultracold atom settings, and the effect of rotation symmetry breaking.
Non-Abelian black holes in D=5 maximal gauged supergravity
Cvetic, M.; Lue, H.; Pope, C. N.
2010-02-15
We investigate static non-Abelian black hole solutions of anti-de Sitter (AdS) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton gravity, which is obtained as a consistent truncation of five-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. If the dilaton is (consistently) set to zero, the remaining equations of motion, with a spherically-symmetric ansatz, may be derived from a superpotential. The associated first-order equations admit an explicit solution supported by a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge potential, which has a logarithmically growing mass term. In an extremal limit the horizon geometry becomes AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 3}. If the dilaton is also excited, the equations of motion cannot easily be solved explicitly, but we obtain the asymptotic form of the more general non-Abelian black holes in this case. An alternative consistent truncation, in which the Yang-Mills fields are set to zero, also admits a description in terms of a superpotential. This allows us to construct explicit wormhole solutions (neutral spherically-symmetric domain walls). These solutions may be generalized to dimensions other than five.
Phenomenology of strongly coupled chiral gauge theories
Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Osborne, James; Stefanek, Ben A.
2016-11-25
A sector with QCD-like strong dynamics is common in models of non-standard physics. Such a model could be accessible in LHC searches if both confinement and big-quarks charged under the confining group are at the TeV scale. Big-quark masses at this scale can be explained if the new fermions are chiral under a new U(1)' gauge symmetry such that their bare masses are related to the U(1)'-breaking and new confinement scales. Here we present a study of a minimal GUT-motivated and gauge anomaly-free model with implications for the LHC Run 2 searches. We find that the first signatures of such models could appear as two gauge boson resonances. The chiral nature of the model could be confirmed by observation of a Z'γ resonance, where the Z' naturally has a large leptonic branching ratio because of its kinetic mixing with the hypercharge gauge boson.
Aharonov-Bohm order parameters for non-Abelian gauge theories
Lo, H.
1995-12-15
The Aharonov-Bohm effect has been invoked to probe the phase structure of a gauge theory. Yet in the case of non-Abelian gauge theories, it proves difficult to formulate a general procedure that unambiguously specifies the realization of the gauge symmetry, e.g., the unbroken subgroup. In this paper we propose a set of order parameters that will do the job. We articulate the fact that any useful Aharonov-Bohm experiment necessarily proceeds in two stages: calibration and measurement. World sheets of virtual cosmic string loops can wrap around test charges, thus changing their states relative to other charges in the universe. Consequently, repeated flux measurements with test charges will not necessarily agree. This was the main stumbling block to previous attempts to construct order parameters for non-Abelian gauge theories. In those works, the particles that one uses for calibration and subsequent measurement are stored in {ital separate} ``boxes.`` By storing all test particles in the {ital same} ``box`` we show how quantum fluctuations can be overcome. The importance of gauge fixing is also emphasized. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.
Non-Abelian Gauge Symmetry in the Causal Epstein-Glaser Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurth, Tobias
Non-Abelian gauge symmetry in (3 + 1)-dimensional space-time is analyzed in the causal Epstein-Glaser framework. In this formalism, the technical details concerning the well-known UV and IR problem in quantum field theory are separated and reduced to well-defined problems, namely the causal splitting and the adiabatic switching of operator-valued distributions. Non-Abelian gauge invariance in perturbation theory is completely discussed in the well-defined Fock space of free asymptotic fields. The LSZ formalism is not used in this construction. The linear operator condition of asymptotic gauge invariance is sufficient for the unitarity of the S matrix in the physical subspace and the usual Slavnov-Taylor identities. We explicitly derive the most general specific coupling compatible with this condition. By analyzing only tree graphs in the second order of perturbation theory we show that the well-known Yang-Mills couplings with anticommuting ghosts are the only ones which are compatible with asymptotic gauge invariance. The required generalizations for linear gauges are given.
Confining and repulsive potentials from effective non-Abelian gauge fields in graphene bilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, J.
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of shear and strain in graphene bilayers, under conditions where the distortion of the lattice gives rise to a smooth one-dimensional modulation in the stacking sequence of the bilayer. We show that strain and shear produce characteristic Moiré patterns which can have the same visual appearance on a large scale, but representing graphene bilayers with quite different electronic properties. The different features in the low-energy electronic bands can be ascribed to the effect of a fictitious non-Abelian gauge field mimicking the smooth modulation of the stacking order. Strained and sheared bilayers show a complementary behavior, which can be understood from the fact that the non-Abelian gauge field acts as a repulsive interaction in the former, expelling the electron density away from the stacking domain walls, while behaving as a confining interaction leading to localization of the electronic states in the sheared bilayers. In this latter case, the presence of the effective gauge field explains the development of almost flat low-energy bands, resembling the form of the zeroth Landau level characteristic of a Dirac fermion field. The estimate of the gauge field strength in those systems gives a magnitude of the order of several tens of tesla, implying a robust phenomenology that should be susceptible of being observed in suitably distorted bilayer samples.
Phenomenology of strongly coupled chiral gauge theories
Bai, Yang; Berger, Joshua; Osborne, James; ...
2016-11-25
A sector with QCD-like strong dynamics is common in models of non-standard physics. Such a model could be accessible in LHC searches if both confinement and big-quarks charged under the confining group are at the TeV scale. Big-quark masses at this scale can be explained if the new fermions are chiral under a new U(1)' gauge symmetry such that their bare masses are related to the U(1)'-breaking and new confinement scales. Here we present a study of a minimal GUT-motivated and gauge anomaly-free model with implications for the LHC Run 2 searches. We find that the first signatures of suchmore » models could appear as two gauge boson resonances. The chiral nature of the model could be confirmed by observation of a Z'γ resonance, where the Z' naturally has a large leptonic branching ratio because of its kinetic mixing with the hypercharge gauge boson.« less
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2016-11-15
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
Chaos, scaling and existence of a continuum limit in classical non-Abelian lattice gauge theory
Nielsen, H.B.; Rugh, H.H.; Rugh, S.E.
1996-12-31
We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a {open_quote}no go{close_quotes} for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a {open_quotes}continuum limit{close_quotes} in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left an important question to be further examined.
Out-of-equilibrium dynamics of coherent non-Abelian gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berges, Jürgen; Scheffler, Sebastian; Schlichting, Sören; Sexty, Dénes
2012-02-01
We study out-of-equilibrium dynamics of intense non-Abelian gauge fields. Generalizing the well-known Nielsen-Olesen instabilities for constant initial color-magnetic fields, we investigate the impact of temporal modulations and fluctuations in the initial conditions. This leads to a remarkable coexistence of the original Nielsen-Olesen instability and the subdominant phenomenon of parametric resonance. Taking into account that the fields may be correlated only over a limited transverse size, we model characteristic aspects of the dynamics of color flux tubes relevant in the context of heavy-ion collisions.
Non-abelian gauge fields and topological insulators in shaken optical lattices.
Hauke, Philipp; Tieleman, Olivier; Celi, Alessio; Olschläger, Christoph; Simonet, Juliette; Struck, Julian; Weinberg, Malte; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; Lewenstein, Maciej; Eckardt, André
2012-10-05
Time-periodic driving like lattice shaking offers a low-demanding method to generate artificial gauge fields in optical lattices. We identify the relevant symmetries that have to be broken by the driving function for that purpose and demonstrate the power of this method by making concrete proposals for its application to two-dimensional lattice systems: We show how to tune frustration and how to create and control band touching points like Dirac cones in the shaken kagome lattice. We propose the realization of a topological and a quantum spin Hall insulator in a shaken spin-dependent hexagonal lattice. We describe how strong artificial magnetic fields can be achieved for example in a square lattice by employing superlattice modulation. Finally, exemplified on a shaken spin-dependent square lattice, we develop a method to create strong non-abelian gauge fields.
Simulating Dirac fermions with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in optical lattices
Alba, E.; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, X.; Mur-Petit, J.; Garcia-Ripoll, J.J.; Pachos, J.K.
2013-01-15
In this work we present an optical lattice setup to realize a full Dirac Hamiltonian in 2+1 dimensions. We show how all possible external potentials coupled to the Dirac field can arise from perturbations of the existing couplings of the honeycomb lattice pattern. This greatly simplifies the proposed implementations, requiring only spatial modulations of the intensity of the laser beams to induce complex non-Abelian potentials. We finally suggest several experiments to observe the properties of the quantum field theory in the setup. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work provides a very flexible setup for simulating Dirac fermions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manuscript contains a detailed study of optical lattice deformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The link between lattice deformations and effective gauge Hamiltonians is studied.
Nilpotent Symmetries for Matter Fields in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory:
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, R. P.
In the framework of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, the derivation of the BRST and anti-BRST nilpotent symmetry transformations for the matter fields, present in any arbitrary interacting gauge theory, has been a long-standing problem. In our present investigation, the local, covariant, continuous and off-shell nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for the Dirac fields (ψ ,bar ψ ) are derived in the framework of the augmented superfield formulation where the four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian gauge theory is considered on the six (4 + 2)-dimensional supermanifold parametrized by the four even space-time coordinates xμ and a couple of odd elements (θ and bar θ ) of the Grassmann algebra. The requirement of the invariance of the matter (super)currents and the horizontality condition on the (super)manifolds leads to the derivation of the nilpotent symmetries for the matter fields as well as the gauge and the (anti)ghost fields of the theory in the general scheme of augmented superfield formalism.
Consistent quantization and symmetry structure of a non-Abelian chiral gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shizuya, Ken-Ichi
1989-08-01
The SU(N) chiral Schwinger model with a Wess-Zumino term is studied by use of non-Abelian bosonization, the Becchi-Rouet-Stora formalism, and a dual transformation, and it is confirmed that this model is a sensible quantum theory in a certain range of the anomaly parameter a. The SU(N) gauge symmetry restored by the inclusion of the Wess-Zumino term gets spontaneously broken and the gauge field becomes massive. Left-handed fermions are found to be confined while right-handed fermions remain free and massless. For the specific value a=2, the symmetry of the model enlarges [to a U(N)×U(N) Kac-Moody symmetry]. It is shown by fermionization of the Wess-Zumino field that for a=2 this model is equivalent to massless two-dimensional QCD (QCD2) in the sense that they share the same gauge field and the same left-handed fermions. A dual transformation is used to cast the model into an equivalent nonlinear system of scalar fields only, which reveals the particle spectrum of the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Huan; Zheng, Yunqin; von Keyserlingk, Curt
2017-01-01
Dijkgraaf-Witten (DW) theories are of recent interest to the condensed matter community, in part because they represent topological phases of matter, but also because they characterize the response theory of certain symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. However, as yet there has not been a comprehensive treatment of the spectra of these models in the field theoretic setting even for Abelian gauge groups, the goal of this work is to fill the gap in the literature, especially for a selection of DW models with Abelian gauge groups but non-Abelian topological order. Particularly, we focus on the appearance of non-Abelian statistics in type-III twisted DW theories with Abelian gauge groups Z2⊗3. There are only 22 distinguishable line operators, and their fusion rules and correlation functions are calculated. The flux insertion operators have quantum dimension 2, which clearly demonstrates the non-Abelian topological order of type-III twisted DW theories.
Type II string theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with torsion and non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Volker; Cvetič, Mirjam; Donagi, Ron; Poretschkin, Maximilian
2017-07-01
We provide the first explicit example of Type IIB string theory compactification on a globally defined Calabi-Yau threefold with torsion which results in a four-dimensional effective theory with a non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetry. Our example is based on a particular Calabi-Yau manifold, the quotient of a product of three elliptic curves by a fixed point free action of Z_2× Z_2 . Its cohomology contains torsion classes in various degrees. The main technical novelty is in determining the multiplicative structure of the (torsion part of) the cohomology ring, and in particular showing that the cup product of second cohomology torsion elements goes non-trivially to the fourth cohomology. This specifies a non-Abelian, Heisenberg-type discrete symmetry group of the cfour-dimensional theory.
Free energy for a damped cold atom in SU(2) non-Abelian gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guingarey, Issoufou; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.
2017-03-01
Our main aim in this work is to find out the exact formula of the equilibrium free energy for a cold atom subjected to a harmonic potential in the background of an artificial non-Abelian uniform magnetic field and linearly coupled to a heat bath. The heat bath consists of a collection of independent quantum harmonic oscillators, while its interaction with the cold atom is modeled in terms of bilinear coupling between the coordinate variables of the cold atom and the oscillators. The main thermodynamic properties of such a system are modified in comparison with the Abelian case. For a non-Abelian magnetic field generated from the laser methods employing degenerate dark states, we evaluate the effect of the non-Abelian dynamics on the magnetic moment of the cold atom.
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Takaaki; Kiritsis, Elias; Rosen, Christopher
2016-11-01
Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which "real world" theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory's confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the "abrupt quench" limit.
Double and Negative Reflection of Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials
Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Ruseckas, Julius; Jacob, Andreas; Santos, Luis; Oehberg, Patrik
2008-05-23
Atom reflection is studied in the presence of a non-Abelian vector potential proportional to a spin-1/2 operator. The potential is produced by a relatively simple laser configuration for atoms with a tripod level scheme. We show that the atomic motion is described by two different dispersion branches with positive or negative chirality. As a consequence, atom reflection shows unusual features, since an incident wave may split into two reflected ones at a barrier, an ordinary specular reflection, and an additional nonspecular one. Remarkably, the latter wave can exhibit negative reflection and may become evanescent if the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value. These reflection properties are crucial for future designs in non-Abelian atom optics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Nitta, Muneto
2017-04-01
Color symmetry is spontaneously broken in quark matter at high density as a consequence of di-quark condensations with exhibiting color superconductivity. Non-Abelian vortices or color magnetic flux tubes stably exist in the color-flavor locked phase at asymptotically high density. The effective worldsheet theory of a single non-Abelian vortex was previously calculated in the singular gauge to obtain the C P2 model
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan
2016-04-01
We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan
2016-04-06
In this study, we present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; ...
2016-04-06
In this study, we present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of themore » system.« less
Black hole thermodynamics from calculations in strongly coupled gauge theory.
Kabat, D; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A
2001-02-19
We develop an approximation scheme for the quantum mechanics of N D0-branes at finite temperature in the 't Hooft large- N limit. The entropy of the quantum mechanics calculated using this approximation agrees well with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a ten-dimensional nonextremal black hole with 0-brane charge. This result is in accordance with the duality conjectured by Itzhaki, Maldacena, Sonnenschein, and Yankielowicz [Phys. Rev. D 58, 046004 (1998)]. Our approximation scheme provides a model for the density matrix which describes a black hole in the strongly coupled quantum mechanics.
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives.
Brambilla, N; Eidelman, S; Foka, P; Gardner, S; Kronfeld, A S; Alford, M G; Alkofer, R; Butenschoen, M; Cohen, T D; Erdmenger, J; Fabbietti, L; Faber, M; Goity, J L; Ketzer, B; Lin, H W; Llanes-Estrada, F J; Meyer, H B; Pakhlov, P; Pallante, E; Polikarpov, M I; Sazdjian, H; Schmitt, A; Snow, W M; Vairo, A; Vogt, R; Vuorinen, A; Wittig, H; Arnold, P; Christakoglou, P; Di Nezza, P; Fodor, Z; Garcia I Tormo, X; Höllwieser, R; Janik, M A; Kalweit, A; Keane, D; Kiritsis, E; Mischke, A; Mizuk, R; Odyniec, G; Papadodimas, K; Pich, A; Pittau, R; Qiu, J-W; Ricciardi, G; Salgado, C A; Schwenzer, K; Stefanis, N G; von Hippel, G M; Zakharov, V I
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.
Confinement Driven by Scalar Field in 4d Non Abelian Gauge Theories
Chabab, Mohamed
2007-01-12
We review some of the most recent work on confinement in 4d gauge theories with a massive scalar field (dilaton). Emphasis is put on the derivation of confining analytical solutions to the Coulomb problem versus dilaton effective couplings to gauge terms. It is shown that these effective theories can be relevant to model quark confinement and may shed some light on confinement mechanism. Moreover, the study of interquark potential, derived from Dick Model, in the heavy meson sector proves that phenomenological investigation of tmechanism is more than justified and deserves more efforts.
Dark matter and baryogenesis from non-Abelian gauged lepton number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fornal, Bartosz
2017-06-01
A simple model is constructed based on the gauge symmetry SU(3)c ×SU(2)L ×U(1)Y ×SU(2)ℓ, with only the leptons transforming nontrivially under SU(2)ℓ. The extended symmetry is broken down to the Standard Model gauge group at TeV-scale energies. We show that this model provides a mechanism for baryogenesis via leptogenesis in which the lepton number asymmetry is generated by SU(2)ℓ instantons. The theory also contains a dark matter candidate — the SU(2)ℓ partner of the right-handed neutrino.
Calculation of the Mass Spectrum and Deconfining Temperature in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vohwinkel, Claus
1989-03-01
Using a small volume expansion the mass spectrum and deconfining temperature of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theory are evaluated. Including non-perturbative features by restoring symmetries which were broken in perturbation theory we obtain results which are valid up to intermediate volumes. The mass spectrum obtained is in good agreement with Luscher's small volume expansion in the small-volume limit and with Monte Carlo Data in medium sized volumes. Using asymmetric volumes we are able to derive the deconfining temperature and find a reasonable agreement with Monte Carlo calculations.
Finite energy monopoles in non-Abelian gauge theories on odd-dimensional spaces
Kihara, Hironobu
2009-02-15
In higher-dimensional gauge theory, we need energies with higher power terms of field strength in order to realize pointwise monopoles. We consider new models with higher power terms of field strength and extraordinary kinetic terms of the scalar field. Monopole charges are computed as integrals over spheres and they are related to mapping class degree. Hedgehog solutions are investigated in these models. Every differential equation for these solutions is Abel's differential equation. A condition for the existence of a finite energy solution is shown. The spaces of 1-jets of these equations are defined as sets of zeros of polynomials. Those spaces can be interpreted as singular quartic surfaces in three-dimensional complex projective spa0008.
Physics of a two-dimensional electron gas with cold atoms in non-Abelian gauge potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satija, Indubala I.; Dakin, Daniel C.; Vaishnav, J. Y.; Clark, Charles W.
2008-04-01
Motivated by the possibility of creating non-Abelian fields using cold atoms in optical lattices, we explore the richness and complexity of noninteracting two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in a lattice, subjected to such fields. In the continuum limit, a non-Abelian system characterized by a two-component “magnetic flux” describes a harmonic oscillator existing in two different charge states (mimicking a particle-hole pair) where the coupling between the states is determined by the non-Abelian parameter, namely, the difference between the two components of the “magnetic flux.” A key feature of the non-Abelian system is a splitting of the Landau energy levels, which broaden into bands, as the spectrum depends explicitly on the transverse momentum. These Landau bands result in a coarse-grained “moth,” a continuum version of the generalized Hofstadter butterfly. Furthermore, the bands overlap, leading to effective relativistic effects. Importantly, similar features also characterize the corresponding two-dimensional lattice problem when at least one of the components of the magnetic flux is an irrational number. The lattice system with two competing “magnetic fluxes” penetrating the unit cell provides a rich environment in which to study localization phenomena. Some unique aspects of the transport properties of the non-Abelian system are the possibility of inducing localization by varying the quasimomentum, and the absence of localization of certain zero-energy states exhibiting a linear energy-momentum relation. Furthermore, non-Abelian systems provide an interesting localization scenario where the localization transition is accompanied by a transition from relativistic to nonrelativistic theory.
Non-Abelian Dual Superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills Theory due to Non-Abelian Magnetic Monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
We give numerical evidences for the non-Abelian dual superconductivity due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory as a mechanism for quark confinement, based on our new formulation of lattice gauge theory.
Strong Coupling Limits and Quantum Isomorphisms of the Gauged Thirring Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bufalo, R.; Casana, R.; Pimentel, B. M.
We have studied the quantum equivalence in the respective strong coupling limits of the bidimensional gauged Thirring model with both Schwinger and Thirring models. It is achieved following a nonperturbative quantization of the gauged Thirring model into the path-integral approach. First, we have established the constraint structure via the Dirac's formalism for constrained systems and defined the correct vacuum-vacuum transition amplitude by using the Faddeev-Senjanovic method. Next, we have computed exactly the relevant Green's functions and shown the Ward-Takahashi identities. Afterwards, we have established the quantum isomorphisms between gauged Thirring model and both Schwinger and Thirring models by analyzing the respective Green's functions in the strong coupling limits, respectively. A special attention is necessary to establish the quantum isomorphism between the gauged Thirring model and the Thirring model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoek, Jaap
1983-02-01
A set of programs to calculate algebraically the generating functional (free energy) of a gauge system with arbitrary external sources on a lattice has been developed. It makes use of the strong coupling expansion. For theories with the standard Tr(UUU †U †) action results have been obtained up to fourth order.
Black hole entropy from strongly coupled gauge theory--direct confirmation by Monte Carlo simulaton
Takeuchi, Shingo
2008-11-23
We present the first Monte Carlo results for supersymmetric matrix quantum mechanics with sixteen supercharges at finite temperature. The recently proposed non-lattice simulation enables us to include the effects of fermionic matrices in a transparent and reliable manner. The internal energy nicely interpolates the weak coupling behavior obtained by the high temperature expansion, and the strong coupling behavior predicted from the dual black hole geometry. This results provide highly non-trivial evidences for the gauge/gravity duality.
Non-Abelian sine-Gordon solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, Muneto
2015-06-01
We point out that non-Abelian sine-Gordon solitons stably exist in the U (N) chiral Lagrangian. They also exist in a U (N) gauge theory with two N by N complex scalar fields coupled to each other. One non-Abelian sine-Gordon soliton can terminate on one non-Abelian global vortex. They are relevant in chiral Lagrangian of QCD or in color-flavor locked phase of high density QCD, where the anomaly is suppressed at asymptotically high temperature or density, respectively.
Field-theoretic methods in strongly-coupled models of general gauge mediation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortin, Jean-François; Stergiou, Andreas
2013-08-01
An often-exploited feature of the operator product expansion (OPE) is that it incorporates a splitting of ultraviolet and infrared physics. In this paper we use this feature of the OPE to perform simple, approximate computations of soft masses in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The approximation amounts to truncating the OPEs for hidden-sector current-current operator products. Our method yields visible-sector superpartner spectra in terms of vacuum expectation values of a few hidden-sector IR elementary fields. We manage to obtain reasonable approximations to soft masses, even when the hidden sector is strongly coupled. We demonstrate our techniques in several examples, including a new framework where supersymmetry breaking arises both from a hidden sector and dynamically. Our results suggest that strongly-coupled models of supersymmetry breaking are naturally split.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Frank R.
Coherent state techniques have proved a useful formal tool for obtaining the N = infty limit of a variety of quantum mechanical systems, in part because they allow one to explicitly construct the classical Hamiltonian and classical phase space that define the dynamics of the large N system. This construction is sufficiently concrete that it naturally suggests methods for carrying out practical calculations. We discuss two such methods, one numerical and the other a classical strong coupling expansion, for calculating the mass spectrum of pure U (infty) Hamiltonian lattice gauge theory. Both involve calculating coherent state expectation values of the quantum Hamiltonian to obtain a classical Hamiltonian as a function on the space of coherent states, and solving for the coherent state (the point in classical configuration space) that minimizes this classical Hamiltonian. Finally the frequencies of classical small oscillations about this minimum give the large N limit of the quantum mechanical excitation spectrum.
Gauge/Gravity Duality and Strongly Coupled Light-Front Dynamics
de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins
2011-08-12
We find a correspondence between semiclassical gauge theories quantized on the light-front and a dual gravity model in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, thus providing an initial approximation to QCD in its strongly coupled regime. This correspondence - light-front holography - leads to a light-front Hamiltonian and relativistic bound-state wave equations in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. Light-front holography also allows a precise mapping of transition amplitudes from AdS to physical space-time. In contrast with the usual AdS/QCD framework, the internal structure of hadrons is explicitly introduced in the gauge/gravity correspondence and the angular momentum of the constituents plays a key role. We also discuss how to introduce higher Fock-states in the correspondence as well as their relevance for describing the detailed structure of space and time-like form factors.
Dynamics of non-Abelian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke
2011-12-01
Scattering is studied using a moduli space metric for well-separated vortices of non-Abelian vortices in (2+1)-dimensional U(N) gauge theories with N Higgs fields in the fundamental representation. Unlike vortices in the Abelian-Higgs model, the dynamics of non-Abelian vortices has many new features: the kinetic energy in real space can be transferred to that of internal orientational moduli and vice versa, the energy and charge transfer between two vortices, the scattering angle of collisions with a fixed impact parameter depends on the internal orientations, and some resonances appear due to synchronization of the orientations. Scattering of dyonic non-Abelian vortices in a mass deformed theory is also studied. We find a bound state of two vortices moving along coils around a circle, like a loop of a phone cord.
Fendley, Paul; Moore, Joel E; Xu, Cenke
2007-05-01
We study a constrained statistical-mechanical model in two dimensions that has three useful descriptions. They are (i) the Ising model on the honeycomb lattice, constrained to have three up spins and three down spins on every hexagon, (ii) the three-color and fully packed loop model on the links of the honeycomb lattice, with loops around a single hexagon forbidden, and (iii) three Ising models on interleaved triangular lattices, with domain walls of the different Ising models not allowed to cross. Unlike the three-color model, the configuration space on the sphere or plane is connected under local moves. On higher-genus surfaces there are infinitely many dynamical sectors, labeled by a noncontractible set of nonintersecting loops. We demonstrate that at infinite temperature the transfer matrix admits an unusual structure related to a gauge symmetry for the same model on an anisotropic lattice. This enables us to diagonalize the original transfer matrix for up to 36 sites, finding an entropy per plaquette S/k{B} approximately 0.3661 ... centered and substantial evidence that the model is not critical. We also find the striking property that the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix on an anisotropic lattice are given in terms of Fibonacci numbers. We comment on the possibility of a topological phase, with infinite topological degeneracy, in an associated two-dimensional quantum model.
Gravitating non-Abelian cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Pádua Santos, Antônio; Bezerra de Mello, Eugênio R.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we study regular cosmic string solutions of the non-Abelian Higgs model coupled with gravity. In order to develop this analysis, we constructed a set of coupled non-linear differential equations. Because there is no closed solution for this set of equations, we solve it numerically. The solutions we are interested in asymptote to a flat spacetime with a planar angle deficit. The model under consideration presents two bosonic sectors, besides the non-Abelian gauge field. The two bosonic sectors may present a direct coupling, so we investigate the relevance of this coupling on the system, specifically in the linear energy density of the string and on the planar angle deficit. We also analyze the behaviors of these quantities as a function of the energy scale where the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken.
Confinement, NonAbelian monopoles, and 2D ℂPN-1 model on the worldsheet of finite-length strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konishi, Kenichi
2017-03-01
Quark confinement is proposed to be dual Meissner effect of nonAbelian kind. Important hints come from physics of strongly-coupled infrared-fixed-point theories in N = 2 supersymmetric QCD, which turn into confining vacua under a small relevant perturbation. The quest for the semiclassical origin of these nonAbelian monopoles, ubiquitous as the infrared degrees of freedom in supersymmetric gauge theories, motivates us to study the quantum dynamics of 2D ℂPN-1 model defined on a finite-width worldstrip, with various boundary conditions. The model is found to possess a unique phase ("confinement phase"), independent of the length of the string, showing the quantum persistence of the nonAbelian monopole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Li, Hong; Zhang, Si-Qi; Ma, Ji; Liu, Ji-Ping; Liang, Yu
2017-10-01
In this paper, we have proposed S U(2) non-Abelian electromagnetism gauge theory. In the theory, photon has self-interaction and interaction between them, which can explain photon entanglement phenomenon in quantum information. Otherwise, we find there are three kinds photons γ +, γ - and γ 0, they have electric charge + e γ , - e γ and 0, respectively, these prediction are accordance with some experiment results.
Global charges of stationary non-Abelian black holes.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2003-05-02
We consider stationary axially symmetric black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory. We present a mass formula for these stationary non-Abelian black holes, which also holds for Abelian black holes. The presence of the dilaton field allows for rotating black holes, which possess nontrivial electric and magnetic gauge fields, but do not carry a non-Abelian charge. We further present a new uniqueness conjecture.
Non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions as a critical superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2017-01-01
We discuss recent progress in describing a certain non-Abelian vortex string as a critical superstring on a conifold and clarify some subtle points. This particular solitonic vortex is supported in four-dimensional supersymmetric QCD with the gauge group, N f = 4 quark flavors and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Under certain conditions, the non-Abelian vortex can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional superstring. In addition to four translational moduli, the non-Abelian vortex under consideration carries six orientational and size moduli. The vortex moduli dynamics are described by a twodimensional sigma model with the target space ℝ4 × Y 6, where Y 6 is a non-compact Calabi-Yau conifold. The closed string states that emerge in four dimensions (4D) are identified with hadrons of 4D bulk N= 2 QCD. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are non-dynamical in 4D. A single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold is found. It is interpreted as a monopole-monopole baryon of the 4D theory (at strong coupling).
Non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions as a critical superstring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2017-01-01
We discuss recent progress in describing a certain non-Abelian vortex string as a critical superstring on a conifold and clarify some subtle points. This particular solitonic vortex is supported in four-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group, N f = 4 quark flavors and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Under certain conditions the non-Abelian vortex can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional superstring. In addition to four translational moduli the non-Abelian vortex under consideration carries six orientational and size moduli. The vortex moduli dynamics are described by a twodimensional sigma model with the target space R4 × Y 6 where Y 6 is a non-compact Calabi-Yau conifold. The closed string states which emerge in four dimensions (4D) are identified with hadrons of 4D bulk N = 2 QCD. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are non-dynamical in 4D. A single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold is found. It is interpreted as a monopole-monopole baryon of the 4D theory (at strong coupling).
A new approach to non-Abelian hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Melgarejo, Jose J.; Rey, Soo-Jong; Surówka, Piotr
2017-02-01
We present a new approach to describe hydrodynamics carrying non-Abelian macroscopic degrees of freedom. Based on the Kaluza-Klein compactification of a higher-dimensional neutral dissipative fluid on a manifold of non-Abelian isometry, we obtain a four-dimensional colored dissipative fluid coupled to Yang-Mills gauge field. We derive transport coefficients of resulting colored fluid, which feature non-Abelian character of color charges. In particular, we obtain color-specific terms in the gradient expansions and response quantities such as the conductivity matrix and the chemical potentials. We argue that our Kaluza-Klein approach provides a robust description of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, and discuss some links between this system and quark-gluon plasma and fluid/gravity duality.
Chiral Lagrangians from lattice gauge theories in the strong coupling limit
Nagao, Taro; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.
2001-07-01
We derive nonlinear {sigma} models (chiral Lagrangians) over symmetric spaces U(n), U(2n)/Sp(2n), and U(2n)/O(2n) from U(N), O(N), and Sp(2N) lattice gauge theories coupled to n flavors of staggered fermions, in the large-N and g{sup 2}N limit. To this end, we employ Zirnbauer{close_quote}s color-flavor transformation. We prove the spatial homogeneity of the vacuum configurations of mesons by explicitly solving the large-N saddle point equations, and thus establish these patterns of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the above limit.
Pomeron in the N=4 supersymmetric gauge model at strong couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotikov, A. V.; Lipatov, L. N.
2013-09-01
We find the BFKL Pomeron intercept at N=4 supersymmetric gauge theory in the form of the inverse coupling expansion j0=2-2λ-λ-1+1/4λ+2(1+3ζ3)λ-2+O(λ) with the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence in terms of string energies calculated recently. The corresponding slope γ‧(2) of the anomalous dimension calculated directly up to the fifth order of perturbation theory turns out to be in an agreement with the closed expression obtained from the recent Basso results.
Non-Abelian fields in very special relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfaro, Jorge; Rivelles, Victor O.
2013-10-01
We study non-Abelian fields in the context of very special relativity (VSR). For this, we define the covariant derivative and the gauge field gauge transformations, both of them involving a fixed null vector nμ, related to the VSR breaking of the Lorentz group to the Hom(2) or Sim(2) subgroups. As in the Abelian case, the gauge field becomes massive. Moreover, we show that the VSR gauge transformations form a closed algebra. We then write actions coupling the gauge field to various matter fields (bosonic and fermionic). We mention how we can use the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism to give a flavor-dependent VSR mass to the gauge bosons. Finally, we quantize the model using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism to fix the gauge. The model is renormalizable and unitary and for non-Abelian groups, asymptotically free.
Non-Abelian dynamics in the resonant decay of the Higgs after inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi
2014-10-01
We study the resonant decay of the Higgs condensate into weak gauge bosons after inflation and estimate the corrections arising from the non-Abelian self-interactions of the gauge fields. We find that non-Abelian interaction terms induce an effective mass which tends to shut down the resonance. For the broad resonance relevant for the Standard Model Higgs the produced gauge particles backreact on the dynamics of the Higgs condensate before the non-Abelian terms grow large. The non-Abelian terms can however significantly affect the final stages of the resonance after the backreaction. In the narrow resonance regime, which may be important for extensions of the Standard Model, the non-Abelian terms affect already the linear stage and terminate the resonance before the Higgs condensate is affected by the backreaction of decay products.
Non-Abelian strings in supersymmetric Yang-Mills
Shifman, M.
2012-09-26
I give a broad review of novel phenomena discovered in certain Yang-Mills theories: non-Abelian strings and confined monopoles. Then I explain how these phenomena allow one to study strong dynamics of gauge theories in four dimensions from two-dimensional models emerging on the string world sheet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, O.; Bertulani, C. A.; Hussein, M. S.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.
2016-12-01
We propose a mirror model for ordinary and dark matter that assumes a new SU(3) gauge group of transformations, as a natural extension of the Standard Model (SM). A close study of big bang nucleosynthesis, baryon asymmetries, cosmic microwave background bounds, galaxy dynamics, together with the Standard Model assumptions, help us to set a limit on the mass and width of the new gauge boson. The cross section for the elastic scattering of a dark proton by an ordinary proton is estimated and compare to the WIMP-nucleon experimental upper bounds. It is observed that all experimental bounds for the various cross sections can be accommodated consistently within the gauge model. We also suggest a way for direct detection of the new gauge boson via one example of a SM forbidden process: e+ + p → μ + + X, where X=Λ or Λ c .
Non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions as a critical string on a conifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koroteev, P.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2016-09-01
Non-Abelian vortex strings supported in a certain four-dimensional N =2 Yang-Mills theory with fundamental matter were shown [1] to become critical superstrings. In addition to translational moduli, the non-Abelian strings under consideration carry orientational and size moduli. Their dynamics is described by the two-dimensional sigma model whose target space is a tautological bundle over the complex projective space. For the N =2 theory with the U (2 ) gauge group and four fundamental hypermultiplets, there are six orientational and size moduli. After combining with four translational moduli, they form a ten-dimensional target space, which is required for a superstring to be critical. For the theory in question, the target space of the sigma model is C2×Y6, where Y6 is a conifold. We study closed string states which emerge in four dimensions (4D) and identify them with hadrons of the 4D bulk N =2 theory. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are nondynamical in 4D. We find a single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold. We interpret this degree of freedom as a monopole-monopole baryon of the 4D theory (at strong coupling).
Critical non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions and little string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2017-08-01
As was shown recently, non-Abelian vortex strings supported in four-dimensional N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group and Nf=4 quark multiplets (flavors) become critical superstrings. In addition to the translational moduli, non-Abelian strings under consideration carry six orientational and size moduli. Together, they form a ten-dimensional target space required for a superstring to be critical. The target space of the string sigma model is a product of the flat four-dimensional space and a Calabi-Yau noncompact threefold, namely, the conifold. We study closed string states which emerge in four dimensions and identify them with hadrons of four-dimensional N =2 QCD. One massless state was found previously; it emerges as a massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold. In this paper, we find a number of massive states. To this end, we exploit the approach used in LST little string theory, namely, the equivalence between the critical string on the conifold and noncritical c =1 string with the Liouville field and a compact scalar at the self-dual radius. The states we find carry "baryonic" charge (its definition differs from standard). We interpret them as "monopole necklaces" formed (at strong coupling) by the closed string with confined monopoles attached.
Detecting non-Abelian geometric phases with three-level {Lambda} systems
Du Yanxiong; Xue Zhengyuan; Zhang Xinding; Yan Hui
2011-09-15
We show that a non-Abelian gauge potential in two nearly degenerated dressed states may be induced by two laser beams interacting with a three-level {Lambda} atomic system. We demonstrate that the populations of the atomic states at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops are dependent on the order of those two loops, showing an unambiguous signature of the non-Abelian geometric phase. Through numerical calculations, we show that the non-Abelian feature of the geometric phases can be tested under realistic conditions.
Detecting non-Abelian geometric phases with three-level Λ systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yan-Xiong; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Xin-Ding; Yan, Hui
2011-09-01
We show that a non-Abelian gauge potential in two nearly degenerated dressed states may be induced by two laser beams interacting with a three-level Λ atomic system. We demonstrate that the populations of the atomic states at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops are dependent on the order of those two loops, showing an unambiguous signature of the non-Abelian geometric phase. Through numerical calculations, we show that the non-Abelian feature of the geometric phases can be tested under realistic conditions.
Non-Abelian strings in N =1 supersymmetric QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ievlev, E.; Yung, A.
2017-06-01
Non-Abelian flux tubes (strings) are well studied in N =2 supersymmetric QCD in (3 +1 ) dimensions. In addition to translational zero modes they have also orientational moduli associated with rotations of their fluxes inside a non-Abelian group. The dynamics of the orientational moduli is described by the two-dimensional C P (N -1 ) model living on the world sheet of the non-Abelian string. In this paper we consider a deformation of N =2 supersymmetric QCD with the U (N ) gauge group and Nf=N quark flavors with a mass term μ of the adjoint matter. In the limit of large μ the theory flows to an N =1 supersymmetric QCD. We study the solution for the non-Abelian string in this limit and derive an effective theory on the string world sheet. The bosonic sector of this theory is still given by the C P (N -1 ) model but its scale is exponentially small as compared to the scale of the four-dimensional bulk theory in contrast to the N =2 case where these scales are equal. We study also the fermionic sector of the world sheet theory. Upon the deformation, the non-Abelian string is no longer Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state and we show that the fermionic superorientational zero modes are all lifted. This leaves us with the pure bosonic C P (N -1 ) model on the string world sheet in the limit of N =1 QCD. We also discuss what happens to confined monopoles at large μ .
Marginal and non-commutative deformations via non-abelian T-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, Ben; Thompson, Daniel C.
2017-02-01
In this short article we develop recent proposals to relate Yang-Baxter sigmamodels and non-abelian T-duality. We demonstrate explicitly that the holographic spacetimes associated to both (multi-parameter)- β-deformations and non-commutative deformations of N = 4 super Yang-Mills gauge theory including the RR fluxes can be obtained via the machinery of non-abelian T-duality in Type II supergravity.
Quark confinement due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru; Kato, Seikou
2012-10-23
We present recent results on quark confinement: in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, confinement of fundamental quarks is obtained due to the dual Meissner effect originated from non-Abelian magnetic monopoles defined in a gauge-invariant way, which is distinct from the well-known Abelian projection scenario. This is achieved by using a non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator and a new reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory.
Non-Abelian quantum holonomy of hydrogenlike atoms
Mousolou, Vahid Azimi; Canali, Carlo M.; Sjoeqvist, Erik
2011-09-15
We study the Uhlmann holonomy [Rep. Math. Phys. 24, 229 (1986)] of quantum states for hydrogenlike atoms where the intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum are coupled by the spin-orbit interaction and are subject to a slowly varying magnetic field. We show that the holonomy for the orbital angular momentum and spin subsystems is non-Abelian while the holonomy of the whole system is Abelian. Quantum entanglement in the states of the whole system is crucially related to the non-Abelian gauge structure of the subsystems. We analyze the phase of the Wilson loop variable associated with the Uhlmann holonomy and find a relation between the phase of the whole system and corresponding marginal phases. Based on the results for the model system, we provide evidence that the phase of the Wilson loop variable and the mixed-state geometric phase [E. Sjoeqvist et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2845 (2000).] are generally inequivalent.
Non-Abelian Born Infeld action, geometry and supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julio Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego
2005-12-01
In this work, we propose a new non-Abelian generalization of the Born Infeld Lagrangian. It is based on a geometrical property of the Abelian Born Infeld Lagrangian in its determinantal form. Our goal is to extend the Abelian second-type Born Infeld action to the non-Abelian form preserving this geometrical property, which permits us to compute the generalized volume element as a linear combination of the components of metric and the Yang Mills energy momentum tensors. Under the BPS-like condition, the action proposed reduces to that of the Yang Mills theory, independently of the gauge group. New instanton-wormhole solution and static and spherically symmetric solution in curved spacetime for an SU(2) isotopic ansatz are solved and the N= 1 supersymmetric extension of the model is performed.
Non-abelian black holes and black strings in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Betti
2009-05-01
We review the properties of static, higher dimensional black hole solutions in theories where non-abelian gauge fields are minimally coupled to gravity. It is shown that black holes with hyperspherically symmetric horizon topology do not exist in d>4, but that hyperspherically symmetric black holes can be constructed numerically in generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills models. 5-dimensional black strings with horizon topology S2xS1 are also discussed. These are so-called undeformed and deformed non-abelian black strings, which are translationally invariant and correspond to 4-dimensional non-abelian black holes trivially extended into one extra dimensions. The fact that black strings can be deformed, i.e. axially symmetric for constant values of the extra coordinate is a new feature as compared to black string solutions of Einstein (-Maxwell) theory. It is argued that these non-abelian black strings are thermodynamically unstable.
Non-Abelian geometric phase and long-range atomic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zygelman, B.
1990-01-01
It is shown how gauge fields, or geometric phases, manifest as observable effects in both bound and free diatom systems. It is shown that, in addition to altering energy splittings in bound systems, geometric phases induce transitions in levels separated by a finite-energy gap. An example is given where the non-Abelian gauge field couples nondegenerate electronic levels in a diatom. This gauge-field coupling gives rise to an observable effect. It is shown that when the diatom is 'pulled apart', the non-Abelian geometric phase manifests as a long-range atomic force.
Non-Abelian geometric phase and long-range atomic forces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zygelman, B.
1990-01-01
It is shown how gauge fields, or geometric phases, manifest as observable effects in both bound and free diatom systems. It is shown that, in addition to altering energy splittings in bound systems, geometric phases induce transitions in levels separated by a finite-energy gap. An example is given where the non-Abelian gauge field couples nondegenerate electronic levels in a diatom. This gauge-field coupling gives rise to an observable effect. It is shown that when the diatom is 'pulled apart', the non-Abelian geometric phase manifests as a long-range atomic force.
Universal attractor in a highly occupied non-Abelian plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berges, J.; Boguslavski, K.; Schlichting, S.; Venugopalan, R.
2014-06-01
We study the thermalization process in highly occupied non-Abelian plasmas at weak coupling. The nonequilibrium dynamics of such systems is classical in nature and can be simulated with real-time lattice gauge theory techniques. We provide a detailed discussion of this framework and elaborate on the results reported in J. Berges, K. Boguslavski, S. Schlichting, and R. Venugopalan, Phys. Rev. D 89, 074011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.074011 along with novel findings. We demonstrate the emergence of universal attractor solutions, which govern the nonequilibrium evolution on large time scales both for nonexpanding and expanding non-Abelian plasmas. The turbulent attractor for a nonexpanding plasma drives the system close to thermal equilibrium on a time scale t ˜Q-1αs-7/4. The attractor solution for an expanding non-Abelian plasma leads to a strongly interacting albeit highly anisotropic system at the transition to the low-occupancy or quantum regime. This evolution in the classical regime is, within the uncertainties of our simulations, consistent with the "bottom up" thermalization scenario [R. Baier, A. H. Mueller, D. Schiff, and D. T. Son, Phys. Lett. B 502, 51 (2001), 10.1016/S0370-2693(01)00191-5]. While the focus of this paper is to understand the nonequilibrium dynamics in weak coupling asymptotics, we also discuss the relevance of our results for larger couplings in the early time dynamics of heavy ion collision experiments.
Non-Abelian effects in a quadrupole system rotating around two axes
Zwanziger, J.W.; Koenig, M.; Pines, A. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA )
1990-09-01
The {sup 35}Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum of a single crystal of sodium chlorate (R. Tycko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2281 (1987)) rotating about two axes reflects a non-Abelian gauge potential. This gauge potential is an example of Wilczek and Zee's (Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2111 (1984)) generalization of Berry's phase to the adiabatic transport of degenerate states.
Non-abelian dynamics in first-order cosmological phase transitions
Johnson, Mikkel B.; Kisslinger, Leonard S.; Henley, Ernest M.; Hwang, P. W-Y.; Stevens, T.
2004-01-01
Bubble collisions in cosmological phase transitions are explored, taking the non-abelian character of the gauge fields into account. Both the QCD and electroweak phase transitions are considered. Numerical solutions of the field equations in several limits are presented. The investigations reported in this talk have been motivated by an interest in studying cosmological phase transitions quantitatively, taking the non-abelian character of the gauge fields into account. Ultimately, we hope to identify observable consequences of cosmological phase transitions. First-order phase transitions proceed by nucleation of bubbles of the broken phase in the background of the symmetric phase. Bubble collisions are of special interest, as they may lead to observable effects such as correlations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or as seeds of galactic and extra-galactic magnetic fields. The quantum chromodynamic (QCD) and the electroweak (EW) phase transitions are both candidates of interest in these respects. The Lagrangian driving both the QCD and the EW phase transitions are essentially known and make it possible to approach the physics of the phase transitions from first principles. However, a difficulty to making reliable predictions is that the fundamental guage fields in both these instances are non-abelian: the gluon field in QCD and the W and Z fields in the EW case. The quantitative role of non-abelian fields in cosmological phase transitions is poorly known and difficult to calculate due to the nonlinearities arising from the non-abelian character of the gauge fields.
Rotating black holes with non-Abelian hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2016-12-01
We here review asymptotically flat rotating black holes in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. Like their static counterparts these black holes are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. In the case of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills fields, the rotation generically induces an electric charge, while the black holes do not carry a magnetic charge. When a Higgs field is coupled, rotating black holes with monopole hair arise in the case of a Higgs triplet, while in the presence of a complex Higgs doublet the black holes carry sphaleron hair. The inclusion of a dilaton allows for Smarr type mass formulae.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iadecola, Thomas; Schuster, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio
2016-08-01
Many topological phenomena first proposed and observed in the context of electrons in solids have recently found counterparts in photonic and acoustic systems. In this work, we demonstrate that non-Abelian Berry phases can arise when coherent states of light are injected into "topological guided modes" in specially fabricated photonic waveguide arrays. These modes are photonic analogues of topological zero modes in electronic systems. Light traveling inside spatially well-separated topological guided modes can be braided, leading to the accumulation of non-Abelian phases, which depend on the order in which the guided beams are wound around one another. Notably, these effects survive the limit of large photon occupation, and can thus also be understood as wave phenomena arising directly from Maxwell's equations, without resorting to the quantization of light. We propose an optical interference experiment as a direct probe of this non-Abelian braiding of light.
Interactions of non-Abelian global strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Eiji; Nitta, Muneto; Matsuura, Taeko
2009-02-01
Non-Abelian global strings are expected to form during the chiral phase transition. They have orientational zero modes in the internal space, associated with the vector-like symmetry SUN broken in the presence of strings. The interaction among two parallel non-Abelian global strings is derived for general relative orientational zero modes, giving a non-Abelian generalization of the Magnus force. It is shown that when the orientations of the strings are the same, the repulsive force reaches the maximum, whereas when the relative orientation becomes the maximum, no force exists between the strings. For the Abelian case we find a finite volume correction to the known result. The marginal instability of the previously known Abelian η strings is discussed.
Quantisation of monopoles with non-abelian magnetic charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bais, F. A.; Schroers, B. J.
1998-02-01
Magnetic monopoles in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with a non-abelian unbroken gauge group are classified by holomorphic charges in addition to the topological charges familiar from the abelian case. As a result the moduli spaces of monopoles of given topological charge are stratified according to the holomorphic charges. Here the physical consequences of the stratification are explored in the case where the gauge group SU(3) is broken to U(2). The description due to Dancer of the moduli space of charge-two monopoles is reviewed and interpreted physically in terms of non-abelian magnetic dipole moments. Semi-classical quantisation leads to dyonic states which are labelled by a magnetic charge and a representation of the subgroup of U(2) which leaves the magnetic charge invariant (centraliser subgroup). A key result of this paper is that these states fall into representations of the semi-direct product U(2) ⋉ R4. The combination rules (Clebsch-Gordan coefficients) of dyonic states can thus be deduced. Electric-magnetic duality properties of the theory are discussed in the light of our results, and supersymmetric dyonic BPS states which fill the SL(2, Z) orbit of the basic massive W-bosons are found.
Matrix product states and the non-Abelian rotor model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milsted, Ashley
2016-04-01
We use uniform matrix product states to study the (1 +1 )D O (2 ) and O (4 ) rotor models, which are equivalent to the Kogut-Susskind formulation of matter-free non-Abelian lattice gauge theory on a "Hawaiian earring" graph for U (1 ) and S U (2 ), respectively. Applying tangent space methods to obtain ground states and determine the mass gap and the β function, we find excellent agreement with known results, locating the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for O (2 ) and successfully entering the asymptotic weak-coupling regime for O (4 ). To obtain a finite local Hilbert space, we truncate in the space of generalized Fourier modes of the gauge group, comparing the effects of different cutoff values. We find that higher modes become important in the crossover and weak-coupling regimes of the non-Abelian theory, where entanglement also suddenly increases. This could have important consequences for tensor network state studies of Yang-Mills on higher-dimensional graphs.
Vortex states in a non-Abelian magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, Predrag
2016-08-01
A type-II superconductor survives in an external magnetic field by admitting an Abrikosov lattice of quantized vortices. This is an imprint of the Aharonov-Bohm effect created by the Abelian U(1) gauge field. The simplest non-Abelian analog of such a gauge field, which belongs to the SU(2) symmetry group, can be found in topological insulators. Here we discover a superconducting ground state with a lattice of SU(2) vortices in a simple two-dimensional model that presents an SU(2) "magnetic" field (invariant under time reversal) to attractively interacting fermions. The model directly captures the correlated topological insulator quantum well, and approximates one channel for instabilities on the Kondo topological insulator surface. Due to its simplicity, the model might become amenable to cold atom simulations in the foreseeable future. The vitality of low-energy vortex states born out of SU(2) magnetic fields is promising for the creation of incompressible vortex liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.
Non-Abelian bubbles in microstate geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramírez, Pedro F.
2016-11-01
We find the first smooth bubbling microstate geometries with non-Abelian fields. The solutions constitute an extension of the BPS three-charge smooth microstates. These consist in general families of regular supersymmetric solutions with non-trivial topology, i.e. bubbles, of {N}=d , d = 5 Super-Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, having the asymptotic charges of a black hole or black ring but with no horizon. The non-Abelian fields make their presence at the very heart of the microstate structure: the physical size of the bubbles is affected by the non-Abelian topological charge they carry, which combines with the Abelian flux threading the bubbles to hold them up. Interestingly the non-Abelian fields carry a set of adjustable continuous parameters that do not alter the asymptotics of the solutions but modify the local geometry. This feature can be used to obtain a classically infinite number of microstate solutions with the asymptotics of a single black hole or black ring.
The existence of self-dual vortices in a non-Abelian {Phi}{sup 2} Chern-Simons theory
Chen Shouxin; Wang Ying
2010-09-15
Applying the dynamic shooting method, we proved the existence of nontopological radially symmetric n-vortex solutions to the self-dual equation in non-Abelian Chern-Simons gauge theory with a {Phi}{sup 2}-type potential. Moreover, we obtained all possible radially symmetric nontopological bare (or 0-vortex) solutions in the non-Abelian Chern-Simons model. Meanwhile, we established the asymptotic behavior for the solutions as |x|{yields}{infinity}.
CP(N-1) model on a disk and decay of a non-Abelian string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorsky, A.; Milekhin, A.
2013-10-01
We consider the role of quantum effects in the nonperturbative decay of the non-Abelian string with orientational moduli in nonsupersymmetric D=4 gauge theory. To this aim the effective action in the CP(N-1) model on a disk at large N has been calculated. It exhibits a phase transition at some radius, the “wrong sign” Luscher term, and a large boundary boojumlike negative contribution. The effect of the θ term and the possibility of the spontaneous creation of the non-Abelian string are briefly discussed.
Reissner-Nordström black holes with non-Abelian hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herdeiro, Carlos; Paturyan, Vanush; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.
2017-09-01
We consider d ⩾ 4 Einstein-(extended-)Yang-Mills theory, where the gauge sector is augmented by higher order terms. Linearising the (extended) Yang-Mills equations on the background of the electric Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole, we show the existence of normalisable zero modes, dubbed non-Abelian magnetic stationary clouds. The non-linear realisation of these clouds bifurcates the RN family into a branch of static, spherically symmetric, electrically charged and asymptotically flat black holes with non-Abelian hair. Generically, the hairy black holes are thermodynamically preferred over the RN solution, which, in this model, becomes unstable against the formation of non-Abelian hair, for sufficiently large values of the electric charge.
Field theory aspects of non-Abelian T-duality and {N} =2 linear quivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozano, Yolanda; Núñez, Carlos
2016-05-01
In this paper we propose a linear quiver with gauge groups of increasing rank as field theory dual to the AdS 5 background constructed by Sfetsos and Thompson through non-Abelian T-duality. The formalism to study 4d {N} = 2 SUSY CFTs developed by Gaiotto and Maldacena is essential for our proposal. We point out an interesting relation between (Hopf) Abelian and non-Abelian T-dual backgrounds that allows to see both backgrounds as different limits of a solution constructed by Maldacena and Núñez. This suggests different completions of the long quiver describing the CFT dual to the nonAbelian T-dual background that match different observables.
Topology, and (in)stability of non-Abelian monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Peng-Ming; Horvathy, Peter A.; Rawnsley, John
2012-01-01
The stability problem of non-Abelian monopoles with respect to "Brandt-Neri-Coleman type" variations reduces to that of a pure gauge theory on the two-sphere. Each topological sector admits exactly one stable monopole charge, and each unstable monopole admits 2∑(2|q|-1) negative modes, where the sum goes over the negative eigenvalues q of an operator related to the non-Abelian charge Q of Goddard, Nuyts and Olive. An explicit construction for the [up-to-conjugation] unique stable charge, as well as the negative modes of the Hessian at any other charge is given. The relation to loops in the residual group is explained. From the global point of view, the instability is associated with energy-reducing two-spheres, which, consistently with the Morse theory, generate the homology of the configuration space. Our spheres are tangent to the negative modes at the considered critical point, and may indicate possible decay routes of an unstable monopole as a cascade into lower lying critical points.
Dual computations of non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherrington, J. Wade; Christensen, J. Daniel; Khavkine, Igor
2007-11-01
In the past several decades there have been a number of proposals for computing with dual forms of non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories on the lattice. Motivated by the gauge-invariant, geometric picture offered by dual models and successful applications of duality in the U(1) case, we revisit the question of whether it is practical to perform numerical computation using non-Abelian dual models. Specifically, we consider three-dimensional SU(2) pure Yang-Mills as an accessible yet nontrivial case in which the gauge group is non-Abelian. Using methods developed recently in the context of spin foam quantum gravity, we derive an algorithm for efficiently computing the dual amplitude and describe Metropolis moves for sampling the dual ensemble. We relate our algorithms to prior work in non-Abelian dual computations of Hari Dass and his collaborators, addressing several problems that have been left open. We report results of spin expectation value computations over a range of lattice sizes and couplings that are in agreement with our conventional lattice computations. We conclude with an outlook on further development of dual methods and their application to problems of current interest.
Critical string from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2015-09-25
In a class of non-Abelian solitonic vortex strings supported in certain N = 2 super-Yang–Mills theories we search for the vortex which can behave as a critical fundamental string. We use the Polchinski–Strominger criterion of the ultraviolet completeness. We identify an appropriate four-dimensional bulk theory: it has the U(2) gauge group, the Fayet–Iliopoulos term and four flavor hypermultiplets. It supports semilocal vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational (size) moduli described by the weighted CP(2,2) model. The latter is superconformal. Its target space is six-dimensional. The overall Virasoro central charge is critical. Lastly, we show that the world-sheet theory onmore » the vortex supported in this bulk model is the bona fide critical string.« less
Critical string from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2015-11-01
In a class of non-Abelian solitonic vortex strings supported in certain N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theories we search for the vortex which can behave as a critical fundamental string. We use the Polchinski-Strominger criterion of the ultraviolet completeness. We identify an appropriate four-dimensional bulk theory: it has the U (2) gauge group, the Fayet-Iliopoulos term and four flavor hypermultiplets. It supports semilocal vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational (size) moduli described by the weighted CP (2 , 2) model. The latter is superconformal. Its target space is six-dimensional. The overall Virasoro central charge is critical. We show that the world-sheet theory on the vortex supported in this bulk model is the bona fide critical string.
Non-Abelian topological spin liquids from arrays of quantum wires or spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Po-Hao; Chen, Jyong-Hao; Gomes, Pedro R. S.; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2016-05-01
We construct two-dimensional non-Abelian topologically ordered states by strongly coupling arrays of one-dimensional quantum wires via interactions. In our scheme, all charge degrees of freedom are gapped, so the construction can use either quantum wires or quantum spin chains as building blocks, with the same end result. The construction gaps the degrees of freedom in the bulk, while leaving decoupled states at the edges that are described by conformal field theories (CFT) in (1 +1 ) -dimensional space and time. We consider both the cases where time-reversal symmetry (TRS) is present or absent. When TRS is absent, the edge states are chiral and stable. We prescribe, in particular, how to arrive at all the edge states described by the unitary CFT minimal models with central charges c <1 . These non-Abelian spin liquid states have vanishing quantum Hall conductivities, but nonzero thermal ones. When TRS is present, we describe scenarios where the bulk state can be a non-Abelian, nonchiral, and gapped quantum spin liquid, or a gapless one. In the former case, we find that the edge states are also gapped. The paper provides a brief review of non-Abelian bosonization and affine current algebras, with the purpose of being self-contained. To illustrate the methods in a warm-up exercise, we recover the tenfold way classification of two-dimensional noninteracting topological insulators using the Majorana representation that naturally arises within non-Abelian bosonization. Within this scheme, the classification reduces to counting the number of null singular values of a mass matrix, with gapless edge modes present when left and right null eigenvectors exist.
Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions
Calzetta, E.
2014-01-14
The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.
Non-Abelian hydrodynamics and the flow of spin in spin orbit coupled substances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leurs, B. W. A.; Nazario, Z.; Santiago, D. I.; Zaanen, J.
2008-04-01
Motivated by the heavy ion collision experiments there is much activity in studying the hydrodynamical properties of non-Abelian (quark-gluon) plasmas. A major question is how to deal with color currents. Although not widely appreciated, quite similar issues arise in condensed matter physics in the context of the transport of spins in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The key insight is that the Pauli Hamiltonian governing the leading relativistic corrections in condensed matter systems can be rewritten in a language of SU(2) covariant derivatives where the role of the non-Abelian gauge fields is taken by the physical electromagnetic fields: the Pauli system can be viewed as Yang-Mills quantum-mechanics in a 'fixed frame', and it can be viewed as an 'analogous system' for non-Abelian transport in the same spirit as Volovik's identification of the He superfluids as analogies for quantum fields in curved space time. We take a similar perspective as Jackiw and coworkers in their recent study of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, twisting the interpretation into the 'fixed frame' context, to find out what this means for spin transport in condensed matter systems. We present an extension of Jackiw's scheme: non-Abelian hydrodynamical currents can be factored in a 'non-coherent' classical part, and a coherent part requiring macroscopic non-Abelian quantum entanglement. Hereby it becomes particularly manifest that non-Abelian fluid flow is a much richer affair than familiar hydrodynamics, and this permits us to classify the various spin transport phenomena in condensed matter physics in an unifying framework. The "particle based hydrodynamics" of Jackiw et al. is recognized as the high temperature spin transport associated with semiconductor spintronics. In this context the absence of faithful hydrodynamics is well known, but in our formulation it is directly associated with the fact that the covariant conservation of non-Abelian currents turns into a disastrous non
Non-Abelian statistics of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions.
Yasui, Shigehiro; Hirono, Yuji; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto
2013-05-01
We extend our previous analysis on the exchange statistics of vortices having a single Dirac fermion trapped in each core to the case where vortices trap two Dirac fermions with U(2) symmetry. Such a system of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions appears in color superconductors at extremely high densities and in supersymmetric QCD. We show that the exchange of two vortices having doublet Dirac fermions in each core is expressed by non-Abelian representations of a braid group, which is explicitly verified in the matrix representation of the exchange operators when the number of vortices is up to four. We find that the result contains the matrices previously obtained for the vortices with a single Dirac fermion in each core as a special case. The whole braid group does not immediately imply non-Abelian statistics of identical particles because it also contains exchanges between vortices with different numbers of Dirac fermions. However, we find that it does contain, as its subgroup, genuine non-Abelian statistics for the exchange of the identical particles, that is, vortices with the same number of Dirac fermions. This result is surprising compared with conventional understanding because all Dirac fermions are defined locally at each vortex, unlike the case of Majorana fermions for which Dirac fermions are defined nonlocally by Majorana fermions located at two spatially separated vortices.
Non-Abelian statistics in the fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, X. G.
1991-02-01
The fractional quantum Hall states with non-Abelian statistics are studied. Those states are shown to be characterized by non-Abelian topological orders and are identified with some of the Jain states. The gapless edge states are found to be described by non-Abelian Kac-Moody algebras. It is argued that the topological orders and the associated properties are robust against any kinds of small perturbations.
Bilayer quantum Hall phase transitions and the orbifold non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states
Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang
2011-09-15
We study continuous quantum phase transitions that can occur in bilayer fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems as the interlayer tunneling and interlayer repulsion are tuned. We introduce a slave-particle gauge theory description of a series of continuous transitions from the (ppq) Abelian bilayer states to a set of non-Abelian FQH states, which we dub orbifold FQH states, of which the Z{sub 4} parafermion (Read-Rezayi) state is a special case. This provides an example in which Z{sub 2} electron fractionalization leads to non-Abelian topological phases. The naive ''ideal'' wave functions and ideal Hamiltonians associated with these orbifold states do not in general correspond to incompressible phases but, instead, lie at a nearby critical point. We discuss this unusual situation from the perspective of the pattern-of-zeros/vertex algebra frameworks and discuss implications for the conceptual foundations of these approaches. Due to the proximity in the phase diagram of these non-Abelian states to the (ppq) bilayer states, they may be experimentally relevant, both as candidates for describing the plateaus in single-layer systems at filling fractions 8/3 and 12/5 and as a way to tune to non-Abelian states in double-layer or wide quantum wells.
New Solutions for Non-Abelian Cosmic Strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J.
2016-12-01
We study the properties of classical vortex solutions in a non-Abelian gauge theory. A system of two adjoint Higgs fields breaks the SU(2) gauge symmetry to Z2 , producing 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles trapped on cosmic strings, termed beads; there are two charges of monopole and two degenerate string solutions. The strings break an accidental discrete Z2 symmetry of the theory, explaining the degeneracy of the ground state. Further symmetries of the model, not previously appreciated, emerge when the masses of the two adjoint Higgs fields are degenerate. The breaking of the enlarged discrete symmetry gives rise to additional string solutions and splits the monopoles into four types of "semipole": kink solutions that interpolate between the string solutions, classified by a complex gauge-invariant magnetic flux and a Z4 charge. At special values of the Higgs self-couplings, the accidental symmetry broken by the string is continuous, giving rise to supercurrents on the strings. The SU(2) theory can be embedded in a wide class of grand unified theories (GUTs), including SO(10). We argue that semipoles and supercurrents are generic on GUT strings.
Non-Abelian strings in high-density QCD: Zero modes and interactions
Nakano, Eiji; Nitta, Muneto; Matsuura, Taeko
2008-08-15
The most fundamental strings in high-density color superconductivity are the non-Abelian semisuperfluid strings which have color-gauge flux tubes but behave as superfluid vortices in the energetic point of view. We show that in addition to the usual translational zero modes, these vortices have normalizable orientational zero modes in the internal space, associated with the color-flavor locking symmetry broken in the presence of the strings. The interaction among two parallel non-Abelian semisuperfluid strings is derived for general relative orientational zero modes to show the universal repulsion. This implies that the previously known superfluid vortices, formed by spontaneously broken U(1){sub B}, are unstable to decay. Moreover, our result proves the stability of color superconductors in the presence of external color-gauge fields.
Exact Solution of the One-Dimensional Non-Abelian Coulomb Gas at Large {ital N}
Semenoff, G.W.; Tirkkonen, O.; Zarembo, K. |
1996-09-01
The problem of computing the thermodynamic properties of a one-dimensional gas of particles which transform in the adjoint representation of the gauge group and interact through non-Abelian electric fields is formulated and solved in the large {ital N} limit. The explicit solution exhibits a first order confinement-deconfinement phase transition with computable properties and describes two-dimensional adjoint QCD in the limit where matter field masses are large. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Quantum walks with non-Abelian anyons.
Lehman, Lauri; Zatloukal, Vaclav; Brennen, Gavin K; Pachos, Jiannis K; Wang, Zhenghan
2011-06-10
We study the single particle dynamics of a mobile non-Abelian anyon hopping around many pinned anyons on a surface, by modeling it with a discrete time quantum walk. During the evolution, the spatial degree of freedom of the mobile anyon becomes entangled with the fusion degrees of freedom of the collective system. Each quantum trajectory makes a closed braid on the world lines of the particles establishing a direct connection between statistical dynamics and quantum link invariants. We find that asymptotically a mobile Ising model anyon becomes so entangled with its environment that its statistical dynamics reduces to a classical random walk with linear dispersion in contrast to particles with Abelian statistics which have quadratic dispersion.
Fractional Fermions with Non-Abelian Statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2013-03-01
We introduce a novel class of low-dimensional topological tight-binding models that allow for bound states that are fractionally charged fermions and exhibit non-Abelian braiding statistics. The proposed model consists of a double (single) ladder of spinless (spinful) fermions in the presence of magnetic fields. We study the system analytically in the continuum limit as well as numerically in the tight-binding representation. We find a topological phase transition with a topological gap that closes and reopens as a function of system parameters and chemical potential. The topological phase is of the type BDI and carries two degenerate midgap bound states that are localized at opposite ends of the ladders. We show numerically that these bound states are robust against a wide class of perturbations.
Condensation of an ideal gas obeying non-Abelian statistics.
Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein
2011-09-01
We consider the thermodynamic geometry of an ideal non-Abelian gas. We show that, for a certain value of the fractional parameter and at the relevant maximum value of fugacity, the thermodynamic curvature has a singular point. This indicates a condensation such as Bose-Einstein condensation for non-Abelian statistics and we work out the phase transition temperature in various dimensions.
Non-Abelian black hole solutions in supergravity
Meessen, P.
2009-05-01
In this contribution we shall discuss some analytic examples of non-Abelian black holes in a specific N = 2 d = 4 supergravity theory. Some remarks will be made on a possible non-Abelian version of the attractor mechanism, that works in the Abelian theories.
Non-Abelian global strings at chiral phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, Muneto; Shiiki, Noriko
2008-01-01
We construct non-Abelian global string solutions in the UN×UN linear sigma model. These strings are the most fundamental objects which are expected to form during the chiral phase transitions, because the Abelian η string is marginally decomposed into N of them. We point out Nambu Goldstone modes of CP for breaking of SUN arise around a non-Abelian vortex.
Non-Abelian dark matter and dark radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buen-Abad, Manuel A.; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo; Schmaltz, Martin
2015-07-01
We propose a new class of dark matter models with unusual phenomenology. What is ordinary about our models is that dark matter particles are weakly interacting massive particles; they are weakly coupled to the standard model and have weak scale masses. What is unusual is that they come in multiplets of a new dark non-Abelian gauge group with milliweak coupling. The massless dark gluons of this dark gauge group contribute to the energy density of the Universe as a form of weakly self-interacting dark radiation. In this paper we explore the consequences of having (i) dark matter in multiplets, (ii) self-interacting dark radiation, and (iii) dark matter which is weakly coupled to dark radiation. We find that (i) dark matter cross sections are modified by multiplicity factors which have significant consequences for collider searches and indirect detection, and (ii) dark gluons have thermal abundances which affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as dark radiation. Unlike additional massless neutrino species the dark gluons are interacting and have vanishing viscosity and (iii) the coupling of dark radiation to dark matter represents a new mechanism for damping the large scale structure power spectrum. A combination of additional radiation and slightly damped structure is interesting because it can remove tensions between global Λ CDM fits from the CMB and direct measurements of the Hubble expansion rate (H0) and large scale structure (σ8).
Non-Abelian Dual Superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills Theory Due to Non-Abelian Magnetic Monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
The dual superconductivity is the promising mechanism for quark confinement. We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, and already presented numerical evidences for the restricted field dominance and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension, by applying our new formulation of Yang-Mills theory to a lattice. In this talk, we focus on the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect and the type of dual superconductivity. We find that the measured chromo-electric flux tube between a quark and antiquark pair strongly supports the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect due to non-Abelian magnetic monopoles. Moreover, we give a remarkable result that the type of the resulting dual superconductor is the type I in SU(3) Yang-Mills, rather than the border between the type I and II, in marked contrast to the SU(2) case.
Holographic nonlinear hydrodynamics from AdS/CFT with multiple/non-abelian symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torabian, Mahdi; Yee, Ho-Ung
2009-08-01
We study viscous hydrodynamics of hot conformal field theory plasma with multiple/non-Abelian symmetries in the framework of AdS/CFT correspondence, using a recently proposed method of directly solving bulk gravity in derivative expansion of local plasma parameters. Our motivation is to better describe the real QCD plasma produced at RHIC, incorporating its U(1)Nf flavor symmetry as well as SU(2)I non-Abelian iso-spin symmetry. As concrete examples, we choose to study the STU model for multiple U(1)3 symmetries, which is a sub-sector of 5D N=4 gauged SUGRA dual to N=4 Super Yang-Mills theory, capturing Cartan U(1)3 dynamics inside the full R-symmetry. For SU(2), we analyze the minimal 4D N=3 gauged SUGRA whose bosonic action is simply an Einstein-Yang-Mills system, which corresponds to SU(2) R-symmetry dynamics on M2-branes at a Hyper-Kahler cone. By generalizing the bosonic action to arbitrary dimensions and Lie groups, we present our analysis and results for any non-Abelian plasma in arbitrary dimensions.
Non-Abelian vortices on a cylinder: Duality between vortices and walls
Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke; Ohta, Kazutoshi
2006-04-15
We investigate vortices on a cylinder in supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theory with hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. We identify moduli space of periodic vortices and find that a pair of wall-like objects appears as the vortex moduli is varied. Usual domain walls also can be obtained from the single vortex on the cylinder by introducing a twisted boundary condition. We can understand these phenomena as a T duality among D-brane configurations in type II superstring theories. Using this T-duality picture, we find a one-to-one correspondence between the moduli space of non-Abelian vortices and that of kinky D-brane configurations for domain walls.
Lattice spin models for non-Abelian chiral spin liquids
Lecheminant, P.; Tsvelik, A. M.
2017-04-26
Here, we suggest a class of two-dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonians describing non-Abelian SU(2) chiral spin liquids—spin analogs of fractional non-Abelian quantum Hall states—with gapped bulk and gapless chiral edge excitations described by the SU(2)n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory. The models are constructed from an array of generalized spin-n/2 ladders with multi-spin-exchange interactions which are coupled by isolated spins. Such models allow a controllable analytic treatment starting from the one-dimensional limit and are characterized by a bulk gap and non-Abelian SU(2)n gapless edge excitations.
More on the Abrikosov strings with non-Abelian moduli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Tallarita, Gianni; Yung, Alexei
2014-04-01
We continue explorations of deformed Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) strings, with non-Abelian moduli on the worldsheet. In a simple model with an extra field, we find classically stable ANO and non-Abelian strings. The tension of the latter is a few percent lower than the tension of the ANO string. Then, we calculate the interpolating field configuration. Once the kink mass Mk and the difference of tensions ΔT are found, we calculate the decay rate of the ANO string with a higher tension ("false vacuum") into the non-Abelian string with the lower tension ("genuine vacuum") through the "bubble" formation in the quasiclassical approximation.
Non-Abelian vortex dynamics: effective world-sheet action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bjarke Gudnason, Sven; Jiang, Yunguo; Konishi, Kenichi
2010-08-01
The low-energy vortex effective actionis constructed in a wide class of systems in a color-flavor locked vacuum, which generalizes the results found earlier in the context of U( N) models. It describes the weak fluctuations of the non-Abelian orientational moduli on the vortex worldsheet. For instance, for the minimum vortex in SO(2 N) × U(1) or USp(2 N) × U(1)gauge theories, the effective action found is a two-dimensional sigma model living on the Hermitian symmetric spaces SO(2 N) /U( N) or USp(2 N) /U( N), respectively. The fluctuating moduli have the structure of that of a quantum particle state in spinor representations of the GNO dual ofthe color-flavor SO(2 N) C+ F or USp(2 N) C+ F symmetry, i.e. of SO(2 N) or of SO(2 N + 1). Applied to the benchmark U( N) model our procedure reproduces the known mathbb{C}{P^{N - 1}} worldsheet action; our recipe allows us to obtain also the effective vortex action for some higher-winding vortices in U( N) and SO(2 N) theories.
Quantum equivalence of noncommutative and Yang-Mills gauge theories in 2D and matrix theory
Ydri, Badis
2007-05-15
We construct noncommutative U(1) gauge theory on the fuzzy sphere S{sub N}{sup 2} as a unitary 2Nx2N matrix model. In the quantum theory the model is equivalent to a non-Abelian U(N) Yang-Mills theory on a two-dimensional lattice with two plaquettes. This equivalence holds in the 'fuzzy sphere' phase where we observe a 3rd order phase transition between weak-coupling and strong-coupling phases of the gauge theory. In the matrix phase we have a U(N) gauge theory on a single point.
Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio
2017-09-01
We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsudo, Ryutaro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2015-12-01
We give a gauge-independent definition of magnetic monopoles in the S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory through the Wilson loop operator. For this purpose, we give an explicit proof of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of the S U (N ) gauge group to derive a new form for the non-Abelian Stokes theorem. The new form is used to extract the magnetic-monopole contribution to the Wilson loop operator in a gauge-invariant way, which enables us to discuss confinement of quarks in any representation from the viewpoint of the dual superconductor vacuum.
Wilson loop and magnetic monopole through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2008-04-15
I show that the Wilson loop operator for the SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge connection is exactly rewritten in terms of conserved gauge-invariant magnetic and electric currents through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem of the Diakonov-Petrov type. Here the magnetic current originates from the magnetic monopole derived in the gauge-invariant way from the pure Yang-Mills theory even in the absence of the Higgs scalar field, in sharp contrast to the 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole in the Georgi-Glashow gauge-Higgs model. The resulting representation indicates that the Wilson loop operator in fundamental representations can be a probe for a single magnetic monopole irrespective of N in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, against the conventional wisdom. Moreover, I show that the quantization condition for the magnetic charge follows from the fact that the non-Abelian Stokes theorem does not depend on the surface chosen for writing the surface integral. The obtained geometrical and topological representations of the Wilson loop operator have important implications to understanding quark confinement according to the dual superconductor picture.
Wilson loop and magnetic monopole through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2008-04-01
I show that the Wilson loop operator for the SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge connection is exactly rewritten in terms of conserved gauge-invariant magnetic and electric currents through a non-Abelian Stokes theorem of the Diakonov-Petrov type. Here the magnetic current originates from the magnetic monopole derived in the gauge-invariant way from the pure Yang-Mills theory even in the absence of the Higgs scalar field, in sharp contrast to the ’t Hooft Polyakov magnetic monopole in the Georgi-Glashow gauge-Higgs model. The resulting representation indicates that the Wilson loop operator in fundamental representations can be a probe for a single magnetic monopole irrespective of N in SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, against the conventional wisdom. Moreover, I show that the quantization condition for the magnetic charge follows from the fact that the non-Abelian Stokes theorem does not depend on the surface chosen for writing the surface integral. The obtained geometrical and topological representations of the Wilson loop operator have important implications to understanding quark confinement according to the dual superconductor picture.
Chaos in Non-Abelian Gauge Fields, Gravity and Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matinyan, S. G.
2002-12-01
This talk describes the evolution of studies of chaos in Yang-Mills fields, gravity, and cosmology. The main subject is a BKL regime near the singularity t = 0 and its survival in higher dimensions and in string theory. We also describe the recent progress in the search for particle-like solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system (monopoles and dyons), colored black holes and the problem of their stability.
Non-Abelian black string solutions of N = (2,0) , d = 6 supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cano, Pablo A.; Ortín, Tomás; Santoli, Camilla
2016-12-01
We show that, when compactified on a circle, N = (2, 0), d = 6 supergravity coupled to 1 tensor multiplet and n V vector multiplets is dual to N = (2 , 0) , d = 6 supergravity coupled to just n T = n V + 1 tensor multiplets and no vector multiplets. Both theories reduce to the same models of N = 2 , d = 5 supergravity coupled to n V 5 = n V + 2 vector fields. We derive Buscher rules that relate solutions of these theories (and of the theory that one obtains by dualizing the 3-form field strength) admitting an isometry. Since the relations between the fields of N = 2 , d = 5 supergravity and those of the 6-dimensional theories are the same with or without gaugings, we construct supersymmetric non-Abelian solutions of the 6-dimensional gauged theories by uplifting the recently found 5-dimensional supersymmetric non-Abelian black-hole solutions. The solutions describe the usual superpositions of strings and waves supplemented by a BPST instanton in the transverse directions, similar to the gauge dyonic string of Duff, Lü and Pope. One of the solutions obtained interpolates smoothly between two AdS3× S3 geometries with different radii.
Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking
Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.
2009-08-01
Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.
Mesons from (non) Abelian T-dual backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Núñez, Carlos; Zoakos, Dimitrios
2017-01-01
In this work we study mesonic excitations in a Quantum Field Theory dual to the non Abelian T-dual of AdS 5 × S 5, using a D6 brane probe on the Sfetsos-Thompson background. Before and after the duality, we observe interesting differences between the spectra and interpret them. The spectrum of masses and the interactions between mesonic excitations teach valuable lessons about the character of non-Abelian T-duality and its implications for Holography. The case of Abelian T-duality is also studied.
Non-Abelian anyons: when Ising meets Fibonacci.
Grosfeld, E; Schoutens, K
2009-08-14
We consider an interface between two non-Abelian quantum Hall states: the Moore-Read state, supporting Ising anyons, and the k=2 non-Abelian spin-singlet state, supporting Fibonacci anyons. It is shown that the interface supports neutral excitations described by a (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge c=7/10. We discuss effects of the mismatch of the quantum statistical properties of the quasiholes between the two sides, as reflected by the interface theory.
Cosmological particle production at strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rangamani, Mukund; Rozali, Moshe; Van Raamsdonk, Mark
2015-09-01
We study the dynamics of a strongly-coupled quantum field theory in a cosmological spacetime using the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence. Specifically we consider a confining gauge theory in an expanding FRW universe and track the evolution of the stress-energy tensor during a period of expansion, varying the initial temperature as well as the rate and amplitude of the expansion. At strong coupling, particle production is inseparable from entropy production. Consequently, we find significant qualitative differences from the weak coupling results: at strong coupling the system rapidly loses memory of its initial state as the amplitude is increased. Furthermore, in the regime where the Hubble parameter is much smaller than the initial temperature, the dynamics is well-modelled as a plasma evolving hydrodynamically.
Existence theorems for non-Abelian Chern-Simons-Higgs vortices with flavor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shouxin; Han, Xiaosen; Lozano, Gustavo; Schaposnik, Fidel A.
2015-09-01
In this paper we establish the existence of vortex solutions for a Chern-Simons-Higgs model with gauge group SU (N) × U (1) and flavor SU (N). These symmetries ensure the existence of genuine non-Abelian vortices through a color-flavor locking. Under a suitable ansatz we reduce the problem to a 2 × 2 system of nonlinear elliptic equations with exponential terms. We study this system over the full plane and over a doubly periodic domain, respectively. For the planar case we use a variational argument to establish the existence result and derive the decay estimates of the solutions. Over the doubly periodic domain we show that the system admits at least two gauge-distinct solutions carrying the same physical energy by using a constrained minimization approach and the mountain-pass theorem. In both cases we get the quantized vortex magnetic fluxes and electric charges.
Non-Abelian chiral instabilities at high temperature on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akamatsu, Yukinao; Rothkopf, Alexander; Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-03-01
We report on an exploratory lattice study on the phenomenon of chiral instabilities in non-Abelian gauge theories at high temperature. It is based on a recently constructed anomalous Langevin-type effective theory of classical soft gauge fields in the presence of a chiral number density n 5 = n R - n L. Evaluated in thermal equilibrium using classical lattice techniques it reveals that the fluctuating soft fields indeed exhibit a rapid energy increase at early times and we observe a clear dependence of the diffusion rate of topological charge (sphaleron rate) on the the initial n 5, relevant in both early universe baryogenesis and relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The topological charge furthermore shows a drift among distinct vacuum sectors, roughly proportional to the initial n 5 and in turn the chiral imbalance is monotonously reduced as required by helicity conservation.
Phase diagram of a non-Abelian Aubry-André-Harper model with p -wave superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Liu, Xia-Ji; Xianlong, Gao; Hu, Hui
2016-03-01
We study theoretically a one-dimensional quasiperiodic Fermi system with topological p -wave superfluidity, which can be deduced from a topologically nontrivial tight-binding model on the square lattice in a uniform magnetic field and subject to a non-Abelian gauge field. The system may be regarded as a non-Abelian generalization of the well-known Aubry-André-Harper model. We investigate its phase diagram as a function of the strength of the quasidisorder and the amplitude of the p -wave order parameter through a number of numerical investigations, including a multifractal analysis. There are four distinct phases separated by three critical lines, i.e., two phases with all extended wave functions [(I) and (IV)], a topologically trivial phase (II) with all localized wave functions, and a critical phase (III) with all multifractal wave functions. Phase (I) is related to phase (IV) by duality. It also seems to be related to phase (II) by duality. Our proposed phase diagram may be observable in current cold-atom experiments, in view of simulating non-Abelian gauge fields and topological insulators/superfluids with ultracold atoms.
Some novel features in 2D non-Abelian theory: BRST approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivas, N.; Kumar, S.; Kureel, B. K.; Malik, R. P.
2017-08-01
Within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we discuss some novel features of a two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory (without any interaction with matter fields). Besides the usual off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, we discuss the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommutating (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations. Particularly, we lay emphasis on the existence of the coupled (but equivalent) Lagrangian densities of the 2D non-Abelian theory in view of the presence of (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations where we pin-point some novel features associated with the Curci-Ferrari (CF-)type restrictions. We demonstrate that these CF-type restrictions can be incorporated into the (anti-)co-BRST invariant Lagrangian densities through the fermionic Lagrange multipliers which carry specific ghost numbers. The modified versions of the Lagrangian densities (where we get rid of the new CF-type restrictions) respect some precise symmetries as well as a couple of symmetries with CF-type constraints. These observations are completely novel as far as the BRST formalism, with proper (anti-)co-BRST symmetries, is concerned.
On multifield Born and Born-Infeld theories and their non-Abelian generalizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Trigiante, Mario
2016-10-01
Starting from a recently proposed linear formulation in terms of auxiliary fields, we study n-field generalizations of Born and Born-Infeld theories. In this description the Lagrangian is quadratic in the vector field strengths and the symmetry properties (including the characteristic self-duality) of the corresponding non-linear theory are manifest as on-shell duality symmetries and depend on the choice of the (homogeneous) manifold spanned by the auxiliary scalar fields and the symplectic frame. By suitably choosing these defining properties of the quadratic Lagrangian, we are able to reproduce some known multi-field Born-Infeld theories and to derive new non-linear models, such as the n-field Born theory. We also discuss non-Abelian generalizations of these theories obtained by choosing the vector fields in the adjoint representation of an off-shell compact global symmetry group K and replacing them by non-Abelian, K-covariant field strengths, thus promoting K to a gauge group.
Exotic Non-Abelian Topological Defects in Lattice Fractional Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhao; Möller, Gunnar; Bergholtz, Emil J.
2017-09-01
We investigate extrinsic wormholelike twist defects that effectively increase the genus of space in lattice versions of multicomponent fractional quantum Hall systems. Although the original band structure is distorted by these defects, leading to localized midgap states, we find that a new lowest flat band representing a higher genus system can be engineered by tuning local single-particle potentials. Remarkably, once local many-body interactions in this new band are switched on, we identify various Abelian and non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states, whose ground-state degeneracy increases with the number of defects, i.e, with the genus of space. This sensitivity of topological degeneracy to defects provides a "proof of concept" demonstration that genons, predicted by topological field theory as exotic non-Abelian defects tied to a varying topology of space, do exist in realistic microscopic models. Specifically, our results indicate that genons could be created in the laboratory by combining the physics of artificial gauge fields in cold atom systems with already existing holographic beam shaping methods for creating twist defects.
Majorana Fermions in Non-Abelian QCD Vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itakura, K.
We study the internal structure of a non-Abelian vortex in color superconductivity with respect to quark degrees of freedom. Stable non-Abelian vortices appear in the Color-Flavor-Locked phase whose symmetry SU(3)_{C+L+R} is further broken to SU(2)_{C+L+R} ⊗ U(1)_{C+L+R} in the vortex cores. Fermionic description of vortices is made possible by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (B-dG) equation. Quark spectra in the vortex are obtained from the B-dG equation by treating the diquark gap having the vortex configuration as a background field. We find that there are massless modes (zero modes) well-localized around a vortex, in the triplet and singlet states of the unbroken symmetry SU(2)_{C+L+R}.
Identifying non-Abelian topological order through minimal entangled states.
Zhu, W; Gong, S S; Haldane, F D M; Sheng, D N
2014-03-07
The topological order is encoded in the pattern of long-range quantum entanglements, which cannot be measured by any local observable. Here we perform an exact diagonalization study to establish the non-Abelian topological order for topological band models through entanglement entropy measurement. We focus on the quasiparticle statistics of the non-Abelian Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states on the lattice models with bosonic particles. We identify multiple independent minimal entangled states (MESs) in the ground state manifold on a torus. The extracted modular S matrix from MESs faithfully demonstrates the Ising anyon or Fibonacci quasiparticle statistics, including the quasiparticle quantum dimensions and the fusion rules for such systems. These findings unambiguously demonstrate the topological nature of the quantum states for these flatband models without using the knowledge of model wave functions.
Active error correction for Abelian and non-Abelian anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wootton, James R.; Hutter, Adrian
2016-02-01
We consider a class of decoding algorithms that are applicable to error correction for both Abelian and non-Abelian anyons. This class includes multiple algorithms that have recently attracted attention, including the Bravyi-Haah RG decoder and variants thereof. They are applied to both the problem of correcting a single burst of errors (with perfect syndrome measurements) and active correction of continuously occurring errors (with noisy syndrome measurements). For Abelian models we provide a threshold proof in both cases for all decoders in this class, showing that they can arbitrarily suppress errors when the noise rate is under a finite threshold. For non-Abelian models such a proof is found for a single burst of errors. The reasons why the proof cannot be applied to the case of continuously occurring errors are discussed.
Non-Abelian Vortex Lattice in Dense QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, E.
2015-11-01
We show a possible spontaneous color ferromagnetismin the lattice system of non-Abelian vortices in rotating quark matter. The non-Abelian vortex has Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and CP(N-1) modes for SU(N) color and SU(N) flavor, which are localized along the vortex core. The CP(N-1) mode on each vortex site represents an orientation of color flux, and interaction among these modes causes the color ferromagnetism. The low energy effective theory in this system is described bya 3+1 dimensional CP(N-1) non-linear sigma model, from which we obtain magnon-like NG modes with an anisotropic dispersion relationω_p^2=apx,y^2+bp_z^2, when the vortex lines extend along z axis.
Non-Abelian Vortices, Hecke Modifications and Singular Monopoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baptista, J. M.
2010-06-01
In this note, we show that for the group G = U( N) the space of Hecke modifications of a rank N vector bundle over a Riemann surface C coincides with the moduli space of solutions of certain non-Abelian vortex equations over C. Through the recent work of Kapustin and Witten this then leads to an isomorphism between the moduli space of vortices and the moduli space of singular monopoles on the product of C with a closed interval I.
An Exact Chiral Spin Liquid with Non-Abelian Anyons
Yao, Hong
2010-04-06
We establish the existence of a chiral spin liquid (CSL) as the exact ground state of the Kitaev model on a decorated honeycomb lattice, which is obtained by replacing each site in the familiar honeycomb lattice with a triangle. The CSL state spontaneously breaks time reversal symmetry but preserves other symmetries. There are two topologically distinct CSLs separated by a quantum critical point. Interestingly, vortex excitations in the topologically nontrivial (Chern number {+-}1) CSL obey non-Abelian statistics.
Detecting 3d Non-Abelian Anyons via Adiabatic Cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Seiji; Freedman, Michael; Yang, Kun
2011-03-01
Majorana fermions lie at the heart of a number of recent developments in condensed matter physics. One important application is the realization of non-abelian statistics and consequently a foundation for topological quantum computation. Theoretical propositions for Majorana systems abound, but experimental detection has proven challenging. Most attempts involve interferometry, but the degeneracy of the anyon state can be leveraged to produce a cooling effect, as previously shown in 2d. We apply this method of anyon detection to the 3d anyon model of Teo and Kane. Like the Fu-Kane model, this involves a hybrid system of topological insulator (TI) and superconductor (SC). The Majorana modes are localized to anisotropic hedgehogs in the order parameter which appear at the TI-SC interface. The effective model bears some resemblance to the non-Abelian Higgs model with scalar coupling as studied, for example, by Jackiw and Rebbi. In order to make concrete estimates relevant to experiments, we use parameters appropriate to Ca doped Bi 2 Se 3 as the topological insulator and Cu doped Bi 2 Se 3 as the superconductor. We find a temperature window in the milli-Kelvin regime where the presence of 3d non-abelian anyons will lead to an observable cooling effect.
Designer non-Abelian anyon platforms: from Majorana to Fibonacci
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alicea, Jason; Stern, Ady
2015-12-01
The emergence of non-Abelian anyons from large collections of interacting elementary particles is a conceptually beautiful phenomenon with important ramifications for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Over the last few decades the field has evolved from a highly theoretical subject to an active experimental area, particularly following proposals for trapping non-Abelian anyons in ‘engineered’ structures built from well-understood components. In this short overview we briefly tour the impressive progress that has taken place in the quest for the simplest type of non-Abelian anyon—defects binding Majorana zero modes—and then turn to similar strategies for pursuing more exotic excitations. Specifically, we describe how interfacing simple quantum Hall systems with conventional superconductors yields ‘parafermionic’ generalizations of Majorana modes and even Fibonacci anyons—the latter enabling fully fault tolerant universal quantum computation. We structure our treatment in a manner that unifies these topics in a coherent way. The ideas synthesized here spotlight largely uncharted experimental territory in the field of quantum Hall physics that appears ripe for discovery.
BMN vacua, superstars and non-abelian T-duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozano, Yolanda; Núñez, Carlos; Zacarías, Salomón
2017-09-01
Acting with non-Abelian T-duality on the S 3 inside the AdS 5 subspace of AdS 5 × S 5 with N units of flux, we generate a new half-BPS solution with SU(2|4) symmetry that belongs to the Lin-Lunin-Maldacena class of geometries. The analysis of the asymptotics, quantised charges and probe branes in this geometry suggests an interpretation as the gravity dual to the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase Plane Wave Matrix Model, in a particular vacuum associated to a partition of N, in which the multiplicity of each SU(2) irreducible representation is equal to its dimension. This vacuum is interpreted in M-theory in terms of giant gravitons backreacting in the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave geometry. Consistently with this, we show that the non-Abelian T-dual solution exactly agrees with the Penrose limit of the superstar solution in AdS 7 × S 4. This suggests an interesting global completion of the non-Abelian T-dual solution in terms of an M5-brane geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alford, Mark G.; March-Russell, John
In this review we discuss the formulation and distinguishing characteristics of discrete gauge theories, and describe several important applications of the concept. For the abelian (ℤN) discrete gauge theories, we consider the construction of the discrete charge operator F(Σ*) and the associated gauge-invariant order parameter that distinguishes different Higgs phases of a spontaneously broken U(1) gauge theory. We sketch some of the important thermodynamic consequences of the resultant discrete quantum hair on black holes. We further show that, as a consequence of unbroken discrete gauge symmetries, Grand Unified cosmic strings generically exhibit a Callan-Rubakov effect. For non-abelian discrete gauge theories we discuss in some detail the charge measurement process, and in the context of a lattice formulation we construct the non-abelian generalization of F(Σ*). This enables us to build the order parameter that distinguishes the different Higgs phases of a non-abelian discrete lattice gauge theory with matter. We also describe some of the fascinating phenomena associated with non-abelian gauge vortices. For example, we argue that a loop of Alice string, or any non-abelian string, is super-conducting by virtue of charged zero modes whose charge cannot be localized anywhere on or around the string (“Cheshire charge”). Finally, we discuss the relationship between discrete gauge theories and the existence of excitations possessing exotic spin and statistics (and more generally excitations whose interactions are purely “topological”).
Studying critical string emerging from non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions
Koroteev, P.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.
2016-05-26
Recently a special vortex string was found in a class of soliton vortices supported in four-dimensional Yang–Mills theories that under certain conditions can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional string. The appropriate bulk Yang–Mills theory has the U(2) gauge group and the Fayet–Iliopoulos term. It supports semilocal non-Abelian vortices with the world-sheet theory for orientational and size moduli described by the weighted CP(2,2) model. Here, the full target space ismore » $$\\mathbb R$$4 x Y6 where is a non-compact Calabi–Yau space.« less
Low energy dynamics of slender monopoles in non-Abelian superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, M.; Blaschke, F.; Eto, M.; Sakai, N.
2016-01-01
Low energy dynamics of magnetic monopoles and anti-monopoles in the U(2)c gauge theory is studied in the Higgs (non-Abelian superconducting) phase. The monopoles in this phase are slender ellipsoids, pierced by a vortex string. We investigate scattering of monopole with anti-monopole and find that they do not always decay into radiation, contrary to our naive intuition. They can repel, make bound states (magnetic mesons) or resonances. We point out that some part of solutions in 1 + 3 dimensions can be mapped exactly onto the sine-Gordon system in 1 + 1 dimensions in the first non-trivial order of rigid-body approximation and we provide analytic formulas for such solutions there.
Inflationary magnetogenesis without the strong coupling problem
Ferreira, Ricardo J.Z.; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: jain@cp3.dias.sdu.dk
2013-10-01
The simplest gauge invariant models of inflationary magnetogenesis are known to suffer from the problems of either large backreaction or strong coupling, which make it difficult to self-consistently achieve cosmic magnetic fields from inflation with a field strength larger than 10{sup −32}G today on the Mpc scale. Such a strength is insufficient to act as seed for the galactic dynamo effect, which requires a magnetic field larger than 10{sup −20}G. In this paper we analyze simple extensions of the minimal model, which avoid both the strong coupling and back reaction problems, in order to generate sufficiently large magnetic fields on the Mpc scale today. First we study the possibility that the coupling function which breaks the conformal invariance of electromagnetism is non-monotonic with sharp features. Subsequently, we consider the effect of lowering the energy scale of inflation jointly with a scenario of prolonged reheating where the universe is dominated by a stiff fluid for a short period after inflation. In the latter case, a systematic study shows upper bounds for the magnetic field strength today on the Mpc scale of 10{sup −13}G for low scale inflation and 10{sup −25}G for high scale inflation, thus improving on the previous result by 7-19 orders of magnitude. These results are consistent with the strong coupling and backreaction constraints.
Phenomenological analysis of heterotic strings: Non-abelian constructions and landscape studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasnik, Vaibhav Hemant
String theory offers the unique promise of unifying all the known forces in nature. However, the internal consistency of the theory requires that spacetime have more than four dimensions. As a result, the extra dimensions must be compactified in some manner and how this compactification takes place is critical for determining the low-energy physical predictions of the theory. In this thesis we examine two distinct consequences of this fact. First, almost all of the prior research in string model-building has examined the consequences of compactifying on so-called "abelian" orbifolds. However, the most general class of compactifications, namely those on non-abelian orbifolds, remains almost completely unexplored. This thesis focuses on the low-energy phenomenological consequences of compactifying strings on non-abelian orbifolds. One of the main interests in pursuing these theories is that they can, in principle, naturally give rise to low-energy models which simultaneously have N=1 supersymmetry along with scalar particles transforming in the adjoint of the gauge group. These features, which are exceedingly difficult to achieve through abelian orbifolds, are exciting because they are the key ingredients in understanding how grand unification can emerge from string theory. Second, the need to compactify gives rise to a huge "landscape" of possible resulting low-energy phenomenologies. One of the goals of the landscape program in string theory is then to extract information about the space of string vacua in the form of statistical correlations between phenomenological features that are otherwise uncorrelated in field theory. Such correlations would thus represent features of string theory that hold independently of a vacuum-selection principle. In this thesis, we study statistical correlations between two features which are likely to be central to any potential description of nature at high-energy scales: gauge symmetries and spacetime supersymmetry. We analyze
The AdS 5 non-Abelian T-dual of Klebanov-Witten as a N=1 linear quiver from M5-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Lozano, Yolanda; Montero, Jesús; Núñez, Carlos
2017-09-01
In this paper we study an AdS5 solution constructed using non-Abelian T-duality, acting on the Klebanov-Witten background. We show that this is dual to a linear quiver with two tails of gauge groups of increasing rank. The field theory dynamics arises from a D4-NS5-NS5' brane set-up, generalizing the constructions discussed by Bah and Bobev. These realize N=1 quiver gauge theories built out of N=1 and N=2 vector multiplets flowing to interacting fixed points in the infrared. We compute the central charge using a-maximization, and show its precise agreement with the holographic calculation. Our result exhibits n 3 scaling with the number of five-branes. This suggests an eleven-dimensional interpretation in terms of M5-branes, a generic feature of various AdS backgrounds obtained via non-Abelian T-duality.
Escalante, Alberto Manuel-Cabrera, J.
2015-10-15
A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw quantization of an Abelian and non-Abelian exotic action for gravity in three dimensions is performed. We obtain for the theories under study the constraints, the gauge transformations, the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and we perform the counting of physical degrees of freedom. In addition, we compare our results with those found in the literature where the canonical analysis is developed, in particular, we show that both the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other. Finally we discuss some remarks and prospects. - Highlights: • A detailed Faddeev–Jackiw analysis for exotic action of gravity is performed. • We show that Dirac’s brackets and Generalized [FJ] brackets are equivalent. • Without fixing the gauge exotic action is a non-commutative theory. • The fundamental gauge transformations of the theory are found. • Dirac and Faddeev–Jackiw approaches are compared.
Holographic phase transitions from higgsed, non abelian charged black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, Gastón L.; Lugo, Adrián R.
2015-07-01
We find solutions of a gravity-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in four dimensions that represent asymptotic anti-de Sitter charged black holes with partial/full gauge symme-try breaking. We then apply the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the strong coupling regime of a 2 + 1 quantum field theory at temperature T and finite chemical potential, which undergoes transitions to phases exhibiting the condensation of a composite charged vector operator below a critical temperature T c , presumably describing p + ip/p-wave su-perconductors. In the case of p + ip-wave superconductors the transitions are always of second order. But for p-wave superconductors we determine the existence of a critical value αc of the gravitational coupling (for fixed Higgs v.e.v. parameter ) beyond which the transitions become of first order. As a by-product, we show that the p-wave phase is energetically favored over the p + ip one, for any values of the parameters. We also find the ground state solutions corresponding to zero temperature. Such states are described by domain wall geometries that interpolate between AdS 4 spaces with different light veloc-ities, and for a given , they exist below a critical value of the coupling. The behavior of the order parameter as function of the gravitational coupling near the critical coupling suggests the presence of second order quantum phase transitions. We finally study the dependence of the solution on the Higgs coupling, and find the existence of a critical value beyond which no condensed solution is present.
Non-Abelian ν =1/2 quantum Hall state in Γ8 valence band hole liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simion, George; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli
2017-04-01
In the search for states with non-Abelian statistics, we explore the fractional quantum Hall effect in a system of two-dimensional (2D) charge carrier holes. We propose a method of mapping states of holes confined to a finite width quantum well in a perpendicular magnetic field to states in a spherical shell geometry. We take into account strong coupling between the spin and motion of charge parallel and perpendicular to the 2D layer. This method gives the single-particle hole states used in the exact diagonalization of systems with a small number of holes in the presence of Coulomb interactions, density matrix renormalization group, and topological entanglement entropy calculations. The hole quantum Hall state at half filling of the ground state in a magnetic field near the crossing of single-hole states is likely the Moore-Read Pfaffian state.
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano
2009-05-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas
Asymptotically free scaling solutions in non-Abelian Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gies, Holger; Zambelli, Luca
2015-07-01
We construct asymptotically free renormalization group trajectories for the generic non-Abelian Higgs model in four-dimensional spacetime. These ultraviolet-complete trajectories become visible by generalizing the renormalization/boundary conditions in the definition of the correlation functions of the theory. Though they are accessible in a controlled weak-coupling analysis, these trajectories originate from threshold phenomena which are missed in a conventional perturbative analysis relying on the deep Euclidean region. We identify a candidate three-parameter family of renormalization group trajectories interconnecting the asymptotically free ultraviolet regime with a Higgs phase in the low-energy limit. We provide estimates of their low-energy properties in the light of a possible application to the standard model Higgs sector. Finally, we find a two-parameter subclass of asymptotically free Coleman-Weinberg-type trajectories that do not suffer from a naturalness problem.
Matrix model for non-Abelian quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2016-08-01
We propose a matrix quantum mechanics for a class of non-Abelian quantum Hall states. The model describes electrons which carry an internal SU(p ) spin. The ground states of the matrix model include spin-singlet generalizations of the Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states and, in general, lie in a class previously introduced by Blok and Wen. The effective action for these states is a U(p ) Chern-Simons theory. We show how the matrix model can be derived from quantization of the vortices in this Chern-Simons theory and how the matrix model ground states can be reconstructed as correlation functions in the boundary WZW model.
Non-Abelian Effects on D-Branes
Russo, Jorge G.
2008-07-28
We review different non-Abelian configurations of D-branes. We then extend the Myers dielectric effect to configurations with angular momentum. The resulting time-dependent N D0-brane bound states can be interpreted as describing rotating fuzzy ellipsoids. A similar solution exists also in the presence of a RR magnetic field, that we study in detail. We show that, for any finite N, above a certain critical angular momentum it is energetically more favorable for the bound state system to dissociate into an Abelian configuration of N D0-branes moving independently. We further study D-string configurations representing fuzzy funnels deformed by the magnetic field and by the rotational motion.
Topological degeneracy of non-Abelian states for dummies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshikawa, Masaki; Kim, Yong Baek; Shtengel, Kirill; Nayak, Chetan; Tewari, Sumanta
2007-06-01
We present a physical construction of degenerate groundstates of the Moore-Read Pfaffian states, which exhibits non-Abelian statistics, on general Riemann surface with genus g. The construction is given by a generalization of the recent argument [M.O., T. Senthil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060601] which relates fractionalization and topological order. The nontrivial groundstate degeneracy obtained by Read and Green [Phys. Rev. B 61 (2000) 10267] based on differential geometry is reproduced exactly. Some restrictions on the statistics, due to the fractional charge of the quasiparticle are also discussed. Furthermore, the groundstate degeneracy of the p + i p superconductor in two dimensions, which is closely related to the Pfaffian states, is discussed with a similar construction.
Strongly Coupled Quantum Heat Machines
Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-09-03
Energy conversion of heat into work at the quantum level is modeled by quantum heat machines (QHMs) generally assumed to operate at weak coupling to the baths. This supposition is grounded in the separability principle between systems and allows the derivation of the evolution equation. In the weak coupling regime, the machine’s output is limited by the coupling strength, restricting their application. Seeking to overcome this limitation, we analyze QHMs in the virtually unexplored strong coupling regime here, where separability, as well as other standard thermodynamic assumptions, may no longer hold. We show that strongly coupled QHMs may be as efficient as their weakly coupled counterparts. In addition, we find a novel turnover behavior where their output saturates and disappears in the limit of ultrastrong coupling.
Kinetic mixing at strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Zotto, Michele; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Kumar, Piyush; Malekian, Arada; Wecht, Brian
2017-01-01
A common feature of many string-motivated particle physics models is additional strongly coupled U (1 )'s. In such sectors, electric and magnetic states have comparable mass, and integrating out modes also charged under U (1 ) hypercharge generically yields C P preserving electric kinetic mixing and C P violating magnetic kinetic mixing terms. Even though these extra sectors are strongly coupled, we show that in the limit where the extra sector has approximate N =2 supersymmetry, we can use formal methods from Seiberg-Witten theory to compute these couplings. We also calculate various quantities of phenomenological interest such as the cross section for scattering between visible sector states and heavy extra sector states as well as the effects of supersymmetry breaking induced from coupling to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model.
Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.
Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-09-14
Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.
Non-Abelian dark forces and the relic densities of dark glueballs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forestell, Lindsay; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris
2017-01-01
Our understanding of the Universe is known to be incomplete, and new gauge forces beyond those of the Standard Model might be crucial to describing its observed properties. A minimal and well-motivated possibility is a pure Yang-Mills non-Abelian dark gauge force with no direct connection to the Standard Model. We determine here the relic abundances of the glueball bound states that arise in such theories and investigate their cosmological effects. Glueballs are first formed in a confining phase transition, and their relic densities are set by a network of annihilation and transfer reactions. The lightest glueball has no lighter states to annihilate into, and its yield is set mainly by 3 →2 number-changing processes which persistently release energy into the glueball gas during freeze-out. The abundances of the heavier glueballs are dominated by 2 →2 transfer reactions and tend to be much smaller than the lightest state. We also investigate potential connectors between the dark force and the Standard Model that allow some or all of the dark glueballs to decay. If the connection is weak, the lightest glueball can be very long-lived or stable and is a viable dark matter candidate. For stronger connections, the lightest glueball will decay quickly, but other heavier glueball states can remain stable and contribute to the dark matter density.
Monopole-vortex complex at large distances and nonAbelian duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Konishi, Kenichi
2014-09-01
We discuss the large-distance approximation of the monopole-vortex complex soliton in a hierarchically broken gauge system, SU( N + 1) → SU( N ) × U(1) → 1, in a color-flavor locked SU( N ) symmetric vacuum. The ('t Hooft-Polyakov) monopole of the higher-mass-scale breaking appears as a point and acts as a source of the thin vortex generated by the lower-energy gauge symmetry breaking. The exact color-flavor diagonal symmetry of the bulk system is broken by each individual soliton, leading to nonAbelian orientational CP N -1 zeromodes propagating in the vortex worldsheet, well studied in the literature. But since the vortex ends at the monopoles these fluctuating modes endow the monopoles with a local SU( N ) charge. This phenomenon is studied by performing the duality transformation in the presence of the CP N -1 moduli space. The effective action is a CP N-1 model defined on afinite-width worldstrip.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a “hairline” solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions. PMID:25103877
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms.
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A W; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-08
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a "hairline" solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
A solenoidal synthetic field and the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effects in neutral atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Ming-Xia; Nie, Wei; Hutchinson, David A. W.; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-08-01
Cold neutral atoms provide a versatile and controllable platform for emulating various quantum systems. Despite efforts to develop artificial gauge fields in these systems, realizing a unique ideal-solenoid-shaped magnetic field within the quantum domain in any real-world physical system remains elusive. Here we propose a scheme to generate a ``hairline'' solenoid with an extremely small size around 1 micrometer which is smaller than the typical coherence length in cold atoms. Correspondingly, interference effects will play a role in transport. Despite the small size, the magnetic flux imposed on the atoms is very large thanks to the very strong field generated inside the solenoid. By arranging different sets of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) lasers, the generation of Abelian and non-Abelian SU(2) lattice gauge fields is proposed for neutral atoms in ring- and square-shaped optical lattices. As an application, interference patterns of the magnetic type-I Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect are obtained by evolving atoms along a circle over several tens of lattice cells. During the evolution, the quantum coherence is maintained and the atoms are exposed to a large magnetic flux. The scheme requires only standard optical access, and is robust to weak particle interactions.
Josephson instantons and Josephson monopoles in a non-Abelian Josephson junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitta, Muneto
2015-08-01
The non-Abelian Josephson junction is a junction of non-Abelian color superconductors sandwiching an insulator, or a non-Abelian domain wall if flexible, whose low-energy dynamics is described by a U (N ) principal chiral model with the conventional pion mass. A non-Abelian Josephson vortex is a non-Abelian vortex (color magnetic flux tube) residing inside the junction, that is described as a non-Abelian sine-Gordon soliton. In this paper, we propose Josephson instantons and Josephson monopoles, that is, Yang-Mills instantons and monopoles inside a non-Abelian Josephson junction, respectively, and show that they are described as S U (N ) Skyrmions and U (1 )N -1 vortices in the U (N ) principal chiral model without and with a twisted-mass term, respectively. Instantons with a twisted boundary condition are reduced (or T-dual) to monopoles, implying that C PN -1 lumps are T-dual to C PN -1 kinks inside a vortex. Here we find S U (N ) Skyrmions are T-dual to U (1 )N-1 vortices inside a wall. Our configurations suggest a yet another duality between C PN -1 lumps and S U (N ) Skyrmions as well as that between C PN -1 kinks and U (1 )N-1 vortices, viewed from different host solitons. They also suggest a duality between fractional instantons and bions in the C PN -1 model and those in the S U (N ) principal chiral model.
PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortov, Vladimir E.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Norman, Genri E.
2006-04-01
This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS) which was held during the week of 20 24 June 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The Moscow conference was the tenth in a series of conferences. The previous conferences were organized as follows. 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (organized by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (organized by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, NY, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) After 1995 the name of the series was changed from `Strongly Coupled Plasmas' to the present name in order to extend the topics of the conferences. The planned frequency for the future is once every three years. The purpose of these conferences is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of research accomplishments and ideas relating to a variety of plasma liquid and condensed matter systems, dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems encompass diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphasis as new discoveries and new methods appear. This year, sessions were organized for invited presentations and posters on dense plasmas and warm matter, astrophysics and dense hydrogen, non-neutral and ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, condensed matter 2D and layered charged-particle systems, Coulomb liquids, and statistical theory of SCCS. Within
Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Rajagopal, Krishna; Nickel, Dominik
2010-06-15
Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle {alpha}{approx}1/{gamma}. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.
Conformal field theory approach to Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall quasielectrons.
Hansson, T H; Hermanns, M; Regnault, N; Viefers, S
2009-04-24
The quasiparticles in quantum Hall liquids carry fractional charge and obey fractional quantum statistics. Of particular recent interest are those with non-Abelian statistics, since their braiding properties could, in principle, be used for robust coding of quantum information. There is already a good theoretical understanding of quasiholes in both Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. Here we develop conformal field theory methods that allow for an equally precise description of quasielectrons and explicitly construct two- and four-quasielectron excitations of the non-Abelian Moore-Read state.
Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization: The operator solution of the WZW. sigma. model
do Amaral, R.L.P.G. ); Stephany Ruiz, J.E. )
1991-03-15
The complete equivalence between the Abelian and the non-Abelian bosonization formalisms for the treatment of SU({ital N}) fermions in two dimensions is analyzed and the operator solution of the Wess-Zumino-Witten nonlinear {sigma} model, written in terms of the scalar fields of the non-Abelian construction, is obtained. The importance of the order and disorder operators is stressed. In particular, they are used to show that an adequate reinterpretation of Mandelstam's formula gives the fermion representation in the non-Abelian bosonization formalism.
Nonlocal wave turbulence in non-Abelian plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehtar-Tani, Yacine
2017-10-01
We investigate driven wave turbulence in non-Abelian plasmas, in the framework of kinetic theory where both elastic and inelastic processes are considered in the small angle approximation. The gluon spectrum, that forms in the presence of a steady source, is shown to be controlled by nonlocal interactions in momentum space, in contrast to the universal Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectra. Assuming strongly nonlocal interactions, we show that inelastic processes are dominant in the IR and cause a thermal bath to form below the forcing scale, as a result of a detailed balance between radiation and absorption of soft gluons by the hard ones. Above the forcing scale, the inelastic collision term reduces to an inhomogeneous diffusion-like equation yielding a spectrum that spreads to the UV as t 1 / 2, similarly to elastic processes. Due to nonlocal interactions the non-universal turbulent spectrum is not steady and flattens when time goes on toward the thermal distribution. This analysis is complemented by numerical simulations, where we observe that in the explored time interval the spectral exponent of the nonlocal turbulent cascade is close to -2 in agreement with simulations of classical Yang-Mills equations.
Fast non-Abelian geometric gates via transitionless quantum driving.
Zhang, J; Kyaw, Thi Ha; Tong, D M; Sjöqvist, Erik; Kwek, Leong-Chuan
2015-12-21
A practical quantum computer must be capable of performing high fidelity quantum gates on a set of quantum bits (qubits). In the presence of noise, the realization of such gates poses daunting challenges. Geometric phases, which possess intrinsic noise-tolerant features, hold the promise for performing robust quantum computation. In particular, quantum holonomies, i.e., non-Abelian geometric phases, naturally lead to universal quantum computation due to their non-commutativity. Although quantum gates based on adiabatic holonomies have already been proposed, the slow evolution eventually compromises qubit coherence and computational power. Here, we propose a general approach to speed up an implementation of adiabatic holonomic gates by using transitionless driving techniques and show how such a universal set of fast geometric quantum gates in a superconducting circuit architecture can be obtained in an all-geometric approach. Compared with standard non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation, the holonomies obtained in our approach tends asymptotically to those of the adiabatic approach in the long run-time limit and thus might open up a new horizon for realizing a practical quantum computer.
Eikonal Scattering at Strong Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irizarry-Gelpi, Melvin Eloy
The scattering of subatomic particles is a source of important physical phenomena. Decades of work have yielded many techniques for the computation of scattering amplitudes. Most of these techniques involve perturbative quantum field theory and thus apply only at weak coupling. Complementary to scattering is the formation of bound states, which are intrinsically nonperturbative. Regge theory arose in the late 1950s as an attempt to describe, with a single framework, both scattering and the formation of bound states. In Regge theory one obtains an amplitude with bound state poles after analytic continuation of a nonperturbative scattering amplitude, corresponding to a sum of an infinite number of Feynman diagrams at large energy and fixed momentum transfer (but with crossed kinematics). Thus, in order to obtain bound states at fixed energy, one computes an amplitude at large momentum transfer. In this dissertation we calculate amplitudes with bound states in the regime of fixed energy and small momentum transfer. We formulate the elastic scattering problem in terms of many-body path integrals, familiar from quantum mechanics. Then we invoke the semiclassical JWKB approximation, where the path integral is dominated by classical paths. The dynamics in the semiclassical regime are strongly coupled, as found by Halpern and Siegel. When the momentum transfer is small, the classical paths are simple straight lines and the resulting semiclassical amplitudes display a spectrum of bound states that agrees with the spectrum found by solving wave equations with potentials. In this work we study the bound states of matter particles with various types of interactions, including electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. Our work has many analogies with the work started by Alday and Maldacena, who computed scattering amplitudes of gluons at strong coupling with semiclassical quantum mechanics of strings in anti de-Sitter spacetime. We hope that in the future we can apply our
WIMPless dark matter from non-Abelian hidden sectors with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Jonathan L.; Shadmi, Yael
2011-05-01
In anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, superpartner masses are proportional to couplings squared. Their hidden sectors therefore naturally contain WIMPless dark matter, particles whose thermal relic abundance is guaranteed to be of the correct size, even though they are not weakly interacting massive particles. We study viable dark matter candidates in WIMPless anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with non-Abelian hidden sectors and highlight unusual possibilities that emerge in even the simplest models. In one example with a pure SU(N) hidden sector, stable hidden gluinos freeze out with the correct relic density, but have an extremely low, but natural, confinement scale, providing a framework for self-interacting dark matter. In another simple scenario, hidden gluinos freeze out and decay to visible Winos with the correct relic density, and hidden glueballs may either be stable, providing a natural framework for mixed cold-hot dark matter, or may decay, yielding astrophysical signals. Last, we present a model with light hidden pions that may be tested with improved constraints on the number of nonrelativistic degrees of freedom. All of these scenarios are defined by a small number of parameters, are consistent with gauge coupling unification, preserve the beautiful connection between the weak scale and the observed dark matter relic density, and are natural, with relatively light visible superpartners. We conclude with comments on interesting future directions.
Coping with strongly coupled string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Tom; Dine, Michael
1994-12-01
String theory, if it describes nature, is probably strongly coupled. As a result, one might despair of making any statements about the theory. In the framework of a set of clearly spelled out assumptions, we show that this is not necessarily the case. Certain discrete gauge symmetries, combined with supersymmetry, tightly constrain the form of the effective action. Among our assumptions are that the true ground state can be obtained from some perturbative ground state by varying the coupling, and that the actual numerical value of the low energy field-theoretic coupling g2/4π is small. It follows that the low energy theory is approximately supersymmetric; corrections to the superpotential and gauge coupling function are small, while corrections to the Kahler potential are large; the spectrum of light particles is the same at strong as at weak coupling. We survey the phenomenological consequences of this viewpoint. We also note that the string axion can serve as a QCD axion in this framework (modulo cosmological problems).
Dual Meissner Effect and Non-Abelian Magnetic Monopole in SU(3) Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru
2013-03-01
We measure the color flux produced by a pair of quark and antiquark and examine whether or not the non-Abelian dual superconductivity claimed by us is indeed a mechanism of quark confinement. We present a preliminary result of the direct evidence for the non-abelian dual Meissner effect, that is to say, restricted U(2)-field part of the flux tube plays the dominant role in the quarkantiquark potential.
Dual pairs of gauged linear sigma models and derived equivalences of Calabi-Yau threefolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhardus, Andreas; Jockers, Hans
2017-04-01
In this work we study the phase structure of skew symplectic sigma models, which are a certain class of two-dimensional N =(2 , 2) non-Abelian gauged linear sigma models. At low energies some of them flow to non-linear sigma models with Calabi-Yau target spaces, which emerge from non-Abelian strong coupling dynamics. The observed phase structure results in a non-trivial duality proposal among skew symplectic sigma models and connects non-complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds-that are non-birational among another-in a common quantum Kähler moduli space. As a consequence we find non-trivial identifications of spectra of topological B-branes, which from a modern algebraic geometry perspective imply derived equivalences among Calabi-Yau varieties. To further support our proposals, we calculate the two sphere partition function of skew symplectic sigma models to determine geometric invariants, which confirm the anticipated Calabi-Yau threefold phases. We show that the two sphere partition functions of a pair of dual skew symplectic sigma models agree in a non-trivial fashion. To carry out these calculations, we develop a systematic approach to study higher-dimensional Mellin-Barnes type integrals. In particular, these techniques admit the evaluation of two sphere partition functions for gauged linear sigma models with higher rank gauge groups, but are applicable in other contexts as well.
Strong-Coupling Superconductivity. I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalapino, D. J.; Schrieffer, J. R.; Wilkins, J. W.
The pairing theory of superconductivity is extended to treat systems having strong electron-phonon coupling. In this regime the Landau quasiparticle approximation is invalid. In the theory we treat phonon and Coulomb interactions on the same basis and carry out the analysis using the nonzero-temperature Green's functions of the Nambu formalism. The generalized energy-gap equation thus obtained is solved (at T = 0°K) for a model which closely represents lead and the complex energy-gap parameter Δ(ω)) is plotted as a function of energy for several choices of phonon and Coulomb interaction strengths. An expression for the single-particle tunneling density of states is derived, which, when combined with Δ(ω), gives excellent agreement with experiment, if the phonon interaction strength is chosen to give the observed energy gap Δ0 at zero temperature. The tunneling experiments therefore give a detailed justification of the phonon mechanism of superconductivity and of the validity of the strong-coupling theory. In addition, by combining theory and the tunneling experiments, much can be learned about the electron-phon interaction and the phonon density of states. The theory is accurate to terms of order the square root of the electron-ion mass ratio, 10-2-10-3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shibata, Akihiro; Shinohara, Toru
2015-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress in understanding quark confinement. The emphasis of this review is placed on how to obtain a manifestly gauge-independent picture for quark confinement supporting the dual superconductivity in the Yang-Mills theory, which should be compared with the Abelian projection proposed by 't Hooft. The basic tools are novel reformulations of the Yang-Mills theory based on change of variables extending the decomposition of the SU(N) Yang-Mills field due to Cho, Duan-Ge and Faddeev-Niemi, together with the combined use of extended versions of the Diakonov-Petrov version of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the SU(N) Wilson loop operator. Moreover, we give the lattice gauge theoretical versions of the reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which enables us to perform the numerical simulations on the lattice. In fact, we present some numerical evidences for supporting the dual superconductivity for quark confinement. The numerical simulations include the derivation of the linear potential for static interquark potential, i.e., non-vanishing string tension, in which the "Abelian" dominance and magnetic monopole dominance are established, confirmation of the dual Meissner effect by measuring the chromoelectric flux tube between quark-antiquark pair, the induced magnetic-monopole current, and the type of dual superconductivity, etc. In addition, we give a direct connection between the topological configuration of the Yang-Mills field such as instantons/merons and the magnetic monopole. We show especially that magnetic monopoles in the Yang-Mills theory can be constructed in a manifestly gauge-invariant way starting from the gauge-invariant Wilson loop operator and thereby the contribution from the magnetic monopoles can be extracted from the Wilson loop in a gauge-invariant way through the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator, which is a prerequisite for exhibiting magnetic monopole dominance for quark
Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Da; Pomarol, Alex; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco
2016-11-01
Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or W W scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.
Momentum transport in strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finazzo, Stefano Ivo; Critelli, Renato; Rougemont, Romulo; Noronha, Jorge
2016-09-01
We present a holographic perspective on momentum transport in strongly coupled, anisotropic non-Abelian plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We compute the anisotropic heavy quark drag forces and Langevin diffusion coefficients and also the anisotropic shear viscosities for two different holographic models, namely, a top-down deformation of strongly coupled N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory triggered by an external Abelian magnetic field, and a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) model which is able to provide a quantitative description of lattice QCD thermodynamics with (2 +1 ) flavors at both zero and nonzero magnetic fields. We find that, in general, energy loss and momentum diffusion through strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas are enhanced by a magnetic field being larger in transverse directions than in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Moreover, the anisotropic shear viscosity coefficient is smaller in the direction of the magnetic field than in the plane perpendicular to the field, which indicates that strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas become closer to the perfect fluid limit along the magnetic field. We also present, in the context of the EMD model, holographic predictions for the entropy density and the crossover critical temperature in a wider region of the (T , B ) phase diagram that has not yet been covered by lattice simulations. Our results for the transport coefficients in the phenomenologically realistic magnetic EMD model could be readily used as inputs in numerical codes for magnetohydrodynamics.
Non-abelian T-duality and consistent truncations in type-II supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itsios, Georgios; Lozano, Yolanda; Colgáin, Eoin Ó.; Sfetsos, Konstadinos
2012-08-01
For a general class of SO(4) symmetric backgrounds in type-II supergravity, we show that the action of non-Abelian T-duality can be described via consistent truncation to seven dimensional theories with seemingly massive modes. As such, any solution to these theories uplifts to both massive type IIA and IIB supergravities presenting an invertible map between the two. For supersymmetric backgrounds, we show that for spinors transforming under SO(4) the non-Abelian T-duality transformation breaks the original supersymmetry by half. We use these mappings to generate the non-Abelian T-duals of the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave, the Lin, Lunin, Maldacena geometries and spacetimes with Lifshitz symmetry.
Topological interactions of non-Abelian vortices with quasiparticles in high density QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirono, Yuji; Kanazawa, Takuya; Nitta, Muneto
2011-04-01
Non-Abelian vortices are topologically stable objects in the color-flavor locked phase of dense QCD. We derive a dual Lagrangian starting with the Ginzburg-Landau effective Lagrangian for the color-flavor locked phase, and obtain topological interactions of non-Abelian vortices with quasiparticles such as U(1)B Nambu-Goldstone bosons (phonons) and massive gluons. We find that the phonons couple to the translational zero modes of the vortices while the gluons couple to their orientational zero modes in the internal space.
Non-Abelian monopole in the parameter space of point-like interactions
Ohya, Satoshi
2014-12-15
We study non-Abelian geometric phase in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics for a free particle on a circle with two point-like interactions at antipodal points. We show that non-Abelian Berry’s connection is that of SU(2) magnetic monopole discovered by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek in the context of adiabatic decoupling limit of diatomic molecule. - Highlights: • Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is an ideal playground for studying geometric phase. • We determine the parameter space of supersymmetric point-like interactions. • Berry’s connection is given by a Wu–Yang-like magnetic monopole in SU(2) Yang–Mills.
Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan
There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.
Symmetry-protected non-Abelian braiding of Majorana Kramers pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Pin; He, Ying-Ping; Liu, Xiong-Jun
2016-12-01
We develop a complete theory for symmetry protected non-Abelian statistics of Majorana Kramers' pairs (MKPs) in time-reversal (TR) invariant topological superconductors, with fundamental results being uncovered. By introducing an effective Hamiltonian approach to describe the braiding of MKPs, we show that the non-Abelian braiding is protected when the effective Hamiltonian exhibits a new TR-like antiunitary symmetry, which is satisfied if the system is free of dynamical noise. Importantly, even the dynamical noise cannot cause error in braiding, unless the noise correlation function breaks a dynamical TR symmetry. This is a profound result and generalizes the TR symmetry protection of MKPs to the dynamical regime. Moreover, the resulted error by noise is shown to be a higher-order effect, compared with the decoherence of Majorana qubits without TR symmetry protection. This study completes the theory of symmetry-protected non-Abelian statistics of MKPs, and shows that the non-Abelian braiding of MKPs is well observable and may have versatile applications to future quantum computation technologies.
Fractional quantum Hall bilayers at half filling: Tunneling-driven non-Abelian phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Liu, Zhao; Haldane, F. D. M.; Sheng, D. N.
2016-12-01
Multicomponent quantum Hall systems with internal degrees of freedom provide a fertile ground for the emergence of exotic quantum liquids. Here, we investigate the possibility of non-Abelian topological order in the half-filled fractional quantum Hall (FQH) bilayer system driven by the tunneling effect between two layers. By means of the state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group, we unveil "fingerprint" evidence of the non-Abelian Moore-Read Pfaffian state emerging in the intermediate-tunneling regime, including the ground-state degeneracy on the torus geometry and the topological entanglement spectroscopy (entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy) on the spherical geometry, respectively. Remarkably, the phase transition from the previously identified Abelian (331) Halperin state to the non-Abelian Moore-Read Pfaffian state is determined to be continuous, which is signaled by the continuous evolution of the universal part of the entanglement spectrum, and discontinuities in the excitation gap and the derivative of the ground-state energy. Our results not only provide a "proof-of-principle" demonstration of realizing a non-Abelian state through coupling different degrees of freedom, but also open up a possibility in FQH bilayer systems for detecting different chiral p -wave pairing states.
Collective States of D(D3) Non-Abelian Anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finch, P. E.; Frahm, H.
2013-11-01
We study an exactly solvable model of non-Abelian anyons symmetric under the quantum double of the dihedral group D3 on a one-dimensional lattice. Bethe ansatz methods are employed to compute the ground states of this model in different regions of the parameter space. The finite size spectrum is studied and the corresponding low energy field theories are identified.
Quantum Strong Coupling with Protein Vibrational Modes.
Vergauwe, Robrecht M A; George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Hutchison, James A; Shalabney, Atef; Torbeev, Vladimir Y; Ebbesen, Thomas W
2016-10-07
In quantum electrodynamics, matter can be hybridized to confined optical fields by a process known as light-matter strong coupling. This gives rise to new hybrid light-matter states and energy levels in the coupled material, leading to modified physical and chemical properties. Here, we report for the first time the strong coupling of vibrational modes of proteins with the vacuum field of a Fabry-Perot mid-infrared cavity. For two model systems, poly(l-glutamic acid) and bovine serum albumin, strong coupling is confirmed by the anticrossing in the dispersion curve, the square root dependence on the concentration, and a vacuum Rabi splitting that is larger than the cavity and vibration line widths. These results demonstrate that strong coupling can be applied to the study of proteins with many possible applications including the elucidation of the role of vibrational dynamics in enzyme catalysis and in H/D exchange experiments.
Strongly Coupled Semi-Direct Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking
Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto
2011-09-13
Supersymmetry (SUSY) is expected to be a crucial ingredient of basic laws in Nature. It is an attractive possibility that SUSY is broken at low energy within the experimental reach in the near future. Among others, low-energy dynamics with gauge mediation between a hidden sector of SUSY breaking and the visible sector of SUSY standard model may be phenomenologically viable. In particular, the gauge interactions are flavor blind, so that the unwanted flavor-changing processes are naturally suppressed. Strongly coupled semi-direct gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard model symmetries.
Non-abelian Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyun Seok Yang; Inbo Kim; Bum-Hoon Lee
1999-08-01
We newly construct a world-sheet matrix string theory described by two-dimensional supergravity coupled to supersymmetric Yang-Mills fields where the string coordinates are non-commuting matrices in the gauge group U( N). We show that our string theory has a free string limit where it becomes N-copies of usual Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz strings and can be described by the orbifold conformal field theory being second quantized string theory. In the weak coupling limit, i.e. gs → 0 where gs is the coupling constant of our theory related with the Yang-Mills coupling as gYM-2 = α' gs2, a new additional dimension appears in the string spectrum and it can be speculatively interpreted as the compactified eleven-dimensional coordinate whose dynamics is given by an orbifold O( N) sigma model.
From non-Abelian anyons to quantum computation to coin-flipping by telephone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mochon, Carlos
Following their divorce, Alice and Bob would like to split some of their possessions by flipping a coin. Unwilling to meet in person, and without a trusted third party, they must figure out a scheme to flip the coin over a telephone that guarantees that neither party can cheat. The preceding scenario is the traditional definition of two-party coin-flipping. In a classical setting, without limits on the available computational power, one player can always guarantee a coin-flipping victory by cheating. However, by employing quantum communication it is possible to guarantee, with only information-theoretic assumptions, that neither party can win by cheating, with a probability greater than two thirds. Along with the description of such a protocol, this thesis derives a tight lower bound on the bias for a large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols, proving such a protocol optimal within the family. The protocol described herein is an improvement and generalization of one examined by Spekkens and Rudolph. The key steps of the analysis involve Kitaev's description of quantum coin-flipping as a semidefinite program whose dual problem provides a certificate that upper bounds the amount of cheating for each party. In order for such quantum protocols to be viable, though, a number of practical obstacles involving the communication and processing of quantum information must be resolved. In the second half of this thesis, a scheme for processing quantum information is presented, which uses non-abelian anyons that are the magnetic and electric excitations of a discrete-group quantum gauge theory. In particular, the connections between group structure and computational power are examined, generalizing previous work by Kitaev, Ogburn and Preskill. Anyon based computation has the advantage of being topological, which exponentially suppresses the rate of decoherence and the errors associated with the elementary quantum gates. Though no physical systems with such
Numerical techniques for lattice gauge theories
Creutz, M.
1981-02-06
The motivation for formulating gauge theories on a lattice is reviewed. Monte Carlo simulation techniques are then discussed for these systems. Finally, the Monte Carlo methods are combined with renormalization group analysis to give strong numerical evidence for confinement of quarks by non-Abelian gauge fields.
Concerning gauge field fluctuations around classical configurations
Dietrich, Dennis D.
2009-05-15
We treat the fluctuations of non-Abelian gauge fields around a classical configuration by means of a transformation from the Yang-Mills gauge field to a homogeneously transforming field variable. We use the formalism to compute the effective action induced by these fluctuations in a static background without Wu-Yang ambiguity.
EMMI rapid reaction task force on ‘Thermalization in non-Abelian plasmas’
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berges, Jürgen; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Gelis, François
2012-08-01
Recently, different proposals have been put forward on how thermalization proceeds in heavy-ion collisions in the idealized limit of very large nuclei at sufficiently high energy. Important aspects of the parametric estimates at weak coupling may be tested using well-established classical-statistical lattice simulations of the far-from-equilibrium gluon dynamics. This has to be confronted with strong coupling scenarios in related theories based on gauge-string dualities. Furthermore, closely related questions about far-from-equilibrium dynamics arise in early-universe cosmology and in non-relativistic systems of ultracold atoms. These were central topics of the EMMI Rapid Reaction Task Force meeting held on 12-14 December 2011, at the University of Heidelberg, which we report on. Communicated by Professor Achim Schwenk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abanin, Dmitry
2013-03-01
Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect inspired a concept of quasiparticles with non-Abelian exchange statistics. However, a major limitation for experimental studies of non-Abelian quasiparticles in traditional GaAs-based 2d systems is their lack of tunability: the effective electron interactions in such systems are fixed at values which make non-Abelian states either absent of very fragile. Therefore it is desirable to find alternative, tunable 2d systems that host robust non-Abelian quantum Hall states. In this talk, we will discuss the phase diagram of fractional quantum Hall states in recently discovered 2d Dirac materials (graphene, bilayer graphene, topological insulators). We will show that the effective interactions in these materials can be naturally tuned in a broad range, in contrast to GaAs. This tunability is achieved by external fields that control the mass gap of Dirac fermions. Alternatively, the effective interactions can be controlled by engineering the dielectric environment of the 2d Dirac electron gas. We will demonstrate that the tunability of interactions in Dirac materials allows one to stabilize non-Abelian states, as well as to drive phase transitions between various correlated phases (quantum Hall states, Fermi-liquid-like states, and states with broken translational symmetry) in a controlled manner. Connecting to experiments, we will argue that a very promising candidate material for tuning interactions and stabilizing non-Abelian states is bilayer graphene, where the gap can be naturally controlled by perpendicular electric field. Our study provides a realistic route towards engineering robust fractional and non-Abelian quantum Hall states in graphene and other Dirac materials. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect inspired a concept of quasiparticles with non-Abelian exchange statistics. However, a major limitation for experimental studies of non-Abelian
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: Challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; ...
2014-10-21
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to stongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many researchmore » streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.« less
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: Challenges and perspectives
Brambilla, N.; Eidelman, S.; Foka, P.; Gardner, S.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Alford, M. G.; Alkofer, R.; Butenschoen, M.; Cohen, T. D.; Erdmenger, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Faber, M.; Goity, J. L.; Ketzer, B.; Lin, H. W.; Llanes-Estrada, F. J.; Meyer, H. B.; Pakhlov, P.; Pallante, E.; Polikarpov, M. I.; Sazdjian, H.; Schmitt, A.; Snow, W. M.; Vairo, A.; Vogt, R.; Vuorinen, A.; Wittig, H.; Arnold, P.; Christakoglou, P.; Di Nezza, P.; Fodor, Z.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Höllwieser, R.; Janik, M. A.; Kalweit, A.; Keane, D.; Kiritsis, E.; Mischke, A.; Mizuk, R.; Odyniec, G.; Papadodimas, K.; Pich, A.; Pittau, R.; Qiu, J. -W.; Ricciardi, G.; Salgado, C. A.; Schwenzer, K.; Stefanis, N. G.; von Hippel, G. M.; Zakharov, V. I.
2014-10-21
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to stongly-coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.
Non-abelian dark matter solutions for Galactic gamma-ray excess and Perseus 3.5 keV X-ray line
Cheung, Kingman; Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming
2015-05-26
We attempt to explain simultaneously the Galactic center gamma-ray excess and the 3.5 keV X-ray line from the Perseus cluster based on a class of non-abelian SU(2) DM models, in which the dark matter and an excited state comprise a “dark” SU(2) doublet. The non-abelian group kinetically mixes with the standard model gauge group via dimensions-5 operators. The dark matter particles annihilate into standard model fermions, followed by fragmentation and bremsstrahlung, and thus producing a continuous spectrum of gamma-rays. On the other hand, the dark matter particles can annihilate into a pair of excited states, each of which decays back into the dark matter particle and an X-ray photon, which has an energy equal to the mass difference between the dark matter and the excited state, which is set to be 3.5 keV. The large hierarchy between the required X-ray and γ-ray annihilation cross-sections can be achieved by a very small kinetic mixing between the SM and dark sector, which effectively suppresses the annihilation into the standard model fermions but not into the excited state.
Non-abelian dark matter solutions for Galactic gamma-ray excess and Perseus 3.5 keV X-ray line
Cheung, Kingman; Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming E-mail: wei-chih.huang@ucl.ac.uk
2015-05-01
We attempt to explain simultaneously the Galactic center gamma-ray excess and the 3.5 keV X-ray line from the Perseus cluster based on a class of non-abelian SU(2) DM models, in which the dark matter and an excited state comprise a ''dark'' SU(2) doublet. The non-abelian group kinetically mixes with the standard model gauge group via dimensions-5 operators. The dark matter particles annihilate into standard model fermions, followed by fragmentation and bremsstrahlung, and thus producing a continuous spectrum of gamma-rays. On the other hand, the dark matter particles can annihilate into a pair of excited states, each of which decays back into the dark matter particle and an X-ray photon, which has an energy equal to the mass difference between the dark matter and the excited state, which is set to be 3.5 keV. The large hierarchy between the required X-ray and γ-ray annihilation cross-sections can be achieved by a very small kinetic mixing between the SM and dark sector, which effectively suppresses the annihilation into the standard model fermions but not into the excited state.
The strong coupling constant at large distances
Deur, Alexandre
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss effective strong coupling constants. Those are well behaved in the low-$Q^2$ domain, contrarily to $\\alpha_s$ from pQCD. We present an extraction of an effective strong coupling constant from Jefferson Lab polarized data at intermediate and low $Q^2$. We also show how these data, together with spin sum rules, allow us to obtain the effective coupling constant over the entire $Q^2$ range. We then discuss the relation between the experimentally extracted coupling constant and theoretical calculations at low $Q^2$. We conclude on the importance of such study for the application of the AdS/CFT correspondence to QCD.
Proposed Aharonov-Casher interferometry of non-Abelian vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2011-03-01
We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov- Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed. Work supported by ICMT at UIUC, NSERC of Canada, CAS fellowship at UIUC, and the U.S. Department of Energy.
Three-dimensional {N}=4 linear quivers and non-Abelian T-duals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lozano, Yolanda; Macpherson, Niall T.; Montero, Jesús; Núñez, Carlos
2016-11-01
In this paper we construct a new Type IIB background with an AdS 4 factor that preserves {N}=4 Supersymmetry. This solution is obtained using a non-Abelian T-duality transformation on the Type IIA reduction of the AdS 4 × S 7 background. We interpret our configuration as a patch of a more general background with localised sources, dual to the renormalisation fixed point of a {T}_{ρ}^{widehat{ρ}}(SU(N)) quiver field theory. This relates explicitly the AdS 4 geometry to a D3-D5-NS5 brane intersection, illuminating what seems to be a more general phenomenon, relating AdS p+1 backgrounds generated by non-Abelian T-duality to Dp- D( p + 2)-NS5 branes intersections.
Local Monte Carlo Implementation of the Non-Abelian Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal Effect
Zapp, Korinna; Stachel, Johanna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-10-09
The non-Abelian Landau-Pomeranschuk-Migdal (LPM) effect arises from the quantum interference between spatially separated, inelastic radiation processes in matter. A consistent probabilistic implementation of this LPM effect is a prerequisite for extending the use of Monte Carlo (MC) event generators to the simulation of jetlike multiparticle final states in nuclear collisions. Here, we propose a local MC algorithm, which is based solely on relating the LPM effect to the probabilistic concept of formation time for virtual quanta. This accounts probabilistically for the characteristic L{sup 2} dependence of average parton energy loss and the characteristic 1/sq root(omega) modification of the non-Abelian LPM effect. Additional kinematic constraints are found to modify these L{sup 2} and omega dependencies characteristically in accordance with analytical estimates.
Quasinormal modes of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bécar, Ramón; González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2017-02-01
We study the quasinormal modes of scalar field perturbations in the background of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes. We find that the quasinormal frequencies have no real part so there is no oscillatory behavior in the perturbations, only exponential decay, that is, the system is always overdamped, which guarantees the mode stability of non-Abelian hyperscaling violating Lifshitz black holes. We determine analytically the quasinormal modes for massless scalar fields for a dynamical exponent z=2 and hyperscaling violating exponent tilde{θ }>-2. Also, we obtain numerically the quasinormal frequencies for different values of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violating exponent by using the improved asymptotic iteration method.
Fendley, Paul; Fisher, Matthew P.A.; Nayak, Chetan
2009-07-15
We explain how (perturbed) boundary conformal field theory allows us to understand the tunneling of edge quasiparticles in non-Abelian topological states. The coupling between a bulk non-Abelian quasiparticle and the edge is due to resonant tunneling to a zero mode on the quasiparticle, which causes the zero mode to hybridize with the edge. This can be reformulated as the flow from one conformally invariant boundary condition to another in an associated critical statistical mechanical model. Tunneling from one edge to another at a point contact can split the system in two, either partially or completely. This can be reformulated in the critical statistical mechanical model as the flow from one type of defect line to another. We illustrate these two phenomena in detail in the context of the {nu}=5/2 quantum Hall state and the critical Ising model. We briefly discuss the case of Fibonacci anyons and conclude by explaining the general formulation and its physical interpretation.
Non-Abelian holonomic transformation in the presence of classical noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Jun; Lam, Chi-Hang; Wu, Lian-Ao
2017-01-01
It is proposed that high-speed universal quantum gates can be realized by using non-Abelian holonomic transformation. A cyclic evolution path which brings the system periodically back to a degenerate qubit subspace is crucial to holonomic quantum computing. The cyclic nature and the resulting gate operations are fully dependent on the precise control of driving parameters, such as the modulated envelop function of Rabi frequency and the control phases. We investigate the effects of fluctuations in these driving parameters on the transformation fidelity of a universal set of single-qubit quantum gates. We compare the damage effects from different noise sources and determine the "sweet spots" in the driving parameter space. The nonadiabatic non-Abelian quantum gate is found to be more susceptible to classical noises on the envelop function than that on the control phases. We also extend our study to a two-qubit quantum gate.
Non-Abelian symmetries of the half-infinite XXZ spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baseilhac, Pascal; Belliard, Samuel
2017-03-01
The non-Abelian symmetries of the half-infinite XXZ spin chain for all possible types of integrable boundary conditions are classified. For each type of boundary conditions, an analog of the Chevalley-type presentation is given for the corresponding symmetry algebra. In particular, two new algebras arise that are, respectively, generated by the symmetry operators of the model with triangular and special Uq (gl2)-invariant integrable boundary conditions.
Non-Abelian bremsstrahlung and azimuthal asymmetries in high energy p+A reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyulassy, M.; Levai, P.; Vitev, I.; Biró, T. S.
2014-09-01
We apply the GLV reaction operator solution to the Vitev-Gunion-Bertsch (VGB) boundary conditions to compute to all orders in nuclear opacity the non-Abelian gluon bremsstrahlung of event-by-event fluctuating beam jets in nuclear collisions. We evaluate analytically azimuthal Fourier moments of single gluon, vnM{1}, and even numbered 2ℓ gluon distribution, vnM{2ℓ}, inclusive distributions in high-energy p +A reactions as a function of harmonic n, target recoil cluster number, M, and gluon number, 2ℓ, at the RHIC and LHC. Multiple resolved clusters of recoiling target beam jets together with the projectile beam jet form color scintillation antenna (CSA) arrays that lead to characteristic boost-noninvariant trapezoidal rapidity distributions in asymmetric B+A nuclear collisions. The scaling of the intrinsically azimuthally anisotropic and long range in η nature of the non-Abelian bremsstrahlung leads to vn moments that are similar to results from hydrodynamic models, but due entirely to non-Abelian wave interference phenomena sourced by the fluctuating CSA. Our analytic nonflow solutions are similar to recent numerical saturation model predictions but differ by predicting a simple power-law hierarchy of both even and odd vn without invoking kT factorization. A test of the CSA mechanism is the predicted nearly linear η rapidity dependence of the vn(kT,η). Non-Abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung may, thus, provide a simple analytic solution to the beam energy scan puzzle of the near √s independence of vn(pT) moments observed down to 10 AGeV, where large-x valence-quark beam jets dominate inelastic dynamics. Recoil bremsstrahlung from multiple independent CSA clusters could also provide a partial explanation for the unexpected similarity of vn in p(D)+A and noncentral A+A at the same dN/dη multiplicity as observed at the RHIC and LHC.
Mross, David F; Essin, Andrew; Alicea, Jason; Stern, Ady
2016-01-22
We show that boundaries of 3D weak topological insulators can become gapped by strong interactions while preserving all symmetries, leading to Abelian surface topological order. The anomalous nature of weak topological insulator surfaces manifests itself in a nontrivial action of symmetries on the quasiparticles; most strikingly, translations change the anyon types in a manner impossible in strictly 2D systems with the same symmetry. As a further consequence, screw dislocations form non-Abelian defects that trap Z_{4} parafermion zero modes.
Improved HDRG decoders for qudit and non-Abelian quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutter, Adrian; Loss, Daniel; Wootton, James R.
2015-03-01
Hard-decision renormalization group (HDRG) decoders are an important class of decoding algorithms for topological quantum error correction. Due to their versatility, they have been used to decode systems with fractal logical operators, color codes, qudit topological codes, and non-Abelian systems. In this work, we develop a method of performing HDRG decoding which combines strengths of existing decoders and further improves upon them. In particular, we increase the minimal number of errors necessary for a logical error in a system of linear size L from \\Theta ({{L}2/3}) to Ω ({{L}1-ε }) for any ε \\gt 0. We apply our algorithm to decoding D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models and a non-Abelian anyon model with Fibonacci-like fusion rules, and show that it indeed significantly outperforms previous HDRG decoders. Furthermore, we provide the first study of continuous error correction with imperfect syndrome measurements for the D({{{Z}}d}) quantum double models. The parallelized runtime of our algorithm is poly(log L) for the perfect measurement case. In the continuous case with imperfect syndrome measurements, the averaged runtime is O(1) for Abelian systems, while continuous error correction for non-Abelian anyons stays an open problem.
Plasma analogy and non-Abelian statistics for Ising-type quantum Hall states
Bonderson, Parsa; Gurarie, Victor; Nayak, Chetan
2011-02-15
We study the non-Abelian statistics of quasiparticles in the Ising-type quantum Hall states which are likely candidates to explain the observed Hall conductivity plateaus in the second Landau level, most notably the one at filling fraction {nu}=5/2. We complete the program started in V. Gurarie and C. Nayak, [Nucl. Phys. B 506, 685 (1997)]. and show that the degenerate four-quasihole and six-quasihole wave functions of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state are orthogonal with equal constant norms in the basis given by conformal blocks in a c=1+(1/2) conformal field theory. As a consequence, this proves that the non-Abelian statistics of the excitations in this state are given by the explicit analytic continuation of these wave functions. Our proof is based on a plasma analogy derived from the Coulomb gas construction of Ising model correlation functions involving both order and (at most two) disorder operators. We show how this computation also determines the non-Abelian statistics of collections of more than six quasiholes and give an explicit expression for the corresponding conformal block-derived wave functions for an arbitrary number of quasiholes. Our method also applies to the anti-Pfaffian wave function and to Bonderson-Slingerland hierarchy states constructed over the Moore-Read and anti-Pfaffian states.
Generalized type IIB supergravity equations and non-Abelian classical r-matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-11-01
We study Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring with non-Abelian classical r-matrices which satisfy the homogeneous classical Yang-Baxter equation. By performing a supercoset construction, we can get deformed {{AdS}}5× {S}5 backgrounds. While this is a new area of research, the current understanding is that Abelian classical r-matrices give rise to solutions of type IIB supergravity, while non-Abelian classical r-matrices lead to solutions of the generalized supergravity equations. We examine here some examples of non-Abelian classical r-matrices and derive the associated backgrounds explicitly. All of the resulting backgrounds satisfy the generalized equations. For some of them, we derive ‘T-dualized’ backgrounds by adding a linear coordinate dependence to the dilaton and show that these satisfy the usual type IIB supergravity equations. Remarkably, some of the ‘T-dualized’ backgrounds are locally identical to undeformed {{AdS}}5× {S}5 after an appropriate coordinate transformation, but this seems not to be generally the case.
Generation of non-Abelian geometric phases in degenerate atomic transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simeonov, Lachezar S.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2017-09-01
A popular quantum system, in which the Pancharatnam-Berry non-Abelian geometric phase has been generated and exploited, is the atomic tripod system. It is conveniently created by linking a single atomic state with three other states by three electromagnetic fields. Such a linkage pattern naturally emerges between the magnetic sublevels of two atomic levels with angular momenta J =0 and J =1 , although tripod implementations between other suitable sublevels are also used. Here we go beyond the limitation of a tripod system and show that it is possible to generate the non-Abelian geometric phase in a quantum system composed of N lower and N -2 upper sublevels. The theoretical instrument is the Morris-Shore transformation which reveals the existence of two uncoupled (dark) states composed of the lower sublevels only. A possible physical implementation is the atomic transition J ↔J -1 , with J arbitrary, which is driven, as in the case of tripod system, by three electromagnetic fields of different polarizations. This generalization considerably broadens the range of systems that can be used to generate a geometric phase, with the the same experimental complexity as in the tripod system. Specific calculations of the non-Abelian geometric phase are presented for J =3/2 ↔J =1/2 and J =2 ↔J =1 systems. A method for measuring the geometric phase is proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Cipriani, Mattia; Nitta, Muneto
2016-03-01
Quark matter at high density may exhibit color superconductivity. As magnetic flux tubes in metallic superconductors, color magnetic flux tubes as non-Abelian vortices appear in the color-flavor-locked phase of high density QCD. C P2 Nambu-Goldstone bosons and Majorana fermions belonging to the triplet representation are known to be localized around a non-Abelian vortex. In this paper, we determine the coupling of these bosonic and fermionic modes by using the nonlinear realization method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Kato, Seikou; Shinohara, Toru
2013-03-01
We have proposed the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement in the SU(3) Yang-Mills (YM) theory, and have given numerical evidences for the restricted-field dominance and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole dominance in the string tension by applying a new formulation of the YM theory on a lattice. To establish the non-Abelian dual superconductivity picture for quark confinement, we have observed the non-Abelian dual Meissner effect in the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory by measuring the chromoelectric flux created by the quark-antiquark source, and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole currents induced around the flux. We conclude that the dual superconductivity of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is strictly the type I and that this type of dual superconductivity is reproduced by the restricted field and the non-Abelian magnetic monopole part, in sharp contrast to the SU(2) case: the border of type I and type II.
Diffusive Mixing in Strongly Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaw, Abdourahmane; Murillo, Michael
2016-10-01
A multispecies hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is developed for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. The modified transport equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while fluctuations enters through a mixture BGK operator. This model extends the usual Burgers equations for a dilute gas to strongly coupled and isothermal plasmas mixtures. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling of white dwarfs and neutron stars can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct-correlation function. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0344).
Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors
Wang, K.C.
1990-11-01
We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Kinetic Characterization of Strongly Coupled Systems
Knapek, C. A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.; Samsonov, D.
2007-01-05
We propose a simple method to determine the local coupling strength {gamma} experimentally, by linking the individual particle dynamics with the local density and crystal structure of a 2D plasma crystal. By measuring particle trajectories with high spatial and temporal resolution we obtain the first maps of {gamma} and temperature at individual particle resolution. We employ numerical simulations to test this new method, and discuss the implications to characterize strongly coupled systems.
Markovian evolution of strongly coupled harmonic oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Chaitanya; Öhberg, Patrik; Cresser, James D.; Andersson, Erika
2014-12-01
We investigate how to model Markovian evolution of coupled harmonic oscillators, each of them interacting with a local environment. When the coupling between the oscillators is weak, dissipation may be modeled using local Lindblad terms for each of the oscillators in the master equation, as is commonly done. When the coupling between oscillators is strong, this model may become invalid. We derive a master equation for two coupled harmonic oscillators that are subject to individual heat baths modeled by a collection of harmonic oscillators and show that this master equation in general contains nonlocal Lindblad terms. We compare the resulting time evolution with that obtained for dissipation through local Lindblad terms for each individual oscillator and show that the evolution is different in the two cases. In particular, the two descriptions give different predictions for the steady state and for the entanglement between strongly coupled oscillators. This shows that when describing strongly coupled harmonic oscillators, one must take great care in how dissipation is modeled and that a description using local Lindblad terms may fail. This may be particularly relevant when attempting to generate entangled states of strongly coupled quantum systems.
Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.
Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III
2010-10-01
We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.
Phase diagram and non-Abelian symmetry locking for fermionic mixtures with unequal interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto Barros, Joao C.; Lepori, Luca; Trombettoni, Andrea
2017-07-01
The realization of experiments in ultracold multicomponent mixtures, also involving more atomic species, opened the way to the study of exotic quantum phases and unconventional superfluidity, as, for instance non-Abelian superfluid phases. In this paper we study the occurrence of non-Abelian symmetry-locked superfluid states in ultracold fermionic mixtures with four components, showing that such states can be studied in current day experiments with 171Yb-173Yb isotopes. We study the phase diagram in the presence of an attractive interaction between the species of two pairs of the mixture, and general (also repulsive) interactions between the species of each pair. This system can be physically realized, e.g., in mixtures of two different earth-alkaline species, both of them with two hyperfine levels selectively populated. We find an extended region of the diagram exhibiting a two-flavors superfluid symmetry-locking (TFSL) phase. The locking corresponds to the presence of a order parameter involving—in all the possible and distinct permitted ways—two fermions, one of them belonging to the first pair and the second to the other one. This TSFL phase is present also for not too large repulsive intrapair interactions and it is characterized by a global non-Abelian symmetry group obtained by locking together two independent invariance groups of the corresponding normal state. Explicit estimates are reported for the mixture of the fermionic isotopes 171Yb-173Yb , indicating that the TFSL phase can be achieved also without tuning the interactions between Yb atoms.
Russian doll spectrum in a non-Abelian string-net ladder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien
2015-04-01
We study a string-net ladder in the presence of a string tension. Focusing on the simplest non-Abelian anyon theory with a quantum dimension larger than two, we determine the phase diagram and find a Russian doll spectrum featuring size-independent energy levels as well as highly degenerate zero-energy eigenstates. At the self-dual points, we compute the gap exactly by using a mapping onto the Temperley-Lieb chain. These results are in stark contrast with the ones obtained for Fibonacci or Ising theories.
Probing Non-Abelian Statistics of Majorana Fermions in Ultracold Atomic Superfluid
Zhu Shiliang; Shao, L.-B.; Wang, Z. D.; Duan, L.-M.
2011-03-11
We propose an experiment to directly probe the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions by braiding them in an s-wave superfluid of ultracold atoms. We show that different orders of braiding operations give orthogonal output states that can be distinguished through Raman spectroscopy. Realization of Majorana states in an s-wave superfluid requires strong spin-orbital coupling and a controllable Zeeman field in the perpendicular direction. We present a simple laser configuration to generate the artificial spin-orbital coupling and the required Zeeman field in the dark-state subspace.
Non-Abelian Bremsstrahlung and Azimuthal Asymmetries in High Energy p+A Reactions
Gyulassy, Miklos; Vitev, Ivan Mateev; Levai, Peter; ...
2014-09-25
Here we apply the GLV reaction operator solution to the Vitev-Gunion-Bertsch (VGB) boundary conditions to compute the all-order in nuclear opacity non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung of event- by-event uctuating beam jets in nuclear collisions. We evaluate analytically azimuthal Fourier moments of single gluon, vmore » $$M\\atop{n}$$ {1}, and even number 2ℓ gluon, v$$M\\atop{n}$$ {2ℓ} inclusive distributions in high energy p+A reactions as a function of harmonic $n$, target recoil cluster number, $M$, and gluon number, 2ℓ, at RHIC and LHC. Multiple resolved clusters of recoiling target beam jets together with the projectile beam jet form Color Scintillation Antenna (CSA) arrays that lead to character- istic boost non-invariant trapezoidal rapidity distributions in asymmetric B+A nuclear collisions. The scaling of intrinsically azimuthally anisotropic and long range in η nature of the non-Abelian bremsstrahlung leads to vn moments that are similar to results from hydrodynamic models, but due entirely to non-Abelian wave interference phenomena sourced by the fluctuating CSA. Our analytic non-flow solutions are similar to recent numerical saturation model predictions but differ by predicting a simple power-law hierarchy of both even and odd vn without invoking kT factorization. A test of CSA mechanism is the predicted nearly linear η rapidity dependence of the vn(kTη). Non- Abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung may thus provide a simple analytic solution to Beam Energy Scan (BES) puzzle of the near $$\\sqrt{s}$$ independence of vn(pT) moments observed down to 10 AGeV where large-x valence quark beam jets dominate inelastic dynamics. Recoil bremsstrahlung from multiple independent CSA clusters could also provide a partial explanation for the unexpected similarity of vn in p(D) + A and non-central A + A at same dN=dη multiplicity as observed at RHIC and LHC.« less
Non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries of 10D SYM theory with magnetized extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ohki, Hiroshi; Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki
2014-06-01
We study discrete flavor symmetries of the models based on a ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills (10D SYM) theory compactified on magnetized tori. We assume non-vanishing non-factorizable fluxes as well as the orbifold projections. These setups allow model-building with more various flavor structures. Indeed, we show that there exist various classes of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries. In particular, we find that S 3 flavor symmetries can be realized in the framework of the magnetized 10D SYM theory for the first time.
Demonstrating non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions using twist defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Huaixiu; Dua, Arpit; Jiang, Liang
We study the twist defects in the toric code model introduced by Bombin [Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 030403 (2010)]. Using a generalized 2D Jordan-Wigner transformation and a projective construction, we show explicitly the twist defects carry unpaired Majorana zero modes. In addition, we propose a quantum non-demolition measurement scheme of the parity of Majorana modes. Such a scheme provides an alternative avenue to demonstrate the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions. The braiding operation is simulated by an efficient measurement-based approach that removes the uncertainty associated with the previous forced measurement scheme.
Non-Abelian Bremsstrahlung and Azimuthal Asymmetries in High Energy p+A Reactions
Gyulassy, Miklos; Vitev, Ivan Mateev; Levai, Peter; Biro, Tamas S.
2014-09-25
Here we apply the GLV reaction operator solution to the Vitev-Gunion-Bertsch (VGB) boundary conditions to compute the all-order in nuclear opacity non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung of event- by-event uctuating beam jets in nuclear collisions. We evaluate analytically azimuthal Fourier moments of single gluon, v$M\\atop{n}$ {1}, and even number 2ℓ gluon, v$M\\atop{n}$ {2ℓ} inclusive distributions in high energy p+A reactions as a function of harmonic $n$, target recoil cluster number, $M$, and gluon number, 2ℓ, at RHIC and LHC. Multiple resolved clusters of recoiling target beam jets together with the projectile beam jet form Color Scintillation Antenna (CSA) arrays that lead to character- istic boost non-invariant trapezoidal rapidity distributions in asymmetric B+A nuclear collisions. The scaling of intrinsically azimuthally anisotropic and long range in η nature of the non-Abelian bremsstrahlung leads to v_{n} moments that are similar to results from hydrodynamic models, but due entirely to non-Abelian wave interference phenomena sourced by the fluctuating CSA. Our analytic non-flow solutions are similar to recent numerical saturation model predictions but differ by predicting a simple power-law hierarchy of both even and odd v_{n} without invoking k_{T} factorization. A test of CSA mechanism is the predicted nearly linear η rapidity dependence of the v_{n}(k_{T}η). Non- Abelian beam jet bremsstrahlung may thus provide a simple analytic solution to Beam Energy Scan (BES) puzzle of the near $\\sqrt{s}$ independence of v_{n}(pT) moments observed down to 10 AGeV where large-x valence quark beam jets dominate inelastic dynamics. Recoil bremsstrahlung from multiple independent CSA clusters could also provide a partial explanation for the unexpected similarity of v_{n} in p(D) + A and non-central A + A at same dN=dη multiplicity as observed at RHIC and LHC.
Holographic entropy and real-time dynamics of quarkonium dissociation in non-Abelian plasma
Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-04-26
The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the interquark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. In particular, we employ the improved holographic QCD model as a dual description of large N_{c} Yang-Mills theory. Studying the dynamics of the fundamental string between the quarks placed on the boundary, we find that the entropy peaks at the transition point. We also study the real-time dynamics of the system by considering the holographic string falling in the black hole horizon where it equilibrates. As a result, in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition, the dissociation time is found to be less than a fermi, suggesting that the entropic destruction is the dominant dissociation mechanism in this temperature region.
Holographic entropy and real-time dynamics of quarkonium dissociation in non-Abelian plasma
Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-04-26
The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the interquark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. In particular, we employ the improved holographic QCD model as a dual description of largemore » Nc Yang-Mills theory. Studying the dynamics of the fundamental string between the quarks placed on the boundary, we find that the entropy peaks at the transition point. We also study the real-time dynamics of the system by considering the holographic string falling in the black hole horizon where it equilibrates. As a result, in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition, the dissociation time is found to be less than a fermi, suggesting that the entropic destruction is the dominant dissociation mechanism in this temperature region.« less
Holographic entropy and real-time dynamics of quarkonium dissociation in non-Abelian plasma
Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.
2016-04-26
The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the interquark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. In particular, we employ the improved holographic QCD model as a dual description of large N_{c} Yang-Mills theory. Studying the dynamics of the fundamental string between the quarks placed on the boundary, we find that the entropy peaks at the transition point. We also study the real-time dynamics of the system by considering the holographic string falling in the black hole horizon where it equilibrates. As a result, in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition, the dissociation time is found to be less than a fermi, suggesting that the entropic destruction is the dominant dissociation mechanism in this temperature region.
A scenario for inflationary magnetogenesis without strong coupling problem
Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2015-03-01
Cosmological magnetic fields pervade the entire universe, from small to large scales. Since they apparently extend into the intergalactic medium, it is tantalizing to believe that they have a primordial origin, possibly being produced during inflation. However, finding consistent scenarios for inflationary magnetogenesis is a challenging theoretical problem. The requirements to avoid an excessive production of electromagnetic energy, and to avoid entering a strong coupling regime characterized by large values for the electromagnetic coupling constant, typically allow one to generate only a tiny amplitude of magnetic field during inflation. We propose a scenario for building gauge-invariant models of inflationary magnetogenesis potentially free from these issues. The idea is to derivatively couple a dynamical scalar, not necessarily the inflaton, to fermionic and electromagnetic fields during the inflationary era. Such couplings give additional freedom to control the time-dependence of the electromagnetic coupling constant during inflation. This fact allows us to find conditions to avoid the strong coupling problems that affect many of the existing models of magnetogenesis. We do not need to rely on a particular inflationary set-up for developing our scenario, that might be applied to different realizations of inflation. On the other hand, specific requirements have to be imposed on the dynamics of the scalar derivatively coupled to fermions and electromagnetism, that we are able to satisfy in an explicit realization of our proposal.
A scenario for inflationary magnetogenesis without strong coupling problem
Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2015-03-23
Cosmological magnetic fields pervade the entire universe, from small to large scales. Since they apparently extend into the intergalactic medium, it is tantalizing to believe that they have a primordial origin, possibly being produced during inflation. However, finding consistent scenarios for inflationary magnetogenesis is a challenging theoretical problem. The requirements to avoid an excessive production of electromagnetic energy, and to avoid entering a strong coupling regime characterized by large values for the electromagnetic coupling constant, typically allow one to generate only a tiny amplitude of magnetic field during inflation. We propose a scenario for building gauge-invariant models of inflationary magnetogenesis potentially free from these issues. The idea is to derivatively couple a dynamical scalar, not necessarily the inflaton, to fermionic and electromagnetic fields during the inflationary era. Such couplings give additional freedom to control the time-dependence of the electromagnetic coupling constant during inflation. This fact allows us to find conditions to avoid the strong coupling problems that affect many of the existing models of magnetogenesis. We do not need to rely on a particular inflationary set-up for developing our scenario, that might be applied to different realizations of inflation. On the other hand, specific requirements have to be imposed on the dynamics of the scalar derivatively coupled to fermions and electromagnetism, that we are able to satisfy in an explicit realization of our proposal.
Strong-coupling limit of Eliashberg theory
Combescot, R.
1995-05-01
We study the strong-coupling limit of the Eliashberg theory of superconductivity, where the coupling strength {lambda} goes to infinity and the critical temperature gets large compared to a typical phonon energy. This limit is of interest because it is both universal and simple, and we may hope to obtain from this study a deeper understanding of the conventional strong-coupling regime of superconductivity. Our work on this problem is both analytical and numerical. At {ital T}=0, we find that the excitation spectrum is discrete. We interpret physically the excited states as bound states due to a type of polaronic effect. We show that one can solve the Eliashberg equations essentially analytically by working fully on the real frequency axis. At finite temperature we find a thermal smearing of the {ital T}=0 structure. Since the critical temperature is small compared to the zero-temperature gap, thermal effects can be treated as a kind of perturbation over almost all the temperature range. In this spirit, we give a simple approximate solution which reproduces almost quantitatively the exact numerical results.
Multimode Strong Coupling in Circuit QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundaresan, Neereja; Liu, Yanbing; Sadri, Darius; Szocs, Laszlo; Underwood, Devin; Malekakhlagh, Moein; Tureci, Hakan; Houck, Andrew
We present experimental and theoretical studies in the multimode strong coupling (MMSC) regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In MMSC, a single atom is simultaneously coupled to a large, but discrete, number of cavity harmonics, with atom-mode coupling strengths comparable to the free spectral range (FSR). This regime is readily accessible in circuit QED, by strongly coupling a transmon qubit to a low fundamental frequency microwave cavity. We present some key results from our original experiment (PRX 5, 021035, 2015), in which a transmon qubit, resonant with the 75th harmonic of a 90 MHz cavity, reached qubit-mode coupling strengths exceeding 30MHz. When this system is coherently driven, we observed complex multimode fluorescence, with the notable formation of ultra-narrow linewidths. To better understand these unique features of multimode resonance fluorescence we developed a quantum formalism, which attributes the spectral linewidth narrowing to the correlated spontaneous emission of doubly dressed states. Finally we will share preliminary experimental results from our continuing study of MMSC, this time from a system where qubit-mode coupling strengths approach and even exceed the FSR.
Fermion structure of non-Abelian vortices in high density QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasui, Shigehiro; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto
2010-05-01
We study the internal structure of a non-Abelian vortex in color superconductivity with respect to quark degrees of freedom. Stable non-Abelian vortices appear in the color-flavor-locked phase whose symmetry SU(3)c+L+R is further broken to SU(2)c+L+R⊗U(1)c+L+R at the vortex cores. Microscopic structure of vortices at scales shorter than the coherence length can be analyzed by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation (rather than the Ginzburg-Landau equation). We obtain quark spectra from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation by treating the diquark gap having the vortex configuration as a background field. We find that there are massless modes (zero modes) well-localized around a vortex, in the triplet and singlet states of the unbroken symmetry SU(2)c+L+R⊗U(1)c+L+R. The velocities vi of the massless modes (i=t, s for triplet and singlet) change at finite chemical potential μ≠0, and decrease as μ becomes large. Therefore, low energy excitations in the vicinity of the vortices are effectively described by 1+1 dimensional massless fermions whose velocities are reduced vi<1.
Chaos-order transition in Bianchi type I non-Abelian Born-Infeld cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyadichev, Vladimir V.; Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.; Moniz, Paulo Vargas
2005-10-01
We investigate the Bianchi I cosmology with the homogeneous SU(2) Yang-Mills field governed by the non-Abelian Born-Infeld action. A similar system with the standard Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) action is known to exhibit chaotic behavior induced by the Yang-Mills field. When the action is replaced by the Born-Infeld type non-Abelian action (NBI), the chaos-order transition is observed in the high-energy region. This is interpreted as a smothering effect due to (nonperturbative in α') string corrections to the classical EYM action. We give numerical evidence for the chaos-order transition and present an analytical proof of regularity of color oscillations in the limit of strong Born-Infeld nonlinearity. We also perform a general analysis of the Bianchi I NBI cosmology and derive an exact solution in the case of only the U(1) component excited. Our new exact solution generalizes the Rosen solution of the Bianchi I Einstein-Maxwell cosmology to the U(1) Einstein-Born-Infeld theory.
Non-Abelian statistics and topological quantum information processing in 1D wire networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alicea, Jason; Oreg, Yuval; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
2011-03-01
Topological quantum computation provides an elegant way around decoherence, as one encodes quantum information in a non-local fashion that the environment finds difficult to corrupt. Here we establish that one of the key operations---braiding of non-Abelian anyons---can be implemented in one-dimensional semiconductor wire networks. Previous work [Lutchyn et al., arXiv:1002.4033 and Oreg et al., arXiv:1003.1145] provided a recipe for driving semiconducting wires into a topological phase supporting long-sought particles known as Majorana fermions that can store topologically protected quantum information. Majorana fermions in this setting can be transported, created, and fused by applying locally tunable gates to the wire. More importantly, we show that networks of such wires allow braiding of Majorana fermions and that they exhibit non-Abelian statistics like vortices in a p+ip superconductor. We propose experimental setups that enable the Majorana fusion rules to be probed, along with networks that allow for efficient exchange of arbitrary numbers of Majorana fermions. This work paves a new path forward in topological quantum computation that benefits from physical transparency and experimental realism.
Experimental Identification of Non-Abelian Topological Orders on a Quantum Simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Keren; Wan, Yidun; Hung, Ling-Yan; Lan, Tian; Long, Guilu; Lu, Dawei; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-02-01
Topological orders can be used as media for topological quantum computing—a promising quantum computation model due to its invulnerability against local errors. Conversely, a quantum simulator, often regarded as a quantum computing device for special purposes, also offers a way of characterizing topological orders. Here, we show how to identify distinct topological orders via measuring their modular S and T matrices. In particular, we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator to study the properties of three topologically ordered matter phases described by the string-net model with two string types, including the Z2 toric code, doubled semion, and doubled Fibonacci. The third one, non-Abelian Fibonacci order is notably expected to be the simplest candidate for universal topological quantum computing. Our experiment serves as the basic module, built on which one can simulate braiding of non-Abelian anyons and ultimately, topological quantum computation via the braiding, and thus provides a new approach of investigating topological orders using quantum computers.
Fault-Tolerant Quantum Error Correction for non-Abelian Anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauphinais, Guillaume; Poulin, David
2017-10-01
While topological quantum computation is intrinsically fault-tolerant at zero temperature, it loses its topological protection at any finite temperature. We present a scheme to protect the information stored in a system supporting non-cyclic anyons against thermal and measurement errors. The correction procedure builds on the work of Gács (J Comput Syst Sci 32:15-78, 1986. doi: 10.1145/800061.808730) and Harrington (Analysis of quantum error-correcting codes: symplectic lattice codes and toric code, 2004) and operates as a local cellular automaton. In contrast to previously studied schemes, our scheme is valid for both abelian and non-abelian anyons and accounts for measurement errors. We analytically prove the existence of a fault-tolerant threshold for a certain class of non-Abelian anyon models, and numerically simulate the procedure for the specific example of Ising anyons. The result of our simulations are consistent with a threshold between {10^{-4}} and {10^{-3}}.
Creating and manipulating non-Abelian anyons in cold atom systems using auxiliary bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuhe; Sreejith, G. J.; Jain, J. K.
2015-08-01
The possibility of realizing bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect in ultracold atomic systems suggests a new route to producing and manipulating anyons, by introducing auxiliary bosons of a different species that capture quasiholes and thus inherit their nontrivial braiding properties. States with localized quasiholes at any desired locations can be obtained by annihilating the auxiliary bosons at those locations. We explore how this method can be used to generate non-Abelian quasiholes of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state for bosons at filling factor ν =1 . We show that a Hamiltonian with an appropriate three-body interaction can produce two-quasihole states in two distinct fusion channels of the topological "qubit." Characteristics of these states that are related to the non-Abelian nature can be probed and verified by a measurement of the effective relative angular momentum of the auxiliary bosons, which is directly related to their pair distribution function. Moore-Read states of more than two quasiholes can also be produced in a similar fashion. We investigate some issues related to the experimental feasibility of this approach, in particular, how large the systems should be for a realization of this physics and to what extent this physics carries over to systems with the more standard two-body contact interaction.
Non-abelian fractional quantum hall effect for fault-resistant topological quantum computation.
Pan, Wei; Thalakulam, Madhu; Shi, Xiaoyan; Crawford, Matthew; Nielsen, Erik; Cederberg, Jeffrey George
2013-10-01
Topological quantum computation (TQC) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches to quantum computation. Under this approach, the topological properties of a non-Abelian quantum system, which are insensitive to local perturbations, are utilized to process and transport quantum information. The encoded information can be protected and rendered immune from nearly all environmental decoherence processes without additional error-correction. It is believed that the low energy excitations of the so-called =5/2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state may obey non-Abelian statistics. Our goal is to explore this novel FQH state and to understand and create a scientific foundation of this quantum matter state for the emerging TQC technology. We present in this report the results from a coherent study that focused on obtaining a knowledge base of the physics that underpins TQC. We first present the results of bulk transport properties, including the nature of disorder on the 5/2 state and spin transitions in the second Landau level. We then describe the development and application of edge tunneling techniques to quantify and understand the quasiparticle physics of the 5/2 state.
Experimental Identification of Non-Abelian Topological Orders on a Quantum Simulator.
Li, Keren; Wan, Yidun; Hung, Ling-Yan; Lan, Tian; Long, Guilu; Lu, Dawei; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-02-24
Topological orders can be used as media for topological quantum computing-a promising quantum computation model due to its invulnerability against local errors. Conversely, a quantum simulator, often regarded as a quantum computing device for special purposes, also offers a way of characterizing topological orders. Here, we show how to identify distinct topological orders via measuring their modular S and T matrices. In particular, we employ a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator to study the properties of three topologically ordered matter phases described by the string-net model with two string types, including the Z_{2} toric code, doubled semion, and doubled Fibonacci. The third one, non-Abelian Fibonacci order is notably expected to be the simplest candidate for universal topological quantum computing. Our experiment serves as the basic module, built on which one can simulate braiding of non-Abelian anyons and ultimately, topological quantum computation via the braiding, and thus provides a new approach of investigating topological orders using quantum computers.
Das Sarma, Sankar
2012-10-03
I will discuss the revolutionary new concept of topological quantum computation, which is fault-tolerant at the hardware level with no need, in principle, of any quantum error correction protocols. Errors simply do not occur since the physical qubits and the computation steps are protected against decoherence by non-local topological correlations in the underlying physical system. The key idea is non-Abelian statistics of the quasiparticles (called 'anyons' as opposed to fermions or bosons), where the space-time braiding of the anyons around each other, i.e. quantum 'knots', form topologically protected quantum gate operations. I will describe in detail the theoretical principles guiding the experimental search for the appropriate topological phases of matter where such non-Abelian anyons, which are low-dimensional solid state versions of the elusive and exotic Majorana fermions hypothesized seventy-five years ago, may exist. I will critically discuss the recent experimental claims of observing the Majorana modes in semiconductor nanowire structures following earlier theoretical proposals, outlining the future developments which would be necessary to eventually build a topological quantum computer.
Spontaneous magnetization through non-Abelian vortex formation in rotating dense quark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinci, Walter; Cipriani, Mattia; Nitta, Muneto
2012-10-01
When a color superconductor of high density QCD is rotating, superfluid vortices are inevitably created along the rotation axis. In the color-flavor locked phase realized at the asymptotically large chemical potential, there appear non-Abelian vortices carrying both circulations of superfluid and color magnetic fluxes. A family of solutions has a degeneracy characterized by the Nambu-Goldstone modes CP2, associated with the color-flavor locked symmetry spontaneously broken in the vicinity of the vortex. In this paper, we study electromagnetic coupling of the non-Abelian vortices and find that the degeneracy is removed with the induced effective potential. We obtain one stable vortex solution and a family of metastable vortex solutions, both of which carry ordinary magnetic fluxes in addition to color magnetic fluxes. We discuss quantum mechanical decay of the metastable vortices by quantum tunneling and compare the effective potential with the other known potentials, the quantum mechanically induced potential and the potential induced by the strange quark mass.
BOOK REVIEW: Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich
2007-07-01
Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of `warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work perfomed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and optical
Effective Lagrangian Models for gauge theories of fundamental interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sannino, Francesco
The non abelian gauge theory which describes, in the perturbative regime, the strong interactions is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Quarks and gluons are the fundamental degrees of freedom of the theory. A key feature of the theory (due to quantum corrections) is asymptotic freedom, i.e. the strong coupling constant increases as the energy scale of interest decreases. The perturbative approach becomes unreliable below a characteristic scale of the theory (Λ). Quarks and gluons confine themselves into colorless particles called hadrons (pions, protons,/...). The latter are the true physical states of the theory. We need to investigate alternative ways to describe strong interactions, and in general any asymptotically free theory, in the non perturbative regime. This is the fundamental motivation of the present thesis. Although the underlying gauge theory cannot be easily treated in the non perturbative regime we can still use its global symmetries as a guide to build Effective Lagrangian Models. These models will be written directly in terms of the colorless physical states of the theory, i.e. hadrons.
Appearance of gauge structure in simple dynamical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.
1984-01-01
By generalizing a construction of Berry and Simon, it is shown that non-Abelian gauge fields arise in the adiabatic development of simple quantum mechanical systems. Characteristics of the gauge fields are related to energy splittings, which may be observable in real systems. Similar phenomena are found for suitable classical systems.
Ionization Potential Depression in Strongly Coupled Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wark, Justin; Ciricosta, Orlando; Vinko, Sam; Crowley, Basil
2013-10-01
The focusing of the output of 4th generation femtosecond X-ray sources to ultra-high intensities has enabled the creation of hot (close to 200-eV) aluminum plasmas at exactly solid density. Tuning of the X-ray FEL energy that produces the plasma, and observation of the subsequent K- α fluorescence from the highly charged ions allows direct measurements of the K-edges, and hence ionization potential depression (IPD). The results of these experiments show far higher depressions than those predicted by the frequently-used Stewart-Pyatt model, but appear to be in contradiction with laser-plasma experimental data at similar densities, but with hotter, less strongly-coupled plasmas. We present here new calculations of the IPD, both ab initio and analytic, and discuss the relevance of the coupling parameter to the IPD. We further explore what constitutes our understanding of the physics of IPD, and how it should be modelled.
Strongly coupled rotational band in 33Mg
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, A. L.; Crawford, H. L.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Bowry, M.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Gade, A.; Ideguchi, E.; Iwasaki, H.; Jones, M. D.; Langer, C.; Lee, I. Y.; Loelius, C.; Lunderberg, E.; Morse, C.; Rissanen, J.; Salathe, M.; Smalley, D.; Stroberg, S. R.; Weisshaar, D.; Whitmore, K.; Wiens, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wimmer, K.; Yamamato, T.
2017-07-01
The "island of inversion" at N ≈20 for the neon, sodium, and magnesium isotopes has long been an area of interest both experimentally and theoretically due to the subtle competition between 0p-0h and n p -n h configurations leading to deformed shapes. However, the presence of rotational band structures, which are fingerprints of deformed shapes, have only recently been observed in this region. In this work, we report on a measurement of the low-lying level structure of 33Mg populated by a two-stage projectile fragmentation reaction and studied with the Gamma Ray Energy Tracking In-Beam Nuclear Array (GRETINA). The experimental level energies, ground-state magnetic moment, intrinsic quadrupole moment, and γ -ray intensities show good agreement with the strong-coupling limit of a rotational model.
On a strong coupling property of QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandou, T.
2017-03-01
The fermionic Green's functions of QCD exhibit an unexpected property of effective locality, which appears to be exact, involving no approximation. In the limit of strong coupling, and at eikonal and quenching approximations (where this property was first discovered), effective locality implies a dependence of non-perturbative fermionic Green's functions on the full algebraic content of the rank 2-SUc(3) color algebra. At variance with Perturbation Theory and a variety of non-perturbative approaches also, C3-dependences show up, where C3 stands for the second, trilinear Casimir invariant of SUc(3). These dependences are sub-leading in magnitude and seem to comply with the maximally allowed departures from the pure C2 behaviours advocated by lattice numerical estimates.
Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling
Xue, Zheng-Yuan Yang, Li-Na; Zhou, Jian
2015-07-13
In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.
Control of tripod-scheme cold-atom wavepackets by manipulating a non-Abelian vector potential
Zhang Qi; Gong Jiangbin; Oh, C.H.
2010-06-15
Tripod-scheme cold atoms interacting with laser beams have attracted considerable interest for their role in synthesizing effective non-Abelian vector potentials. Such effective vector potentials can be exploited to realize an all-optical imprinting of geometric phases onto matter waves. By working on carefully designed extensions of our previous work, we show that coherent lattice structure of cold-atom sub-wavepackets can be formed and that the non-Abelian Aharonov-Bohm effect can be easily manifested via the translational motion of cold atoms. We also show that by changing the frame of reference, effects due to a non-Abelian vector potential may be connected with a simple dynamical phase effect, and that under certain conditions it can be understood as an Abelian geometric phase in a different frame of reference. Results should help design better schemes for the control of cold-atom matter waves.
Shock waves in strongly coupled plasmas
Khlebnikov, Sergei; Kruczenski, Martin; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios
2010-12-15
Shock waves are supersonic disturbances propagating in a fluid and giving rise to dissipation and drag. Weak shocks, i.e., those of small amplitude, can be well described within the hydrodynamic approximation. On the other hand, strong shocks are discontinuous within hydrodynamics and therefore probe the microscopics of the theory. In this paper, we consider the case of the strongly coupled N=4 plasma whose microscopic description, applicable for scales smaller than the inverse temperature, is given in terms of gravity in an asymptotically AdS{sub 5} space. In the gravity approximation, weak and strong shocks should be described by smooth metrics with no discontinuities. For weak shocks, we find the dual metric in a derivative expansion, and for strong shocks we use linearized gravity to find the exponential tail that determines the width of the shock. In particular, we find that, when the velocity of the fluid relative to the shock approaches the speed of light v{yields}1 the penetration depth l scales as l{approx}(1-v{sup 2}){sup 1/4}. We compare the results with second-order hydrodynamics and the Israel-Stewart approximation. Although they all agree in the hydrodynamic regime of weak shocks, we show that there is not even qualitative agreement for strong shocks. For the gravity side, the existence of shock waves implies that there are disturbances of constant shape propagating on the horizon of the dual black holes.
Simulating strongly coupled plasmas at low temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Habs, D.
2006-10-01
Realistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the particle dynamics in strongly coupled plasmas require the computation of the mutual Coulomb-force for each pair of charged particles if a correct treatment of long range correlations is required. For plasmas with N > 104 particles this requires a tremendous number of computational steps which can only be addressed using efficient parallel algorithms adopted to modern super-computers. We present a new versatile MD simulation code which can simulate the non-relativistic mutual Coulomb-interaction of a large number of charged particles in arbitrary external field configurations. A demanding application is the simulation of the complete dynamics of in-trap stopping of highly charged ions in a laser cooled plasma of N = 105 24Mg+ ions. We demonstrate that the simulation is capable of delivering results on stopping times and plasma dynamics under realistic conditions. The results suggest that this stopping scheme can compete with in-trap electron cooling and might be an alternative approach for delivering ultra cold highly charged ions for future trap-based experiments aiming for precision mass measurements of stable and radioactive nuclei.
Beta function in the non-Abelian Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in four dimensions
Alves, Van Sergio; Pinheiro, S. V. L.; Nascimento, Leonardo; Pena, Francisco
2009-08-15
In this paper we present the structure of the renormalization group in non-Abelian Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model up to 1-loop order. The model is not perturbatively renormalizable in the usual power counting sense, but it is treated as an effective theory, valid in a scale of energy in which p<<{lambda}, where p is the external momenta of the loop and {lambda} is a massive parameter that characterizes the couplings of the nonrenormalizable vertex. We clarify the tensorial structure of the interaction vertices and calculate the functions of the renormalization group. The analysis of the fixed points of the theory is also presented using Zimmermann's procedure for reducing the coupling constants. We find that the origin is an infrared-stable fixed point at low energies and also there is a nontrivial ultraviolet stable fixed point, indicating that the theory could be perturbatively investigated in the low momentum regime.
Robustness of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates against parametric noise
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo
2004-10-01
We present a numerical study of the robustness of a specific class of non-Abelian holonomic quantum gates. We take into account the parametric noise due to stochastic fluctuations of the control fields which drive the time-dependent Hamiltonian along an adiabatic loop. The performance estimator used is the state fidelity between noiseless and noisy holonomic gates. We carry over our analysis with different correlation times and we find out that noisy holonomic gates seem to be close to the noiseless ones for 'short' and 'long' noise correlation times. This result can be interpreted as a consequence of the geometric nature of the holonomic operator. Our simulations have been performed by using parameters relevant to the excitonic proposal for the implementation of holonomic quantum computation [P. Solinas et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 121307 (2003)].
Demonstrating non-Abelian braiding of surface code defects in a five qubit experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wootton, James R.
2017-03-01
Currently, the mainstream approach to quantum computing is through surface codes. One way to store and manipulate quantum information with these to create defects in the codes which can be moved and used as if they were particles. Specifically, they simulate the behaviour of exotic particles known as Majoranas, which are a kind of non-Abelian anyon. By exchanging these particles, important gates for quantum computation can be implemented. Here we investigate the simplest possible exchange operation for two surface code Majoranas. This is found to act non-trivially on only five qubits. The system is then truncated to these five qubits, so that the exchange process can be run on the IBM 5Q processor. The results demonstrate the expected effect of the exchange. This paper has been written in a style that should hopefully be accessible to both professional and amateur scientists.
Non-Abelian localization for supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories on a Seifert manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohta, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Yutaka
2012-11-01
We derive non-Abelian localization formulas for supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory with matters on a Seifert manifold M, which is the three-dimensional space of a circle bundle over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ, by using the cohomological approach introduced by Källén. We find that the partition function and the vacuum expectation value of the supersymmetric Wilson loop reduces to a finite dimensional integral and summation over classical flux configurations labeled by discrete integers. We also find that the partition function reduces further to just a discrete sum over integers in some cases, and evaluate the supersymmetric index (Witten index) exactly on S1×Σ. The index completely agrees with the previous prediction from field theory and branes. We discuss a vacuum structure of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory deduced from the localization.
Non-Abelian evolution of electromagnetic waves in a weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Frolov, D. Yu.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.
2007-05-01
A theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in a weakly anisotropic smoothly inhomogeneous medium is developed, based on the quantum-mechanical diagonalization procedure applied to Maxwell equations. The equations of motion for the translational (ray) and intrinsic (polarization) degrees of freedom are derived ab initio. The ray equations take into account the optical Magnus effect (spin Hall effect of photons) as well as trajectory variations owing to the medium anisotropy. Polarization evolution is described by the precession equation for the Stokes vector. In the generic case, the evolution of wave turns out to be non-Abelian: it is accompanied by mutual conversion of the normal modes and periodic oscillations of the ray trajectories analogous to electron zitterbewegung. The general theory is applied to examples of wave evolution in media with circular and linear birefringence.
Non-Abelian evolution of electromagnetic waves in a weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous medium
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Frolov, D. Yu.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.
2007-05-15
A theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in a weakly anisotropic smoothly inhomogeneous medium is developed, based on the quantum-mechanical diagonalization procedure applied to Maxwell equations. The equations of motion for the translational (ray) and intrinsic (polarization) degrees of freedom are derived ab initio. The ray equations take into account the optical Magnus effect (spin Hall effect of photons) as well as trajectory variations owing to the medium anisotropy. Polarization evolution is described by the precession equation for the Stokes vector. In the generic case, the evolution of wave turns out to be non-Abelian: it is accompanied by mutual conversion of the normal modes and periodic oscillations of the ray trajectories analogous to electron zitterbewegung. The general theory is applied to examples of wave evolution in media with circular and linear birefringence.
Non-Abelian Higgs models: Paving the way for asymptotic freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gies, Holger; Zambelli, Luca
2017-07-01
Asymptotically free renormalization group trajectories can be constructed in non-Abelian Higgs models with the aid of generalized boundary conditions imposed on the renormalized action. We detail this construction within the languages of simple low-order perturbation theory, effective field theory, as well as modern functional renormalization group equations. We construct a family of explicit scaling solutions using a controlled weak-coupling expansion in the ultraviolet, and obtain a standard Wilsonian renormalization group relevance classification of perturbations about scaling solutions. We obtain global information about the quasifixed function for the scalar potential by means of analytic asymptotic expansions and numerical shooting methods. Further analytical evidence for such asymptotically free theories is provided in the large-N limit. We estimate the long-range properties of these theories and identify initial/boundary conditions giving rise to a conventional Higgs phase.
Effective models of doped quantum ladders of non-Abelian anyons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soni, Medha; Troyer, Matthias; Poilblanc, Didier
2016-01-01
Quantum spin models have been studied extensively in one and higher dimensions. Furthermore, these systems have been doped with holes to study t -J models of SU (2 ) spin-1/2. Their anyonic counterparts can be built from non-Abelian anyons, such as Fibonacci anyons described by SU (2) 3 theories, which are quantum deformations of the SU (2 ) algebra. Inspired by the physics of SU (2 ) spins, several works have explored ladders of Fibonacci anyons and also one-dimensional (1D) t -J models. Here, we aim to explore the combined effects of extended dimensionality and doping by studying ladders composed of coupled chains of interacting itinerant Fibonacci anyons. We show analytically that in the limit of strong rung couplings these models can be mapped onto effective 1D models. These effective models can either be gapped models of hole pairs, or gapless models described by t -J (or modified t -J -V ) chains of Fibonacci anyons, whose spectrum exhibits a fractionalization into charge and anyon degrees of freedom. The charge degrees of freedom are described by the hardcore boson spectra while the anyon sector is given by a chain of localized interacting anyons. By using exact diagonalizations for two-leg and three-leg ladders, we show that indeed the doped ladders show exactly the same behavior as that of t -J chains. In the strong ferromagnetic rung limit, we can obtain a new model that hosts two different kinds of Fibonacci particles, which we denote as the heavy τ 's and light τ 's. These two particle types carry the same (non-Abelian) topological charge but different (Abelian) electric charges. Once again, we map the two-dimensional ladder onto an effective chain carrying these heavy and light τ 's. We perform a finite size scaling analysis to show the appearance of gapless modes for certain anyon densities, whereas a topological gapped phase is suggested for another density regime.
String splitting and strong coupling meson decay.
Cotrone, A L; Martucci, L; Troost, W
2006-04-14
We study the decay of high spin mesons using the gauge-string theory correspondence. The rate of the process is calculated by studying the splitting of a macroscopic string intersecting a D-brane. The result is applied to the decay of mesons in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a small number of flavors and in a gravity dual of large N QCD. In QCD the decay of high spin mesons is found to be heavily suppressed in the regime of validity of the supergravity description.
Supersymmetric QCD: exact results and strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael; Festuccia, Guido; Pack, Lawrence; Park, Chang-Soon; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Wu, Weitao
2011-05-01
We revisit two longstanding puzzles in supersymmetric gauge theories. The first concerns the question of the holomorphy of the coupling, and related to this the possible definition of an exact (NSVZ) beta function. The second concerns instantons in pure gluodynamics, which appear to give sensible, exact results for certain correlation functions, which nonetheless differ from those obtained using systematic weak coupling expansions. For the first question, we extend an earlier proposal of Arkani-Hamed and Murayama, showing that if their regulated action is written suitably, the holomorphy of the couplings is manifest, and it is easy to determine the renormalization scheme for which the NSVZ formula holds. This scheme, however, is seen to be one of an infinite class of schemes, each leading to an exact beta function; the NSVZ scheme, while simple, is not selected by any compelling physical consideration. For the second question, we explain why the instanton computation in the pure supersymmetric gauge theory is not reliable, even at short distances. The semiclassical expansion about the instanton is purely formal; if infrared divergences appear, they spoil arguments based on holomorphy. We demonstrate that infrared divergences do not occur in the perturbation expansion about the instanton, but explain that there is no reason to think this captures all contributions from the sector with unit topological charge. That one expects additional contributions is illustrated by dilute gas corrections. These are infrared divergent, and so difficult to define, but if non-zero give order one, holomorphic, corrections to the leading result. Exploiting an earlier analysis of Davies et al, we demonstrate that in the theory compactified on a circle of radius β, due to infrared effects, finite contributions indeed arise which are not visible in the formal β → ∞ limit.
SU(N) chiral gauge theories on the lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal
2004-11-01
We extend the construction of lattice chiral gauge theories based on non-perturbative gauge fixing to the non-Abelian case. A key ingredient is that fermion doublers can be avoided at a novel type of critical point which is only accessible through gauge fixing, as we have shown before in the Abelian case. The new ingredient allowing us to deal with the non-Abelian case as well is the use of equivariant gauge fixing, which handles Gribov copies correctly, and avoids Neuberger’s no-go theorem. We use this method in order to gauge fix the non-Abelian group (which we will take to be SU(N)) down to its maximal Abelian subgroup. Obtaining an undoubled, chiral fermion content requires us to gauge-fix also the remaining Abelian gauge symmetry. This modifies the equivariant Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) identities, but their use in proving unitarity remains intact, as we show in perturbation theory. On the lattice, equivariant BRST symmetry as well as the Abelian gauge invariance are broken, and a judiciously chosen irrelevant term must be added to the lattice gauge-fixing action in order to have access to the desired critical point in the phase diagram. We argue that gauge invariance is restored in the continuum limit by adjusting a finite number of counter terms. We emphasize that weak-coupling perturbation theory applies at the critical point which defines the continuum limit of our lattice chiral gauge theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vuckovic, Stefan; Irons, Tom J. P.; Wagner, Lucas O.; Teale, Andrew M.; Gori-Giorgi, Paola
We investigate the construction of approximated exchange-correlation functionals by interpolating locally along the adiabatic connection between the weak- and the strong-coupling regimes, focussing on the effect of using approximate functionals for the strong-coupling energy densities. The gauge problem is avoided by dealing with quantities that are all locally defined in the same way. Using exact ingredients at weak coupling we are able to isolate the error coming from the approximations at strong coupling only. We find that the nonlocal radius model, which retains some of the non-locality of the exact strong-coupling regime, yields very satisfactory results. We also use interpolation models and quantities from the weak- and strong-coupling regimes to define a correlation-type indicator and a lower bound to the exact exchange-correlation energy. Open problems, related to the nature of the local and global slope of the adiabatic connection at weak coupling, are also discussed.
Cold-atom quantum simulator for SU(2) Yang-Mills lattice gauge theory.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2013-03-22
Non-Abelian gauge theories play an important role in the standard model of particle physics, and unfold a partially unexplored world of exciting physical phenomena. In this Letter, we suggest a realization of a non-Abelian lattice gauge theory-SU(2) Yang-Mills in (1 + 1) dimensions, using ultracold atoms. Remarkably, and in contrast to previous proposals, in our model gauge invariance is a direct consequence of angular momentum conservation and thus is fundamental and robust. Our proposal may serve as well as a starting point for higher-dimensional realizations.
Equilibration Rates in a Strongly Coupled Nonconformal Quark-Gluon Plasma.
Buchel, Alex; Heller, Michal P; Myers, Robert C
2015-06-26
We initiate the study of equilibration rates of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas in the absence of conformal symmetry. We primarily consider a supersymmetric mass deformation within N=2^{*} gauge theory and use holography to compute quasinormal modes of a variety of scalar operators, as well as the energy-momentum tensor. In each case, the lowest quasinormal frequency, which provides an approximate upper bound on the thermalization time, is proportional to temperature, up to a prefactor with only a mild temperature dependence. We find similar behavior in other holographic plasmas, where the model contains an additional scale beyond the temperature. Hence, our study suggests that the thermalization time is generically set by the temperature, irrespective of any other scales, in strongly coupled gauge theories.
Parity anomalies in gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions
Rao, S.; Yahalom, R.
1986-01-01
We show that the introduction of massless fermions in an abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions does not lead to any parity anomaly despite a non-commutativity of limits in the structure function of the odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor. However, parity anomaly does exist in non-abelian theories due to a conflict between gauge invariance under large gauge transformations and the parity symmetry. 6 refs.
Gauge-flation and cosmic no-hair conjecture
Maleknejad, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Soda, Jiro E-mail: jabbari@theory.ipm.ac.ir
2012-01-01
Gauge-flation, inflation from non-Abelian gauge fields, was introduced in [1, 2]. In this work, we study the cosmic no-hair conjecture in gauge-flation. Starting from Bianchi-type I cosmology and through analytic and numeric studies we demonstrate that the isotropic FLRW inflation is an attractor of the dynamics of the theory and that the anisotropies are damped within a few e-folds, in accord with the cosmic no-hair conjecture.
QCD, monopoles on the lattice and gauge invariance
Bonati, C.; Di Giacomo, A.; D'Elia, M.
2011-05-23
The number and the location of the monopoles observed on the lattice in QCD configurations happens to depend strongly on the choice of the gauge used to expose them, in contrast to the physical expectation that monopoles be gauge invariant objects. It is proved by use of the non abelian Bianchi identities (NABI) that monopoles are indeed gauge invariant, but the method used to detect them depends, in a controllable way, on the choice of the abelian projection. Numerical checks are presented.
Classical and quantum distinctions between weak and strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh Rodriguez, Said
2016-03-01
Coupled systems subject to dissipation exhibit two different regimes known as weak coupling and strong coupling. Two damped coupled harmonic oscillators (CHOs) constitute a model system where the key features of weak and strong coupling can be identified. Several of these features are common to classical and quantum systems, as a number of quantum-classical correspondences have shown. However, the condition defining the boundary between weak and strong coupling is distinct in classical and quantum formalisms. Here we describe the origin of two widely used definitions of strong coupling. Using a classical CHO model, we show that energy exchange cycles and avoided resonance crossings signal the onset of strong coupling according to one criterion. From the classical CHO model we derive a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing open quantum systems. Based on the analytic properties of the Hamiltonian, we identify the boundary between weak and strong coupling with a different feature: a non-Hermitian degeneracy known as the exceptional point. For certain parameter ranges the classical and quantum criterion for strong coupling coincide; for other ranges they do not. Examples of systems in strong coupling according to one or another criterion, but not both, are illustrated. The framework here presented is suitable for introducing graduate or advanced undegraduate students to the basic properties of strongly coupled systems, as well as to the similarities and subtle differences between classical and quantum descriptions of coupled dissipative systems.
Index theorem and Majorana zero modes along a non-Abelian vortex in a color superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujiwara, Takanori; Fukui, Takahiro; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro
2011-10-01
Color superconductivity in high-density QCD exhibits the color-flavor-locked phase. To explore zero modes in the color-flavor-locked phase in the presence of a non-Abelian vortex with an SU(2) symmetry in the vortex core, we apply the index theorem to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian. From the calculation of the topological index, we find that triplet, doublet and singlet sectors of SU(2) have certain number of chiral Majorana zero modes in the limit of vanishing chemical potential. We also solve the BdG equation by the use of the series expansion to show that the number of zero modes and their chirality match the result of the index theorem. From particle-hole symmetry of the BdG Hamiltonian, we conclude that if and only if the index of a given sector is odd, one zero mode survives generically for a finite chemical potential. We argue that this result should hold nonperturbatively even in the high-density limit.
Spin correlations and topological entanglement entropy in a non-Abelian spin-one spin liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wildeboer, Julia; Bonesteel, N. E.
2016-07-01
We analyze the properties of a non-Abelian spin-one chiral spin liquid state proposed by Greiter and Thomale [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 207203 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.207203] using Monte Carlo. In this state the bosonic ν =1 Moore-Read Pfaffian wave function is used to describe a gas of bosonic spin flips on a square lattice with one flux quantum per plaquette. For toroidal geometries there is a three-dimensional space of these states corresponding to the topological degeneracy of the bosonic Moore-Read state on the torus. We show that spin correlations for different states in this space become indistinguishable for large system size. We also calculate the Renyi entanglement entropy for different system partitions to extract the topological entanglement entropy and provide evidence that the topological order of the lattice spin-liquid state is the same as that of the continuum Moore-Read state from which it is constructed.
Index theorem and Majorana zero modes along a non-Abelian vortex in a color superconductor
Fujiwara, Takanori; Fukui, Takahiro; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro
2011-10-01
Color superconductivity in high-density QCD exhibits the color-flavor-locked phase. To explore zero modes in the color-flavor-locked phase in the presence of a non-Abelian vortex with an SU(2) symmetry in the vortex core, we apply the index theorem to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian. From the calculation of the topological index, we find that triplet, doublet and singlet sectors of SU(2) have certain number of chiral Majorana zero modes in the limit of vanishing chemical potential. We also solve the BdG equation by the use of the series expansion to show that the number of zero modes and their chirality match the result of the index theorem. From particle-hole symmetry of the BdG Hamiltonian, we conclude that if and only if the index of a given sector is odd, one zero mode survives generically for a finite chemical potential. We argue that this result should hold nonperturbatively even in the high-density limit.
Non-Abelian S U (N -1 ) -singlet fractional quantum Hall states from coupled wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuji, Y.; Lecheminant, P.
2017-03-01
The construction of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states from the two-dimensional array of quantum wires provides a useful way to control strong interactions in microscopic models and has been successfully applied to the Laughlin, Moore-Read, and Read-Rezayi states. We extend this construction to the Abelian and non-Abelian S U (N -1 ) -singlet FQH states at filling fraction ν =k (N -1 )/[N +k (N -1 )m ] labeled by integers k and m , which are potentially realized in multicomponent quantum Hall systems or S U (N ) spin systems. Utilizing the bosonization approach and conformal field theory (CFT), we show that their bulk quasiparticles and gapless edge excitations are both described by an (N -1 ) -component free-boson CFT and the S U (N) k/[U(1 ) ] N -1 CFT known as the Gepner parafermion. Their generalization to different filling fractions is also proposed. In addition, we argue possible applications of these results to two kinds of lattice systems: bosons interacting via occupation-dependent correlated hoppings and an S U (N ) Heisenberg model.
Non-Abelian Ball-Chiu vertex for arbitrary Euclidean momenta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar, A. C.; Cardona, J. C.; Ferreira, M. N.; Papavassiliou, J.
2017-07-01
We determine the non-Abelian version of the four nontransverse form factors of the quark-gluon vertex, using exact expressions derived from the Slavnov-Taylor identity that this vertex satisfies. In addition to the quark and ghost propagators, a key ingredient of the present approach is the quark-ghost scattering kernel, which is computed within the one-loop dressed approximation. The vertex form factors obtained from this procedure are evaluated for arbitrary Euclidean momenta, and display features not captured by the well-known Ball-Chiu vertex, deduced from the Abelian (ghost-free) Ward identity. Particularly interesting in this analysis is the so-called soft-gluon limit, which, unlike other kinematic configurations considered, is especially sensitive to the approximations employed for the vertex entering in the quark-ghost scattering kernel, and may even be affected by a subtle numerical instability. As an elementary application of the results obtained, we evaluate and compare certain renormalization-point-independent combinations, which contribute to the interaction kernels appearing in the standard quark gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations. In doing so, even though all form factors of the quark-gluon vertex, and in particular the transverse ones which are unconstrained by our procedure, enter nontrivially in the aforementioned kernels, only the contribution of a single form factor, corresponding to the classical (tree-level) tensor, will be considered.
Numerical characterization of non-Abelian Moore-Read state in the microscopic lattice boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wei; Gong, Shoushu; Haldane, F. D. M.; Sheng, D. N.
2015-03-01
Identifying the interacting systems that host the non-Abelian (NA) topological phases have attracted intense attention in physics. Theoretically, it is possible to realize the NA Moore-Read (MR) state in bosonic system or double-layer system by coupling two Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states together. Here, based on the density matrix renormalization group and exact diagonalization calculations, we study two such examples in the microscopic lattice models and investigate their NA nature. In the first example, we provide a thorough characterization of the universal properties of MR state on Haldane honeycomb lattice model, including both the edge spectrum and the bulk anyonic quasiparticle statistics. By inspecting the entanglement spectral response to the U (1) flux, it is found that two of Abelian ground states can be adiabatically connected through a charge unit quasiparticle pumping from one edge to the other. In the second example, we study a double-layer bosonic FQH system built from the π-flux lattice model. Some evidences of NA nature has been identified, including the groundstate degeneracy and finite drag Hall conductance. The numerical methods we developed here provides a useful and practical way for detecting the full information of NA topological order. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46305.
Velocity-dependent models for non-Abelian/entangled string networks
Avgoustidis, A.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2008-11-15
We develop velocity-dependent models describing the evolution of string networks that involve several types of interacting strings, each with a different tension. These incorporate the formation of Y-type junctions with links stretching between colliding strings, while always ensuring energy conservation. These models can be used to describe network evolution for non-Abelian strings as well as cosmic superstrings. The application to Z{sub N} strings in which interactions are topologically constrained, demonstrates that a scaling regime is generally reached which involves a hierarchy of string densities with the lightest most abundant. We also study hybrid networks of cosmic superstrings, where energetic considerations are more important in determining interaction outcomes. We again find that networks tend towards scaling, with the three lightest network components being dominant and having comparable number densities, while the heavier string states are suppressed. A more quantitative analysis depends on the precise calculation of the string interaction matrix using the underlying string or field theory. Nevertheless, these results provide further evidence that the presence of junctions in a string network does not obstruct scaling.
Composite gauge-bosons made of fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Mahiko
2016-07-01
We construct a class of Abelian and non-Abelian local gauge theories that consist only of matter fields of fermions. The Lagrangian is local and does not contain an auxiliary vector field nor a subsidiary condition on the matter fields. It does not involve an extra dimension nor supersymmetry. This Lagrangian can be extended to non-Abelian gauge symmetry only in the case of SU(2) doublet matter fields. We carry out an explicit diagrammatic computation in the leading 1 /N order to show that massless spin-one bound states appear with the correct gauge coupling. Our diagram calculation exposes the dynamical features that cannot be seen in the formal auxiliary vector-field method. For instance, it shows that the s -wave fermion-antifermion interaction in the 3S1 channel (ψ ¯ γμψ ) alone cannot form the bound gauge bosons; the fermion-antifermion pairs must couple to the d -wave state too. One feature common to our class of Lagrangian is that the Noether current does not exist. Therefore it evades possible conflict with the no-go theorem of Weinberg and Witten on the formation of the non-Abelian gauge bosons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosfeld, Eytan; Seradjeh, Babak; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2011-03-01
We propose a two-path vortex interferometry experiment based on the Aharonov-Casher effect for detecting the non-Abelian nature of vortices in a chiral P-wave superconductor. The effect is based on observing vortex interference patterns upon enclosing a finite charge of externally controllable magnitude within the interference path. We predict that when the interfering vortices enclose an odd number of identical vortices in their path, the interference pattern disappears only for non-Abelian vortices. When pairing involves two distinct spin species, we derive the mutual statistics between half quantum and full quantum vortices and show that, remarkably, our predictions still hold for the situation of a full quantum vortex enclosing a half quantum vortex in its path. We discuss the experimentally relevant conditions under which these effects can be observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhao; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Lee, Kyungmin; Kim, Eun-Ah
2015-08-01
Recent theoretical insights into the possibility of non-Abelian phases in ν =2 /3 fractional quantum Hall states revived the interest in the numerical phase diagram of the problem. We investigate the effect of various kinds of two-body interlayer couplings on the (330) bilayer state and exactly solve the Hamiltonian for up to 14 electrons on sphere and torus geometries. We consider interlayer tunneling, short-ranged repulsive/attractive pseudopotential interactions, and Coulomb repulsion. We find a 6-fold ground-state degeneracy on the torus when the interlayer hollow-core interaction is dominant. To identify the topological nature of this phase we measure the orbital-cut entanglement spectrum, quasihole counting, topological entanglement entropy, and wave-function overlap. Comparing the numerical results to the theoretical predictions, we interpret this 6-fold ground-state degeneracy phase to be the non-Abelian bilayer Fibonacci state.
Hikami, Kazuhiro
2008-07-15
We study topological properties of quasi-particle states in the non-Abelian quantum Hall states. We apply a skein-theoretic method to the Read-Rezayi state whose effective theory is the SU(2){sub K} Chern-Simons theory. As a generalization of the Pfaffian (K = 2) and the Fibonacci (K = 3) anyon states, we compute the braiding matrices of quasi-particle states with arbitrary spins. Furthermore we propose a method to compute the entanglement entropy skein-theoretically. We find that the entanglement entropy has a nontrivial contribution called the topological entanglement entropy which depends on the quantum dimension of non-Abelian quasi-particle intertwining two subsystems.
Plasma transport theory spanning weak to strong coupling
Daligault, Jérôme; Baalrud, Scott D.
2015-06-29
We describe some of the most striking characteristics of particle transport in strongly coupled plasmas across a wide range of Coulomb coupling strength. We then discuss the effective potential theory, which is an approximation that was recently developed to extend conventional weakly coupled plasma transport theory into the strongly coupled regime in a manner that is practical to evaluate efficiently.
Strong Couplings of Three Mesons with Charm(ing) Involvement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Sazdjian, Hagop; Simula, Silvano
2017-03-01
We determine the strong couplings of three mesons that involve, at least, one ηc or J/ψ meson, within the framework of a constituent-quark model by means of relativistic dispersion formulations. For strong couplings of J/ψ mesons to two charmed mesons, our approach leads to predictions roughly twice as large as those arising from QCD sum rules.
Dynamical Dark Matter from strongly-coupled dark sectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks
2017-02-01
Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles—motivated primarily by Kaluza-Klein towers in theories with extra dimensions—in which the density of dark states scales roughly as a polynomial of the mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of dark states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally—even with an exponentially rising density of states. We also study the effective equations of state for such ensembles, and investigate some of the model-independent observational constraints on such ensembles that follow directly from these equations of state. In general, we find that such constraints tend to introduce correlations between various properties of these DDM ensembles such as their associated mass scales, lifetimes, and abundance distributions. For example, we find that these constraints allow DDM ensembles with energy scales ranging from the GeV scale all the way to the Planck scale, but that the total present-day cosmological abundance of the dark sector must be spread across an increasing number of different states in the ensemble as these energy scales are dialed from the Planck scale down to the GeV scale. Numerous other correlations and constraints are also discussed.
Braiding and Berry's phases in non-Abelian quantum hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zikos, Georgios
If one could be built, a quantum computer would be capable of storing and manipulating quantum states with sufficient accuracy to carry out computations that no classical computer can do (most notably factoring integers in polynomial time). The greatest obstacle to building such a device is the problem of error and decoherence. Classical computers can exploit the physical robustness of ordered states to protect classical information (as in, for example, the magnetically ordered state of a hard drive). Remarkably, a type of quantum order known as topological order can, in principle, play the same role for quantum information. The best studied topologically ordered states are quantum Hall states. These states arise when a two-dimensional electron gas is placed in a strong magnetic field and cooled to low temperatures. Under the right conditions, the electrons condense into an incompressible quantum liquid whose excitations are particle-like objects with fractional charge (quasiparticles). Certain quantum Hall states are thought to be non Abelian. This means that when a finite number of quasiparticles are present and fixed in space there is a low energy Hilbert space with finite dimension, rather than a unique state. Unitary operations can then be carried out on this Hilbert space by adiabatically dragging quasiparticles around one another so that their world-lines sweep out braids in 2+1 dimensional space time. A quantum computer which stores quantum information in this Hilbert space and computes by braiding is known as a topological quantum computer. In this thesis I review our work on determining precisely how one would carry out a computation on a topological quantum computer. I focus on the so-called Fibonacci anyons---quasiparticles which may exist in the experimentally observed quantum Hall state at Landau level filling fraction nu = 12/5. I give explicit prescriptions for encoding qubits (quantum bits) using Fibonacci anyons, and show how one would carry out a
Suppression of Rayleigh Taylor instability in strongly coupled plasmas
Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman
2014-06-15
The Rayleigh Taylor instability in a strongly coupled plasma medium has been investigated using the equations of generalized hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that the visco-elasticity of the strongly coupled medium due to strong inter particle correlations leads to a suppression of the Rayleigh Taylor instability unless certain threshold conditions are met. The relevance of these results to experiments on laser compression of matter to high densities including those related to inertial confinement fusion using lasers has also been shown.
Strongly-coupled plasmas formed from laser-heated solids
Lyon, M.; Bergeson, S. D.; Hart, G.; Murillo, M. S.
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of ion temperatures in laser-produced plasmas formed from solids with different initial lattice structures. We show that the equilibrium ion temperature is limited by a mismatch between the initial crystallographic configuration and the close-packed configuration of a strongly-coupled plasma, similar to experiments in ultracold neutral plasmas. We propose experiments to demonstrate and exploit this crystallographic heating in order to produce a strongly coupled plasma with a coupling parameter of several hundred. PMID:26503293
A holographic study of the gauged NJL model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemens, Will; Evans, Nick
2017-08-01
The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model of chiral symmetry breaking predicts a second order chiral phase transition. If the fermions in addition have non-abelian gauge interactions then the transition is expected to become a crossover as the NJL term enhances the IR chiral symmetry breaking of the gauge theory. We study this behaviour in the holographic Dynamic AdS/QCD description of a non-abelian gauge theory with the NJL interaction included using Witten's multi-trace prescription. We study the behaviour of the mesonic spectrum as a function of the NJL coupling and the ratio of the UV cut off scale to the dynamical scale of the gauge theory.
Anisotropic heavy quark potential in strongly-coupled N =4 SYM theory in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rougemont, R.; Critelli, R.; Noronha, J.
2015-03-01
In this work we use the gauge/gravity duality to study the anisotropy in the heavy quark potential in strongly coupled N =4 super-Yang Mills (SYM) theory (both at zero and nonzero temperature) induced by a constant and uniform magnetic field B . At zero temperature, the inclusion of the magnetic field decreases the attractive force between heavy quarks with respect to its B =0 value and the force associated with the parallel potential is the least attractive force. We find that the same occurs at nonzero temperature and, thus, at least in the case of strongly coupled N =4 SYM, the presence of a magnetic field generally weakens the interaction between heavy quarks in the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das Sarma, S.; Nag, Amit; Sau, Jay D.
2016-07-01
We consider a simple conceptual question with respect to Majorana zero modes in semiconductor nanowires: can the measured nonideal values of the zero-bias-conductance-peak in the tunneling experiments be used as a characteristic to predict the underlying topological nature of the proximity induced nanowire superconductivity? In particular, we define and calculate the topological visibility, which is a variation of the topological invariant associated with the scattering matrix of the system as well as the zero-bias-conductance-peak heights in the tunneling measurements, in the presence of dissipative broadening, using precisely the same realistic nanowire parameters to connect the topological invariants with the zero-bias tunneling conductance values. This dissipative broadening is present in both (the existing) tunneling measurements and also (any future) braiding experiments as an inevitable consequence of a finite braiding time. The connection between the topological visibility and the conductance allows us to obtain the visibility of realistic braiding experiments in nanowires, and to conclude that the current experimentally accessible systems with nonideal zero-bias conductance peaks may indeed manifest (with rather low visibility) non-Abelian statistics for the Majorana zero modes. In general, we find that a large (small) superconducting gap (Majorana peak splitting) is essential for the manifestation of the non-Abelian braiding statistics, and in particular, a zero-bias conductance value of around half the ideal quantized Majorana value should be sufficient for the manifestation of non-Abelian statistics in experimental nanowires. Our work also establishes that as a matter of principle the topological transition associated with the emergence of Majorana zero modes in finite nanowires is always a crossover (akin to a quantum phase transition at finite temperature) requiring the presence of dissipative broadening (which must be larger than the Majorana energy
Noether's therorem for local gauge transformations
Karatas, D.L.; Kowalski, K.L.
1989-05-22
The variational methods of classical field theory may be applied to any theory with an action which is invariant under local gauge transformations. What is the significance of the resulting Noether current. This paper examines such currents for both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories and provides an explanation for their form and limited range of physical significance on a level accessible to those with a basic knowledge of classical field theory. Several of the more subtle aspects encountered in the application of the residual local gauge symmetry found by Becchi, Rouet, Stora, and Tyutin are also considered in detail in a self-contained manner. 23 refs.
A non-Abelian SO(8) monopole as generalization of Dirac-Yang monopoles for a 9-dimensional space
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son
2011-03-15
We establish an explicit form of a non-Abelian SO(8) monopole in a 9-dimensional space and show that it is indeed a direct generalization of Dirac and Yang monopoles. Using the generalized Hurwitz transformation, we have found a connection between a 16-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a 9-dimensional hydrogenlike atom in the field of the SO(8) monopole (MICZ-Kepler problem). Using the built connection the group of dynamical symmetry of the 9-dimensional MICZ-Kepler problem is found as SO(10, 2).
Bäcklund Transformations and Non-Abelian Nonlinear Evolution Equations: a Novel Bäcklund Chart
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carillo, Sandra; Lo Schiavo, Mauro; Schiebold, Cornelia
2016-08-01
Classes of third order non-Abelian evolution equations linked to that of Korteweg-de Vries-type are investigated and their connections represented in a non-commutative Bäcklund chart, generalizing results in [Fuchssteiner B., Carillo S., Phys. A 154 (1989), 467-510]. The recursion operators are shown to be hereditary, thereby allowing the results to be extended to hierarchies. The present study is devoted to operator nonlinear evolution equations: general results are presented. The implied applications referring to finite-dimensional cases will be considered separately.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettelheim, Eldad
2017-10-01
In quantum mechanics it is often required to describe in a semiclassical approximation the motion of particles moving within a given energy band. Such a representation leads to the appearance of an analogues of fictitious forces, associated with the Berry curvature, in the semiclassical equations of motion. The purpose of this paper is to derive systematically the kinetic Boltzmann equations displaying these effects in the case that the band is degenerate, and as such the Berry curvature is generically non-Abelian. We use the formalism of phase-space quantum mechanics to derive the results.
Semistrict higher gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Sämann, Christian; Wolf, Martin
2015-04-01
We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Čech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Ševera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.
Lattice QCD phase diagram in and away from the strong coupling limit.
de Forcrand, Ph; Langelage, J; Philipsen, O; Unger, W
2014-10-10
We study lattice QCD with four flavors of staggered quarks. In the limit of infinite gauge coupling, "dual" variables can be introduced, which render the finite-density sign problem mild and allow a full determination of the μ-T phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulations, also in the chiral limit. However, the continuum limit coincides with the weak coupling limit. We propose a strong-coupling expansion approach towards the continuum limit. We show first results, including the phase diagram and its chiral critical point, from this expansion truncated at next-to-leading order.
Gluon scattering in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory fromweak to strong coupling
Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC
2008-03-25
I describe some recent developments in the understanding of gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the large-N{sub c} limit. These amplitudes can be computed to high orders in the weak coupling expansion, and also now at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT correspondence. They hold the promise of being solvable to all orders in the gauge coupling, with the help of techniques based on integrability. They are intimately related to expectation values for polygonal Wilson loops composed of light-like segments.
Fractional Quantum Hall States at ν=13/5 and 12/5 and Their Non-Abelian Nature.
Zhu, W; Gong, S S; Haldane, F D M; Sheng, D N
2015-09-18
Topological quantum states with non-Abelian Fibonacci anyonic excitations are widely sought after for the exotic fundamental physics they would exhibit, and for universal quantum computing applications. The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at a filling factor of ν=12/5 is a promising candidate; however, its precise nature is still under debate and no consensus has been achieved so far. Here, we investigate the nature of the FQH ν=13/5 state and its particle-hole conjugate state at 12/5 with the Coulomb interaction, and we address the issue of possible competing states. Based on a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group calculation in spherical geometry, we present evidence that the essential physics of the Coulomb ground state (GS) at ν=13/5 and 12/5 is captured by the k=3 parafermion Read-Rezayi state (RR_{3}), including a robust excitation gap and the topological fingerprint from the entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy. Furthermore, by considering the infinite-cylinder geometry (topologically equivalent to torus geometry), we expose the non-Abelian GS sector corresponding to a Fibonacci anyonic quasiparticle, which serves as a signature of the RR_{3} state at 13/5 and 12/5 filling numbers.
Fractional Quantum Hall States at ν =13 /5 and 12 /5 and Their Non-Abelian Nature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Haldane, F. D. M.; Sheng, D. N.
2015-09-01
Topological quantum states with non-Abelian Fibonacci anyonic excitations are widely sought after for the exotic fundamental physics they would exhibit, and for universal quantum computing applications. The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at a filling factor of ν =12 /5 is a promising candidate; however, its precise nature is still under debate and no consensus has been achieved so far. Here, we investigate the nature of the FQH ν =13 /5 state and its particle-hole conjugate state at 12 /5 with the Coulomb interaction, and we address the issue of possible competing states. Based on a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group calculation in spherical geometry, we present evidence that the essential physics of the Coulomb ground state (GS) at ν =13 /5 and 12 /5 is captured by the k =3 parafermion Read-Rezayi state (RR3), including a robust excitation gap and the topological fingerprint from the entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy. Furthermore, by considering the infinite-cylinder geometry (topologically equivalent to torus geometry), we expose the non-Abelian GS sector corresponding to a Fibonacci anyonic quasiparticle, which serves as a signature of the RR3 state at 13 /5 and 12 /5 filling numbers.
The Fractional Quantum Hall States at ν = 13 / 5 and 12 / 5 and their Non-Abelian Nature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Sheng, D. N.
Topological quantum states with non-Abelian Fibonacci anyonic excitations are widely sought after for their exotic fundamental physics and potential applications in universal quantum computing. The fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state at filling factor ν = 12 / 5 is such a promising candidate, however, its precise nature is still under debate and no consensus has been achieved so far. Here, we investigate the nature of the FQH ν = 13 / 5 state and its particle-hole conjugate state at 12 / 5 with the Coulomb interaction, and address the issue of possible competing states. Based on a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculation in spherical geometry, we present evidence that the essential physics of the Coulomb ground state (GS) at ν = 13 / 5 and 12 / 5 is captured by the k = 3 parafermion Read-Rezayi state (RR3), including a robust excitation gap and the topological fingerprint from entanglement spectrum and topological entanglement entropy. Furthermore, by considering the infinite-cylinder geometry (topologically equivalent to torus geometry), we expose the non-Abelian GS sector corresponding to a Fibonacci anyonic quasiparticle, which serves as a signature of the RR3 state at 13 / 5 and 12 / 5 filling numbers. This work is supported by the DOE Grants No. DE-FG02-06ER46305, DE-SC0002140, and the NSF Grant No. DMR-1408560.
Magnetic-field-tuned Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and evidence for non-Abelian anyons at ν = 5/2.
Willett, R L; Nayak, C; Shtengel, K; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2013-11-01
We show that the resistance of the ν = 5/2 quantum Hall state, confined to an interferometer, oscillates with the magnetic field consistent with an Ising-type non-Abelian state. In three quantum Hall interferometers of different sizes, resistance oscillations at ν = 7/3 and integer filling factors have the magnetic field period expected if the number of quasiparticles contained within the interferometer changes so as to keep the area and the total charge within the interferometer constant. Under these conditions, an Abelian state such as the (3, 3, 1) state would show oscillations with the same period as at an integer quantum Hall state. However, in an Ising-type non-Abelian state there would be a rapid oscillation associated with the "even-odd effect" and a slower one associated with the accumulated Abelian phase due to both the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Abelian part of the quasiparticle braiding statistics. Our measurements at ν = 5/2 are consistent with the latter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yi; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2013-04-01
We use entanglement entropy signatures to establish non-Abelian topological order in projected Chern-insulator wave functions. The simplest instance is obtained by Gutzwiller projecting a filled band with Chern number C=2, whose wave function may also be viewed as the square of the Slater determinant of a band insulator. We demonstrate that this wave function is captured by the SU(2)2 Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions. This is established most persuasively by calculating the modular S-matrix from the candidate ground-state wave functions, following a recent entanglement-entropy-based approach. This directly demonstrates the peculiar non-Abelian braiding statistics of Majorana fermion quasiparticles in this state. We also provide microscopic evidence for the field theoretic generalization, that the Nth power of a Chern number C Slater determinant realizes the topological order of the SU(N)C Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions, by studying the SU(2)3 (Read-Rezayi-type state) and the SU(3)2 wave functions. An advantage of our projected Chern-insulator wave functions is the relative ease with which physical properties, such as entanglement entropy and modular S-matrix, can be numerically calculated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Strong coupling phase transitions in supersymmetric grand unified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiss, David B.
1985-08-01
The determination of the temperature at which a grand unified model becomes strongly coupled should be based upon a physical quantity such as the screening lenght rather than the ad hoc condition that the opening becomes O(1). I use a recent calculation of this screening length (the inverse electric mass) to discuss some aspects of strong coupling behavior in the cosmology of supersymmetric grand unified models. Significant effects may occur in a variety of cases. An interesting possibilit is that there may be a pair of confining and deconfining phase transitions at a temperature as low as the supersymmetry breaking scale (O(TeV)). I present illustrative examples for these effects.
Strong Coupling Effects on Bound States in Plasmas.
1985-02-01
inverse Debye length; strong coupling means r P 1 or y > 1. In the systems of interest y m 1 20. For this reason, conventional perturbation approaches do...using one of the strongly coupled static plasma schemes-either the mean field theories , or HNC. - Finally X is to be determined by calculating the free...energy of the system and minimizing it with respect to X. The salient feature of this scheme is that it applies the philosophy of the TF-DH ( Debye
The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boito, Diogo; Golterman, Maarten; Jamin, Matthias; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago
2014-08-01
We review our recent determination of the strong coupling αs from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that αs (mτ2)= 0.325 ± 0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and αs (mτ2)= 0.347 ± 0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.
Mach Cones in Weakly and Strongly Coupled Dusty Magnetoplasmas
Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-10-31
A theoretical investigation on the formation of Mach cones in weakly and strongly coupled dusty magnetoplasmas has been presented. The salient features of dust-acoustic and dust-magnetoacoustic Mach cones in a weakly coupled dusty magnetoplasma as well as dust-acoustic Mach cones in a strongly coupled dusty magnetoplasma have been clearly explained. The relevance of this theoretical investigation to the formation of such dust-acoustic and dust-magnetoacoustic Mach cones in Saturn's dusty rings and laboratory dusty plasma experiments are discussed.
Antiresonance phase shift in strongly coupled cavity QED.
Sames, C; Chibani, H; Hamsen, C; Altin, P A; Wilk, T; Rempe, G
2014-01-31
We investigate phase shifts in the strong coupling regime of single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. On the light transmitted through the system, we observe a phase shift associated with an antiresonance and show that both its frequency and width depend solely on the atom, despite the strong coupling to the cavity. This shift is optically controllable and reaches 140°--the largest ever reported for a single emitter. Our result offers a new technique for the characterization of complex integrated quantum circuits.
Strong coupling between Tamm plasmon and QW exciton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homeyer, Estelle; Symonds, Clémentine; Lemaître, Aristide; Plenet, Jean-Claude; Bellessa, Joel
2011-03-01
We report on the strong coupling between a Tamm plasmon mode and excitons from inorganic quantum wells. The sample is formed by an AlAs/GaAlAs Bragg reflector containing InGaAs QWs in its high refractive index layers, on top of which a thin silver film is deposited. Angle resolved reflectometry experiments at low temperature (77 K) show a clear anticrossing in the dispersion relations, evidencing the strong coupling regime. The Rabi splitting amounts to 11.5 meV. Emission from low and high energy Tamm plasmon/exciton polaritons is also demonstrated. Experimental data are in very good agreement with transfer matrix simulations.
N=4, 3D supersymmetric quantum mechanics in a non-Abelian monopole background
Ivanov, Evgeny; Konyushikhin, Maxim
2010-10-15
Using the harmonic superspace approach, we construct the 3D N=4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics of the supermultiplet (3,4,1) coupled to an external SU(2) gauge field. The off-shell N=4 supersymmetry requires the gauge field to be a static form of the 't Hooft ansatz for the 4D self-dual SU(2) gauge fields, that is a particular solution of Bogomolny equations for Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfeld monopoles. We present the explicit form of the corresponding superfield and component actions, as well as of the quantum Hamiltonian and N=4 supercharges. The latter can be used to describe a more general N=4 mechanics system, with an arbitrary Bogomolny-Prasad-Sommerfeld monopole background and on-shell N=4 supersymmetry. The essential feature of our construction is the use of semidynamical spin (4,4,0) multiplet with the Wess-Zumino type action.
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms.
Goldman, N; Juzeliūnas, G; Öhberg, P; Spielman, I B
2014-12-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle-the graviton-that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms 'feeling' laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials-both Abelian and non-Abelian-in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.
Gauge-invariant functional measure for gauge fields on CP2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nair, V. P.
2013-11-01
We introduce a general parametrization for non-Abelian gauge fields on the four-dimensional space CP2. The volume element for the gauge-orbit space or the space of physical configurations is then investigated. The leading divergence in this volume element is obtained in terms of a higher dimensional Wess-Zumino-Witten action, which has previously been studied in the context of Kähler-Chern-Simons theories. This term, it is argued, implies that one needs to introduce a dimensional parameter to specify the integration measure, a step which is a nonperturbative version of the well-known dimensional transmutation in four-dimensional gauge theories.
On Pauli's Invention of Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory in 1953
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straumann, N.
2002-12-01
There are documents which show that Wolfgang Pauli developed in 1953 the first consistent generalization of the five-dimensional theory of Kaluza, Klein, Fock and others to a higher dimensional internal space. Because he saw no way to give masses to the gauge bosons, he refrained from publishing his results formally.
Practical thermodynamics of Yukawa systems at strong coupling
Khrapak, Sergey A.; Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Thomas, Hubertus M.
2015-05-21
Simple practical approach to estimate thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled Yukawa systems, in both fluid and solid phases, is presented. The accuracy of the approach is tested by extensive comparison with direct computer simulation results (for fluids and solids) and the recently proposed shortest-graph method (for solids). Possible applications to other systems of softly repulsive particles are briefly discussed.
Visco-elastic effects in strongly coupled dusty plasmas
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2008-09-07
We report on experimental evidence of visco-elastic effects in a strongly coupled dusty plasma through investigations of the propagation characteristics of low frequency dust acoustic waves and by excitations of transverse shear waves in a DC discharge Argon plasma.
Strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and emitters: a review.
Törmä, P; Barnes, W L
2015-01-01
In this review we look at the concepts and state-of-the-art concerning the strong coupling of surface plasmon-polariton modes to states associated with quantum emitters such as excitons in J-aggregates, dye molecules and quantum dots. We explore the phenomenon of strong coupling with reference to a number of examples involving electromagnetic fields and matter. We then provide a concise description of the relevant background physics of surface plasmon polaritons. An extensive overview of the historical background and a detailed discussion of more recent relevant experimental advances concerning strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and quantum emitters is then presented. Three conceptual frameworks are then discussed and compared in depth: classical, semi-classical and fully quantum mechanical; these theoretical frameworks will have relevance to strong coupling beyond that involving surface plasmon polaritons. We conclude our review with a perspective on the future of this rapidly emerging field, one we are sure will grow to encompass more intriguing physics and will develop in scope to be of relevance to other areas of science.
Short-pulse amplification by strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering
Edwards, Matthew R. Mikhailova, Julia M.; Jia, Qing; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2016-08-15
We examine the feasibility of strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. In particular, we use fluid theory and particle-in-cell simulations to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of achievable parameters.
Strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and emitters: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Törmä, P.; Barnes, W. L.
2015-01-01
In this review we look at the concepts and state-of-the-art concerning the strong coupling of surface plasmon-polariton modes to states associated with quantum emitters such as excitons in J-aggregates, dye molecules and quantum dots. We explore the phenomenon of strong coupling with reference to a number of examples involving electromagnetic fields and matter. We then provide a concise description of the relevant background physics of surface plasmon polaritons. An extensive overview of the historical background and a detailed discussion of more recent relevant experimental advances concerning strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and quantum emitters is then presented. Three conceptual frameworks are then discussed and compared in depth: classical, semi-classical and fully quantum mechanical; these theoretical frameworks will have relevance to strong coupling beyond that involving surface plasmon polaritons. We conclude our review with a perspective on the future of this rapidly emerging field, one we are sure will grow to encompass more intriguing physics and will develop in scope to be of relevance to other areas of science.
Hou, Chang-Yu; Chamon, Claudio
2006-10-06
We study a tunneling geometry defined by a single point-contact constriction that brings to close vicinity two points sitting at the same edge of a quantum Hall liquid, shortening the trip between the otherwise spatially separated points along the normal chiral edge path. This wormhole-like geometry allows for entrapping bulk quasiparticles between the edge path and the tunnel junction, possibly realizing a topologically protected qubit if the quasiparticles have non-Abelian statistics. We show how either noise or simpler voltage measurements along the edge can probe the non-Abelian nature of the trapped quasiparticles.
Towards applications of the gauge-gravity duality to condensed matter physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocha, Fabio Diales Da
String theory offers, through the gauge-gravity dualities, powerful methods to study strongly coupled field theories. In this dissertation, we will be concerned with applying these methods to topics related to condensed matter physics. The Abelian Higgs model coupled to gravity with a negative cosmological constant provides a gravitational dual to a strongly coupled field theory that has superconducting or superfluid phases. We construct zero-temperature solutions of this model that interpolate between two copies of anti-de Sitter space and which we identify with gravitational duals of quantum critical points. We will do this both for an ad hoc Abelian Higgs model and for closely related gravitational Lagrangians arising as consistent truncations of string theory and M-theory. We also compute their frequency-dependent conductivities and find power law behavior at low frequencies. We will introduce spin-1/2 fermions in these domain wall geometries and find continuous bands of fermionic normal modes. These bands can be either partially filled or totally empty and gapped. We will consider fermionic normal modes and correlators in other gravitational backgrounds and find other interesting features. For certain dilatonic black holes in AdS5 and AdS4 in the extremal limit, we find isolated fermionic normal modes at zero frequency and finite momentum. We will also find that these dilatonic black holes have linear specific heat at low temperatures, which combined with the previous property makes them an interesting candidate for a gravitational dual of a Fermi liquid. Finally, we will consider fermion correlators in non-abelian holographic superconductors and find that their spectral function exhibits several interesting features such as support in displaced Dirac cones and an asymmetric distribution of normal modes. We compare these features to similar ones observed in angle resolved photoemission experiments on high Tc superconductors.
Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank
2016-09-01
We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Bu, Zhi-Cheng; Peng, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Yi
2015-06-01
By using a general Ginzburg-Landau approach, we study the effects of external magnetic background on color-flavor-locked quark color-superconducting matter. The rotated magnetic field B ˜ is introduced, not only accounting for the unbroken symmetry with the rotated electric charge, but also resulting in new effects for the collective excitations such as the Nambu-Goldstone and Higgs modes. In particular, it is found that the masses of Higgs octet are no longer degenerated and part of them acquire the magnetic-induced contribution. To the leading order in the applied field, we construct an effective Ginzburg-Landau formalism through these B ˜ -related masses. As the application, we investigate magnetic responses of the non-Abelian vortices arising from color-flavor-locked symmetry breaking pattern. The B ˜ -field dependence of their spatial configurations and tension energies are calculated for the first time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borgh, Magnus O.; Ruostekoski, Janne
2016-12-01
We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.
Borgh, Magnus O; Ruostekoski, Janne
2016-12-30
We calculate the energetic structure of defect cores and propose controlled methods to imprint a nontrivially entangled vortex pair that undergoes non-Abelian vortex reconnection in a biaxial nematic spin-2 condensate. For a singular vortex, we find three superfluid cores in addition to depletion of the condensate density. These exhibit order parameter symmetries that are different from the discrete symmetry of the biaxial nematic phase, forming an interface between the defect and the bulk superfluid. We provide a detailed analysis of phase mixing in the resulting vortex cores and find an instability dependent upon the orientation of the order parameter. We further show that the spin-2 condensate is a promising system for observing spontaneous deformation of a point defect into an "Alice ring" that has so far avoided experimental detection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sandeep
2015-01-01
We extend our previous work [S. Sharma and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124121 (2012)], which described a spin-adapted (SU(2) symmetry) density matrix renormalization group algorithm, to additionally utilize general non-Abelian point group symmetries. A key strength of the present formulation is that the requisite tensor operators are not hard-coded for each symmetry group, but are instead generated on the fly using the appropriate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. This allows our single implementation to easily enable (or disable) any non-Abelian point group symmetry (including SU(2) spin symmetry). We use our implementation to compute the ground state potential energy curve of the C2 dimer in the cc-pVQZ basis set (with a frozen-core), corresponding to a Hilbert space dimension of 1012 many-body states. While our calculated energy lies within the 0.3 mEh error bound of previous initiator full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo and correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling calculations, our estimated residual error is only 0.01 mEh, much more accurate than these previous estimates. Due to the additional efficiency afforded by the algorithm, the excitation energies (Te) of eight lowest lying excited states: a3Πu, b 3 Σg - , A1Πu, c 3 Σu + , B1Δg, B ' 1 Σg + , d3Πg, and C1Πg are calculated, which agree with experimentally derived values to better than 0.06 eV. In addition, we also compute the potential energy curves of twelve states: the three lowest levels for each of the irreducible representations 1 Σg + , 1 Σu + , 1 Σg - , and 1 Σu - , to an estimated accuracy of 0.1 mEh of the exact result in this basis.
Strong coupling expansion for the conformal Pomeron/Odderon trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brower, Richard C.; Costa, Miguel S.; Djurić, Marko; Raben, Timothy; Tan, Chung-I.
2015-02-01
From the perspective of AdS/CFT the Pomeron is identified with a Reggeized Graviton, while the Odderons correspond to Reggeized anti-symmetric AdS 5 Kalb-Ramond tensor-fields. In this paper, we consider the strong coupling expansion of the dimension of the leading twist operators dual to these Regge trajectories, Δ( j), to determine its analytic continuation in j beyond the diffusion limit. In particular, we compute the strong coupling expansion of the intercept to order λ -3, where λ is the t'Hooft coupling, for both the Pomeron, which is C = +1 crossing-even, and the "Odderons", which are the leading C = -1 crossing-odd Regge singularities. We discuss the spectral curves of the class of single-trace operators to which these string modes couple.
Cosmological constraints on strongly coupled moduli from cosmic strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabancilar, Eray
2010-06-01
Cosmic (super)string loops emit moduli as they oscillate under the effect of their tension. Abundance of such moduli is constrained by diffuse gamma ray background, dark matter, and primordial element abundances if their lifetime is of the order of the relevant cosmic time. It is shown that the constraints on string tension Gμ and modulus mass m are significantly relaxed for moduli coupling to matter stronger than gravitational strength which appears to be quite generic in large volume and warped compactification scenarios in string theory. It is also shown that thermal production of strongly coupled moduli is not efficient, hence free from constraints. In particular, the strongly coupled moduli in warped and large volume compactification scenarios and the radial modulus in the Randall-Sundrum model are found to be free from the constraints when their coupling constant is sufficiently large.
Modified Enskog kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas.
Baalrud, Scott D; Daligault, Jérôme
2015-06-01
Concepts underlying the Enskog kinetic theory of hard-spheres are applied to include short-range correlation effects in a model for transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas. The approach is based on an extension of the effective potential transport theory [S. D. Baalrud and J. Daligault, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] to include an exclusion radius surrounding individual charged particles that is associated with Coulomb repulsion. This is obtained by analogy with the finite size of hard spheres in Enskog's theory. Predictions for the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients of the one-component plasma are tested against molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately capture the kinetic contributions to the transport coefficients, but not the potential contributions that arise at very strong coupling (Γ≳30). Considerations related to a first-principles generalization of Enskog's kinetic equation to continuous potentials are also discussed.
Strong coupling in nonrelativistic general covariant theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang; Zhu, Tao
2011-08-01
We study the strong coupling problem in the Horava-Melby-Thompson setup of the Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with an arbitrary coupling constant λ, generalized recently by da Silva, where λ describes the deviation of the theory in the infrared from general relativity that has λGR=1. We find that a scalar field in the Minkowski background becomes strongly coupled for processes with energy higher than Λω[≡(Mpl/c1)3/2Mpl|λ-1|5/4], where generically c1≪Mpl. However, this problem can be cured by introducing a new energy scale M*, so that M*<Λω, where M* denotes the suppression energy of high-order derivative terms of the theory.
Strong coupling theory of heavy fermion criticality II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wölfle, Peter; Schmalian, Jörg; Abrahams, Elihu
2017-04-01
We present a theory of the scaling behavior of the thermodynamic, transport and dynamical properties of a three-dimensional metal governed by d-dimensional fluctuations at a quantum critical point, where the electron quasiparticle effective mass diverges. We determine how the critical bosonic order parameter fluctuations are affected by the effective mass divergence. The coupled system of fermions and bosons is found to be governed by two stable fixed points: the conventional weak-coupling fixed point and a new strong-coupling fixed point, provided the boson–boson interaction is irrelevant. The latter fixed point supports hyperscaling, characterized by fractional exponents. The theory is applied to the antiferromagnetic critical point in certain heavy fermion compounds, in which the strong-coupling regime is reached.
Energy Exchange in Driven Open Quantum Systems at Strong Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrega, Matteo; Solinas, Paolo; Sassetti, Maura; Weiss, Ulrich
2016-06-01
The time-dependent energy transfer in a driven quantum system strongly coupled to a heat bath is studied within an influence functional approach. Exact formal expressions for the statistics of energy dissipation into the different channels are derived. The general method is applied to the driven dissipative two-state system. It is shown that the energy flows obey a balance relation, and that, for strong coupling, the interaction may constitute the major dissipative channel. Results in analytic form are presented for the particular value K =1/2 of strong Ohmic dissipation. The energy flows show interesting behaviors including driving-induced coherences and quantum stochastic resonances. It is found that the general characteristics persists for K near 1/2 .
Strong coupling and degeneracy effects in inertial confinement fusion implosions.
Hu, S X; Militzer, B; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S
2010-06-11
Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of ρ=0.002-1596 g/cm3 and T=1.35 eV-5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.
Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions
Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.; Militzer, B.
2010-06-11
Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of {rho}=0.002-1596 g/cm{sup 3} and T=1.35 eV-5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density ({rho}R), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.
Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, S. X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.
2010-06-01
Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of ρ=0.002-1596g/cm3 and T=1.35eV-5.5keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density (ρR), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.
Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions
Hu, S.X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.
2010-06-10
Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of rho = 0.002–1596 g/cm^3 and T = 1.35 eV–5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density, and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.
Strong coupling theory of heavy fermion criticality II.
Wölfle, Peter; Schmalian, Jörg; Abrahams, Elihu
2017-04-01
We present a theory of the scaling behavior of the thermodynamic, transport and dynamical properties of a three-dimensional metal governed by d-dimensional fluctuations at a quantum critical point, where the electron quasiparticle effective mass diverges. We determine how the critical bosonic order parameter fluctuations are affected by the effective mass divergence. The coupled system of fermions and bosons is found to be governed by two stable fixed points: the conventional weak-coupling fixed point and a new strong-coupling fixed point, provided the boson-boson interaction is irrelevant. The latter fixed point supports hyperscaling, characterized by fractional exponents. The theory is applied to the antiferromagnetic critical point in certain heavy fermion compounds, in which the strong-coupling regime is reached.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Changyu; Huang, Yong-Chang; Zhou, Bao-Hua
2015-09-01
We investigate the inner structure of a general S U (2 ) [naturally including S O (3 )] symmetry system—the fermion-gauge field interaction system—and achieve naturally a set of gauge-invariant spin and orbital angular momentum operators of fermion and gauge fields by Noether's theorem in general field theory. Some new relations concerning non-Abelian field strengths are discovered, e.g., the covariant transverse condition, covariant parallel condition (i.e., non-Abelian divergence, non-Abelian curl), and simplified S U (2 ) Coulomb theorem. And we show that the condition that Chen et al. obtained to construct their gauge-invariant angular momentum operators is a result of some fundamental equations in the general field theory. The results obtained in this paper present a new perspective for looking at the overall structure of the gauge field, and provide a new viewpoint to the final resolution of the nucleon spin crisis in the general field theory. Especially, the achieved theory in this paper can calculate the strong interactions with isospin symmetry and solves the serious problem without gauge-invariant angular momenta in strong interaction systems with isospin symmetry, and then the achieved predictions in the calculations can be exactly measured by particle physics experiments due to their gauge invariant properties.
Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas
Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2008-09-07
A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.
Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.
Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry
2013-07-05
In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.
Collisional Thermalization in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas
2017-01-25
and powerful diagnostics adopted from ultracold atomic physics experiments. Because of this unique collection of characteristics, ions in ultracold...Transport in Strongly Coupled Systems with Ultracold Plasmas," Atomic Physics Seminar, Yale University, New Haven, CT (12/16). ``From Ultracold Plasmas to...ultracold neutral plasmas, which are formed by photoionizing laser cooled atoms . These are the coldest neutral plasmas every created, and they allow
Quantum simulations of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Bonitz, M.; Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.
2012-06-01
A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) of heavy constituent quasi-particles is studied by a path-integral Monte-Carlo method. This approach is a quantum generalization of the classical molecular dynamics by Gelman, Shuryak, and Zahed. It is shown that this method is able to reproduce the QCD lattice equation of state. The results indicate that the QGP reveals liquid-like rather than gaslike properties. Quantum effects turned out to be of prime importance in these simulations.
Unidirectional waveguide couplers with strong coupling in the millimeter band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhiezer, A. N.
1983-08-01
A method is presented for the analysis of unidirectional waveguide couplers of the millimeter band which are suitable for both weak and strong coupling. The analysis allows for a decrease in the wave amplitude due to coupling during wave propagation along communication channels. Formulas are given for transmission attenuation between channels, coupled attenuation in the main channel, and directivity. The formulas are suitable for use with programmable calculators.
Strong coupling from hadronic τ decays: A critical appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boito, Diogo; Golterman, Maarten; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago
2017-02-01
Several different analysis methods have been developed to determine the strong coupling via finite-energy sum-rule analyses of hadronic τ decay data. While most methods agree on the existence of the well-known ambiguity in the choice of a resummation scheme due to the slow convergence of QCD perturbation theory at the τ mass, there is an ongoing controversy over how to deal properly with nonperturbative effects. These are small, but not negligible, and include quark-hadron "duality violations" (i.e., resonance effects) which are not described by the operator product expansion (OPE). In one approach, an attempt is made to suppress duality violations enough that they might become negligible. The number of OPE parameters to be fit, however, then exceeds the number of available sum rules, necessitating an uncontrolled OPE truncation, in which a number of higher-dimension OPE contributions in general present in QCD are set to zero by hand. In the second approach, truncation of the OPE is avoided by construction, and duality violations are taken into account explicitly, using a physically motivated model. In this article, we provide a critical appraisal of a recent analysis employing the first approach and demonstrate that it fails to properly account for nonperturbative effects, making the resulting determination of the strong coupling unreliable. The second approach, in contrast, passes all self-consistency tests, and provides a competitive determination of the strong coupling from τ decays.
Helium-like magnesium embedded in strongly coupled plasma
Bhattacharyya, Sukhamoy
2016-05-06
In recent days, with the advent of the x-ray free electron laser (FEL) with Linac coherent light source (LCLS) and the Orion laser, experimental studies on atomic systems within strongly coupled plasma environment with remarkable improvement in accuracy as compared to earlier experiments have become possible. In these kinds of experiments, hydrogen-like and helium-like spectral lines are used for determination of plasma parameters such as temperature, density. Accurate theoretical calculations are, therefore, necessary for such kind of studies within a dense plasma environment. In this work, ab initio calculations are carried out in the framework of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle to estimate the ground state energy of helium-like magnesium within strongly coupled plasma environment. Explicitly correlated wave functions in Hylleraas coordinates have been used to incorporate the effect of electron correlation. The ion-sphere model potential that confines the central positive ion in a finite domain filled with plasma electrons has been adopted to mimic the strongly coupled plasma environment. Thermodynamic pressure ’felt’ by the ion in the ground states due to the confinement inside the ion spheres is also estimated.
Density Matrix Embedding: A Strong-Coupling Quantum Embedding Theory.
Knizia, Gerald; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2013-03-12
We extend our density matrix embedding theory (DMET) [Phys. Rev. Lett.2012, 109, 186404] from lattice models to the full chemical Hamiltonian. DMET allows the many-body embedding of arbitrary fragments of a quantum system, even when such fragments are open systems and strongly coupled to their environment (e.g., by covalent bonds). In DMET, empirical approaches to strong coupling, such as link atoms or boundary regions, are replaced by a small, rigorous quantum bath designed to reproduce the entanglement between a fragment and its environment. We describe the theory and demonstrate its feasibility in strongly correlated hydrogen ring and grid models; these are not only beyond the scope of traditional embeddings but even challenge conventional quantum chemistry methods themselves. We find that DMET correctly describes the notoriously difficult symmetric dissociation of a 4 × 3 hydrogen atom grid, even when the treated fragments are as small as single hydrogen atoms. We expect that DMET will open up new ways of treating complex strongly coupled, strongly correlated systems in terms of their individual fragments.
The arithmetic of elliptic fibrations in gauge theories on a circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimm, Thomas W.; Kapfer, Andreas; Klevers, Denis
2016-06-01
The geometry of elliptic fibrations translates to the physics of gauge theories in F-theory. We systematically develop the dictionary between arithmetic structures on elliptic curves as well as desingularized elliptic fibrations and symmetries of gauge theories on a circle. We show that the Mordell-Weil group law matches integral large gauge transformations around the circle in Abelian gauge theories and explain the significance of Mordell-Weil torsion in this context. We also use Higgs transitions and circle large gauge transformations to introduce a group law for genus-one fibrations with multi-sections. Finally, we introduce a novel arithmetic structure on elliptic fibrations with non-Abelian gauge groups in F-theory. It is defined on the set of exceptional divisors resolving the singularities and divisor classes of sections of the fibration. This group structure can be matched with certain integral non-Abelian large gauge transformations around the circle when studying the theory on the lower-dimensional Coulomb branch. Its existence is required by consistency with Higgs transitions from the non-Abelian theory to its Abelian phases in which it becomes the Mordell-Weil group. This hints towards the existence of a new underlying geometric symmetry.
Can (electric-magnetic) duality be gauged?
Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc
2011-02-15
There exists a formulation of the Maxwell theory in terms of two vector potentials, one electric and one magnetic. The action is then manifestly invariant under electric-magnetic duality transformations, which are rotations in the two-dimensional internal space of the two potentials, and local. We ask the question: Can duality be gauged? The only known and battle-tested method of accomplishing the gauging is the Noether procedure. In its decanted form, it amounts to turning on the coupling by deforming the Abelian gauge group of the free theory, out of whose curvatures the action is built, into a non-Abelian group which becomes the gauge group of the resulting theory. In this article, we show that the method cannot be successfully implemented for electric-magnetic duality. We thus conclude that, unless a radically new idea is introduced, electric-magnetic duality cannot be gauged. The implication of this result for supergravity is briefly discussed.
Plasmons in strongly coupled shock-compressed matter
Neumayer, P; Fortmann, C; Doppner, T; Davis, P; Falcone, R W; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Niemann, C; Pape, S L; Glenzer, S H
2010-04-15
We present the first measurements of the plasmon dispersion and damping in laser shock-compressed solid matter. Petawatt laser produced K-{alpha} radiation scatters on boron targets compressed by a 10 ns-long 400 J laser pulse. In the vicinity of the Fermi momentum, the scattering spectra show dispersionless, collisionally damped plasmons, indicating a strongly coupled electron liquid. These observations agree with x-ray scattering calculations that include both the Born-Mermin approximation to account for electron-ion collisional damping and local field corrections reflecting electron-electron correlations.
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Di-Lun; Müller, Berndt
2016-09-01
We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP) at weak coupling and N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma (SYMP) at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon-parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant
Alexandre Deur; Volker Burkert; Jian-Ping Chen; Wolfgang Korsch
2007-07-01
We extract an effective strong coupling constant from low Q{sup 2} data on the Bjorken sum. Using sum rules, we establish its Q{sup 2}-behavior over the complete Q{sup 2}-range. The result is compared to effective coupling constants extracted from different processes and to calculations based on Schwinger-Dyson equations, hadron spectroscopy or lattice QCD. Although the connection between the experimentally extracted effective coupling constant and the calculations is not clear, the results agree surprisingly well.
Strong Coupling Effects on Bound States in Plasmas.
1982-08-01
of the degree of ionization of a dense plasma (3) Generalizat on of the Thomas-Fermi-De-bye- Huckel scheme for strongly coupled plasmas with atoms and...atom is described through the replacement of the intra-atomic potential by a screened Debye potential where the screening constant K - (4re2no)1/ 2...plasma schemes-either the STLS6 or TI mean field theories , or INC. 6. Finally X is to be determined by calculating the free energy of the system and
Nonlinear emission of semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime
Houdre; Weisbuch; Stanley; Oesterle; Ilegems
2000-09-25
We report on the nonlinear laserlike emission from semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime. Under resonant continuous wave excitation we observe a highly emissive state. The energy, dispersion, and spatial extent of this state is measured and is found to be dispersionless and spatially localized. This state coexists with luminescence that follows the usual cavity-polariton dispersion. It is attributed to the amplification of luminescence by a parametric gain due to cavity-polariton scattering. Despite the resonant excitation at 1.6 K, we observe no sign of Bose-Einstein condensation nor Boser action.
Damping of hard excitations in strongly coupled N = 4 plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuini, John F.; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2016-12-01
The damping of high momentum excitations in strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma is studied. Previous calculations of the asymptotic behavior of the quasinormal mode spectrum are extended and clarified. We confirm that subleading corrections to the lightlike dispersion relation ω( q) = | q| have a universal | q|-1/3 form. Sufficiently narrow, weak planar shocks may be viewed as coherent superpositions of short wavelength quasinormal modes. The attenuation and evolution in profile of narrow planar shocks are examined as an application of our results.
Tunable metamaterials based on voltage controlled strong coupling
Benz, Alexander Brener, Igal; Montaño, Inès; Klem, John F.
2013-12-23
We present the design, fabrication, and realization of an electrically tunable metamaterial operating in the mid-infrared spectral range. Our devices combine intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum-wells with planar metamaterials and operate in the strong light-matter coupling regime. The resonance frequency of the intersubband transition can be controlled by an external bias relative to the fixed metamaterial resonance. This allows us to switch dynamically from an uncoupled to a strongly coupled system and thereby to shift the eigenfrequency of the upper polariton branch by 2.5 THz (corresponding to 8% of the center frequency or one full linewidth) with a bias of 5 V.
Nuclear physics from lattice QCD at strong coupling.
de Forcrand, Ph; Fromm, M
2010-03-19
We study numerically the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD with one flavor of massless staggered quarks. We determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature and chemical potential, including a tricritical point. We clarify the nature of the low temperature dense phase, which is strongly bound "nuclear" matter. This strong binding is explained by the nuclear potential, which we measure. Finally, we determine, from this first-principles limiting case of QCD, the masses of "atomic nuclei" up to A=12 "carbon".
Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piel, Alexander; Wilms, Jochen
2016-07-01
The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.
Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Molecular Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Memmi, H.; Benson, O.; Sadofev, S.; Kalusniak, S.
2017-03-01
We report on the strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and molecular vibrations in an organic-inorganic plasmonic hybrid structure consisting of a ketone-based polymer deposited on top of a silver layer. Attenuated-total-reflection spectra of the hybrid reveal an anticrossing in the dispersion relation in the vicinity of the carbonyl stretch vibration of the polymer with an energy splitting of the upper and lower polariton branch up to 15 meV. The splitting is found to depend on the molecular layer thickness and saturates for micrometer-thick films. This new hybrid state holds a strong potential for application in chemistry and optoelectronics.
Nonlinear wave propagation in a strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma.
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, Mithil Ranjan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Chaudhuri, Manis
2011-06-01
The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated using a generalized hydrodynamical model. For the well-known longitudinal dust acoustic mode a standard perturbative approach leads to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton. The strong viscoelastic effect, however, introduced a nonlinear forcing and a linear damping in the KdV equation. This novel equation is solved analytically to show a competition between nonlinear forcing and dissipative damping. The physical consequence of such a solution is also sketched.
Nonlinear wave propagation in a strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, Mithil Ranjan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Chaudhuri, Manis
2011-06-15
The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is investigated using a generalized hydrodynamical model. For the well-known longitudinal dust acoustic mode a standard perturbative approach leads to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton. The strong viscoelastic effect, however, introduced a nonlinear forcing and a linear damping in the KdV equation. This novel equation is solved analytically to show a competition between nonlinear forcing and dissipative damping. The physical consequence of such a solution is also sketched.
Wrapping interactions at strong coupling: The giant magnon
Janik, Romuald A.; Lukowski, Tomasz
2007-12-15
We derive generalized Luescher formulas for finite size corrections in a theory with a general dispersion relation. For the AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} superstring these formulas encode leading wrapping interaction effects. We apply the generalized {mu}-term formula to calculate finite size corrections to the dispersion relation of the giant magnon at strong coupling. The result exactly agrees with the classical string computation of Arutyunov, Frolov, and Zamaklar. The agreement involved a Borel resummation of all even loop orders of the BES/BHL dressing factor thus providing a strong consistency check for the choice of the dressing factor.
Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows
Piel, Alexander Wilms, Jochen
2016-07-15
The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.
Strong Coupling between Surface Plasmon Polaritons and Molecular Vibrations.
Memmi, H; Benson, O; Sadofev, S; Kalusniak, S
2017-03-24
We report on the strong coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and molecular vibrations in an organic-inorganic plasmonic hybrid structure consisting of a ketone-based polymer deposited on top of a silver layer. Attenuated-total-reflection spectra of the hybrid reveal an anticrossing in the dispersion relation in the vicinity of the carbonyl stretch vibration of the polymer with an energy splitting of the upper and lower polariton branch up to 15 meV. The splitting is found to depend on the molecular layer thickness and saturates for micrometer-thick films. This new hybrid state holds a strong potential for application in chemistry and optoelectronics.
Charmonium in strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
Young, Clint; Shuryak, Edward
2009-03-15
The growing consensus that a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) has been observed at the SPS and RHIC experiments suggests a different framework for examining heavy-quark dynamics. We present both a semianalytical treatment of Fokker-Planck (FP) evolution in pedagogical examples and numerical Langevin simulations of evolving cc pairs on top of a hydrodynamically expanding fireball. In this way, we may conclude that the survival probability of bound charmonia states is greater than previously estimated, as the spatial equilibration of pairs proceeds through a 'slowly dissolving lump' stage related to the pair interaction.
Numerical tests of AdS/CFT at strong coupling
Berenstein, David; Cotta, Randel; Leonardi, Rodrigo
2008-07-15
We study various correlation functions (two- and three-point functions) in a large N matrix model of six commuting matrices with a numerical Monte Carlo algorithm. This is equivalent to a model of a gas of particles in six dimensions with a confining quadratic potential and logarithmic repulsions at finite temperature, where we are measuring the leading-order nongaussianities in the thermal fluctuations. This is a simplified model of the low-energy dynamics of N=4 SYM at strong coupling. We find strong evidence that the simplified matrix model matches with the dual gravitational description of three-point functions in the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Study of the Strong Coupling Constant Using W+ Jet Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Chevalier, L.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gao, S. G.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mandrichenko, I. V.; Mangeot, Ph.; Mani, S.; Mansoulié, B.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rusin, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shao, Y. Y.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Taketani, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Teiger, J.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Warchol, J.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zylberstejn, A.
1995-10-01
The ratio of the number of W+1 jet to W+0 jet events is measured with the D0 detector using data from the 1992-93 Tevatron Collider run. For the W-->eν channel with a minimum jet ET cutoff of 25 GeV, the experimental ratio is 0.065+/-0.003stat+/-0.007syst. Next-to-leading order QCD predictions for various parton distributions agree well with each other and are all over 1 standard deviation below the measurement. Varying the strong coupling constant αs in both the parton distributions and the partonic cross sections simultaneously does not remove this discrepancy.
Continuum Lowering and Fermi-Surface Rising in Strongly Coupled and Degenerate Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, S. X.
2017-08-01
Continuum lowering is a well known and important physics concept that describes the ionization potential depression (IPD) in plasmas caused by thermal- or pressure-induced ionization of outer-shell electrons. The existing IPD models are often used to characterize plasma conditions and to gauge opacity calculations. Recent precision measurements have revealed deficits in our understanding of continuum lowering in dense hot plasmas. However, these investigations have so far been limited to IPD in strongly coupled but nondegenerate plasmas. Here, we report a first-principles study of the K -edge shifting in both strongly coupled and fully degenerate carbon plasmas, with quantum molecular dynamics calculations based on the all-electron density-functional theory. The resulting K -edge shifting versus plasma density, as a probe to the continuum lowering and the Fermi-surface rising, is found to be significantly different from predictions of existing IPD models. In contrast, a simple model of "single-atom-in-box," developed in this work, accurately predicts K -edge locations as ab initio calculations provide.
Continuum Lowering and Fermi-Surface Rising in Strongly Coupled and Degenerate Plasmas
Hu, S. X.
2017-08-10
Here, continuum lowering is a well-known and important physics concept that describes the ionization potential depression (IPD) in plasmas caused by thermal-/pressure-induced ionization of outer-shell electrons. The existing IPD models are often used to characterize plasma conditions and to gauge opacity calculations. Recent precision measurements have revealed deficits in our understanding of continuum lowering in dense hot plasmas. However, these investigations have so far been limited to IPD in strongly coupled but nondegenerate plasmas. Here, we report a first-principles study of the K-edge shifting in both strongly coupled and fully degenerate carbon plasmas, with quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations basedmore » on the all-electron density-functional theory (DFT). The resulted K-edge shifting versus plasma density, as a probe to the continuum lowering and the Fermi-surface rising, is found to be significantly different from predictions of existing IPD models. In contrast, a simple model of “single atom in box” (SAIB), developed in this work, accurately predicts K-edge locations as what ab-initio calculations provide.« less
Novel phases in strongly coupled four-fermion theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catterall, Simon; Schaich, David
2017-08-01
We study a lattice model comprising four massless reduced staggered fermions in four dimensions coupled through an S U (4 )-invariant four-fermion interaction. We present both theoretical arguments and numerical evidence that no bilinear fermion condensates are present for any value of the four-fermi coupling, in contrast to earlier studies of Higgs-Yukawa models with different exact lattice symmetries. At strong coupling we observe the formation of a four-fermion condensate and a mass gap in spite of the absence of bilinear condensates. Unlike those previously studied systems we do not find a ferromagnetic phase separating this strong-coupling phase from the massless weak-coupling phase. Instead we observe long-range correlations in a narrow region of the coupling, still with vanishing bilinear condensates. While our numerical results come from relatively small lattice volumes that call for caution in drawing conclusions, if this novel phase structure is verified by future investigations employing larger volumes it may offer the possibility for new continuum limits for strongly interacting fermions in four dimensions.
Strongly coupled ionic mixtures and the H/He EOS
DeWitt, H.E.
1993-12-02
This paper summarizes recent work on the strongly coupled OCP and Binary Ionic Mixture equation of state and other thermodynamic quantities in white dwarf interior conditions for both fluid and solid phases with the assumption of a uniform background. Conditions for phase separation of different elements in fluid or solid phases is strongly dependent on deviations from the linear mixing rule which gives the equation of state as an additive function of the OCP equation of state. These deviations turn out to be small (a few parts in 10{sup 5}) and always positive including the case where the fraction of the higher Z component approaches 0. Also the equation of state of strongly coupled light elements (H and He particularly) obtained from simulations with a linear response description of the electrons is given for conditions appropriate to brown dwarf star interiors. Recent Livermore work on a band structure calculation of the enthalpy of H and He mixtures under jovian conditions is discussed. This work leads to a prediction of a high temperature (15,000 K) for miscibility of He in ionized H at 10 Mb.
Turbulence in strongly coupled dusty plasmas using generalized hydrodynamic description
Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Dharodi, Vikram Singh; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh G.; Kaw, Predhiman
2015-02-15
The properties of decaying turbulence have been studied with the help of a Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) fluid model in the context of strongly coupled dusty plasma medium in two dimensions. The GHD model treats the strongly coupled dusty plasma system as a visco-elastic medium. The incompressible limit of the GHD model is considered here. The studies carried out here are, however, applicable to a wider class of visco-elastic systems, and are not merely confined to the dusty plasma medium. Our simulations studies show that an initial spectrum that is confined in a limited domain of wave numbers becomes broad, even when the Reynold's number is much less than the critical value required for the onset of turbulence in Newtonian fluids. This is a signature of elastic turbulence, where Weissenberg's number also plays an important role on the onset of turbulence. This feature has been observed in several experiments. It is also shown that the existence of memory relaxation time parameter and the transverse shear wave inhibit the normal process (for 2-D systems) of inverse spectral cascade in this case. A detailed simulation study has been carried out for the understanding of this inhibition.
Strongly Coupled Models with a Higgs-like Boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pich, Antonio; Rosell, Ignasi; José Sanz-Cillero, Juan
2013-11-01
Considering the one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters, we have presented a study of the viability of strongly-coupled scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. The calculation has been done by using an effective Lagrangian, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the estimation. Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models with massive resonances are not in conflict with experimentalconstraints on these parameters and the recently observed Higgs-like resonance. So there is room for these models, but they are stringently constrained. The vector and axial-vector states should be heavy enough (with masses above the TeV scale), the mass splitting between them is highly preferred to be small and the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the Standard Model one. It is important to stress that these conclusions do not depend critically on the inclusion of the second Weinberg sum rule. We wish to thank the organizers of LHCP 2013 for the pleasant conference. This work has been supported in part by the Spanish Government and the European Commission [FPA2010-17747, FPA2011- 23778, AIC-D-2011-0818, SEV-2012-0249 (Severo Ochoa Program), CSD2007-00042 (Consolider Project CPAN)], the Generalitat Valenciana [PrometeoII/2013/007] and the Comunidad de Madrid [HEPHACOS S2009/ESP-1473].
Jeans self gravitational instability of strongly coupled quantum plasma
Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.
2014-07-15
The Jeans self-gravitational instability is studied for quantum plasma composed of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid and non-degenerate strongly coupled ion fluid. The formulation for such system is done on the basis of two fluid theory. The dynamics of weakly coupled degenerate electron fluid is governed by inertialess momentum equation. The quantum forces associated with the quantum diffraction effects and the quantum statistical effects act on the degenerate electron fluid. The strong correlation effects of ion are embedded in generalized viscoelastic momentum equation including the viscoelasticity and shear viscosities of ion fluid. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the normal mode analysis technique for the two regimes of propagation, i.e., hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes. The Jeans condition of self-gravitational instability is also obtained for both regimes, in the hydrodynamic regime it is observed to be affected by the ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter while in the kinetic regime in addition to ion plasma oscillations and quantum parameter, it is also affected by the ion velocity which is modified by the viscosity generated compressional effects. The Jeans critical wave number and corresponding critical mass are also obtained for strongly coupled quantum plasma for both regimes.
Raman scattering with strongly coupled vibron-polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strashko, Artem; Keeling, Jonathan
2016-08-01
Strong coupling between cavity photons and molecular vibrations can lead to the formation of vibron-polaritons. In a recent experiment with PVAc molecules in a metal-metal microcavity [Shalabney et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 54, 7971 (2015), 10.1002/anie.201502979], such a coupling was observed to enhance the Raman scattering probability by several orders of magnitude. Inspired by this, we theoretically analyze the effect of strong photon-vibron coupling on the Raman scattering amplitude of organic molecules. This problem has recently been addressed by del Pino, Feist, and Garcia-Vidal [J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 29132 (2015), 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b11654] using exact numerics for a small number of molecules. In this paper we derive compact analytic results for any number of molecules, also including the ultrastrong-coupling regime. Our calculations predict a division of the Raman signal into upper and lower polariton modes, with some enhancement to the lower polariton Raman amplitude due to the mode softening under strong coupling.
Sharma, Sandeep
2015-01-14
We extend our previous work [S. Sharma and G. K.-L. Chan, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 124121 (2012)], which described a spin-adapted (SU(2) symmetry) density matrix renormalization group algorithm, to additionally utilize general non-Abelian point group symmetries. A key strength of the present formulation is that the requisite tensor operators are not hard-coded for each symmetry group, but are instead generated on the fly using the appropriate Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. This allows our single implementation to easily enable (or disable) any non-Abelian point group symmetry (including SU(2) spin symmetry). We use our implementation to compute the ground state potential energy curve of the C{sub 2} dimer in the cc-pVQZ basis set (with a frozen-core), corresponding to a Hilbert space dimension of 10{sup 12} many-body states. While our calculated energy lies within the 0.3 mE{sub h} error bound of previous initiator full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo and correlation energy extrapolation by intrinsic scaling calculations, our estimated residual error is only 0.01 mE{sub h}, much more accurate than these previous estimates. Due to the additional efficiency afforded by the algorithm, the excitation energies (T{sub e}) of eight lowest lying excited states: a{sup 3}Π{sub u}, b{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup −}, A{sup 1}Π{sub u}, c{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +}, B{sup 1}Δ{sub g}, B{sup ′1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}, d{sup 3}Π{sub g}, and C{sup 1}Π{sub g} are calculated, which agree with experimentally derived values to better than 0.06 eV. In addition, we also compute the potential energy curves of twelve states: the three lowest levels for each of the irreducible representations {sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}, {sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}, {sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup −}, and {sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup −}, to an estimated accuracy of 0.1 mE{sub h} of the exact result in this basis.
Digital lattice gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
From spectroscopy to the strong coupling constant with heavy Wilson quarks
Wingate, M.; DeGrand, T.; Collins, S.; Heller, U.M.
1995-07-01
In this work we present lattice calculations of the masses of {ital P}-wave mesons using Monte Carlo simulations. Our valence fermions are defined by the Wilson action. Our gauge fields are generated with both dynamical staggered fermions at a lattice coupling {beta}{equivalent_to}6/{ital g}{sup 2}=5.6 for sea quark masses of {ital am}{sub {ital q}}=0.010 and 0.025 and in the quenched approximation at {beta}=6.0. We present results for charm and charmonium spectroscopy and use them to compute the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub {ital s}}. We compare our results to those of other recent lattice calculations and experiments.
Pure gauge spin-orbit couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2017-01-01
Planar systems with a general linear spin-orbit interaction (SOI) that can be cast in the form of a non-Abelian pure gauge field are investigated using the language of non-Abelian gauge field theory. A special class of these fields that, though a 2×2 matrix, are Abelian are seen to emerge and their general form is given. It is shown that the unitary transformation that gauges away these fields induces at the same time a rotation on the wave function about a fixed axis but with a space-dependent angle, both of which being characteristics of the SOI involved. The experimentally important case of equal-strength Rashba and Dresselhaus SOI (R+D SOI) is shown to fall within this special class of Abelian gauge fields, and the phenomenon of persistent spin helix (PSH) that emerges in the presence of this latter SOI in a plane is shown to fit naturally within the general formalism developed. The general formalism is also extended to the case of a particle confined to a ring. It is shown that the Hamiltonian on a ring in the presence of equal-strength R+D SOI is unitarily equivalent to that of a particle subject to only a spin-independent but θ-dependent potential with the unitary transformation relating the two being again the space-dependent rotation operator characteristic of R+D SOI.
Electrical Conductivity Measurements in Strongly Coupled Metal Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desilva, Alan
1998-11-01
The coupling parameter Γ=e^2/akT, where a is the mean ion-ion separation, expresses the ratio of the mean potential energy of ions in a plasma to their mean kinetic energy. Plasma is said to be strongly coupled when Γ is greater than unity. Transport properties of strongly coupled plasmas are of interest in the study of the structure of dense astrophysical objects and gaseous planetary interiors, as well as in arcs and laser-produced plasmas. We are attempting to measure the electrical conductivity of strongly coupled metal plasmas (copper, tungsten and aluminum) in the temperature range 8-30 kK, in a density range from about 1/2 solid density down to about 10-3 times solid density. They may have coupling parameters Γ ranging from as high as 100 down to unity Plasmas are created by rapid vaporization of metal wire in a glass capillary or in a water bath which act as a tamper, slowing the expansion rate. The effect of the tamper is to force the interior pressure of the plasma to be fairly uniform. Streak photography serves to determine the growth of the plasma radius in time, allowing determination of mean density. Temperature is deduced from the measured energy input in conjunction with an equation of state from the LANL sesame database(SESAME: The Los Alamos National Laboratory Equation of State Database, Report No. LA-UR-92-3407, Ed. S. P. Lyon and J. D. Johnson, Group T-1 (unpublished)), and a brightness temperature may be obtained from radiation measurements. The column resistance is simply determined from time-resolved voltage and current measurements. For temperatures less than about 14,000K, as density decreases from the highest values measured, the conductivity falls roughly as the cube of density, reaches a minimum, and subsequently rises to approach the Spitzer prediction at low density. The rate of change of conductivity with density becomes less rapid as temperature increases, and the minimum becomes less pronounced, disappearing altogether above
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mayukh; Teo, Jeffrey; Hughes, Taylor
2015-03-01
Non-abelian anyons exhibit exotic braiding statistics which can be utilized to realize a universal topological quantum computer. In this work we focus on Fibonacci anyons which occur in Z3 Read Rezayi fractional quantum hall states. Traditionally they have been constructed using su(2)3 / u (1) coset theories. We introduce conformal field theories(CFTs) of exceptional and non-simply laced Lie Algebras at level 1, for example G2 ,F4 which host Fibonacci anyons. We realize these CFT's concretely on the 1d gapless edge of an anisotropic 2d system built out of coupled, interacting Luttinger wires. Interactions are introduced within a bundle of wires to fractionalize the original chiral bosons into different sectors. Next, we couple these sectors to get the desired topological phase in the bulk. The 2d bulk of the stack is gapped by backscattering terms between counterpropagating modes on different bundles. The emergence of this topological phase can be interpreted using techniques of anyon condensation . We also explicitly construct the Kac Moody algebra on the edge CFT using original bosonic degrees of freedom.We acknowledge support from NSF CAREER DMR-1351895(TH) and Simons Foundation (JT).
Multi-Higgs model with Abelian and non-Abelian discrete symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machado, A. C. B.; Pleitez, V.
2008-11-01
-handed fermions, singlet under the gauge symmetry, transforming as triplet or singlet of A4. The predictive power is a consequence of the discrete symmetries imposed to the model: A4 otimes Z3 otimes Z'3 otimes Z''3. In conclusions, the mass matrices obtained, which arise because of the symmetry of the model, give appropriate insight concerning the solution of the flavor problem. Of course, it is necessary to explain how these symmetries are realized from a more fundamental theory.
Dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dissipative plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, B. S.; Yu, M. Y.
2000-12-01
The theory of dust acoustic waves is revisited in the frame of the generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic theory for highly correlated dusts. Physical processes relevant to many experiments on dusts in plasmas, such as ionization and recombination, dust-charge variation, elastic electron and ion collisions with neutral and charged dust particles, as well as relaxation due to strong dust coupling, are taken into account. These processes can be on similar time scales and are thus important for the conservation of particles and momenta in a self-consistent description of the system. It is shown that the dispersion properties of the dust acoustic waves are determined by a sensitive balance of the effects of strong dust coupling and collisional relaxation. The predictions of the present theory applicable to typical parameters in laboratory strongly coupled dusty plasmas are given and compared with the experiment results. Some possible implications and discrepanies between theory and experiment are also discussed.
A scanning transmon qubit for strong coupling circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Shanks, W E; Underwood, D L; Houck, A A
2013-01-01
Like a quantum computer designed for a particular class of problems, a quantum simulator enables quantitative modelling of quantum systems that is computationally intractable with a classical computer. Superconducting circuits have recently been investigated as an alternative system in which microwave photons confined to a lattice of coupled resonators act as the particles under study, with qubits coupled to the resonators producing effective photon-photon interactions. Such a system promises insight into the non-equilibrium physics of interacting bosons, but new tools are needed to understand this complex behaviour. Here we demonstrate the operation of a scanning transmon qubit and propose its use as a local probe of photon number within a superconducting resonator lattice. We map the coupling strength of the qubit to a resonator on a separate chip and show that the system reaches the strong coupling regime over a wide scanning area.
Strong-coupling effects in a plasma of confining gluons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Su, Nan; Tywoniuk, Konrad
2016-12-01
The plasma consisting of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization of the SU(3) Yang-Mills theory is studied using non-equilibrium fluid dynamical framework. Exploiting the Bjorken symmetry and using linear response theory a general analytic expressions for the bulk, ζ, and shear, η, viscosity coefficients are derived. It is found that the considered system exhibits a number of properties similar to the strongly-coupled theories, where the conformality is explicitly broken. In particular, it is shown that, in the large temperature limit, ζ / η ratio, scales linearly with the difference 1 / 3 - cs2, where cs is the speed of sound. Results obtained from the analysis are in line with the interpretation of the quark-gluon plasma as an almost perfect fluid.
Strongly Coupled Chameleons and the Neutronic Quantum Bouncer
Brax, Philippe; Pignol, Guillaume
2011-09-09
We consider the potential detection of chameleons using bouncing ultracold neutrons. We show that the presence of a chameleon field over a planar plate would alter the energy levels of ultracold neutrons in the terrestrial gravitational field. When chameleons are strongly coupled to nuclear matter, {beta} > or approx. 10{sup 8}, we find that the shift in energy levels would be detectable with the forthcoming GRANIT experiment, where a sensitivity of the order of 1% of a peV is expected. We also find that an extremely large coupling {beta} > or approx. 10{sup 11} would lead to new bound states at a distance of order 2 {mu}m, which is already ruled out by previous Grenoble experiments. The resulting bound, {beta} < or approx. 10{sup 11}, is already 3 orders of magnitude better than the upper bound, {beta} < or approx. 10{sup 14}, from precision tests of atomic spectra.
Strongly coupled millimeter-band waveguide directional couplers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhiyezer, A. N.
1984-03-01
A design technique for directional couplers, coupled through a central partition with holes paralleling the wide wall, is generalized for the case of strong coupling with 0 to 10 dB separation between the waveguides. The wave amplitude due to splitting with the propagation of the wave along the coupling system is considered; this coupling region is broken down into cascaded symmetrical sections where the phase constant is assumed to be the same in both waveguides. Analytical expressions are derived for the crosstalk attenuation between the channels, the insertion loss of the main channel and the directivity. Experimental data and values calculated using the derived formulas are compared. Both couplers can be disassembled and the partioning plate with the coupling holes and the walls are nickel plated. The agreement between experimental and calculated data is good with the formulas being applicable to programmable calculators.
Strong-coupling BCS models of Josephson qubits.
Alicki, R; Miklaszewski, W
2013-01-23
The strong-coupling version of the BCS theory for superconductors is used to derive microscopic models for all types of small Josephson junctions--charge qubit, flux qubit and phase qubit. Applied to Josephson qubits it yields a more complicated structure of the lowest-lying energy levels than that obtained from phenomenological models based on quantization of the Kirchhoff equations. In particular, highly degenerate levels emerge, which act as probability sinks for the qubit. The alternative formulae concerning spectra of superconducting qubits are presented and compared with the experimental data. In contrast to the existing theories those formulae contain microscopic parameters of the model. In particular, for the first time, the density of Cooper pairs at zero temperature is estimated for an Al-based flux qubit. Finally, the question whether small Josephson junctions can be treated as macroscopic quantum systems is briefly discussed.
Broadband room temperature strong coupling between quantum dots and metamaterials.
Indukuri, Chaitanya; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Basu, J K
2017-08-17
Herein, we report the first demonstration of room temperature enhanced light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials using cooperative coupled quasi two dimensional quantum dot assemblies located at precise distances from the hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) templates. The non-monotonic variation of the magnitude of strong coupling, manifested in terms of strong splitting of the photoluminescence of quantum dots, can be explained in terms of enhanced LDOS near the surface of such metamaterials as well as the plasmon mediated super-radiance of closely spaced quantum dots (QDs). Our methodology of enhancing broadband, room temperature, light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials opens up new possibilities of utilising these materials for a wide range of applications including QD based thresholdless nanolasers and novel metamaterial based integrated photonic devices.
Superharmonic resonances in a strongly coupled cavity-atom system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buks, Eyal; Deng, Chunqing; Orgazzi, Jean-Luc F. X.; Otto, Martin; Lupascu, Adrian
2016-09-01
We study a system consisting of a superconducting flux qubit strongly coupled to a microwave cavity. The fundamental cavity mode is externally driven and the response is investigated in the weak nonlinear regime. We find that near the crossing point, at which the resonance frequencies of the cavity mode and qubit coincide, the sign of the Kerr coefficient changes, and consequently the type of nonlinear response changes from softening to hardening. Furthermore, the cavity response exhibits superharmonic resonances (SHR) when the ratio between the qubit frequency and the cavity fundamental mode frequency is tuned close to an integer value. The nonlinear response is characterized by the method of intermodulation and both signal and idler gains are measured. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions and good qualitative agreement is obtained. The SHRs have potential for applications in quantum amplification and generation of entangled states of light.
Particle dynamics in a strongly-coupled dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goree, J.; Pieper, J. B.
1996-11-01
We have used video imaging to study the dynamics of 9 μ m plastic spheres suspended in low-power Krypton discharges. The spheres, which are highly charged and levitated by the electrode sheath, form a strongly-coupled system. Using a digitized series of images, we tracked individual particles and measured collective and random particle motions.footnote J. B. Pieper and J. Goree, submitted to PRL Dust acoustic waves were excited at <= 10 Hz and their dispersion relation verified. Fitting the measured and theoretical dispersion relations also give a measurement of the particle charge and the "linearized" Debye length. The temperature of random particle motion in the horizontal plane (parallel to the electrode) was measured to be 2-10 times room temperature and about 2 times the temperature in the vertical plane. It is proposed that the particles are heated by low-frequency (kHz) electrostatic plasma fluctuations. Work supported by NSF and NASA
Particle dynamics in a strongly-coupled dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinn, R. A.; Goree, J.; Pieper, J. B.
1996-10-01
We have used video imaging to study the dynamics of 9 μ m plastic spheres in low-power Krypton discharges. The spheres, which are highly charged and levitated by the electrode sheath, form a strongly-coupled system. Using a digitized series of images, we tracked individual particles and measured collective and random particle motions.footnote Pieper and Goree, submitted to PRL Dust acoustic waves were excited at <= 10 Hz and their dispersion relation verified. The temperature of random particle motion in the horizontal plane (parallel to the electrode) was measured to be 2-10 times room temperature and about 2 times the temperature in the vertical plane. It is proposed that the particles are heated by low-frequency (kHz) electrostatic plasma fluctuations.
Mobility in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Goree, J.
2014-04-01
The mobility of a charged projectile in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is simulated. A net force F, opposed by a combination of collisional scattering and gas friction, causes projectiles to drift at a mobility-limited velocity up. The mobility μp=up/F of the projectile's motion is obtained. Two regimes depending on F are identified. In the high-force regime, μp∝F0.23, and the scattering cross section σs diminishes as up-6/5. Results for σs are compared with those for a weakly coupled plasma and for two-body collisions in a Yukawa potential. The simulation parameters are based on microgravity plasma experiments.
Mobility in a strongly coupled dusty plasma with gas.
Liu, Bin; Goree, J
2014-04-01
The mobility of a charged projectile in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is simulated. A net force F, opposed by a combination of collisional scattering and gas friction, causes projectiles to drift at a mobility-limited velocity up. The mobility μp=up/F of the projectile's motion is obtained. Two regimes depending on F are identified. In the high-force regime, μp∝F0.23, and the scattering cross section σs diminishes as up-6/5. Results for σs are compared with those for a weakly coupled plasma and for two-body collisions in a Yukawa potential. The simulation parameters are based on microgravity plasma experiments.
Ultra hybrid plasmonics: strong coupling of plexcitons with plasmon polaritons.
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Coskun
2015-07-15
We report a ternary-coupled plasmonic system consisting of excitons of J-aggregated dye, localized surface plasmon polaritons of Ag nanoparticles, and propagating surface plasmon polaritons of continuous Ag film. J-aggregate dyes are uniformly self-assembled on colloidally synthesized Ag nanoprisms forming plexcitonic nanoparticles, which are placed at a distance nanometers away from the Ag thin film. The reflection measurements, corroborated by theoretical predictions, reveal that the strong coupling of plasmon polaritons and plexcitons results in a newly formed plasmon-exciton-plasmon hybridized state that we call here, reportedly for the first time, a plexcimon state. The hybrid plasmonic system shows dispersion characteristics similar to a coupled resonator optical waveguide. The group velocity of the plexcimon state approaches zero at the band edges. The ultrahybrid plasmonic system presented here is promising for a variety of light-matter interaction studies, including polariton lasers, plasmonic devices, plasmonic waveguiding, and spectroscopy.
Asymmetric mode scattering in strongly coupled photonic crystal nanolasers.
Marconi, M; Javaloyes, J; Raineri, F; Levenson, J A; Yacomotti, A M
2016-12-15
We investigate the basic mechanism of nonlinear mode competition in two semiconductor-coupled nanocavities operating in the laser regime. For this, we study energy transfer between bonding (in-phase) and anti-bonding (out-of-phase) modes of the system formed by two strongly coupled photonic crystal nanolasers. We experimentally observe mode switching from the blue-detuned to the red-detuned mode as the pump power is increased. A semi-classical description in terms of mean-field equations allows us to explain this phenomenon as stimulated scattering due to carrier population oscillations in the cavities at the mode splitting frequency. We predict such asymmetrical mode interaction to be universal in arrays of optically coupled semiconductor micro and nanocavities.
Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion.
Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J
2009-08-28
Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.
Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.
2009-08-01
Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.
Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas.
Huang, Jer-Shing; Kern, Johannes; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert
2010-06-09
The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the "bonding" and "antibonding" plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad "bonding" resonance in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the "bonding" mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functionalities in complex plasmonic devices.
Strong-Coupling and the Stripe Phase of ^3He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiman, Joshua J.; Sauls, J. A.
2016-09-01
Thin films of superfluid 3He were predicted, based on weak-coupling BCS theory, to have a stable phase which spontaneously breaks translational symmetry in the plane of the film. This crystalline superfluid, or "stripe" phase, develops as a one-dimensional periodic array of domain walls separating degenerate B phase domains. We report calculations of the phases and phase diagram for superfluid 3He in thin films using a strong-coupling Ginzburg-Landau theory that accurately reproduces the bulk 3He superfluid phase diagram. We find that the stability of the Stripe phase is diminished relative to the A phase, but the Stripe phase is stable in a large range of temperatures, pressures, confinement, and surface conditions.
Wireless power feeding to mobile objects with strongly coupled resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koizumi, Masayoshi; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Mizuno, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Takayuki; Kano, Kazuhiko
2011-04-01
Wireless power feeding transmission is now in demand in the various fields. Electrical products of this modern age such as mobile phones, laptop monitoring sensors and electrical vehicles are spreading everywhere. Those electric device need to feed frequently because amount of consumed electric power of those devices are gradually increasing. Nonetheless content of battery show signs of leveling off. This is why it is important to develop a method of wireless power transmitting system with high efficiency. Strongly coupled magnetic resonance is the latest type of wireless power transmission technology. The main feature of this technology is the effectiveness in the mid-range that covers many attractive applications. The theory of transmitting efficiency is derived as a function of impedance ratio r and RF frequency ω.
Effective potential kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme
2016-11-01
The effective potential theory (EPT) is a recently proposed method for extending traditional plasma kinetic and transport theory into the strongly coupled regime. Validation from experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have shown it to be accurate up to the onset of liquid-like correlation parameters (corresponding to Γ ≃ 10-50 for the one-component plasma, depending on the process of interest). Here, this theory is briefly reviewed along with comparisons between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations for self-diffusivity and viscosity of the one-component plasma. A number of new results are also provided, including calculations of friction coefficients, energy exchange rates, stopping power, and mobility. The theory is also cast in the Landau and Fokker-Planck kinetic forms, which may prove useful for enabling efficient kinetic computations.
Quantum simulations of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Bonitz, M.; Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.
2011-12-01
A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) of heavy constituent quasiparticles is studied by a path-integral Monte-Carlo method, which improves the corresponding classical simulations by extending them to the quantum regime. It is shown that this method is able to reproduce the lattice equation of state and also yields valuable insight into the internal structure of the QGP. The results indicate that the QGP reveals liquid-like rather than gas-like properties. At temperatures just above the critical one it was found that bound quark-antiquark states still survive. These states are bound by effective stringlike forces. Quantum effects turned out to be of prime importance in these simulations.
Quantum simulations of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Bonitz, M.; Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.
2011-09-01
A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP) of heavy constituent quasiparticles is studied by a path-integral Monte-Carlo method. This approach is a quantum generalization of the model developed by B.A. Gelman, E.V. Shuryak, and I. Zahed. It is shown that this method is able to reproduce the QCD lattice equation of state and also yields valuable insight into the internal structure of the QGP. The results indicate that the QGP reveals liquid-like rather than gas-like properties. At temperatures just above the critical one it was found that bound quark-antiquark states still survive. These states are bound by effective string-like forces and turn out to be colorless. At the temperature as large as twice the critical one no bound states are observed. Quantum effects turned out to be of prime importance in these simulations.
Distinguishing Raman from strongly coupled Brillouin amplification for short pulses
Jia, Qing; Barth, Ido; Edwards, Matthew R.; Mikhailova, Julia M.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2016-05-15
Plasma-based amplification by strongly coupled Brillouin scattering has recently been suggested for the compression of a short seed laser to ultrahigh intensities in sub-quarter-critical-density plasmas. However, by employing detailed spectral analysis of particle-in-cell simulations in the same parameter regime, we demonstrate that, in fact, Raman backscattering amplification is responsible for the growth and compression of the high-intensity, leading spike, where most of the energy compression occurs, while the ion mode only affects the low-intensity tail of the amplified pulse. The critical role of the initial seed shape is identified. A number of subtleties in the numerical simulations are also pointed out.
Quasinormal modes and the phase structure of strongly coupled matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janik, Romuald A.; Jankowski, Jakub; Soltanpanahi, Hesam
2016-06-01
We investigate the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to different first order phase transitions. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We focus on quantifying linearized level dynamical response of the system in the critical region of phase diagram. Generically non-hydrodynamic degrees of freedom are important for the low energy physics in the vicinity of a phase transition. For a model with linear confinement in the meson spectrum we find degeneracy of hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic modes close to the minimal black hole temperature, and we establish a region of temperatures with unstable non-hydrodynamic modes in a branch of black hole solutions.
Strongly coupled plasma with electric and magnetic charges
Liao Jinfeng; Shuryak, Edward
2007-05-15
A number of theoretical and lattice results lead us to believe that quark-gluon plasma not too far from T{sub c} contains not only electrically charged quasiparticles - quarks and gluons - but magnetically charged ones--monopoles and dyons--as well. Although binary systems such as charge-monopole and charge-dyon were considered in detail before in both classical and quantum settings, this is the first study of coexisting electric and magnetic particles in a many-body context. We perform a molecular dynamics study of strongly coupled plasmas with {approx}1000 particles and differing fractions of magnetic charge. Correlation functions and Kubo formulas lead to transport properties such as the diffusion constant, the shear viscosity, and electric conductivity: We compare the first two with empirical data from RHIC experiments as well as with results from anti-de-Sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence. We also study a number of collective excitations in these systems.
Weak and strong coupling theories for polarizable colloids and nanoparticles.
Bakhshandeh, Amin; dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan
2011-09-02
A theory is presented which allows us to accurately calculate the density profile of monovalent and multivalent counterions in suspensions of polarizable colloids or nanoparticles. In the case of monovalent ions, we derive a weak-coupling theory that explicitly accounts for the ion-image interaction, leading to a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. For suspensions with multivalent counterions, a strong-coupling theory is used to calculate the density profile near the colloidal surface and a Poisson-Boltzmann equation with a renormalized boundary condition to account for the counterion distribution in the far field. All the results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulations, showing an excellent agreement between the theory and the simulations.
Numerical Experiments In Strongly Coupled Complex (Dusty) Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, L. J.; Ivlev A.; Hubertus M. T.; Morfill, G. E.
2010-07-01
Complex (dusty) plasma is a suspension of micron-sized charged dust particles in a weakly ionized plasma with electrons, ions, and neutral atoms or molecules. Therein, dust particles acquire a few thousand electron charges by absorbing surrounding electrons and ions, and consequently interact with each other via a dynamically screened Coulomb potential while undergoing Brownian motion due primarily to frequent collisions with the neutral molecules. When the interaction potential energy between charged dust particles significantly exceeds their kinetic energy, they become strongly coupled and can form ordered structures comprising liquid and solid states. Since the motion of charged dust particles in complex (dusty) plasmas can be directly observed in real time by using a video camera, such systems have been generally regarded as a promising model system to study many phenomena occurring in solids, liquids and other strongly-coupled systems at the kinetic level, such as phase transitions, transport processes, and collective dynamics. Complex plasma physics has now grown into a mature research field with a very broad range of interdisciplinary facets. In addition to usual experimental and theoretical study, computer simulation in complex plasma plays an important role in bridging experimental observations and theories and in understanding many interesting phenomena observed in laboratory. The present talk will focus on a class of computer simulations that are usually non-equilibrium ones with external perturbation and that mimic the real complex plasma experiments (i. e., numerical experiment). The simulation method, i. e., the so-called Brownian Dynamics methods, will be firstly reviewed and then examples, such as simulations of heat transfer and shock wave propagation, will be present.
Strong coupling problem with time-varying sound speed
Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin
2011-10-15
For a single scalar field with unit sound speed minimally coupled to Einstein gravity, there are exactly three distinct cosmological solutions which produce a scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations in a dynamical attractor background, assuming vacuum initial conditions: slow-roll inflation; a slowly contracting adiabatic ekpyrotic phase, described by a rapidly-varying equation of state; and an adiabatic ekpyrotic phase on a slowly expanding background. Of these three, only inflation remains weakly coupled over a wide range of modes, while the other scenarios can produce at most 12 e-folds of scale invariant and Gaussian modes. In this paper, we investigate how allowing the speed of sound of fluctuations to evolve in time affects this classification. While in the presence of a variable sound speed there are many more scenarios which are scale invariant at the level of the two-point function, they generically suffer from strong coupling problems similar to those in the canonical case. There is, however, an exceptional case with superluminal sound speed, which suppresses non-Gaussianities and somewhat alleviates strong coupling issues. We focus on a particular realization of this limit and show these scenarios are constrained and only able to produce at most 28 e-folds of scale invariant and Gaussian perturbations. A similar bound should hold more generally - the condition results from the combined requirements of matching the observed amplitude of curvature perturbations, demanding that the Hubble parameter remain sub-Planckian and keeping non-Gaussianities under control. We therefore conclude that inflation remains the unique cosmological scenario, assuming a single degree of freedom on an attractor background, capable of producing arbitrarily many scale invariant modes while remaining weakly coupled. Alternative mechanisms must inevitably be unstable or rely on multiple degrees of freedom.
Color superconductivity in the strong-coupling regime of Landau gauge QCD
Nickel, D.; Wambach, J.; Alkofer, R.
2006-06-01
The chirally unbroken and the color-superconducting 2SC and CFL phases are investigated in the chiral limit within a Dyson-Schwinger approach for the quark propagator in QCD. The hierarchy of Green's functions is truncated such that at vanishing density known results for the vacuum and at asymptotically high densities the corresponding weak-coupling expressions are recovered. The anomalous dimensions of the gap functions are analytically calculated. Based on the quark propagator the phase structure is studied, and results for the gap functions, occupation numbers, coherence lengths, and pressure differences are given and compared with the corresponding expressions in the weak-coupling regime. At moderate chemical potentials the quasiparticle pairing gaps are several times larger than the extrapolated weak-coupling results.
Standard model with partial gauge invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chkareuli, J. L.; Kepuladze, Z.
2012-03-01
We argue that an exact gauge invariance may disable some generic features of the Standard Model which could otherwise manifest themselves at high energies. One of them might be related to the spontaneous Lorentz invariance violation (SLIV), which could provide an alternative dynamical approach to QED and Yang-Mills theories with photon and non-Abelian gauge fields appearing as massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons. To see some key features of the new physics expected we propose partial rather than exact gauge invariance in an extended SM framework. This principle applied, in some minimal form, to the weak hypercharge gauge field B μ and its interactions, leads to SLIV with B field components appearing as the massless Nambu-Goldstone modes, and provides a number of distinctive Lorentz breaking effects. Being naturally suppressed at low energies they may become detectable in high energy physics and astrophysics. Some of the most interesting SLIV processes are considered in significant detail.
Gauge/String Duality, Hot QCD and Heavy Ion Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Liu, Hong; Mateos, David; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2014-06-01
1. Opening remarks; 2. A heavy ion phenomenology primer; 3. Results from lattice QCD at nonzero temperature; 4. Introducing the gauge/string duality; 5. A duality toolbox; 6. Bulk properties of strongly coupled plasma; 7. From hydrodynamics for far-from-equilibrium dynamics; 8. Probing strongly coupled plasma; 9. Quarkonium mesons in strongly coupled plasma; 10. Concluding remarks and outlook; Appendixes; References; Index.
Gauge theories on A(dS) space and Killing vectors
Banerjee, Rabin Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2008-03-15
We provide a general technique for collectively analysing a manifestly covariant formulation of non-abelian gauge theories on both anti-de Sitter as well as de Sitter spaces. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on a flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of the A(dS) hyperboloid. The gauge and matter fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors and conformal Killing spinors, respectively. A bilinear map connecting the spinors with the vector is established. Different forms of gauge fixing conditions and their equivalence are discussed. The U(1) axial anomaly as well as the non-abelian covariant and consistent chiral anomalies on A(dS) space are obtained. Electric-magnetic duality is demonstrated. The zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent findings.
Dyson-Schwinger Approach to Strongly Coupled Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popovici, Carina
2013-03-01
Although non-perturbative functional methods are often associated with low energy Quantum Chromodynamics, contemporary studies indicate that they provide reliable tools to characterize a much wider spectrum of strongly interacting many-body systems. In this paper, we aim to provide a modest overview on a few notable applications of Dyson-Schwinger equations to QCD and condensed matter physics. After a short introduction, we lay out some formal considerations and proceed by addressing the confinement problem. We discuss in some detail the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, in particular the simple connection between the non-perturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential. Landau gauge results on the infrared Yang-Mills propagators are also briefly reviewed. We then focus on less common applications, in graphene and high-temperature superconductivity. We discuss recent developments, and present theoretical predictions that are supported by experimental findings.
Lu Yuanming; Wang Ziqiang; Wen Xiaogang; Wang Zhenghan
2010-03-15
In the pattern-of-zeros approach to quantum Hall states, a set of data (n;m;S{sub a}|a=1,...,n;n,m,S{sub a} is n element of N) (called the pattern of zeros) is introduced to characterize a quantum Hall wave function. In this paper we find sufficient conditions on the pattern of zeros so that the data correspond to a valid wave function. Some times, a set of data (n;m;S{sub a}) corresponds to a unique quantum Hall state, while other times, a set of data corresponds to several different quantum Hall states. So in the latter cases, the pattern of zeros alone does not completely characterize the quantum Hall states. In this paper, we find that the following expanded set of data (n;m;S{sub a};c|a=1,...,n;n,m,S{sub a} is an element of N;c is an element of R) provides a more complete characterization of quantum Hall states. Each expanded set of data completely characterizes a unique quantum Hall state, at least for the examples discussed in this paper. The result is obtained by combining the pattern of zeros and Z{sub n} simple-current vertex algebra which describes a large class of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states PHI{sub Z{sub n}{sup sc}}. The more complete characterization in terms of (n;m;S{sub a};c) allows us to obtain more topological properties of those states, which include the central charge c of edge states, the scaling dimensions and the statistics of quasiparticle excitations.
Energy exchange in strongly coupled plasmas with electron drift
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.
2015-11-15
In this paper, the generalized viscoelastic collisional quantum hydrodynamic model is employed in order to investigate the linear dielectric response of a quantum plasma in the presence of strong electron-beam plasma interactions. The generalized Chandrasekhar's relativistic degeneracy pressure together with the electron-exchange and Coulomb interaction effects are taken into account in order to extend current research to a wide range of plasma number density relevant to big planetary cores and astrophysical compact objects. The previously calculated shear viscosity and the electron-ion collision frequencies are used for strongly coupled ion fluid. The effect of the electron-beam velocity on complex linear dielectric function is found to be profound. This effect is clearly interpreted in terms of the wave-particle interactions and their energy-exchange according to the sign of the imaginary dielectric function, which is closely related to the wave attenuation coefficient in plasmas. Such kinetic effect is also shown to be in close connection with the stopping power of a charged-particle beam in a quantum plasma. The effect of many independent plasma parameters, such as the ion charge-state, electron beam-velocity, and relativistic degeneracy, is shown to be significant on the growing/damping of plasma instability or energy loss/gain of the electron-beam.
Effect of strongly coupled plasma on photoionization cross section
Das, Madhusmita
2014-01-15
The effect of strongly coupled plasma on the ground state photoionization cross section is studied. In the non relativistic dipole approximation, cross section is evaluated from bound-free transition matrix element. The bound and free state wave functions are obtained by solving the radial Schrodinger equation with appropriate plasma potential. We have used ion sphere potential (ISP) to incorporate the plasma effects in atomic structure calculation. This potential includes the effect of static plasma screening on nuclear charge as well as the effect of confinement due to the neighbouring ions. With ISP, the radial equation is solved using Shooting method approach for hydrogen like ions (Li{sup +2}, C{sup +5}, Al{sup +12}) and lithium like ions (C{sup +3}, O{sup +5}). The effect of strong screening and confinement is manifested as confinement resonances near the ionization threshold for both kinds of ions. The confinement resonances are very much dependent on the edge of the confining potential and die out as the plasma density is increased. Plasma effect also results in appearance of Cooper minimum in lithium like ions, which was not present in case of free lithium like ions. With increasing density the position of Cooper minimum shifts towards higher photoelectron energy. The same behaviour is also true for weakly coupled plasma where plasma effect is modelled by Debye-Huckel potential.
A strong-coupling approach to simulate flexible flapping wing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Mingjun; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Hong
2008-11-01
An immersed boundary technique with strong-coupling flow-structure-interaction (FSI) is used to study the flapping and twisting of a two-dimensional flexible wing. Using the method by Zhao et al. (J. Comput. Phys., 2008), a single set of equations of motion on a fixed Eulerian mesh is solved for both fluid and solid. The solid characteristics is essentially presented as an extra elastic-stress term, which is distributed from an overlapping Lagrangian mesh for tracking the solid deformation and computing the stress. In this study, the moving trajectory is controlled by two means: 1) bodyforce term defined by traditional direct-forcing method to prescribe certain control points (e.g. pin or shake the leading edge); 2) external bodyforce term with certain frequency to push/pitch the wing. The rest of the wing kinematics and corresponding flow field is computed through FSI. Results for wings at different pitching frequencies are shown for the flow at Re=400.
Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarzynski, Christopher
2017-01-01
We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E . Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton's equations in the full phase space.
Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma
Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, R. Joy, Ashwin
2014-07-15
Undriven, incompressible Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional doubly periodic strongly coupled dusty plasma is modelled using generalised hydrodynamics, both in linear and nonlinear regime. A complete stability diagram is obtained for low Reynolds numbers R and for a range of viscoelastic relaxation time τ{sub m} [0 < τ{sub m} < 10]. For the system size considered, using a linear stability analysis, similar to Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0), it is found that for Reynolds number beyond a critical R, say R{sub c}, the Kolmogorov flow becomes unstable. Importantly, it is found that R{sub c} is strongly reduced for increasing values of τ{sub m}. A critical τ{sub m}{sup c} is found above which Kolmogorov flow is unconditionally unstable and becomes independent of Reynolds number. For R < R{sub c}, the neutral stability regime found in Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0) is now found to be a damped regime in viscoelastic fluids, thus changing the fundamental nature of transition of Kolmogorov flow as function of Reynolds number R. A new parallelized nonlinear pseudo spectral code has been developed and is benchmarked against eigen values for Kolmogorov flow obtained from linear analysis. Nonlinear states obtained from the pseudo spectral code exhibit cyclicity and pattern formation in vorticity and viscoelastic oscillations in energy.
Neutron Limit on the Strongly-Coupled Chameleon Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pushin, Dmitry
2016-03-01
One of the major open questions of cosmology is the physical origin of the dark energy. There are a few sets of theories which might explain this origin that could be tested experimentally. The chameleon dark energy theory postulates self-interacting scalar field that couples to matter. This coupling induces a screening mechanism chosen so that the field amplitude is nonzero in empty space but is greatly suppressed in regions of terrestrial matter density. On behalf of the INDEX collaboration, I will report the most stringent upper bound on the free neutron-chameleon coupling in the strongly-coupled limit of the chameleon theory using neutron interferometric techniques. In our experiment we measure neutron phase induced by chameleon field. We report a 95 % confidence level upper bound on the neutron-chameleon coupling ranging from β < 4 . 7 ×106 for a Ratra-Peebles index of n = 1 in the nonlinear scalar field potential to β < 2 . 4 ×107 for n = 6 , one order of magnitude more sensitive than the most recent free neutron limit for intermediate n. This work was supported by NIST; NSF Grants: PHY-1205342, PHY-1068712, PHY-1307426; DOE award DE-FG02-97ER41042; NSERC CREATE and DISCOVERY programs; CERC; IUCSS and IU FRS program.
Quantum effects and nonlocality in strongly coupled plasmonic nanowire dimers.
Teperik, Tatiana V; Nordlander, Peter; Aizpurua, Javier; Borisov, Andrei G
2013-11-04
Using a fully quantum mechanical approach we study the optical response of a strongly coupled metallic nanowire dimer for variable separation widths of the junction between the nanowires. The translational invariance of the system allows to apply the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for nanowires of diameters up to 10 nm which is the largest size considered so far in quantum modeling of plasmonic dimers. By performing a detailed analysis of the optical extinction, induced charge densities, and near fields, we reveal the major nonlocal quantum effects determining the plasmonic modes and field enhancement in the system. These effects consist mainly of electron tunneling between the nanowires at small junction widths and dynamical screening. The TDDFT results are compared with results from classical electromagnetic calculations based on the local Drude and non-local hydrodynamic descriptions of the nanowire permittivity, as well as with results from a recently developed quantum corrected model. The latter provides a way to include quantum mechanical effects such as electron tunneling in standard classical electromagnetic simulations. We show that the TDDFT results can be thus retrieved semi-quantitatively within a classical framework. We also discuss the shortcomings of classical non-local hydrodynamic approaches. Finally, the implications of the actual position of the screening charge density at the gap interfaces are discussed in connection with plasmon ruler applications at subnanometric distances.
Strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuryak, Edward
2017-07-01
A decade ago, a brief summary of the field of the relativistic heavy ion physics could be formulated as the discovery of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma, sQGP for short, a near-perfect fluid with surprisingly large entropy-density-to-viscosity ratio. Since 2010, the LHC heavy ion program added excellent new data and discoveries. Significant theoretical efforts have been made to understand these phenomena. Now there is a need to consolidate what we have learned and formulate a list of issues to be studied next. Studies of angular correlations of two and more secondaries reveal higher harmonics of flow, identified as the sound waves induced by the initial state perturbations. As in cosmology, detailed measurements and calculations of these correlations helped to make our knowledge of the explosion much more quantitative. In particular, their damping had quantified the viscosity. Other kinetic coefficients—the heavy-quark diffusion constants and the jet quenching parameters—also show enhancements near the critical point T ≈Tc. Since densities of QGP quarks and gluons strongly decrease at this point, these facts indicate large role of nonperturbative mechanisms, e.g., scattering on monopoles. New studies of the p p and p A collisions at high multiplicities reveal collective explosions similar to those in heavy ion A A collisions. These "smallest drops of the sQGP" revived debates about the initial out-of-equilibrium stage of the collisions and mechanisms of subsequent equilibration.
Strongly coupled turbulent gas-particle flows in vertical channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Rodney O.; Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier
2015-11-01
Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) simulations of strongly coupled (high mass loading) gas-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of exploring the fundamental physics of fully developed, wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. An adaptive spatial filter is developed that accurately decomposes the total granular energy of the particles into correlated and uncorrelated components at each location in the wall-normal direction of the flow. In this manner, Reynolds- and phase-averaged (PA) two-phase turbulence statistics up to second order are reported for both phases and for three values of the PA mean fluid velocity. As expected due to the high mass loading, in all cases the turbulence production due to mean drag dominates production due to mean shear. A multiphase LRR-IP Reynolds-stress turbulence model is developed to predict the turbulent flow statistics as a function of the wall-normal distance. Using a correlation for the vertical drift velocity developed from the EL data, the turbulence model predictions agree satisfactorily with all of one-point EL statistics for the vertical channel flows, as well as for the homogeneous cluster-induced turbulence (CIT) statistics reported previously. Funded by U.S. National Science Foundation (CBET-1437865).
Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma
Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.
2008-09-07
Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.
Ultracold strongly coupled gas: A near-ideal liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelman, Boris A.; Shuryak, Edward V.; Zahed, Ismail
2005-10-01
Feshbach resonances of trapped ultracold alkali-metal atoms allow to vary the atomic scattering length a . At very large values of a the system enters an universal strongly coupled regime in which its properties—the ground-state energy, pressure, etc.—become independent of a . We discuss the transport properties of such systems. In particular, the universality arguments imply that the shear viscosity of ultracold Fermi atoms at the Feschbach resonance is proportional to the particle number density n and the Plank constant ℏ : η=ℏnαη , where αη is a universal constant. Using Heisenberg uncertainty principle and Einstein’s relation between diffusion and viscosity we argue that the viscosity has the lower bound given by αη⩽(6π)-1 . We relate the damping of low-frequency density oscillations of ultracold optically trapped Li6 atoms to viscosity and find that the value of the coefficient αη is about 0.3. We also show that such a small viscosity cannot be explained by kinetic theory based on binary scattering. We conclude that the system of ultracold atoms near the Feshbach resonance is a near-ideal liquid.
Ultracold strongly coupled gas: A near-ideal liquid
Gelman, Boris A.; Shuryak, Edward V.; Zahed, Ismail
2005-10-15
Feshbach resonances of trapped ultracold alkali-metal atoms allow to vary the atomic scattering length a. At very large values of a the system enters an universal strongly coupled regime in which its properties--the ground-state energy, pressure, etc.--become independent of a. We discuss the transport properties of such systems. In particular, the universality arguments imply that the shear viscosity of ultracold Fermi atoms at the Feschbach resonance is proportional to the particle number density n and the Plank constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}): {eta}=({Dirac_h}/2{pi})n{alpha}{sub {eta}}, where {alpha}{sub {eta}} is a universal constant. Using Heisenberg uncertainty principle and Einstein's relation between diffusion and viscosity we argue that the viscosity has the lower bound given by {alpha}{sub {eta}}{<=}(6{pi}){sup -1}. We relate the damping of low-frequency density oscillations of ultracold optically trapped {sup 6}Li atoms to viscosity and find that the value of the coefficient {alpha}{sub {eta}} is about 0.3. We also show that such a small viscosity cannot be explained by kinetic theory based on binary scattering. We conclude that the system of ultracold atoms near the Feshbach resonance is a near-ideal liquid.
Electrical Conductivity Measurements in Strongly Coupled Metal Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desilva, Alan; Katsouros, Joseph
1999-11-01
We measure the electrical conductivity of strongly coupled plasmas of various metals, including aluminum, iron, copper, and tungsten, in the temperature range 6-30 kK, in a density range from about 1/2 solid density down to about 10-3 times solid density. These plasmas may have coupling parameters (ratio of mean interparticle Coulomb energy to mean kinetic energy) ranging from as high as 50 down to unity. Plasmas are created by rapid vaporization of metal wire in a water bath which act as a tamper. Streak photography serves to determine the growth of the plasma radius in time, allowing determination of mean density. Temperature is deduced from the measured energy input in conjunction with an equation of state from the LANL SESAME database [1], and a brightness temperature may be obtained from radiation measurements. The column resistance is determined from time-resolved voltage and current measurements. Results of conductivity measurements will be shown and compared with the predictions of conductivity theories. 1.SESAME: The Los Alamos National Laboratory Equation of State Database, Report LA-UR-92-3407, ed. S. P. Lyon and J. D. Johnson, Group T-1.
Weakly and strongly coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Stephan; Deegan, Robert D.
2017-02-01
We investigate experimentally and numerically the synchronization of two-dimensional spiral wave patterns in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction due to point-to-point coupling of two separate domains. Different synchronization modalities appear depending on the coupling strength and the initial patterns in each domain. The behavior as a function of the coupling strength falls into two qualitatively different regimes. The weakly coupled regime is characterized by inter-domain interactions that distorted but do not break wave fronts. Under weak coupling, spiral cores are pushed around by wave fronts in the other domain, resulting in an effective interaction between cores in opposite domains. In the case where each domain initially contains a single spiral, the cores form a bound pair and orbit each other at quantized distances. When the starting patterns consist of multiple randomly positioned spiral cores, the number of cores decreases with time until all that remains are a few cores that are synchronized with a partner in the other domain. The strongly coupled regime is characterized by interdomain interactions that break wave fronts. As a result, the wave patterns in both domains become identical.
Weakly and strongly coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky patterns.
Weiss, Stephan; Deegan, Robert D
2017-02-01
We investigate experimentally and numerically the synchronization of two-dimensional spiral wave patterns in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction due to point-to-point coupling of two separate domains. Different synchronization modalities appear depending on the coupling strength and the initial patterns in each domain. The behavior as a function of the coupling strength falls into two qualitatively different regimes. The weakly coupled regime is characterized by inter-domain interactions that distorted but do not break wave fronts. Under weak coupling, spiral cores are pushed around by wave fronts in the other domain, resulting in an effective interaction between cores in opposite domains. In the case where each domain initially contains a single spiral, the cores form a bound pair and orbit each other at quantized distances. When the starting patterns consist of multiple randomly positioned spiral cores, the number of cores decreases with time until all that remains are a few cores that are synchronized with a partner in the other domain. The strongly coupled regime is characterized by interdomain interactions that break wave fronts. As a result, the wave patterns in both domains become identical.
T-Matrix Approach to Strongly Coupled QGP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shuai Y. F.; Rapp, Ralf
2017-01-01
Based on a thermodynamic T-matrix approach we extract the potential V between two static charges in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) from ts to the pertinent lattice-QCD free energy. With suitable relativistic corrections we utilize this new potential to compute heavy-quark transport coefficients and compare the results to previous calculations using either F or U as potential. We then discuss a generalization of the T-matrix re-summation to a “matrix log” re-summation of t-channel diagrams for the grand partition function of the QGP in the Luttinger-Ward skeleton diagram formalism. With V as a non-perturbative driving kernel in the light-parton sector, we obtain the QGP equation of state from ts to lattice-QCD data. The resulting light-parton spectral functions are characterized by large thermal widths at small momenta, indicating the dissolution of quasi-particles in a strongly coupled QGP.
Dust trajectories and diagnostic applications beyond strongly coupled dusty plasmas
Wang Zhehui; Ticos, Catalin M.; Wurden, Glen A.
2007-10-15
Plasma interaction with dust is of growing interest for a number of reasons. On the one hand, dusty plasma research has become one of the most vibrant branches of plasma science. On the other hand, substantially less is known about dust dynamics outside the laboratory strongly coupled dusty-plasma regime, which typically corresponds to 10{sup 15} m{sup -3} electron density with ions at room temperature. Dust dynamics is also important to magnetic fusion because of concerns about safety and potential dust contamination of the fusion core. Dust trajectories are measured under two plasma conditions, both of which have larger densities and hotter ions than in typical dusty plasmas. Plasma-flow drag force, dominating over other forces in flowing plasmas, can explain the dust motion. In addition, quantitative understanding of dust trajectories is the basis for diagnostic applications using dust. Observation of hypervelocity dust in laboratory enables dust as diagnostic tool (hypervelocity dust injection) in magnetic fusion. In colder plasmas ({approx}10 eV or less), dust with known physical and chemical properties can be used as microparticle tracers to measure both the magnitude and directions of flows in plasmas with good spatial resolution as the microparticle tracer velocimetry.
Pair correlation functions of strongly coupled two-temperature plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.
2017-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we perform the first direct tests of three proposed models for the pair correlation functions of strongly coupled plasmas with species of unequal temperature. The models are all extensions of the Ornstein-Zernike/hypernetted-chain theory used to good success for equilibrium plasmas. Each theory is evaluated at several coupling strengths, temperature ratios, and mass ratios for a model plasma in which the electrons are positively charged. We show that the model proposed by Seuferling et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 323 (1989)] agrees well with molecular dynamics over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, as well as over a range of coupling strength similar to that of the equilibrium hypernetted-chain (HNC) theory. The SVT model also correctly predicts the strength of interspecies correlations and exhibits physically reasonable long-wavelength limits of the static structure factors. Comparisons of the SVT model with the Yukawa one-component plasma (YOCP) model are used to show that ion-ion pair correlations are well described by the YOCP model up to Γe≈1 , beyond which it rapidly breaks down.
The Weibel instability in a strongly coupled plasma
Mahdavi, M. Khanzadeh, H.
2014-06-15
In this paper, the growth rate of the Weibel instability is calculated for an energetic relativistic electron beam penetrated into a strongly coupled plasma, where the collision effects of background electron-ion scattering play an important role in equations. In order to calculate the growth rate of the Weibel instability, two different models of anisotropic distribution function are used. First, the distribution of the plasma and beam electrons considered as similar forms of bi-Maxwellian distribution. Second, the distribution functions of the plasma electrons and the beam electrons follows bi-Maxwellian and delta-like distributions, respectively. The obtained results show that the collision effect decreases the growth rate in two models. When the distribution function of electrons beam is in bi-Maxwellian form, the instability growth rate is greater than where the distribution function of beam electrons is in delta-like form, because, the anisotropic temperature for bi-Maxwellian distribution function in velocity space is greater than the delta-like distribution function.
Scale-invariance and the strong coupling problem
Baumann, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Senatore, Leonardo E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu
2011-05-01
The effective theory of adiabatic fluctuations around arbitrary Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds — both expanding and contracting — allows for more than one way to obtain scale-invariant two-point correlations. However, as we show in this paper, it is challenging to produce scale-invariant fluctuations that are weakly coupled over the range of wavelengths accessible to cosmological observations. In particular, requiring the background to be a dynamical attractor, the curvature fluctuations are scale-invariant and weakly coupled for at least 10 e-folds only if the background is close to de Sitter space. In this case, the time-translation invariance of the background guarantees time-independent n-point functions. For non-attractor solutions, any predictions depend on assumptions about the evolution of the background even when the perturbations are outside of the horizon. For the simplest such scenario we identify the regions of the parameter space that avoid both classical and quantum mechanical strong coupling problems. Finally, we present extensions of our results to backgrounds in which higher-derivative terms play a significant role.
Tuning the photon statistics of a strongly coupled nanophotonic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Sapra, Neil V.; Vučković, Jelena
2017-02-01
We investigate the dynamics of single- and multiphoton emission from detuned strongly coupled systems based on the quantum-dot-photonic-crystal resonator platform. Transmitting light through such systems can generate a range of nonclassical states of light with tunable photon counting statistics due to the nonlinear ladder of hybridized light-matter states. By controlling the detuning between emitter and resonator, the transmission can be tuned to strongly enhance either single- or two-photon emission processes. Despite the strongly dissipative nature of these systems, we find that by utilizing a self-homodyne interference technique combined with frequency filtering we are able to find a strong two-photon component of the emission in the multiphoton regime. In order to explain our correlation measurements, we propose rate equation models that capture the dominant processes of emission in both the single- and multiphoton regimes. These models are then supported by quantum-optical simulations that fully capture the frequency filtering of emission from our solid-state system.
Quark Gluon Plasma: Surprises from strongly coupled QCD matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacak, Barbara
2017-01-01
Quantum Chromodynamics has long predicted a transition from normal hadronic matter to a phase where the quarks and gluons are no longer bound together and can move freely. Quark gluon plasma is now produced regularly in collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energy at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the U.S. and at the LHC in Europe. Quark gluon plasma exhibits remarkable properties. Its vanishingly small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio means that it flows essentially without internal friction, making it one of the most ``perfect'' liquids known. It is also very opaque to transiting particles including heavy charm quarks, though the exact mechanism for this is not yet understood. Recent data suggest that even very small colliding systems may produce a droplet of plasma. The similarities to strongly coupled or correlated systems in ultra-cold atoms and condensed matter are striking, and have inspired novel theoretical descriptions growing out of string theory. It remains a mystery how this plasma emerges from cold, dense gluonic matter deep inside nuclei. I will discuss how a future electron-ion collider can help address this question.
Tiling analysis of melting in strongly-coupled dusty plasma*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suranga Ruhunusiri, W. D.; Feng, Yan; Liu, Bin; Goree, John
2010-11-01
A dusty plasma is an ionized gas containing micron-size particles of solid matter, which collect electrons and ions and become negatively charged. Due to large Coulomb interparticle potential energies, the microparticles represent a strongly-coupled plasma. In the absence of an external disturbance, the microparticles self-organize, arranging themselves in a crystalline lattice, due to their Coulomb interaction. If kinetic energy is added, the arrangement of microparticles becomes disordered, like atoms in a liquid. This melting process can be characterized by a proliferation of defects, which previous experimenters measured using Voronoi analysis. Here we use another method, tiling [1] to quantify defects. We demonstrate this method, which until now has been used only in simulations, in a dusty plasma experiment. A single layer of 4.83 μm polymer microparticles was electrically levitated in a glow discharge argon plasma. The lattice was melted by applying random kicks to the micoparticles from rastered laser beams. We imaged the particle positions and computed the corresponding tiling for both the crystalline lattice and liquid states. [1] Matthew A. Glaser, Phys. Rev A 41, 4585 (1990) ^*Work supported by NSF and NASA.
Color quantum simulations of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, Vladimir; Fortov, Vladimir; Bonitz, Mishael; Ivanov, Yurii; Levashov, Pavel
2012-02-01
We propose stochastic simulation of thermodynamics and kinetic properties for quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in semi-classical approximation in the wide region of temperature, density and quasi-particles masses. In grand canonical ensemble for finite and zero baryon chemical potential we use the direct quantum path integral Monte Carlo method (PIMC) developed for finite temperature within Feynman formulation of quantum mechanics to do calculations of internal energy, pressure and pair correlation functions. The QGP quasi-particles representing dressed quarks, antiquarks and gluons interact via color quantum Kelbg pseudopotential rigorously derived for Coulomb particles. This method has been successfully applied to strongly coupled electrodynamic plasmas (EMP). A strongly correlated behavior of the QGP is expected to show up in long-ranged spatial correlations of quarks and gluons which, in fact, may give rise to liquid-like and, possibly, solid-like structures. We have done already the first calculation of the QGP equation of state, spatial and color pair distribution functions, diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity.
Stopping power in nonideal and strongly coupled plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morawetz, K.; Röpke, G.
1996-10-01
The stopping power of dense nonideal plasmas is calculated in different approximations. The T-matrix approximation for binary collisions is compared with the random phase approximation for dielectric fluctuations. Within a microscopic model, the dynamical evolution of the velocity of the projectile is calculated. It reproduces well experimental values for the stopping of fast heavy ions. A comparison with molecular dynamical simulation is performed for the friction coefficient. It is found that the T matrix reproduces the simulation result with a charge dependence of ξ1.4, where ξ=ZΓ3/2. The connection to transport properties like conductivity is presented. In this way we extend former small Γ expansions to strongly coupled plasmas. Further improvements due to correlations are discussed. Both concepts, cluster decomposition and memory, are compared and it is found that they lead to the same quantum virial corrections of Beth-Uhlenbeck type in equilibrium. However, memory in the kinetic equation causes an additional renormalization of the effective energy transfer in nonequilibrium.
Strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and Sulforhodamine 101 dye
2012-01-01
We demonstrate a strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and Sulforhodamine 101 dye molecules. Dispersion curves for surface plasmon polaritons on samples with a thin layer of silver covered with Sulforhodamine 101 molecules embedded in SU-8 polymer are obtained experimentally by reflectometry measurements and compared to the dispersion of samples without molecules. Clear Rabi splittings, with energies up to 360 and 190 meV, are observed at the positions of the dye absorption maxima. The split energies are dependent on the number of Sulforhodamine 101 molecules involved in the coupling process. Transfer matrix and coupled oscillator methods are used to model the studied multilayer structures with a great agreement with the experiments. Detection of the scattered radiation after the propagation provides another way to obtain the dispersion relation of the surface plasmon polaritons and, thus, provides insight into dynamics of the surface plasmon polariton/dye interaction, beyond the refrectometry measurements. PACS: 42.50.Hz, 33.80.-b, 78.67.-n PMID:22429311
Hydrazine-mediated strongly coupled Re(CO)3 dimers.
Hasheminasab, A; Rhoda, H M; Crandall, L A; Ayers, J T; Nemykin, V N; Herrick, R S; Ziegler, C J
2015-10-21
Dimeric metal complexes can often exhibit coupling interactions via bridging ligands. In this report, we present two Re(CO)3 dimers, where the metals are linked via a bis(pyca) hydrazine (pyca = pyridine-2-carbaldehyde imine) Schiff base ligand. For the dimeric compounds 4 and 5, we observe strong coupling across the dimer as measured by cyclic voltammetry: ∼480 mV separations between the first and the second reduction waves that correspond to comproportionation constants close to 1.5 × 10(8). Evidence for a mixed valence state upon one electron reduction was also observed by spectroelectrochemistry in which a clear inter-valence charge-transfer (IVCT) band was observed in [4]- and [5]-complexes. The electronic structures of all target compounds were probed by DFT and TDDFT computational methods. DFT calculations indicate that reduction takes place at the diimine units, and that the observed coupling is a ligand-based phenomenon, rather than one that involves metal-based orbitals.
Transport and mixing in strongly coupled dusty plasma medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharodi, Vikram; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh
2016-10-01
The generalized hydrodynamic (GHD) fluid model has been employed to study the transport and mixing properties of Dusty plasma medium in strong coupling limit. The response of lighter electron and ion species to the dust motion is taken to be instantaneous i.e. inertia-less. Thus the electron and ion density are presumed to follow the Boltzman relation. In the incompressible limit (i-GHD) the model supports Transverse Shear wave in contrast to the Hydrodynamic fluids. It has been shown that the presence of these waves leads to a better mixing of fluid in this case. Several cases of flow configuration have been considered for the study. The transport and mixing attributes have been quantified by studying the dynamical evolution of tracer particles in the system. The diffusion and clustering of these test particles are directly linked to the mixing characteristic of a medium. The displacement of these particles provides for a quantitative estimate of the diffusion coefficient of the medium. It is shown that these test particles often organize themselves in spatially inhomogeneous pattern leading to the phenomena of clustering.
The energy-momentum tensor(s) in classical gauge theories
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Gieres, François; Schweda, Manfred
2016-07-12
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In conclusion, the relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
The energy-momentum tensor(s) in classical gauge theories
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Gieres, François; Reboud, Méril; ...
2016-07-12
We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy-momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space-time. For the canonical energy-momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In conclusion, the relationship with the Einstein-Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.
Optical Properties of Strongly Coupled Plasmon-Exciton Hybrid Nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fofang, Nche Tumasang
Strongly coupled plasmon-exciton hybrid nanostructures are fabricated and their optical properties are studied. The plasmonic and excitonic systems are gold nanoshells and J-aggregates, respectively. Gold nanoshells are tunable plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles which can sustain distinct dipole and quadrupole plasmons with resonant energies dependent on core-size/shell-thickness ratio. J-aggregates are organic semiconducting material with excitons that possess very high oscillator strength making them suitable for coherent interaction with other kinds of excitations. The J-aggregates are formed on the surface of the nanoshells when a water/ethanol (50:50) solution of the dye molecules (2,2'-dimethyl-8-phenyl-5,6,5',6'-dibenzothiacarbocyanine chloride) is added to an aqueous solution of nanoshells. These nanoshell-J-aggregate complexes exhibit coherent coupling between localized plasmons of the nanoshell and excitons of the molecular J-aggregates. Coherent coupling strengths of 120 meV and 100 meV have been measured for dipole and quadrupole plasmon interactions with excitons, respectively. Femtosecond time-resolved transmission spectroscopy studies are carried out in order to understand the possible sources of optical nonlinearities in the nanoshell-J-aggregate hybrid. Transient absorption of the interacting plasmon-exciton system is observed, in dramatic contrast to the photoinduced transmission of the pristine J-aggregate. An additional, transient Fano-shaped modulation within the Fano dip is also observable. The transient behavior of the J-aggregate-Au nanoshell complex is described by a combined one-exciton and two-exciton state model coupled to the nanoshell plasmon.
Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.
Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie
2013-02-13
Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.
Numerical modeling of strongly-coupled dusty plasma systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasut, John Anthony
2001-09-01
Plasma systems occur in a variety of astrophysical and laboratory environments. Often these systems contain a dust component in addition to the plasma particles. Plasmas are generally regarded as a highly disordered state of matter and dust is often seen as a contaminant to the plasma. However, in ``strongly coupled'' dusty plasmas where the electrical potential energy between the dust particles is higher than the average kinetic energy of the particles, it is possible for the system to exist in a ``liquid'' or ``crystalline'' state. The first such crystalline states were observed experimentally in 1994 and are not yet fully understood. The spacing between the particles is typically around 100 microns, allowing the individual particles to be visually observed and tracked. Several computer models have suggested that the amount of ordering present in the system should depend only upon two dimensionless parameters: the ratio of the electrical energy to the kinetic energy and the ratio of the interparticle separation to the Debye length of the plasma. These models suggest that the method in which these two parameters are reached should have no impact upon the amount of order within the system. The results of computer modeling using a tree code known as Box_Tree, which, unlike most other computer simulations, includes all interparticle interactions, shows that the method by which these parameters are reached does have an affect on the final state of the system. Box_Tree has also been used to study Mach cones caused by particles traveling through or near a dust crystal. In addition, preliminary results on the study of finite dusty plasma systems have been obtained. These results show that particles confined in a finite plasma oscillate with a frequency that depends upon particle mass and charge.
Holographic Floquet states I: a strongly coupled Weyl semimetal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Murata, Keiju; Oka, Takashi
2017-05-01
Floquet states can be realized in quantum systems driven by continuous time-periodic perturbations. It is known that a state known as the Floquet Weyl semimetal can be realized when free Dirac fermions are placed in a rotating electric field. What will happen if strong interaction is introduced to this system? Will the interaction wash out the characteristic features of Weyl semimetals such as the Hall response? Is there a steady state and what is its thermodynamic behavior? We answer these questions using AdS/CFT correspondence in the N = 2 supersymmetric massless QCD in a rotating electric field in the large N c limit realizing the first example of a "holographic Floquet state". In this limit, gluons not only mediate interaction, but also act as an energy reservoir and stabilize the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). We obtain the electric current induced by a rotating electric field: in the high frequency region, the Ohm's law is satisfied, while we recover the DC nonlinear conductivity at low frequency, which was obtained holographically in a previous work. The thermodynamic properties of the NESS, e.g., fluctuation-dissipation relation, is characterized by the effective Hawking temperature that is defined from the effective horizon giving a holographic meaning to the "periodic thermodynamic" concept. In addition to the strong (pump) rotating electric field, we apply an additional weak (probe) electric field in the spirit of the pump-probe experiments done in condensed matter experiments. Weak DC and AC probe analysis in the background rotating electric field shows Hall currents as a linear response, therefore the Hall response of Floquet Weyl semimetals survives at the strong coupling limit. We also find frequency mixed response currents, i.e., a heterodyning effect, characteristic to periodically driven Floquet systems.
Neutron limit on the strongly-coupled chameleon field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, K.; Arif, M.; Cory, D. G.; Haun, R.; Heacock, B.; Huber, M. G.; Nsofini, J.; Pushin, D. A.; Saggu, P.; Sarenac, D.; Shahi, C. B.; Skavysh, V.; Snow, W. M.; Young, A. R.; Index Collaboration
2016-03-01
The physical origin of the dark energy that causes the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe is one of the major open questions of cosmology. One set of theories postulates the existence of a self-interacting scalar field for dark energy coupling to matter. In the chameleon dark energy theory, this coupling induces a screening mechanism such that the field amplitude is nonzero in empty space but is greatly suppressed in regions of terrestrial matter density. However measurements performed under appropriate vacuum conditions can enable the chameleon field to appear in the apparatus, where it can be subjected to laboratory experiments. Here we report the most stringent upper bound on the free neutron-chameleon coupling in the strongly coupled limit of the chameleon theory using neutron interferometric techniques. Our experiment sought the chameleon field through the relative phase shift it would induce along one of the neutron paths inside a perfect crystal neutron interferometer. The amplitude of the chameleon field was actively modulated by varying the millibar pressures inside a dual-chamber aluminum cell. We report a 95% confidence level upper bound on the neutron-chameleon coupling β ranging from β <4.7 ×106 for a Ratra-Peebles index of n =1 in the nonlinear scalar field potential to β <2.4 ×107 for n =6 , one order of magnitude more sensitive than the most recent free neutron limit for intermediate n . Similar experiments can explore the full parameter range for chameleon dark energy in the foreseeable future.
Cyclic stressing and seismicity at strongly coupled subduction zones
Taylor, M.A.J.; Zheng, G.; Rice, J.R.; Stuart, W.D.; Dmowska, R.
1996-01-01
We use the finite element method to analyze stress variations in and near a strongly coupled subduction zone during an earthquake cycle. Deformation is assumed to be uniform along strike (plane strain on a cross section normal to the trench axis), and periodic earthquake slip is imposed consistent with the long-term rate of plate convergence and degree of coupling. Simulations of stress and displacement rate fields represent periodic fluctuations in time superimposed on an average field. The oceanic plate, descending slab, and continental lithosphere are assumed here to respond elastically to these fluctuations, and the remaining mantle under and between plates is assumed to respond as Maxwell viscoelastic. In the first part of the analysis we find that computed stress fluctuations in space and time are generally consistent with observed earthquake mechanism variations with time since a great thrust event. In particular, trench-normal extensional earthquakes tend to occur early in the earthquake cycle toward the outer rise but occur more abundantly late in the cycle in the subducting slab downdip of the main thrust zone. Compressional earthquakes, when they occur at all, have the opposite pattern. Our results suggest also that the actual timing of extensional outer rise events is controlled by the rheology of the shallow aseismic portion of the thrust interface. The second part of the analysis shows the effects of mantle relaxation on the rate of ground surface deformation during the earthquake cycle. Models without relaxation predict a strong overall compressional strain rate in the continental plate above the main thrust zone, with the strain rate constant between mainshocks. However with significant relaxation present, a localized region of unusually low compressional, or even slightly extensional, strain rate develops along the surface of the continental plate above and somewhat inland from the downdip edge of the locked main thrust zone. The low strain rate
Strong coupling of ferroelectricity and magnetism in the hexagonal ferrites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Hena
2013-03-01
modeling of the magnetic structure we will also show how this difference leads to an interplay between ferroelectricity and magnetism in the ferrites. This strong coupling, absent in the hexagonal manganites, manifests itself in a nontrivial way that may be useful for voltage controlled magnetic functionalities.
Residues of correlators in the strongly coupled N=4 plasma
Amado, Irene; Landsteiner, Karl; Montero, Sergio; Hoyos, Carlos
2008-03-15
Quasinormal modes of asymptotically AdS black holes can be interpreted as poles of retarded correlators in the dual gauge theory. To determine the response of the system to small external perturbations it is not enough to know the location of the poles: one also needs to know the residues. We compute them for R-charge currents and find that they are complex except for the hydrodynamic mode, whose residue is purely imaginary. For different quasinormal modes the residue grows with momentum q, whereas for the hydrodynamic mode it behaves as a damped oscillation with distinct zeroes at finite q. Similar to collective excitations at weak coupling the hydrodynamic mode decouples at short wavelengths. Knowledge of the residues allows as well to define the time scale {tau}{sub H} from when on the system enters the hydrodynamic regime, restricting the validity of hydrodynamic simulations to times t>{tau}{sub H}.
On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma
Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna
2016-05-17
We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in N = _{4}SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dE_{jet}/dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dE_{jet}/dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that N = _{4}SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the N = _{4}SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. In conclusion, we close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.
On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma
Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna
2016-05-17
We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in N = 4SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dEjet/dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dEjet/dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening anglemore » that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that N = 4SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the N = 4SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. In conclusion, we close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.« less
Strong coupling in F-theory and geometrically non-Higgsable seven-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halverson, James
2017-06-01
Geometrically non-Higgsable seven-branes carry gauge sectors that cannot be broken by complex structure deformation, and there is growing evidence that such configurations are typical in F-theory. We study strongly coupled physics associated with these branes. Axiodilaton profiles are computed using Ramanujan's theories of elliptic functions to alternative bases, showing explicitly that the string coupling is O (1) in the vicinity of the brane; that it sources nilpotent SL (2 , Z) monodromy and therefore the associated brane charges are modular; and that essentially all F-theory compactifications have regions with order one string coupling. It is shown that non-perturbative SU (3) and SU (2) seven-branes are related to weakly coupled counterparts with D7-branes via deformation-induced Hanany-Witten moves on (p , q) string junctions that turn them into fundamental open strings; only the former may exist for generic complex structure. D3-brane near these and the Kodaira type II seven-branes probe Argyres-Douglas theories. The BPS states of slightly deformed theories are shown to be dyonic string junctions.
On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna
2016-05-01
We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in {N} = 4 SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dE jet /dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dE jet /dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that {N} = 4 SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the {N} = 4 SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. We close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.
SU(2|2) for theories with sixteen supercharges at weak and strong coupling
Agarwal, Abhishek; Young, Donovan
2010-08-15
We consider the dimensional reductions of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on RxS{sup 3} to the three-dimensional theory on RxS{sup 2}, the orbifolded theory on RxS{sup 3}/Z{sub k}, and the plane-wave matrix model. With explicit emphasis on the three-dimensional theory, we demonstrate the realization of the SU(2|3) algebra in a radial Hamiltonian framework. Using this structure we constrain the form of the spin chains, their S matrices, and the corresponding one- and two-loop Hamiltonians of the three-dimensional theory, and find putative signs of integrability up to the two-loop order. The string duals of these theories admit the IIA plane-wave geometry as their Penrose limit. Using known results for strings quantized on this background, we explicitly construct the strong-coupling dual extended SU(2|2) algebra and discuss its implications for the gauge theories.
Viability of strongly coupled scenarios with a light Higgs-like boson.
Pich, Antonio; Rosell, Ignasi; Sanz-Cillero, Juan José
2013-05-03
We present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters within strongly coupled models of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. We use a general effective Lagrangian, implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2)(L) [Symbol: see text]SU(2)(R) → SU(2)(L+R) with Goldstone bosons, gauge bosons, the Higgs-like scalar, and one multiplet of vector and axial-vector massive resonance states. Using a dispersive representation and imposing a proper ultraviolet behavior, we obtain S and T at the next-to-leading order in terms of a few resonance parameters. The experimentally allowed range forces the vector and axial-vector states to be heavy, with masses above the TeV scale, and suggests that the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the standard model one. Our conclusions are generic and apply to more specific scenarios such as the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) composite Higgs model.
Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology
Kreimer, Dirk; Sars, Matthias; Suijlekom, Walter D. van
2013-09-15
We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.
Realizations of magnetic-monopole gauge fields - Diatoms and spin precession
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moody, J.; Shapere, A.; Wilczek, F.
1986-01-01
It is found that the effective Hamiltonian for nuclear rotation in a diatom is equivalent to that of a charged particle in a background magnetic-monopole field. In certain cases, half-integer orbital angular momentum or non-Abelian fields occur. Furthermore, the effects of magnetic-monopole-like gauge fields can be experimentally observed in spin-resonance experiments with variable magnetic fields.
Realizations of magnetic-monopole gauge fields - Diatoms and spin precession
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moody, J.; Shapere, A.; Wilczek, F.
1986-01-01
It is found that the effective Hamiltonian for nuclear rotation in a diatom is equivalent to that of a charged particle in a background magnetic-monopole field. In certain cases, half-integer orbital angular momentum or non-Abelian fields occur. Furthermore, the effects of magnetic-monopole-like gauge fields can be experimentally observed in spin-resonance experiments with variable magnetic fields.
More on the properties of the first Gribov region in Landau gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maas, Axel
2016-03-01
Complete gauge fixing beyond perturbation theory in non-Abelian gauge theories is a nontrivial problem. This is particularly evident in covariant gauges, where the Gribov-Singer ambiguity gives an explicit formulation of the problem. In practice, this is a problem if gauge-dependent quantities between different methods, especially lattice and continuum methods, should be compared: Only when treating the Gribov-Singer ambiguity in the same way is the comparison meaningful. To provide a better basis for such a comparison the structure of the first Gribov region in Landau gauge, a subset of all possible gauge copies satisfying the perturbative Landau gauge condition, will be investigated. To this end, lattice gauge theory will be used to investigate a two-dimensional projection of the region for SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in two, three, and four dimensions for a wide range of volumes and discretizations.
Gauge-flation confronted with Planck
Namba, Ryo; Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela; Peloso, Marco E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu
2013-11-01
Gauge-flation is a recently proposed model in which inflation is driven solely by a non-Abelian gauge field thanks to a specific higher order derivative operator. The nature of the operator is such that it does not introduce ghosts. We compute the cosmological scalar and tensor perturbations for this model, improving over an existing computation. We then confront these results with the Planck data. The model is characterized by the quantity γ ≡ g{sup 2}Q{sup 2}/H{sup 2} (where g is the gauge coupling constant, Q the vector vev, and H the Hubble rate). For γ < 2, the scalar perturbations show a strong tachyonic instability. In the stable region, the scalar power spectrum n{sub s} is too low at small γ, while the tensor-to-scalar ratio r is too high at large γ. No value of γ leads to acceptable values for n{sub s} and r, and so the model is ruled out by the CMB data. The same behavior with γ was obtained in Chromo-natural inflation, a model in which inflation is driven by a pseudo-scalar coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field. When the pseudo-scalar can be integrated out, one recovers the model of Gauge-flation plus corrections. It was shown that this identification is very accurate at the background level, but differences emerged in the literature concerning the perturbations of the two models. On the contrary, our results show that the analogy between the two models continues to be accurate also at the perturbative level.
The Gribov Legacy, Gauge Theories and the Physical S-Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Alan R.
Reggeon unitarity and non-Abelian gauge field copies are focused on as two Gribov discoveries that, it is suggested, may ultimately be seen as the most significant and that could, in the far distant future, form the cornerstones of his legacy. The crucial role played by the Gribov ambiguity in the construction of gauge theory bound-state amplitudes via reggeon unitarity is described. It is suggested that the existence of a physical, unitary, S-Matrix in a gauge theory is a major requirement that could even determine the theory.
The Gribov legacy, gauge theories and the physical S-matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Alan R.
2016-10-01
Reggeon unitarity and non-Abelian gauge field copies are focused on as two Gribov discoveries that, it is suggested, may ultimately be seen as the most significant and that could, in the far distant future, form the cornerstones of his legacy. The crucial role played by the Gribov ambiguity in the construction of gauge theory bound-state amplitudes via reggeon unitarity is described. It is suggested that the existence of a physical, unitary, S-Matrix in a gauge theory is a major requirement that could even determine the theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pareek, Tribhuvan Prasad
2015-09-01
In this article, we develop an exact (nonadiabatic, nonperturbative) density matrix scattering theory for a two component quantum liquid which interacts or scatters off from a generic spin-dependent quantum potential. The generic spin dependent quantum potential [Eq. (1)] is a matrix potential, hence, adiabaticity criterion is ill-defined. Therefore the full matrix potential should be treated nonadiabatically. We succeed in doing so using the notion of vectorial matrices which allows us to obtain an exact analytical expression for the scattered density matrix (SDM), ϱsc [Eq. (30)]. We find that the number or charge density in scattered fluid, Tr(ϱsc), expressions in Eqs. (32) depends on nontrivial quantum interference coefficients, Qα β 0ijk, which arises due to quantum interference between spin-independent and spin-dependent scattering amplitudes and among spin-dependent scattering amplitudes. Further it is shown that Tr(ϱsc) can be expressed in a compact form [Eq. (39)] where the effect of quantum interference coefficients can be included using a vector Qαβ, which allows us to define a vector order parameterQ. Since the number density is obtained using an exact scattered density matrix, therefore, we do not need to prove that Q is non-zero. However, for sake of completeness, we make detailed mathematical analysis for the conditions under which the vector order parameterQ would be zero or nonzero. We find that in presence of spin-dependent interaction the vector order parameterQ is necessarily nonzero and is related to the commutator and anti-commutator of scattering matrix S with its dagger S† [Eq. (78)]. It is further shown that Q≠0, implies four physically equivalent conditions,i.e., spin-orbital entanglement is nonzero, non-Abelian scattering phase, i.e., matrices, scattering matrix is nonunitary and the broken time reversal symmetry for SDM. This also implies that quasi particle excitation are anyonic in nature, hence, charge fractionalization is a
Comparing the Rξ gauge and the unitary gauge for the standard model: An example
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan
2017-01-01
For gauge theory, the matrix element for any physical process is independent of the gauge used. However, since this is a formal statement, it does not guarantee this gauge independence in every case. An example is given here where, for a physical process in the standard model, the matrix elements calculated with two different gauge - the Rξ gauge and the unitary gauge - are explicitly verified to be different. This is accomplished by subtracting one matrix element from the other. This non-zero difference turns out to have a subtle origin. Two simple operators are found not to commute with each other: in one gauge these two operations are carried out in one order, while in the other gauge these same two operations are carried out in the opposite order. Because of this result, a series of question are raised such that the answers to these question may lead to a deeper understanding of the Yang-Mills non-Abelian gauge theory in general and the standard model in particular.
Light-induced gauge fields for ultracold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, N.; Juzeliūnas, G.; Öhberg, P.; Spielman, I. B.
2014-12-01
Gauge fields are central in our modern understanding of physics at all scales. At the highest energy scales known, the microscopic universe is governed by particles interacting with each other through the exchange of gauge bosons. At the largest length scales, our Universe is ruled by gravity, whose gauge structure suggests the existence of a particle—the graviton—that mediates the gravitational force. At the mesoscopic scale, solid-state systems are subjected to gauge fields of different nature: materials can be immersed in external electromagnetic fields, but they can also feature emerging gauge fields in their low-energy description. In this review, we focus on another kind of gauge field: those engineered in systems of ultracold neutral atoms. In these setups, atoms are suitably coupled to laser fields that generate effective gauge potentials in their description. Neutral atoms ‘feeling’ laser-induced gauge potentials can potentially mimic the behavior of an electron gas subjected to a magnetic field, but also, the interaction of elementary particles with non-Abelian gauge fields. Here, we review different realized and proposed techniques for creating gauge potentials—both Abelian and non-Abelian—in atomic systems and discuss their implication in the context of quantum simulation. While most of these setups concern the realization of background and classical gauge potentials, we conclude with more exotic proposals where these synthetic fields might be made dynamical, in view of simulating interacting gauge theories with cold atoms.
Low energy determination of the QCD strong coupling constant on the lattice
Maezawa, Yu; Petreczky, Peter
2016-09-28
Here we present a determination of the strong coupling constant from lattice QCD using the moments of pseudo-scalar charmonium correlators calculated using highly improved staggerered quark action. We obtain a value α_{s}( μ = mc) = 0.3397(56), which is the lowest energy determination of the strong coupling constant so far.
Low energy determination of the QCD strong coupling constant on the lattice
Maezawa, Yu; Petreczky, Peter
2016-09-28
Here we present a determination of the strong coupling constant from lattice QCD using the moments of pseudo-scalar charmonium correlators calculated using highly improved staggerered quark action. We obtain a value αs( μ = mc) = 0.3397(56), which is the lowest energy determination of the strong coupling constant so far.
Benini, Francesco; Dymarsky, Anatoly; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Simic, Dusan; Verlinde, Herman; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2009-06-19
We discuss gravitational backgrounds where supersymmetry is broken at the end of a warped throat, and the SUSY-breaking is transmitted to the Standard Model via gauginos which live in (part of) the bulk of the throat geometry. We find that the leading effect arises from splittings of certain 'messenger mesons,' which are adjoint KK-modes of the D-branes supporting the Standard Model gauge group. This picture is a gravity dual of a strongly coupled field theory where SUSY is broken in a hidden sector and transmitted to the Standard Model via a relative of semi-direct gauge mediation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tseytlin, A.; Kristjansen, C.; Staudacher, M.
2009-06-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence, proposed a little more than a decade ago, has become a major subject of contemporary theoretical physics. One reason is that it suggests the exact identity of a certain ten-dimensional superstring theory, and a specific supersymmetric four-dimensional gauge field theory. This indicates that string theory, often thought of as a generalization of quantum field theory, can also lead to an alternative and computationally advantageous reformulation of gauge theory. This establishes the direct, down-to-earth relevance of string theory beyond loftier ideas of finding a theory of everything. Put differently, strings definitely lead to a theory of something highly relevant: a non-abelian gauge theory in a physical number of dimensions! A second reason for recent excitement around AdS/CFT is that it uncovers surprising novel connections between otherwise increasingly separate subdisciplines of theoretical physics, such as high energy physics and condensed matter theory. This collection of review articles concerns precisely such a link. About six years ago evidence was discovered showing that the AdS/CFT string/gauge system might actually be an exactly integrable model, at least in the so-called planar limit. Its spectrum appears to be described by (a generalization of) a Bethe ansatz, first proposed as an exact solution for certain one-dimensional magnetic spin chains in the early days of quantum mechanics. The field has been developing very rapidly, and a collection of fine review articles is needed. This special issue is striving to provide precisely that. The first article of the present collection, by Nick Dorey, is a pedagogical introduction to the subject. The second article, by Adam Rej, based on the translation of the author's PhD thesis, describes important techniques for analysing and interpreting the integrable structure of AdS/CFT, mostly from the point of view of the gauge theory. The third contribution, by Gleb Arutyunov and Sergey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristjansen, C.; Staudacher, M.; Tseytlin, A.
2009-06-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence, proposed a little more than a decade ago, has become a major subject of contemporary theoretical physics. One reason is that it suggests the exact identity of a certain ten-dimensional superstring theory, and a specific supersymmetric four-dimensional gauge field theory. This indicates that string theory, often thought of as a generalization of quantum field theory, can also lead to an alternative and computationally advantageous reformulation of gauge theory. This establishes the direct, down-to-earth relevance of string theory beyond loftier ideas of finding a theory of everything. Put differently, strings definitely lead to a theory of something highly relevant: a non-abelian gauge theory in a physical number of dimensions! A second reason for recent excitement around AdS/CFT is that it uncovers surprising novel connections between otherwise increasingly separate subdisciplines of theoretical physics, such as high energy physics and condensed matter theory. This collection of review articles concerns precisely such a link. About six years ago evidence was discovered showing that the AdS/CFT string/gauge system might actually be an exactly integrable model, at least in the so-called planar limit. Its spectrum appears to be described by (a generalization of) a Bethe ansatz, first proposed as an exact solution for certain one-dimensional magnetic spin chains in the early days of quantum mechanics. The field has been developing very rapidly, and a collection of fine review articles is needed. This special issue is striving to provide precisely that. The first article of the present collection, by Nick Dorey, is a pedagogical introduction to the subject. The second article, by Adam Rej, based on the translation of the author's PhD thesis, describes important techniques for analysing and interpreting the integrable structure of AdS/CFT, mostly from the point of view of the gauge theory. The third contribution, by Gleb Arutyunov and Sergey
Exact Mesonic Eightfold Way From Dynamics and Confinement in Strongly Coupled Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neto, A. Francisco; O'Carroll, M.; Faria da Veiga, P. A.
2009-01-01
We review our results on the exact determination of the mesonic eightfold way from first principles, directly from the quark-gluon dynamics. For this, we consider an imaginary-time functional integral formulation of 3 + 1 dimensional lattice QCD with Wilson action, three flavors, SU(3) f flavor symmetry and SU(3) c local gauge symmetry. We work in the strong coupling regime: a small hopping parameter κ>0 and a much smaller plaquette coupling β>0. By establishing a Feynman-Kac formula and a spectral representation to the two-meson correlation, we provide a rigorous connection between this correlation and the one-meson energy-momentum spectrum. The particle states can be labeled by the usual SU(3) f quantum numbers of total isospin I and its third-component I3, the quadratic Casimir C2 and, by a partial restoration of the continuous rotational symmetry on the lattice, as well as by the total spin J and its z-component Jz. We show that, up to near the two-meson energy threshold of ≈-4lnκ, the spectrum in the meson sector is given only by isolated dispersion curves of the eightfold way mesons. The mesons have all asymptotic mass of -2lnκ and, by deriving convergent expansions for the masses both in κ and β, we also show a κ mass splitting between the J=0,1 states. The splitting persists for β≠0. Our approach employs the decoupling of hyperplane method to uncover the basic excitations, complex analysis to determine the dispersion curves and a correlation subtraction method to show the curves are isolated. Using the latter and recalling our similar results for baryons, we also show confinement up to near the two-meson threshold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, Andreas W. W.; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2003-06-01
Recently, B. Gerganov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 4753] have proposed an "exact" (all-orders) β-function for 2-dimensional conformal field theories with Kac-Moody current-algebra symmetry at any level k, based on a Lie group G, which are perturbed by a current-current interaction. This theory is also known as the non-Abelian Thirring model. We check this conjecture with an explicit calculation of the β-function to 4-loop order, for the classical groups G=SU(N) , SO( N) and SP( N) at level k=0. We find a contribution at 4-loop order, proportional to a higher-order group-theoretical invariant, which is incompatible with the proposed β-function in all possible regularization schemes.
Gauss-Bonnet correction to the R-current correlator in N =4 theory at strong coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bu, Yanyan
2014-04-01
We consider higher-curvature corrections to the R-current correlator by studying the propagation of a U(1) field in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We numerically solve the Maxwell equations and plot an R-current spectral function with lightlike momenta, which contains pivotal information of thermal photon emission. We also analytically compute the R-current correlator in the long-distance limit by using the holographic membrane paradigm. In the high-energy regime, the inelastic scattering between R-current and gauge theory plasma is expected to happen, which will reveal the structure of the plasma at strong coupling. It turns out that the Gauss-Bonnet correction effectively rescales all physical quantities considered here by some functions of the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient. In particular, the Gauss-Bonnet terms will enhance or weaken signatures calculated here in accordance with the sign of the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient.
Graphene oxide modification of plexciton states in the strong coupling limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, Stefano; Murphy, Antony; Pollard, Robert; Rice, James
2017-03-01
We demonstrate that gold nanorod arrays support LSPR modes which coincide with Frankel excitons in an organic J-aggregate complex forming plexciton hybrid states when tuned to within the strong coupling limit. The addition of graphene oxide modifies the strong coupling resonance conditions and Rabi frequency. This demonstrates that the formation of exciton-plasmon plexciton states in the strong coupling limit can be modified and potentially controlled through the introduction of graphene oxide which can have implications for energy harvesting or biosensor device design.
Strong coupling between phonons and optical beating in backward Brillouin scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huy, Kien Phan; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Tchahame, Joël-Cabrel; Sylvestre, Thibaut
2016-10-01
Brillouin scattering is a fundamental nonlinear interaction between two optical waves and an acoustic wave mediated by electrostriction and photoelasticity. In this paper, we revisit the usual theory of this inelastic scattering to get a joint system in which the acoustic wave is strongly coupled to the interference pattern between the optical waves. We show in particular that when the coupling rate exceeds the phonon damping rate, the system enters the strong-coupling regime, giving rise to anticrossing in the dispersion relation and Rabi-like splitting. We further find numerically that strong coupling can, in principle, be observed using backward Brillouin scattering in subwavelength-diameter optical waveguides.
London penetration depth of strongly coupled isotropic superconductors: Low-temperature behavior
Leyronas, X.; Combescot, R.
1996-08-01
We proceed to a systematic exploration of the low-temperature dependence of the London penetration depth of isotropic superconductors within strong-coupling theory in the clean limit. For a sizable range of parameters, we find that strong-coupling effects can reasonably simulate a power law dependence, sometimes with excellent precision. In such cases it would be quite difficult to distinguish experimentally between a pure power law and the strong-coupling result. Physically we have been able to ascribe this temperature dependence to low-frequency phonons which produce a quasielastic scattering for electrons. The presence of these low-frequency phonons requires rather wide phonon spectra and their effectiveness in scattering implies a fairly strong coupling. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Single-Quantum Coherence Filter for Strongly Coupled Spin Systems for Localized 1H NMR Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Mueller, D. Christoph; Boesiger, Peter
2000-08-01
A pulse sequence for localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy is presented, which selectively filters single-quantum coherence built up by strongly coupled spin systems. Uncoupled and weakly coupled spin systems do not contribute to the signal output. Analytical calculations using a product operator description of the strongly coupled AB spin system as well as in vitro tests demonstrate that the proposed filter produces a signal output for a strongly coupled AB spin system, whereas the resonances of a weakly coupled AX spin system and of uncoupled spins are widely suppressed. As a potential application, the detection of the strongly coupled AA‧BB‧ spin system of taurine at 1.5 T is discussed.
Epsilon-near-zero strong coupling in metamaterial-semiconductor hybrid structures.
Jun, Young Chul; Reno, John; Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Vassant, Simon; Marquier, Francois; Sinclair, Mike; Brener, Igal
2013-01-01
We present a new type of electrically tunable strong coupling between planar metamaterials and epsilon-near-zero modes that exist in a doped semiconductor nanolayer. The use of doped semiconductors makes this strong coupling tunable over a wide range of wavelengths through the use of different doping densities. We also modulate this coupling by depleting the doped semiconductor layer electrically. Our hybrid approach incorporates strong optical interactions into a highly tunable, integrated device platform.
Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren
2016-04-26
Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.
Dynamical transition between weak and strong coupling in Brillouin laser pulse amplification
Schluck, F.; Lehmann, G.; Müller, C.; Spatschek, K. H.
2016-08-15
Short laser pulse amplification via stimulated Brillouin backscattering in plasma is considered. Previous work distinguishes between the weakly and strongly coupled regime and treats them separately. It is shown here that such a separation is not generally applicable because strong and weak coupling interaction regimes are entwined with each other. An initially weakly coupled amplification scenario may dynamically transform into strong coupling. This happens when the local seed amplitude grows and thus triggers the strongly driven plasma response. On the other hand, when in a strong coupling scenario, the pump pulse gets depleted, and its amplitude might drop below the strong coupling threshold. This may cause significant changes in the final seed pulse shape. Furthermore, experimentally used pump pulses are typically Gaussian-shaped. The intensity threshold for strong coupling may only be exceeded around the maximum and not in the wings of the pulse. Also here, a description valid in both strong and weak coupling regimes is required. We propose such a unified treatment which allows us, in particular, to study the dynamic transition between weak and strong coupling. Consequences for the pulse forms of the amplified seed are discussed.