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Sample records for non-abeliann nonlinear schrdinger

  1. Nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.W. . Inst. of Optics)

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics.

  2. Nonlinear Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    following surprising situation. Namely associated with the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equations are standard numerical schemes which exhibit at...36. An Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations , A.S. Fokas, Physica D March 1989. 37. Evolution Theory, Periodic... gravity waves and wave excitation phenomena related to moving pressure distributions; numerical approximation and computation; nonlinear optics; and

  3. Nonlinear supratransmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geniet, F.; Leon, J.

    2003-05-01

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  4. Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  6. Nonlinear channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  7. Nonlinear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  8. Nonlinear resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, J.

    This report discusses research in the area of slowly varying nonlinear oscillatory systems. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: adiabatic invariants and transient resonance in very slowly varying Hamiltonian systems; sustained resonance in very slowly varying Hamiltonian systems; free-electron lasers with very slow wiggler taper; and bursting oscillators.

  9. Nonlinear Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  10. Nonlinear Filtering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    agree to say four places by successive choices of finer subdivisions of the grid. The accuracy obtained by this method Is rot quite unexpected—see for...iltering, " R~v . Francais d’ ~•_!o:n~ti~, ~. l ’J73 , 3-54. ( 2L ; H. S . U•JLy , "Pedliza tion of nonlinear filters," ~!:Q~-·-~..c!.5E£...... .Q

  11. New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Dexuan

    1996-01-01

    The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.

  12. Orbital HP-Clouds for Solving Schr?dinger Equation inQuantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J; Hu, W; Puso, M

    2006-10-19

    Solving Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics presents a challenging task in numerical methods due to the high order behavior and high dimension characteristics in the wave functions, in addition to the highly coupled nature between wave functions. This work introduces orbital and polynomial enrichment functions to the partition of unity for solution of Schroedinger equation under the framework of HP-Clouds. An intrinsic enrichment of orbital function and extrinsic enrichment of monomial functions are proposed. Due to the employment of higher order basis functions, a higher order stabilized conforming nodal integration is developed. The proposed methods are implemented using the density functional theory for solution of Schroedinger equation. Analysis of several single and multi-electron/nucleus structures demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Filtering by nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Campos Cantón, E; González Salas, J S; Urías, J

    2008-12-01

    Synchronization of nonlinear systems forced by external signals is formalized as the response of a nonlinear filter. Sufficient conditions for a nonlinear system to behave as a filter are given. Some examples of generalized chaos synchronization are shown to actually be special cases of nonlinear filtering.

  14. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V

    2015-07-31

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  15. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaret, J.; Béquin, P.; Theocharis, G.; Andreev, V.; Gusev, V. E.; Tournat, V.

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters.

  16. Nonlinear Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-18

    in a trim condition is a typical problem of output regulation near an equilibrium setting, tailless or nearly tailless aircraft , such as UCAV’s...control to produce significant nonlinear excursions. Taking advantage of these nonequilibrium nonlinearities in tailless aircraft also promises to...will also have multiple nonlinear axes and a smaller domain of stability than conventional aircraft , involving nonlinear trajectories which cannot be

  17. Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics are examined. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot firing ground testing. Deadband, side force and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as asympotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies. Numerical solutions are included for comparison with the analysis. Also, nonlinear frequency-response tables are made for a typical range of values.

  18. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Hankel operator are studied and yield promising results.

  19. Principles of Nonlinear Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Holography 74 6.2 Semiclassical Analysis 77 7. The Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation and Soliton Propagation 81 8. Conclusion Ancession For 86 ETis -GRA...is analyzed through the nonlinear Schrodinger equation , which is first heuristically derived. The distortionless pulses arising out of a balance...Eq. (71) has the same form as the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (2], (4], [17], (20], which is used to explain soliton propagation through fibers (21

  20. Nonlinear Ship Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-07

    mrtegrating the original governing differential equation. 2. A. H. Nayfeh, " Parametric Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems," Computers...Structures, Vol. 20. No. 1-3. 1985, pp. 487-493. A parametric identification technique that exploits nonlinear resonances and comparisons of the behavior of...617-631. Presentations 1. A. H. Vn’.yfeh, " Parametric Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems," Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures

  1. Nonlinear Waves III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov-Grekhov, Andrei V.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Engelbrecht, Jüri

    Since 1972 the Schools on Nonlinear Physics in Gorky have been a meeting place for Soviet Scientists working in this field. Since 1989 the proceedings appear in English. They present a good cross section of nonlinear physics in the USSR. This third volume emerged from material presented at the 1989 School. It contains sections dealing with nonlinear problems in physics and astrophysics, quantum and solid state physics, dynamical chaos and self-organization.

  2. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  3. Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-12-08

    We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission.

  4. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  5. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-07-15

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized {pi}electrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized {pi} electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules.

  6. Estimating nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.

    1988-03-01

    Time and frequency domain identification methods for nonlinear systems are reviewed. Parametric methods, prediction error methods, structure detection, model validation, and experiment design are discussed. Identification of a liquid level system, a heat exchanger, and a turbocharge automotive diesel engine are illustrated. Rational models are introduced. Spectral analysis for nonlinear systems is treated. Recursive estimation is mentioned.

  7. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  8. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  9. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  10. Nonlinear Maneuver Autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.

  11. Nonlinear optical materials.

    PubMed

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  12. Estimating nonlinear interdependences in dynamical systems using cellular nonlinear networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Dieter; Osterhage, Hannes; Elger, Christian E.; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    We propose a method for estimating nonlinear interdependences between time series using cellular nonlinear networks. Our approach is based on the nonlinear dynamics of interacting nonlinear elements. We apply it to time series of coupled nonlinear model systems and to electroencephalographic time series from an epilepsy patient, and we show that an accurate approximation of symmetric and asymmetric realizations of a nonlinear interdependence measure can be achieved, thus allowing one to detect the strength and direction of couplings.

  13. Nonlinear filter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.; Whitney, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A technique for identifying nonlinear systems was introduced, beginning with a single input-single output system. Assuming the system is initially at rest, the first kernel (first convolution integral in the continuous case or first convolution sum in the discrete case) was calculated. A controllable and observable linear realization was then obtained in a particular canonical form. The actual nonlinear system was probed with an appropriate input (or inputs) and the output (or outputs) determined. For the linear system, the input was computed that produces the same output. In the difference between the inputs to the nonlinear and linear systems, basic information was found about the nonlinear system. There is an interesting class of nonlinear systems for which this type of identification scheme should prove to be accurate.

  14. Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Hanbicki, Aubrey T.; Jonker, Berend T.; Lüpke, Gunter

    2015-10-19

    Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics (NMP) describes systems where nonlinear optics, magnetics and plasmonics are all involved. In such systems, nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect (nonlinear MOKE) plays an important role as a characterization method, and Surface Plasmons (SPs) work as catalyst to induce many new effects. Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation (MSHG) is the major nonlinear magneto-optical process involved. The new effects include enhanced MSHG, controlled and enhanced magnetic contrast, etc. Nanostructures such as thin films, nanoparticles, nanogratings, and nanoarrays are critical for the excitation of SPs, which makes NMP an interdisciplinary research field in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this review article, we organize recent work in this field into two categories: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) representing propagating surface plasmons, and localized surface plasmons (LSPs), also called particle plasmons. We review the structures, experiments, findings, and the applications of NMP from various groups.

  15. Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Hanbicki, Aubrey T.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics (NMP) describes systems where nonlinear optics, magnetics and plasmonics are all involved. In such systems, nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect (nonlinear MOKE) plays an important role as a characterization method, and Surface Plasmons (SPs) work as catalyst to induce many new effects. Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation (MSHG) is the major nonlinear magneto-optical process involved. The new effects include enhanced MSHG, controlled and enhanced magnetic contrast, etc. Nanostructures such as thin films, nanoparticles, nanogratings, and nanoarrays are critical for the excitation of SPs, which makes NMP an interdisciplinary research field in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this review article, we organize recentmore » work in this field into two categories: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) representing propagating surface plasmons, and localized surface plasmons (LSPs), also called particle plasmons. We review the structures, experiments, findings, and the applications of NMP from various groups.« less

  16. Nonlinear cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Zweig, George

    2016-05-01

    An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.

  17. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-01-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control. PMID:22355655

  18. Large Scale Nonlinear Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-15

    KEY WORDS (Conhinu. as, t.n.t.. aid. if nic••iary aid ld.ntify by block n,a,b.r) L. In,~~~ IP!CIE LARGE SCALE OPTIMIZATION APPLICATIONS OF NONLINEAR ... NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING by Garth P. McCormick 1. Introduction The general mathematical programming ( optimization ) problem can be stated in the following form...because the difficulty in solving a general nonlinear optimization problem has a~ much to do with the nature of the functions involved as it does with the

  19. Nonlinear ordinary difference equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Future space vehicles will be relatively large and flexible, and active control will be necessary to maintain geometrical configuration. While the stresses and strains in these space vehicles are not expected to be excessively large, their cumulative effects will cause significant geometrical nonlinearities to appear in the equations of motion, in addition to the nonlinearities caused by material properties. Since the only effective tool for the analysis of such large complex structures is the digital computer, it will be necessary to gain a better understanding of the nonlinear ordinary difference equations which result from the time discretization of the semidiscrete equations of motion for such structures.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of many cardiac arrhythmias, as well as the nature of transitions between different heart rhythms, have long been considered evidence of nonlinear phenomena playing a direct role in cardiac arrhythmogenesis. In most types of cardiac disease, the pathology develops slowly and gradually, often over many years. In contrast, arrhythmias often occur suddenly. In nonlinear systems, sudden changes in qualitative dynamics can, counter-intuitively, result from a gradual change in a system parameter –this is known as a bifurcation. Here, we review how nonlinearities in cardiac electrophysiology influence normal and abnormal rhythms and how bifurcations change the dynamics. In particular, we focus on the many recent developments in computational modeling at the cellular level focused on intracellular calcium dynamics. We discuss two areas where recent experimental and modeling work have suggested the importance of nonlinearities in calcium dynamics: repolarization alternans and pacemaker cell automaticity. PMID:22524390

  1. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear structural analysis techniques for engine structures and components are addressed. The finite element method and boundary element method are discussed in terms of stress and structural analyses of shells, plates, and laminates.

  2. Nonlinear optomechanical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Claudio; Boyd, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A transparent material exhibits ultrafast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, such as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, and optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems such as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma or the Casimir effect. Here, we show that an ultrafast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.

  3. Perturbed nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    For perturbed nonlinear systems, a norm, other than the supremum norm, is introduced on some spaces of continuous functions. This makes possible the study of new types of behavior. A study is presented on a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas developed are applied to the study of integral manifolds, and examples are given.

  4. Adaptive and Nonlinear Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-29

    in [22], we also applied the concept of zero dynamics to the problem of exact linearization of a nonlinear control system by dynamic feedback. Exact ...nonlinear systems, although it was well-known that the conditions for exact linearization are very stringent and consequently do not apply to a broad...29th IEEE Conference n Decision and Control, Invited Paper delivered by Dr. Gilliam. Exact Linearization of Zero Dynamics, 29th IEEE Conference on

  5. Pulsed nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, E.Y.; Hamilton, M.F.; Zabolotskaya, E.A. )

    1994-11-01

    Pulsed, plane, nonlinear Rayleigh waves in isotropic solids are investigated with numerical solutions of the coupled spectral equations derived by Zabolotskaya [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. [bold 91], 2569 (1992)]. Calculations of waveform evolution are presented as functions of distance from the source and depth within the solid. For the case of weak nonlinearity (characteristic absorption length on the order of the shock formation distance), self-demodulation of tone bursts is investigated. Self-demodulation refers to the nonlinear generation of a low-frequency waveform by a high-frequency pulse. Comparisons are made with the analogous process in fluids. Whereas demodulated Rayleigh and acoustic waveforms have similar shapes, the demodulated Rayleigh waveforms have substantially smaller relative amplitudes. The difference in amplitude is due to the frequency dependence of the nonlinearity coefficient matrix for Rayleigh waves. For the case of strong nonlinearity, shock formation is investigated in a variety of transient waveforms. Via comparison with acoustic waveform evolution in fluids, precursors generated by certain Rayleigh waveforms are identified as consequences of nonlocal nonlinearity. [Work supported by DOE, ONR, and NSF.

  6. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  7. Nonlinear systems in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Many achievements in medicine have come from applying linear theory to problems. Most current methods of data analysis use linear models, which are based on proportionality between two variables and/or relationships described by linear differential equations. However, nonlinear behavior commonly occurs within human systems due to their complex dynamic nature; this cannot be described adequately by linear models. Nonlinear thinking has grown among physiologists and physicians over the past century, and non-linear system theories are beginning to be applied to assist in interpreting, explaining, and predicting biological phenomena. Chaos theory describes elements manifesting behavior that is extremely sensitive to initial conditions, does not repeat itself and yet is deterministic. Complexity theory goes one step beyond chaos and is attempting to explain complex behavior that emerges within dynamic nonlinear systems. Nonlinear modeling still has not been able to explain all of the complexity present in human systems, and further models still need to be refined and developed. However, nonlinear modeling is helping to explain some system behaviors that linear systems cannot and thus will augment our understanding of the nature of complex dynamic systems within the human body in health and in disease states. PMID:14580107

  8. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

    2011-07-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  9. 50 years of nonlinear acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naugolnykh, K.

    2008-06-01

    Episodes of nonlinear acoustics history related to several topics are discussed. Nonlinear evolution of finite amplitude wave, its distortion and weak shock wave formation, nonlinear absorption of the high intensity wave. Nonlinear wave propagation in a randomly inhomogeneous media, interaction of noises and regular signals. Nonlinear sound wave interactions. Parametric transmitting and receiving array theoretical models, experimental test and applications in ocean and atmospheric sounding. Parametric acoustic array in oceanic waveguids. High-intensity focused ultrasound propagation in a inhomogeneous fluid and tissue, nonlinear mechanism of heating by high-intensity focused ultrasound, which is important for ultrasound thermal therapy. Intense acoustic pulses generation, cavitation, laser generated nonlinear pulses.

  10. Polarization and fiber nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiang

    This thesis is devoted to a thorough investigation of various nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers over a variety of length, time, and power scales. It presents a unified theoretical description of fiber nonlinearities, their applications, existing problems, and possible solutions, particularly focusing on the polarization dependence of nonlinearities. The thesis begins with an investigation of quantum-correlated photon pair generation in the extremely low-power regime, and fundamental quantum noise properties of dual-pump parametric amplfiers in the very high gain regime. It then focuses on two experimental demonstrations of applications based on four-wave mixing: an ultrafast all-optical switching scheme with the capability of multi-band wavelength casting, and a subpicosecond parametric oscillator with broadband tunability. The thesis next deals with the theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel phenomenon of vector soliton fission during supercontinuum generation in a tapered fiber in the femtosecond regime. The vectorial nature of Raman scattering is discussed next. In particular, I propose a vector form of the Raman response function to descibe accurately the Raman-related phenomena during ultrashort pulse propagation inside optical fibers. The thesis also presents a unified theory to describe nonlinearities in long fibers with random birefringence and polarization-mode dispersion. It focuses on the statistical nature of the interactions between random polarization-mode disperion and various nonlinear effects like stimulated Raman scattering, cross-phase modulation, four-wave mixing, and self-phase modulation. In particular, I quantify their impacts on various nonlinear photonic functionalities such as Raman amplification, nonlinear optical switching, parametric amplfication, wavelength conversion, soliton stability, etc.

  11. Algebraic Nonlinear Collective Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-11-01

    Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real numberΛ. TheΛ=0 solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear group action on Euclidean space transforms a certain family of deformed droplets among themselves. For positiveΛ, the droplets have a neck that becomes more pronounced asΛincreases; for negativeΛ, the droplets contain a spherical bubble of radius |Λ|1/3. The nonlinear vector field algebra is extended to the nonlinear general collective motion algebra gcm(3) which includes the inertia tensor. The quantum algebraic models of nonlinear nuclear collective motion are given by irreducible unitary representations of the nonlinear gcm(3) Lie algebra. These representations model fissioning isotopes (Λ>0) and bubble and two-fluid nuclei (Λ<0).

  12. Nonlinear Waves in Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leble, Sergei B.

    S.B. Leble's book deals with nonlinear waves and their propagation in metallic and dielectric waveguides and media with stratification. The underlying nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) are derived giving also their solutions for specific situations. The reader will find new elements to the traditional approach. Various dispersion and relaxation laws for different guides are considered as well as the explicit form of projection operators, NEEs, quasi-solitons and of Darboux transforms. Special points relate to: 1. the development of a universal asymptotic method of deriving NEEs for guide propagation; 2. applications to the cases of stratified liquids, gases, solids and plasmas with various nonlinearities and dispersion laws; 3. connections between the basic problem and soliton- like solutions of the corresponding NEEs; 4. discussion of details of simple solutions in higher- order nonsingular perturbation theory.

  13. Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  14. The nonlinear glasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, Jürgen; Schlichting, Sören

    2013-01-01

    We study the evolution of quantum fluctuations in the glasma, created immediately after the collision of heavy nuclei. We show how the presence of instabilities leads to an enhancement of nonlinear interactions among initially small fluctuations. The nonlinear dynamics leads to an enhanced growth of fluctuations in a large momentum region, exceeding by far the originally unstable band. We investigate the dependence on the coupling constant at weak coupling using classical statistical lattice simulations for SU(2) gauge theory and show how these nonlinearities can be analytically understood within the framework of two-particle irreducible effective action techniques. The dependence on the coupling constant is only logarithmic, in accordance with analytic expectations. Concerning the isotropization of bulk quantities, our results indicate that the system exhibits an order-one anisotropy on parametrically large time scales. Despite this fact, we find that gauge invariant pressure correlation functions seem to exhibit a power law behavior characteristic for wave turbulence.

  15. Nonlinear anelasticity of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aning, Alexander; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wuttig, Manfred

    1982-10-01

    An approximate solution of the equation of motion of a nonlinear anelastic reed at or near resonance is presented. The steady state solution reproduces the well-known nonlinear resonances. The solution also predicts the existence of automodulations, i.e., self-excited modulations of the amplitude and phase at constant power of excitation of the reed. Numerical examples of such automodulations are presented for an antisymmetric deformation potential. Experimental studies of finite amplitude oscillations of a magnesium reed vibrating at 72 and 431 Hz at room temperature confirm the existence of automodulations. The experimental results can be semiquantitatively described in terms of the solution given. The assumption that finite deformation by twinning represents the essential nonlinearity leads to a self-consistent interpretation. The relaxation time of twinning is obtained from the analysis of the automodulation and is 22 msec in the sample investigated. It is proposed that point defects control the relaxation process.

  16. Nonlinear optical Galton board

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Perez, A.; Roldan, Eugenio

    2007-06-15

    We generalize the concept of optical Galton board (OGB), first proposed by Bouwmeester et al. [Phys. Rev. A 61, 013410 (2000)], by introducing the possibility of nonlinear self-phase modulation on the wave function during the walker evolution. If the original Galton board illustrates classical diffusion, the OGB, which can be understood as a grid of Landau-Zener crossings, illustrates the influence of interference on diffusion, and is closely connected with the quantum walk. Our nonlinear generalization of the OGB shows new phenomena, the most striking of which is the formation of nondispersive pulses in the field distribution (solitonlike structures). These exhibit a variety of dynamical behaviors, including ballistic motion, dynamical localization, nonelastic collisions, and chaotic behavior, in the sense that the dynamics is very sensitive to the nonlinearity strength.

  17. Nonlinear airship aeroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessert, N.; Frederich, O.

    2005-12-01

    The aeroelastic derivatives for today's aircraft are calculated in the concept phase using a standard procedure. This scheme has to be extended for large airships, due to various nonlinearities in structural and aerodynamic behaviour. In general, the structural model of an airship is physically as well as geometrically nonlinear. The main sources of nonlinearity are large deformations and the nonlinear material behaviour of membranes. The aerodynamic solution is also included in the nonlinear problem, because the deformed airship influences the surrounding flow. Due to these nonlinearities, the aeroelastic problem for airships can only be solved by an iterative procedure. As one possibility, the coupled aerodynamic and structural dynamic problem was handled using linked standard solvers. On the structural side, the Finite-Element program package ABAQUS was extended with an interface to the aerodynamic solver VSAERO. VSAERO is based on the aerodynamic panel method using potential flow theory. The equilibrium of the internal structural and the external aerodynamic forces leads to the structural response and a trimmed flight state for the specified flight conditions (e.g. speed, altitude). The application of small perturbations around a trimmed state produces reaction forces and moments. These constraint forces are then transferred into translational and rotational acceleration fields by performing an inertia relief analysis of the disturbed structural model. The change between the trimmed flight state and the disturbed one yields the respective aeroelastic derivatives. By including the calculated derivatives in the linearised equation of motion system, it is possible to judge the stability and controllability of the investigated airship.

  18. Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging.

    PubMed

    Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2004-03-26

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) processes are "coherent," but the phase of the anti-Stokes radiation is lost by most incoherent spectroscopic CARS measurements. We propose a Raman microscopy imaging method called nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging, which measures Raman spectra by obtaining the temporal anti-Stokes signal through nonlinear interferometry. With a more complete knowledge of the anti-Stokes signal, we show through simulations that a high-resolution Raman spectrum can be obtained of a molecule in a single pulse using broad band radiation. This could be useful for identifying the three-dimensional spatial distribution of molecular species in tissue.

  19. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-07

    honeycomb lattices, M.J. Ablowitz and Y. Zhu, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 87 (2013) 19591979 11. Nonlinear Temporal-Spatial Surface Plasmon Polaritons , M. J. Ablowitz...temporal-spatial surface plasmon polaritons . Op- tics Communications, 330:49–55, 2014. 37 [39] M.C. Rechtsman, Y. Plotnik, J.M. Zeuner, , D. Song, Z...honeycomb lattices, M.J. Ablowitz and Y. Zhu, SIAM J. Appl. Math., Vol. 87 (2013) 1959-1979 11. Nonlinear Temporal-Spatial Surface Plasmon Polaritons

  20. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Betancourt, O.; Garabedian, P.

    1981-01-01

    The computer code developed by Bauer et al. (1978) for the study of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium and stability of a plasma in toroidal geometry is extended so that the growth rates of instabilities may be estimated more accurately. The original code, which is based on the variational principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics, is upgraded by the introduction of a nonlinear formula for the growth rate of an unstable mode which acts as a quantitative measure of instability that is important in estimating numerical errors. The revised code has been applied to the determination of the nonlinear saturation, ballooning modes and beta limits for tokamaks, stellarators and torsatrons.

  1. Nonlinear Fault Diagnosis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Systems, New York, Marcel Dekker, (to appear). 3. Desoer , C.A. and S.E. Kuh, Basic Circuit Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969, pp. 423-425. 130 NONLINEAR...DIAGNOSIS A 7*ssior For 1 MU3 CRA&T IY’IC TAB Ju-st i.cat IC- P.U A: CONTENTS Fault Diagnosis in Electronic Circuits , R. Saeks and R.-w. Liu...Vincentelli and R. Saeks .............. 61 Multitest Diagnosibility of Nonlinear Circuits and Systems, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli and R. Saeks

  2. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, Ellwood

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model. Mach 1.6 maneuver point design and multi-operating point compromise surfaces were developed and tested. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data.

  3. Problems of nonlinear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoliuk, E. I.; Shalashilin, V. I.

    A method of continuing the solution is discussed with respect to a parameter for a certain class of nonlinear problems in solid mechanics. Modifications of the method are developed in order to implement a unified continuation process at regular and limit points in the set of solutions, with extensions to nonlinear boundary value problems. Algorithms are developed for solving large deflection problems of elastic arches and large axisymmetric deflection problems for shells of revolution. In particular, the algorithms are used for the analysis of large deflections of circular arches and toroidal shells. Examples of natural vibration and stability problems for parallelograms and trapezoidal membranes and panels are given.

  4. Perturbed nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, T. G.

    1972-01-01

    The existence of a solution defined for all t and possessing a type of boundedness property is established for the perturbed nonlinear system y = f(t,y) + F(t,y). The unperturbed system x = f(t,x) has a dichotomy in which some solutions exist and are well behaved as t increases to infinity, and some solution exists and are well behaved as t decreases to minus infinity. A similar study is made for a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, R+, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas are applied to integral manifolds.

  5. Solitons in nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Maimistov, Andrei I

    2010-11-13

    The classic examples of optical phenomena resulting in the appearance of solitons are self-focusing, self-induced transparency, and parametric three-wave interaction. To date, the list of the fields of nonlinear optics and models where solitons play an important role has significantly expanded. Now long-lived or stable solitary waves are called solitons, including, for example, dissipative, gap, parametric, and topological solitons. This review considers nonlinear optics models giving rise to the appearance of solitons in a narrow sense: solitary waves corresponding to the solutions of completely integrable systems of equations basic for the models being discussed. (review)

  6. Nonlinear Theory and Breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The main points of recent theoretical and computational studies on boundary-layer transition and turbulence are to be highlighted. The work is based on high Reynolds numbers and attention is drawn to nonlinear interactions, breakdowns and scales. The research focuses in particular on truly nonlinear theories, i.e. those for which the mean-flow profile is completely altered from its original state. There appear to be three such theories dealing with unsteady nonlinear pressure-displacement interactions (I), with vortex/wave interactions (II), and with Euler-scale flows (III). Specific recent findings noted for these three, and in quantitative agreement with experiments, are the following. Nonlinear finite-time break-ups occur in I, leading to sublayer eruption and vortex formation; here the theory agrees with experiments (Nishioka) regarding the first spike. II gives rise to finite-distance blowup of displacement thickness, then interaction and break-up as above; this theory agrees with experiments (Klebanoff, Nishioka) on the formation of three-dimensional streets. III leads to the prediction of turbulent boundary-layer micro-scale, displacement-and stress-sublayer-thicknesses.

  7. Constructive Nonlinear Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    made on difficult output feedback problem with a novel nonlinear observer design, achieving robustness to modeling errors. Explicit necessary and...sufficient conditions have been derived for coordinated passivation designs. A new maneuvering design has been developed. Further progress was made in MIMO adaptive control. We now briefly summarize our main results.

  8. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  9. Nonlinear plasmonic nanorulers.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Martin, Olivier J F

    2014-05-27

    The evaluation of distances as small as few nanometers using optical waves is a very challenging task that can pave the way for the development of new applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this article, we propose a new measurement method based on the control of the nonlinear optical response of plasmonic nanostructures by means of Fano resonances. It is shown that Fano resonances resulting from the coupling between a bright mode and a dark mode at the fundamental wavelength enable unprecedented and direct manipulation of the nonlinear electromagnetic sources at the nanoscale. In the case of second harmonic generation from gold nanodolmens, the different nonlinear sources distributions induced by the different coupling regimes are clearly revealed in the far-field distribution. Hence, the configuration of the nanostructure can be accurately determined in 3-dimensions by recording the wave scattered at the second harmonic wavelength. Indeed, the conformation of the different elements building the system is encoded in the nonlinear far-field distribution, making second harmonic generation a promising tool for reading 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers. Furthemore, it is shown that 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers can be implemented with simpler geometries than in the linear regime while providing complete information on the structure conformation, including the top nanobar position and orientation.

  10. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  11. Nonlinear optical inves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Arfan, A.; Allahham, A.

    2017-03-01

    Z-scan technique was used to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of Quinine and 1-(carboxymethyl)-6-methoxy-4-(3-(3-vinylpiperidin-4-yl) propanoyl) quinolin-1-ium chloride (Quinotoxine) salts. The two salts were characterized using UV-visible, FTIR and NMR measurements. The characterization spectra confirm the expected molecular structure of the prepared "Quinotoxine " salt. The z-scan measurements were performed with a CW Diode laser at 635 nm wavelength and 26 mW power. The nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n2), the ground-state absorption cross sections (σg), the excited-state absorption cross sections (σex) and thermo-optic coefficient of the samples were determined. Our results reveal that the σex is higher than the σg indicating that the reverse saturable absorption (RSA) is the dominating mechanism for the observed absorption nonlinearities. The results suggest that this material should be considered as a promising candidate for future optical devices applications.

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  13. Nonlinear phased array imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.

    2016-04-01

    A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.

  14. Stochastic Nonlinear Aeroelasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    aeroelasticity. The work was divided into different project areas, including: accurate analysis of limit- cycle oscillations for simple aeroelastic systems...vehicles, limit-cycle oscillation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 44 19a. NAME OF...susceptible to nonlinear oscillations (for the purpose of avoiding dangerous oscillations ), and (2) multidisciplinary design optimization of flapping wing

  15. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  16. Nonlinear Optics and Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Oxford University Alejandro Aceves, (Ph.D., 1988, University of Arizona, Nonlinear Optics), 1988-1989, currently at University of New Mexico 3 Wayne...77; Humboldt Fellowship 1988-89; Member and Chairman 1987-88; NSF Advising Board on Math. Sciences 1986-89; Member, Board of Mathematical Sciences

  17. Nonlinear Image Denoising Methodologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    53 5.3 A Multiscale Approach to Scale-Space Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.4...etc. In this thesis, Our approach to denoising is first based on a controlled nonlinear stochastic random walk to achieve a scale space analysis ( as in... stochastic treatment or interpretation of the diffusion. In addition, unless a specific stopping time is known to be adequate, the resulting evolution

  18. Nonlinear dynamics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of nonlinear dynamics experiments is to improve the understanding of single particle effects that increase the particle amplitude and lead to loss. Particle motion in storage rings is nearly conservative and for transverse dynamics the Hamiltonian in action angle variables (I{sub x},I{sub y},{phi}{sub x},{phi}{sub y}) near an isolated resonance k{nu}{sub x} + l{nu}{sub y} {approx} p is H = I{sub x}{nu}{sub x0} + I{sub y}{nu}{sub y0} + g(I{sub x}, I{sub y}) + h(I{sub x}, I{sub y})cos(k{phi}{sub x} + l{phi}{sub y} - p{theta}), (1) where k, l, p are integers, {theta} = 2{pi}s/L is the azimuth, and s and L are the path length and circumference respectively. The amplitude dependent tunes are given by {nu}{sub x,y}(I{sub x},I{sub y}) = {nu}{sub x0,y0} + {partial_derivative}g(I{sub x},I{sub y})/{partial_derivative}I{sub x,y} (2) and h(I{sub x},I{sub y}) is the resonance driving term (RDT). If the motion is governed by multiple resonances, h(I{sub x},I{sub y}) has to be replace by a series of terms. The particle motion is completely determined by the terms g and h, which can be calculated from higher order multipoles (Sec. ??), or obtained from simulations. Deviations from pure Hamiltonian motion occur due to synchrotron radiation damping (Sec. ??) in lepton or very high energy hadron rings, parameter variations, and diffusion processes such as residual gas and intrabeam scattering. The time scale of the non-Hamiltonian process determines the applicability of the Hamiltonian analysis. Transverse nonlinearities are introduced through sextupoles or higher order multipoles and magnetic field errors in dipoles and quadrupoles. Sextupoles can already drive all resonances. The beam-beam interaction and space charge also introduce nonlinear fields. Intentionally introduced nonlinearities are used to extract beam on a resonance or through capture in stable islands. Localization and minimization of nonlinearities in a ring is a general strategy to decrease emittance growth

  19. Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...14. ABSTRACT A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the...846-9101 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line David M. French, Brad W. Hoff

  20. Compactons in Nonlinear Schroedinger Lattices with Strong Nonlinearity Management

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Salerno, M.

    2010-09-10

    The existence of compactons in the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the presence of fast periodic time modulations of the nonlinearity is demonstrated. In the averaged discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation, the resulting effective interwell tunneling depends on the modulation parameters and on the field amplitude. This introduces nonlinear dispersion in the system and can lead to a prototypical realization of single- or multisite stable discrete compactons in nonlinear optical waveguide and Bose-Einstein condensate arrays. These structures can dynamically arise out of Gaussian or compactly supported initial data.

  1. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  2. Program for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    November 1970. 2. R. E. Jones and W. L. Salus , "Survey and Development of Finite Elements for Nonlineer Structural Analysis", Volume II, "Nonlinear Shell...1970. 2. R. E. Jones and W. L. Salus , "Survey and Development of Finite Elements for Nonlinear Structural Analysis," Volume II, "Nonlinear Shell

  3. Additivity of nonlinear biomass equations

    Treesearch

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Two procedures that guarantee the property of additivity among the components of tree biomass and total tree biomass utilizing nonlinear functions are developed. Procedure 1 is a simple combination approach, and procedure 2 is based on nonlinear joint-generalized regression (nonlinear seemingly unrelated regressions) with parameter restrictions. Statistical theory is...

  4. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  5. Nonlinear electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is performed. It is shown that the analysis leads to the propagation of the weakly nonlinear dispersive waves, and the nonlinear behavior is governed by the nonlinear Burger's equation.

  6. Nonlinear computer-generated holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapira, Asia; Juwiler, Irit; Arie, Ady

    2011-08-01

    We propose a novel technique for arbitrary wavefront shaping in quadratic nonlinear crystals by introducing the concept of computer-generated holograms (CGHs) into the nonlinear optical regime. We demonstrate the method experimentally showing a conversion of a fundamental Gaussian beam pump light into the first three Hermite--Gaussian beams at the second harmonic in a stoichiometric lithium tantalate nonlinear crystal, and we characterize its efficiency dependence on the fundamental power and the crystal temperature. Nonlinear CGHs open new possibilities in the fields of nonlinear beam shaping, mode conversion, and beam steering.

  7. Nonlinear computer-generated holograms.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Asia; Juwiler, Irit; Arie, Ady

    2011-08-01

    We propose a novel technique for arbitrary wavefront shaping in quadratic nonlinear crystals by introducing the concept of computer-generated holograms (CGHs) into the nonlinear optical regime. We demonstrate the method experimentally showing a conversion of a fundamental Gaussian beam pump light into the first three Hermite-Gaussian beams at the second harmonic in a stoichiometric lithium tantalate nonlinear crystal, and we characterize its efficiency dependence on the fundamental power and the crystal temperature. Nonlinear CGHs open new possibilities in the fields of nonlinear beam shaping, mode conversion, and beam steering. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C.; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass (≃10-12 m2/W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The nonlinear coefficient can be increased to values in the range of 10-10 m2/W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  9. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Caihong; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Huabing; Chen, Jian; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Wu, Peiheng

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  10. Nonlinear differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  11. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Huabing

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  12. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora

    2016-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581

  13. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.

  14. Nonlinear Magnetic Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, A.; Breizman, B.

    2000-10-01

    The ion response to the rf-field in the magnetic beach problem can be essentially nonlinear. This paper presents a self-consistent theory of the rf-wave propagation and ion motion through the ion cyclotron resonance. An important ingredient of the problem is the ion flow along the magnetic field. The flow velocity limits the time the ions spend at the resonance, which in turn limits the ion energy gain. A feature that makes the problem nonlinear is that the flow accelerates under the effect of the grad B force and rf-pressure. This acceleration can produce a steep decrease in the plasma density at the resonance, resulting in partial reflection of the incident wave. *Work supported by VASIMR project at NASA and by U.S. DOE Contract DE-FG03-96ER-54346.

  15. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  16. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-08-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.

  17. Research in nonlinear structural and solid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr. (Compiler); Noor, A. K. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of building structures and numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations and Newton's method are discussed. Other topics include: nonlinear interaction problems; solution procedures for nonlinear problems; crash dynamics and advanced nonlinear applications; material characterization, contact problems, and inelastic response; and formulation aspects and special software for nonlinear analysis.

  18. Nonlinear Wave Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-23

    generalized wave equation (GWE) when (z) 0 (1-Z2)/2: - X(z). (1.5) The compatibility condition required for the existence of solutions to these B~icklund...Phys. tion of a class of nonlocal nonlinear evolution equations , A 15 (1982) 781. INS *47, Clarkson University (1985), to be published in J. Math... semilinear form. The above approach will fail if there exist linearizable quasilinear equations which can not be mapped to a semilinear from. It is shown in

  19. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    of parameters. Hence one expects that the solutions of the two equations , PES and NLS, are comparable. In Fig. 3 we plot the two solutions for...power saturated term, in the PES equation ) have stable soliton solutions or mode-locking evolution. In general the solitons are found to be unstable...literature. Generally speaking, the above lattice equations omitting nonlinear terms have solutions propagating along z direction, i.e., ψ(r, z) = e−iµzϕ(r

  20. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    Equation * Discrete IST and numerical simulations * Long time asymptotic solutions of nonlinear evolution equations * Painlevf equations . Focussing...larger class of solutions io KdV than does the Gel’fand-’Levitan equation . Specifically we have shown by direct calculation that if 0(k;x,t) solves oV...Investigation of the full generality of the solutions of KdV via this new formulation. (b) Developnent of similar types - integral equations for

  1. Control of Nonlinear Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-26

    6-7 C. Minimum Energy Regulators for Commutative Bilinear Systems .................... ........ 8-9 D. Control Law.s for Certain Aerospace...class of nonlinear systems (3,10]. (c) Minimum energy regulators for commutative bilinear systems [3,10]. (D) Control laws for certain aerospace...With Delay in Control," IEEE Trans. on Auto Contr., Vol. AC-20, pp. 702-704, 1975, and [3].) - !. 8 C. Minimum Energy Regulators for Commutative Bilinear

  2. Surface nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R.; Chen, C.K.; de Castro, A.R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Surface electromagnetic waves are waves propagating along the interface of two media. Their existence was predicted by Sommerfield in 1909. In recent years, interesting applications have been found in the study of overlayers and molecular adsorption on surfaces, in probing of phase transitions, and in measurements of refractive indices. In the laboratory, the nonlinear interaction of surface electromagnetic waves were studied. The preliminary results of this recent venture in this area are presented.

  3. Mathematical Nonlinear Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-03

    August, 1991. Thesis - "Applications of the Inverse Spectral Transform to a Korteweg - DeVries Equation with a Kuramoto-Sivashinsky-Type Perturbation... equations , the mathematical theory of nematic optics involves strong coupling between the electromagnetic and nematic director (molecular orientation... equations for the electric field E coupled to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the director n, a field of unit vectors which describes the local molecular

  4. Nonlinear Guided Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-19

    experiments," contributed paper, topical meeting on Integrated Photonics , Hilton Head (1990). 20. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Diano, and E. M. Wright...34Picosecond pulse switching in semiconductor active nonlinear directional couplers," contributed paper, topical meeting on Integrated Photonics , Hilton...meeting on Integrated Photonics , Hilton Head (1990). 22. E. M. Wright, "Amplifier and laser switches," invited paper, workshop on Semiconductor Laser

  5. Mathematical Nonlinear Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-11

    34Evolution of Bloch electrons with Applied Electromagnetic Fields: the Semiclassical Equations ", European Jour- nal of Applied Mathematics (1996...establishment (with Jalal Shatah) of the existence of homoclinic orbits with complex spa- tial structure for perturbed NLS equations . This existence...a very small amount of diffraction. (v) McLaughlin (with T. Ueda) have in progress a study of precursors for model nonlinear wave equations . This

  6. Nonlinear Neural Network Oscillator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A nonlinear oscillator (10) includes a neural network (12) having at least one output (12a) for outputting a one dimensional vector. The neural ... neural network and the input of the input layer for modifying a magnitude and/or a polarity of the one dimensional output vector prior to the sample of...first or a second direction. Connection weights of the neural network are trained on a deterministic sequence of data from a chaotic source or may be a

  7. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Devices and Method for Detecting Emplacement of Improvised Explosive Devices, U. S. Patent 7,680,599, Mar. 16, 2010. 11. Steele, D.; Rotondo, F.; Houck...Patent 7,987,068, Jul. 26, 2011. 9 14. Keller, W. Active Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Electronic Signature Detection , U. S. Patent...operate without interfering with each other. The CNR uses a narrowband, nonlinear radar target detection methodology. This methodology has the advantage

  8. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    PubMed

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.

  9. Nonlinear mechanisms of cortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Z J

    2000-01-01

    Not only theoretical consideration but also analyses of MEG or EEG recordings prove the nonlinear character of cortical dynamics. For instance, an averaged local Lyapunov Exponents (ILE) have positive value that is characteristic for chaotic dynamics. Also a test for nonlinearity (or determinism)--so called surrogate data test distinguishes between original- and randomized-phase time-series proving that recorded signals are nonlinear. These facts are a very strong experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that brain oscillators are governed by the deterministic, nonlinear, low-dimensional dynamics. The experimental manifestations of nonlinear cortical oscillations in the healthy and pathologically altered human brain and their deterministic character seems to be an important step in the understanding brain dynamics in the language of nonlinear systems theory. Clinical application may use nonlinear measures (especially ILE, and PD2i) for classification of pathologies and rough localization of the functional disturbance in the brain.

  10. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  11. Quantum well nonlinear microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.

    We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.

  12. Nonlinearity without superluminality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2005-07-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signaling. As Czachor, Gisin, and Polchinski pointed out, this is not generally true of general nonlinear modifications of the Schrödinger equation. Excluding superluminal signaling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no-superluminal-signaling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by nonrelativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which display the values of localized pure states need not allow superluminal signaling, provided that the devices display the values of the states of entangled subsystems as defined in a nonstandard, although natural, way. It follows that any locally defined nonlinear evolution of pure states can be made consistent with Minkowski causality.

  13. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, D.H.E.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.; Lee, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations are derived from a systematic Hamiltonian theory. The derivation employs Lie transforms and a noncanonical perturbation theory first used by Littlejohn for the simpler problem of asymptotically small gyroradius. For definiteness, we emphasize the limit of electrostatic fluctuations in slab geometry; however, there is a straight-forward generalization to arbitrary field geometry and electromagnetic perturbations. An energy invariant for the nonlinear system is derived, and various of its limits are considered. The weak turbulence theory of the equations is examined. In particular, the wave kinetic equation of Galeev and Sagdeev is derived from an asystematic truncation of the equations, implying that this equation fails to consider all gyrokinetic effects. The equations are simplified for the case of small but finite gyroradius and put in a form suitable for efficient computer simulation. Although it is possible to derive the Terry-Horton and Hasegawa-Mima equations as limiting cases of our theory, several new nonlinear terms absent from conventional theories appear and are discussed.

  14. Forces in nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2002-02-01

    I investigate the properties of forces on bodies in theories governed by the generalized Poisson equation μ(|ϕ| /a0)ϕ] ∝ Gρ, for the potential ϕ produced by a distribution of sources ρ. This equation describes, inter alia, media with a response coefficient, μ, that depends on the field strength, such as in nonlinear, dielectric or diamagnetic, media; nonlinear transport problems with field-strength-dependent conductivity or diffusion coefficient; nonlinear electrostatics, as in the Born-Infeld theory; certain stationary potential flows in compressible fluids, in which case the forces act on sources or obstacles in the flow. The expressions for the force on a point charge are derived exactly for the limits of very low and very high charge. The force on an arbitrary body in an external field of asymptotically constant gradient, -g0, is shown to be F = Qg0, where Q is the total effective charge of the body. The corollary Q = 0 → F = 0 is a generalization of d'Alembert's paradox. I show that for G > 0 (as in Newtonian gravity) two point charges of the same (opposite) sign still attract (repel). The opposite is true for G < 0. I discuss its generalization to extended bodies and derive virial relations.

  15. Nonlinearity without superluminality

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Adrian

    2005-07-15

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signaling. As Czachor, Gisin, and Polchinski pointed out, this is not generally true of general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signaling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no-superluminal-signaling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by nonrelativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which display the values of localized pure states need not allow superluminal signaling, provided that the devices display the values of the states of entangled subsystems as defined in a nonstandard, although natural, way. It follows that any locally defined nonlinear evolution of pure states can be made consistent with Minkowski causality.

  16. Nonlinear (quantum) search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, David

    2015-03-01

    Farhi and Gutmann's ``analog analogue'' of Grover's algorithm is simply the Schrödinger equation for the evolution of a particle hopping among N sites, one of which is marked by the presence of a potential well. When the particle is initialized in a state with equal amplitude at each site, after O (N 1 / 2) time its amplitude is concentrated at the marked site, and a measurement will detect it there with probability 1. A nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a cubic nonlinear term arises as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation approximately describing the collective evolution of the many quantum particles in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a novel--but experimentally observed--form of matter in which all the particles are in the same quantum state. Including such a nonlinear term into the continuous time evolution of the particle hopping among N sites, one of which is marked, constitutes a nonlinear (quantum) search algorithm. If the relative strength of the nonlinear term varies correctly with time, the state concentrates at the marked site at time π / 2 for any N. This is a constant time algorithm--immensely faster than O (N 1 / 2) . The state concentrates at the marked site for shorter and shorter times as N --> ∞ , however, which means the measurement time must be determined with increasing precision. Accounting correctly for the physical resources necessary to measure time sufficiently precisely, the total resources for this algorithm scale as O (N 1 / 2) , no better than Farhi and Gutmann's linear quantum algorithm. But jointly optimizing these resource requirements results in an overall scaling of N 1 / 4. This is a significant, but not unreasonable, improvement over the N 1 / 2 scaling of the linear algorithm. Since the Gross-Pitaevskii equation approximates the multi-particle (linear) Schrödinger equation, for which Grover's algorithm is optimal, this gives a quantum information-theoretic lower bound on the number of particles needed for the approximation

  17. Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.

  18. Non-linear osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  19. Integrable nonlinear relativistic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Yaron

    This work focuses on three nonlinear relativistic equations: the symmetric Chiral field equation, Einstein's field equation for metrics with two commuting Killing vectors and Einstein's field equation for diagonal metrics that depend on three variables. The symmetric Chiral field equation is studied using the Zakharov-Mikhailov transform, with which its infinitely many local conservation laws are derived and its solitons on diagonal backgrounds are studied. It is also proven that it is equivalent to a novel equation that poses a fascinating similarity to the Sinh-Gordon equation. For the 1+1 Einstein equation the Belinski-Zakharov transformation is explored. It is used to derive explicit formula for N gravitational solitons on arbitrary diagonal background. In particular, the method is used to derive gravitational solitons on the Einstein-Rosen background. The similarities and differences between the attributes of the solitons of the symmetric Chiral field equation and those of the 1+1 Einstein equation are emphasized, and their origin is pointed out. For the 1+2 Einstein equation, new equations describing diagonal metrics are derived and their compatibility is proven. Different gravitational waves are studied that naturally extend the class of Bondi-Pirani-Robinson waves. It is further shown that the Bondi-Pirani-Robinson waves are stable with respect to perturbations of the spacetime. Their stability is closely related to the stability of the Schwarzschild black hole and the relation between the two allows to conjecture about the stability of a wide range of gravitational phenomena. Lastly, a new set of equations that describe weak gravitational waves is derived. This new system of equations is closely and fundamentally connected with the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and can be properly called the nonlinear Schrodinger-Einstein equations. A few preliminary solutions are constructed.

  20. Nonlinearity of bituminous mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiafico, S.; Babadopulos, L. F. A. L.; Sauzéat, C.; Di Benedetto, H.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental characterization of the strain dependency of the complex modulus of bituminous mixtures for strain amplitude levels lower than about 110 μm/m. A series of strain amplitude sweep tests are performed at different temperatures (8, 10, 12 and 14°C) and frequencies (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 Hz), during which complex modulus is monitored. For each combination of temperature and frequency, four maximum strain amplitudes are targeted (50, 75, 100 and 110 μm/m). For each of them, two series of 50 loading cycles are applied, respectively at decreasing and increasing strain amplitudes. Before each decreasing strain sweep and after each increasing strain sweep, 5 cycles are performed at constant maximum targeted strain amplitude. Experimental results show that the behavior of the studied material is strain dependent. The norm of the complex modulus decreases and phase angle increases with strain amplitude. Results are presented in Black and Cole-Cole plots, where characteristic directions of nonlinearity can be identified. Both the effects of nonlinearity in terms of the complex modulus variation and of the direction of nonlinearity in Black space seem to validate the time-temperature superposition principle with the same shift factors as for linear viscoelasticity. The comparison between results obtained during increasing and decreasing strain sweeps suggests the existence of another phenomenon occurring during cyclic loading, which appears to systematically induce a decrease of the norm of the complex modulus and an increase of the phase angle, regardless of the type of the strain sweep (increasing or decreasing).

  1. Nonlinear backreaction in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Stephen Roland

    This thesis, based on two papers by Green and Wald, investigates the problem of nonlinear backreaction in cosmology. We first analyze the problem in a general context by developing a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric (not necessarily a cosmological metric), but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition itself—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Next, we apply our framework to the cosmological context, specializing our background metric to be of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker form. We demonstrate that, in the case of dust matter, a cosmological constant, and vanishing spatial curvature (i.e., our universe today), Newtonian gravity alone provides a good global description of an inhomogeneous general relativistic cosmology, even when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. Namely, we find a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into

  2. Linearization of Nonlinear Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-24

    series. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., CAS-32(11):1150-1171, November 1985. [BC85b] S. Boyd and L. 0. Chua. Uniqueness of circuits and systems containing...Control and Information Sciences vol. 58, p10 1- 1 19 , June 1983. [BC85c] S. Boyd and L. 0. Chua. Volterra series for nonlinear circuits . In Proc. IEEE...ISCAS, Tokyo, June 1985. [BCD84] S. Boyd, L. 0. Chua, and C. A. Desoer . Analytical foundations of Volterra series. IMA Journal of Mathematical

  3. Finite elements of nonlinear continua.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.

  4. Finite elements of nonlinear continua.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.

  5. Nonlinear knowledge-based classification.

    PubMed

    Mangasarian, Olvi L; Wild, Edward W

    2008-10-01

    In this brief, prior knowledge over general nonlinear sets is incorporated into nonlinear kernel classification problems as linear constraints in a linear program. These linear constraints are imposed at arbitrary points, not necessarily where the prior knowledge is given. The key tool in this incorporation is a theorem of the alternative for convex functions that converts nonlinear prior knowledge implications into linear inequalities without the need to kernelize these implications. Effectiveness of the proposed formulation is demonstrated on publicly available classification data sets, including a cancer prognosis data set. Nonlinear kernel classifiers for these data sets exhibit marked improvements upon the introduction of nonlinear prior knowledge compared to nonlinear kernel classifiers that do not utilize such knowledge.

  6. Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media with simultaneous nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption.

    PubMed

    Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-10

    In this paper, the Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media has been further developed when nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction appear simultaneously. To this end, the nonlinear photoinduced phase shift between the impinging and outgoing Gaussian beams from a nonlocal nonlinear sample has been generalized. It is shown that this kind of phase shift will reduce correctly to its known counterpart for the case of pure refractive nonlinearity. Using this generalized form of phase shift, the basic formulas for closed- and open-aperture beam transmittances in the far field have been provided, and a simple procedure for interpreting the Z-scan results has been proposed. In this procedure, by separately performing open- and closed-aperture Z-scan experiments and using the represented relations for the far-field transmittances, one can measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear index of refraction as well as the order of nonlocality. Theoretically, it is shown that when the absorptive nonlinearity is present in addition to the refractive nonlinearity, the sample nonlocal response can noticeably suppress the peak and enhance the valley of the Z-scan closed-aperture transmittance curves, which is due to the nonlocal action's ability to change the beam transverse dimensions.

  7. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging.

    PubMed

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A J; Wilcox, P D

    2014-10-03

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  8. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, J. N.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  9. Measurements of nonlinear optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2003-10-01

    The paper is a tutorial and literature digest of chosen problems connected with specific measurement techniques of nonlinear optical fibers. Such fibers are used more and more frequently in active photonic devices and sources, nonlinear sensors and photonic functional devices. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers are also of concern in optical communications systems. This tutorial bases on (31) report and is supplemented with references digest.

  10. Multilevel Algorithms for Nonlinear Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    NASA Contractor Report 194940 ICASE Report No. 94-53 AD-A284 318 * ICASE MULTILEVEL ALGORITHMSDDTIC FOR NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION ELECTESEP 1 4 1994 F...Association SOperated b MULTILEVEL ALGORITHMS FOR NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION Natalia Alexandrov Accesion For ICASE C Mail Stop 132C NTIS CRA&ID C TAB 1Q...ABSTRACT Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) gives rise to nonlinear optimization problems characterized by a large number of constraints that

  11. Multimodal nonlinear nanophotonics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2017-05-01

    Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field of research with many potential applications for the design of nonlinear nanoantennas, light sources, nanolasers, and ultrafast miniature metadevices. A tight confinement of the local electromagnetic fields in resonant photonic nanostructures can boost nonlinear optical effects, thus offering versatile opportunities for the subwavelength control of light. To achieve the desired functionalities, it is essential to gain flexible control over the near- and far-field properties of nanostructures. To engineer nonlinear scattering from resonant nanoscale elements, both modal and multipolar control of the nonlinear response are widely exploited for enhancing the near-field interaction and optimizing the radiation directionality. Motivated by the recent progress of all-dielectric nanophotonics, where the electric and magnetic multipolar contributions may become comparable, here we review the advances in the recently emerged field of multipolar nonlinear nanophotonics, starting from earlier relevant studies of metallic and metal-dielectric structures supporting localized plasmonic resonances to then discussing the latest results for all-dielectric nanostructures driven by Mie-type multipolar resonances and optically induced magnetic response. These recent developments suggest intriguing opportunities for a design of nonlinear subwavelength light sources with reconfigurable radiation characteristics and engineering large effective optical nonlinearities at the nanoscale, which could have important implications for novel nonlinear photonic devices operating beyond the diffraction limit.

  12. Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1.

  13. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.

  14. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  15. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  16. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

  17. NONLINEAR ATOM OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    T. MILONNI; G. CSANAK; ET AL

    1999-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objectives were to explore theoretically various aspects of nonlinear atom optics effects in cold-atom waves and traps. During the project a major development occurred the observation, by as many as a dozen experimental groups, of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold-atom traps. This stimulated us to focus our attention on those aspects of nonlinear atom optics relating to BEC, in addition to continuing our work on a nonequilibrium formalism for dealing with the interaction of an electromagnetic field with multi-level atomic systems, allowing for macroscopic coherence effects such as BEC. Studies of several problems in BEC physics have been completed or are near completion, including the suggested use of external electric fields to modify the nature of the interatomic interaction in cold-atom traps; properties of two-phase condensates; and molecular loss processes associated with BEC experiments involving a so-called Feshbach resonance.

  18. Nonlinear quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boixo, Sergio

    This dissertation reviews the theory of information geometry as applied to quantum theory, and proposes some new methods for high-precision quantum metrology. Information geometry defines the statistical distance for quantum states. It also solves the problem of optimizing measurements for quantum parameter estimation at a theoretical level. This is summarized by the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, a bound on the mean squared error achievable. The second part of the dissertation reviews and extends some topics in linear quantum metrology. Linear quantum metrology typically considers the problem of estimating an unknown coupling parameter acting with identical single-system couplings for the individual constituents of a quantum probe. We review the relation entangled and sequential protocols. In essence, the entangled protocol can be seen as a formal quantum parallelization of the sequential protocol. We study the case of clock synchronization protocols and show that, perhaps surprisingly, both protocols behave in the same way under general uncorrelated decoherence. We present some applications of the sequential estimation protocol for mixed-state quantum computation. The third part defines nonlinear quantum metrology, where the coupling interaction can have multi-body couplings running over all subsets of constituents of the quantum probe with a given size. We obtain an scaling for parameter estimation that surpasses optimal linear quantum metrology, even with separable initial states of the probe and separable measurements. Interestingly, initial entanglement results in a universal improvement equal to the square root of the size of the probe. We first study with particular detail the case of a coupling between the probe and the unknown parameter of the form J2z , where Jz is an angular momentum operator. Finally, we propose an engineered interaction in a two-mode BEC for which entanglement is not created at any stage. Due to some lucky cancelation between the

  19. Solving Nonlinear Coupled Differential Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, L.; David, J.

    1986-01-01

    Harmonic balance method developed to obtain approximate steady-state solutions for nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. Method usable with transfer matrices commonly used to analyze shaft systems. Solution to nonlinear equation, with periodic forcing function represented as sum of series similar to Fourier series but with form of terms suggested by equation itself.

  20. Nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Larry; Latimer, Kelly

    1988-01-01

    In considering nonlinearities in spacecraft structural dynamics, the following are examined: (1) SCOLE Configuration-Equations of Motion; (2) Modeling Error Sources; (3) Approximate Solutions; (4) Comparison of Model Accuracy; (5) Linear and Nonlinear Damping; (6) Experimental Results; and, (7) Future Work.

  1. Linearization of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, A.; Alvarez, M. L.; Fernandez, E.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for…

  2. Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayergoyz, I.D.

    1996-12-31

    Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.

  3. Chaos synchronization by nonlinear coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petereit, Johannes; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2017-03-01

    We study synchronization properties of three nonlinearly coupled chaotic maps. Coupling is introduced in such a way, that it cannot be reduced to pairwise terms, but includes combined action of all interacting units. For two models of nonlinear coupling we characterize the transition to complete synchrony, as well as partially synchronized states. Relation to hypernetworks of chaotic units is also discussed.

  4. Linearization of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, A.; Alvarez, M. L.; Fernandez, E.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for…

  5. Nonlinear rotordynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, W. B.; Zalik, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Three analytic consequences of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations are examined. The primary application of these analyses is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the Liquid Oxygen (LOX) pump of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) during hot firing ground testing. The first task is to provide bounds on the coefficients of the equations which delimit the two cases of numerical solution as a circle or an annulus. The second task examines the mathematical generalization to multiple forcing functions, which includes the special problems of mass imbalance, side force, rubbing, and combination of these forces. Finally, stability and boundedness of the steady-state solutions is discussed and related to the corresponding linear problem.

  6. Halo Nonlinear Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yu; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li

    2017-10-01

    We apply the nonlinear reconstruction method to simulated halo fields. For halo number density 2.77 × {10}-2 {({h}-1{Mpc})}-3 at z = 0, corresponding to the SDSS main sample density, we find that the scale where the noise saturates the linear signal is improved to k≳ 0.36 h {{Mpc}}-1, which is a factor of 2.29 improvement in scale, or 12 in number of linear modes. The improvement is less for higher redshift or lower halo density. We expect this to substantially improve the BAO accuracy of dense, low-redshift surveys, including the SDSS main sample, 6dFGS and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  7. Solution of Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L. R.

    1960-01-01

    The problem of solving systems of nonlinear equations has been relatively neglected in the mathematical literature, especially in the textbooks, in comparison to the corresponding linear problem. Moreover, treatments that have an appearance of generality fail to discuss the nature of the solutions and the possible pitfalls of the methods suggested. Probably it is unrealistic to expect that a unified and comprehensive treatment of the subject will evolve, owing to the great variety of situations possible, especially in the applied field where some requirement of human or mechanical efficiency is always present. Therefore we attempt here simply to pose the problem and to describe and partially appraise the methods of solution currently in favor.

  8. Coupled nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongyan

    In this dissertation, we study coupled nonlinear dynamical systems that exhibit new types of complex behavior. We numerically and analytically examine a variety of dynamical models, ranging from systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) with novel elements of feedback to systems of partial differential equations (PDE) that model chemical pattern formation. Chaos, dynamical uncertainty, synchronization, and spatiotemporal pattern formation constitute the primary topics of the dissertation. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, we study chaos and dynamical uncertainty in Chapter 2 with coupled Lorenz systems and demonstrate the existence of extreme complexity in high-dimensional ODE systems. In Chapter 3, we demonstrate that chaos synchronization can be achieved by mutual and multiplicative coupling of dynamical systems. Chapter 4 and 5 focus on pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems, and we investigate segregation and integration behavior of populations in competitive and cooperative environments, respectively.

  9. Nonlinear transmission sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitensky, I. S.; Sigmund, P.

    1996-05-01

    General expressions have been derived for the nonlinear yield of transmission sputtering for an incident polyatomic ion under the assumption that the molecule breaks up on entering the target and that sputter yields are enhanced due to proximity of atomic trajectories. Special attention is given to the case of negligible Coulomb explosion where projectile atoms penetrate independently. For weakly overlapping trajectories, the yield enhancement factor of a polyatomic molecule can be expressed by that of a diatom, amended with a correction for triple correlations if necessary. This expression is in good agreement with recent experimental findings on phenylalanine targets. Pertinent results on multiple scattering of atomic ions are reviewed and applied to independently-moving fragment atoms. The merits of measurements at variable layer thickness in addition to variable projectile energy are mentioned.

  10. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shuhua; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Because each nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging modality is sensitive to specific molecules or structures, multimodal NLO imaging capitalizes the potential of NLO microscopy for studies of complex biological tissues. The coupling of multiphoton fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has allowed investigation of a broad range of biological questions concerning lipid metabolism, cancer development, cardiovascular disease, and skin biology. Moreover, recent research shows the great potential of using CARS microscope as a platform to develop more advanced NLO modalities such as electronic-resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and pump-probe microscopy. This article reviews the various approaches developed for realization of multimodal NLO imaging as well as developments of new NLO modalities on a CARS microscope. Applications to various aspects of biological and biomedical research are discussed. PMID:24353747

  11. Nonlinear integrable ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2011-10-01

    Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.

  12. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  13. Nonlinear field space cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    We consider the FRW cosmological model in which the matter content of the Universe (playing the role of an inflaton or quintessence) is given by a novel generalization of the massive scalar field. The latter is a scalar version of the recently introduced nonlinear field space theory, where the physical phase space of a given field is assumed to be compactified at large energies. For our analysis, we choose the simple case of a field with the spherical phase space and endow it with the generalized Hamiltonian analogous to the XXZ Heisenberg model, normally describing a system of spins in condensed matter physics. Subsequently, we study both the homogenous cosmological sector and linear perturbations of such a test field. In the homogenous sector, we find that nonlinearity of the field phase space is becoming relevant for large volumes of the Universe and can lead to a recollapse, and possibly also at very high energies, leading to the phase of a bounce. Quantization of the field is performed in the limit where the nontrivial nature of its phase space can be neglected, while there is a nonvanishing contribution from the Lorentz symmetry breaking term of the Hamiltonian. As a result, in the leading order of the XXZ anisotropy parameter, we find that the inflationary spectral index remains unmodified with respect to the standard case but the total amplitude of perturbations is subject to a correction. The Bunch-Davies vacuum state also becomes appropriately corrected. The proposed new approach is bringing cosmology and condensed matter physics closer together, which may turn out to be beneficial for both disciplines.

  14. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  15. Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.

  16. Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.

  17. Asymptotic expansions in nonlinear rotordynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, William B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an examination of special nonlinearities of the Jeffcott equations in rotordynamics. The immediate application of this analysis is directed toward understanding the excessive vibrations recorded in the LOX pump of the SSME during hot-firing ground testing. Deadband, side force, and rubbing are three possible sources of inducing nonlinearity in the Jeffcott equations. The present analysis initially reduces these problems to the same mathematical description. A special frequency, named the nonlinear natural frequency, is defined and used to develop the solutions of the nonlinear Jeffcott equations as singular asymptotic expansions. This nonlinear natural frequency, which is the ratio of the cross-stiffness and the damping, plays a major role in determining response frequencies.

  18. Basic considerations on surface optical nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Chen, W.; Shen, Y.R.

    1986-01-01

    The origins of the surface nonlinearity in surface second harmonic generation are discussed. It is shown that this second-order nonlinear optical process is characterized by a surface nonlinear susceptibility tensor containing both local and nonlocal contributions.

  19. Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.

  20. Ultrathin gradient nonlinear metasurfaces with giant nonlinear response (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nookala, Nishant; Lee, Jongwon; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Demmerle, Frederic; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus-Christian; Alu, Andrea; Belkin, Mikhail A.

    2016-09-01

    Extending the `flat optics' paradigm to the nonlinear optics faces important challenges, since, for any practical situation, we are required to simultaneously achieve sub-diffraction phase control and efficient frequency conversion in metasurfaces of sub-wavelength thickness. Here, we experimentally demonstrate giant nonlinear response and continuous phase control of the giant nonlinear response in metasurfaces based on plasmonic nanoresonators coupled to intersubband transitions in semiconductor multi-quantum wells. Over 0.075% of second-harmonic power conversion efficiency is achieved experimentally in a 400-nm-thick metasurface using 10 microns wavelength pump with 20 kW/cm2 intensity.

  1. Nonlinear, discrete flood event models, 2. Assessment of statistical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Bryson C.

    1988-05-01

    The first paper (Part 1) of this series presented a Bayesian procedure for the estimation of parameters in nonlinear, discrete flood event models. Part 2 begins with a discussion of the concept of nonlinearity in parameter estimation, its consequences, and the need to assess its extent. Three measures of nonlinearity are considered. They are Beale's measure , a bias calculation , and maximum curvature measures . A case study is presented, using the model and data described in Part 1. The results show quite clearly that care is required in the application of all three measures to calibrated flood models, and in the interpretation of the measured values. Devised by Bates and Watts, 1980.

  2. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  3. Nonlinear multilayers as optical limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Valle, Jennifer Anne

    1998-10-01

    In this work we present a non-iterative technique for computing the steady-state optical properties of nonlinear multilayers and we examine nonlinear multilayer designs for optical limiters. Optical limiters are filters with intensity-dependent transmission designed to curtail the transmission of incident light above a threshold irradiance value in order to protect optical sensors from damage due to intense light. Thin film multilayers composed of nonlinear materials exhibiting an intensity-dependent refractive index are used as the basis for optical limiter designs in order to enhance the nonlinear filter response by magnifying the electric field in the nonlinear materials through interference effects. The nonlinear multilayer designs considered in this work are based on linear optical interference filter designs which are selected for their spectral properties and electric field distributions. Quarter wave stacks and cavity filters are examined for their suitability as sensor protectors and their manufacturability. The underlying non-iterative technique used to calculate the optical response of these filters derives from recognizing that the multi-valued calculation of output irradiance as a function of incident irradiance may be turned into a single-valued calculation of incident irradiance as a function of output irradiance. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of using nonlinear multilayer for optical limiting are examined and future research directions are proposed.

  4. Neurodynamics: nonlinear dynamics and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Abarbanel, H D; Rabinovich, M I

    2001-08-01

    The use of methods from contemporary nonlinear dynamics in studying neurobiology has been rather limited.Yet, nonlinear dynamics has become a practical tool for analyzing data and verifying models. This has led to productive coupling of nonlinear dynamics with experiments in neurobiology in which the neural circuits are forced with constant stimuli, with slowly varying stimuli, with periodic stimuli, and with more complex information-bearing stimuli. Analysis of these more complex stimuli of neural circuits goes to the heart of how one is to understand the encoding and transmission of information by nervous systems.

  5. Nonlinearity in giant depolarizing potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Hironori; Khalilov, Ilgam; Gong, Pulin; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2003-12-01

    Synchronous population discharges in immature neurons, or giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs), are considered to have an important role in the development of the functional network in hippocampus and other neural tissue before or briefly after birth. Recently, theoretical models have emphasized the possible role of chaotic, nonlinear activity at circuit level in establishing functional connectivity in neural tissue. Combining these two hypotheses leads to the prediction that GDPs have chaotic characteristics. We tested nonlinearity in GDPs recorded from transverse hippocampal slices of neonatal Wistar rats. Our results provide evidence of nonlinearity in GDP activity at circuit level.

  6. Nonlinear effects in Thomson backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Tomassini, P.; Serafini, L.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the nonlinear classical effects of the X/γ radiation produced by Thomson/Compton sources. We confirm the development of spectral fringes of the radiation on axis, which comports broadening, shift, and deformation of the spectrum. For the nominal parameters of the SPARC-LAB Thomson scattering and of the European Proposal for the gamma source ELI-NP, however, the radiation, when collected in the suitable acceptance angle, does not reveal many differences from that predicted by the linear model and the nonlinear redshift is subdominant with respect to the quantum recoil. An experiment aimed to the study of the nonlinearities is proposed on the SPARC-LAB source.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, H M; Evans, S J; Quan, W; Chong, M L; Nwasokwa, O

    1996-01-01

    Electrogram recordings of ventricular fibrillation appear complex and possibly chaotic. However, sequences of beat-to-beat intervals obtained from these recordings are generally short, making it difficult to explicitly demonstrate nonlinear dynamics. Motivated by the work of Sugihara on atmospheric dynamics and the Durbin-Watson test for nonlinearity, we introduce a new statistical test that recovers significant dynamical patterns from smoothed lag plots. This test is used to show highly significant nonlinear dynamics in a stable canine model of ventricular fibrillation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8816831

  8. Decentralized nonlinear optimal excitation control

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Xu, Z.; Mochizuki, T.

    1996-11-01

    A design method to lay emphasis on differential geometric approach for decentralized nonlinear optimal excitation control of multimachine systems is suggested in this paper. The control law achieved is implemented via purely local measurements. Moreover, it is independent of the parameters of power networks. Simulations are performed on a six-machine system. It has been demonstrated that the nonlinear optimal excitation control could adapt to the conditions under large disturbances. Besides, this paper has verified that the optimal control in the sense of LQR principle for the linearized system is equivalent to an optimal control in the sense of a quasi-quadratic performance index for the primitive nonlinear control system.

  9. Ordered Polymer Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    DC 20332-6448 LimtNO 140. NO. Pi. 1s. I I IsT6 dna/A II*EUS i fy CIewm.AAA Ordered Polymer Nonlinear Optical Materials 61102F 3005 Al 12. PERSONAL AUT...polymers as nonlinear optical materials . Table 1-2. Effect of Process Conditions on x(3 ) of PBT Sample Description x(3), esu 216.040.01 Biaxially... nonlinear optical materials and. as a result, optical transparency (homogeneity) and optical flatness must be greatly improved 9 * In order to enhance

  10. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  11. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Debojyoti; Constantinescu, Emil M.; Brown, Jed

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  12. Width of nonlinear resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1984-03-01

    Two approximations are made, one essential and the other not so essential but convenient to keep the analytical treatment manageable: (1) Only one nonlinear resonance is considered at a time so that the treatment is best suited when the tune is close to one resonance only. To improve this approximation, one must go to the next order which involves a canonical transformation of dynamical variables. Analytical treatment of more than one resonance is not possible for general cases. (2) In the formalism using the action-angle variables, the Hamiltonian can have terms which are independent of the angle variables. These terms are called phase-independent terms or shear terms. The tune is then a function of the oscillation amplitudes. In the lowest-order treatment, the (4N)-pole components but not the (4N + 2)-pole components contribute to this dependence. In deriving the resonance width analytically, one ignores these terms in the Hamiltonian for the sake of simplicity. If these are retained, one needs at least three extra parameters and the analytical treatment becomes rather unwieldy.

  13. Nonlinear vibrational microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Holtom, Gary R.; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.

  14. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie

    2013-04-23

    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  15. Nonlinear waves: Dynamics and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov-Grekhov, A. V.; Rabinovich, M. I.

    Papers on nonlinear waves are presented, covering topics such as the history of studies on nonlinear dynamics since Poincare, attractors, pattern formation and the dynamics of two-dimensional structures in nonequilibirum dissipative media, the onset of spatial chaos in one-dimensional systems, and self-organization phenomena in laser thermochemistry. Additional topics include criteria for the existence of moving structures in two-component reaction-diffusion systems, space-time structures in optoelectronic devices, stimulated scattering and surface structures, and distributed wave collapse in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Consideration is also given to dimensions and entropies in multidimensional systems, measurement methods for correlation dimensions, quantum localization and dynamic chaos, self-organization in bacterial cells and populations, nonlinear phenomena in condensed matter, and the origin and evolutionary dynamics of Uranian rings.

  16. Nonlinear and quantum atom optics.

    PubMed

    Rolston, S L; Phillips, W D

    2002-03-14

    Coherent matter waves in the form of Bose-Einstein condensates have led to the development of nonlinear and quantum atom optics - the de Broglie wave analogues of nonlinear and quantum optics with light. In nonlinear atom optics, four-wave mixing of matter waves and mixing of combinations of light and matter waves have been observed; such progress culminated in the demonstration of phase-coherent matter-wave amplification. Solitons represent another active area in nonlinear atom optics: these non-dispersing propagating modes of the equation that governs Bose-Einstein condensates have been created experimentally, and observed subsequently to break up into vortices. Quantum atom optics is concerned with the statistical properties and correlations of matter-wave fields. A first step in this area is the measurement of reduced number fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate partitioned into a series of optical potential wells.

  17. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  18. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-10-01

    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  19. Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash

    2016-12-01

    We introduce some Hilbert complexes involving second-order tensors on flat compact manifolds with boundary that describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion in nonlinear elasticity. We then use the general framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these decompositions in nonlinear elasticity, we study the strain compatibility equations of linear and nonlinear elasticity in the presence of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. As an application of these Hilbert complexes in computational mechanics, we briefly discuss the derivation of a new class of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear elasticity.

  20. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

  1. Studies of Nonlinear Problems. I

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fermi, E.; Pasta, J.; Ulam, S.

    1955-05-01

    A one-dimensional dynamical system of 64 particles with forces between neighbors containing nonlinear terms has been studied on the Los Alamos computer MANIAC I. The nonlinear terms considered are quadratic, cubic, and broken linear types. The results are analyzed into Fourier components and plotted as a function of time. The results show very little, if any, tendency toward equipartition of energy among the degrees of freedom.

  2. Nonlinearities in the Quantum Multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Herdeiro, Victor

    2013-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that the multiverse of eternal inflation, string landscape and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics can be identified, yielding a new view on the measure and measurement problems. In the present note, we argue that a nonlinear evolution of observables in the quantum multiverse would be an obstacle for such a description and that these nonlinearities are expected from quite general arguments.

  3. A Nonlinear Transfer Operator Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-02-01

    In recent papers, Kenyon et al. (Ergod Theory Dyn Syst 32:1567-1584 2012), and Fan et al. (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 349:961-964 2011, Adv Math 295:271-333 2016) introduced a form of non-linear thermodynamic formalism based on solutions to a non-linear equation using matrices. In this note we consider the more general setting of Hölder continuous functions.

  4. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.

  5. Quantum and Nonlinear Optical Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Quantum and Nonlinear Optical Imaging Final Report Robert W. Boyd, Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 716-275-2329...boyd@optics.rochester.edu July 1, 2004 Year 1 Accomplishments This project is aimed at developing quantum and nonlinear optical techniques for...importantly began the experimental portion of the research. We showed theoretically that the quantum statistical features of spontaneous parametric

  6. Modeling nonlinearities in MEMS oscillators.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Woodhouse, Jim; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    We present a mathematical model of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) oscillator that integrates the nonlinearities of the MEMS resonator and the oscillator circuitry in a single numerical modeling environment. This is achieved by transforming the conventional nonlinear mechanical model into the electrical domain while simultaneously considering the prominent nonlinearities of the resonator. The proposed nonlinear electrical model is validated by comparing the simulated amplitude-frequency response with measurements on an open-loop electrically addressed flexural silicon MEMS resonator driven to large motional amplitudes. Next, the essential nonlinearities in the oscillator circuit are investigated and a mathematical model of a MEMS oscillator is proposed that integrates the nonlinearities of the resonator. The concept is illustrated for MEMS transimpedance-amplifier- based square-wave and sine-wave oscillators. Closed-form expressions of steady-state output power and output frequency are derived for both oscillator models and compared with experimental and simulation results, with a good match in the predicted trends in all three cases.

  7. Bilinear modeling and nonlinear estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III; Karray, Fakhreddine; Bennett, William H.

    1989-01-01

    New methods are illustrated for online nonlinear estimation applied to the lateral deflection of an elastic beam on board measurements of angular rates and angular accelerations. The development of the filter equations, together with practical issues of their numerical solution as developed from global linearization by nonlinear output injection are contrasted with the usual method of the extended Kalman filter (EKF). It is shown how nonlinear estimation due to gyroscopic coupling can be implemented as an adaptive covariance filter using off-the-shelf Kalman filter algorithms. The effect of the global linearization by nonlinear output injection is to introduce a change of coordinates in which only the process noise covariance is to be updated in online implementation. This is in contrast to the computational approach which arises in EKF methods arising by local linearization with respect to the current conditional mean. Processing refinements for nonlinear estimation based on optimal, nonlinear interpolation between observations are also highlighted. In these methods the extrapolation of the process dynamics between measurement updates is obtained by replacing a transition matrix with an operator spline that is optimized off-line from responses to selected test inputs.

  8. Predictive simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2012-04-01

    Most of the nonlinear ultrasonic studies to date have been experimental, but few theoretical predictive studies exist, especially for Lamb wave ultrasonic. Compared with nonlinear bulk waves and Rayleigh waves, nonlinear Lamb waves for structural health monitoring become more challenging due to their multi-mode dispersive features. In this paper, predictive study of nonlinear Lamb waves is done with finite element simulation. A pitch-catch method is used to interrogate a plate with a "breathing crack" which opens and closes under tension and compression. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) used as transmitter and receiver are modeled with coupled field elements. The "breathing crack" is simulated via "element birth and death" technique. The ultrasonic waves generated by the transmitter PWAS propagate into the structure, interact with the "breathing crack", acquire nonlinear features, and are picked up by the receiver PWAS. The features of the wave packets at the receiver PWAS are studied and discussed. The received signal is processed with Fast Fourier Transform to show the higher harmonics nonlinear characteristics. A baseline free damage index is introduced to assess the presence and the severity of the crack. The paper finishes with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.

  9. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  10. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafranov, V.

    1998-08-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics by Dieter Biskamp is a thorough introduction to the physics of the most impressive non-linear phenomena that occur in conducting magnetoplasmas. The basic systems, in which non-trivial dynamic processes are observed, accompanied by changes of geometry of the magnetic field and the effects of energy transformation (magnetic energy into kinetic energy or the opposite effect in magnetic dynamos), are the plasma magnetic confinement systems for nuclear fusion and space plasmas, mainly the solar plasma. A significant number of the examples of the dynamic processes considered are taken from laboratory plasmas, for which an experimental check of the theory is possible. Therefore, though the book is intended for researchers and students interested in both laboratory, including nuclear fusion, and astrophysical plasmas, it is most probably closer to the first category of reader. In the Introduction the author notes that unlike the hydrodynamics of non-conducting fluids, where the phenomena caused by rapid fluid motions are the most interesting, for plasmas in a strong magnetic field the quasi-static configurations inside which the local dynamic processes occur are often the most important. Therefore, the reader will also find in this book rather traditional material on the theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in magnetic fields. In addition, it is notable that, as opposed to a linear theory, the non-linear theory, as a rule, cannot give quite definite explanations or predictions of phenomena, and consequently there are in the book many results obtained by consideration of numerical models with the use of supercomputers. The treatment of non-linear dynamics is preceded by Chapters 2 to 4, in which the basics of MHD theory are presented with an emphasis on the role of integral invariants of the magnetic helicity type, a derivation of the reduced MHD equations is given, together with examples of the exact solutions of the equilibrium

  12. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant`s lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the

  13. Nonlinear problems in flight dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. T.; Tobak, M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive framework is proposed for the description and analysis of nonlinear problems in flight dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the aerodynamic component as the major source of nonlinearities in the flight dynamic system. Four aerodynamic flows are examined to illustrate the richness and regularity of the flow structures and the nature of the flow structures and the nature of the resulting nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments. A framework to facilitate the study of the aerodynamic system is proposed having parallel observational and mathematical components. The observational component, structure is described in the language of topology. Changes in flow structure are described via bifurcation theory. Chaos or turbulence is related to the analogous chaotic behavior of nonlinear dynamical systems characterized by the existence of strange attractors having fractal dimensionality. Scales of the flow are considered in the light of ideas from group theory. Several one and two degree of freedom dynamical systems with various mathematical models of the nonlinear aerodynamic forces and moments are examined to illustrate the resulting types of dynamical behavior. The mathematical ideas that proved useful in the description of fluid flows are shown to be similarly useful in the description of flight dynamic behavior.

  14. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; Garcia de Abajo, Javier F.

    2016-09-01

    The combination of graphene's intrinsically-high nonlinear optical response with its ability to support long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that couple strongly with light has generated great expectations for application of the atomically-thin material to nanophotonic devices. These expectations are mainly reinforced by classical analyses performed using the response derived from extended graphene, neglecting finite-size and nonlocal effects that become important when the carbon layer is structured on the nanometer scale in actual device designs. Based on a quantum-mechanical description of graphene using tight-binding electronic states combined with the random-phase approximation, we show that finite-size effects produce large contributions that increase the nonlinear response associated with plasmons in nanostructured graphene to significantly higher levels than previously thought, particularly in the case of Kerr-type optical nonlinearities. Motivated by this finding, we discuss and compare saturable absorption in extended and nanostructured graphene, with or without plasmonic enhancement, within the context of passive mode-locking for ultrafast lasers. We also explore the possibility of high-harmonic generation in doped graphene nanoribbons and nanoislands, where illumination by an infrared pulse of moderate intensity, tuned to a plasmon resonance, is predicted to generate light at harmonics of order 13 or higher, extending over the visible and UV regimes. Our atomistic description of graphene's nonlinear optical response reveals its complex nature in both extended and nanostructured systems, while further supporting the exceptional potential of this material for nonlinear nanophotonic devices.

  15. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    High precision estimation and control algorithms, to achieve unprecedented levels of pointing accuracy, will be required to support future formation flying missions such as interferometry missions. Achieving high pointing accuracy requires precise knowledge of the spacecraft rotation rate. Typically, the rotation rate is measured by a gyro. The measured rates can be corrupted by errors in alignment and scale factor, gyro biases, and noise. In this work, we present nonlinear observers for gyro calibration. Nonlinear observers are superior to extended or pseudo-linear Kalman filter type approaches for large errors and global stability. Three nonlinear gyro calibration observers are developed. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. The observers are then combined, and the gyro calibration parameters are estimated simultaneously. The stability of the combined observers is addressed, as well as the stability of the resulting closed loop systems. Simulated test results are presented for each scenario. Finally, the nonlinear observers are compared to a pseudo-linear Kalman filter.

  16. Nonlinear variations in axisymmetric accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Soumyajit; Sengupta, Anindya; Ray, Arnab K.

    2014-05-01

    We subject the stationary solutions of inviscid and axially symmetric rotational accretion to a time-dependent radial perturbation, which includes nonlinearity to any arbitrary order. Regardless of the order of nonlinearity, the equation of the perturbation bears a form that is similar to the metric equation of an analogue acoustic black hole. We bring out the time dependence of the perturbation in the form of a Liénard system by requiring the perturbation to be a standing wave under the second order of nonlinearity. We perform a dynamical systems analysis of the Liénard system to reveal a saddle point in real time, whose implication is that instabilities will develop in the accreting system when the perturbation is extended into the nonlinear regime. We also model the perturbation as a high-frequency traveling wave and carry out a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin analysis, treating nonlinearity iteratively as a very feeble effect. Under this approach, both the amplitude and the energy flux of the perturbation exhibit growth, with the acoustic horizon segregating the regions of stability and instability.

  17. Noise in nonlinear nanomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Noise limits the sensitivity of linear sensors, in a manner that is well understood, but also limits nonlinear systems in a less trivial way. Nonlinear nanomechanical resonators present interesting possibilities for the sensitive detection of forces and masses, but the noise limitations have not been explored much to date. Here we report on noise effects on nonlinear resonators operated in regimes where they have either one or two stable attractors. We have made quantitative measurements of the nonlinear response of a radiofrequency mechanical resonator with very high quality factor, measuring the noise-free transitions between the two attractors, and find good agreement with theory. We measure the transition rate response to controlled levels of white noise, and extract the basin activation energy. This allows us to obtain precise values for the relevant frequencies and the cubic nonlinearity in the Duffing oscillator, with applications to parametric sensing, in particular mass sensing. References: ``Noise-enabled precision measurements of a Duffing nanomechanical resonator,'' J.S. Aldridge and A.N. Cleland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 156403 (2005). ``Thermomechanical noise limits on parametric sensing with nanomechanical resonators,'' A.N. Cleland, New J. Phys. 7, 235 (2005).

  18. Nonlinear Tunneling and Nuclear Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadorf, Christa; Chaffin, Eugene

    2008-10-01

    Recent astrophysical data have indicated a possible variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ = mp/me. Attributing the variation to a change in the strength of the nuclear force, we take into account nonlinear inteactions, such as those originally proposed in 1955 by Johnson and Teller, and examine the resulting change in nuclear half lives. Our Mathematica calculations show the effect of the nonlinear terms by solving the three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation in a model applied to a typical nucleus. We match the radial wavefunction and its derivative for the interior of the nucleus to the Coulomb wavefunctions on the exterior of the nucleus in a generalization of the procedure originally used by Pieronne and Marquez, 1978, but without the nonlinear interactions. The results indicate that the nonlinear interactions, in cases where the number of nodes in the radial wavefunction is poised on a change from one value to another, can cause a large change in half-life for a small change in the strength of the nuclear force.

  19. Ultrasound coefficient of nonlinearity imaging.

    PubMed

    van Sloun, Ruud; Demi, Libertario; Shan, Caifeng; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Imaging the acoustical coefficient of nonlinearity, β, is of interest in several healthcare interventional applications. It is an important feature that can be used for discriminating tissues. In this paper, we propose a nonlinearity characterization method with the goal of locally estimating the coefficient of nonlinearity. The proposed method is based on a 1-D solution of the nonlinear lossy Westerfelt equation, thereby deriving a local relation between β and the pressure wave field. Based on several assumptions, a β imaging method is then presented that is based on the ratio between the harmonic and fundamental fields, thereby reducing the effect of spatial amplitude variations of the speckle pattern. By testing the method on simulated ultrasound pressure fields and an in vitro B-mode ultrasound acquisition, we show that the designed algorithm is able to estimate the coefficient of nonlinearity, and that the tissue types of interest are well discriminable. The proposed imaging method provides a new approach to β estimation, not requiring a special measurement setup or transducer, that seems particularly promising for in vivo imaging.

  20. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  1. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  2. Nonlinear dynamical control of lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    Schwartz Electro-Optics, Inc. (SEO) was awarded this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I program entitled, Nonlinear Dynamical Control of Laser under Contract No. N0001 4-93-C-0053 from the Office of Naval Research (ONR), Arlington, VA. SEO successfully demonstrated stable blue-green output via second harmonic generation (SHG) from a solid state laser using a KNbO3 crystal in an external resonant cavity. The experiments were conducted at SEO, Orlando, Florida while the computer modelling was subcontracted to Dr. Donna Bandy's group at Oklahoma State University (OSU). The physics of lasers and SHG devices and their combination, naturally involves random chaotic fluctuations that can be attributed to the system nonlinearities. Controlling this behavior is demonstrated and a fundamental understanding of the role of the nonlinearities is exploited.

  3. Nonlinear structural crash dynamics analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.; Wittlin, G.; Kamat, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of three nonlinear computer programs, KRASH, ACTION and DYCAST used to analyze the dynamic response of a twin-engine, low-wing airplane section subjected to a 8.38 m/s (27.5 ft/s) vertical impact velocity crash condition. This impact condition simulates the vertical sink rate in a shallow aircraft landing or takeoff accident. The three distinct analysis techniques for nonlinear dynamic response of aircraft structures are briefly examined and compared versus each other and the experimental data. The report contains brief descriptions of the three computer programs, the respective aircraft section mathematical models, pertinent data from the experimental test performed at NASA Langley, and a comparison of the analyses versus test results. Cost and accuracy comparisons between the three analyses are made to illustrate the possible uses of the different nonlinear programs and their future potential.

  4. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-05-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  5. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-03-01

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments, through the use of decoherence spectroscopy. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013). Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: NIST, Boulder, CO.

  6. Gain optimization with nonlinear controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, G. L.; Kandadai, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the analysis and design of controls for nonlinear systems. The technical approach is to use statistical linearization to model the nonlinear dynamics of a system. A covariance analysis is performed to determine the behavior of the dynamical system and a quadratic cost function. Expressions for the cost function and its derivatives are determined so that numerical optimization techniques can be applied to determine optimal feedback laws. The primary application for this report is centered about the design of controls for nominally linear systems but where the controls are saturated or limited by fixed constraints. The analysis is general however and numerical computation requires only that the specific nonlinearity be considered in the analysis.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.N.; Hassam, A.B.; Sageev, R.Z.

    1993-01-01

    This progress report details work done on a program in nonlinear dynamical aspects of plasma turbulence and transport funded by DOE since 1989. This program has been in cooperation with laboratories in theUSSR [now Russia and the Confederation of Independent States (CIS)]. The purpose of this program has been: To promote the utilization of recent pathbreaking developments in nonlinear science in plasma turbulence and transport. To promote cooperative scientific investigations between the US and CIS in the related areas of nonlinear science and plasma turbulence and transport. In the work reported in our progress report, we have studied simple models which are motivated by observation on actual fusion devices. The models focus on the important physical processes without incorporating the complexity of the geometry of real devices. This allows for a deeper analysis and understanding of the system both analytically and numerically.

  8. Gain optimization with nonlinear controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, G. L.; Kandadai, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the analysis and design of controls for nonlinear systems. The technical approach is to use statistical linearization to model the nonlinear dynamics of a system. A covariance analysis is performed to determine the behavior of the dynamical system and a quadratic cost function. Expressions for the cost function and its derivatives are determined so that numerical optimization techniques can be applied to determine optimal feedback laws. The primary application for this report is centered about the design of controls for nominally linear systems but where the controls are saturated or limited by fixed constraints. The analysis is general however and numerical computation requires only that the specific nonlinearity be considered in the analysis.

  9. Nonlinear theory for fishbone modes

    SciTech Connect

    Porcelli, F.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1996-12-31

    We present a nonlinear theory for fishbone activity, on the basis of a recently developed weak turbulence model of beam driven plasma waves with a discrete spectrum near the instability threshold. Fishbone oscillations are triggered by an internal kink mode driven unstable by the resonant interaction with trapped fast ions. We focus on the regime where the mode frequency is close to the thermal ion diamagnetic frequency. In this regime, a (stable) internal kink mode exists in the absence of the fast ions, which can therefore be treated perturbatively. A Lagrangian formalism for the nonlinear wave-particle interaction is used. The oscillatory behavior of the resonant ions trapped in a finite amplitude toroidal wave is discussed on the basis of a nonlinear pendulum model. Numerical estimates of saturation levels and resonant fishbone losses for present Tokamak experiments are obtained.

  10. Shannon's theory in nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killey, Robert I.; Behrens, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    An exponential growth in the capacity of optical networks has taken place over the last decade, but the extent to which future capacity growth can continue is limited by physical laws governing signal propagation through optical fibres. While the classic theory of communication developed by Claude Shannon allows the analytical calculation of information spectral density limits for linear channels with white additive Gaussian noise, the nonlinear nature of optical fibres makes these limits much more difficult to determine for long-haul optical transmission. Accurately predicting the ultimate limits has been the focus of much recent research. This paper describes the sources of linear and nonlinear signal impairments, reviews progress on extending Shannon's theory to the case of nonlinear signal propagation, and discusses new optical and electronic signal processing techniques that may be used to approach the Shannon limit in future networks.

  11. Practical Aspects of Nonlinear Optimization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-19

    14. E. Levitan and B . Polyak, "Constrained Minimization Methods", USSR Comp. Math. and Math. Physics 6, 1, (1966). 15. J. May, "Solving Nonlinear...AD-AIO 858 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB F/G 12/1 PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION.U) JUN 81 R B HOLMES, J W TOLLESON...dj, l<j< m , (2) with the understanding the Q so defined has a non-empty interior (is "solid"). No qualitative assumptions on the objective - i

  12. Quantum Superinductor with Tunable Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. T.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Ioffe, L. B.; Kitaev, A. Yu.; Gershenson, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the realization of a superinductor, a dissipationless element whose microwave impedance greatly exceeds the resistance quantum RQ. The design of the superinductor, implemented as a ladder of nanoscale Josephson junctions, enables tuning of the inductance and its nonlinearity by a weak magnetic field. The Rabi decay time of the superinductor-based qubit exceeds 1μs. The high kinetic inductance and strong nonlinearity offer new types of functionality, including the development of qubits protected from both flux and charge noises, fault tolerant quantum computing, and high-impedance isolation for electrical current standards based on Bloch oscillations.

  13. Prediction of nonlinear soil effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Bonilla, L.F.; Williams, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical models of soil nonlinearity in common use and recently developed nonlinear codes compared to investigate the range of their predictions. We consider equivalent linear formulations with and without frequency-dependent moduli and damping ratios and nonlinear formulations for total and effective stress. Average velocity profiles to 150 m depth with midrange National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classifications (B, BC, C, D, and E) in the top 30 m are used to compare the response of a wide range of site conditions from rock to soft soil. Nonlinear soil models are compared using the amplification spectrum, calculated as the ratio of surface ground motion to the input motion at the base of the velocity profile. Peak input motions from 0.1g to 0.9g are considered. For site class B, no significant differences exist between the models considered in this article. For site classes BC and C, differences are small at low input motions (0.1g to 0.2g), but become significant at higher input levels. For site classes D and E the overdamping of frequencies above about 4 Hz by the equivalent linear solution with frequency-independent parameters is apparent for the entire range of input motions considered. The equivalent linear formulation with frequency-dependent moduli and damping ratios under damps relative to the nonlinear models considered for site class C with larger input motions and most input levels for site classes D and E. At larger input motions the underdamping for site classes D and E is not as severe as the overdamping with the frequency-independent formulation, but there are still significant differences in the time domain. A nonlinear formulation is recommended for site classes D and E and for site classes BC and C with input motions greater than a few tenths of the acceleration of gravity. The type of nonlinear formulation to use is driven by considerations of the importance of water content and the availability of laboratory soils data. Our

  14. Nonlinear control of invisibility cloaking.

    PubMed

    Zharova, Nina A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Zharov, Alexander A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-07-02

    We introduce a new concept of the nonlinear control of invisibility cloaking. We study the scattering properties of multi-shell plasmonic nanoparticles with a nonlinear response of one of the shells, and demonstrate that the scattering cross-section of such particles can be controlled by a power of the incident electromagnetic radiation. More specifically, we can either increase or decrease the scattering cross-section by changing the intensity of the external field, as well as control the scattering efficiently and even reverse the radiation direction.

  15. Nonlinear N=2 global supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Derendinger, Jean-Pierre; Markou, Chrysoula

    2017-06-01

    We study the partial breaking of N=2 global supersymmetry, using a novel formalism that allows for the off-shell nonlinear realization of the broken supersymmetry, extending previous results scattered in the literature. We focus on the Goldstone degrees of freedom of a massive N=1 gravitino multiplet which are described by deformed N=2 vector and single-tensor superfields satisfying nilpotent constraints. We derive the corresponding actions and study the interactions of the superfields involved, as well as constraints describing incomplete N=2 matter multiplets of non-linear supersymmetry (vectors and single-tensors).

  16. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  17. Nonlinear coherent destruction of tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Xiaobing; Xie Qiongtao; Wu Biao

    2007-11-15

    We study theoretically two coupled periodically curved optical waveguides with Kerr nonlinearity. We find that the tunneling between the waveguides can be suppressed in a wide range of parameters. This suppression of tunneling is found to be related to the coherent destruction of tunneling in a linear medium, which in contrast occurs only at isolated parameter points. Therefore, we call this suppression nonlinear coherent destruction of tunneling. This localization phenomenon can be observed readily with current experimental capability; it may also be observable in a different physical system, the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  18. Generation of Nonlinear Vortex Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Feng, Xun-Li; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-07-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex harmonics are generated in the transmitted field due to carrier effects associated with ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provides a straightforward way to measure precursors. By virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical information and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity, and high speed communication are required.

  19. Edge detection by nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yiu-fai

    1994-07-01

    We demonstrate how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, our scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step-edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  20. Nonlinear damping of zonal flows

    SciTech Connect

    Koshkarov, O. Smolyakov, A. I.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2016-08-15

    The modulatonal instability theory for the generation of large-scale (zonal) modes by drift modes has been extended to the second order including the effects of finite amplitude zonal flows, ϕ{sub q}. The nonlinear (second-order) sidebands are included in the perturbative expansion to derive the nonlinear equation for the evolution of ϕ{sub q}. It is shown that effects of finite ϕ{sub q} reduce the growth rate of zonal flow with a possibility of oscillatory regimes at a later stage.

  1. Universe acceleration and nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with a dimensional parameter β coupled to gravity is considered. We show that an accelerated expansion of the universe takes place if the nonlinear electromagnetic field is the source of the gravitational field. A pure magnetic universe is investigated, and the magnetic field drives the universe to accelerate. In this model, after the big bang, the universe undergoes inflation and the accelerated expansion and then decelerates approaching Minkowski spacetime asymptotically. We demonstrate the causality of the model and a classical stability at the deceleration phase.

  2. Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.

    2010-12-10

    We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

  3. Solutions of the cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Ding, Chunling; Lü, Xin-You; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical nonlinear optics is a burgeoning research area which describes cylindrical electromagnetic wave propagation in nonlinear media. Finding new exact solutions for different types of nonlinearity and inhomogeneity to describe cylindrical electromagnetic wave propagation is of great interest and meaningful for theory and application. This paper gives exact solutions for the cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations and presents an interesting connection between the exact solutions for different cylindrical nonlinear Maxwell equations. We also provide some examples and discussion to show the application of the results we obtained. Our results provide the basis for solving complex systems of nonlinearity and inhomogeneity with simple systems.

  4. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z. B.; Wang, Lu; Wang, X. G.

    2015-02-01

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ωpr e˜x1 /3ξ̂ψ,i n 2 /3n , with x position in radial direction, ξ̂ ψ,i n strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  5. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Gomez-Diaz, J. Sebastian; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Alù, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multiquantum-well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wave front at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wave front control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  6. Gradient Nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Gomez-Diaz, J Sebastian; Lee, Jongwon; Nookala, Nishant; Belkin, Mikhail A; Alù, Andrea

    2015-11-13

    We apply the Pancharatnam-Berry phase approach to plasmonic metasurfaces loaded by highly nonlinear multiquantum-well substrates, establishing a platform to control the nonlinear wave front at will based on giant localized nonlinear effects. We apply this approach to design flat nonlinear metasurfaces for efficient second-harmonic radiation, including beam steering, focusing, and polarization manipulation. Our findings open a new direction for nonlinear optics, in which phase matching issues are relaxed, and an unprecedented level of local wave front control is achieved over thin devices with giant nonlinear responses.

  7. Nonlinear connectivity by Granger causality.

    PubMed

    Marinazzo, Daniele; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu; Stramaglia, Sebastiano

    2011-09-15

    The communication among neuronal populations, reflected by transient synchronous activity, is the mechanism underlying the information processing in the brain. Although it is widely assumed that the interactions among those populations (i.e. functional connectivity) are highly nonlinear, the amount of nonlinear information transmission and its functional roles are not clear. The state of the art to understand the communication between brain systems are dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Granger causality. While DCM models nonlinear couplings, Granger causality, which constitutes a major tool to reveal effective connectivity, and is widely used to analyze EEG/MEG data as well as fMRI signals, is usually applied in its linear version. In order to capture nonlinear interactions between even short and noisy time series, a few approaches have been proposed. We review them and focus on a recently proposed flexible approach has been recently proposed, consisting in the kernel version of Granger causality. We show the application of the proposed approach on EEG signals and fMRI data.

  8. Periodic motion in nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how some basic ideas from system theory and differential geometry can be used to establish some new results on the existence of periodic motion in autonomous feedback systems. The conditions are expressed in terms of the frequency response characteristic of the open-loop system and certain general properties of the nonlinearities.

  9. Oscillations in nonlinear feedback systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown how some basic ideas from system theory and differential geometry can be used to establish new results concerning the existance of oscillations for autonomous feedback systems. The conditions obtained are expressed in terms of the frequency response characteristic of the open-loop system and certain general properties of the nonlinearity.

  10. Oscillatons formed by nonlinear gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Obregon, Octavio; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo; Schunck, Franz E.

    2005-07-15

    Oscillatons are solutions of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations that are globally regular and asymptotically flat. By means of a Legendre transformation we are able to visualize the behavior of the corresponding objects in nonlinear gravity where the scalar field has been absorbed by means of the conformal mapping.

  11. Nonlinear resonance. [Univ. of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    A brief summary of progress is given in the following areas: sustained resonance in non-Hamiltonian systems, two simultaneous sustained resonances, bursting oscillators, and the interaction of a strong shock with weak disturbances. Work will encompass linearly unstable, weakly nonlinear waves.

  12. Peakompactons: Peaked compact nonlinear waves

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan C.; Kress, Tyler; Saxena, Avadh

    2017-04-20

    This paper is meant as an accessible introduction to/tutorial on the analytical construction and numerical simulation of a class of nonstandard solitary waves termed peakompactons. We present that these peaked compactly supported waves arise as solutions to nonlinear evolution equations from a hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive Korteweg–de Vries-type models. Peakompactons, like the now-well-known compactons and unlike the soliton solutions of the Korteweg–de Vries equation, have finite support, i.e., they are of finite wavelength. However, unlike compactons, peakompactons are also peaked, i.e., a higher spatial derivative suffers a jump discontinuity at the wave’s crest. Here, we construct such solutions exactly bymore » reducing the governing partial differential equation to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation and employing a phase-plane analysis. Lastly, a simple, but reliable, finite-difference scheme is also designed and tested for the simulation of collisions of peakompactons. In addition to the peakompacton class of solutions, the general physical features of the so-called K#(n,m) hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive Korteweg–de Vries-type models are discussed as well.« less

  13. Observation of Nonlinear Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kotseroglou, T.

    2003-12-19

    This experiment tests Quantum Electrodynamics in the strong field regime. Nonlinear Compton scattering has been observed during the interaction of a 46.6 GeV electron beam with a 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam. The strength of the field achieved was measured by the parameter {eta} = e{var_epsilon}{sub rms}/{omega}mc = 0.6. Data were collected with infrared and green laser photons and circularly polarized laser light. The timing stabilization achieved between the picosecond laser and electron pulses has {sigma}{sub rms} = 2 ps. A strong signal of electrons that absorbed up to 4 infrared photons (or up to 3 green photons) at the same point in space and time, while emitting a single gamma ray, was observed. The energy spectra of the scattered electrons and the nonlinear dependence of the electron yield on the field strength agreed with the simulation over 3 orders of magnitude. The detector could not resolve the nonlinear Compton scattering from the multiple single Compton scattering which produced rates of scattered electrons of the same order of magnitude. Nevertheless, a simulation has studied this difference and concluded that the scattered electron rates observed could not be accounted for only by multiple ordinary Compton scattering; nonlinear Compton scattering processes are dominant for n {ge} 3.

  14. Nonlinear wavetrains in viscous conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiden, Michelle; Hoefer, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Viscous fluid conduits provide an ideal system for the study of dissipationless, dispersive hydrodynamics. A dense, viscous fluid serves as the background medium through which a lighter, less viscous fluid buoyantly rises. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable pipe forms. The long wave interfacial dynamics are well-described by a dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. In this talk, experiments, numerics, and asymptotics of the viscous fluid conduit system will be presented. Structures at multiple length scales are discussed, including solitons, dispersive shock waves, and periodic waves. Modulations of periodic waves will be explored in the weakly nonlinear regime with the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. Modulational instability (stability) is identified for sufficiently short (long) periodic waves due to a change in dispersion curvature. These asymptotic results are confirmed by numerical simulations of perturbed nonlinear periodic wave solutions. Also, numerically observed are envelope bright and dark solitons well approximated by NLS. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).

  15. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manvelyan, Ruben; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-05-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  16. Quantum nonlinear optics without photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassi, Roberto; Macrı, Vincenzo; Kockum, Anton Frisk; Di Stefano, Omar; Miranowicz, Adam; Savasta, Salvatore; Nori, Franco

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous parametric down-conversion is a well-known process in quantum nonlinear optics in which a photon incident on a nonlinear crystal spontaneously splits into two photons. Here we propose an analogous physical process where one excited atom directly transfers its excitation to a pair of spatially separated atoms with probability approaching 1. The interaction is mediated by the exchange of virtual rather than real photons. This nonlinear atomic process is coherent and reversible, so the pair of excited atoms can transfer the excitation back to the first one: the atomic analog of sum-frequency generation of light. The parameters used to investigate this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in ultrastrong circuit quantum electrodynamics. This approach can be extended to realize other nonlinear interatomic processes, such as four-atom mixing, and is an attractive architecture for the realization of quantum devices on a chip. We show that four-qubit mixing can efficiently implement quantum repetition codes and, thus, can be used for error-correction codes.

  17. Multilevel algorithms for nonlinear optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Dennis, J. E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) gives rise to nonlinear optimization problems characterized by a large number of constraints that naturally occur in blocks. We propose a class of multilevel optimization methods motivated by the structure and number of constraints and by the expense of the derivative computations for MDO. The algorithms are an extension to the nonlinear programming problem of the successful class of local Brown-Brent algorithms for nonlinear equations. Our extensions allow the user to partition constraints into arbitrary blocks to fit the application, and they separately process each block and the objective function, restricted to certain subspaces. The methods use trust regions as a globalization strategy, and they have been shown to be globally convergent under reasonable assumptions. The multilevel algorithms can be applied to all classes of MDO formulations. Multilevel algorithms for solving nonlinear systems of equations are a special case of the multilevel optimization methods. In this case, they can be viewed as a trust-region globalization of the Brown-Brent class.

  18. Conformal invariant vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. I.; Dolgaya, E. E.; Sokolov, V. A.; Denisova, I. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a general case of conformal invariant vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics is studied. We analyze the consistency of this electrodynamics model with fundamental principles such as causality, unitarity, and the Ellis-Hawking dominant energy condition. Certain features of the electromagnetic waves in this model are investigated.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Drake, J.F.; Finn, J.M.; Guzdar, P.N.; Hassam, A.B.; Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the progress made over the last year in three different areas of research: (a) shear flow generation and reduced transport in fluids and plasma, (b) nonlinear dynamics and visualization of 3D flows, and (c) application of wavelet analysis to the study of fractal dimensions in experimental and numerical data.

  20. Nonlinear analysis of drought dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, M.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is an extreme natural hazard and becomes a severe problem in the world. It arises as a result of interactions between climate input and human activity, displaying the nonlinearity and complexity. Nonlinear time series analyses open a way to study the underlying dynamic characteristics of drought, and then provide the forward knowledge to understanding the physical mechanism of drought event. The rationale behind this idea is that information about the representation of nonlinear properties could be used as an additional quality indicator. To that end, the correlation dimension method, a powerful nonlinear time series analysis method based on the chaos theory, has been suggested to assess the intrinsic dimensionality or degree of freedom of time series according to Takens (1981). It can provide an assessment of the dominant processes that is required to map the observed dynamics. In this study, daily discharge and hourly groundwater level data of 63 catchments in Germany and China were investigated with correlation dimension method. The results indicated that the correlation dimension values of studied discharge exhibited none clear spatial patterns, but showed significant correlations with the spatial heterogeneity within the catchments. In contrast, the correlation dimension values of groundwater level displayed spatial patterns due to the different aquifer conditions (confined or unconfined). High correlation dimension values indicate partly confined conditions. In addition, Hurst analysis was involved to qualify the persistence of drought. It seems that drought mechanisms can be learnt from the data themselves in an inverse manner.

  1. Diphenylpolyynes For Nonlinear Optical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Perry, Joseph W.; Coulter, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Several diphenylpolyyne compounds found to exhibit second-order nonlinear electric susceptibilities and chemical structures conducive to orientation in appropriate chemical environments. These features make new materials suitable for use in optical devices. Diphenylacetylene links give molecules rodlike characteristics making them amenable to orientation by suspension in liquid crystals. New molecules also have inherent liquid-crystalline properties enabling them to be oriented directly.

  2. Interactive graphics nonlinear constrained optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saouma, V. E.; Sikiotis, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive computer graphics environment was used for nonlinear constrained optimization analysis. It is found that by combining the power of a digital computer with the subtlety of engineering judgment during program execution, final results can be substantially better than the ones achieved by the numerical algorithm by itself.

  3. Peakompactons: Peaked compact nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Kress, Tyler; Saxena, Avadh

    2017-04-01

    This paper is meant as an accessible introduction to/tutorial on the analytical construction and numerical simulation of a class of nonstandard solitary waves termed peakompactons. These peaked compactly supported waves arise as solutions to nonlinear evolution equations from a hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive Korteweg-de Vries-type models. Peakompactons, like the now-well-known compactons and unlike the soliton solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, have finite support, i.e., they are of finite wavelength. However, unlike compactons, peakompactons are also peaked, i.e., a higher spatial derivative suffers a jump discontinuity at the wave’s crest. Here, we construct such solutions exactly by reducing the governing partial differential equation to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation and employing a phase-plane analysis. A simple, but reliable, finite-difference scheme is also designed and tested for the simulation of collisions of peakompactons. In addition to the peakompacton class of solutions, the general physical features of the so-called K#(n,m) hierarchy of nonlinearly dispersive Korteweg-de Vries-type models are discussed as well.

  4. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  5. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.

  6. Organic and Nonlinear Optical Materials Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Nonlinear Optical Materials Cymposium ~. ~X~mJI(.!)61102F 2303 A3 David J. Willimas P thCI’ OJi6 Z;AO IJMI() AI’D Ab6DiiSS(FS...Miyata Design of Nonlinear Optical Materials of Guest-Host Systems C. S. Willand Molecular Hyperpolarizabilities of Molecules Containing Sulfone Electron...Molecular Design of Conjugated Systems for Nonlinear Optics T. A. Skotheim Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Poly(3-alkyl thiophenes) as Nonlinear Optical Materials

  7. Nonlinear Behavior in Optical and Other Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    numerical analysis). Others will be devoted to ’state of the art ’ discussions of specific problems (e.g. nonlinear waveguides, Anderson localization). It is...Nonlinearity and Statistical Physics. Approximate Cost of Workshop: $5,312. STATE OF THE ART DEVELOPMfENTS IN NONLINEAR OPTICS Organizers: J. Moloney, A... Art Developments in Nonlinear Optics V. List of Preprints and Reprints with Abstracts ANTICIPATED WORKSHOPS 1987 - 1988 I. Workshop on Singularities

  8. Unsymmetrical squaraines for nonlinear optical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Chen, Chin-Ti (Inventor); Cheng, Lap-Tak (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Compositions for use in non-linear optical devices. The compositions have first molecular electronic hyperpolarizability (.beta.) either positive or negative in sign and therefore display second order non-linear optical properties when incorporated into non-linear optical devices.

  9. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  10. Introducing Nonlinear Pricing into Consumer Choice Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSalvo, Joseph S.; Huq, Mobinul

    2002-01-01

    Describes and contrasts nonlinear and linear pricing in consumer choice theory. Discusses the types of nonlinear pricing: block-declining tariff, two-part tariff, three-part tariff, and quality discounts or premia. States that understanding nonlinear pricing enhances student comprehension of consumer choice theory. Suggests teaching the concept in…

  11. From Nonlinear to Hamiltonian via Feedback1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    distribution unlimited. 13. Abstract Mechanical control systems are a very important class of nonlinear control systems . They posses a rich mathematical...methodologies developed for mechanical control systel logically rendering nonlinear control systems , mechanical by a proper choice of feedback. In particular, w...OF PA Nonlinear mechanical control systems , Hamiltonian Control Systems x 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19

  12. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  13. Spatial Beam Dynamics Mediated by Hybrid Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lou, Cibo; Hu, Yi; Liu, Sheng; Zhao, Jianlin; Xu, Jingjun; Chen, Zhigang

    We provide a brief overview of recent progresses on the study of a new type of nonlinearity, named hybrid nonlinearity: the coexistence of self-focusing and self-defocusing nonlinearities in the same material under identical conditions. Such hybrid nonlinearity is established in a nonconventionally biased photorefractive crystal, which offers enhanced anisotropy and nonlocality, leading to a variety of unusual nonlinear beam dynamics in both continuous and discrete regimes. In homogenous media, elliptical optical solitons, stabilization of nonlinear optical vortices, as well as orientation-induced transition between bright and dark solitons are demonstrated. In discrete media, hybrid nonlinearity enables the creation of an ionic-type photonic lattice with alternating positive and negative optical potentials, which in turn enables the reconfiguration of lattice structures and Brillouin zones for band-gap engineering and light manipulation. Moreover, a host of nonlinear discrete localized states mediated by such hybrid nonlinearity are uncovered, including elliptical discrete solitons and "saddle" solitons. The novel concept of hybrid nonlinearity opens a door for exploring spatial beam dynamics and related nonlinear phenomena in anisotropic nonlinear systems beyond optics.

  14. Lie symmetries and solitons in nonlinear systems with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Pérez-García, Víctor M; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Torres, Pedro J

    2007-02-09

    Using Lie group theory and canonical transformations, we construct explicit solutions of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities. We present the general theory, use it to show that localized nonlinearities can support bound states with an arbitrary number solitons, and discuss other applications of interest to the field of nonlinear matter waves.

  15. A design methodology for nonlinear systems containing parameter uncertainty: Application to nonlinear controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G.

    1982-01-01

    A design methodology capable of dealing with nonlinear systems, such as a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), containing parameter uncertainty is discussed. The methodology was applied to the design of discrete time nonlinear controllers. The nonlinear controllers can be used to control either linear or nonlinear systems. Several controller strategies are presented to illustrate the design procedure.

  16. Nonlinear polarization rotation of two types of vector beams through isotropic Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bing; Wen, Bo; Rui, Guanghao; Cui, Yiping

    2017-06-01

    We report a theoretical investigation of the spatial self-phase modulation (SSPM) effect and nonlinear ellipse rotation of both hybridly polarized vector beams and elliptically polarized vector beams through isotropic Kerr nonlinearities. It is demonstrated that the SSPM intensity pattern, the distribution of state of polarization, and the spin angular momentum (SAM) flux of a hybridly polarized vector beam could be manipulated by tuning the magnitude of the isotropic optical nonlinearity. Interestingly, we observed the radial-variant nonlinear ellipse rotation of elliptically polarized vector beams through isotropic Kerr nonlinearities. Our results may find interesting applications in nonlinear mechanism analysis, nonlinear characterization technique, and SAM manipulation.

  17. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  18. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in rectangular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a rectangular duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear materials attenuate sound more than linear materials except at high acoustic frequencies. The nonlinear materials produce higher and combination tones which have higher attenuation rates than the fundamentals. Moreover, the attenuation rates of the fundamentals increase with increasing amplitude.

  19. The nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, P.; Kerschen, G.

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new feature of the NPTVA is that its nonlinear restoring force is designed according to a principle of similarity, i.e., the NPTVA should be an electrical analog of the nonlinear host system. Analytical formulas for the NPTVA parameters are derived using the homotopy perturbation method. Doing so, a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog’s equal-peak tuning rule is developed for piezoelectric vibration absorbers.

  20. Nonlinear interaction of plane elastic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, V.A.; Nihei, K.T.; Myer, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents basic first order results of nonlinear elastic theory by Murnaghan for elastic wave propagation in isotropic solids. The authors especially address the problem of resonant scattering of two collimated beams and present analytical solutions for amplitudes of all possible types of resonant interactions for elastic plane waves. For estimation of nonlinear scattered waves they use measured elastic parameters for sandstone. The most profound nonlinear effect is expected for interactions of two SH waves generating compressional P wave at sum frequency. Estimations show that nonlinear phenomena is likely to be observed in seismic data. Basic equations of nonlinear five-constant theory by Murnaghan are also presented.

  1. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303

  2. Nonlinear oscillatory processes in wheeled vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhlin, Yu. V.; Mitrokhin, S. G.

    2011-04-01

    The free damped vibrations of a wheeled vehicle with independent suspension are analyzed with allowance for the nonlinear characteristics of the suspension springs and shock absorbers. The vibrations of a wheeled vehicle with a suspension with smooth nonlinear characteristics are studied for a model with seven degrees of freedoms. The skeleton curves and nonlinear normal modes are obtained. For a model with two degrees of freedoms (quarter-car) that corresponds to axisymmetric vibrations, the nonlinear normal modes are found in the case of a shock absorber with nonsmooth nonlinear characteristic

  3. Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics.

  4. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  5. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  6. Nonlinear growth of periodic patterns.

    PubMed

    Villain-Guillot, Simon; Josserand, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    We study the growth of a periodic pattern in one dimension for a model of spinodal decomposition, the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We particularly focus on the intermediate region, where the nonlinearity cannot be neglected anymore, and before the coalescence dominates. The dynamics is captured through the standard technique of a solubility condition performed over a particular family of quasistatic solutions. The main result is that the dynamics along this particular class of solutions can be expressed in terms of a simple ordinary differential equation. The density profile of the stationary regime found at the end of the nonlinear growth is also well characterized. Numerical simulations correspond satisfactorily to the analytical results through three different methods and asymptotic dynamics are well recovered, even far from the region where the approximations hold.

  7. Condition assessment of nonlinear processes

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.

  8. Nonlinear acoustics in diagnostic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Duck, Francis A

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of ultrasonic waves is nonlinear. Phenomena associated with the propagation of diagnostic ultrasound pulses cannot be predicted using linear assumptions alone. These include a progressive distortion in waveform, the generation of frequency harmonics and acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation, such as water, amniotic fluid or urine. Within soft tissues, similar effects occur, although they are limited by absorption and scattering. Nonlinear effects are of considerable importance during acoustic measurements, especially when these are used to predict in situ exposure. Harmonic generation may be used to create images. These offer improvements over conventional B-mode images in spatial resolution and, more significantly, in the suppression of acoustic clutter and side-lobe artifacts. B/A has promise as a parameter for tissue characterisation, but methods for imaging B/A have shown limited success.

  9. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.

    2008-11-05

    Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).

  10. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  11. Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Frank; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2009-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Introduction to volume three; 1. The effects of coloured quadratic noise on a turbulent transition in liquid He II J. T. Tough; 2. Electrohydrodynamic instability of nematic liquid crystals: growth process and influence of noise S. Kai; 3. Suppression of electrohydrodynamic instabilities by external noise Helmut R. Brand; 4. Coloured noise in dye laser fluctuations R. Roy, A. W. Yu and S. Zhu; 5. Noisy dynamics in optically bistable systems E. Arimondo, D. Hennequin and P. Glorieux; 6. Use of an electronic model as a guideline in experiments on transient optical bistability W. Lange; 7. Computer experiments in nonlinear stochastic physics Riccardo Mannella; 8. Analogue simulations of stochastic processes by means of minimum component electronic devices Leone Fronzoni; 9. Analogue techniques for the study of problems in stochastic nonlinear dynamics P. V. E. McClintock and Frank Moss; Index.

  12. Nonlinear mechanics of rigidifying curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Mosleh, Salem; Santangelo, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Thin shells are characterized by a high cost of stretching compared to bending. As a result isometries of the midsurface of a shell play a crucial role in their mechanics. In turn, curves on the midsurface with zero normal curvature play a critical role in determining the number and behavior of isometries. In this paper, we show how the presence of these curves results in a decrease in the number of linear isometries. Paradoxically, shells are also known to continuously fold more easily across these rigidifying curves than other curves on the surface. We show how including nonlinearities in the strain can explain these phenomena and demonstrate folding isometries with explicit solutions to the nonlinear isometry equations. In addition to explicit solutions, exact geometric arguments are given to validate and guide our analysis in a coordinate-free way.

  13. Nonlinear equations of 'variable type'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, N. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ianenko, N. N.

    In this monograph, new scientific results related to the theory of equations of 'variable type' are presented. Equations of 'variable type' are equations for which the original type is not preserved within the entire domain of coefficient definition. This part of the theory of differential equations with partial derivatives has been developed intensively in connection with the requirements of mechanics. The relations between equations of the considered type and the problems of mathematical physics are explored, taking into account quasi-linear equations, and models of mathematical physics which lead to equations of 'variable type'. Such models are related to transonic flows, problems involving a separation of the boundary layer, gasdynamics and the van der Waals equation, shock wave phenomena, and a combustion model with a turbulent diffusion flame. Attention is also given to nonlinear parabolic equations, and nonlinear partial differential equations of the third order.

  14. Nonlinear Waves and Inverse Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-18

    problems. Research is really two pronged. It is necessary for us to understand and effectively solve both classical and new direct and inverse scattering... descoveries employed IST in one spatial dimension, we have developed effective procedures to carry forth the method for multidimensional problems. In one...Employing IST we have been able to find new solutions to physically interesting multidimensional nonlinear wave equations. The method requires a

  15. Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.

  16. Generalized synchronization via nonlinear control.

    PubMed

    Juan, Meng; Xingyuan, Wang

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, the generalized synchronization problem of drive-response systems is investigated. Using the drive-response concept and the nonlinear control theory, a control law is designed to achieve the generalized synchronization of chaotic systems. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a generalized synchronization condition is derived. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations further demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  17. Nonlinear Optics and Organic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    unmatched brilliance both probes a nd inelh~" ...) / these novel effects . A detailed understanding of the nature ,S .i of light, and how it interacts with...matter, is essential to evince these effects . Although everyday optical tools- windowpanes and eyeglasses-may remain unaffected, " such delicate...use the same pair of binoculars to focus on a faint star at night and a bird in daylight (1, 2). Intensity-dependent nonlinear effects However, when

  18. Nonlinear Waves and Inverse Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    5) Numerical Simulation of the Modified Korteweg - deVries Equation , Thiab R. Taha and M.J. Ablowitz, 6th International Symposium on Computer Methods in... solved by the IST method. . Numerically Induced Chaos) /i We have been studying a class of non ’linear equations and their discrete approximations...Certain Nonlinear Evolution Equations IV, Numerical, Modified Korteweg -de Vries Equation , T.R. Taha and M.J. Ablowitz, J. Comp. Physics, Vol. 77, No

  19. Nonlinear Filtering and Approximation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Shwartz), Academic Press (1991). [191 M.Cl. ROUTBAUD, Fiting lindairc par morceaux avec petit bruit d’obserration, These. Universit6 de Provence ( 1990...Kernel System (GKS), Academic Press (1983). 181 H.J. KUSHNER, Probability methods for approximations in stochastic control and for elliptic equations... Academic Press (1977). [9] F. LE GLAND, Time discretization of nonlinear filtering equations, in: 28th. IEEE CDC, Tampa, pp. 2601-2606. IEEE Press (1989

  20. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  1. Linear superposition in nonlinear equations.

    PubMed

    Khare, Avinash; Sukhatme, Uday

    2002-06-17

    Several nonlinear systems such as the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified KdV equations and lambda phi(4) theory possess periodic traveling wave solutions involving Jacobi elliptic functions. We show that suitable linear combinations of these known periodic solutions yield many additional solutions with different periods and velocities. This linear superposition procedure works by virtue of some remarkable new identities involving elliptic functions.

  2. A nonlinear SIR with stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisilowati, Darti, I.; Fitri, S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of a nonlinear susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) epidemic model with vaccination. We analyze the stability of the model by linearizing the model around the equilibrium point. Then, diphtheria data from East Java province is fitted to the model. From these estimated parameters, we investigate which parameters that play important role in the epidemic model. Some numerical simulations are given to illustrate the analytical results and the behavior of the model.

  3. Nonlinear transient simulation of transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrat, L.; Tran-Quoc, T. |; Montmeat, A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a nonlinear model of transformer which takes into account both the saturation and the hysteresis is proposed. In order to simulate transient phenomena in transformers, a system of equations is presented. The digital simulation of the energization and de-energization of a three-phase distribution transformer is studied. Ferroresonant phenomena in iron core transformers supplied through capacitive links are presented. Finally, the influence of MOV arresters on overvoltage reduction is investigated.

  4. Dynamic behavior of nonlinear networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Huberman, B. A.

    1983-08-01

    We study the global dynamics of nonlinear networks made up of synchronous threshold elements. By writing a master equation for the system, we obtain an expression for the time dependence of its activity as a function of parameter values. We show that with both excitatory and inhibitory couplings, a network can display collective behavior which can be either multiple periodic or deterministic chaotic, a result that appears to be quite general.

  5. Dynamical Imaging using Spatial Nonlinearity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-29

    a 532nm laser is incident on a resolution chart followed by a holographic diffuser. A lens then images the resolution chart onto a photorefractive... laser sources), a Hamiltonian or eikonal description of wave evolution is suitable[51]. Accordingly, any (nonlinear) dynamics that can benefit from a...terms of imaging, the results generalized the field of computational imaging, on both the device and algorithmic levels. They also introduced many new

  6. Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.

  7. spin pumping occurred under nonlinear spin precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Xue, Desheng

    Spin pumping occurs when a pure-spin current is injected into a normal metal thin layer by an adjacent ferromagnetic metal layer undergoing ferromagnetic resonance, which can be understood as the inverse effect of spin torque, and gives access to the physics of magnetization dynamics and damping. An interesting question is that whether spin pumping occurring under nonlinear spin dynamics would differ from linear case. It is known that nonlinear spin dynamics differ distinctly from linear response, a variety of amplitude dependent nonlinear effect would present. It has been found that for spin precession angle above a few degrees, nonlinear damping term would present and dominated the dynamic energy/spin-moment dissipation. Since spin pumping are closely related to the damping process, it is interesting to ask whether the nonlinear damping term could be involved in spin pumping process. We studied the spin pumping effect occurring under nonlinear spin precession. A device which is a Pt/YIG microstrip coupled with coplanar waveguide was used. High power excitation resulted in spin precession entering in a nonlinear regime. Foldover resonance lineshape and nonlinear damping have been observed. Based on those nonlinear effects, we determined the values of the precession cone angles, and the maximum cone angle can reach a values as high as 21.5 degrees. We found that even in nonlinear regime, spin pumping is still linear, which means the nonlinear damping and foldover would not affect spin pumping process.

  8. Optical nonlinearities in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Metals exhibit strong and fast nonlinearities making metallic, plasmonic, structures very promising for ultrafast all-optical applications at low light intensities. Combining metallic nanostructures in metamaterials provides additional functionalities via prospect of precise engineering of spectral response and dispersion. From this point of view, hyperbolic metamaterials, in particular those based on plasmonic nanorod arrays, provide wealth of exciting possibilities in nonlinear optics offering designed linear and nonlinear properties, polarization control, spontaneous emission control and many others. Experiments and modeling have already demonstrated very strong Kerr-nonlinear response and its ultrafast recovery due to the nonlocal nature of the plasmonic mode of the metamaterial, so that small changes in the permittivity of the metallic component under the excitation modify the nonlocal response that in turn leads to strong changes of the metamaterial transmission. In this talk, we will discuss experimental studies and numerical modeling of second- and third-order nonlinear optical processes in hyperbolic metamaterials based on metallic nanorods and other plasmonic systems where coupling between the resonances plays important role in defining nonlinear response. Second-harmonic generation and ultrafast Kerr-type nonlinearity originating from metallic component of the metamaterial will be considered, including nonlinear magneto-optical effects. Nonlinear optical response of stand-alone as well as integrated metamaterial components will be presented. Some of the examples to be discussed include nonlinear polarization control, nonlinear metamaterial integrated in silicon photonic circuitry and second-harmonic generation, including magneto-optical effects.

  9. Nonlinear diffraction in orientation-patterned semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Pawel; Chen, Xin; Shvedov, Vladlen; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Grisard, Arnaud; Lallier, Eric; Luther-Davies, Barry; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Sheng, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This work represents experimental demonstration of nonlinear diffraction in an orientation-patterned semiconducting material. By employing a new transverse geometry of interaction, three types of second-order nonlinear diffraction have been identified according to different configurations of quasi-phase matching conditions. Specifically, nonlinear Čerenkov diffraction is defined by the longitudinal quasi-phase matching condition, nonlinear Raman-Nath diffraction satisfies only the transverse quasi-phase matching condition, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction fulfils the full vectorial quasi-phase matching conditions. The study extends the concept of transverse nonlinear parametric interaction toward infrared frequency conversion in semiconductors. It also offers an effective nondestructive method to visualise and diagnose variations of second-order nonlinear coefficients inside semiconductors.

  10. Autoresonance of coupled nonlinear waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yaakobi, Oded; Friedland, Lazar

    2011-01-04

    Resonant three-wave interactions (R3WIs) and their dynamical counterpart, three-oscillator interactions (R3OIs) play a fundamental role in many fields of physics. Consequently, controlling R3WI/R3OIs is an important goal of both basic and applied physics research. We have developed new control schemes based on a recent approach of wave autoresonance. This approach is based on the intrinsic property of many nonlinear waves and oscillations to stay in resonance (phase-lock) even when parameters of the system vary in time and/or space. We review autoresonance in several new coupled wave systems including externally driven R3OI systems and multidimensional R3WIs. Particularly, we have focused on autoresonant stimulated Raman scattering in nonuniform plasmas. This research comprises an important step toward understanding of adiabatic synchronization of nonlinear waves in space-time varying media with a potential of many new applications in plasma physics and related fields, such as fluid dynamics, nonlinear optics, and acoustics.

  11. Nonlinear electrochemical relaxation around conductors.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin T; Bazant, Martin Z

    2006-07-01

    We analyze the simplest problem of electrochemical relaxation in more than one dimension-the response of an uncharged, ideally polarizable metallic sphere (or cylinder) in a symmetric, binary electrolyte to a uniform electric field. In order to go beyond the circuit approximation for thin double layers, our analysis is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations of dilute solution theory. Unlike most previous studies, however, we focus on the nonlinear regime, where the applied voltage across the conductor is larger than the thermal voltage. In such strong electric fields, the classical model predicts that the double layer adsorbs enough ions to produce bulk concentration gradients and surface conduction. Our analysis begins with a general derivation of surface conservation laws in the thin double-layer limit, which provide effective boundary conditions on the quasineutral bulk. We solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations numerically for strong fields and also perform a time-dependent asymptotic analysis for weaker fields, where bulk diffusion and surface conduction arise as first-order corrections. We also derive various dimensionless parameters comparing surface to bulk transport processes, which generalize the Bikerman-Dukhin number. Our results have basic relevance for double-layer charging dynamics and nonlinear electrokinetics in the ubiquitous PNP approximation.

  12. Nonlinear microscopy of collagen fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupler, M.; Pena, A.-M.; Hernest, M.; Tharaux, P.-L.; Fabre, A.; Marchal-Somme, J.; Crestani, B.; Débarre, D.; Martin, J.-L.; Beaurepaire, E.; Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

    2007-02-01

    We used intrinsic Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) by fibrillar collagen to visualize the three-dimensional architecture of collagen fibrosis at the micrometer scale using laser scanning nonlinear microscopy. We showed that SHG signals are highly specific to fibrillar collagen and provide a sensitive probe of the micrometer-scale structural organization of collagen in tissues. Moreover, recording simultaneously other nonlinear optical signals in a multimodal setup, we visualized the tissue morphology using Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) signals from endogenous chromophores such as NADH or elastin. We then compared different methods to determine accurate indexes of collagen fibrosis using nonlinear microscopy, given that most collagen fibrils are smaller than the microscope resolution and that second harmonic generation is a coherent process. In order to define a robust method to process our three-dimensional images, we either calculated the fraction of the images occupied by a significant SHG signal, or averaged SHG signal intensities. We showed that these scores provide an estimation of the extension of renal and pulmonary fibrosis in murine models, and that they clearly sort out the fibrotic mice.

  13. Nonlinear Conductivity in Dicyanoquinonediimine Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakita, Hitoshi; Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Bando, Yoshimasa; Mori, Takehiko

    2010-09-01

    Nonlinear conductivity is observed below the metal-insulator (M-I) transitions of molecular conductors, halogen-substituted (R1,R2-DCNQI)2Cu (DCNQI: dicyanoquinonediimine, R1,R2: methyl or halogen). Despite the difference of the M-I transition temperatures depending on the halogens, these compounds show nonlinear properties at similar low temperatures (<80 K), and the characteristics are regarded as “activation” type. The complex of deuterated dimethyl-DCNQI (d2-DMeDCNQI)2Cu, which shows reentrant M-I-M transitions, exhibits irreversible switching from a low-conducting state to a high-conducting state in the intermediate I state. Since the Peierls distortion is irreversibly erased by the electric field, this phenomenon is called “Peierls memory”. In addition, “inverse” nonlinear conductivity from a high-conducting state to a low-conducting state is observed at the low-temperature M state, which is not only entirely reversible but also accompanied by a new kind of rapid current oscillation in the order of 3 kHz. These observations demonstrate metastable nature of the intermediate I state.

  14. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic detonation: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O.A.; Fong, B.H.; Cowley, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    The sudden release of magnetic free energy, as occurs in spectacular solar flare events, tokamak disruptions, and enigmatic magnetospheric substorms, has long defied any acceptable theoretical explanation. Usual attempts at explaining these explosive events invoke magnetic reconnection and/or ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability. However, neither of these two mechanisms can explain the fast time scales without nonlinear destabilization. Recently, Cowley {ital et al.} [Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 1848 (1996)] have demonstrated a new mechanism for nonlinear explosive MHD destabilization of a line tied Rayleigh{endash}Taylor model. In this paper, this picture is generalized to arbitrary magnetic field geometries. As an intermediate step, the ballooning equation in a general equilibrium is derived including the effects of magnetic field curvature, shear, and gravity. This equation determines the linear stability of the plasma configuration and the behavior of the plasma displacement along the magnetic field line. The nonlinear equation which determines the time and spatial dependence, transverse to the equilibrium magnetic field, of the plasma displacement is obtained in fifth order of the expansion. The equations show that explosive behavior is a natural and generic property of ballooning instabilities close to the linear stability boundary. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analayzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Qubits are excellent probes of their environment. When operating in the linear regime, they can be used as linear spectrum analyzers of the noise processes surrounding them. These methods fail for strong non-Gaussian noise where the qubit response is no longer linear. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for strongly coupled environments. Our non-perturbative analytic model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We developed a noise characterization scheme adapted to this non-linearity. We then applied it using a single trapped 88Sr+ ion as the a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. With this method, we attained a ten fold improvement over the standard Fourier limit. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs. Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013), Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: National Institute of Standards and Tehcnology, Boulder, CO.

  16. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    PubMed

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  17. Nonlinear resistivity for magnetohydrodynamical models

    DOE PAGES

    Lingam, M.; Hirvijoki, E.; Pfefferlé, D.; ...

    2017-04-20

    A new formulation of the plasma resistivity that stems from the collisional momentum-transfer rate between electrons and ions is presented. The resistivity computed herein is shown to depend not only on the temperature and density but also on all other polynomial velocity-space moments of the distribution function, such as the pressure tensor and heat flux vector. The full expression for the collisional momentum-transfer rate is determined and is used to formulate the nonlinear anisotropic resistivity. The new formalism recovers the Spitzer resistivity, as well as the concept of thermal force if the heat flux is assumed to be proportional tomore » a temperature gradient. Furthermore, if the pressure tensor is related to viscous stress, the latter enters the expression for the resistivity. The relative importance of the nonlinear term(s) with respect to the well-established electron inertia and Hall terms is also examined. Lastly, the subtle implications of the nonlinear resistivity, and its dependence on the fluid variables, are discussed in the context of magnetized plasma environments and phenomena such as magnetic reconnection.« less

  18. Nonlinear polariton effects in naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited emission (TPE) were studied in pure, strain-free crystals of naphthalene at frequencies near that of the (0,0) a-exciton in order to probe the relationship between the two signals and to investigate the effect of polariton states on second order nonlinearities in molecular crystals. The strong coupling of the 31473 cm/sup -1/ exciton in naphthalene to the photon field dictates the second-order nonlinear behavior of naphthalene crystals at frequencies near half-resonance. The dynamics of polaritons produced coherently via nonlinear interactions is shown to deviate in a controllable way from the dynamics of the one-photon polaritons produced in a linear experiment. The nature of the excitation remains principally that of an exciton. The necessity of using a strong coupling model to explain orientational dispersion and intensity and lineshape behavior is established. The experimental angular frequency dispersion of the SHG and TPE signals are fit to theoretical polariton dispersion curves. The orientation of the naphthalene optical indicatrix at 31475 cm/sup -1/ is shown to be very nearly the same as that reported for visible light. The temperature dependences of the SHG and TPE signal intensities are successfully predicted from the polariton fusion model by inclusion of temporal damping in the fusion rate expression. The shapes of the SHG and TPE profiles are compared to shapes predicted from the semi-classical theory.

  19. Evaluation of nonlinearity and validity of nonlinear modeling for complex time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Suzuki, Masuo

    2007-10-01

    Even if an original time series exhibits nonlinearity, it is not always effective to approximate the time series by a nonlinear model because such nonlinear models have high complexity from the viewpoint of information criteria. Therefore, we propose two measures to evaluate both the nonlinearity of a time series and validity of nonlinear modeling applied to it by nonlinear predictability and information criteria. Through numerical simulations, we confirm that the proposed measures effectively detect the nonlinearity of an observed time series and evaluate the validity of the nonlinear model. The measures are also robust against observational noises. We also analyze some real time series: the difference of the number of chickenpox and measles patients, the number of sunspots, five Japanese vowels, and the chaotic laser. We can confirm that the nonlinear model is effective for the Japanese vowel /a/, the difference of the number of measles patients, and the chaotic laser.

  20. Tractable theory of nonlinear response and multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devane, Russell; Ridley, Christina; Space, Brian; Keyes, T.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy provides insights into dynamics, but the response functions required for its interpretation pose a challenge to theorists. We proposed an approach in which the fifth-order response function [R(5)(t1,t2)] was expressed as a two-time classical time correlation function (TCF). Here, we present TCF theory results for R(5)(t1,t2) in liquid xenon. Using a first-order dipole-induced dipole polarizability model, the result is compared to an exact numerical calculation showing remarkable agreement. In addition, R(5)(t1,t2) is calculated using the exactly solved polarizability model, yielding different results and predicting an echo signal.

  1. Tractable theory of nonlinear response and multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    DeVane, Russell; Ridley, Christina; Space, Brian; Keyes, T

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy provides insights into dynamics, but the response functions required for its interpretation pose a challenge to theorists. We proposed an approach in which the fifth-order response function [R5( t1, t2)] was expressed as a two-time classical time correlation function (TCF). Here, we present TCF theory results for R5( t1, t2) in liquid xenon. Using a first-order dipole-induced dipole polarizability model, the result is compared to an exact numerical calculation showing remarkable agreement. In addition, R5( t1, t2) is calculated using the exactly solved polarizability model, yielding different results and predicting an echo signal.

  2. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  3. Nonlinear Cherenkov radiation at the interface of two different nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; An, Ning; Deng, Xuewei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-06-13

    We discuss the nonlinear response due to the spatial modulation of the second-order susceptibility at the interface between two nonlinear media, and experimentally demonstrate that the nonlinear Cherenkov radiation is enhanced by the interface of two nonlinear crystals with a large disparity in χ(2). In our experiment, the intensity of the nonlinear Cherenkov radiation generated at the nonlinear interface was approximately 4 to 10 times that at the crystal boundary. This result suggests potential applications to efficient frequency conversion.

  4. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design and application to nonlinear uncertain systems.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Cao, Huiliang; Shen, Chong; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) based on sigmoid function is developed to calculate the noise-less time derivative under noisy measurement condition. The essential philosophy of proposed AND in achieving high attenuation of noise effect is established by expanding the signal dynamics with extra state variable representing the integrated noisy measurement, then with the integral of measurement as input, the augmented differentiator is formulated to improve the estimation quality. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the improved methodology can be readily extended to construct augmented high-order differentiator to obtain multiple derivatives. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, the robust control problems of nonlinear uncertain systems, including a numerical example and a mass spring system, are addressed to demonstrate the effectiveness of AND in precisely estimating the disturbance and providing the unavailable differential estimate to implement output feedback based controller.

  5. Landesman-Lazer condition for nonlinear problems with jumping nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drábek, Pavel

    This paper was motivated by the result of Iannacci and Nkashama ( J. Differential Equations69 (1987) , 289-309) concerning the existence of at least one solution for the differential equation x″( t) + m2x( t) + g( t, x( t)) = e( t) with periodic boundary data x(0) - x(2 π) = x'(0) - x'(2 π) = 0, where m ⩾ 0 is an integer, e is integrable, and g satisfies Carathéodory's conditions. We intend to prove that the Landesman-Lazer type condition is sufficient for solvability of this periodic problem under rather more general assumptions on the growth of the nonlinear term g. Particularly, our hypotheses cover the nonlinearities which may "jump over" the eigenvalues different from m2 while the assumptions of Iannacci and Nkashama allow g only to asymptotically "touch" the neighbour eigenvalues. Our approach may be used also for two-point boundary value problems. The proofs are based on the Leray-Schauder degree theory and on the shooting method for ordinary differential equations.

  6. The Dynamics of Nonlinear Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadakia, Nirag

    The determination of the hidden states of coupled nonlinear systems is frustrated by the presence of high-dimensionality, chaos, and sparse observability. This problem resides naturally in a Bayesian context: an underlying physical process produces a data stream, which - though noisy and incomplete - can in principle be inverted to express the likelihood of the underlying process itself. A large class of well-developed methods treat this problem in a sequential predict-and-correct manner that alternates information from the presumed dynamical model with information from the data. One might instead formulate this problem in a temporally global, non-sequential manner, which suggests new avenues of approach within an optimization context, but also poses new challenges in numerical implementation. The variational annealing (VA) technique is proposed to address these problems by leveraging an inherent separability between the convex and nonconvex contributions of the resulting functional forms. VA is shown to reliably track unobservable states in sparsely observed chaotic systems, as well as in minimally-observed biophysical neural models. Second, this problem can be formally cast in continuous time as a Wiener path integral, which then suggests classical solutions derived from Hamilton's principle. These solutions come with their own difficulties in that they comprise an unstable boundary-value problem. Accordingly, a further technique called Hamiltonian variational annealing is proposed, which again exploits an existing separability of convexity and nonlinearity, this time in a an enlarged manifold constrained by underlying symmetries. A running theme in this thesis is that the optimal estimate of a nonlinear system is itself a dynamical system that lives in an unstable, symplectic manifold. When this system is recast in a variational context, instability is manifested as nonconvexity, the central idea being that when this nonconvexity is incorporated in a systematic

  7. Advanced Rotordynamic Nonlinear Transient Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becht, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced rotordynamic nonlinear transient-simulation program, TRANSIM, developed to predict response of high-performance rotating machinery to variety of forcing functions. Works by modal superposition of rotor and casing subsystems. Transient response of system calculated by numerical integration of equations of motion, performed in modal coordinates. Resulting data transformed back into physical coordinates as required to determine user-requested loads and accelerations as function of time. Used to analyze Space Shuttle main engine high-pressure fuel turbopump. TRANSIM written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  9. A model of nonlinear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, S.I.

    2015-02-15

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is investigated. We also consider a model with one dimensional parameter. It was shown that the electric field of a point-like charge is not singular at the origin and there is the finiteness of the static electric energy of point-like charged particle. We obtain the canonical and symmetrical Belinfante energy–momentum tensors and dilatation currents. It is demonstrated that the dilatation symmetry and dual symmetry are broken in the models suggested. We have calculated the static electric energy of point-like particles.

  10. Nonlinear Processes in Vibroseismic Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Khairetdinov, M. S.; Voskoboynikova, G. M.

    2008-06-24

    In this paper, on the basis of numerical calculations and results of processing of the data of field experiments, quantitative estimates of the spectral broadening of the initial sounding seismic oscillations are presented. The estimates were obtained as a result of vibroseismic sounding of fractured dilatancy media typical for seismically and volcanically dangerous zones. The authors' idea about the applicability of the parameters of wave field nonlinearity in the form of possible prognostic characteristics of the earthquake-volcano source development process is justified.

  11. Dimensional interpolation for nonlinear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred

    2005-09-01

    Dimensional interpolation has been used successfully by physicists and chemists to solve the Schroedinger equation for atoms and complex molecules. The same basic idea can be used to solve the Fokker-Planck equation for nonlinear filters. In particular, it is well known (by physicists) that two Schroedinger equations are equivalent to two Fokker-Planck equations. Moreover, we can avoid the Schroedinger equation altogether and use dimensional interpolation directly on the Fokker-Planck equation. Dimensional interpolation sounds like a crazy idea, but it works. We will attempt to make this paper accessible to normal engineers who do not have quantum mechanics for breakfast.

  12. Periodic response of nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nataraj, C.; Nelson, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure is developed to determine approximate periodic solutions of autonomous and non-autonomous systems. The trignometric collocation method (TCM) is formalized to allow for the analysis of relatively small order systems directly in physical coordinates. The TCM is extended to large order systems by utilizing modal analysis in a component mode synthesis strategy. The procedure was coded and verified by several check cases. Numerical results for two small order mechanical systems and one large order rotor dynamic system are presented. The method allows for the possibility of approximating periodic responses for large order forced and self-excited nonlinear systems.

  13. Nonlinear behavior of Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersh, A. S.

    1990-10-01

    A semi-empirical fluid mechanical model has been derived to predict the nonlinear acoustic behavior of thin-walled, single-orifice Helmholtz resonators. The model assumed that the sound particle velocity field approaches the resonator in a spherically symmetric manner. The incident and cavity sound pressure fields are connected in terms of an orifice discharge coefficient and an end correction parameter whose values are determined empirically. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing predicted with measured impedance over a wide range of sound amplitudes and frequencies for two different resonator geometries and with measurements conducted by Ingard and Ising.

  14. Nonlinear microscopy for material characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Reed Alan

    Making use of femtosecond laser sources, nonlinear microscopy provides access to previously unstudied aspects of materials. By probing third order nonlinear optical signals determined by the nonlinear susceptibility chi (3), which is present in all materials, we gain insight not available by conventional linear or electron microscopy. Third-harmonic (TH) microscopy is applied to supplement laser-induced damage studies of dielectric oxide thin film optical coatings. We present high contrast (S/N> 100 : 1) TH imaging of ≈17 nm nanoindentations, individual 10 nm gold nanoparticles, nascent scandia and hafnia films, and laser induced material modification both above and below damage threshold conditions in hafnia thin-films. These results imply that TH imaging is potentially sensitive to laser-induced strain as well as to nanoscale defects or contamination in oxide films. Compared to other sensitive imaging techniques such as Nomarski and dark field, TH imaging exhibits dramatically increased sensitivity to typical material modifications undergone during the formation of optical damage as evidenced by a dynamic range ≈106 : 1. Four-wave mixing (FWM) microscopy is employed to investigate delay dependent FWM signals and their implied characteristic resonant response times in multiple solvents. Mathematical modeling of resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) and stimulated parametric emission (SPE) processes supplement the FWM studies and suggest a resonant CARS process that accounts for ≈95% of the total visible FWM signal which probes a characteristic material response time ≈100 fs. This signal enhancement likely indicates the net effects of probing several Raman active C-H stretch bands near 2950 cm-1. This FWM technique may be applied to characterize the dominant resonant response of the sample under study. Furthermore this technique presents the newfound capability to provide estimates of characteristic

  15. Nonlinear Convection in Mushy Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worster, M. Grae; Anderson, Daniel M.; Schulze, T. P.

    1996-01-01

    When alloys solidify in a gravitational field there are complex interactions between solidification and natural, buoyancy-driven convection that can alter the composition and impair the structure of the solid product. The particular focus of this project has been the compositional convection within mushy layers that occurs in situations where the lighter component of the alloy is rejected into the melt during solidification by cooling from below. The linear stability of such a situation was previously described and has been further elucidated in a number of published articles. Here we describe some recent developments in the study of nonlinear evolution of convection in mushy layers.

  16. Research on Nonlinear Dynamical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-10

    Professor J. P. LaSalle Grant DAAG29-79 C 0161 September 1, 1979 - September 24, 1982 Principal Investigators: H. T. Banks C. M. Dafermos J. K. Hale E...F. Infante J. P. LaSalle . J. Mallet-Paret Lefschetz Center for Dynamical Systems Division of Applied Mathematics D T I Brown University L emtc...publications LaSALLE , J.P. [94] Stability of nonautonomous systems, Journal of Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods, and Applications, Vol.1, No.1

  17. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects

  18. The road towards nonlinear magneto-plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Lüpke, Günter; Hanbicki, Aubrey T.; Jonker, Berend T.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear magneto-plasmonics (NMP) describes systems where nonlinear optics, magnetics and plasmonics are all involved. NMP can be referred to as interdisciplinary studies at the intersection of Nonlinear Plasmonics (NP), Magneto- Plasmonics (MP), and nanoscience. In NMP systems, nanostructures are the bases, Surface Plasmons (SPs) work as catalyst due to strong field enhancement effects, and the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect (nonlinear MOKE) plays an important role as a characterization method. Many new effects were discovered recently, which include enhanced magnetization-induced harmonic generation, controlled and enhanced magnetic contrast, magneto-chiral effect, correlation between giant magnetroresistance (GMR) and nonlinear MOKE, etc. We review the structures, experiments, findings, and the applications of NMP.

  19. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Z. B.; Wang, Lu; Wang, X. G.

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  20. Robust iterative method for nonlinear Helmholtz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2017-08-01

    A new iterative method is developed for solving the two-dimensional nonlinear Helmholtz equation which governs polarized light in media with the optical Kerr nonlinearity. In the strongly nonlinear regime, the nonlinear Helmholtz equation could have multiple solutions related to phenomena such as optical bistability and symmetry breaking. The new method exhibits a much more robust convergence behavior than existing iterative methods, such as frozen-nonlinearity iteration, Newton's method and damped Newton's method, and it can be used to find solutions when good initial guesses are unavailable. Numerical results are presented for the scattering of light by a nonlinear circular cylinder based on the exact nonlocal boundary condition and a pseudospectral method in the polar coordinate system.

  1. Artificial Nonlinearity Generated from Electromagnetic Coupling Metamolecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yongzheng; Zhou, Ji

    2017-04-01

    A purely artificial mechanism for optical nonlinearity is proposed based on a metamaterial route. The mechanism is derived from classical electromagnetic interaction in a metamolecule consisting of a cut-wire meta-atom nested within a split-ring meta-atom. Induced by the localized magnetic field in the split-ring meta-atom, the magnetic force drives an anharmonic oscillation of free electrons in the cut-wire meta-atom, generating an intrinsically nonlinear electromagnetic response. An explicit physical process of a second-order nonlinear behavior is adequately described, which is perfectly demonstrated with a series of numerical simulations. Instead of "borrowing" from natural nonlinear materials, this novel mechanism of optical nonlinearity is artificially dominated by the metamolecule geometry and possesses unprecedented design freedom, offering fascinating possibilities to the research and application of nonlinear optics.

  2. Wavevector-Selective Nonlinear Plasmonic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuang-Yu; Verre, Ruggero; Butet, Jérémy; Yan, Chen; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Käll, Mikael; Martin, Olivier J F

    2017-09-13

    Electromagnetic metasurfaces with strong nonlinear responses and angular selectivity could offer many new avenues for designing ultrathin optics components. We investigated the optical second harmonic generation from plasmonic metasurfaces composed of aligned gold nanopillars with a pronounced out-of-plane tilt using a flexible nonlinear Fourier microscope. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that these samples function as wavevector-selective nonlinear metasurfaces, that is, the coherent second harmonic signal does not only depend on the polarization and wavelength of the excitation beam, but also of its direction of incidence, in spite of the subwavelength thickness of the active layer. Specifically, we observe that the nonlinear response can vary by almost two orders-of-magnitude when the incidence angle is changed from positive to negative values compared to the surface normal. Further, it is demonstrated that these metasurfaces act as a directional nonlinear mirrors, paving the way for new design of directional meta-mirrors in the nonlinear regime.

  3. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Clemmen, S.; Dave, U.; Van Laer, R.; Ideguchi, T.; Zhao, H.; Liu, X.; Safioui, J.; Coen, S.; Gorza, S. P.; Selvaraja, S. K.; Massar, S.; Osgood, R. M.; Verheyen, P.; Van Campenhout, J.; Baets, R.; Green, W. M. J.; Roelkens, G.

    2017-03-01

    The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  4. Nonlinearity effects on the directed momentum current.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Lei; Fu, Li-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the quantum transport dynamics governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a periodically-δ-kicking potential and discover the emergence of a directed current in momentum space. With the increase of nonlinearity, we find strikingly that the momentum current decreases, reverses, and finally vanishes, indicating that the quantum transport can be effectively manipulated through adjusting the nonlinearity. The underlying dynamic mechanism is uncovered and some important implications are addressed.

  5. Nonlinear Interactions Between Oblique Wind Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    NSWCCD-80-TR–2015/026 August 2015 Naval Architecture and Engineering Department Technical Report NONLINEAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OBLIQUE WIND ...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1-Jan-2013 – 30-May-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nonlinear Interactions between Oblique Wind Waves 5a. CONTRACT...release; Distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The nonlinear interaction between two oblique wind waves with the

  6. Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response.

    PubMed

    Husu, Hannu; Siikanen, Roope; Mäkitalo, Jouni; Lehtolahti, Joonas; Laukkanen, Janne; Kuittinen, Markku; Kauranen, Martti

    2012-02-08

    We demonstrate that the second-order nonlinear optical response of noncentrosymmetric metal nanoparticles (metamolecules) can be efficiently controlled by their mutual ordering in an array. Two samples with minor change in ordering have nonlinear responses differing by a factor of up to 50. The results arise from polarization-dependent plasmonic resonances modified by long-range coupling associated with metamolecular ordering. The approach opens new ways for tailoring the nonlinear responses of metamaterials and their tensorial properties.

  7. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    bandwidth and space-bandwidth products. Real-time homonorphic and loga- rithmic filtering by halftone nonlinear processing has been achieved. A...Page ABSTRACT 1 1. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND PROGRESS 3 I-- 1.1 Introduction and Project overview 3 1.2 Halftone Processing 9 1.3 Direct Nonlinear...time homomorphic and logarithmic filtering by halftone nonlinear processing has been achieved. A detailed analysis of degradation due to the finite gamma

  8. Films Containing Optically Nonlinear Diacetylene Monomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1993-01-01

    Solid films exhibiting nonlinear optical properties prepared as mixtures of poly(methyl methacrylate) with various amounts of diacetylene monomer called "compound 1" in article, "Synthesizing Diacetylenes With Nonlinear Optical Properties" (MFS-26186). Useful as phase-conjugate mirrors in laser-beam communications and as optical switches in optical computers. This particular diacetylene monomer exhibits strong third-order nonlinear optical properties, both in pure form and in solution.

  9. Further Studies on Nonlinear Adaptive Optics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    AD-A9 167 SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INC LA JOLLA CA F/9 20/6 A-A*9 16 FURTHER STUDIES ON NONLINEAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS , 1W _ ASFE APR SI A ELCI. J1 NAGEL. D...FURTHER STUDIES ON NONLINEAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS Apr 8l 7 Submitted to: Director of Physics Air Force Office of Scientific Research ATTN: NP Bldg. 410...1 I STATEMENT OF WORK ...... .. .................... I-I II NONLINEAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS SUMMARY

  10. Aspects of coherent states of nonlinear algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreecharan, T.; Chaitanya, K. V. S. Shiv

    2010-12-01

    Various aspects of coherent states of nonlinear su(2) and su(1, 1) algebras are studied. It is shown that the nonlinear su(1, 1) Barut-Girardello and Perelomov coherent states are related by a Laplace transform. We then concentrate on the derivation and analysis of the statistical and geometrical properties of these states. The Berry's phase for the nonlinear coherent states is also derived.

  11. Optical manipulation by nonlinear response of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hajime; Nakai, Tatsuya; Hoshina, Masayuki; Kudo, Tetsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the optical manipulation of nanoparticles with the resonant nonlinear optical response. Efficient trapping of nanoparticles observed in experiments under the resonance condition is elucidated by considering optical nonlinearity. Also, we propose the flexible optical manipulations of nanoparticles that have gain by optical pumping. The pulling force and the rotational switching are demonstrated, where the stimulated emission from nanoparticles with inverted population is considered. These results show that utilizing nonlinear optical effect will greatly enhance the degrees of freedom to manipulate nanoparticles.

  12. Vibrational Control of a Nonlinear Elastic Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.; Maestrello, L.

    1998-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the stabilization of the nonlinear panel oscillation by an active control. The control is actuated by a combination of additive and parametric vibrational forces. A general method of vibrational control is presented for stabilizing panel vibration satisfying a nonlinear beam equation. To obtain analytical results, a perturbation technique is used in the case of weak nonlinearity. Possible application to other types of problems is briefly discussed.

  13. Investigation of a Nonlinear Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugge-Lotz, I; Taylor, C F; Lindberg, H E

    1958-01-01

    A discontinuous variation of coefficients of the differential equation describing the linear control system before nonlinear elements are added is studied in detail. The nonlinear feedback is applied to a second-order system. Simulation techniques are used to study performance of the nonlinear control system and to compare it with the linear system for a wide variety of inputs. A detailed quantitative study of the influence of relay delays and of a transport delay is presented.

  14. Evaluating Rebar Corrosion Using Nonlinear Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Clinton; Amin, Md. Nurul

    2008-02-01

    The early detection of rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete is difficult using current methods. This pilot study investigated the viability of using nonlinear ultrasound to detect the effects of rebar corrosion in its early stages. The study utilized three accelerated corrosion specimens and one control specimen. Results showed that when corrosion developed in the area isonified by a Rayleigh wave, nonlinear parameters increased. As corrosion progressed, these nonlinear parameters also increased.

  15. Complex and Stereoregular Nonlinear Optical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-07

    FINAL_ .POR_’ _15 Dec 93-14 Aug 93 SLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Complex and Stereoregular Nonlinear Optical Materials nj OR(S...540-4400 EAST FALMOUTH, MA 02536 FAX (508) 540.4428 I I COMPLEX & STEREOREGULAR NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS * Final Report 3 September 7, 1993 U... nonlinear optical materials . Basically the intercalating metal oxide served as a crystalline framework which forced the liquid crystalline component into a

  16. Nonlinear Stochastic PDEs: Analysis and Approximations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    3.4.1 Nonlinear Stochastic PDEs: Analysis and Approximations We compare Wiener chaos and stochastic collocation methods for linear advection-reaction...ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 nonlinear stochastic PDEs (SPDEs), nonlocal SPDEs, Navier...3.4.1 Nonlinear Stochastic PDEs: Analysis and Approximations Report Title We compare Wiener chaos and stochastic collocation methods for linear

  17. Nonlinear Programming for Large, Sparse Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    REFERENCES [1] J. Abadie, "Application of the GRG algorithm to optimal control problems," in: J. Abadie, ed., Integer and nonlinear programming (North... Optimization Laboratory Department of Operations DDG OC 13 1976 St an f or d 143qt] : 1University - 0 Stanford California 94305 NONLINEAR PROGRAMVING FOR...characterized by having n-m "nonbasic" variables equal to their upper or lower bound. With nonlinear problems we cannot expect an optimal solution to

  18. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Semiconducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-26

    Materials Science and Engineering. Ed. Michael B. Bever (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1986), p . 1399. 2 -Nonlinear Excitations and Nonlinear Phenomena in...M. Sinclair, A.J. Heeger, A. 0. Patil, S. Shi, S. Askad and F. Wudl, Linear and Nonlinear Optical Studies of Poly( p -phenylene- vinylene) Derivatives... P . Smith, ICSM 󈨜, Santa Fe, NM (June 1988) P . Smith, Organized ACS Symposium on Processing of Conducting Polymers, ACS Meeting, Dallas (April, 1989

  19. Whole beam method for photorefractive nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin-Golomb, Mark

    1992-05-01

    A whole beam split step method is developed for photorefractive nonlinear optics. The nonlinear optical beam coupling process is separated into short steps of diffractive propagation and application of calculated nonlinearity. The method includes the effects of diffractive propagation without using multi-wave coupled wave theory. Two-beam coupling of continous wave, femtosecond and reduced spatial coherence gaussian beams is used to illustrate the method.

  20. Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X

    2017-04-01

    In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.

  1. Scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jesus; Taylor, Padraic

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions to scalar discrete nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems. By allowing more general boundary conditions and by imposing less restrictions on the nonlinearities, we obtain results that extend previous work in the area of discrete boundary value problems [Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Periodic solutions of nonlinear discrete-time systems, Appl. Anal. 62 (1996) 119-137; Debra L. Etheridge, Jesus Rodriguez, Scalar discrete nonlinear two-point boundary value problems, J. Difference Equ. Appl. 4 (1998) 127-144].

  2. Dark periodic lattices in nonlinear liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-Méndez, Edgar; Trejo-Durán, Mónica; Cano-Lara, Miroslava; Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Castaňo, Víctor M.

    2007-11-01

    Experimental evidence of the formation of one- and two-dimensional dark periodic lattices in a negative Kerr-type nonlinear liquid media is presented. Bright periodic lattices propagate throughout two nonlinear liquids [alcohol with rhodamine (R6G), and acetone with R6G] as the negative nonlinear refractive index forms a dark periodic lattice. Our experiments demonstrate that the nonlinearity increases with the optical power and that a proper selection of the period leads to self-phase modulation of the lattice.

  3. Nonlinear optical protection against frequency agile lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, V.P.

    1988-08-04

    An eye-protection or equipment-filter device for protection from laser energy is disclosed. The device may be in the form of a telescope, binoculars, goggles, constructed as part of equipment such as image intensifiers or range designators. Optical elements focus the waist of the beam within a nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal or nonlinear optical element or fiber. The nonlinear elements produce a harmonic outside the visible spectrum in the case of crystals, or absorb the laser energy in the case of nonlinear fibers. Embodiments include protectors for the human eye as well as filters for sensitive machinery such as TV cameras, FLIR systems or other imaging equipment.

  4. Dark energy simulacrum in nonlinear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2010-03-15

    Quasiconstant external fields in nonlinear electromagnetism generate a global contribution proportional to g{sup {mu}{nu}}in the energy-momentum tensor, thus a simulacrum of dark energy. To provide a thorough understanding of the origin and strength of its effects, we undertake a complete theoretical and numerical study of the energy-momentum tensor T{sup {mu}{nu}}for nonlinear electromagnetism. The Euler-Heisenberg nonlinearity due to quantum fluctuations of spinor and scalar matter fields is considered and contrasted with the properties of classical nonlinear Born-Infeld electromagnetism. We address modifications of charged particle kinematics by strong background fields.

  5. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  6. RESONANT HARMONIC GENERATION AND NONLINEAR OPTICS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    OSCILLATORS, *QUANTUM THEORY, *OPTICS, HARMONIC GENERATORS, OSCILLATORS, HARMONIC GENERATORS, OSCILLATORS, HARMONIC GENERATORS, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, QUARTZ, TOURMALINE , ZINC COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, HYDRATES, NIOBATES, TENSOR ANALYSIS.

  7. Nonlinear response theory in chemical kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kryvohuz, Maksym; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-01-21

    A theory of nonlinear response of chemical kinetics, in which multiple perturbations are used to probe the time evolution of nonlinear chemical systems, is developed. Expressions for nonlinear chemical response functions and susceptibilities, which can serve as multidimensional measures of the kinetic pathways and rates, are derived. A new class of multidimensional measures that combine multiple perturbations and measurements is also introduced. Nonlinear fluctuation-dissipation relations for steady-state chemical systems, which replace operations of concentration measurement and perturbations, are proposed. Several applications to the analysis of complex reaction mechanisms are provided.

  8. Unmodeled dynamics and nonlinear control: Wrapup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and applicable results concerning systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations and control of partial differential equations are examined. Titles and abstracts of recent papers are presented.

  9. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  10. Nonlinear coupling in graphene-coated nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yixiao; Shadrivov, Ilya V.

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze nonlinear coupler based on a pair of single mode graphene-coated nanowires. Nonlinear wave interactions in such structure are analyzed by the coupled mode equations derived from the unconjugated Lorentz reciprocity theorem. We show that the routing of plasmons in the proposed structure can be controlled by the input power due to the third order nonlinear response of graphene layer. Our findings show that graphene nonlinearity can be exploited in tunable nanoplasmonic circuits based on low-loss, edgeless cylindrical graphene waveguides. PMID:27941856

  11. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.

    2010-12-01

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  12. Nonlinear cellular motions in Poiseuille channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahn, J.-P.; Toomre, J.; Spiegel, E. A.; Gough, D. O.

    1974-01-01

    In a number of nonlinear solutions to the equations of channel flow the velocity is decomposed into a mean part plus a nonlinear disturbance. The idea that nonlinear effects place a limitation on the amplitudes of the disturbance flow is considered. In the reported investigation the disturbance flow is represented by drastically limited Fourier expansions in the downstream coordinate. The resulting equations are solved numerically with high accuracy to obtain a good representation of the cross-stream structure of the solution. The results of the investigation show that indeed the nonlinear terms always limit the amplitude of the disturbance flow in this approximation.

  13. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  14. Nonlinear response theory in chemical kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kryvohuz, Maksym; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    A theory of nonlinear response of chemical kinetics, in which multiple perturbations are used to probe the time evolution of nonlinear chemical systems, is developed. Expressions for nonlinear chemical response functions and susceptibilities, which can serve as multidimensional measures of the kinetic pathways and rates, are derived. A new class of multidimensional measures that combine multiple perturbations and measurements is also introduced. Nonlinear fluctuation-dissipation relations for steady-state chemical systems, which replace operations of concentration measurement and perturbations, are proposed. Several applications to the analysis of complex reaction mechanisms are provided. PMID:25669367

  15. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  16. A numerical scheme for nonlinear Helmholtz equations with strong nonlinear optical effects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengfu; Bao, Gang

    2010-11-01

    A numerical scheme is presented to solve the nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation modeling second-harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic bandgap material doped with a nonlinear χ((2)) effect and the NLH equation modeling wave propagation in Kerr type gratings with a nonlinear χ((3)) effect in the one-dimensional case. Both of these nonlinear phenomena arise as a result of the combination of high electromagnetic mode density and nonlinear reaction from the medium. When the mode intensity of the incident wave is significantly strong, which makes the nonlinear effect non-negligible, numerical methods based on the linearization of the essentially nonlinear problem will become inadequate. In this work, a robust, stable numerical scheme is designed to simulate the NLH equations with strong nonlinearity.

  17. Improved Z-scan adjustment to thermal nonlinearities by including nonlinear absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severiano-Carrillo, I.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Méndez-Otero, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a modified mathematical model of thermal optical nonlinearities which allow us to obtain the nonlinear refraction index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient with only one measurement. This modification is motivated by the influence that nonlinear absorption has on the measurement of the nonlinear refraction index at far field, when the material presents a large nonlinearity. This model, where nonlinear absorption is considered to adjust the curves of nonlinear refraction index obtained by Z-scan technique, has the best agreement with experimental data. The model is validated with two ionic liquids and the organic material Eysenhardtia polystachya, in thin media. We present these results after comparing our proposed model to other reported models.

  18. Robust H ∞ control of a nonlinear uncertain system via a stable nonlinear output feedback controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harno, Hendra G.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to solving a nonlinear robust H ∞ control problem using a stable nonlinear output feedback controller is presented in this article. The class of nonlinear uncertain systems being considered is characterised in terms of integral quadratic constraints and global Lipschitz conditions describing the admissible uncertainties and nonlinearities, respectively. The nonlinear controller is able to exploit the plant nonlinearities through the inclusion of a copy of the known plant nonlinearities in the controller. The H ∞ control objective is to obtain an absolutely stable closed-loop system with a specified disturbance attenuation level. The solution to this control problem involves stabilising solutions to parametrised algebraic Riccati equations. We apply a differential evolution algorithm to solve a non-convex nonlinear optimisation problem arising in the controller synthesis.

  19. Nonlinear absorbance effects in bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayfield, George W.

    1991-03-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a protein found in the cell membrane wall of Halobacterium halobium and serves as a light-activated proton pump (i.e., the protein converts light energy into chemical energy). The chromophore (retinal) responsible for light absorption is located within a pocket of the opsin and is bound via a Schiff base to a lysine residue in the amino acid sequence. When BR is illuminated by a laser light flash, transient changes occur in the visible absorption spectrum of the protein -- i.e., the material is photochromic. The optical absorption changes are characterized by a series of photointermediates, with characteristic rise and fall times that range from less than a picosecond to more then 10 milliseconds. This photochromic property of BR makes it a useful material for optical devices. With an aim toward developing an optical switch for the Army, we are studying the transient absorption of nanosecond light pulses from a dye laser in the spectral region in which the absorbance of BR increases as light intensity increases. This nonlinear effect is wavelength-dependent and becomes a bleach in a different spectral window. The nonlinear absorption change is reversible.

  20. Inertial Mass from Spin Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marcus

    The inertial mass of a Fermion shows up as chiral cross-coupling in its Dirac system. No scalar term can invariantly couple left and right chirality fields; the Dirac matrices must be spin tensors of mixed chirality. We show how such tensor couplings could arise from nonlinear mixing of four spinor fields, two representing the local electron fields and two inertial spinor fields sourced in the distant masses. We thus give a model that implements Mach's principle. Following Mendel Sachs,1 we let the inertial spinors factor the moving spacetime tetrads qα(x) and bar {q}α (x) that appear in the Dirac operator. The inertial spinors do more than set the spacetime "stage;" they are players in the chiral dynamics. Specifically, we show how the massive Dirac system arises as the envelope modulation equations coupling left and right chirality electron fields on a Friedmann universe via nonlinear "spin gratings" with the inertial spinor fields. These gratings implement Penrose's "mass-scatterings," which keep the null zig-zags of the bispinor wave function confined to a timelike world tube. Local perturbations to the inertial spinor fields appear in the Dirac system as Abelian and non-Abelian vector potentials.

  1. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  2. Nonlinear fermions and coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear fermions of degree n (n-fermions) are introduced as particles with creation and annihilation operators obeying the simple nonlinear anticommutation relation AA† + A†nAn = 1. The (n + 1)th-order nilpotency of these operators follows from the existence of unique A-vacuum. Supposing appropriate (n + 1)th-order nilpotent para-Grassmann variables and integration rules the sets of n-fermion number states, ‘right’ and ‘left’ ladder operator coherent states (CS) and displacement-operator-like CS are constructed. The (n + 1) × (n + 1) matrix realization of the related para-Grassmann algebra is provided. General (n + 1)th-order nilpotent ladder operators of finite-dimensional systems are expressed as polynomials in terms of n-fermion operators. Overcomplete sets of (normalized) ‘right’ and ‘left’ eigenstates of such general ladder operators are constructed and their properties are briefly discussed. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  3. Nonlinear analysis of dynamic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, S.; Fallah, A.; Towhidkhah, F.

    2013-12-01

    Signature is a long trained motor skill resulting in well combination of segments like strokes and loops. It is a physical manifestation of complex motor processes. The problem, generally stated, is that how relative simplicity in behavior emerges from considerable complexity of perception-action system that produces behavior within an infinitely variable biomechanical and environmental context. To solve this problem, we present evidences which indicate that motor control dynamic in signing process is a chaotic process. This chaotic dynamic may explain a richer array of time series behavior in motor skill of signature. Nonlinear analysis is a powerful approach and suitable tool which seeks for characterizing dynamical systems through concepts such as fractal dimension and Lyapunov exponent. As a result, they can be analyzed in both horizontal and vertical for time series of position and velocity. We observed from the results that noninteger values for the correlation dimension indicates low dimensional deterministic dynamics. This result could be confirmed by using surrogate data tests. We have also used time series to calculate the largest Lyapunov exponent and obtain a positive value. These results constitute significant evidence that signature data are outcome of chaos in a nonlinear dynamical system of motor control.

  4. A chinchilla nonlinear cochlear filterbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Najera, Alberto; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

    2002-05-01

    A dual-resonance nonlinear (DRNL) filter [Meddis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 2852-2861 (2001)] was fitted to model chinchilla cochlear responses to tonal stimuli at individual sites along the basilar membrane (BM) with best frequencies (BF) of 0.8, 5.5, 7.25, 9.75, 10.0, 12.0, and 14.0 kHz. At each BF, parameters were obtained for the DRNL filter to reproduce input/output and tuning curves. The match between the model and the experimental data is almost perfect for frequencies near BF. Quantitatively, the model response gets worse (but is still reasonable) for frequencies well below and well above BF. These discrepancies are discussed in terms of the middle-ear function, which proves critical. The model responses to clicks, AM, multicomponent, and Schroder-phase stimuli were also compared against experimental data. Results show that the architecture of the DRNL filter seems suitable to reproduce this wide range of phenomena. Strategies are discussed for developing a chinchilla nonlinear cochlear filterbank from current parameters. [Work supported by the Consejería de Sanidad of the Junta de Comunidades of Castilla, La Mancha.

  5. Nonlinear electrodynamics and CMB polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, G. E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it

    2011-03-01

    Recently WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments have set stringent constraints on the polarization angle of photons propagating in an expanding universe: Δα = (−2.4±1.9)°. The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) is reviewed in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). We compute the polarization angle of photons propagating in a cosmological background with planar symmetry. For this purpose, we use the Pagels-Tomboulis (PT) Lagrangian density describing NLED, which has the form L ∼ (X/Λ{sup 4}){sup δ−1} X, where X = ¼F{sub αβ}F{sup αβ}, and δ the parameter featuring the non-Maxwellian character of the PT nonlinear description of the electromagnetic interaction. After looking at the polarization components in the plane orthogonal to the (x)-direction of propagation of the CMB photons, the polarization angle is defined in terms of the eccentricity of the universe, a geometrical property whose evolution on cosmic time (from the last scattering surface to the present) is constrained by the strength of magnetic fields over extragalactic distances.

  6. Flamedoctor™: Nonlinear Burner Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Ralph; Daw, Stuart; Finney, Charles; Flynn, Tom; Fuller, Tim

    2003-08-01

    Utility power plants are employing advanced control systems to improve performance over the load range. The performance of the boiler combustion system is critical to the overall performance. Flame Doctor™, which has been developed by McDermott Technology, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under sponsorship of Electric Power Research Institute, performs diagnostics on an individual burner basis. The system consists of analogue-to-digital signal conversion and conditioning hardware, analysis software, and a graphical user interface. Time varying voltage signals from all of the burner flame scanners on a boiler are analyzed simultaneously. Nonlinear techniques such as symbolization and time asymmetry along with linear techniques such as power spectral analysis are used. The nonlinear techniques discriminate stability features in the combustion dynamics not possible with the linear techniques alone. The assessments for a variety of flame conditions are collected in a reference library. Libraries have been created for a number of flame scanners types. The Flame Doctor™ burner diagnostic system is described. Results from the first utility installation at Ameren UE Meramec power plant are shown. A live hook-up to the power plant is demonstrated. Flame Doctor™ is being offered commercially under alpha and beta demonstrations through the Electric Power Research Institute and Babcock & Wilcox.

  7. A simple nonlinear element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. G.; Rudenko, O. V.

    2017-05-01

    We study experimentally the behavior of a nonlinear element, a light plate pressed to the opening in the cavity of an acoustic resonator. Measurements of field oscillations inside and outside the cavity have shown that for large amplitudes, they become essentially anharmonic. The time dependences of displacement of the plate with increasing amplitude of the exciting voltage demonstrates a gradual change in the shape of vibrations from harmonic to half-period oscillation. A constant component appears in the cavity: rarefaction or outflow of the medium through the orifice. We construct a theory for nonlinear oscillations of a plate taking into account its different elastic reactions to compression and rarefaction with allowance for monopole radiation by the small-wave-size plate or radiation of a plane wave by the plate. We calculate the amplitudes of the harmonics and solve the problem of low-frequency stationary noise acting on the plate. We obtain expressions for the correlation function and mean power at the output given a normal random process at the input.

  8. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the "Principle of finiteness" of physical theories, which once motivated the Born-Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  9. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  10. Theory and design of nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Alec Daniel

    If electronics are ever to be completely replaced by optics, a significant possibility in the wake of the fiber revolution, it is likely that nonlinear materials will play a central and enabling role. Indeed, nonlinear optics is the study of the mechanisms through which light can change the nature and properties of matter and, as a corollary, how one beam or color of light can manipulate another or even itself within such a material. However, of the many barriers preventing such a lofty goal, the narrow and limited range of properties supported by nonlinear materials, and natural materials in general, stands at the forefront. Many industries have turned instead to artificial and composite materials, with homogenizable metamaterials representing a recent extension of such composites into the electromagnetic domain. In particular, the inclusion of nonlinear elements has caused metamaterials research to spill over into the field of nonlinear optics. Through careful design of their constituent elements, nonlinear metamaterials are capable of supporting an unprecedented range of interactions, promising nonlinear devices of novel design and scale. In this context, I cast the basic properties of nonlinear metamaterials in the conventional formalism of nonlinear optics. Using alternately transfer matrices and coupled mode theory, I develop two complementary methods for characterizing and designing metamaterials with arbitrary nonlinear properties. Subsequently, I apply these methods in numerical studies of several canonical metamaterials, demonstrating enhanced electric and magnetic nonlinearities, as well as predicting the existence of nonlinear magnetoelectric and off-diagonal nonlinear tensors. I then introduce simultaneous design of the linear and nonlinear properties in the context of phase matching, outlining five different metamaterial phase matching methods, with special emphasis on the phase matching of counter propagating waves in mirrorless parametric amplifiers

  11. Determination of acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) using nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy: Theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    The present article investigates the possibility of using nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy to determine the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) and third order elastic constant by developing an inverse problem. A theoretical framework was developed for nonlinear forced vibration of a cantilever beam using material nonlinearity (stress-strain nonlinearity). The resulting nonlinear equation was solved using method of multiple time scales to obtain the nonlinear frequency shifts. The present works focuses only on classical nonlinearity and, therefore, a diverse group of intact, classic nonlinear materials were chosen. The samples were tested using nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy, and the developed theory was used to invert the experimental frequency shifts to obtain the nonlinearity parameters. The third order elastic constants and β were calculated using their analytical relationship with the nonlinearity parameter. The experimentally determined C111 and β values for all various materials agree well with literature values. In addition to determining β, determination of the sign, or phase of β was also explored theoretically and experimentally.

  12. Nonlinear ellipse rotation modified Z-scan measurements of third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Tian, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Zang, Wei-Ping

    2007-10-01

    We present a method that combines the Z-scan technique with nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) to measure third-order nonlinear susceptibility components. The experimental details are demonstrated, and a comprehensive theoretical analysis is given. The validity of this method is verified by the measurements of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor of a well-characterized liquid, CS2.

  13. Maximized Gust Loads of a Closed-Loop, Nonlinear Aeroelastic System Using Nonlinear Systems Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of computing the maximized gust load for a nonlinear, closed-loop aeroelastic aircraft is discusses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems is applied in order to define a linearized system that provides a bounds on the response of the nonlinear system of interest. The method is applied to a simplified model of an Airbus A310.

  14. Resonance-Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuan

    Nonlinear optical processes, which manifest as many interesting phenomena such as nonlinear wave mixing, optical rectification, intensity-dependent refractive index change, harmonic generation, etc., have found very broad applications. Unfortunately, most optical media exhibit rather weak optical nonlinearities and a majority of nonlinear optical processes have to rely on substantial optical powers to support nonlinear wave interactions, which becomes a major challenge for nonlinear photonic application. This thesis is devoted to exploring enhanced nonlinear optical phenomena, by taking advantage of a certain type of resonance to enhance the nonlinear wave interactions. For this purpose, we employed both natural atomic resonances via electron transition and engineered optical resonances in micro/nanophotonic device structures, for different applications. These two types of resonances, although distinctive in their physical natures, both are able to significantly increase the strength and elongate the time of optical wave interactions, thus leading to dramatic enhancement of nonlinear optical effects. On one hand, we utilized unique energy-level structures in alkali vapor plasmas to dramatically enhance the electron tunneling ionization process and to produce significant resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing for efficient terahertz (THz) wave generation that is crucial for long-wave application. On the other hand, we utilized the enhancement offered by high-Q optical resonances inside microresonators to produce significant photothermal backaction to dramatically suppress the fundamental temperature fluctuations of microresonators, which is essential for sensing and metrology applications. With such cavity-resonance enhancement, we revealed a new regime of nonlinear optical oscillation dynamics in lithium niobate microresonators that results from unique competition between the thermo-optic nonlinear effect and the photorefractive effect, which is inaccessible to

  15. Noise in nonlinear nanoelectromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra Vidal, Diego N.

    Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), due to their nanometer scale size, possess a number of desirable attributes: high sensitivity to applied forces, fast response times, high resonance frequencies and low power consumption. However, ultra small size and low power handling result in unwanted consequences: smaller signal size and higher dissipation, making the NEMS devices more susceptible to external and intrinsic noise. The simplest version of a NEMS, a suspended nanomechanical structure with two distinct excitation states, can be used as an archetypal two state system to study a plethora of fundamental phenomena such as Duffing nonlinearity, stochastic resonance, and macroscopic quantum tunneling at low temperatures. From a technical perspective, there are numerous applications such nanomechanical memory elements, microwave switches and nanomechanical computation. The control and manipulation of the mechanical response of these two state systems can be realized by exploiting a (seemingly) counterintuitive physical phenomenon, Stochastic Resonance: in a noisy nonlinear mechanical system, the presence of noise can enhance the system response to an external stimulus. This Thesis is mainly dedicated to study possible applications of Stochastic Resonance in two-state nanomechanical systems. First, on chip signal amplification by 1/falpha is observed. The effectiveness of the noise assisted amplification is observed to decrease with increasing a. Experimental evidence shows an increase in asymmetry between the two states with increasing noise color. Considering the prevalence of 1/f alpha noise in the materials in integrated circuits, the signal enhancement demonstrated here, suggests beneficial use of the otherwise detrimental noise. Finally, a nanomechanical device, operating as a reprogrammable logic gate, and performing fundamental logic functions such as AND/OR and NAND/NOR is presented. The logic function can be programmed (from AND to OR) dynamically, by

  16. Nonlinear Instability of Liquid Layers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, Lori Ann

    The nonlinear instability of two superposed viscous liquid layers in planar and axisymmetric configurations is investigated. In the planar configuration, the light layer fluid is bounded below by a wall and above by a heavy semiinfinite fluid. Gravity drives the instability. In the first axisymmetric configuration, the layer is confined between a cylindrical wall and a core of another fluid. In the second, a thread is suspended in an infinite fluid. Surface tension forces drive the instability in the axisymmetric configurations. The nonlinear evolution of the fluid-fluid interface is computed for layers of arbitrary thickness when their dynamics are fully coupled to those of the second fluid. Under the assumption of creeping flow, the flow field is represented by an interfacial distribution of Green's functions. A Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the strength of the distribution is derived and then solved using an iterative technique. The Green's functions produce flow fields which are periodic in the direction parallel to the wall and have zero velocity on the wall. For small and moderate surface tension, planar layers evolve into a periodic array of viscous plumes which penetrate into the overlying fluid. The morphology of the plumes depends on the surface tension and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. As the viscosity of the layer increases, the plumes change from a well defined drop on top of a narrow stem to a compact column of rising fluid. The capillary instability of cylindrical interfaces and interfaces in which the core thickness varies in the axial direction are investigated. In both the unbounded and wall bounded configurations, the core evolves into a periodic array of elongated fluid drops connected by thin, almost cylindrical fluid links. The characteristics of the drop-link structure depend on the core thickness, the ratio of the core radius to the wall radius, and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. The factors controlling the

  17. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  18. A note on generalized nonlinear diagonal dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Tai-Bin; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Gao, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an open problem, proposed by A. Frommer, about nonlinear generalized diagonal dominance, is solved on some weak restriction, a counterexample is presented if such a restriction is omitted, and some new properties of nonlinear generalized diagonally dominant functions are investigated.

  19. Convergence of some asynchronous nonlinear multisplitting methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyld, Daniel B.; Xu, Jian-Jun

    2000-09-01

    Frommer's nonlinear multisplitting methods for solving nonlinear systems of equations are extended to the asynchronous setting. Block methods are extended to include overlap as well. Several specific cases are discussed. Sufficient conditions to guarantee their local convergence are given. A numerical example is presented illustrating the performance of the new approach.

  20. Nonlinear Poisson Equation for Heterogeneous Media

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Langhua; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The Poisson equation is a widely accepted model for electrostatic analysis. However, the Poisson equation is derived based on electric polarizations in a linear, isotropic, and homogeneous dielectric medium. This article introduces a nonlinear Poisson equation to take into consideration of hyperpolarization effects due to intensive charges and possible nonlinear, anisotropic, and heterogeneous media. Variational principle is utilized to derive the nonlinear Poisson model from an electrostatic energy functional. To apply the proposed nonlinear Poisson equation for the solvation analysis, we also construct a nonpolar solvation energy functional based on the nonlinear Poisson equation by using the geometric measure theory. At a fixed temperature, the proposed nonlinear Poisson theory is extensively validated by the electrostatic analysis of the Kirkwood model and a set of 20 proteins, and the solvation analysis of a set of 17 small molecules whose experimental measurements are also available for a comparison. Moreover, the nonlinear Poisson equation is further applied to the solvation analysis of 21 compounds at different temperatures. Numerical results are compared to theoretical prediction, experimental measurements, and those obtained from other theoretical methods in the literature. A good agreement between our results and experimental data as well as theoretical results suggests that the proposed nonlinear Poisson model is a potentially useful model for electrostatic analysis involving hyperpolarization effects. PMID:22947937

  1. Linear and nonlinear stability characteristics of whistlers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear propagating characteristics of right-hand polarized, slow electromagnetic, magnetoplasma waves (whistlers) are discussed in terms of stability and dispersion. An analysis of the stability of whistlers propagating at an angle to the static magnetic field is presented. A new mechanism is derived for the onset of stimulated emissions, and modulational instability for nonlinear whistlers are discussed.

  2. NEW NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC TECHNIQUES FOR NDE

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. TENCATE

    2000-09-01

    Acoustic nonlinearity in a medium may occur as a result of a variety of mechanisms. Some of the more common nonlinear effects may come from: (1) one or several cracks, volumetrically distributed due to age or fatigue or single disbonds or delamination; (2) imperfect grain-to-grain contacts, e.g., materials like concretes that are cemented together and have less than perfect bonds; (3) hard parts in a soft matrix, e.g., extreme duty materials like tungsten/copper alloys; or (4) atomic-scale nonlinearities. Nonlinear effects that arise from the first two mechanisms are considerably larger than the last two; thus, we have focused considerable attention on these. The most pervasive nonlinear measure of damage today is a second harmonic measurement. We show that for many cases of interest to NDE, a second harmonic measurement may not be the best choice. We examine the manifestations of nonlinearity in (nonlinear) materials with cracks and/or imperfect bonds and illustrate their applicability to NDE. For example, nonlinear resonance frequency shifts measured at increasing drive levels correlate strongly with the amount of ASR (alkali-silica reaction) damage of concrete cores. Memory effects (slow dynamics) also seem to correlate with the amount of damage.

  3. Multipole vector solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.

    PubMed

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2006-05-15

    We show that multipole solitons can be made stable via vectorial coupling in bulk nonlocal nonlinear media. Such vector solitons are composed of mutually incoherent nodeless and multipole components jointly inducing a nonlinear refractive index profile. We found that stabilization of the otherwise highly unstable multipoles occurs below certain maximum energy flow. Such a threshold is determined by the nonlocality degree.

  4. Structural optimization for nonlinear dynamic response.

    PubMed

    Dou, Suguang; Strachan, B Scott; Shaw, Steven W; Jensen, Jakob S

    2015-09-28

    Much is known about the nonlinear resonant response of mechanical systems, but methods for the systematic design of structures that optimize aspects of these responses have received little attention. Progress in this area is particularly important in the area of micro-systems, where nonlinear resonant behaviour is being used for a variety of applications in sensing and signal conditioning. In this work, we describe a computational method that provides a systematic means for manipulating and optimizing features of nonlinear resonant responses of mechanical structures that are described by a single vibrating mode, or by a pair of internally resonant modes. The approach combines techniques from nonlinear dynamics, computational mechanics and optimization, and it allows one to relate the geometric and material properties of structural elements to terms in the normal form for a given resonance condition, thereby providing a means for tailoring its nonlinear response. The method is applied to the fundamental nonlinear resonance of a clamped-clamped beam and to the coupled mode response of a frame structure, and the results show that one can modify essential normal form coefficients by an order of magnitude by relatively simple changes in the shape of these elements. We expect the proposed approach, and its extensions, to be useful for the design of systems used for fundamental studies of nonlinear behaviour as well as for the development of commercial devices that exploit nonlinear behaviour.

  5. Nonlinear Terahertz Absorption of Graphene Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; König-Otto, Jacob C; Winnerl, Stephan; Sushkov, Andrei B; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E; Mittendorff, Martin

    2016-04-13

    Subwavelength graphene structures support localized plasmonic resonances in the terahertz and mid-infrared spectral regimes. The strong field confinement at the resonant frequency is predicted to significantly enhance the light-graphene interaction, which could enable nonlinear optics at low intensity in atomically thin, subwavelength devices. To date, the nonlinear response of graphene plasmons and their energy loss dynamics have not been experimentally studied. We measure and theoretically model the terahertz nonlinear response and energy relaxation dynamics of plasmons in graphene nanoribbons. We employ a terahertz pump-terahertz probe technique at the plasmon frequency and observe a strong saturation of plasmon absorption followed by a 10 ps relaxation time. The observed nonlinearity is enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude compared to unpatterned graphene with no plasmon resonance. We further present a thermal model for the nonlinear plasmonic absorption that supports the experimental results. The model shows that the observed strong linearity is caused by an unexpected red shift of plasmon resonance together with a broadening and weakening of the resonance caused by the transient increase in electron temperature. The model further predicts that even greater resonant enhancement of the nonlinear response can be expected in high-mobility graphene, suggesting that nonlinear graphene plasmonic devices could be promising candidates for nonlinear optical processing.

  6. Soliton mode locking by nonlinear Faraday rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Wabnitz, S.; Westin, E.; Frey, R.; Flytzanis, C.

    1996-11-01

    We propose nonlinear Faraday rotation as a mechanism for achieving stable polarization mode locking of a soliton laser. We analyze by perturbation theory and beam-propagation simulations the interplay between bandwidth-limited gain, gain dichroism, and linear and nonlinear Faraday rotation. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  7. Spontaneous Oscillations in Nonlinear Active Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2011-03-01

    We present a generic continuum model of a nonlinear active gel with both passive and active crosslinks. The model is relevant for actin gels with passive elasticity provided by ABPs such as filamin-A or α -actinin and dynamic active crosslinkers such as myosin-II. We consider an one dimensional continuum active solid where compressional deformations are coupled to molecular motor dynamics. Three kinds of nonlinearities are incorporated : (a) nonlinear load dependence of unbinding rate of molecular motors, (b) pressure nonlinearities stemming from excluded volume interactions, and (c) nonlinearity due to convection of bound motors along the gel. Unbinding rate nonlinearity stabilizes the oscillatory instabilities predicted by the linear theory and lead to sustained oscillations at intermediate concentrations of ATP. Pressure nonlinearity due to excluded volume interactions stabilizes the contractile instability and leads to a contracted ground state. Our work provides a generic framework for the description of the large scale properties of nonlinear isotropic active solids. This work is supported by the NSF on grants DMR-MWN-0806511 and DMR-100478.

  8. Spline approximations for nonlinear hereditary control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A sline-based approximation scheme is discussed for optimal control problems governed by nonlinear nonautonomous delay differential equations. The approximating framework reduces the original control problem to a sequence of optimization problems governed by ordinary differential equations. Convergence proofs, which appeal directly to dissipative-type estimates for the underlying nonlinear operator, are given and numerical findings are summarized.

  9. Identification of Sintered Irons with Ultrasonic Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Kawashima, K.; Murase, M.; Hirose, N.

    2003-03-01

    Two kinds of sinters made of reduced and atomized iron powders were identified by nonlinear ultrasonic measurement to detect higher harmonics generated at micro gaps comparable to the incident wave amplitude using PZT contact transducers of 5 MHz and 10 MHz. Furthermore, the advantage of the nonlinear ultrasonic measurement was demonstrated by the attenuation coefficient measurement for same samples.

  10. Robust Nonlinear Control of Tailless Fighter Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    adaptive backstepping and nonlinear PI control , it is not very straightforward to establish this uniform asymptotic stability (in a set of error coordinates...tracking error coordinates for mechanical systems and ships controlled via adaptive back- stepping and nonlinear PI control algorithms. These results were

  11. Inverting Monotonic Nonlinearities by Entropy Maximization

    PubMed Central

    López-de-Ipiña Pena, Karmele; Caiafa, Cesar F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for blind inversion of a monotonic nonlinear map applied to a sum of random variables. Such kinds of mixtures of random variables are found in source separation and Wiener system inversion problems, for example. The importance of our proposed method is based on the fact that it permits to decouple the estimation of the nonlinear part (nonlinear compensation) from the estimation of the linear one (source separation matrix or deconvolution filter), which can be solved by applying any convenient linear algorithm. Our new nonlinear compensation algorithm, the MaxEnt algorithm, generalizes the idea of Gaussianization of the observation by maximizing its entropy instead. We developed two versions of our algorithm based either in a polynomial or a neural network parameterization of the nonlinear function. We provide a sufficient condition on the nonlinear function and the probability distribution that gives a guarantee for the MaxEnt method to succeed compensating the distortion. Through an extensive set of simulations, MaxEnt is compared with existing algorithms for blind approximation of nonlinear maps. Experiments show that MaxEnt is able to successfully compensate monotonic distortions outperforming other methods in terms of the obtained Signal to Noise Ratio in many important cases, for example when the number of variables in a mixture is small. Besides its ability for compensating nonlinearities, MaxEnt is very robust, i.e. showing small variability in the results. PMID:27780261

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of the left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Calin; Chiroiu, Veturia

    2002-05-01

    The cnoidal method is applied to solve the set of nonlinear dynamic equations of the left ventricle. By using the theta-function representation of the solutions and a genetic algorithm, the ventricular motion can be described as a linear superposition of cnoidal pulses and additional terms, which include nonlinear interactions among them.

  13. Identification for a Nonlinear Periodic Wave Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Morosanu, C.; Trenchea, C.

    2001-07-01

    This work is concerned with an approximation process for the identification of nonlinearities in the nonlinear periodic wave equation. It is based on the least-squares approach and on a splitting method. A numerical algorithm of gradient type and the numerical implementation are given.

  14. Nonlinear dispersive similariton: spectral interferometric study

    SciTech Connect

    Zeytunyan, A S; Khachikyan, T J; Palandjan, K A; Esayan, G L; Muradyan, L Kh

    2010-06-23

    A similariton formed in a passive optical fibre is experimentally found and investigated by spectral interferometry completely characterising the complex radiation field. A nonlinear dispersive character of similariton formation leads to chirp linearisation and spectrotemporal similarity of this similariton. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Observations of Nonlinear Phenomena in Rotordynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrich, Fredric F.

    Observations, analysis and understanding of nonlinear rotordynamic phenomena observed in aircraft gas turbine engines and other high-speed rotating machinery over the course of the author's career are described. Included are observations of sum-and-difference frequency response; effects of roller bearing clearance; relaxation oscillations; subharmonic response; chaotic response; and other generic nonlinear responses such as superharmonic and ultra-subharmonic response.

  16. Nonlinear fiber gyroscope for quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Alfredo; Morales, Irene; Rivas, Ángel

    2016-07-01

    We examine the performance of a nonlinear fiber gyroscope for improved signal detection beating the quantum limits of its linear counterparts. The performance is examined when the nonlinear gyroscope is illuminated by practical field states, such as coherent and quadrature squeezed states. This is compared with the case of more ideal probes such as photon-number states.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Properties of Layered Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, Igor V.; Topol, Heiko; Weichert, Dieter; Danishevs'kyy, Vladyslav V.

    2010-09-30

    We present an application of the asymptotic homogenization method to study wave propagation in a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a matrix material and coated inclusions. Physical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering the composite's components as a Murnaghan material, structural nonlinearity is caused by the bonding condition between the components.

  18. Nonlinear Poisson equation for heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Hu, Langhua; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-08-22

    The Poisson equation is a widely accepted model for electrostatic analysis. However, the Poisson equation is derived based on electric polarizations in a linear, isotropic, and homogeneous dielectric medium. This article introduces a nonlinear Poisson equation to take into consideration of hyperpolarization effects due to intensive charges and possible nonlinear, anisotropic, and heterogeneous media. Variational principle is utilized to derive the nonlinear Poisson model from an electrostatic energy functional. To apply the proposed nonlinear Poisson equation for the solvation analysis, we also construct a nonpolar solvation energy functional based on the nonlinear Poisson equation by using the geometric measure theory. At a fixed temperature, the proposed nonlinear Poisson theory is extensively validated by the electrostatic analysis of the Kirkwood model and a set of 20 proteins, and the solvation analysis of a set of 17 small molecules whose experimental measurements are also available for a comparison. Moreover, the nonlinear Poisson equation is further applied to the solvation analysis of 21 compounds at different temperatures. Numerical results are compared to theoretical prediction, experimental measurements, and those obtained from other theoretical methods in the literature. A good agreement between our results and experimental data as well as theoretical results suggests that the proposed nonlinear Poisson model is a potentially useful model for electrostatic analysis involving hyperpolarization effects.

  19. Study of Nonlinear Oscillations of Elastic Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-26

    Nonlinear Elastic Membrane Oscillations by Eigenfunction Expansion, WSEAS Transactions of Systems, 3 (4) (2004), 1430-1435. 2.V. Varlamov, Convolution...proceedings 1. A. Balogh and V. Varlamov, Analysis of Nonlinear Elastic Membrane Oscillations by Eigenfunction Expansion, 6th WSEAS International...Eigenfunction Expansion, 6th WSEAS International Conference on Algorithms, Scientific Computing, Modelling and Simulation, Cancun, Mexico, May 12--15

  20. Nonlinearity in modal and vibration testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, N. F.

    2003-01-01

    This set of slides describes some aspects of nonlinear Vibration analysis thru use of analytical fromulas and Examples from real or simulated test systems . The Systems are drawn from a set of examples based on Years of vibration testing experience . Both traditional and new methods are used to describe nonlinear vibration.

  1. Approximating a nonlinear MTFDE from physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a numerical scheme which approximates the solution of a nonlinear mixed type functional differential equation from nerve conduction theory. The solution of such equation is defined in all the entire real axis and tends to known values at ±∞. A numerical method extended from linear case is developed and applied to solve a nonlinear equation.

  2. Generating nonlinear FM chirp waveforms for radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Nonlinear FM waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents design and implementation techniques for Nonlinear FM waveforms.

  3. Evolving Neural Networks for Nonlinear Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-30

    An approach to creating Amorphous Recurrent Neural Networks (ARNN) using Genetic Algorithms (GA) called 2pGA has been developed and shown to be...effective in evolving neural networks for the control and stabilization of both linear and nonlinear plants, the optimal control for a nonlinear regulator

  4. Neural Networks in Nonlinear Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research indicates that artificial neural networks offer interesting learning or adaptive capabilities. The current research focuses on the potential for application of neural networks in a nonlinear aircraft control law. The current work has been to determine which networks are suitable for such an application and how they will fit into a nonlinear control law.

  5. Bilinear modelling of cellulosic orthotropic nonlinear materials

    Treesearch

    E.P. Saliklis; T. J. Urbanik; B. Tokyay

    2003-01-01

    The proposed method of modelling orthotropic solids that have a nonlinear constitutive material relationship affords several advantages. The first advantage is the application of a simple bilinear stress-strain curve to represent the material response on two orthogonal axes as well as in shear, even for markedly nonlinear materials. The second advantage is that this...

  6. Polynomial solutions of nonlinear integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Diego

    2009-05-01

    We analyze the polynomial solutions of a nonlinear integral equation, generalizing the work of Bender and Ben-Naim (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F9, 2008 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 15 (Suppl. 3) 73). We show that, in some cases, an orthogonal solution exists and we give its general form in terms of kernel polynomials.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic vibration absorbers with a saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febbo, M.; Machado, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    The behavior of a new type of nonlinear dynamic vibration absorber is studied. A distinctive characteristic of the proposed absorber is the impossibility to extend the system to infinity. The mathematical formulation is based on a finite extensibility nonlinear elastic potential to model the saturable nonlinearity. The absorber is attached to a single degree-of-freedom linear/nonlinear oscillator subjected to a periodic external excitation. In order to solve the equations of motion and to analyze the frequency-response curves, the method of averaging is used. The performance of the FENE absorber is evaluated considering a variation of the nonlinearity of the primary system, the damping and the linearized frequency of the absorber and the mass ratio. The numerical results show that the proposed absorber has a very good efficiency when the nonlinearity of the primary system increases. When compared with a cubic nonlinear absorber, for a large nonlinearity of the primary system, the FENE absorber shows a better effectiveness for the whole studied frequency range. A complete absence of quasi-periodic oscillations is also found for an appropriate selection of the parameters of the absorber. Finally, direct integrations of the equations of motion are performed to verify the accuracy of the proposed method.

  8. Inverting Monotonic Nonlinearities by Entropy Maximization.

    PubMed

    Solé-Casals, Jordi; López-de-Ipiña Pena, Karmele; Caiafa, Cesar F

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for blind inversion of a monotonic nonlinear map applied to a sum of random variables. Such kinds of mixtures of random variables are found in source separation and Wiener system inversion problems, for example. The importance of our proposed method is based on the fact that it permits to decouple the estimation of the nonlinear part (nonlinear compensation) from the estimation of the linear one (source separation matrix or deconvolution filter), which can be solved by applying any convenient linear algorithm. Our new nonlinear compensation algorithm, the MaxEnt algorithm, generalizes the idea of Gaussianization of the observation by maximizing its entropy instead. We developed two versions of our algorithm based either in a polynomial or a neural network parameterization of the nonlinear function. We provide a sufficient condition on the nonlinear function and the probability distribution that gives a guarantee for the MaxEnt method to succeed compensating the distortion. Through an extensive set of simulations, MaxEnt is compared with existing algorithms for blind approximation of nonlinear maps. Experiments show that MaxEnt is able to successfully compensate monotonic distortions outperforming other methods in terms of the obtained Signal to Noise Ratio in many important cases, for example when the number of variables in a mixture is small. Besides its ability for compensating nonlinearities, MaxEnt is very robust, i.e. showing small variability in the results.

  9. Design of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    This project deals with a new approach to designing organic nonlinear optical materials for second harmonic generation based on the use of hydrogen...patterns for even simple organic molecules. For organic nonlinear optical materials this dilemma means that even the most promising organic molecule may

  10. Synthesizing Diacetylenes With Nonlinear Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Frazier, Donald P.; Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Diacetylene compounds being investigated to determine whether they have nonlinear optical properties making them useful for four-wave mixing, generation of third harmonics, phase conjugation, and like. Diacetylene monomers synthesized by sequences of chemical reactions. Monomers polymerized by ultraviolet light, forming potentially useful nonlinear optical materials.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics established in the ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, J.B. ); Tsonis, A.A. )

    1993-02-05

    A time series describing the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is analyzed using the latest techniques of chaos theory. The methods which rely on resampling statistics were developed to more finely distinguish between nonlinearity and linear correlated noise. From the results significant nonlinear structure arising from ENSO dynamics on the monthly time scale is established. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Hybrid approach for nonlinear wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Mareev, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    The solution of nonintegrable nonlinear equations is very difficult even numerically and practically impossible by standard analytical technic. New view, offered by heterogeneous computational systems, gives some new possibilities, but also need novel approaches for numerical realization of pertinent algorithms. We shall give some examples of such analysis on the base of nonlinear wave's evolution study in multiphase media with chemical reaction.

  13. On Least Squares Fitting Nonlinear Submodels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Gordon G.

    Three simplifying conditions are given for obtaining least squares (LS) estimates for a nonlinear submodel of a linear model. If these are satisfied, and if the subset of nonlinear parameters may be LS fit to the corresponding LS estimates of the linear model, then one attains the desired LS estimates for the entire submodel. Two illustrative…

  14. A simple approach to nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong-Fu; He, Ji-Huan

    2009-10-01

    A very simple and effective approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. Anyone with basic knowledge of advanced calculus can apply the method to finding approximately the amplitude-frequency relationship of a nonlinear oscillator. Some examples are given to illustrate its extremely simple solution procedure and an acceptable accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines by Frank Crowne ARL -TR-5062 January 2010...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL -TR-5062 January 2010 Modeling...and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines Frank Crowne Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL

  16. Spillover, nonlinearity, and flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Robert W.; Zes, Dean

    1991-01-01

    Many systems whose evolution in time is governed by Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) are linearized around a known equilibrium before Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) is considered. In this case, there are infinitely many independent vibrational modes, and it is intuitively evident on physical grounds that infinitely many actuators would be needed in order to control all modes. A more precise, general formulation of this grave difficulty (spillover problem) is due to A.V. Balakrishnan. A possible route to circumvention of this difficulty lies in leaving the PDE in its original nonlinear form, and adding the essentially finite dimensional control action prior to linearization. One possibly applicable technique is the Liapunov Schmidt rigorous reduction of singular infinite dimensional implicit function problems to finite dimensional implicit function problems. Omitting details of Banach space rigor, the formalities of this approach are given.

  17. Shaping the nonlinear near field

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states. PMID:26762487

  18. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  19. NONLINEAR ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF RR LYRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, L.; Kollath, Z.; Szabo, R.; Bryson, S.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Kolenberg, K.

    2012-09-20

    The observations of the Kepler Space Telescope revealed that fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars may show various radial overtones. The presence of multiple radial modes may allow us to conduct nonlinear asteroseismology: comparison of mode amplitudes and frequency shifts between observations and models. Here we report the detection of three radial modes in the star RR Lyr, the eponym of the class, using the Kepler short cadence data: besides the fundamental mode, both the first and the ninth overtones can be derived from the data set. RR Lyrae shows period doubling, but switches occasionally to a state where a pattern of six pulsation cycles repeats instead of two. We found hydrodynamic models that show the same three modes and the period-six state, allowing for comparison with the observations.

  20. Nonlinear image filtering within IDP++

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S.K.; Wieting, M.G.; Brase, J.M.

    1995-02-09

    IDP++, image and data processing in C++, is a set of a signal processing libraries written in C++. It is a multi-dimension (up to four dimensions), multi-data type (implemented through templates) signal processing extension to C++. IDP++ takes advantage of the object-oriented compiler technology to provide ``information hiding.`` Users need only know C, not C++. Signals or data sets are treated like any other variable with a defined set of operators and functions. We here some examples of the nonlinear filter library within IDP++. Specifically, the results of MIN, MAX median, {alpha}-trimmed mean, and edge-trimmed mean filters as applied to a real aperture radar (RR) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set.

  1. Nonlinear features for product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Casasent, David P.

    1999-03-01

    Classification of real-time X-ray images of randomly oriented touching pistachio nuts is discussed. The ultimate objective is the development of a system for automated non-invasive detection of defective product items on a conveyor belt. We discuss the extraction of new features that allow better discrimination between damaged and clean items (pistachio nuts). This feature extraction and classification stage is the new aspect of this paper; our new maximum representation and discriminating feature (MRDF) extraction method computes nonlinear features that are used as inputs to a new modified k nearest neighbor classifier. In this work, the MRDF is applied to standard features (rather than iconic data). The MRDF is robust to various probability distributions of the input class and is shown to provide good classification and new ROC (receiver operating characteristic) data.

  2. Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

  3. Nonlinear optical photovoltaics (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Mirzaee, Somayeh M.

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear absorption was investigated in a poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) PCBM fullerene blend, one of the most popular organic solar cell's materials. We observed three-photon absorption in the bulk hetero junction photodiode configuration. The output photocurrent of the photodiode was interpreted in terms of the three-photon absorption properties of the P3HT:PCBM blend at 1550 nm. Can the concept be extrapolated to high efficiency solar cells? We propose an optical antenna technology revisited with plasmonics and organic rectifiers that should permit the development of an ultra-high efficiency PV technology that is compatible with large-area fabrication (self assembling) and low-cost (plastic) technologies.

  4. Competing Synchronization of Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Epaminondas

    2006-03-01

    Coupled nonlinear oscillators abound in nature and in man-made devices. Think for example of two neurons in the brain competing to get the attention of a third neuron, and eventually developing some sort of synchronization process. This is a common feature involving oscillators in general, and can be studied using numerical simulations and/or experimental setups. In this talk, results involving electronic circuits and plasma discharges will be presented showing interesting features related to the types of oscillators and to the types of couplings. In particular, for the case of two oscillators competing for synchronization with a third one, the target oscillator synchronizes alternately to one or the other of the competing oscillators. The time intervals of synchronous states vary in a random-like manner. Numerical and experimental results will be presented and the consistency between them will be discussed.

  5. Nonlinear Thermoelectricity in Disordered Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttalib, K. A.; Hershfield, Selman

    2015-05-01

    The creation of efficient thermoelectric devices remains a technological challenge. Using nanoscale-engineered devices offers some potential advantages over bulk materials; however, they also present new problems. The microscopic Hamiltonian of a device which optimizes the efficiency and power output for a particular load and temperature profile is not necessarily optimum for another temperature difference and external load. Furthermore, one cannot necessarily manufacture a particular Hamiltonian. In this paper, we calculate the nonlinear thermoelectric transport through a gate-modulated one-dimensional disordered semiconducting nanowire connected to two large leads. The disorder is chosen to be Lorentzian, which allows exact results for transmission through the wire for all strengths of disorder. By tuning the gate voltage acting on the nanowire, we show that the thermodynamic efficiency can be made large enough to be industrially competitive. The gate voltage allows one to maximize the efficiency and power output for particular temperature differences between the leads as well as different external loads.

  6. Nonlinear Stability of Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, T. R. S.; Seiner, J. M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents stability calculations made for a shock-free supersonic jet using the model based on parabolized stability equations. In this analysis the large-scale structures, which play a dominant role in the mixing as well as the noise radiated, are modeled as instability waves. This model takes into consideration non-parallel flow effects and also nonlinear interaction of the instability waves. The stability calculations have been performed for different frequencies and mode numbers over a range of jet operating temperatures. Comparisons are made, where appropriate, with the solutions to Rayleigh's equation (linear, inviscid analysis with the assumption of parallel flow). The comparison of the solutions obtained using the two approaches show very good agreement.

  7. Weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.M.; Brio, M.; Kruse, M.T.; Zank, G.P.

    1999-06-01

    Equations describing weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interactions in one Cartesian space dimension are discussed. For wave propagation in uniform media, the wave interactions of interest consist of: (a) three-wave resonant interactions in which high frequency waves, may evolve on long space and time scales if the wave phases satisfy the resonance conditions; (b) Burgers self-wave steepening for the magnetoacoustic waves, and (c) mean wave field effects, in which a particular wave interacts with the mean wave field of the other waves. For wave propagation in non-uniform media, further linear wave mixing terms appear in the equations. The equations describe four types of resonant triads: slow-fast magnetosonic wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-entropy wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-magnetosonic wave interaction; and magnetosonic-entropy wave interaction. The formalism is restricted to coherent wave interactions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Nonlinear elastic wave NDE I : nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) and slow dynamics diagnostics (SDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul; Sutin, A.

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear elastic response of materials (e.g., wave mixing, harmonic generation) is much more sensitive to the presence of damage than the linear response (e.g., wavespeed, dissipation). An overview of the four primary Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) methods used in nonlinear damage detection are presented in this and the following paper. Those presented in this paper are Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS), based on measurement of the nonlinear response of one or more resonant modes in a test sample, and Slow Dynamics Diagnostics (SDD), manifest by an alteration in the material dissipation and elastic modulus after application of relatively high-amplitude wave that slowly recovers in time.

  9. Design of nonlinear PID controller and nonlinear model predictive controller for a continuous stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Srinivasan, K

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the authors have represented the nonlinear system as a family of local linear state space models, local PID controllers have been designed on the basis of linear models, and the weighted sum of the output from the local PID controllers (Nonlinear PID controller) has been used to control the nonlinear process. Further, Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller using the family of local linear state space models (F-NMPC) has been developed. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes has been demonstrated on a CSTR process, which exhibits dynamic nonlinearity.

  10. Effect of bubble shell nonlinearity on ultrasound nonlinear propagation through microbubble populations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meng-Xing; Loughran, Jonathan; Stride, Eleanor; Zhang, Dong; Eckersley, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear propagation of ultrasound through microbubble populations can generate artifacts and reduce contrast to tissue ratio in ultrasound imaging. The existing propagation model, which underestimates harmonic generation by an order of magnitude, was revised by incorporating a nonlinear constitutive equation for the coating into the description of the microbubble dynamics. Significantly better agreement with experiments was obtained, indicating that coating nonlinearity represents an important contribution to nonlinear propagation of ultrasound in microbubble populations. The results were found to be sensitive to the parameters characterizing the coating nonlinearity and thus accurate measurement of these parameters is required for accurate quantitative predictions.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of cardiovascular ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shiogai, Y.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P.V.E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of methods drawn from nonlinear and stochastic dynamics to the analysis of cardiovascular time series is reviewed, with particular reference to the identification of changes associated with ageing. The natural variability of the heart rate (HRV) is considered in detail, including the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) corresponding to modulation of the instantaneous cardiac frequency by the rhythm of respiration. HRV has been intensively studied using traditional spectral analyses, e.g. by Fourier transform or autoregressive methods, and, because of its complexity, has been used as a paradigm for testing several proposed new methods of complexity analysis. These methods are reviewed. The application of time–frequency methods to HRV is considered, including in particular the wavelet transform which can resolve the time-dependent spectral content of HRV. Attention is focused on the cardio-respiratory interaction by introduction of the respiratory frequency variability signal (RFV), which can be acquired simultaneously with HRV by use of a respiratory effort transducer. Current methods for the analysis of interacting oscillators are reviewed and applied to cardio-respiratory data, including those for the quantification of synchronization and direction of coupling. These reveal the effect of ageing on the cardio-respiratory interaction through changes in the mutual modulation of the instantaneous cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Analyses of blood flow signals recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry are reviewed and related to the current understanding of how endothelial-dependent oscillations evolve with age: the inner lining of the vessels (the endothelium) is shown to be of crucial importance to the emerging picture. It is concluded that analyses of the complex and nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular system can illuminate the mechanisms of blood circulation, and that the heart, the lungs and the vascular system function as a single entity in

  12. Nonlinear dynamics of cardiovascular ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiogai, Y.; Stefanovska, A.; McClintock, P. V. E.

    2010-03-01

    The application of methods drawn from nonlinear and stochastic dynamics to the analysis of cardiovascular time series is reviewed, with particular reference to the identification of changes associated with ageing. The natural variability of the heart rate (HRV) is considered in detail, including the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) corresponding to modulation of the instantaneous cardiac frequency by the rhythm of respiration. HRV has been intensively studied using traditional spectral analyses, e.g. by Fourier transform or autoregressive methods, and, because of its complexity, has been used as a paradigm for testing several proposed new methods of complexity analysis. These methods are reviewed. The application of time-frequency methods to HRV is considered, including in particular the wavelet transform which can resolve the time-dependent spectral content of HRV. Attention is focused on the cardio-respiratory interaction by introduction of the respiratory frequency variability signal (RFV), which can be acquired simultaneously with HRV by use of a respiratory effort transducer. Current methods for the analysis of interacting oscillators are reviewed and applied to cardio-respiratory data, including those for the quantification of synchronization and direction of coupling. These reveal the effect of ageing on the cardio-respiratory interaction through changes in the mutual modulation of the instantaneous cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Analyses of blood flow signals recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry are reviewed and related to the current understanding of how endothelial-dependent oscillations evolve with age: the inner lining of the vessels (the endothelium) is shown to be of crucial importance to the emerging picture. It is concluded that analyses of the complex and nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular system can illuminate the mechanisms of blood circulation, and that the heart, the lungs and the vascular system function as a single entity in

  13. Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and

  14. Nonlinear optical studies of surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R.

    1994-07-01

    The possibly of using nonlinear optical processes for surface studies has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG), in particular, have been well accepted as viable surface probes. They have many advantages over the conventional techniques. By nature, they are highly surface-specific and has a submonolayer sensitivity. As coherent optical processes, they are capable of in-situ probing of surfaces in hostile environment as well as applicable to all interfaces accessible by light. With ultrafast pump laser pulses, they can be employed to study surface dynamic processes with a subpicosecond time resolution. These advantages have opened the door to many exciting research opportunities in surface science and technology. This paper gives a brief overview of this fast-growing new area of research. Optical SHG from a surface was first studied theoretically and experimentally in the sixties. Even the submonolayer surface sensitivity of the process was noticed fairly early. The success was, however, limited because of difficulties in controlling the experimental conditions. It was not until the early 1980`s that the potential of the process for surface analysis was duly recognized. The first surface study by SHG was actually motivated by the then active search for an understanding of the intriguing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It had been suspected that the enhancement in SERS mainly came from the local-field enhancement due to local plasmon resonances and pointing rod effect on rough metal surfaces. In our view, Raman scattering is a two-photon process and is therefore a nonlinear optical effect.

  15. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  16. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  17. Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning

    Alan Turing's work on morphogenesis, more than half a century ago, continues to motivate and inspire theoretical and experimental biologists even today. That said, there are very few experimental systems for which Turing's theory is applicable. In this thesis we present an experimental reaction-diffusion system ideally suited for testing Turing's ideas in synthetic "cells" consisting of microfluidically produced surfactant-stabilized emulsions in which droplets containing the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillatory chemical reactants are dispersed in oil. The BZ reaction has become the prototype of nonlinear dynamics in chemistry and a preferred system for exploring the behavior of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Our system consists of a surfactant stabilized monodisperse emulsion of drops of aqueous BZ solution dispersed in a continuous phase of oil. In contrast to biology, here the chemistry is understood, rate constants are measured and interdrop coupling is purely diffusive. We explore a large set of parameters through control of rate constants, drop size, spacing, and spatial arrangement of the drops in lines and rings in one-dimension (1D) and hexagonal arrays in two-dimensions (2D). The Turing model is regarded as a metaphor for morphogenesis in biology but not for prediction. Here, we develop a quantitative and falsifiable reaction-diffusion model that we experimentally test with synthetic cells. We quantitatively establish the extent to which the Turing model in 1D describes both stationary pattern formation and temporal synchronization of chemical oscillators via reaction-diffusion and in 2D demonstrate that chemical morphogenesis drives physical differentiation in synthetic cells.

  18. Biped control via nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem M.

    1992-09-01

    This thesis applies nonlinear techniques to actuate a biped system and provides a rigorous analysis of the resulting motion. From observation of human locomotion, it is believed that the 'complex' dynamics developed by the aggregation of multiple muscle systems can be generated by a reduced order system which captures the rough details of the locomotion process. The investigation is begun with a simple model of a biped system. Since the locomotion process is cyclic in nature, we focus on applying the topologically similar concept of limit cycles to the simple model in order to generate the desired gaits. A rigorous analysis of the biped dynamics shows that the controlled motion is robust against dynamical disturbances. In addition, different biped gaits are generated by merely adjusting some of the limit cycle parameters. More dynamical and actuation complexities are then added for realism. First, two small foot components are added and the overall biped motion under the same control actuation is analyzed. Due to the physical constraints on the feet, it is shown using singular perturbation theory how the gross behavior of the biped dynamics are dictated by those of the reduced model. Next, an analysis of the biped dynamics under added nonlinear elasticities in the legs is carried out. Moreover, using a slightly modified model, forward motion is generated in the sagittal plane. At each step, a small amount of energy is consistently derived from the vertical plane and converted into a forward motion. Stability of the forward dynamics is guaranteed by appropriate foot placement. Finally, the robustness of the controlled biped dynamics is rigorously analyzed and illustrated through extensive computer simulations.

  19. Nonlinear flight control design using backstepping methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thanh Trung

    The subject of nonlinear flight control design using backstepping control methodology is investigated in the dissertation research presented here. Control design methods based on nonlinear models of the dynamic system provide higher utility and versatility because the design model more closely matches the physical system behavior. Obtaining requisite model fidelity is only half of the overall design process, however. Design of the nonlinear control loops can lessen the effects of nonlinearity, or even exploit nonlinearity, to achieve higher levels of closed-loop stability, performance, and robustness. The goal of the research is to improve control quality for a general class of strict-feedback dynamic systems and provide flight control architectures to augment the aircraft motion. The research is divided into two parts: theoretical control development for the strict-feedback form of nonlinear dynamic systems and application of the proposed theory for nonlinear flight dynamics. In the first part, the research is built on two components: transforming the nonlinear dynamic model to a canonical strict-feedback form and then applying backstepping control theory to the canonical model. The research considers a process to determine when this transformation is possible, and when it is possible, a systematic process to transfer the model is also considered when practical. When this is not the case, certain modeling assumptions are explored to facilitate the transformation. After achieving the canonical form, a systematic design procedure for formulating a backstepping control law is explored in the research. Starting with the simplest subsystem and ending with the full system, pseudo control concepts based on Lyapunov control functions are used to control each successive subsystem. Typically each pseudo control must be solved from a nonlinear algebraic equation. At the end of this process, the physical control input must be re-expressed in terms of the physical states by

  20. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Zhang, Jingdi; Keiser, George R.; Maddox, Scott J.; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Bank, Seth R.; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field-induced intervalley scattering, resulting in a reduced carrier mobility thereby damping the plasmonic response. here, we demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide films. Nonlinear plasmonic metamaterials show potential for use in ultrafast terahertz (THz) optics and for passive protection of sensitive electromagnetic devices.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Helleman, R.H.G.; Kheifets, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the nonlinearity of storage rings becomes an essential problem as the design parameters of each new machine are pushed further and further. Yet the familiar methods of classical mechanics do not allow determination of single particle orbits over reasonable lengths of time. It is also argued that the single particle dynamics of a storage ring is possibly one of the cleanest and simplest nonlinear dynamical systems available with very few degrees of freedom. Hence, reasons are found for accelerator physicists to be interested in nonlinear dynamics and for researchers in nonlinear dynamics to be interested in modern storage rings. The more familiar methods of treating nonlinear systems routinely used in acclerator theory are discussed, pointing out some of their limitations and pitfalls. 39 refs., 1 fig. (LEW)

  2. Sinusoidal nonlinearity in wavelength-sweeping interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Luc; Pfeiffer, Pierre

    2007-11-20

    We report the influence of the nonlinearities in the wavelength-sweeping speed on the resulting interferometric signals in an absolute distance interferometer. The sweeping signal is launched in the reference and target interferometers from an external cavity laser source. The experimental results demonstrate a good resolution in spite of the presence of nonlinearities in the wavelength sweep. These nonlinearities can be modeled by a sum of sinusoids. A simulation is then implemented to analyze the influence of their parameters. It shows that a sinusoidal nonlinearity is robust enough to give a good final measurement uncertainty through a Fourier transform technique. It can be concluded that an optimal value of frequency and amplitude exists in the case of a sinusoidal nonlinearity.

  3. Naturally stable Sagnac–Michelson nonlinear interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-11-16

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. As a result, our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  4. Electrically tunable nonlinear plasmonics in graphene nanoislands.

    PubMed

    Cox, Joel D; Javier García de Abajo, F

    2014-12-11

    Nonlinear optical processes rely on the intrinsically weak interactions between photons enabled by their coupling with matter. Unfortunately, many applications in nonlinear optics are severely hindered by the small response of conventional materials. Metallic nanostructures partially alleviate this situation, as the large light enhancement associated with their localized plasmons amplifies their nonlinear response to record high levels. Graphene hosts long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that also interact strongly with light. Here we show that the nonlinear polarizabilities of graphene nanoislands can be electrically tuned to surpass by several orders of magnitude those of metal nanoparticles of similar size. This extraordinary behaviour extends over the visible and near-infrared spectrum for islands consisting of hundreds of carbon atoms doped with moderate carrier densities. Our quantum-mechanical simulations of the plasmon-enhanced optical response of nanographene reveal this material as an ideal platform for the development of electrically tunable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  5. Multifunction nonlinear signal processor - Deconvolution and correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Horner, Joseph L.

    1989-08-01

    A multifuncional nonlinear optical signal processor is described that allows different types of operations, such as image deconvolution and nonlinear correlation. In this technique, the joint power spectrum of the input signal is thresholded with varying nonlinearity to produce different specific operations. In image deconvolution, the joint power spectrum is modified and hard-clip thresholded to remove the amplitude distortion effects and to restore the correct phase of the original image. In optical correlation, the Fourier transform interference intensity is thresholded to provide higher correlation peak intensity and a better-defined correlation spot. Various types of correlation signals can be produced simply by varying the severity of the nonlinearity, without the need for synthesis of specific matched filter. An analysis of the nonlinear processor for image deconvolution is presented.

  6. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  7. Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer.

    PubMed

    Lukens, Joseph M; Peters, Nicholas A; Pooser, Raphael C

    2016-12-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing-conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  8. Naturally stable Sagnac-Michelson nonlinear interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-12-01

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing---conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9\\% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. Our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires no active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.

  9. Compact waves in microscopic nonlinear diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, P I; Krapivsky, P L

    2012-06-01

    We analyze the spread of a localized peak of energy into vacuum for nonlinear diffusive processes. In contrast with standard diffusion, the nonlinearity results in a compact wave with a sharp front separating the perturbed region from vacuum. In d spatial dimensions, the front advances as t^{1/(2+da)} according to hydrodynamics, with a the nonlinearity exponent. We show that fluctuations in the front position grow as ∼t^{μ}η, where μ<1/2+da is an exponent that we measure and η is a random variable whose distribution we characterize. Fluctuating corrections to hydrodynamic profiles give rise to an excess penetration into vacuum, revealing scaling behaviors and robust features. We also examine the discharge of a nonlinear rarefaction wave into vacuum. Our results suggest the existence of universal scaling behaviors at the fluctuating level in nonlinear diffusion.

  10. Naturally stable Sagnac–Michelson nonlinear interferometer

    DOE PAGES

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Peters, Nicholas A.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-11-16

    Interferometers measure a wide variety of dynamic processes by converting a phase change into an intensity change. Nonlinear interferometers, making use of nonlinear media in lieu of beamsplitters, promise substantial improvement in the quest to reach the ultimate sensitivity limits. Here we demonstrate a new nonlinear interferometer utilizing a single parametric amplifier for mode mixing conceptually, a nonlinear version of the conventional Michelson interferometer with its arms collapsed together. We observe up to 99.9% interference visibility and find evidence for noise reduction based on phase-sensitive gain. As a result, our configuration utilizes fewer components than previous demonstrations and requires nomore » active stabilization, offering new capabilities for practical nonlinear interferometric-based sensors.« less

  11. Parametric instability of two coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardo, Bruce; Earwood, John; Sazonova, Vera

    1999-03-01

    One of the two normal modes of a system of two coupled nonlinear oscillators is subject to an instability. Several demonstration apparatus of weakly coupled oscillators that exhibit the instability are described. The effect is due to one normal mode parametrically driving the other, and occurs for the broad range of systems where the nonlinearity has a cubic contribution to the restoring force of each oscillator, which includes pendulums. The instability has an amplitude threshold that increases as the coupling is increased. A naive physical approach predicts that the mode opposite to that observed should be unstable. This is resolved by a weakly nonlinear analysis which reveals that the nonlinearity causes the linear frequency of a normal mode to depend upon the finite amplitude of the other mode. Numerical simulations confirm the theory, and extend the existence of the instability and the accuracy of the theoretical amplitude threshold beyond the regime of weak nonlinearity and weak coupling.

  12. Nonlocal optical nonlinearity of ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. F.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Meneghetti, M. R.; Dupont, J.; Hickmann, J. M.

    2008-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of two ionic liquids, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMI]BF4) and 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMI]PF6), have been investigated using the Z-scan technique. These compounds are liquid at room temperature and present a strong ionic nature. Nonlinear refraction and absorption, and thermo-optical measurements for both ionic liquids were performed using two different laser wavelengths, 514 nm and 810 nm, in the continuous wave and femtosecond regimes, respectively. It was observed that those specimens have large negative nonlinear refractive indexes and thermo-optical coefficients, but nonlinear absorption was not observed. Different dispersion relations were observed depending on the ionic liquid anion, which may be related to the distinct structures of these compounds. This result indicates that ionic liquids are suitable media for the investigation of nonlocal nonlinear phenomena.

  13. Nonlinear, lumped parameter transformer model reduction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Degeneff, R.C.; Gutierrez, M.R.; Vakilian, M.

    1995-04-01

    Utility engineers often need nonlinear transformer models in order to investigate power system transient events. Methods exist to create accurate wideband reduced order linear transformer models, however, to date a method of creating a reduced order wideband nonlinear transformer model has not been presented. This paper describes a technique that starts with a detailed nonlinear transformer model used for insulation design studies and reduces its order so that it can be used conveniently in EMTP. The method is based on linearization of the core`s saturable characteristic during each solution time intervals. The technique uses Kron`s reduction approach in each solution time interval. It can be applied to any nonlinear lumped parameter network which uses electric parameter analogies (i.e., FEM networks). This paper outlines the nonlinear reduction technique. An illustrative example is given using the transient voltage response during saturation for a 785/345/34.5kV, YYD 500 MVA single phase auto transformer.

  14. Quasicompactons in inverted nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A.; Wu Jianxiong; Pang Wei; Wang Sicong; Zhou Jianying

    2011-10-15

    We study large-amplitude one-dimensional solitary waves in photonic crystals featuring competition between linear and nonlinear lattices, with minima of the linear potential coinciding with maxima of the nonlinear pseudopotential, and vice versa (inverted nonlinear photonic crystals, INPCs), in the case of the saturable self-focusing nonlinearity. Such crystals were recently fabricated using a mixture of SU-8 and Rhodamine-B optical materials. By means of numerical methods and analytical approximations, we find that large-amplitude solitons are broad sharply localized stable pulses (quasicompactons, QCs). With the increase of the total power, P, the QC's centroid performs multiple switchings between minima and maxima of the linear potential. Unlike cubic INPCs, the large-amplitude solitons are mobile in the medium with the saturable nonlinearity. The threshold value of the kick necessary to set the soliton in motion is found as a function of P. Collisions between moving QCs are considered too.

  15. Nonlinear lower hybrid modeling in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Napoli, F.; Schettini, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.

    2014-02-12

    We present here new results concerning the nonlinear mechanism underlying the observed spectral broadening produced by parametric instabilities occurring at the edge of tokamak plasmas in present day LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) experiments. Low frequency (LF) ion-sound evanescent modes (quasi-modes) are the main parametric decay channel which drives a nonlinear mode coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves. The spectrum of the LF fluctuations is calculated here considering the beating of the launched LH wave at the radiofrequency (RF) operating line frequency (pump wave) with the noisy background of the RF power generator. This spectrum is calculated in the frame of the kinetic theory, following a perturbative approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear LH wave equation show the evolution of the nonlinear mode coupling in condition of a finite depletion of the pump power. The role of the presence of heavy ions in a Deuterium plasma in mitigating the nonlinear effects is analyzed.

  16. Movement Enhances the Nonlinearity of Hippocampal Theta

    PubMed Central

    Sheremet, Alex; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear, metastable dynamics of the brain are essential for large-scale integration of smaller components and for the rapid organization of neurons in support of behavior. Therefore, understanding the nonlinearity of the brain is paramount for understanding the relationship between brain dynamics and behavior. Explicit quantitative descriptions of the properties and consequences of nonlinear neural networks, however, are rare. Because the local field potential (LFP) reflects the total activity across a population of neurons, nonlinearites of the nervous system should be quantifiable by examining oscillatory structure. We used high-order spectral analysis of LFP recorded from the dorsal and intermediate regions of the rat hippocampus to show that the nonlinear character of the hippocampal theta rhythm is directly related to movement speed of the animal. In the time domain, nonlinearity is expressed as the development of skewness and asymmetry in the theta shape. In the spectral domain, nonlinear dynamics manifest as the development of a chain of harmonics statistically phase coupled to the theta oscillation. This evolution was modulated across hippocampal regions, being stronger in the dorsal CA1 relative to more intermediate areas. The intensity and timing of the spiking activity of pyramidal cells and interneurons was strongly correlated to theta nonlinearity. Because theta is known to propagate from dorsal to ventral regions of the hippocampus, these data suggest that the nonlinear character of theta decreases as it travels and supports a hypothesis that activity dissipates along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe the first explicit quantification regarding how behavior enhances the nonlinearity of the nervous system. Our findings demonstrate uniquely how theta changes with increasing speed due to the altered underlying neuronal dynamics and open new directions of research on the relationship between single

  17. Nonlinear effects at the boundary of an electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.; Shukla, P. K.

    2003-05-01

    Two solutions for nonlinear electron plasma waves propagating along a cold plasma boundary are reported. Thus, the nonlinear frequency shift caused by the harmonic generation as well as new localized nonlinear perturbations are found.

  18. Localized Nonlinear Waves in Nonlinear Schr¨odinger Equation with Nonlinearities Modulated in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchao; Li, Biao

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the generalized sub-equation method is extended to investigate localized nonlinear waves of the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with potentials and nonlinearities depending on time and on spatial coordinates. With the help of symbolic computation, three families of analytical solutions of this NLS-type equation are presented. Based on these solutions, periodically and quasiperiodically oscillating solitons (dark and bright) and moving solitons are observed. Some implications to Bose-Einstein condensates are also discussed

  19. Active Nonlinear Feedback Control for Aerospace Systems. Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    relating to the role of nonlinearities in feedback control. These area include Lyapunov function theory, chaotic controllers, statistical energy analysis , phase robustness, and optimal nonlinear control theory.

  20. Nonlinear effects in quantum dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, David; Grigolini, Paolo

    1990-12-01

    We study a two-level system linearly interacting with a set of quantum-mechanical oscillators, referred to as the ``bath.'' This system is formally equivalent to a magnetic dipole, with spin 1/2, precessing with the Larmor frequency ω0 around a fixed magnetic field along the z axis and undergoing the influence of a fluctuating field along the x axis. These bath fluctuations are not independent of the state of the spin, and the crucial problem to be studied in this paper is precisely how to take the reaction field, i.e., the influence of the bath on the system, into account. We find a general result based on neglecting a contribution to the reaction field proportional to σx(t)-<σx(t)>, where the angle brackets denote averaging on both the spin and the bath space, with a density matrix corresponding to the spin polarized along the x axis. We show that under the special condition that the spin does not significantly depart from its initial state, our general result turns out to coincide with the noninteracting-blip approximation (NBA) of Leggett and co-workers [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1 (1987)]. When we make the assumption that both quantum and thermal fluctuations of the bath can be neglected and that the time scale of the bath is virtually zero (adiabatic assumption), our general result turns out to coincide with the prediction of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNSE) of Davydov and Kislukha [Phys. Status Solidi B 59, 465 (1973)] and Davydov $[-Biology and Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1982)] in the two-sites case. This means that the nonlinear effects proven by Kenkre and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 34, 4959 (1986); 35, 1473 (1987)] to accompany a significant departure of the spin from the initial state are lost by the NBA. On the other hand, our approach provides a rigorous evaluation of the effects of the oscillator fluctuations on the predictions of the DNSE. It is shown that the quantum fluctuations might have a significant role also in the

  1. NICMOS non-linearity tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Roelof

    2005-07-01

    This program incorporates a number of tests to analyse the count rate dependent non-linearity seen in NICMOS spectro-photometric observations. In visit 1 we will observe a few fields with stars of a range in luminosity in NGC1850 with NICMOS in NIC1 in F090M, F110W and F160W and NIC2 F110W, F160W, and F180W. We will repeat the observations with flatfield lamp on, creating artificially high count-rates, allowing tests of NICMOS linearity as function of count rate. To access the effect of charge trapping and persistence, we first take darks {so there is not too much charge already trapped}, than take exposures with the lamp off, exposures with the lamp on, and repeat at the end with lamp off. Finally, we continue with taking darks during occultation. In visit 2 we will observe spectro-photometric standard P041C using the G096 and G141 grisms in NIC3, and repeat the lamp off/on/off test to artificially create a high background. In visits 3&4 we repeat photometry measurements of faint standard stars SNAP-2 and WD1657+343, on which the NICMOS non-linearity was originally discovered using grism observations. These measurements are repeated, because previous photometry was obtained with too short exposure times, hence substantially affected by charge trapping non-linearity. Measurements will be made with NIC1: Visit 5 forms the persistence test of the program. The bright star GL-390 {used in a previous persistence test} will iluminate the 3 NICMOS detectors in turn for a fixed time, saturating the center many times, after which a series of darks will be taken to measure the persistence {i.e. trapped electrons and the decay time of the traps}. To determine the wavelength dependence of the trap chance, exposures of the bright star in different filters will be taken, as well as one in the G096 grism with NIC3. Most exposures will be 128s long, but two exposures in the 3rd orbit will be 3x longer, to seperate the effects of count rate versus total counts of the trap

  2. Nonlinear modeling of thermoacoustically driven energy cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Prateek; Scalo, Carlo; Lodato, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We present an investigation of nonlinear energy cascade in thermoacoustically driven high-amplitude oscillations, from the initial weakly nonlinear regime to the shock wave dominated limit cycle. We develop a first principle based quasi-1D model for nonlinear wave propagation in a canonical minimal unit thermoacoustic device inspired by the experimental setup of Biwa et al.. Retaining up to quadratic nonlinear terms in the governing equations, we develop model equations for nonlinear wave propagation in the proximity of differentially heated no-slip boundaries. Furthermore, we discard the effects of acoustic streaming in the present study and focus on nonlinear energy cascade due to high amplitude wave propagation. Our model correctly predicts the observed exponential growth of the thermoacoustically amplified second harmonic, as well as the energy transfer rate to higher harmonics causing wave steepening. Moreover, we note that nonlinear coupling of local pressure with heat transfer reduces thermoacoustic amplification gradually thus causing the system to reach limit cycle exhibiting shock waves. Throughout, we verify the results from the quasi-1D model with fully compressible Navier-Stokes simulations.

  3. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M.

    1996-12-31

    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  4. Geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric laminated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, Oded

    2005-08-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of piezo-laminated plates actuated with isotropic or anisotropic piezoelectric layers is analytically investigated. The analytical model is derived using the variational principle of virtual work along with the lamination and plate theories, the von Karman large displacement and moderate rotation kinematic relations, and the anisotropic piezoelectric constitutive laws. A solution strategy that combines the approach of the method of lines, the advantages of the finite element concept, and the variational formulation is developed. This approach yields a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, which are solved using the multiple-shooting method. Convergence and verification of the model are examined through comparison with linear and nonlinear results of other approximation methods. The nonlinear response of two active plate structures is investigated numerically. The first plate is actuated in bending using monolithic piezoceramic layers and the second one is actuated in twist using macro-fiber composites. The results quantitatively reveal the complicated in-plane stress state associated with the piezoelectric actuation and the geometrically nonlinear coupling of the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the plate. The influence of the nonlinear effects ranges from significant stiffening in certain combinations of electrical loads and boundary conditions to amplifications of the induced deflections in others. The paper closes with a summary and conclusions.

  5. Non-linearity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Petros, Peter

    2003-05-01

    The whole spectrum of medicine consists of complex non-linear systems that are balanced and interact with each other. How non-linearity confers stability on a system and explains variation and uncertainty in clinical medicine is discussed. A major theme is that a small alteration in initial conditions may have a major effect on the end result. In the context of non-linearity, it is argued that 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) as it exists today can only ever be relevant to a small fraction of the domain of medicine, that the 'art of medicine' consists of an intuitive 'tuning in' to these complex systems and as such is not so much an art as an expression of non-linear science. The main cause of iatrogenic disease is interpreted as a failure to understand the complexity of the systems being treated. Case study examples are given and analysed in non-linear terms. It is concluded that good medicine concerns individualized treatment of an individual patient whose body functions are governed by non-linear processes. EBM as it exists today paints with a broad and limited brush, but it does promise a fresh new direction. In this context, we need to expand the spectrum of scientific medicine to include non-linearity, and to look upon the 'art of medicine' as a historical (but unstated) legacy in this domain.

  6. Fast Rotary Nonlinear Spatial Acquisition (FRONSAC) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo K.; Constable, R. Todd; Galiana, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) have been studied to reconstruct images from a minimum number of echoes. Previous work has also explored single shot trajectories in nonlinear SEMs. However, the search continues for optimal schemes that apply nonlinear SEMs to improve spatial encoding efficiency and image quality. Theory and Methods We enhance the encoding efficiency of standard linear gradient trajectories by adding a rapidly rotating nonlinear SEM of moderate amplitude, the so called FRONSAC (Fast ROtary Nonlinear Spatial ACquisition) imaging. This additional gradient greatly improves the image quality of highly undersampled single-shot trajectories, including EPI, Spiral, and Rosette trajectories. Results Our simulations, including noise and dephasing effects, test the effect of adding FRONSAC gradients, demonstrating the applicability of this approach. Performance is explained by demonstrating the additional k-space sampling the nonlinear gradient provides. Studies of the optimal amplitude and frequency of the additional FRONSAC field are presented, and the role of enhanced sampling during the readout demonstrated. Dynamic field mapping in a second-order gradient system shows the proposed gradient waveforms are feasible. Conclusions Images resulting from highly undersampled existing k-space trajectories, such as EPI, Spiral and Rosette, are greatly enhanced simply by adding a rotating nonlinear SEM field. PMID:25950279

  7. Fast rotary nonlinear spatial acquisition (FRONSAC) imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo K; Constable, R Todd; Galiana, Gigi

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) have been studied to reconstruct images from a minimum number of echoes. Previous work has also explored single shot trajectories in nonlinear SEMs. However, the search continues for optimal schemes that apply nonlinear SEMs to improve spatial encoding efficiency and image quality. We enhance the encoding efficiency of standard linear gradient trajectories by adding a rapidly rotating nonlinear SEM of moderate amplitude, the so called FRONSAC (Fast ROtary Nonlinear Spatial ACquisition) imaging. This additional gradient greatly improves the image quality of highly undersampled single-shot trajectories, including EPI, Spiral, and Rosette trajectories. Our simulations, including noise and dephasing effects, test the effect of adding FRONSAC gradients, demonstrating the applicability of this approach. Performance is explained by demonstrating the additional k-space sampling the nonlinear gradient provides. Studies of the optimal amplitude and frequency of the additional FRONSAC field are presented, and the role of enhanced sampling during the readout demonstrated. Dynamic field mapping in a second-order gradient system shows the proposed gradient waveforms are feasible. Images resulting from highly undersampled existing k-space trajectories, such as EPI, Spiral, and Rosette, are greatly enhanced simply by adding a rotating nonlinear SEM field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nonlinear waves in PT -symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konotop, Vladimir V.; Yang, Jianke; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress on nonlinear properties of parity-time (PT )-symmetric systems is comprehensively reviewed in this article. PT symmetry started out in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, where complex potentials obeying PT symmetry could exhibit all-real spectra. This concept later spread out to optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, electronic circuits, and many other physical fields, where a judicious balancing of gain and loss constitutes a PT -symmetric system. The natural inclusion of nonlinearity into these PT systems then gave rise to a wide array of new phenomena which have no counterparts in traditional dissipative systems. Examples include the existence of continuous families of nonlinear modes and integrals of motion, stabilization of nonlinear modes above PT -symmetry phase transition, symmetry breaking of nonlinear modes, distinctive soliton dynamics, and many others. In this article, nonlinear PT -symmetric systems arising from various physical disciplines are presented, nonlinear properties of these systems are thoroughly elucidated, and relevant experimental results are described. In addition, emerging applications of PT symmetry are pointed out.

  9. Nonlinear waves in the solar atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, Michael S

    2006-02-15

    In this paper, we give a brief review of the contemporary theory of nonlinear waves in the solar atmosphere. The choice of topics reflects personal interests of the author. Historically the theory of nonlinear waves was first applied to the solar atmosphere to explain the chromospheric and coronal heating. It was assumed that the turbulent motion in the solar convective zone excites sound waves that propagate upwards. Due to nonlinearity these waves steepen and form shocks. The wave energy dissipates in these shocks thus heating the corona. We give a brief description of propagation and damping of nonlinear sound waves in the stratified solar atmosphere, and point out that, at present, the acoustic heating remains the most popular theory of heating the lower chromosphere. Then we extend the analysis to nonlinear slow magnetosonic waves in coronal plumes and loops, and discuss its implications for interpretation of observational results. The next topic of interest is the propagation of nonlinear waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere. Here, we restrict our analysis to slow sausage waves in magnetic tubes and discuss properties of solitary waves described by the Leibovich-Roberts equation. We conclude with the discussion of nonlinear theory of slow resonant layers, and its possible application to helioseismology.

  10. Nonlinear Susceptibility Magnitude Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Bradley W; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G

    2015-03-15

    This study demonstrates a method for improving the resolution of susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) using spatial information that arises from the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs). In this proof-of-concept study of nonlinear SMI, a pair of drive coils and several permanent magnets generate applied magnetic fields and a coil is used as a magnetic field sensor. Sinusoidal alternating current (AC) in the drive coils results in linear mNP magnetization responses at primary frequencies, and nonlinear responses at harmonic frequencies and intermodulation frequencies. The spatial information content of the nonlinear responses is evaluated by reconstructing tomographic images with sequentially increasing voxel counts using the combined linear and nonlinear data. Using the linear data alone it is not possible to accurately reconstruct more than 2 voxels with a pair of drive coils and a single sensor. However, nonlinear SMI is found to accurately reconstruct 12 voxels (R(2) = 0.99, CNR = 84.9) using the same physical configuration. Several time-multiplexing methods are then explored to determine if additional spatial information can be obtained by varying the amplitude, phase and frequency of the applied magnetic fields from the two drive coils. Asynchronous phase modulation, amplitude modulation, intermodulation phase modulation, and frequency modulation all resulted in accurate reconstruction of 6 voxels (R(2) > 0.9) indicating that time multiplexing is a valid approach to further increase the resolution of nonlinear SMI. The spatial information content of nonlinear mNP responses and the potential for resolution enhancement with time multiplexing demonstrate the concept and advantages of nonlinear SMI.

  11. Nonlinear Light-Matter Interactions in Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Kevin Patrick

    Metamaterials possess extraordinary linear optical properties never observed in natural materials such as a negative refractive index, enabling exciting applications such as super resolution imaging and cloaking. In this thesis, we explore the equally extraordinary nonlinear properties of metamaterials. Nonlinear optics, the study of light-matter interactions where the optical fields are strong enough to change material properties, has fundamental importance to physics, chemistry, and material science as a non-destructive probe of material properties and has important technological applications such as entangled photon generation and frequency conversion. Due to their ability to manipulate both linear and nonlinear light matter interactions through sub-wavelength structuring, metamaterials are a promising direction for both fundamental and applied nonlinear optics research. We perform the first experiments on nonlinear propagation in bulk zero and negative index optical metamaterials and demonstrate that a zero index material can phase match four wave mixing processes in ways not possible in finite index materials. In addition, we demonstrate the ability of nonlinear scattering theory to describe the geometry dependence of second and third harmonic generation in plasmonic nanostructures. As an application of nonlinear metamaterials, we propose a phase matching technique called "resonant phase matching" to increase the gain and bandwidth of Josephson junction traveling wave parametric amplifiers. With collaborators, we demonstrate a best in class amplifier for superconducting qubit readout--over 20 dB gain with near quantum limited noise performance with a bandwidth and dynamic range an order of magnitude larger than alternative devices. In conclusion, we have demonstrated several ways in which nonlinear metamaterials surpass their natural counterparts. We look forward to the future of the field where nonlinear and quantum metamaterials will enable further new

  12. Strong electron correlation and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Haranath

    2012-07-01

    Based on experimental and theoretical research during the last decade, giant optical nonlinearities found in Mott-Hubbard insulators like Sr2CuO3,Ca2CuO3, Nickel halides ([Ni(chxn)2X]X2 where X = Br, Cl and `chxn' refers to cyclohexanediamine) are presented. These materials are reported to be potential materials for all optical switching devices. The occurrence of nearly degenerate lowest one- and two-photon states, strong Coulomb correlation and strong dipole coupling between the one- and two-photon states are believed to be the reason for such colossal optical nonlinearities in these systems. In some of these materials (at least), the two photon state is below the one-photon state. This leads to the possibility that such material can be excited to the lowest optical state by shinning laser of suitable wavelength, the populations thus generated decays to the two-photon state at ultrafast short time. Thus nonlinear measurements can be made from an excited state (we call as excited state nonlinear optical properties). One dimensional strongly correlated materials are predicted to have several orders-of-magnitude larger excited state optical non-linearities in comparison to that from the ground state, in the wavelength region suitable for terahertz communications. A large number of measurable nonlinear optical properties like Two Photon absorption, Photo induced absorption, Third Harmonic generation, Stimulated Raman Scattering are obtained theoretically and compared with available experimental observations. Then a large number excited state nonlinear optical properties are predicted which are experimentally measurable. We emphasize that the mechanism of nonlinear optics in one dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators is different from that of the π-conjugated polymers — in the former spin excitation play an important role. We argue from detailed understanding of nonlinear optics of π-conjugated systems that some features in the Third Harmonic Generation

  13. Topological approximation of the nonlinear Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Iomin, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We study the phenomena of Anderson localization in the presence of nonlinear interaction on a lattice. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger models with arbitrary power nonlinearity is analyzed. We conceive the various regimes of behavior, depending on the topology of resonance overlap in phase space, ranging from a fully developed chaos involving Lévy flights to pseudochaotic dynamics at the onset of delocalization. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinearity plays a dynamically very distinguished role in that it is the only type of power nonlinearity permitting an abrupt localization-delocalization transition with unlimited spreading already at the delocalization border. We describe this localization-delocalization transition as a percolation transition on the infinite Cayley tree (Bethe lattice). It is found in the vicinity of the criticality that the spreading of the wave field is subdiffusive in the limit t →+∞. The second moment of the associated probability distribution grows with time as a power law ∝ tα, with the exponent α =1/3 exactly. Also we find for superquadratic nonlinearity that the analog pseudochaotic regime at the edge of chaos is self-controlling in that it has feedback on the topology of the structure on which the transport processes concentrate. Then the system automatically (without tuning of parameters) develops its percolation point. We classify this type of behavior in terms of self-organized criticality dynamics in Hilbert space. For subquadratic nonlinearities, the behavior is shown to be sensitive to the details of definition of the nonlinear term. A transport model is proposed based on modified nonlinearity, using the idea of "stripes" propagating the wave process to large distances. Theoretical investigations, presented here, are the basis for consistency analysis of the different localization-delocalization patterns in systems with many coupled degrees of freedom in association with the asymptotic properties of the

  14. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  15. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallosh, Renata

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E 7(7) scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics and numerical uncertainties in CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    The application of nonlinear dynamics to improve the understanding of numerical uncertainties in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is reviewed. Elementary examples in the use of dynamics to explain the nonlinear phenomena and spurious behavior that occur in numerics are given. The role of dynamics in the understanding of long time behavior of numerical integrations and the nonlinear stability, convergence, and reliability of using time-marching, approaches for obtaining steady-state numerical solutions in CFD is explained. The study is complemented with spurious behavior observed in CFD computations.

  17. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-01

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  18. Nonlinear and nonequilibrium dynamics in geomaterials.

    PubMed

    TenCate, James A; Pasqualini, Donatella; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Higdon, David; Johnson, Paul A

    2004-08-06

    The transition from linear to nonlinear dynamical elasticity in rocks is of considerable interest in seismic wave propagation as well as in understanding the basic dynamical processes in consolidated granular materials. We have carried out a careful experimental investigation of this transition for Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones. Below a well-characterized strain, the materials behave linearly, transitioning beyond that point to a nonlinear behavior which can be accurately captured by a simple macroscopic dynamical model. At even higher strains, effects due to a driven nonequilibrium state, and relaxation from it, complicate the characterization of the nonlinear behavior.

  19. Spectral Hole Burning via Kerr Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Anwar Ali; Abdul Jabar, M. S.; Jalaluddin, M.; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Iftikhar, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Spectral hole burning is investigated in an optical medium in the presence of Doppler broadening and Kerr nonlinearity. The Kerr nonlinearity generates coherent hole burning in the absorption spectrum. The higher order Kerr nonlinearity enhances the typical lamb dip of the hole. Normal dispersion in the hole burning region while Steep anomalous dispersion between the two hole burning regions also enhances with higher order Kerr effect. A large phase shift creates large delay or advancement in the pulse propagation while no distortion is observed in the pulse. These results provide significant steps to improve optical memory, telecom devices, preservation of information and image quality. Supported by Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan

  20. Experimental verification of transient nonlinear acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Cannata, Jonathan; Wang, Tianren

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on nonlinear transient acoustical holography. The validity and effectiveness of a recently proposed nonlinear transient acoustical holography algorithm is evaluated in the presence of noise. The acoustic field measured on a post-focal plane of a high-intensity focused transducer is backward projected to reconstruct the pressure distributions on the focal and a pre-focal plane, which are shown to be in good agreement with the measurement. In contrast, the conventional linear holography produces erroneous results in this case where the nonlinearity involved is strong. Forward acoustic field projection was also carried out to further verify the algorithm.

  1. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  2. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  3. Nonlinear wave interactions in quantum magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P. K.; Ali, S.; Stenflo, L.; Marklund, M.

    2006-11-15

    Nonlinear interactions involving electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH), ion-cyclotron (IC), lower-hybrid (LH), and Alfven waves in quantum magnetoplasmas are considered. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamical equations are used to derive the governing equations for nonlinearly coupled UH, IC, LH, and Alfven waves. The equations are then Fourier analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations, which admit both decay and modulational instabilities of the UH waves at quantum scales. The growth rates of the instabilities are presented. They can be useful in applications of our work to diagnostics in laboratory and astrophysical settings.

  4. Carroll-type deformations in nonlinear elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C.; Saccomandi, G.; Vergori, L.

    2014-05-01

    Classes of deformations in nonlinear elastodynamics with origins in the pioneering work of Carroll are investigated for a Mooney-Rivlin material subject to body forces corresponding to a nonlinear substrate potential. Exact representations are obtained which, inter alia, are descriptive of the propagation of circularly polarized waves and motions with oscillatory spatial dependence. It is shown that a description of slowly modulated waves leads to a novel class of generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The latter class, in general, is not integrable. However, a procedure is presented whereby integrable Hamiltonian subsystems may be isolated for a broad class of deformations.

  5. Mechanical mixing in nonlinear nanomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, A.; Krömmer, H.; Kraus, A.; Blick, R. H.; Corso, G.; Richter, K.

    2000-11-01

    The physics of nonlinear dynamics has been studied in detail in macroscopic mechanical systems like the driven classical pendulum. By now, it is possible to build mechanical devices on the nanometer scale with eigenfrequencies on the order of several 100 MHz. In this work, we want to present how to machine such nanomechanical resonators out of silicon-on-insulator wafers and how to operate them in the nonlinear regime in order to investigate higher-order mechanical mixing at radio frequencies. The nonlinear response then is compared in detail to nth-order perturbation theory and nonperturbative numerical calculations.

  6. Variable nonlinear transfer characteristics of MSLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Hara, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1990-08-01

    Variable nonlinear transfer characteristics (gamma characteristics) of microchannel spatial light modulator (MSLM) are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The MSLM structure and the principle of operation are discussed, and experimental results are presented. It is shown that the thresholding nonlinearities of the MSLM can be controlled by either the mesh voltage or by writing the time change in the thresholding operation. The resulting variable nonlinear transfer characteristics can be used in various optical processings such as a sigmoid function on optical neural networks and an analog operating on optical information processing.

  7. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves.

    PubMed

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-06

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  8. Testing for nonlinear dependence in financial markets.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed; Matilla-Garcia, Mariano; Marin, Manuel Ruiz

    2011-07-01

    This article addresses the question of improving the detection of nonlinear dependence by means of recently developed nonparametric tests. To this end a generalized version of BDS test and a new test based on symbolic dynamics are used on realizations from a well-known artificial market for which the dynamic equation governing the market is known. Comparisons with other tests for detecting nonlinearity are also provided. We show that the test based on symbolic dynamics outperforms other tests with the advantage that it depends only on one free parameter, namely the embedding dimension. This does not hold for other tests for nonlinearity.

  9. Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, R.; Galán, C. A.; Sánchez-Bajo, F.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.

  10. A Nonlinear Conservation Law with Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    AOA1A3 882 W7SCONSIN UNIV-MAOISON MATHEMATICS RESEARCH CENTER F/6 12/I A NONLINEAR CONSERVATION LAW WITH MEMORY.(U) AUG RU .J A NOHEL DAAG29-80-C...RESEARCH CENTER A NONLINEAR CONSERVATION LAW WITH MEMORY J. A. Nohel Technical Summary Report #2251 August 1981 A , ABSTRACT In this paper we study a history...applied to the viscoelastic problem it is shown that under physically reasonable assumptions the nonlinear conservation law has a unique, classical

  11. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for tokamak microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.

    1988-05-01

    A nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation, as well as Poisson equation, has been derived in a form suitable for particle simulation studies of tokamak microturbulence and associated anomalous transport. This work differs from the existing nonlinear gyrokinetic theories in toroidal geometry, since the present equations conserve energy while retaining the crucial linear and nonlinear polarization physics. In the derivation, the action-variational Lie perturbation method is utilized in order to preserve the Hamiltonian structure of the original Vlasov-Poisson system. Emphasis is placed on the dominant physics of the collective fluctuations in toroidal geometry, rather than on details of particle orbits. 13 refs.

  12. Vorticity cutoff in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel

    2005-07-22

    Using group-theory arguments, we demonstrate that, unlike in homogeneous media, no symmetric vortices of arbitrary order can be generated in two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear systems possessing a discrete-point symmetry. The only condition needed is that the nonlinearity term exclusively depends on the modulus of the field. In the particular case of 2D periodic systems, such as nonlinear photonic crystals or Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, it is shown that the realization of discrete symmetry forbids the existence of symmetric vortex solutions with vorticity higher than two.

  13. Prediction of nonlinear jet noise propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Kent L.

    The role of nonlinearity in the propagation of noise radiated from high-performance jet aircraft has not been a well-understood phenomenon in the past. To address the problem of finite-amplitude noise propagation, a hybrid time-frequency domain model has been developed to numerically solve the generalized Mendousse-Burgers equation, which is a parabolic model equation that includes effects of quadratic nonlinearity, atmospheric absorption and dispersion, and geometrical spreading. The algorithm has been compared against analytical theory and numerical issues have been discussed. Three sets of experimental data have been used to evaluate the model: model-scale laboratory jet data, field data using a large loudspeaker, and static engine run-up measurements of the F/A-22 Raptor. Comparison of linearly- and nonlinearly-predicted spectra demonstrates that nonlinearity does, in fact, impact the noise propagation in all three sets of data. Additionally, the extensive comparison with the Raptor data shows that the model is successful in predicting the measured spectrum over multiple angles and engine conditions, demonstrating that the model captures much of the physics of the propagation, despite its current neglect of multipath interference and atmospheric refraction and turbulence effects. Two additional studies have been carried out in order to address fundamental questions relevant to the nonlinear propagation of jet noise: ''What is the impact of nonlinearity on perceived levels?" and ''At what point does the propagation become linear?" An investigation of the perceived impact of nonlinearity shows that there are only minor differences between nonlinear and linear predictions in calculations of power-based, single-number metrics, such as A-weighted overall sound pressure level. On the other hand, the actual perceived differences between nonlinear and linear waveforms are substantially greater and consequently do not correlate well with calculated metrics. This

  14. Nonlinear dynamical system approaches towards neural prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Sho

    2011-04-19

    An asynchronous discrete-state spiking neurons is a wired system of shift registers that can mimic nonlinear dynamics of an ODE-based neuron model. The control parameter of the neuron is the wiring pattern among the registers and thus they are suitable for on-chip learning. In this paper an asynchronous discrete-state spiking neuron is introduced and its typical nonlinear phenomena are demonstrated. Also, a learning algorithm for a set of neurons is presented and it is demonstrated that the algorithm enables the set of neurons to reconstruct nonlinear dynamics of another set of neurons with unknown parameter values. The learning function is validated by FPGA experiments.

  15. NOLIN: A nonlinear laminate analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A nonlinear, plane-stress, laminate analysis program, NOLIN, was developed which accounts for laminae nonlinearity under inplane shear and transverse extensional stress. The program determines the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of symmetric laminates subjected to any combination of inplane shear and biaxial extensional loadings. The program has the ability to treat different stress-strain behavior in tension and compression, and predicts laminate failure using any or all of maximum stress, maximum strain, and quadratic interaction failure criteria. A brief description of the program is presented including discussion of the flow of information and details of the input required. Sample problems and a complete listing of the program is also provided.

  16. Nonlinear Single-Spin Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-01

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  17. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  18. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbeck, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.

  19. On Various Nonlinearity Measures for Boolean Functions.

    PubMed

    Boyar, Joan; Find, Magnus Gausdal; Peralta, René

    2016-07-01

    A necessary condition for the security of cryptographic functions is to be "sufficiently distant" from linear, and cryptographers have proposed several measures for this distance. In this paper, we show that six common measures, nonlinearity, algebraic degree, annihilator immunity, algebraic thickness, normality, and multiplicative complexity, are incomparable in the sense that for each pair of measures, μ1, μ2, there exist functions f1, f2 with f1 being more nonlinear than f2 according to μ1, but less nonlinear according to μ2. We also present new connections between two of these measures. Additionally, we give a lower bound on the multiplicative complexity of collision-free functions.

  20. Quantitative descriptions of nonlinear gravitational galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto

    1990-08-01

    Results are presented on three different quantitative analyses of nonlinear gravitational galaxy clustering, including determinations of two-point correlation function, xi(r); fractal dimensions, Dq; and f(N) statistics. The analyses show that, for models with n = 1 and n = 0, the exponent of the correlation function (which has a general form xi/r/ proportional to r exp -gamma) is about 2 in the nonlinear regime. It is shown that the thermodynamic f(N), which connnects the fractal dimensions with the exponent of xi(r) can describe the distribution of galaxies in the nonlinear regime.