Science.gov

Sample records for non-circular streaming motions

  1. EFFECTS OF NON-CIRCULAR MOTIONS ON AZIMUTHAL COLOR GRADIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Gomez, Gilberto C. E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.m

    2009-12-20

    Assuming that density waves trigger star formation, and that young stars preserve the velocity components of the molecular gas where they are born, we analyze the effects that non-circular gas orbits have on color gradients across spiral arms. We try two approaches, one involving semianalytical solutions for spiral shocks, and another with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation data. We find that, if non-circular motions are ignored, the comparison between observed color gradients and stellar population synthesis models would in principle yield pattern speed values that are systematically too high for regions inside corotation, with the difference between the real and the measured pattern speeds increasing with decreasing radius. On the other hand, image processing and pixel averaging result in systematically lower measured spiral pattern speed values, regardless of the kinematics of stellar orbits. The net effect is that roughly the correct pattern speeds are recovered, although the trend of higher measured OMEGA{sub p} at lower radii (as expected when non-circular motions exist but are neglected) should still be observed. We examine the MartInez-GarcIa et al. photometric data and confirm that this is indeed the case. The comparison of the size of the systematic pattern speed offset in the data with the predictions of the semianalytical and MHD models corroborates that spirals are more likely to end at outer Lindblad resonance, as these authors had already found.

  2. Analyzing Non-circular Motions in Spiral Galaxies Through 3D Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Carrera, I.; Rosado, M.; Amram, P.

    3D spectroscopic techniques allow the assessment of different types of motions in extended objects. In the case of spiral galaxies, thes type of techniques allow us to trace not only the (almost) circular motion of the ionized gas, but also the motions arising from the presence of structure such as bars, spiral arms and tidal features. We present an analysis of non-circular motions in spiral galaxies in interacting pairs using scanning Fabry-Perot interferometry of emission lines. We show how this analysis can be helpful to differentiate circular from non-circular motions in the kinematical analysis of this type of galaxies.

  3. The power spectra of non-circular motions in disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, Kyle; Laws, Anna S. E.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the first year of the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, we present a preliminary study of the amplitude of non-circular motions in a sample of disk galaxies. We select galaxies that have either a visual classification as a spiral galaxy by the Galaxy Zoo project (Lintott et al. 2011) and/or a measured Sersic index of less than 2.5 from the NASA-Sloan Atlas (nsatlas.org). We also remove high-inclination systems by selecting galaxies with isophotal ellipticity measurements of less than 0.6, implying an inclination of less than 65 degrees. For each galaxy, we fit a tilted-disk model to the observed line-of-sight velocities (Andersen & Bershady 2013). The geometric projection of the circularly rotating disk is simultaneously fit to both the ionized-gas (H-alpha) and stellar kinematics, whereas the rotation curves of the two dynamical tracers are allowed to be independent. We deproject the residuals of the velocity-field fit to the disk-plane polar coordinates and select a radial region that is fully covered in aziumuth, yet not undersampled by the on-sky spaxel. Similar to the approach taken by Bovy et al. (2015) for the Milky Way, we then compute the two-dimensional power spectrum of this velocity-residual map, which provides the amplitude of non-circular motions at all modes probed by the data. Our preliminary analysis reveals disk-plane non-circular motions in both the stars and ionized-gas with typical peak amplitudes of approximately 20 km/s. Additionally, our initial findings appear to demonstrate that non-circular motions in barred galaxies are stronger in the ionized gas than in the stars, a trend not seen in unbarred galaxies.

  4. Non-circular motion estimation of the grand-design spiral galaxy NGC 628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, D.

    2013-09-01

    I present a harmonic decomposition analysis of the grand-design spiral galaxy NGC 628 using the H I data from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS), Walter et al., Astron. J. 136, 2563 (2008). The harmonic decomposition analysis allows the estimation of the peculiar motion magnitude of the galaxy not counted in the rotation of the disk. The rotation curve is obtained through a tilted ring analysis and reaches a maximum velocity not higher than 200 km s-1. The residual from the velocity field shows a morphology shift from a m = 1 to a m = 3 feature at R = 120", typical of two spiral arms perturbation of the potential. The non-circular motion have a magnitude of ~10 km s-1, in agreement with previous studies of similar Hubble type galaxies.

  5. Exploring the GalMer database: bar properties and non-circular motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriamampandry, T. H.; Deg, N.; Carignan, C.; Combes, F.; Spekkens, K.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We use Tree-SPH simulations from the GalMer database to characterize and quantify the non-circular motions induced by the presence of bar-like structures on the observed rotation curve of barred galaxies derived from empirical models of their line-of-sight velocity maps. The GalMer database consists of SPH simulations of galaxies spanning a wide range of morphological types and sizes. Aims: The aim is to compare the intrinsic velocities and bar properties from the simulations with those derived from pseudo-observations. This allows us to estimate the amount of non-circularity and to test the various methods used to derive the bar properties and rotation curves. Methods: The intrinsic velocities in the simulations are calculated from the gravitational forces whereas the observed rotation velocities are derived by applying the ROTCUR and DiskFit algorithms to well-resolved observations of intermediate-inclination, strongly barred galaxies. Results: Our results confirm that the tilted ring method implemented in ROTCUR systematically underestimates or overestimates the rotational velocities by up to 40 percent in the inner part of the galaxy when the bar is aligned with one of the symmetry axes for all the models. For the DiskFit analysis, we find that it produces unrealistic values for all the models used in this work when the bar is within approximately ten degrees of the major or minor axis.

  6. Stochastic non-circular motion and outflows driven by magnetic activity in the Galactic bulge region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2015-12-01

    By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches ≳0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. In addition, the magnetic pressure-gradient force also drives radial flows in a similar manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram shape of the central molecular zone. This is a natural extension into the central few 100 pc of the magnetic activity, which is observed as molecular loops at radii from a few 100 pc to 1 kpc. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time dependent, which we discuss from a viewpoint of the outflow from the bulge.

  7. Measuring the Sun's motion with stellar streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhan, Khyati; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for measuring the Sun's motion using the proper motions of Galactic halo star streams. The method relies on the fact that the motion of the stars perpendicular to a stream from a low-mass progenitor is close to zero when viewed from a non-rotating frame at rest with respect to the Galaxy, and that the deviation from zero is due to the reflex motion of the observer. The procedure we implement here has the advantage of being independent of the Galactic mass distribution. We run a suite of simulations to test the algorithm we have developed, and find that we can recover the input solar motion to good accuracy with data of the quality that will soon become available from the ESA/Gaia mission.

  8. Shock structure in non-circular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The shock-cell structure of supersonic jets with non-circular exit geometry is modeled using a linearized analysis. The model takes into account the finite thickness of the jet shear layer using realistic velocity and density profiles. The effects of the shear layer turbulence are included by incorporating eddy-viscosity terms. A finite-difference numerical method is used to solve the steady linearized equations of motion. A body-fitted coordinate system is used to describe the shear layer. The variation of the pressure fluctuation with downstream distance is given for circular jets and for an elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2.0. Comparisons with experimental data are made. Difficulties with the numerical technique are also discussed.

  9. Gas streaming motions towards the nucleus of M81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnorr Müller, Allan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Ferrari, Fabricio; Steiner, J. E.; Axon, David J.; Robinson, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    We present two-dimensional stellar and gaseous kinematics of the inner 120 × 250 pc2 of the LINER/Seyfert 1 galaxy M81, from optical spectra obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) integral field spectrograph on the Gemini-North telescope at a spatial resolution of ≈10 pc. The stellar velocity field shows circular rotation and, overall, is very similar to the published large-scale velocity field, but deviations are observed close to the minor axis which can be attributed to stellar motions possibly associated with a nuclear bar. The stellar velocity dispersion of the bulge is 162 ± 15 km s-1, in good agreement with previous measurements and leading to a black hole mass of MBH= 5.5+3.6-2.0× 107 M⊙ based on the MBH-σ relationship. The gas kinematics is dominated by non-circular motions and the subtraction of the stellar velocity field reveals blueshifts of ≈-100 km s-1 on the far side of the galaxy and a few redshifts on the near side. These characteristics can be interpreted in terms of streaming towards the centre if the gas is in the plane. On the basis of the observed velocities and geometry of the flow, we estimate a mass inflow rate in ionized gas of ≈4.0 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1, which is of the order of the accretion rate necessary to power the LINER nucleus of M81. We have also applied the technique of principal component analysis (PCA) to our data, which reveals the presence of a rotating nuclear gas disc within ≈50 pc from the nucleus and a compact outflow, approximately perpendicular to the disc. The PCA combined with the observed gas velocity field shows that the nuclear disc is being fed by gas circulating in the galaxy plane. The presence of the outflow is supported by a compact jet seen in radio observations at a similar orientation, as well as by an enhancement of the [O I]/Hα line ratio, probably resulting from shock excitation of the circumnuclear gas by the radio jet. With these observations we are thus resolving both the

  10. Rotatable non-circular forebody flow controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskovitz, Cary A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a rotatable, non-circular forebody flow controller. The apparatus comprises a small geometric device located at a nose of a forebody of an aircraft and a non-circular cross-sectional area that extends toward the apex of the aircraft. The device is symmetrical about a reference plane and preferably attaches to an axle which in turn attaches to a rotating motor. The motor rotates the device about an axis of rotation. Preferably, a control unit connected to an aircraft flight control computer signals to the rotating motor the proper rotational positioning of the geometric device.

  11. Combustor with non-circular head end

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  12. Normal form from biological motion despite impaired ventral stream function.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, S; Bentin, S; Harel, M; Rees, G; Saygin, A P

    2011-04-01

    We explored the extent to which biological motion perception depends on ventral stream integration by studying LG, an unusual case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has significant ventral stream processing deficits but no discernable structural cortical abnormality. LG's intermediate visual areas and object-sensitive regions exhibit abnormal activation during visual object perception, in contrast to area V5/MT+ which responds normally to visual motion (Gilaie-Dotan, Perry, Bonneh, Malach, & Bentin, 2009). Here, in three studies we used point light displays, which require visual integration, in adaptive threshold experiments to examine LG's ability to detect form from biological and non-biological motion cues. LG's ability to detect and discriminate form from biological motion was similar to healthy controls. In contrast, he was significantly deficient in processing form from non-biological motion. Thus, LG can rely on biological motion cues to perceive human forms, but is considerably impaired in extracting form from non-biological motion. Finally, we found that while LG viewed biological motion, activity in a network of brain regions associated with processing biological motion was functionally correlated with his V5/MT+ activity, indicating that normal inputs from V5/MT+ might suffice to activate his action perception system. These results indicate that processing of biologically moving form can dissociate from other form processing in the ventral pathway. Furthermore, the present results indicate that integrative ventral stream processing is necessary for uncompromised processing of non-biological form from motion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rectified Motion of Microparticles: Generalizing Streaming and Radiation Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, David; Agarwal, Siddhansh; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that a wide variety of oscillating flows gives rise to steady streaming, i.e., rectified motion of fluid elements. Small spherical particles introduced into such a flow have been shown to experience an additional lift force that ultimately leads to particle trajectories that differ systematically from the fluid element pathlines. We demonstrate a systematic derivation of this differential particle motion on the steady streaming time scale, so that time-averaged particle trajectories can be directly predicted without computation on the fast, oscillatory time scale. The resulting dynamics can be interpreted as a generalization of streaming flow, while the closed-form lift force provides a generalization of the secondary radiation force, to which it reduces in appropriate limiting cases. These very general results are validated by comparison with experiments in the context of bubble streaming, but apply to a large class of other flows as well.

  14. Shape and motion from image streams: a factorization method.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, C; Kanade, T

    1993-01-01

    Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but it is an ill-conditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion without computing depth as an intermediate step. An image stream can be represented by the 2F x P measurement matrix of the image coordinates of P points tracked through F frames. Under orthographic projection this matrix is of rank 3. Using this observation, the factorization method uses the singular value decomposition technique to factor the measurement matrix into two matrices, which represent object shape and camera motion, respectively. The method can also handle and obtain a full solution from a partially filled-in measurement matrix, which occurs when features appear and disappear in the image sequence due to occlusions or tracking failures. The method gives accurate results and does not introduce smoothing in either shape or motion. We demonstrate this with a series of experiments on laboratory and outdoor image streams, with and without occlusions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:11607434

  15. Failure of Non-Circular Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a progressive failure analysis is used to investigate leakage in internally pressurized non-circular composite cylinders. This type of approach accounts for the localized loss of stiffness when material failure occurs at some location in a structure by degrading the local material elastic properties by a certain factor. The manner in which this degradation of material properties takes place depends on the failure modes, which are determined by the application of a failure criterion. The finite-element code STAGS, which has the capability to perform progressive failure analysis using different degradation schemes and failure criteria, is utilized to analyze laboratory scale, graphite-epoxy, elliptical cylinders with quasi-isotropic, circumferentially-stiff, and axially-stiff material orthotropies. The results are divided into two parts. The first part shows that leakage, which is assumed to develop if there is material failure in every layer at some axial and circumferential location within the cylinder, does not occur without failure of fibers. Moreover before fibers begin to fail, only matrix tensile failures, or matrix cracking, takes place, and at least one layer in all three cylinders studied remain uncracked, preventing the formation of a leakage path. That determination is corroborated by the use of different degradation schemes and various failure criteria. Among the degradation schemes investigated are the degradation of different engineering properties, the use of various degradation factors, the recursive or non-recursive degradation of the engineering properties, and the degradation of material properties using different computational approaches. The failure criteria used in the analysis include the noninteractive maximum stress criterion and the interactive Hashin and Tsai-Wu criteria. The second part of the results shows that leakage occurs due to a combination of matrix tensile and compressive, fiber tensile and compressive, and inplane

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions of Individual Stars in Stellar Streams: Orphan, Sagittarius, Lethe, and the New "Parallel’ Stream"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Majewski, Steven R.; Besla, Gurtina; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Law, David R.; Siegel, Michael H.; Anderson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    We present a multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of stellar proper motions (PMs) for four fields along the Orphan Stream. We determine absolute PMs of several individual stars per target field using established techniques that utilize distant background galaxies to define a stationary reference frame. Five Orphan Stream stars are identified in one of the four fields based on combined color-magnitude and PM information. The average PM is consistent with the existing model of the Orphan Stream by Newberg et al. In addition to the Orphan Stream stars, we detect stars that likely belong to other stellar streams. To identify which stellar streams these stars belong to, we examine the 2d bulk motion of each group of stars on the sky by subtracting the PM contribution of the solar motion (which is a function of position on the sky and distance) from the observed PMs, and comparing the vector of net motion with the spatial extent of known stellar streams. By doing this, we identify candidate stars in the Sagittarius and Lethe streams, and a newly found stellar stream at a distance of ˜17 kpc, which we tentatively name the “Parallel Stream.” Together with our Sagittarius stream study, this work demonstrates that even in the Gaia era, HST will continue to be advantageous in measuring PMs of old stellar populations on a star-by-star basis, especially for distances beyond ˜10 kpc.

  17. Airfoil in sinusoidal motion in a pulsating stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J Mayo

    1947-01-01

    The forces and moments on a two-dimensional airfoil executing harmonic motions in a pulsating stream are derived on the basis of non-stationary incompressible potential flow theory, with the inclusion of the effect of the continuous sheet of vortices shed from the trailing edge. An assumption as to the form of the wake is made with a certain degree of approximation. A comparison with previous work applicable only to the special case of a stationary airfoil is made by means of a numerical example, and the excellent agreement obtained shows that the wake approximation is quite sufficient. The results obtained are expected to be useful in considerations of forced vibrations and flutter of rotary wing aircraft.

  18. Drops with non-circular footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzoli, Pablo D.; González, Alejandro G.; Diez, Javier A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study the morphology of drops formed on partially wetting substrates, whose footprint is not circular. These drops are consequence of the breakup processes occurring in thin films when anisotropic contact line motions take place. The anisotropy is basically due to the hysteresis of the contact angle since there is a wetting process in some parts of the contact line, while a dewetting occurs in other parts. Here, we obtain a characteristic drop shape from the rupture of a long liquid filament sitting on a solid substrate. We analyze its shape and contact angles by means of goniometric and refractive techniques. We also find a non-trivial steady state solution for the drop shape within the long wave approximation (lubrication theory), and we compare most of its features with experimental data. This solution is presented both in Cartesian and polar coordinates, whose constants must be determined by a certain group of measured parameters. Besides, we obtain the dynamics of the drop generation from numerical simulations of the full Navier-Stokes equation, where we emulate the hysteretic effects with an appropriate spatial distribution of the static contact angle over the substrate.

  19. Sediment motion and velocity in a glacier-fed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; Dell'Agnese, A.; Comiti, F.

    2017-08-01

    Current understanding of coarse sediment transport (e.g. threshold for motion, travel length and virtual velocity) in mountain rivers is still quite limited, and even less is known about glacial streams. However, the hydrological characteristics of these systems (strong daily discharge fluctuations, high water turbidity) pose challenges to the use of tracers to monitor bed sediment dynamics, as tagged clasts are usually located after bedload events when flow stage has receded, e.g. by means of portable antennas in the case of Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT). The use of stationary antennas, still scarcely in use worldwide, to detect PIT-tagged particles has potential advantages in glacier-fed streams. If water discharge is monitored continuously, a stationary antenna provides real time data on the actual discharge at the moment of tracer particles passage. This study focuses on incipient motion and virtual velocity of bed particles measured by a stationary antennas system in a steep mountain channel (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps) where significant daily discharge fluctuations and bedload transport occur as a result of a nivo-glacial regime. Four stationary antennas were installed 50-m apart in the study reach. A total of 629 PIT-tagged clasts were inserted in the studied reach between 2011 and 2014, ranging in size from 35 mm to 580 mm, with an overall recovery rate of around 44%. Critical discharge for sediment entrainment was obtained by detecting the movement of tracers placed immediately upstream of antennas. Virtual velocity was derived by knowing distances between the antennas and travel time of tracers. Results on initiation of motion show that the relationship between the size of transported tracers and the discharge measured at the time clasts were passing the stationary antenna is very weak. The influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion was thus investigated by dividing the highest discharge recorded between each PIT

  20. Development of laser finishing for non-circular profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.W.; Sheng, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    A laser-based technique for finishing of non-circular cylindrical parts is presented. In this process, the frequency characteristics of a desired non-circular shape is extracted from a CAD through a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm and implemented through a CO{sub 2} laser machining system. A galvanometer-based scanner is used in the process to achieve programmable beam trajectories and high-speed finishing. An error estimation scheme can be developed to determine the final dimensional error of the non-circular profile. This process can be selected as both a batch production tool and a rapid prototyping tool based on the designated processing rate and precision. Initial experimental results include the production of two- and three-lobed profiles, as well as definition of part feature using higher-order harmonics, in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with corresponding R{sub a} values of less than 1 {mu}m. The machine tool elements and general procedure for non-circular laser finishing are also presented.

  1. Fishing in Tidal Streams: New Radial Velocity and Proper Motion Constraints on the Orbit of the Anticenter Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, C. J.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2008-12-01

    We have obtained radial velocity measurements for stars in two widely separated fields in the Anticenter Stream. Combined with SDSS/USNO-B proper motions, the new measurements allow us to establish that the stream is on a nearly circular, somewhat inclined, prograde orbit around the Galaxy. While the orbital eccentricity is similar to that previously determined for the Monoceros stream, the sizes, inclinations, and positions of the orbits for the two systems differ significantly. Integrating our best-fitting Anticenter Stream orbit forward, we find that it is closely aligned along and lies almost on top of a streamlike feature previously designated the "Eastern Banded Structure." The position of this feature coincides with the apogalacticon of the orbit. We tentatively conclude that this feature is the next wrap of the Anticenter Stream.

  2. Two-dimensional single-stream electron motion in a coaxial diode with magnetic insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Mikhail I.; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2014-05-01

    One of the most widespread models of electrons drifting around the cathode in magnetrons is the single-stream state, which is the Brillouin stream with purely azimuthal motion. We describe a single-stream state in which electrons not only move in the azimuthal direction, but also along the axial direction, which is useful for consideration, for example, of relativistic magnetrons, MILOs, and coaxial transmission lines. Relations are given for the conditions of magnetic insulation for 2D electron motion, for 1D azimuthal and axial motion, and for synchronism of these streams with the operating waves of M-type microwave sources. Relations are also provided for the threshold of generation in magnetrons with 2D electron motion.

  3. Two-dimensional single-stream electron motion in a coaxial diode with magnetic insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuks, Mikhail I.; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2014-05-15

    One of the most widespread models of electrons drifting around the cathode in magnetrons is the single-stream state, which is the Brillouin stream with purely azimuthal motion. We describe a single-stream state in which electrons not only move in the azimuthal direction, but also along the axial direction, which is useful for consideration, for example, of relativistic magnetrons, MILOs, and coaxial transmission lines. Relations are given for the conditions of magnetic insulation for 2D electron motion, for 1D azimuthal and axial motion, and for synchronism of these streams with the operating waves of M-type microwave sources. Relations are also provided for the threshold of generation in magnetrons with 2D electron motion.

  4. Structural Concepts Study of Non-circular Fuselage Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivel

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary study of structural concepts for noncircular fuselage configurations is presented. For an unconventional flying-wing type aircraft, in which the fuselage is inside the wing, multiple fuselage bays with non-circular sections need to be considered. In a conventional circular fuselage section, internal pressure is carried efficiently by a thin skin via hoop tension. If the section is non-circular, internal pressure loads also induce large bending stresses. The structure must also withstand additional bending and compression loads from aerodynamic and gravitational forces. Flat and vaulted shell structural configurations for such an unconventional, non-circular pressurized fuselage of a large flying-wing were studied. A deep honeycomb sandwich-shell and a ribbed double-wall shell construction were considered. Combinations of these structural concepts were analyzed using both analytical and simple finite element models of isolated sections for a comparative conceptual study. Weight, stress, and deflection results were compared to identify a suitable configuration for detailed analyses. The flat sandwich-shell concept was found preferable to the vaulted shell concept due to its superior buckling stiffness. Vaulted double-skin ribbed shell configurations were found to be superior due to their weight savings, load diffusion, and fail-safe features. The vaulted double-skin ribbed shell structure concept was also analyzed for an integrated wing-fuselage finite element model. Additional problem areas such as wing-fuselage junction and pressure-bearing spar were identified.

  5. Pre-coincidence brain activity predicts the perceptual outcome of streaming/bouncing motion display.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Wang, Yajie; Jia, Lina; Feng, Chengzhi; Liao, Yu; Feng, Wenfeng

    2017-08-18

    When two identical visual discs move toward each other on a two-dimensional visual display, they can be perceived as either "streaming through" or "bouncing off" each other after their coincidence. Previous studies have observed a strong bias toward the streaming percept. Additionally, the incidence of the bouncing percept in this ambiguous display could be increased by various factors, such as a brief sound at the moment of coincidence and a momentary pause of the two discs. The streaming/bouncing bistable motion phenomenon has been studied intensively since its discovery. However, little is known regarding the neural basis underling the perceptual ambiguity in the classic version of the streaming/bouncing motion display. The present study investigated the neural basis of the perception disambiguating underling the processing of the streaming/bouncing bistable motion display using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Surprisingly, the amplitude of frontal central P2 (220-260 ms) that was elicited by the moving discs ~200 ms before the coincidence of the two discs was observed to be predictive of subsequent streaming or bouncing percept. A larger P2 amplitude was observed for streaming percept than the bouncing percept. These findings suggest that the streaming/bouncing bistable perception may have been disambiguated unconsciously ~200 ms before the coincidence of the two discs.

  6. Layered Multicast Encryption of Motion JPEG2000 Code Streams for Flexible Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakachi, Takayuki; Toyoshima, Kan; Tonomura, Yoshihide; Fujii, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a layered multicast encryption scheme that provides flexible access control to motion JPEG2000 code streams. JPEG2000 generates layered code streams and offers flexible scalability in characteristics such as resolution and SNR. The layered multicast encryption proposal allows a sender to multicast the encrypted JPEG2000 code streams such that only designated groups of users can decrypt the layered code streams. While keeping the layering functionality, the proposed method offers useful properties such as 1) video quality control using only one private key, 2) guaranteed security, and 3) low computational complexity comparable to conventional non-layered encryption. Simulation results show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  7. Three-dimensional interplanetary stream magnetism and energetic particle motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barouch, E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with mesoscale configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field. A technique is presented for calculating such configurations in the inner solar system, which are due to streams and source conditions near the sun, and maps of magnetic field are constructed for some plausible stream and source conditions. One effect of these mesoscale configurations on galactic cosmic rays is shown to be an out-of-the-ecliptic gradient drift sufficient to explain Forbush decreases. The effects on solar energetic particles include small polar drifts due to the field gradients and a possibly large modification of the time-intensity profiles and anisotropy characteristics due to the formation of mirror configurations in space. If a diffusion model is applicable to solar particles, the true diffusion coefficient will be masked by the effects of streams. A conceptual model which incorporates these ideas and those of several other models is presented.

  8. Three-dimensional interplanetary stream magnetism and energetic particle motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barouch, E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with mesoscale configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field. A technique is presented for calculating such configurations in the inner solar system, which are due to streams and source conditions near the sun, and maps of magnetic field are constructed for some plausible stream and source conditions. One effect of these mesoscale configurations on galactic cosmic rays is shown to be an out-of-the-ecliptic gradient drift sufficient to explain Forbush decreases. The effects on solar energetic particles include small polar drifts due to the field gradients and a possibly large modification of the time-intensity profiles and anisotropy characteristics due to the formation of mirror configurations in space. If a diffusion model is applicable to solar particles, the true diffusion coefficient will be masked by the effects of streams. A conceptual model which incorporates these ideas and those of several other models is presented.

  9. AN ASYMMETRIC STREAMING MOTION IN THE GALACTIC BULGE X-SHAPED STRUCTURE REVEALED BY OGLE-III PROPER MOTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Poleski, Radosław; Gould, Andrew; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2013-10-20

    The Galactic bulge shows a double red clump in sightlines at |b| ∼> 5° and –3° ∼< l ∼< 4°. This dump is interpreted as the signature of an X-shaped structure seen almost edge-on. We measure the proper motions of the stars belonging to the closer and the further arms of the X-shaped structure. The intrinsic kinematic properties of the two arms are found by incorporating information taken from the luminosity function. At b = –5°, we find that the proper motion difference between the two arms is a linear function of Galactic longitude for –0.°1 < l < 0.°5, which we interpret as a streaming motion of the stars within the X-shaped structure. A streaming motion was previously reported based on radial velocity data, not the proper motions. The proper motion difference in longitude is constant for –0.°8 < l < –0.°1, which provides an estimate of the bulge rotational speed of 87.9 ± 8.2 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}.

  10. Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring ice sheet motion: application to an antarctic ice stream.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R M; Engelhardt, H; Kamb, B; Frolich, R M

    1993-12-03

    Satellite radar interferometry (SRI) provides a sensitive means of monitoring the flow velocities and grounding-line positions of ice streams, which are indicators of response of the ice sheets to climatic change or internal instability. The detection limit is about 1.5 millimeters for vertical motions and about 4 millimeters for horizontal motions in the radar beam direction. The grounding line, detected by tidal motions where the ice goes afloat, can be mapped at a resolution of approximately 0.5 kilometer. The SRI velocities and grounding line of the Rutford Ice Stream, Antarctica, agree fairly well with earlier ground-based data. The combined use of SRI and other satellite methods is expected to provide data that will enhance the understanding of ice stream mechanics and help make possible the prediction of ice sheet behavior.

  11. Adaptation disrupts motion integration in the primate dorsal stream

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Carlyn A.; Wissig, Stephanie C.; Kohn, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sensory systems adjust continuously to the environment. The effects of recent sensory experience—or adaptation—are typically assayed by recording in a relevant subcortical or cortical network. However, adaptation effects cannot be localized to a single, local network. Adjustments in one circuit or area will alter the input provided to others, with unclear consequences for computations implemented in the downstream circuit. Here we show that prolonged adaptation with drifting gratings, which alters responses in the early visual system, impedes the ability of area MT neurons to integrate motion signals in plaid stimuli. Perceptual experiments reveal a corresponding loss of plaid coherence. A simple computational model shows how the altered representation of motion signals in early cortex can derail integration in MT. Our results suggest that the effects of adaptation cascade through the visual system, derailing the downstream representation of distinct stimulus attributes. PMID:24507198

  12. Extending Counter-Streaming Motion from an Active Region Filament to Sunspot Light Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haimin; Liu, Rui; Deng, Na; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Yuming; Cao, Wenda

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we analyze the high-resolution observations from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory that cover an entire active region filament. The southern end of the filament is well defined by a narrow lane situated in the negative magnetic polarity, while the northern end lies in the positive polarity, extending to a much larger area. Counter-streaming motions are clearly seen in the filament. The northern end of the counter-streaming motions extends to a light bridge, forming a spectacular circulation pattern around a sunspot, with clockwise motion in the blue wing and counterclockwise motion in the red wing as observed in H-alpha off-band. The apparent speed of the flow is around 10 km/s. We show that the southern end of the filament is consistent with that of a flux rope in a NLFFF extrapolation model, but the northern ends of the modeled flux rope and observed H-alpha footpoints have a significant spatial mismatch. The most intriguing results are the magnetic structure and the counter-streaming motions in the light bridge. Similar to those in the filament, magnetic fields show a dominant transverse component in the light bridge. However, the filament is located between opposite magnetic polarities, while the light bridge is between strong fields of the same polarity. We studied the correlation coefficients of image sequences of constructed Dopplergrams, and found that the filament and the section of light bridge next to it do not show oscillation motions, while a small section of light bridge shows a prominent oscillation pattern. Therefore, we conclude that the observed circulating counter-streaming motions are largely collections of physical mass flows in the transverse direction from the filament extending to a large section of the light bridge, rather than a form of periodic oscillatory mass motions in line-of-sight direction generated by perturbations omnipresent in the chromosphere.

  13. Stream restoration monitoring using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry, Teton Creek, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, Tobin K.

    Stream restoration is a rapidly growing field in applied fluvial geomorphology. Monitoring provides an essential tool for tracking restoration project success, and can improve a project's effectiveness, but often is neglected due to budgetary limitations. This research investigates the potential of Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry to provide an inexpensive and accurate method for monitoring river restoration projects. Structure-from-Motion field survey data was collected in the summer of 2014 to evaluate the performance of a recent stream restoration project intended to reduce erosion along a 1.9 km reach of Teton Creek in eastern Idaho. Channel changes were quantified by creating a digital elevation model of difference that compared an initial, as-built Global Positioning System survey to Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry data collected one year after project completion. A morphological sediment budget and a two-dimensional flow model were used to investigate sediment transport within the study reach. We also used high resolution data derived from Structure-from-Motion point clouds to create continuous grain size maps for Teton Creek that in turn were used to estimate critical shear stresses for sediment entrainment. Our findings suggest Structure-from-Motion techniques provide valuable tools for river managers seeking to monitor restoration efforts. For example, we employed terrain products derived via Structure-from-Motion to verify that hardened riffle treatments effectively prevented erosion. Similarly, we demonstrated the utility of Structure-from-Motion for evaluating the sediment mass balance within the project area. This research establishes a framework for conducting Structure-from-Motion surveys of streams for use in restoration design and monitoring.

  14. Minimal cosmic background fluctuations implied by streaming motions

    SciTech Connect

    Juszkiewicz, R.; Gorski, K.; Silk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The minimal cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy implied by the presence of peculiar motions of a given amplitude on some specified scale is calculated using a new, power spectrum-independent approach. If the tentative evidence for deviations from the Hubble flow of magnitude delta V/V roughly 0.1 at V roughly 5000 km/s is confirmed, microwave background fluctuations with a coherence scale of about 2 deg and dispersion delta T/T greater than 10 to the -5th are predicted. It is found that the existing upper limits on delta T/T are not inconsistent with v(r) = 500 km/s at r = 50/h Mpc. A reduction of the observational limits on the CBR anisotropy below the authors' minimal predictions for delta T/T would challenge the current interpretation of measurements of deviations from the Hubble flow. Gravitational instability without reheating as a mechanism for generation of the large-scale structure of the universe would be in severe difficulty. 38 references.

  15. Minimal cosmic background fluctuations implied by streaming motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Gorski, Krzysztof; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The minimal cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy implied by the presence of peculiar motions of a given amplitude on some specified scale is calculated using a new, power spectrum-independent approach. If the tentative evidence for deviations from the Hubble flow of magnitude delta V/V roughly 0.1 at V roughly 5000 km/s is confirmed, microwave background fluctuations with a coherence scale of about 2 deg and dispersion delta T/T greater than 10 to the -5th are predicted. It is found that the existing upper limits on delta T/T are not inconsistent with v(r) = 500 km/s at r = 50/h Mpc. A reduction of the observational limits on the CBR anisotropy below the authors' minimal predictions for delta T/T would challenge the current interpretation of measurements of deviations from the Hubble flow. Gravitational instability without reheating as a mechanism for generation of the large-scale structure of the universe would be in severe difficulty.

  16. Minimal cosmic background fluctuations implied by streaming motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Gorski, Krzysztof; Silk, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The minimal cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy implied by the presence of peculiar motions of a given amplitude on some specified scale is calculated using a new, power spectrum-independent approach. If the tentative evidence for deviations from the Hubble flow of magnitude delta V/V roughly 0.1 at V roughly 5000 km/s is confirmed, microwave background fluctuations with a coherence scale of about 2 deg and dispersion delta T/T greater than 10 to the -5th are predicted. It is found that the existing upper limits on delta T/T are not inconsistent with v(r) = 500 km/s at r = 50/h Mpc. A reduction of the observational limits on the CBR anisotropy below the authors' minimal predictions for delta T/T would challenge the current interpretation of measurements of deviations from the Hubble flow. Gravitational instability without reheating as a mechanism for generation of the large-scale structure of the universe would be in severe difficulty.

  17. Spiral structure of M51: Streaming motions across the spiral arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilanus, R. P. J.; Allen, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The atomic hydrogen (HI) and the H alpha emission line in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and the Taurus Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer, respectively. Across the inner spiral arms significant tangential and radial velocity gradients are detected in the H alpha emission after subtraction of the axi-symmetric component of the velocity field. The shift is positive on the inside and negative on the outside of the northern arm. Across the southern arm this situation is reversed. The direction of the shifts is such that the material is moving inward and faster compared to circular rotation in both arms, consistent with the velocity perturbations predicted by spiral density wave models for gas downstream of a spiral shock. The observed shifts amount to 20 to 30 km (s-1), corresponding to streaming motions of 60 to 90 km (s-1) in the plane of the disk (inclination angle 20 degrees). Comparable velocity gradients have also been observed by Vogel et al. in the CO emission from the inner northern arm of M51. The streaming motions in M51 are about 2 to 3 times as large as the ones found in HI by Rots in M81, and successfully modelled by Visser with a self-consistent density wave model. Researchers have not been able to detect conclusively streaming motions in the HI emission from the arms, perhaps due to the relatively poor angular resolution (approx. 15 seconds) of the HI observations.

  18. Ice stream motion facilitated by a shallow-deforming and accreting bed

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Phillips, Emrys; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Rea, Brice R.; Clark, Chris D.; Stokes, Chris R.; Carr, Simon J.; Ely, Jeremy C.; Ribolini, Adriano; Wysota, Wojciech; Szuman, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Ice streams drain large portions of ice sheets and play a fundamental role in governing their response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing, with implications for sea-level change. The mechanisms that generate ice stream flow remain elusive. Basal sliding and/or bed deformation have been hypothesized, but ice stream beds are largely inaccessible. Here we present a comprehensive, multi-scale study of the internal structure of mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) formed at the bed of a palaeo ice stream. Analyses were undertaken at macro- and microscales, using multiple techniques including X-ray tomography, thin sections and ground penetrating radar (GPR) acquisitions. Results reveal homogeneity in stratigraphy, kinematics, granulometry and petrography. The consistency of the physical and geological properties demonstrates a continuously accreting, shallow-deforming, bed and invariant basal conditions. This implies that ice stream basal motion on soft sediment beds during MSGL formation is accommodated by plastic deformation, facilitated by continuous sediment supply and an inefficient drainage system. PMID:26898399

  19. Ice stream motion facilitated by a shallow-deforming and accreting bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Phillips, Emrys; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Rea, Brice R.; Clark, Chris D.; Stokes, Chris R.; Carr, Simon J.; Ely, Jeremy C.; Ribolini, Adriano; Wysota, Wojciech; Szuman, Izabela

    2016-02-01

    Ice streams drain large portions of ice sheets and play a fundamental role in governing their response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing, with implications for sea-level change. The mechanisms that generate ice stream flow remain elusive. Basal sliding and/or bed deformation have been hypothesized, but ice stream beds are largely inaccessible. Here we present a comprehensive, multi-scale study of the internal structure of mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) formed at the bed of a palaeo ice stream. Analyses were undertaken at macro- and microscales, using multiple techniques including X-ray tomography, thin sections and ground penetrating radar (GPR) acquisitions. Results reveal homogeneity in stratigraphy, kinematics, granulometry and petrography. The consistency of the physical and geological properties demonstrates a continuously accreting, shallow-deforming, bed and invariant basal conditions. This implies that ice stream basal motion on soft sediment beds during MSGL formation is accommodated by plastic deformation, facilitated by continuous sediment supply and an inefficient drainage system.

  20. Ice stream motion facilitated by a shallow-deforming and accreting bed.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Phillips, Emrys; Piotrowski, Jan A; Rea, Brice R; Clark, Chris D; Stokes, Chris R; Carr, Simon J; Ely, Jeremy C; Ribolini, Adriano; Wysota, Wojciech; Szuman, Izabela

    2016-02-22

    Ice streams drain large portions of ice sheets and play a fundamental role in governing their response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing, with implications for sea-level change. The mechanisms that generate ice stream flow remain elusive. Basal sliding and/or bed deformation have been hypothesized, but ice stream beds are largely inaccessible. Here we present a comprehensive, multi-scale study of the internal structure of mega-scale glacial lineations (MSGLs) formed at the bed of a palaeo ice stream. Analyses were undertaken at macro- and microscales, using multiple techniques including X-ray tomography, thin sections and ground penetrating radar (GPR) acquisitions. Results reveal homogeneity in stratigraphy, kinematics, granulometry and petrography. The consistency of the physical and geological properties demonstrates a continuously accreting, shallow-deforming, bed and invariant basal conditions. This implies that ice stream basal motion on soft sediment beds during MSGL formation is accommodated by plastic deformation, facilitated by continuous sediment supply and an inefficient drainage system.

  1. Spatially resolved streaming potentials of human intervertebral disk motion segments under dynamic axial compression.

    PubMed

    Iatridis, James C; Furukawa, Masaru; Stokes, Ian A F; Gardner-Morse, Mack G; Laible, Jeffrey P

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral disk degeneration results in alterations in the mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties of the disk tissue. The purpose of this study is to record spatially resolved streaming potential measurements across intervertebral disks exposed to cyclic compressive loading. We hypothesize that the streaming potential profile across the disk will vary with radial position and frequency and is proportional to applied load amplitude, according to the presumed fluid-solid relative velocity and measured glycosaminoglycan content. Needle electrodes were fabricated using a linear array of AgAgCl micro-electrodes and inserted into human motion segments in the midline from anterior to posterior. They were connected to an amplifier to measure electrode potentials relative to the saline bath ground. Motion segments were loaded in axial compression under a preload of 500 N, sinusoidal amplitudes of +/-200 N and +/-400 N, and frequencies of 0.01 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and 1 Hz. Streaming potential data were normalized by applied force amplitude, and also compared with paired experimental measurements of glycosaminoglycans in each disk. Normalized streaming potentials varied significantly with sagittal position and there was a significant location difference at the different frequencies. Normalized streaming potential was largest in the central nucleus region at frequencies of 0.1 Hz and 1.0 Hz with values of approximately 3.5 microVN. Under 0.01 Hz loading, normalized streaming potential was largest in the outer annulus regions with a maximum value of 3.0 microVN. Correlations between streaming potential and glycosaminoglycan content were significant, with R(2) ranging from 0.5 to 0.8. Phasic relationships between applied force and electrical potential did not differ significantly by disk region or frequency, although the largest phase angles were observed at the outermost electrodes. Normalized streaming potentials were associated with glycosaminoglycan content, fluid, and

  2. Perceptual synchrony of audiovisual streams for natural and artificial motion sequences.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Roberto; Alais, David; Burr, David

    2006-03-16

    We investigated the conditions necessary for perceptual simultaneity of visual and auditory stimuli under natural conditions: video sequences of conga drumming at various rhythms. Under most conditions, the auditory stream needs to be delayed for sight and sound to be perceived simultaneously. The size of delay for maximum perceived simultaneity varied inversely with drumming tempo, from about 100 ms at 1 Hz to 30 ms at 4 Hz. Random drumming motion produced similar results, with higher random tempos requiring less delay. Video sequences of disk stimuli moving along a motion profile matched to the drummer produced near-identical results. When the disks oscillated at constant speed rather than following "biological" speed variations, the delays necessary for perceptual synchrony were systematically less. The results are discussed in terms of real-world constraints for perceptual synchrony and possible neural mechanisms.

  3. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a-4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  4. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments. PMID:23145236

  5. Simultaneous teleseismic and geodetic observations of the stick-slip motion of an Antarctic ice stream.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Douglas A; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Winberry, J Paul; King, Matt A

    2008-06-05

    Long-period seismic sources associated with glacier motion have been recently discovered, and an increase in ice flow over the past decade has been suggested on the basis of secular changes in such measurements. Their significance, however, remains uncertain, as a relationship to ice flow has not been confirmed by direct observation. Here we combine long-period surface-wave observations with simultaneous Global Positioning System measurements of ice displacement to study the tidally modulated stick-slip motion of the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The seismic origin time corresponds to slip nucleation at a region of the bed of the Whillans Ice Stream that is likely stronger than in surrounding regions and, thus, acts like an 'asperity' in traditional fault models. In addition to the initial pulse, two seismic arrivals occurring 10-23 minutes later represent stopping phases as the slip terminates at the ice stream edge and the grounding line. Seismic amplitude and average rupture velocity are correlated with tidal amplitude for the different slip events during the spring-to-neap tidal cycle. Although the total seismic moment calculated from ice rigidity, slip displacement, and rupture area is equivalent to an earthquake of moment magnitude seven (M(w) 7), seismic amplitudes are modest (M(s) 3.6-4.2), owing to the source duration of 20-30 minutes. Seismic radiation from ice movement is proportional to the derivative of the moment rate function at periods of 25-100 seconds and very long-period radiation is not detected, owing to the source geometry. Long-period seismic waves are thus useful for detecting and studying sudden ice movements but are insensitive to the total amount of slip.

  6. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test.

    PubMed

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg(-1) friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal). Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint), maximal power (towards the middle), and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint). Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p < 0.05) when using the non-circular chainring independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance. Key pointsThe Osymetric non-circular chainring significantly maximized crank power by 4.3% during sprint cycling, in comparison with a circular chainring.This maximal power output improvement was due to significant higher force developed when the crank was in the effective power phase.This maximal power output improvement was independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition.Present benefits provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics occurred only at high cadences.

  7. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test

    PubMed Central

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg-1 friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal). Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint), maximal power (towards the middle), and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint). Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p < 0.05) when using the non-circular chainring independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance. Key points The Osymetric non-circular chainring significantly maximized crank power by 4.3% during sprint cycling, in comparison with a circular chainring. This maximal power output improvement was due to significant higher force developed when the crank was in the effective power phase. This maximal power output improvement was independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. Present benefits provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics occurred only at high cadences. PMID:27274658

  8. KINEMATICS IN KAPTEYN'S SELECTED AREA 76: ORBITAL MOTIONS WITHIN THE HIGHLY SUBSTRUCTURED ANTICENTER STREAM

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Grillmair, Carl J. E-mail: srm4n@virginia.ed E-mail: girard@astro.yale.ed

    2010-12-20

    We have measured the mean three-dimensional kinematics of stars in Kapteyn's Selected Area (SA) 76 (l = 209.{sup 0}3, b = 26.{sup 0}4) that were selected to be Anticenter Stream (ACS) members on the basis of their radial velocities (RVs), proper motions (PMs), and location in the color-magnitude diagram. From a total of 31 stars ascertained to be ACS members primarily from its main-sequence turnoff, a mean ACS RV (derived from spectra obtained with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope) of V{sub helio} = 97.0 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} was determined, with an intrinsic velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub o} = 12.8 {+-} 2.1 km s{sup -1}. The mean absolute PMs of these 31 ACS members are {mu}{sub {alpha}} cos {delta} = -1.20 {+-} 0.34 mas yr{sup -1} and {mu}{sub {delta}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.36 mas yr{sup -1}. At a distance to the ACS of 10 {+-} 3 kpc, these measured kinematical quantities produce an orbit that deviates by {approx}30{sup 0} from the well-defined swath of stellar overdensity constituting the ACS in the western portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint. We explore possible explanations for this and suggest that our data in SA 76 are measuring the motion of a kinematically cold sub-stream among the ACS debris that was likely a fragment of the same infalling structure that created the larger ACS system. The ACS is clearly separated spatially from the majority of claimed Monoceros ring detections in this region of the sky; however, with the data in hand, we are unable to either confirm or rule out an association between the ACS and the poorly understood Monoceros structure.

  9. Bedload transport in steep glacier-fed streams: from incipient motion to floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, Francesco; Dell'Agnese, Andrea; Lucia, Ana; Vignoli, Gianluca; Simoni, Silvia; Bertoldi, Walter; Mao, Luca; Macconi, Pierpaolo; Mazzorana, Bruno; Dinale, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The current understanding of bedload dynamics in mountain channels is rather scarce, and the capability to predict it over a range of discharges and under different morphological conditions is still very poor despite the headways made during the last decade. Indeed, there has been an increased recognition of the highly stochastic nature of bedload transport in steep streams, especially at low to medium flows (i.e. up to ordinary events). On the other hand, considerable efforts have been made to model the effective energy available for bedload in steep channels, in order to reduce the large overestimation in bedload rates produced by transport capacity equations. Nonetheless, because high-gradient channels are notoriously sediment supply-limited, largely varying bedload rates can be observed at the same stream cross-section under nearly identical morphological and hydraulic conditions, as a consequence of different sediment supply regimes/events. Therefore, the use of a single bedload transport equation even for the same stream is becoming strongly questioned by researchers, whereas most river agencies and consultants - and numerical models - still rely on "classical" transport capacity equations. Remarkably, glacial streams offer the possibility to investigate how seasonal changes in sediment supply at the basin scale - deriving from the periglacial and glacial areas - affects bedload transport rates in the main channel. However, little quantitative bedload data from these systems are available. This contribution intends to share the recent results obtained in two glaciarized basins in the Eastern Italian Alps, which range from about 10 km2 (upper Saldur river basin) to 130 km2 (Sulden river basin) in drainage area. Different monitoring methodologies encompassing PIT-tagged clasts tracking (by both portable and stationary antennas), geophone plates, acoustic pipe sensor and direct sampling by portable traps have been deployed in these two mountain streams. Our

  10. Tidally induced variations in vertical and horizontal motion on Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, inferred from remotely sensed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchew, B. M.; Simons, M.; Riel, B.; Milillo, P.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of stress changes over floating ice shelves on grounded ice streams, we develop a Bayesian method for inferring time-dependent 3-D surface velocity fields from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical remote sensing data. Our specific goal is to observe ocean tide-induced variability in vertical ice shelf position and horizontal ice stream flow. Thus, we consider the special case where observed surface displacement at a given location can be defined by a 3-D secular velocity vector, a family of 3-D sinusoidal functions, and a correction to the digital elevation model used to process the SAR data. Using nearly 9 months of SAR data collected from multiple satellite viewing geometries with the COSMO-SkyMed 4-satellite constellation, we infer the spatiotemporal response of Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica, to ocean tidal forcing. Consistent with expected tidal uplift, inferred vertical motion over the ice shelf is dominated by semidiurnal and diurnal tidal constituents. Horizontal ice flow variability, on the other hand, occurs primarily at the fortnightly spring-neap tidal period (Msf). We propose that periodic grounding of the ice shelf is the primary mechanism for translating vertical tidal motion into horizontal flow variability, causing ice flow to accelerate first and most strongly over the ice shelf. Flow variations then propagate through the grounded ice stream at a mean rate of ˜29 km/d and decay quasi-linearly with distance over ˜85 km upstream of the grounding zone.

  11. A numerical algorithm of tooth profile of non-circular cylindrical gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    Non-circular cylindrical gear (NCCG) is a common form of non-circular gear. Different from the circular gear, the tooth profile equation of NCCG cannot be obtained. So it is necessary to use a numerical algorithm to calculate the tooth profile of NCCG. For this reason, this paper presents a simple and highly efficient numerical algorithm to obtain the tooth profile of NCCG. Firstly, the mathematical model of tooth profile envelope of NCCG is established based on the principle of gear shaping, and the tooth profile envelope of NCCG is obtained. Secondly, the polar radius and polar angle of shaper cutter tooth profile are chosen as the criterions, by which the points of NCCG tooth cogging can be screened out. Finally, the boundary of tooth cogging points is extracted by a distance criterion and correspondingly the tooth profile of NCCG is obtained.

  12. Performance limits of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagayda, A.; Madeev, S.

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional computer simulation is used to determine the perveance limitations of ion extraction systems with non-circular apertures. The objective of the study is to analyze the possibilities to improve mechanical strength of the ion optics made of carbon-carbon composite materials. Non-circular grid apertures are better suited to the physical structure of carbon-carbon composite materials, than conventionally used circular holes in a hexagonal pattern, because they allow a fewer number of cut fibers. However, the slit-type accelerating systems, usually regarded as the main alternative to the conventional ion optics, have an intolerably narrow range of operating perveance values at which there is no direct ion impingement on the acceleration grid. This paper presents results of comparative analysis of a number of different ion optical systems with non-circular apertures and conventional ion optical systems with circular apertures. It has been revealed that a relatively wide perveance range without direct ion impingement may be obtained with apertures shaped as a square with rounded corners. Numerical simulations show that this geometry may have equivalent perveance range as the traditional geometry with circular apertures while being more mechanically robust. In addition, such important characteristics, as the effective transparency for both the ions and the neutral atoms, the height of the potential barrier reflecting the downstream plasma electrons and the angular divergence of the beamlet also can be very close to these parameters for the optics with circular apertures.

  13. Dorsal and ventral stream contributions to form-from-motion perception in a patient with form-from motion deficit: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Manuel R; Schwartz, Sophie; Spinelli, Laurent; Michel, Christoph M; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    The main model of visual processing in primates proposes an anatomo-functional distinction between the dorsal stream, specialized in spatio-temporal information, and the ventral stream, processing essentially form information. However, these two pathways also communicate to share much visual information. These dorso-ventral interactions have been studied using form-from-motion (FfM) stimuli, revealing that FfM perception first activates dorsal regions (e.g., MT+/V5), followed by successive activations of ventral regions (e.g., LOC). However, relatively little is known about the implications of focal brain damage of visual areas on these dorso-ventral interactions. In the present case report, we investigated the dynamics of dorsal and ventral activations related to FfM perception (using topographical ERP analysis and electrical source imaging) in a patient suffering from a deficit in FfM perception due to right extrastriate brain damage in the ventral stream. Despite the patient's FfM impairment, both successful (observed for the highest level of FfM signal) and absent/failed FfM perception evoked the same temporal sequence of three processing states observed previously in healthy subjects. During the first period, brain source localization revealed cortical activations along the dorsal stream, currently associated with preserved elementary motion processing. During the latter two periods, the patterns of activity differed from normal subjects: activations were observed in the ventral stream (as reported for normal subjects), but also in the dorsal pathway, with the strongest and most sustained activity localized in the parieto-occipital regions. On the other hand, absent/failed FfM perception was characterized by weaker brain activity, restricted to the more lateral regions. This study shows that in the present case report, successful FfM perception, while following the same temporal sequence of processing steps as in normal subjects, evoked different patterns of

  14. Does a Non-Circular Chainring Improve Performance in the Bicycle Motocross Cycling Start Sprint?

    PubMed Central

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring) on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team) performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s), using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8). Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23), whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m) was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02). Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders. Key Points This work provides novel results demonstrating very significant improvements in the sprint performance of BMX cycling discipline using a non-circular chainring system. This study seeks a practical application from scientific analysis All data are obtained in a real context of high competition using a sample comprised by the National Spanish Team. Some variables influencing performance as subjects’ physical fitness are discussed. Technical equipment approved by International Cycling Union is studied to check its potentially beneficial influence on performance. PMID:24570612

  15. Does a non-circular chainring improve performance in the bicycle motocross cycling start sprint?

    PubMed

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Maximising power output during the initial acceleration phase of a bicycle motocross (BMX) race increases the chance to lead the group for the rest of the race. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular chainrings (Q-ring) on performance during the initial acceleration phase of a BMX race. Sixteen male cyclists (Spanish National BMX team) performed two counterbalanced and randomized initial sprints (3.95s), using Q- ring vs. circular chainring, on a BMX track. The sample was divided into two different groups according to their performance (Elite; n = 8 vs. Cadet; n = 8). Elite group covered a greater distance using Q-ring (+0.26 m, p = 0.02; D = 0.23), whilst the improvement for the Cadet (+0.04 m) was not significant (p = 0.87; D = -0.02). Also, there was no significant difference in power output for the Elite group, while the Cadet group revealed larger peak power with the circular chainring. Neither lactate level, nor heart rate showed significant differences due to the different chainring used. The non-circular chainring improved the initial acceleration capacity only in the Elite riders. Key PointsThis work provides novel results demonstrating very significant improvements in the sprint performance of BMX cycling discipline using a non-circular chainring system.This study seeks a practical application from scientific analysisAll data are obtained in a real context of high competition using a sample comprised by the National Spanish Team.Some variables influencing performance as subjects' physical fitness are discussed.Technical equipment approved by International Cycling Union is studied to check its potentially beneficial influence on performance.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions along the Sagittarius Stream. I. Observations and Results for Stars in Four Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Law, David R.; Anderson, Jay; Siegel, Michael H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of stellar proper motions (PMs) for four fields spanning 200° along the Sagittarius (Sgr) stream: one trailing arm field, one field near the Sgr dwarf spheroidal tidal radius, and two leading arm fields. We determine absolute PMs of dozens of individual stars per field, using established techniques that use distant background galaxies as the stationary reference frame. Stream stars are identified based on combined color-magnitude diagram and PM information. The results are broadly consistent with the few existing PM measurements for the Sgr galaxy and the trailing arm. However, our new results provide the highest PM accuracy for the stream to date, the first PM measurements for the leading arm, and the first PM measurements for individual stream stars; we also serendipitously determine the PM of the globular cluster NGC 6652. In the trailing-arm field, the individual PMs allow us to kinematically separate trailing-arm stars from leading-arm stars that are 360° further ahead in their orbit. Also, in three of our fields we find indications that two distinct kinematical components may exist within the same arm and wrap of the stream. Qualitative comparison of the HST data to the predictions of the Law & Majewski and Peñarrubia et al. N-body models show that the PM measurements closely follow the predicted trend with Sgr longitude. This provides a successful consistency check on the PM measurements, as well as on these N-body approaches (which were not tailored to fit any PM data).

  17. Statistical isotropy violation in WMAP CMB maps resulting from non-circular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Santanu; Mitra, Sanjit; Rotti, Aditya; Pant, Nidhi; Souradeep, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Statistical isotropy (SI) of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is a key observational test to validate the cosmological principle underlying the standard model of cosmology. While a detection of SI violation would have immense cosmological ramification, it is important to recognise their possible origin in systematic effects of observations. The WMAP seven year (WMAP-7) release claimed significant deviation from SI in the bipolar spherical harmonic (BipoSH) coefficients and . Here we present the first explicit reproduction of the measurements reported in WMAP-7, confirming that beam systematics alone can completely account for the measured SI violation. The possibility of such a systematic origin was alluded to in WMAP-7 paper itself and other authors but not as explicitly so as to account for it accurately. We simulate CMB maps using the actual WMAP non-circular beams and scanning strategy. Our estimated BipoSH spectra from these maps match the WMAP-7 results very well. It is also evident that only a very careful and adequately detailed modelling, as carried out here, can conclusively establish that the entire signal arises from non-circular beam effect. This is important since cosmic SI violation signals are expected to be subtle and dismissing a large SI violation signal as observational artefact based on simplistic plausibility arguments run the serious risk of "throwing the baby out with the bathwater".

  18. Experiments in dilution jet mixing effects of multiple rows and non-circular orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E. B.; Meyers, G. D.; White, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and empirical model results are presented that extend previous studies of the mixing of single-sided and opposed rows of jets in a confined duct flow to include effects of non-circular orifices and double rows of jets. Analysis of the mean temperature data obtained in this investigation showed that the effects of orifice shape and double rows are significant only in the region close to the injection plane, provided that the orifices are symmetric with respect to the main flow direction. The penetration and mixing of jets from 45-degree slanted slots is slightly less than that from equivalent-area symmetric orifices. The penetration from 2-dimensional slots is similar to that from equivalent-area closely-spaced rows of holes, but the mixing is slower for the 2-D slots. Calculated mean temperature profiles downstream of jets from non-circular and double rows of orifices, made using an extension developed for a previous empirical model, are shown to be in good agreement with the measured distributions.

  19. Balloon occlusive diameter of non-circular atrial septal defects in transcatheter closure with amplatzer septal occluder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Song, Jinyoung; Kang, I-Seok; Chang, Sung-A; Huh, June; Park, Seung Woo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) of non-circular defects in the transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (ASD). A total of 67 patients who had undergone transcatheter closure of an ASD were reviewed retrospectively. A non-circular defect was defined as the ratio of the short diameter to the long diameter of the defect on the en-face image less than 0.75. The BOD was compared with the long diameter of the defect and then compared between the two groups. There were 22 patients with circular defects and 45 patients with non-circular defects. The difference in BOD measuring from the long diameter of the defect was quite different between the two groups and significantly smaller in non-circular morphology (0.1±4.0 vs. 2.3±2.1, p=0.006). The difference in BOD measurement from the long diameter of ASD showed a positive correlation with the ratio of the short diameter to the long diameter of ASD (b/a) (r(2)=0.102, p=0.008). In the non-circular morphology of ASD, the difference in BOD measured from the long diameter had a significant negative correlation with the long diameter of ASD (r(2)=0.230, p=0.001), whereas in circular ASD, no significant correlation was found between the difference in BOD and the long diameter of ASD (p=0.201). The BOD compared with the long diameter measured from three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was smaller in non-circular ASD than in circular ASD. This difference was much smaller in non-circular ASD with a large long diameter.

  20. A mechanistic model linking insect (Hydropsychidae) silk nets to incipient sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Pontau, Patricia; Dow, Michelle; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2014-09-01

    Plants and animals affect stream morphodynamics across a range of scales, yet including biological traits of organisms in geomorphic process models remains a fundamental challenge. For example, laboratory experiments have shown that silk nets built by caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear stress required to initiate bed motion by more than a factor of 2. The contributions of specific biological traits are not well understood, however. Here we develop a theoretical model for the effects of insect nets on the threshold of sediment motion, τ*crit, that accounts for the mechanical properties, geometry, and vertical distribution of insect silk, as well as interactions between insect species. To parameterize the model, we measure the tensile strength, diameter, and number of silk threads in nets built by two common species of caddisfly, Arctopsyche californica and Ceratopsyche oslari. We compare model predictions with new measurements of τ*crit in experiments where we varied grain size and caddisfly species composition. The model is consistent with experimental results for single species, which show that the increase in τ*crit above the abiotic control peaks at 40-70% for 10-22 mm sediments and declines with increasing grain size. For the polyculture experiments, however, the model underpredicts the measured increase in τ*crit when two caddisfly species are present in sediments of larger grain sizes. Overall, the model helps explain why the presence of caddisfly silk can substantially increase the forces needed to initiate sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams and also illustrates the challenge of parameterizing the behavior of multiple interacting species in a physical model.

  1. Experimental procedure for the study of liquid bridges between non-circular disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, M. G.; Herrera, J. M.; Montanero, J. M.

    A liquid bridge is a mass of liquid sustained by the action of the surface tension force between two parallel supporting solids. Apart from its intrinsic basic science interest, the study of liquid bridges has an undoubted technological relevance. Indeed, this fluid configuration has traditionally been seen as an idealization of that appearing in the crystal growth technique known as floating-zone melting, which is used in fabricating ultrapure semiconductor crystals. This has conferred to the analysis of liquid bridges great interest not only in fluid mechanics but also in the material engineering field. As far as the static problem is concerned, studies have focused on the calculation of both the liquid bridge equilibrium interface shape and the stability limits. Most of these studies deal with liquid bridges held between two circular disks, though a few theoretical works with non-circular disks have been published recently. In experiments with liquid bridges, the neutral buoyancy technique has frequently been used to simulate microgravity conditions. In this technique, the liquid bridge is surrounded by an outer liquid with similar density to compensate partially for the effect of the hydrostatic pressure over the interface. Here, a crucial aspect is the accurate knowledge of the surface tension value associated to the interface. In the present contribution, an experimental procedure for analysing the behaviour of liquid bridges between non circular disks is presented. The experiments are performed using the buoyancy technique with a cell designed specifically for this purpose. Two liquid bridges are formed inside the cell. The first one is supported by two circular disks and it is used to measure the surface tension associated to the interface between the fluids involved. To this end, a digital image of the liquid bridge is taken using the ideal conditions (gravity and the axis of the liquid bridge are perpendicular to each other, and the view is frontal

  2. Interface and process for enhanced transmission of non-circular ion beams between stages at unequal pressure

    DOEpatents

    Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-03-04

    The invention discloses a new interface with non-circular conductance limit aperture(s) useful for effective transmission of non-circular ion beams between stages with different gas pressure. In particular, the invention provides an improved coupling of field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzers of planar or side-to-side geometry to downstream stages such as mass spectrometry or ion mobility spectrometry. In this case, the non-circular aperture is rectangular; other geometries may be optimum in other applications. In the preferred embodiment, the non-circular aperture interface is followed by an electrodynamic ion funnel that may focus wide ion beams of any shape into tight circular beams with virtually no losses. The jet disrupter element of the funnel may also have a non-circular geometry, matching the shape of arriving ion beam. The improved sensitivity of planar FAIMS/MS has been demonstrated in experiments using a non-contiguous elongated aperture but other embodiments (e.g., with a contiguous slit aperture) may be preferable, especially in conjunction with an ion funnel operated at high pressures.

  3. Collisionless kinetic-fluid simulation of zonal flows in non-circular tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2012-09-15

    Fluid simulation of linear zonal flow damping is done with a closure model based on the collisionless gyrokinetics [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. Simulation results of residual zonal flow for low radial wavenumbers are compared with theoretical formulas for circular and non-circular tokamaks. The effects of the elongation and the triangularity are shown to be properly treated in the closure model. Effects of initial parallel flows on zonal flow evolution are also clarified. An appropriate choice of the initial parallel flow gives a much higher residual level than the conventional result with no initial parallel flow. Besides, the zonal flow simulations are done with the E Multiplication-Sign B nonlinearity as initial sources, which is evaluated from linear gyrokinetic microinstabilities such as ion temperature gradient modes, trapped electron modes, and electron temperature gradient modes, in order to estimate efficiency of zonal flow generation by the source instabilities.

  4. WE-G-BRF-07: Non-Circular Scanning Trajectories with Varian Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A; Pearson, E; Pan, X; Pelizzari, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) in image-guide radiation therapy (IGRT) typicallyacquires scan data via the circular trajectory of the linearaccelerator's (linac) gantry rotation. Though this lends itself toanalytic reconstruction algorithms like FDK, iterative reconstructionalgorithms allow for a broader range of scanning trajectories. Weimplemented a non-circular scanning trajectory with Varian's TrueBeamDeveloper Mode and performed some preliminary reconstructions toverify the geometry. Methods: We used TrueBeam Developer Mode to program a new scanning trajectorythat increases the field of view (FOV) along the gantry rotation axiswithout moving the patient. This trajectory consisted of moving thegantry in a circle, then translating the source and detector along theaxial direction before acquiring another circular scan 19 cm away fromthe first. The linear portion of the trajectory includes an additional4.5 cm above and below the axial planes of the source's circularrotation. We scanned a calibration phantom consisting of a lucite tubewith a spiral pattern of CT spots and used the maximum-likelihoodalgorithm to iteratively reconstruct the CBCT volume. Results: With the TrueBeam trajectory definition, we acquired projection dataof the calibration phantom using the previously described trajectory.We obtained a scan of the treatment couch for log normalization byscanning with the same trajectory but without the phantom present.Using the nominal geometric parameters reported in the projectionheaders with our iterative reconstruction algorithm, we obtained acorrect reconstruction of the calibration phantom. Conclusion: The ability to implement new scanning trajectories with the TrueBeamDeveloper Mode enables us access to a new parameter space for imagingwith CBCT for IGRT. Previous simulations and simple dual circle scanshave shown iterative reconstruction with non-circular trajectories canincrease the axial FOV with CBCT. Use of Developer Mode allowsexperimentally

  5. Beam quality M 2 factor matrix for non-circular symmetric laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongzhao; Fu, Yuqing; Zheng, Chaoying

    2017-02-01

    It is standard to use Mx2 and My2 to characterize the beam quality of a non-circular symmetrical beam on its x-axis and y-axis orientation. However, we knew that the values of Mx2 and My2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this, a new beam quality characterization method, the M 2 factor matrix, is developed. It not only contains the beam quality terms, Mx2 and My2 , to characterize the beam quality along x-axis and y-axis orientation for the non-symmetric beam, but also introduces two additional cross terms, M xy and M yx , which are used to characterize the location relationship between the principal axis of the test beam and coordinate system in experiment. Moreover, M 2 factor matrix can be measured with a similar procedure to the traditional M 2 factor whose measurement instructions are described in ISO11146 by adding some additional image and signal processing procedure. The measurement principle and method is present and the experiment system for beam quality M 2 factor matrix is built to demonstrate the performance of M 2 factor matrix with real experiments.

  6. Residual stress characteristics in a non-circular drawing sequence of pearlitic steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyun Moo; Hwang, Sun Kwang; Son, Il-Heon; Im, Yong-Taek

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, characteristics of residual stress in pearlitic steel wire drawn by a non-circular drawing (NCD) sequence with two processing routes, NCDA and NCDB, were experimentally and numerically investigated up to the 12th pass in comparison with conventional wire drawing (WD). For experimental investigation of the axial residual stress at the surface of the drawn wire, destructive (deflection) and non-destructive methods were employed. According to the experimental results, axial surface residual stress of the drawn wire by the NCD sequence was lower and more homogeneous compared to the conventional WD. Based on the elasto-plastic numerical simulation results from the surface to the center of the drawn wire using a commercial DEFORM-3D, an empirical relationship between residual stress and reduction of area was determined to predict the residual stress evolution in the multi-pass WD, NCDA, and NCDB, in that order. From the results of this investigation, it can be construed that the NCD sequence, especially the NCDB, might be helpful in improving the residual stress characteristics of pearlitic steel wire to improve its mechanical behavior and service life.

  7. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  8. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhart, James B.; Nussbaum, Rudi H.

    This monograph was written for the Conference on the New Instructional Materials in Physics held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for use in an introductory course in college physics. It consists of an extensive qualitative discussion of motion followed by a detailed development of the quantitative methods needed to…

  9. Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic of motion. Contents include: (1) "First Word" (Zach Tobias); (2) "Cosmic Collisions" (Robert Irion); (3) "The Mobile Cell" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (4) "The Paths of Paths" (Steven Vogel); (5) "Fragments" (Pearl Tesler); (6) "Moving Pictures" (Amy Snyder); (7) "Plants on the Go" (Katharine…

  10. SU-E-I-02: Characterizing Low-Contrast Resolution for Non-Circular CBCT Trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A; Pan, X; Pelizzari, C; Pearson, E

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of non-circular scanning trajectories with optimization-basedreconstruction algorithms can be used in conjunction with non-planaracquisition geometries for axial field-of-view (FOV) extension incone-beam CT (CBCT). To evaluate the utility of these trajectories,quantitative image quality metrics should be evaluated. Low-contrastresolution (LCR) and CT number accuracy are significant challenges forCBCT. With unprecedented axial coverage provided by thesetrajectories, measuring such metrics throughout the axial range iscritical. There are currently no phantoms designed to measurelow-contrast resolution over such an extended volume. Methods: The CATPHAN (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem NY) is the current standardfor image quality evaluation. While providing several useful modulesfor different evaluation metrics, each module was designed to beevaluated in a single slice and not for comparison across axialpositions. To characterize the LCR and HU accuracy over an extendedaxial length, we have designed and built a phantom with evaluationmodules at multiple and adjustable axial positions. Results: The modules were made from a cast polyurethane resin. Holes rangingfrom 1/8 to 5/8 inch were added at a constant radius from the modulecenter into which rods of two different plastic materials were pressedto provide two nominal levels of contrast (1.0% and 0.5%). Largerholes were bored to accept various RMI plugs with known electrondensities for HU accuracy evaluation. The modules can be inserted intoan acrylic tube long enough to cover the entire axial FOV and theirpositions adjusted to desired evaluation points. Conclusion: This phantom allows us to measure the LCR and HU accuracy across theaxial coverage within a single acquisition. These metrics can be usedto characterize the impact different trajectories and reconstructionparameters have on clinically relevant image quality performancemetrics. Funding was provided in part by Varian Medical Systems and NIH R01

  11. Transfrontier macroseismic data exchange in NW Europe: examples of non-circular intensity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Hinzen, Klaus-G.; Sira, Christophe; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Macroseismic data acquisition recently received a strong increase in interest due to public crowdsourcing through internet-based inquiries and real-time smartphone applications. Macroseismic analysis of felt earthquakes is important as the perception of people can be used to detect local/regional site effects in areas without instrumentation. We will demonstrate how post-processing macroseismic data improves the quality of real-time intensity evaluation of new events. Instead of using the classic DYFI representation in which internet intensities are averaged per community, we, first, geocoded all individual responses and structure the model area into 100 km2grid cells. Second, the average intensity of all answers within a grid cell is calculated. The resulting macroseismic grid cell distribution shows a less subjective and more homogeneous intensity distribution than the classical irregular community distribution and helps to improve the calculation of intensity attenuation functions. In this presentation, the 'Did You Feel It' (DYFI) macroseismic data of several >M4, e.g. the 2002 ML 4.9 Alsdorf and 2011 ML 4.3 Goch (Germany) and the 2015 ML 4.1 Ramsgate (UK), earthquakes felt in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, France, Luxemburg and UK are analysed. Integration of transfrontier DYFI data of the ROB-BNS, KNMI, BCSF and BGS networks results in a particular non-circular, distribution of the macroseismic data in which the felt area for all these examples extends significantly more in E-W than N-S direction. This intensity distribution cannot be explained by geometrical amplitude attenuation alone, but rather illustrates a low-pass filtering effect due to the south-to-north increasing thickness of cover sediments above the London-Brabant Massif. For the studied M4 to M5 earthquakes, the thick sediments attenuate seismic energy at higher frequencies and consequently less people feel the vibrations at the surface. This example of successful macroseismic data exchange

  12. Comparative study on interaction of form and motion processing streams by applying two different classifiers in mechanism for recognition of biological movement.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Bardia; Loo, Chu Kiong

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  13. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  14. Sediment Mobilization and Storage Dynamics of a Debris Flow Impacted Stream Channel using Multi-Temporal Structure from Motion Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, T. L.; Sutherland-Montoya, D.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution topographic analysis methods have become important tools in geomorphology. Structure from Motion photogrammetry offers a compelling vehicle for geomorphic change detection in fluvial environments. This process can produce arbitrarily high resolution, geographically registered spectral and topographic coverages from a collection of overlapping digital imagery from consumer cameras. Cuneo Creek has had three historically observed episodes of rapid aggradation (1955, 1964, and 1997). The debris flow deposits continue to be major sources of sediment sixty years after the initial slope failure. Previous studies have monitored the sediment storage volume and particle size since 1976 (in 1976, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1998, 2003). We reoccupied 3 previously surveyed stream cross sections on Sept 30, 2014 and March 30, 2015, and produced photogrammetric point clouds using a pole mounted camera with a remote view finder to take nadir view images from 4.3 meters above the channel bed. Ground control points were registered using survey grade GPS and typical cross sections used over 100 images to build the structure model. This process simultaneously collects channel geometry and we used it to also generate surface texture metrics, and produced DEMs with point cloud densities above 5000 points / m2. In the period between the surveys, a five year recurrence interval discharge of 20 m3/s scoured the channel. Surface particle size distribution has been determined for each observation period using image segmentation algorithms based on spectral distance and compactness. Topographic differencing between the point clouds shows substantial channel bed mobilization and reorganization. The net decline in sediment storage is in excess of 4 x 10^5 cubic meters since the 1964 aggradation peak, with associated coarsening of surface particle sizes. These new methods provide a promising rapid assessment tool for measurement of channel responses to sediment inputs.

  15. Geometric calibration using line fiducials for cone-beam CT with general, non-circular source-detector trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. W.; Ketcha, M.; Uneri, A.; Goerres, J.; De Silva, T.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Traditional BB-based geometric calibration methods for cone-beam CT (CBCT) rely strongly on foreknowledge of the scan trajectory shape. This is a hindrance to the implementation of variable trajectory CBCT systems, normally requiring a dedicated calibration phantom or software algorithm for every scan orbit of interest. A more flexible method of calibration is proposed here that accommodates multiple orbit types - including strongly noncircular trajectories - with a single phantom and software routine. Methods: The proposed method uses a calibration phantom consisting of multiple line-shaped wire segments. Geometric models relating the 3D line equations of the wires to the 2D line equations of their projections are used as the basis for system geometry estimation. This method was tested using a mobile C-arm CT system and comparisons were made to standard BB-based calibrations. Simulation studies were also conducted using a sinusoid-on-sphere orbit. Calibration performance was quantified in terms of Point Spread Function (PSF) width and back projection error. Visual image quality was assessed with respect to spatial resolution in trabecular bone in an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results: The wire-based calibration method performed equal to or better than BB-based calibrations in all evaluated metrics. For the sinusoidal scans, the method provided reliable calibration, validating its application to non-circular trajectories. Furthermore, the ability to improve image quality using non-circular orbits in conjunction with this calibration method was demonstrated. Conclusion: The proposed method has been shown feasible for conventional circular CBCT scans and offers a promising tool for non-circular scan orbits that can improve image quality, reduce dose, and extend field of view.

  16. Fabrication of dense non-circular nanomagnetic device arrays using self-limiting low-energy glow-discharge processing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhen; Chang, Long; Nekrashevich, Ivan; Ruchhoeft, Paul; Khizroev, Sakhrat; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    We describe a low-energy glow-discharge process using reactive ion etching system that enables non-circular device patterns, such as squares or hexagons, to be formed from a precursor array of uniform circular openings in polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA, defined by electron beam lithography. This technique is of a particular interest for bit-patterned magnetic recording medium fabrication, where close packed square magnetic bits may improve its recording performance. The process and results of generating close packed square patterns by self-limiting low-energy glow-discharge are investigated. Dense magnetic arrays formed by electrochemical deposition of nickel over self-limiting formed molds are demonstrated.

  17. EFFECT OF STREAMING MOTION OF BARYONS RELATIVE TO DARK MATTER ON THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-03-20

    We evaluate the effect of a supersonic relative velocity between the baryons and dark matter on the thermal and density evolution of the first gas clouds at z {approx}< 50. Through a series of cosmological simulations, initialized at z{sub i} = 100 with a range of relative streaming velocities and minihalo formation redshifts, we find that the typical streaming velocities will have little effect on the gas evolution. Once the collapse begins, the subsequent evolution of the gas will be nearly indistinguishable from the case of no streaming, and star formation will still proceed in the same way, with no change in the characteristic Pop III stellar masses. Reionization is expected to be dominated by halo masses of {approx}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, for which the effect of streaming should be negligible.

  18. Coupling analysis of non-circular-symmetric modes and design of orientation-insensitive few-mode fiber couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaxiong; Du, Jiangbing; Ma, Lin; Li, Ming-Jun; Jiang, Shoulin; Xu, Xiao; He, Zuyuan

    2017-01-01

    We study the coupling between two identical weakly-coupled few-mode fibers based on coupled-mode theory. The coupling behavior of non-circular-symmetric modes, such as LP11 and LP21, is investigated analytically and numerically. By carefully choosing the fiber core separation and coupler length, we can design orientation-insensitive fiber couplers for non-circular-symmetric modes at arbitrary coupling ratios. Based on the design method, we propose an orientation-insensitive two-mode fiber coupler at 850 nm working as a mode multiplexer/demultiplexer for two-mode transmission using standard single-mode fiber. Within the band from 845 to 855 nm, the insertion losses of LP01 and LP11 modes are less than 0.03 dB and 0.24 dB, respectively. When the two-mode fiber coupler is used as mode demultiplexer, the LP01/LP11 and LP11/LP01 extinction ratios in the separated branches are respectively above 12.6 dB and 21.2 dB. Our design method can be extended to two-mode communication or sensing systems at other wavelengths.

  19. Broadband light source based on highly nonlinear non-circular core photonic crystal fiber for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Hossain, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We present a highly nonlinear non-circular core photonic crystal fiber (HNL-NCPCF) with all normal group velocity dispersion (GVD) to design a supercontinuum (SC) light source for optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Nonlinear coefficient γ is increased as large as 66 W-1 km-1 at 1.31 μm by reducing the effective mode area and core is made non-circular to increase birefringence by putting the square lattice of air-holes inside the silica host. About 85 nm 10 dB spectral bandwidths for 2.5 ps input optical pulse and 140 nm 10 dB spectral bandwidths for 1.0 ps input optical pulse have been observed using the same fiber length of 200 m and input optical power of 15 W. Coherent lengths of the generated supercontinuum light sources are found 8.91 μm for 2.5 ps input optical pulse and 5.41 μm for 1.0 ps input optical pulse. Therefore, the highest longitudinal resolution for dental OCT at 1.31 μm is found about 3.28 μm for tooth enamel.

  20. Structure Damage Simulations Accounting for Inertial Effects and Impact and Optimization of Grid-Stiffened Non-Circular Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Jaunky, Navin

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop modelling and analysis strategy for the penetration of aluminium plates impacted by titanium impactors. Finite element analysis is used to study the penetration of aluminium plates impacted by titanium impactors in order to study the effect of such uncontained engine debris impacts on aircraft-like skin panels. LS-DYNA3D) is used in the simulations to model the impactor, test fixture frame and target barrier plate. The effects of mesh refinement, contact modeling, and impactor initial velocity and orientation were studied. The research project also includes development of a design tool for optimum design of grid-stiffened non-circular shells or panels subjected to buckling.

  1. A Simplified Design with a Toothed Belt and Non-Circular Pulleys to Separate Parts from a Magazine File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, U.; Modler, K.-H.; Neumann, R.; Fischer, C.

    The objective of this paper is to simplify a very complex guidance mechanism, currently used for lid separating issues in a packaging-machine. The task of this machine is to pick up a lid from a magazine file, rotate it around 180° and place it on tins. The developed mechanism works successfully but with a very complex construction. It consists of a planetary cam mechanism, combined with a toothed gear (with a constant transmission ratio) and a guiding mechanism with a toothed belt and circular pulleys. Such complex constructions are very common in industrial solutions. The idea of the authors is to show a much simpler design in solving the same problem. They developed a guidance mechanism realizing the same function, consisting only of a toothed belt with non-circular pulleys. The used parts are common trade articles.

  2. Propagation and deposition of non-circular finite release particle-laden currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgheib, Nadim; Bonometti, Thomas; Balachandar, S.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of non-axisymmetric turbidity currents is considered here for a range of Reynolds numbers of O (104) when based on the initial height of the release. The study comprises a series of experiments and highly resolved simulations for which a finite volume of particle-laden solution is released into fresh water. A mixture of water and polystyrene particles of mean diameter d ˜ p = 300 μ m and mixture density ρ ˜ c = 1012 kg / m 3 is initially confined in a hollow cylinder at the centre of a large tank filled with fresh water. Cylinders with two different cross-sectional shapes, but equal cross-sectional areas, are examined: a circle and a rounded rectangle in which the sharp corners are smoothened. The time evolution of the front is recorded as well as the spatial distribution of the thickness of the final deposit via the use of a laser triangulation technique. The dynamics of the front and final deposits are significantly influenced by the initial geometry, displaying substantial azimuthal variation especially for the rectangular case where the current extends farther and deposits more particles along the initial minor axis of the rectangular cross section. Several parameters are varied to assess the dependence on the settling velocity, initial height aspect ratio, and volume fraction. Even though resuspension is not taken into account in our simulations, good agreement with experiments indicates that it does not play an important role in the front dynamics, in terms of velocity and extent of the current. However, wall shear stress measurements show that incipient motion of particles and particle transport along the bed are likely to occur in the body of the current and should be accounted to properly capture the final deposition profile of particles.

  3. RESONANT STRUCTURE IN THE DISKS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES, USING PHASE REVERSALS IN STREAMING MOTIONS FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL H{alpha} FABRY-PEROT SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.; Fathi, Kambiz; Gutierrez, Leonel; Hernandez, Olivier E-mail: jeb@iac.es E-mail: kambiz@astro.su.se E-mail: hernandez@astro.umontreal.ca

    2011-11-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a technique for finding resonance radii in a disk galaxy. We use a two-dimensional velocity field in H{alpha} emission obtained with Fabry-Perot interferometry, derive the classical rotation curve, and subtract it off, leaving a residual velocity map. As the streaming motions should reverse sign at corotation, we detect these reversals and plot them in a histogram against galactocentric radius, excluding points where the amplitude of the reversal is smaller than the measurement uncertainty. The histograms show well-defined peaks which we assume to occur at resonance radii, identifying corotations as the most prominent peaks corresponding to the relevant morphological features of the galaxy (notably bars and spiral arm systems). We compare our results with published measurements on the same galaxies using other methods and different types of data.

  4. A New High-Resolution CO Map of the Inner 2.5‧ of M51. I. Streaming Motions and Spiral Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, S.; Hüttemeister, S.; Scoville, N. Z.; Thaddeus, P.

    1999-09-01

    The Owens Valley millimeter array has been used to map the CO 1-0 emission in the inner 2.5 arcmin of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 2"-3" resolution. These new images reveal the molecular spiral arms with unprecedented clarity; the emission in the two major arms (northeast and southwest) originates from supermassive cloud complexes, giant molecular associations (GMAs), which are for the first time resolved both along and perpendicular to the arms. The overall morphology of the CO emission is symmetric in reflection about the nucleus, with major complexes occurring opposite each other in the two major arms. On the other hand, the CO line flux in the area of the southwest arm closest to the nucleus is approximately twice as bright as that from the analogous location in the northeast arm. Streaming motions can be studied in detail and appear with great clarity along the major and minor axes of M51. The streaming velocities are very large, 60-150 km s-1. Our maps offer, for the first time, sufficient resolution to resolve the structure in the molecular streaming motions. Both the radial and tangential velocity components show steep gradients, in qualitative accordance with predictions of the density-wave models of Roberts & Stewart. Our data thus support the presence of galactic shocks in the arms of M51. In general, velocity gradients across arms are higher by a factor of 2-10 than previously found. They vary in steepness along the spiral arms, becoming particularly steep in between GMAs. The steep gradients cause conditions of strong reverse shear in several regions in the arms, and thus the notion that shear is generally reduced by streaming motions in spiral arms will have to be modified. Of the three GMAs studied on the southwest arm, only one shows reduced shear. We find an unusual structure, an expansion in the northeast molecular arm at 25" radius (1.2 kpc) southeast of the center. This broadening occurs right after the end of the northeast arm at the

  5. Estimating statistical isotropy violation in CMB due to non-circular beam and complex scan in minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Nidhi; Das, Santanu; Mitra, Sanjit; Souradeep, Tarun; Rotti, Aditya E-mail: santanud@iucaa.ernet.in E-mail: sanjit@iucaa.in

    2016-03-01

    Mild, unavoidable deviations from circular-symmetry of instrumental beams along with scan strategy can give rise to measurable Statistical Isotropy (SI) violation in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. If not accounted properly, this spurious signal can complicate the extraction of other SI violation signals (if any) in the data. However, estimation of this effect through exact numerical simulation is computationally intensive and time consuming. A generalized analytical formalism not only provides a quick way of estimating this signal, but also gives a detailed understanding connecting the leading beam anisotropy components to a measurable BipoSH characterisation of SI violation. In this paper, we provide an approximate generic analytical method for estimating the SI violation generated due to a non-circular (NC) beam and arbitrary scan strategy, in terms of the Bipolar Spherical Harmonic (BipoSH) spectra. Our analytical method can predict almost all the features introduced by a NC beam in a complex scan and thus reduces the need for extensive numerical simulation worth tens of thousands of CPU hours into minutes long calculations. As an illustrative example, we use WMAP beams and scanning strategy to demonstrate the easability, usability and efficiency of our method. We test all our analytical results against that from exact numerical simulations.

  6. Kurtosis-based blind source extraction of complex non-circular signals with application in EEG artifact removal in real-time.

    PubMed

    Javidi, Soroush; Mandic, Danilo P; Took, Clive Cheong; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    A new class of complex domain blind source extraction algorithms suitable for the extraction of both circular and non-circular complex signals is proposed. This is achieved through sequential extraction based on the degree of kurtosis and in the presence of non-circular measurement noise. The existence and uniqueness analysis of the solution is followed by a study of fast converging variants of the algorithm. The performance is first assessed through simulations on well understood benchmark signals, followed by a case study on real-time artifact removal from EEG signals, verified using both qualitative and quantitative metrics. The results illustrate the power of the proposed approach in real-time blind extraction of general complex-valued sources.

  7. A Parametric Computational Study of the Impact of Non-circular Configurations on Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Leaflet Deformations and Stresses: Possible Implications for Transcatheter Heart Valves.

    PubMed

    Duraiswamy, Nandini; Weaver, Jason D; Ekrami, Yasamin; Retta, Stephen M; Wu, Changfu

    2016-06-01

    Although generally manufactured as circular devices with symmetric leaflets, transcatheter heart valves can become non-circular post-implantation, the impact of which on the long-term durability of the device is unclear. We investigated the effects of five non-circular (EllipMajor, EllipMinor, D-Shape, TriVertex, TriSides) annular configurations on valve leaflet stresses and valve leaflet deformations through finite element analysis. The highest in-plane principal stresses and strains were observed under an elliptical configuration with an aspect ratio of 1.25 where one of the commissures was on the minor axis of the ellipse. In this elliptical configuration (EllipMinor), the maximum principal stress increased 218% and the maximum principal strain increased 80% as compared with those in the circular configuration, and occurred along the free edge of the leaflet whose commissures were not on the minor axis (i.e., the "stretched" leaflet). The D-Shape configuration was similar to this elliptical configuration, with the degree to which the leaflets were stretched or sagging being less than the EllipMinor configuration. The TriVertex and TriSides configurations had similar leaflet deformation patterns in all three leaflets and similar to the Circular configuration. In the D-Shape, TriVertex, and TriSides configurations, the maximum principal stress was located near the commissures similar to the Circular configuration. In the EllipMinor and EllipMajor configurations, the maximum principal stress occurred near the center of the free edge of the "stretched" leaflets. These results further affirm recommendations by the International Standards Organization (ISO) that pre-clinical testing should consider non-circular configurations for transcatheter valve durability testing.

  8. Directed swimming of nanoscale swimmers in an array of posts with non-circular section: modelling and shape optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jiajun; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown experimentally that swimming of nanoscale rod-like bi-metallic swimmers can be biased and guided by an array of teardrop shaped posts in the solution, giving rise to a statistically directed motion in long time. This could be useful in many applications like concentrating nanoswimmers, or separating them from non-motile particles. We pose a model to study such directed swimming, taking into account the absorption and desorption of the swimmers to the vertical walls of posts. We emphasize the role of varying curvature along the circumference of a single post on the absorption and desorption. In seeking to enhance directed swimming, we apply shape optimization to find how we can design, based on experimental data, better posts which have higher efficiency of transporting swimmers. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMS-1463962.

  9. The role of independent motion in object segmentation in the ventral visual stream: Learning to recognise the separate parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Higgins, I V; Stringer, S M

    2011-03-25

    This paper investigates how the visual areas of the brain may learn to segment the bodies of humans and other animals into separate parts. A neural network model of the ventral visual pathway, VisNet, was used to study this problem. In particular, the current work investigates whether independent motion of body parts can be sufficient to enable the visual system to learn separate representations of them even when the body parts are never seen in isolation. The network was shown to be able to separate out the independently moving body parts because the independent motion created statistical decoupling between them.

  10. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: gas streaming and dynamical M/L in rotationally supported systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, G.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Richards, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Lange, R.; Moffett, A.; Catinella, B.; Cortese, L.; Ho, I.-T.; Taylor, E. N.; Bryant, J. J.; Allen, J. T.; Sweet, S. M.; Croom, S. M.; Driver, S. P.; Goodwin, M.; Kelvin, L.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Lorente, N. P. F.

    2016-02-01

    Line-of-sight velocities of gas and stars can constrain dark matter (DM) within rotationally supported galaxies if they trace circular orbits extensively. Photometric asymmetries may signify non-circular motions, requiring spectra with dense spatial coverage. Our integral-field spectroscopy of 178 galaxies spanned the mass range of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. We derived circular speed curves (CSCs) of gas and stars from non-parametric fits out to r ˜ 2re. For 12/14 with measured H I profiles, ionized gas and H I maximum velocities agreed. We fitted mass-follows-light models to 163 galaxies by approximating the radial light profile as nested, very flattened mass homeoids viewed as a Sérsic form. Fitting broad-band spectral energy distributions to Sloan Digital Sky Survey images gave median stellar mass/light 1.7 assuming a Kroupa initial mass function (IMF) versus 2.6 dynamically. Two-thirds of the dynamical mass/light measures were consistent with star+remnant IMFs. One-fifth required upscaled starlight to fit, hence comparable mass of unobserved baryons and/or DM distributed like starlight across the SAMI aperture that came to dominate motions as the starlight CSCs declined rapidly. The rest had mass distributed differently from light. Subtracting fits of Sérsic radial profiles to 13 VIKING Z-band images revealed residual weak bars. Near the bar major axis, we assessed m = 2 streaming velocities, and found deviations usually <30 km s-1 from the CSC; three showed no deviation. Thus, asymmetries rarely influenced the CSC despite colocated shock-indicating, emission-line flux ratios in more than 2/3 of our sample.

  11. Hartley 2 and Tempel 1 comet nuclei demonstrate shapes and structurizations revealing an action of inertia-gravity forces exited by non-circular orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    Recently obtained images of Hartley 2 and Tempe l 1 co mets ( NASA's EPOXI and NEXT missions) reveal unprecedented details of the comets shaping and structurizat ion helping understand making them forces. The wave planetology [1-6 & others ] long ago s tated that "orbits make s tructures '. This as s ertion was bas ed on recognition of ine rtiagravity forces aroused in any cosmic body because of its movement in non-circular keplerian orbit. Such an orbit implies periodically changing accelerations causing inertia-gravity forces absorbed by a cosmic body by its warping, undulations. These standing wave warpings in rotating bodies have four interfering ortho- and diagonal direct ions producing uplifted (+), subsided (-) and neutral compensated (0) tectonic blocks. The blocks sizes depend on warping wavelengths the longest and most amplitudinal of which is the fundamental wave 1 long 2πR. Thes e waves produce inevitable tectonic dichotomy - a body division in two opposite segments -hemispheres: one uplifted, another subsided (an example is Earth with its uplifted continental and subsided oceanic hemispheres). In small bodies with a weak gravity one often observes oblong convexoconcave shapes so typical for the Main Belt asteroids.

  12. Energy levels of a quantum particle on a cylindrical surface with non-circular cross-section in electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Philip Christopher S.; Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2017-04-01

    We calculate the energy levels of a quantum particle on a cylindrical surface with non-circular cross-section in uniform electric and magnetic fields. Using separation of variables method and a change of independent variable, we show that the problem can be reduced to a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for a periodic potential. The effects of varying the shape of the cross-section while keeping the same perimeter and the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are investigated for elliptical, corrugated, and nearly-rectangular tubes with radial dimensions of the order of a nanometer. The geometric potential has minima at the angular positions where there is a significant amount of curvature. For the elliptical and corrugated tubes, it is shown that as the tube departs from the circular shape of cross-section the double-degeneracy between the energy levels is lifted. For the nearly-rectangular tube, it is shown that energy level crossings occur as the horizontal dimension of the tube is varied while keeping the same perimeter and radius of circular corners. The interplay between the curvature and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields determines the overall behavior of the energy levels. As the strength of the electric field increases, the overall potential gets skewed creating a potential well on the side corresponding to the more negative electric potential. The energy levels of the first few excited states approach more positive values while the ground state energy level approaches a more negative value. For large electric fields, all bound state energy levels tend to more negative values. The contribution of weak magnetic fields to the overall potential behaves in the same way as the electric field contribution but with its sign depending on the direction of the component of the momentum parallel to the cylindrical axis. Large magnetic fields lead to pairing of energy levels reminiscent of 2D Landau levels for the elliptical and nearly

  13. Stream systems.

    Treesearch

    Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves

    2006-01-01

    Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...

  14. Stream Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J.

    Stream processors, like other multi core architectures partition their functional units and storage into multiple processing elements. In contrast to typical architectures, which contain symmetric general-purpose cores and a cache hierarchy, stream processors have a significantly leaner design. Stream processors are specifically designed for the stream execution model, in which applications have large amounts of explicit parallel computation, structured and predictable control, and memory accesses that can be performed at a coarse granularity. Applications in the streaming model are expressed in a gather-compute-scatter form, yielding programs with explicit control over transferring data to and from on-chip memory. Relying on these characteristics, which are common to many media processing and scientific computing applications, stream architectures redefine the boundary between software and hardware responsibilities with software bearing much of the complexity required to manage concurrency, locality, and latency tolerance. Thus, stream processors have minimal control consisting of fetching medium- and coarse-grained instructions and executing them directly on the many ALUs. Moreover, the on-chip storage hierarchy of stream processors is under explicit software control, as is all communication, eliminating the need for complex reactive hardware mechanisms.

  15. Occluded motion alters event perception.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Gyoba, Jiro

    2013-04-01

    We employed audiovisual stream/bounce displays, in which two moving objects with crossing trajectories are more likely to be perceived as bouncing off, rather than streaming through, each other when a brief sound is presented at the coincidence of the two objects. However, Kawachi and Gyoba (Perception 35:1289-1294, 2006b) reported that the presence of an additional moving object near the two objects altered the perception of a bouncing event to that of a streaming event. In this study, we extended this finding and examined whether alteration of the event perception could be induced by the visual context, such as by occluded object motion near the stream/bounce display. The results demonstrated that even when the sound was presented, the continuous occluded motion strongly biased observers' percepts toward the streaming percept during a short occlusion interval (approximately 100 ms). In contrast, when the continuous occluded motion was disrupted by introducing a spatiotemporal gap in the motion trajectory or by removing occlusion cues such as deletion/accretion, the bias toward the streaming percept declined. Thus, we suggest that a representation of object motion generated under a limited occlusion interval interferes with audiovisual event perception.

  16. Directional performance in motion transparency.

    PubMed

    Braddick, Oliver J; Wishart, Keith A; Curran, William

    2002-05-01

    Motion transparency provides a challenging test case for our understanding of how visual motion, and other attributes, are computed and represented in the brain. However, previous studies of visual transparency have used subjective criteria which do not confirm the existence of independent representations of the superimposed motions. We have developed measures of performance in motion transparency that require observers to extract information about two motions jointly, and therefore test the information that is simultaneously represented for each motion. Observers judged whether two motions were at 90 degrees to one another; the base direction was randomized so that neither motion taken alone was informative. The precision of performance was determined by the standard deviations (S.D.s) of probit functions fitted to the data. Observers also made judgments of orthogonal directions between a single motion stream and a line, for one of two transparent motions against a line and for two spatially segregated motions. The data show that direction judgments with transparency can be made with comparable accuracy to segregated (non-transparent) conditions, supporting the idea that transparency involves the equivalent representation of two global motions in the same region. The precision of this joint direction judgment is, however, 2-3 times poorer than that for a single motion stream. The precision in directional judgment for a single stream is reduced only by a factor of about 1.5 by superimposing a second stream. The major effect in performance, therefore, appears to be associated with the need to compute and compare two global representations of motion, rather than with interference between the dot streams per se. Experiment 2 tested the transparency of motions separated by a range of angles from 5 degrees to 180 degrees by requiring subjects to set a line matching the perceived direction of each motion. The S.D.s of these settings demonstrated that directions of

  17. Consider an Ice Stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.

    2002-12-01

    positions in past millennia conform to radically different flow patterns while on the scale of hours an ice stream's motion is halted completely, then released to move at surge-like speeds, in tempo with the tides. Explaining these complexities constantly reminds us that the rigorous physics applied to ice so effectively by Nye still work.

  18. Sparing of Sensitivity to Biological Motion but Not of Global Motion after Early Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Patients deprived of visual experience during infancy by dense bilateral congenital cataracts later show marked deficits in the perception of global motion (dorsal visual stream) and global form (ventral visual stream). We expected that they would also show marked deficits in sensitivity to biological motion, which is normally processed in the…

  19. Sparing of Sensitivity to Biological Motion but Not of Global Motion after Early Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Patients deprived of visual experience during infancy by dense bilateral congenital cataracts later show marked deficits in the perception of global motion (dorsal visual stream) and global form (ventral visual stream). We expected that they would also show marked deficits in sensitivity to biological motion, which is normally processed in the…

  20. Unsteady disturbances of streaming motions around bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atassi, H. M.; Grzedzinski, J.

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation of flows around bodies with a stagnation point notes that the vortical part of such flows becomes singular along the entire body surface and its wake; as a result, the potential part of the flow will also be singular along the entire surface. A modified splitting of the velocity field is proposed which encompasses: (1) a vortical part having zero streamwise and normal components along the body surface; (2) an entropy-dependent part; and (3) a regular part similar to the potential part which satisfies a linear inhomogeneous wave equation with a modified source term.

  1. stream-stream: Stellar and dark-matter streams interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2017-02-01

    Stream-stream analyzes the interaction between a stellar stream and a disrupting dark-matter halo. It requires galpy (ascl:1411.008), NEMO (ascl:1010.051), and the usual common scientific Python packages.

  2. Dynamical Properties of Collisionless Star Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.

    2015-02-01

    A sufficiently extended satellite in the tidal field of a host galaxy loses mass to create nearly symmetric leading and trailing tidal streams. We study the case in which tidal heating drives mass loss from a low mass satellite. The stream effectively has two dynamical components, a common angular momentum core superposed with episodic pulses with a broader angular momentum distribution. The pulses appear as spurs on the stream, oscillating above and below the stream centerline, stretching and blurring in configuration space as they move away from the cluster. Low orbital eccentricity streams are smoother and have less differential motion than high eccentricity streams. The tail of a high eccentricity stream can develop a fan of particles that wraps around at apocenter in a shell feature. We show that scaling the essentially stationary action-angle variables with the cube root of the satellite mass allows a low mass satellite stream to accurately predict the features in the stream from a satellite a thousand times more massive. As a practical astrophysical application, we demonstrate that narrow gaps in a moderate eccentricity stream, such as GD-1, blur out to 50% contrast over approximately six radial periods. A high eccentricity stream, such as Pal 5, will blur small gaps in only two radial orbits as can be understood from the much larger dispersion of angular momentum in the stream.

  3. Classifying Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  4. Classifying Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  5. On feathers, bifurcations and shells: the dynamics of tidal streams across the mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorisco, N. C.

    2015-06-01

    I present an organic description of the spectrum of regimes of collisionless tidal streams and define the orderings between the relevant physical quantities that shape their morphology. Three fundamental dichotomies are identified and described in the form of dimensionless inequalities. These govern (i) the speed of the stream's growth, (ii) the internal coherence of the stream and (iii) its thickness or opening angle, within and outside the orbital plane. The mechanisms through which such main qualitative properties are regulated and the relevant limiting cases are analysed. For example, the slope of the host's density profile strongly influences the speed of the stream's growth, in both length and width, as steeper density profiles enhance differential streaming. Internal coherence is the natural requirement for the appearance of substructure and overdensities in tidal debris, and I concentrate on the characteristic `feathering' typical of streams of star clusters. Overdensities and substructures are associated with minima in the relative streaming velocity of the stream members. For streams with high circularity, these are caused by the epicyclic oscillations of stars; however, for highly non-circular progenitor's orbits, internal substructure is caused by the oscillating differences in energy and actions with which material is shed at different orbital phases of the progenitor. This modulation results in different streaming speeds along the tidal arm: the streakline of material shed between two successive apocentric passages is folded along its length, pulled at its centre by the faster differential streaming of particles released near pericentre, which are therefore more widely scattered. When the stream is coherent enough, the same mechanism is potentially capable of generating a bimodal profile in the density distributions of the longer wraps of more massive progenitors, which I dub `bifurcations'. The conditions that allow streams to be internally coherent

  6. Steady streaming around a cylinder pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coenen, W.

    2016-11-01

    The steady streaming motion that appears around a pair of circular cylinders placed in a small-amplitude oscillatory flow is considered. Attention is focused on the case where the Stokes layer thickness at the surface of the cylinders is much smaller than the cylinder radius, and the streaming Reynolds number is of order unity or larger. In that case, the steady streaming velocity that persists at the edge of the Stokes layer can be imposed as a boundary condition to numerically solve the outer streaming motion that it drives in the bulk of the fluid. It is investigated how the gap width between the cylinders and the streaming Reynolds number affect the flow topology. The results are compared against experimental observations.

  7. Stream Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a science curriculum reform effort aimed at enabling students to collect original data concerning an environmental parameter such as water quality on a yearly basis. Students track the overall health of the stream by analyzing both biotic and abiotic factors. (DDR)

  8. Stream Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton City Board of Education (Ontario).

    This manual provides teachers with some knowledge of ecological study methods and techniques used in collecting data when plants and animals are studied in the field. Most activities deal with the interrelatedness of plant and animal life to the structure and characteristics of a stream and pond. Also included in this unit plan designed for the…

  9. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, S PERSEI, WITH VLBI H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Asaki, Y.; Deguchi, S.; Imai, H.; Hachisuka, K.; Miyoshi, M.; Honma, M. E-mail: deguchi@nro.nao.ac.j E-mail: khachi@shao.ac.c E-mail: mareki.honma@nao.ac.j

    2010-09-20

    We have conducted Very Long Baseline Array phase-referencing monitoring of H{sub 2}O masers around the red supergiant, S Persei, for six years. We have fitted maser motions to a simple expanding-shell model with a common annual parallax and stellar proper motion, and obtained the annual parallax as 0.413 {+-} 0.017 mas and the stellar proper motion as (-0.49 {+-} 0.23 mas yr{sup -1}, -1.19 {+-} 0.20 mas yr{sup -1}) in right ascension and declination, respectively. The obtained annual parallax corresponds to the trigonometric distance of 2.42{sup +0.11}{sub -0.09} kpc. Assuming a Galactocentric distance of the Sun of 8.5 kpc, the circular rotational velocity of the local standard of rest at a distance of the Sun of 220 km s{sup -1}, and a flat Galactic rotation curve, S Persei is suggested to have a non-circular motion deviating from the Galactic circular rotation for 15 km s{sup -1}, which is mainly dominated by the anti-rotation direction component of 12.9 {+-} 2.9 km s{sup -1}. This red supergiant is thought to belong to the OB association, Per OB1, so that this non-circular motion is representative of a motion of the OB association in the Milky Way. This non-circular motion is somewhat larger than that explained by the standard density-wave theory for a spiral galaxy and is attributed to either a cluster shuffling of the OB association, or to non-linear interactions between non-stationary spiral arms and multi-phase interstellar media. The latter comes from a new view of a spiral arm formation in the Milky Way suggested by recent large N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations.

  10. Thermal control of ice-stream margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal balance at the base of an ice sheet near an ice-stream margin was investigated theoretically. Specifically, conditions such that the base of the ice sheet would be frozen in the absence of heat generated by the ice motion were investigated. The base of the ice stream is maintained at melting as a result of high dissipation of heat at the base associated with its fast motion over the bed. Heat dissipation in the inter-ice-stream ridge ice is presumed to be too small to maintain melting conditions on the bed there. Two opposing effects can be identified near the shear margin separating the fast and slow motions. Because the velocity of an ice stream falls off toward its margin, there is a near margin heat deficit zone where the heat generated at the bed is not, by itself, sufficient to maintain melting conditions. Without some counteracting process, the base could freeze inward toward the ice stream and cause it to narrow. The marginal shearing generates heat within the ice above the bed. This heat produces a thermal shielding effect that tends to warm the bed on both sides of the boundary between the fast and slow motion. This shielding effect, if strong enough, could produce a thawed zone beyond the fast/slow boundary. If melting at the bed by itself allows fast motion, then the ice stream would be free to widen. A coupled mass and heat flow model is being developed to examine these competing processes. Preliminary calculations using available information for boundary conditions appropriate for Ice Stream B predict that the shielding effect is most important. This tentative result suggests that thermal conditions are such that the ice stream could widen unstably. Other constraints would be required to stabilize the width. Possible factors could be bed morphology beneath ridges that does not allow fast motion even in thawed conditions, or inward advection of cold ice from the ridges across the margin and into the ice stream, which suppresses the

  11. Streaming Prominence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-05

    A prominence at the edge of the sun provided us with a splendid view of solar plasma as it churned and streamed over less than one day (June 25-26, 2017). The charged particles of plasma were being manipulated by strong magnetic forces. When viewed in this wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, we can trace the movements of the particles. Such occurrences are fairly common but much easier to see when they are near the sun's edge. For a sense of scale, the arch of prominence in the still image has risen up several times the size of Earth. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21768

  12. Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Motion sickness is a common problem in people traveling by car, train, airplanes, and especially boats. Anyone ... children, pregnant women, and people taking certain medicines. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling ...

  13. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well.

  14. Feature integration and object representations along the dorsal stream visual hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Carolyn Jeane; Fallah, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    The visual system is split into two processing streams: a ventral stream that receives color and form information and a dorsal stream that receives motion information. Each stream processes that information hierarchically, with each stage building upon the previous. In the ventral stream this leads to the formation of object representations that ultimately allow for object recognition regardless of changes in the surrounding environment. In the dorsal stream, this hierarchical processing has classically been thought to lead to the computation of complex motion in three dimensions. However, there is evidence to suggest that there is integration of both dorsal and ventral stream information into motion computation processes, giving rise to intermediate object representations, which facilitate object selection and decision making mechanisms in the dorsal stream. First we review the hierarchical processing of motion along the dorsal stream and the building up of object representations along the ventral stream. Then we discuss recent work on the integration of ventral and dorsal stream features that lead to intermediate object representations in the dorsal stream. Finally we propose a framework describing how and at what stage different features are integrated into dorsal visual stream object representations. Determining the integration of features along the dorsal stream is necessary to understand not only how the dorsal stream builds up an object representation but also which computations are performed on object representations instead of local features. PMID:25140147

  15. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  16. Evidence for the Magellanic Stream's Tidal Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, Mary E.; Gibson, Brad K.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    The complete spatial coverage and unique blind nature of the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) has allowed us to identify new HI features which have implications for the origin of the Magellanic Stream. The data presented here include a 2400 deg^2 mosaic of the HI distribution about the South Celestial Pole, revealing a counter-stream which leads the direction of motion of the Clouds, i.e. opposite in direction to the Stream. This strongly supports the gravitational model for the Stream in which the leading and trailing streams are tidally torn from the body of the Magellanic Clouds. This Leading Arm, as well as other recent results which support a tidal scenario, will be discussed.

  17. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons River and Stream Pollution Kids Homepage Topics Pollution River and Stream Pollution ... stream in the first place by disturbing the land as little as possible. Farmers and construction workers ...

  18. Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1985-02-01

    Brownian motion, the doubly random motion of small particles suspended in a liquid due to molecular collisions, and its implications and applications in the history of modern science are discussed. Topics examined include probabilistic phenomena, the kinetic theory of gases, Einstein's atomic theory of Brownian motion, particle displacement, diffusion measurements, the determination of the mass of the atom and of Avogadro's number, the statistical mechanics of thermodynamics, nonequilibrium systems, Langevin's equation of motion, time-reversed evolution, mathematical analogies, and applications in economics and radio navigation. Diagrams and drawings are provided.

  19. Basal melt beneath whillans ice stream and ice streams A and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, I.; Teluezyk, S.; Engelhardt, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have used a recently derived map of the velocity of Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Streams A and C to help estimate basal melt. Temperature was modeled with a simple vertical advection-diffusion equation, 'tuned' to match temperature profiles. We find that most of the melt occurs beneath the tributaries where larger basal shear stresses and thicker ice favors greater melt (e.g., 10-20 mm/yr). The occurrence of basal freezing is predicted beneath much of the ice plains of Ice Stream C and Whillans Ice Stream. Modelled melt rates for when Ice Stream C was active suggest there was just enough melt water generated in its tributaries to balance basal freezing on its ice plain. Net basal melt for Whillans Ice Stream is positive due to smaller basal temperature gradients. Modelled temperatures on Whillans Ice Stream, however, were constrained by a single temperature profile at UpB. Basal temperature gradients for Whillans B1 and Ice Stream A may have conditions more similar to those beneath Ice Streams C and D, in which case, there may not be sufficient melt to sustain motion. This would be consistent with the steady deceleration of Whillans stream over the last few decades.

  20. Integration and segregation in auditory streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almonte, Felix; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Large, Edward W.; Tuller, Betty

    2005-12-01

    We aim to capture the perceptual dynamics of auditory streaming using a neurally inspired model of auditory processing. Traditional approaches view streaming as a competition of streams, realized within a tonotopically organized neural network. In contrast, we view streaming to be a dynamic integration process which resides at locations other than the sensory specific neural subsystems. This process finds its realization in the synchronization of neural ensembles or in the existence of informational convergence zones. Our approach uses two interacting dynamical systems, in which the first system responds to incoming acoustic stimuli and transforms them into a spatiotemporal neural field dynamics. The second system is a classification system coupled to the neural field and evolves to a stationary state. These states are identified with a single perceptual stream or multiple streams. Several results in human perception are modelled including temporal coherence and fission boundaries [L.P.A.S. van Noorden, Temporal coherence in the perception of tone sequences, Ph.D. Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, 1975], and crossing of motions [A.S. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound, MIT Press, 1990]. Our model predicts phenomena such as the existence of two streams with the same pitch, which cannot be explained by the traditional stream competition models. An experimental study is performed to provide proof of existence of this phenomenon. The model elucidates possible mechanisms that may underlie perceptual phenomena.

  1. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  2. Non-Circular Wheels: Reuleaux and Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Circular wheels are so familiar on vehicles of all types that it is seldom realized that alternatives do exist. This short non-mathematical article describes Reuleaux and square wheels that, rolling along appropriate tracks, can maintain a moving platform at a constant height. Easily made working models lend themselves to demonstrations at science…

  3. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  4. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  5. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

  6. Simulation of dust streaming in toroidal traps: Stationary flows

    SciTech Connect

    Reichstein, Torben; Piel, Alexander

    2011-08-15

    Molecular-dynamic simulations were performed to study dust motion in a toroidal trap under the influence of the ion drag force driven by a Hall motion of the ions in E x B direction, gravity, inter-particle forces, and friction with the neutral gas. This article is focused on the inhomogeneous stationary streaming motion. Depending on the strength of friction, the spontaneous formation of a stationary shock or a spatial bifurcation into a fast flow and a slow vortex flow is observed. In the quiescent streaming region, the particle flow features a shell structure which undergoes a structural phase transition along the flow direction.

  7. Tributaries of West Antarctic Ice Streams Revealed by RADARSAT Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Joughin; Gray; Bindschadler; Price; Morse; Hulbe; Mattar; Werner

    1999-10-08

    Interferometric RADARSAT data are used to map ice motion in the source areas of four West Antarctic ice streams. The data reveal that tributaries, coincident with subglacial valleys, provide a spatially extensive transition between slow inland flow and rapid ice stream flow and that adjacent ice streams draw from shared source regions. Two tributaries flow into the stagnant ice stream C, creating an extensive region that is thickening at an average rate of 0.49 meters per year. This is one of the largest rates of thickening ever reported in Antarctica.

  8. Two-stream instability with time-dependent drift velocity

    DOE PAGES

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2014-06-26

    The classical two-stream instability driven by a constant relative drift velocity between two plasma components is extended to the case with time-dependent drift velocity. A solution method is developed to rigorously define and calculate the instability growth rate for linear perturbations relative to the time-dependent unperturbed two-stream motions. The stability diagrams for the oscillating two-stream instability are presented over a large region of parameter space. It is shown that the growth rate for the classical two-stream instability can be significantly reduced by adding an oscillatory component to the relative drift velocity.

  9. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  10. Cortical dynamics of visual motion perception: short-range and long-range apparent motion.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, S; Rudd, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article describes further evidence for a new neural network theory of biological motion perception. The theory clarifies why parallel streams V1----V2, V1----MT, and V1----V2----MT exist for static form and motion form processing among the areas V1, V2, and MT of visual cortex. The theory suggests that the static form system (Static BCS) generates emergent boundary segmentations whose outputs are insensitive to direction-of-contrast and to direction-of-motion, whereas the motion form system (Motion BCS) generates emergent boundary segmentations whose outputs are insensitive to direction-of-contrast but sensitive to direction-of-motion. The theory is used to explain classical and recent data about short-range and long-range apparent motion percepts that have not yet been explained by alternative models. These data include beta motion, split motion, gamma motion and reverse-contrast gamma motion, delta motion, and visual inertia. Also included are the transition from group motion to element motion in response to a Ternus display as the interstimulus interval (ISI) decreases; group motion in response to a reverse-contrast Ternus display even at short ISIs; speed-up of motion velocity as interflash distance increases or flash duration decreases; dependence of the transition from element motion to group motion on stimulus duration and size, various classical dependencies between flash duration, spatial separation, ISI, and motion threshold known as Korte's laws; dependence of motion strength on stimulus orientation and spatial frequency; short-range and long-range form-color interactions; and binocular interactions of flashes to different eyes.

  11. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  12. Stream corridor management

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Wehnes

    1989-01-01

    The quality of streams and stream habitat for aquatic life and terrestrial animals in the central hardwood forest can be maintained or enhanced through careful protection, management, and re-establishment of streamside forests.

  13. Regex-Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John

    2012-09-01

    Log files are typically semi-or un-structured. To be useable, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Regex-Stream facilitates parsing text files into structured data (JSON) in streams of data.

  14. Fitting orbits to tidal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2008-05-01

    Recent years have seen the discovery of many tidal streams through the Galaxy. Relatively straightforward observations of a stream allow one to deduce three phase-space coordinates of an orbit. An algorithm is presented that reconstructs the missing phase-space coordinates from these data. The reconstruction starts from assumed values of the Galactic potential and a distance to one point on the orbit, but with noise-free data the condition that energy be conserved on the orbit enables one to reject incorrect assumptions. The performance of the algorithm is investigated when errors are added to the input data that are comparable to those in published data for the streams of Pal 5. It is found that the algorithm returns distances and proper motions that are accurate to of the order of 1 per cent, and enables one to reject quite resonable but incorrect trial potentials. In practical applications, it will be important to minimize errors in the imput data, and there is considerable scope for doing this.

  15. Interplanetary stream magnetism - Kinematic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density and the magnetic-field intensity and direction are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic-field direction and the initial speed gradient. It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between about 0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of the particle density, field intensity, and velocity are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of the magnetic field depend sensitively on the initial field direction. By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that the average radial field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the heliocentric distance, whereas the average intensity in the direction of the planets' motion does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 AU is such that the base of the field line corotates with the sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows.

  16. Interplanetary stream magnetism - Kinematic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density and the magnetic-field intensity and direction are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic-field direction and the initial speed gradient. It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between about 0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of the particle density, field intensity, and velocity are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of the magnetic field depend sensitively on the initial field direction. By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that the average radial field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the heliocentric distance, whereas the average intensity in the direction of the planets' motion does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 AU is such that the base of the field line corotates with the sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows.

  17. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  18. Brownian Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenda, Bernard H.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the phenomenon of Brownian motion, which serves as a mathematical model for random processes. Topics addressed include kinetic theory, Einstein's theory, particle displacement, and others. Points out that observations of the random course of a particle suspended in fluid led to the first accurate measurement of atomic mass. (DH)

  19. Coherent Motion Sensitivity Predicts Individual Differences in Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest deficits in coherent motion sensitivity, an index of visual dorsal stream functioning, in children with poor mathematical skills or dyscalculia, a specific learning disability in mathematics. We extended these data using a longitudinal design to unravel whether visual dorsal stream functioning is able to "predict"…

  20. Coherent Motion Sensitivity Predicts Individual Differences in Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest deficits in coherent motion sensitivity, an index of visual dorsal stream functioning, in children with poor mathematical skills or dyscalculia, a specific learning disability in mathematics. We extended these data using a longitudinal design to unravel whether visual dorsal stream functioning is able to "predict"…

  1. The dorsal visual stream revisited: Stable circuits or dynamic pathways?

    PubMed

    Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2017-01-23

    In both macaque and human brain, information regarding visual motion flows from the extrastriate area V6 along two different paths: a dorsolateral one towards areas MT/V5, MST, V3A, and a dorsomedial one towards the visuomotor areas of the superior parietal lobule (V6A, MIP, VIP). The dorsolateral visual stream is involved in many aspects of visual motion analysis, including the recognition of object motion and self motion. The dorsomedial stream uses visual motion information to continuously monitor the spatial location of objects while we are looking and/or moving around, to allow skilled reaching for and grasping of the objects in structured, dynamically changing environments. Grasping activity is present in two areas of the dorsal stream, AIP and V6A. Area AIP is more involved than V6A in object recognition, V6A in encoding vision for action. We suggest that V6A is involved in the fast control of prehension and plays a critical role in biomechanically selecting appropriate postures during reach to grasp behaviors. In everyday life, numerous functional networks, often involving the same cortical areas, are continuously in action in the dorsal visual stream, with each network dynamically activated or inhibited according to the context. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial streams represent only two examples of these networks. Many others streams have been described in the literature, but it is worthwhile noting that the same cortical area, and even the same neurons within an area, are not specific for just one functional property, being part of networks that encode multiple functional aspects. Our proposal is to conceive the cortical streams not as fixed series of interconnected cortical areas in which each area belongs univocally to one stream and is strictly involved in only one function, but as interconnected neuronal networks, often involving the same neurons, that are involved in a number of functional processes and whose activation changes dynamically according

  2. Effects of self-motion on auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hirohito M; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Toshima, Iwaki; Kashino, Makio

    2012-04-24

    Auditory scene analysis requires the listener to parse the incoming flow of acoustic information into perceptual "streams," such as sentences from a single talker in the midst of background noise. Behavioral and neural data show that the formation of streams is not instantaneous; rather, streaming builds up over time and can be reset by sudden changes in the acoustics of the scene. Here, we investigated the effect of changes induced by voluntary head motion on streaming. We used a telepresence robot in a virtual reality setup to disentangle all potential consequences of head motion: changes in acoustic cues at the ears, changes in apparent source location, and changes in motor or attentional processes. The results showed that self-motion influenced streaming in at least two ways. Right after the onset of movement, self-motion always induced some resetting of perceptual organization to one stream, even when the acoustic scene itself had not changed. Then, after the motion, the prevalent organization was rapidly biased by the binaural cues discovered through motion. Auditory scene analysis thus appears to be a dynamic process that is affected by the active sensing of the environment.

  3. The Magellanic Stream: Circumnavigating the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onghia, Elena; Fox, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are surrounded by an extended network of gaseous structures. Chief among these is the Magellanic Stream, an interwoven tail of filaments trailing the Clouds in their orbit around the Milky Way. When considered in tandem with its Leading Arm, the Stream stretches over 200° on the sky. The Stream is thought to represent the result of tidal interactions between the Clouds and ram-pressure forces exerted by the Galactic corona, and its kinematic properties reflect the dynamical history of the pair of dwarf galaxies closest to the Milky Way. The Stream is a benchmark for hydrodynamical simulations of accreting gas and cloud/corona interactions. If the Stream survives these interactions and arrives safely in the Galactic disk, its cargo of over a billion solar masses of gas has the potential to maintain or elevate the Galactic star-formation rate. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge of the Stream, including its chemical composition, physical conditions, origin, and fate. We also review the dynamics of the Magellanic System, including the proper motions and orbital history of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the first-passage and second-passage scenarios, and the evidence for a Magellanic Group of galaxies.

  4. Persistent Temporal Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilley, David; Ramachandran, Umakishore

    Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by a variety of high- and low-bandwidth streams as well as a need for analyzing both live and archived streams. We present a system called Persistent Temporal Streams (PTS) that supports a higher-level, domain-targeted programming abstraction for such applications. PTS provides a simple but expressive stream abstraction encompassing transport, manipulation and storage of streaming data. In this paper, we present a system architecture for implementing PTS. We provide an experimental evaluation which shows the system-level primitives can be implemented in a lightweight and high-performance manner, and an application-based evaluation designed to show that a representative high-bandwidth stream analysis application can be implemented relatively simply and with good performance.

  5. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Treesearch

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  6. The psychophysics of Visual Motion and Global form Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Whitney, David; Rivera, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Several groups have recently reported that people with autism may suffer from a deficit in visual motion processing and proposed that these deficits may be related to a general dorsal stream dysfunction. In order to test the dorsal stream deficit hypothesis, we investigated coherent and biological motion perception as well as coherent form…

  7. The psychophysics of Visual Motion and Global form Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koldewyn, Kami; Whitney, David; Rivera, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Several groups have recently reported that people with autism may suffer from a deficit in visual motion processing and proposed that these deficits may be related to a general dorsal stream dysfunction. In order to test the dorsal stream deficit hypothesis, we investigated coherent and biological motion perception as well as coherent form…

  8. [Motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Taillemite, J P; Devaulx, P; Bousquet, F

    1997-01-01

    Motion sickness is a general term covering sea-sickness, car-sickness, air-sickness, and space-sickness. Symptoms can occur when a person is exposed to unfamiliar movement whether real or simulated. Despite progress in the technology and comfort of modern transportation (planes, boats, and overland vehicles), a great number of travelers still experience motion sickness. Bouts are characterized by an initial phase of mild discomfort followed by neurologic and gastro-intestinal manifestations. The delay in onset depends on specific circumstances and individual susceptibility. Attacks are precipitated by conflicting sensory, visual, and vestibular signals but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Most medications used for prevention and treatment (e.g. anticholinergics and antihistamines) induce unwanted sedation. Furthermore no one drug is completely effective or preventive under all conditions.

  9. Observations of ion streaming during substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    The ion beam phenomenon at the plasma sheet boundary is examined for individually identifiable substorms, and the substorm-associated particle phenomena are evaluated in terms of the energy-angle distributions of the plasma population and three-dimensional energetic ion distributions. In all seven cases studied it is found that ion beams streaming earthward and/or tailward are always present at the edge of the plasma sheet adjacent to the tail lobe. Ion beams penetrating into the plasma sheet region with no detectable density gradient are also observed. Beams at tens to hundreds of eV often stream tailward and are often long lasting, suggesting that they may be related to ionospheric sources. Both tailward and earthward streaming beams are detected for ion beams above 1 keV, consistent with an origin from the distant tail, propagation toward earth, and mirroring back under single particle motions.

  10. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  11. The Puzzling Ophiuchus Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies or globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way can be pulled apart by tidal forces, leaving behind a trail of stars known as a stellar stream. One such trail, the Ophiuchus stream, has posed a serious dynamical puzzle since its discovery. But a recent study has identified four stars that might help resolve this streams mystery.Conflicting TimescalesThe stellar stream Ophiuchus was discovered around our galaxy in 2014. Based on its length, which appears to be 1.6 kpc, we can calculate the time that has passed since its progenitor was disrupted and the stream was created: ~250 Myr. But the stars within it are ~12 Gyr old, and the stream orbits the galaxy with a period of ~350 Myr.Given these numbers, we can assume that Ophiuchuss progenitor completed many orbits of the Milky Way in its lifetime. So why would it only have been disrupted 250 million years ago?Fanning StreamLed by Branimir Sesar (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), a team of scientists has proposed an idea that might help solve this puzzle. If the Ophiuchus stellar stream is on a chaotic orbit common in triaxial potentials, which the Milky Ways may be then the stream ends can fan out, with stars spreading in position and velocity.The fanned part of the stream, however, would be difficult to detect because of its low surface brightness. As a result, the Ophiuchus stellar stream could actually be longer than originally measured, implying that it was disrupted longer ago than was believed.Search for Fan StarsTo test this idea, Sesar and collaborators performed a search around the ends of the stream, looking for stars thatare of the right type to match the stream,are at the predicted distance of the stream,are located near the stream ends, andhave velocities that match the stream and dont match the background halo stars.Histogram of the heliocentric velocities of the 43 target stars. Six stars have velocities matching the stream velocity. Two of these are located in the main stream; the other

  12. Gas stream purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

  13. Cortical Locus of Coherent Motion Deficits in Deaf Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samar, Vincent J.; Parasnis, Ila

    2007-01-01

    Samar and Parasnis [Samar, V. J., & Parasnis, I. (2005). Dorsal stream deficits suggest hidden dyslexia among deaf poor readers: correlated evidence from reduced perceptual speed and elevated coherent motion detection thresholds. "Brain and Cognition, 58," 300-311.] reported that correlated measures of coherent motion detection and perceptual…

  14. Cortical Locus of Coherent Motion Deficits in Deaf Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samar, Vincent J.; Parasnis, Ila

    2007-01-01

    Samar and Parasnis [Samar, V. J., & Parasnis, I. (2005). Dorsal stream deficits suggest hidden dyslexia among deaf poor readers: correlated evidence from reduced perceptual speed and elevated coherent motion detection thresholds. "Brain and Cognition, 58," 300-311.] reported that correlated measures of coherent motion detection and perceptual…

  15. Future Roads Near Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into the stream, harming both water and habitat quality. This metric measured the length of roads within 30 meters of a stream. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  16. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jingjing; Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2017-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2016 publications on the focus of the following sections: Stream, lake, and reservoir management • Water quality of stream, lake, and reservoir • Reservoir operations • Models of stream, lake, and reservoir • Remediation and restoration of stream, lake, and reservoir • Biota of stream, lake, and reservoir • Climate effect of stream, lake, and reservoir.

  17. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  18. StreamCat

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the conterminous USA.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hill, R.A., M. Weber , S. Leibowitz , T. Olsen , and D.J. Thornbrugh. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) Dataset: A database of watershed metrics for the conterminous USA. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION. American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, VA, USA, 9, (2015).

  19. User aware video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerofsky, Louis; Jagannath, Abhijith; Reznik, Yuriy

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design of a video streaming system using adaptation to viewing conditions to reduce the bitrate needed for delivery of video content. A visual model is used to determine sufficient resolution needed under various viewing conditions. Sensors on a mobile device estimate properties of the viewing conditions, particularly the distance to the viewer. We leverage the framework of existing adaptive bitrate streaming systems such as HLS, Smooth Streaming or MPEG-DASH. The client rate selection logic is modified to include a sufficient resolution computed using the visual model and the estimated viewing conditions. Our experiments demonstrate significant bitrate savings compare to conventional streaming methods which do not exploit viewing conditions.

  20. Tracking the Magellanic Stream(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidever, D. L.; Majewski, S. R.; Burton, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    We use the Leiden-Argentine-Bonn (LAB) all-sky HI survey to explore the HI Magellanic Stream. An automated Gaussian analysis program was run on the southern sky for b<-20 degrees and the results give the clearest picture of the Magellanic Stream to date. While we also find that the Magellanic Stream is composed of two primary filaments, as first indicated by Putman et al. (2003), with a LAB velocity precision of 1 km/s we are able to track the two filaments all of the way from their origin in the Magellanic Clouds to their endpoint 100 degrees away. One of the filaments is found to eminate from the 30 Dor region of the LMC. The filaments provide a new tool to study the dynamics of the Magellanic Clouds.

  1. Calculation of the transient motion of elastic airfoils forced by control surface motion and gusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.; Edwards, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    The time-domain equations of motion of elastic airfoil sections forced by control surface motions and gusts were developed for the case of incompressible flow. Extensive use was made of special functions related to the inverse transform of Theodorsen's function. Approximations for the special cases of zero stream velocity, small time, large and time are given. A numerical solution technique for the solution of the general case is given. Examples of the exact transient response of an airfoil are presented.

  2. SAGITTARIUS STREAM THREE-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS FROM SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82

    SciTech Connect

    Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, Vasily; Evans, N. Wyn

    2013-04-01

    Using multi-epoch observations of the Stripe 82 region from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we measure precise statistical proper motions of the stars in the Sagittarius (Sgr) stellar stream. The multi-band photometry and SDSS radial velocities allow us to efficiently select Sgr members and thus enhance the proper-motion precision to {approx}0.1 mas yr{sup -1}. We measure separately the proper motion of a photometrically selected sample of the main-sequence turn-off stars, as well as spectroscopically selected Sgr giants. The data allow us to determine the proper motion separately for the two Sgr streams in the south found in Koposov et al. Together with the precise velocities from SDSS, our proper motions provide exquisite constraints of the three-dimensional motions of the stars in the Sgr streams.

  3. Evolution of the Quadrantid meteor stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, James; Jones, William

    1992-01-01

    According to previous orbital calculations, the last close approach of the Quadrantid stream with Jupiter occurred 3200 years ago at which time the parent comet of the stream may have been captured into its present short-period orbit. If this is the case the stream may only be a few thousand years old. We have modeled the evolution of the stream to determine if such a short time scale is consistent with the observed features of the Quadrantid/ delta- Aquarid/Arietid/Ursid complex. A detailed modeling of a stream consisting of 500 test particles released 4000 yr ago and which included the effects of the gravitational perturbations of 6 planets as well as the likely spread in the initial orbital elements resulting from the ejection of the grains from the comet was carried out. Our calculations indicate that an intense shower should be seen a few days before the Quadrantid shower, and that, 4000 yr is too short a period for the branch corresponding to the D-Arietid branch to appear. We have considered the quasi-constants of motion 1/a and J, the Tisserand quantity, and find that the Ursids and the D-Arietids are unlikely to be members of the complex, and that, the complex is probably be less than 4000 yr old.

  4. Three-body resonance in meteoroid streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, A.; Asher, D. J.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2016-08-01

    Mean-motion resonances play an important role in the evolution of various meteoroid streams. Previous works have studied the effects of two-body resonances in different comets and streams. These already established two-body resonances were mainly induced either by Jovian or Saturnian effects but not both at the same time. Some of these resonances have led to spectacular meteor outbursts and storms in the past. In this work, we find a new resonance mechanism involving three bodies - i.e. meteoroid particle, Jupiter and Saturn, in the Perseid meteoroid stream. Long-term three-body resonances are not very common in real small bodies in our Solar system although they can mathematically exist at many resonant sweet spots in an abstract sense in any dynamical system. This particular resonance combination in the Perseid stream is such that it is close to the ratio of 1:4:10 if the orbital periods of Perseid particle, Saturn and Jupiter are considered, respectively. These resonant Perseid meteoroids stay resonant for typically about 2 kyr. Highly compact dust trails due to this unique resonance phenomenon are present in our simulations. Some past and future years are presented where three-body resonant meteoroids of different sizes (or subject to different radiation pressures) are computed to come near the Earth. This is the first theoretical example of an active and stable three-body resonance mechanism in the realm of meteoroid streams.

  5. Adopt a Stream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friends of Environmental Education Society of Alberta (Edmonton).

    This environmental education program is designed to increase awareness among junior high school students of stream ecosystems and those habitats which comprise the ecosystems adjacent to streams. The teaching content of the manual is presented in two major sections. The first section provides information and background material for the group…

  6. WADEABLE STREAMS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provides the first statistically defensible summary of the condition of the nation’s streams and small rivers, which are so integrally tied to our history. This report brings the results of this ground-breaking study to the American public....

  7. Monitoring wilderness stream ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey C. Davis; G. Wayne Minshall; Christopher T. Robinson; Peter Landres

    2001-01-01

    A protocol and methods for monitoring the major physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems are presented. The monitoring protocol is organized into four stages. At stage 1 information is obtained on a basic set of parameters that describe stream ecosystems. Each following stage builds upon stage 1 by increasing the number of parameters and the...

  8. Citrus waste stream utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Waste streams, generated during fruit processing, consist of solid fruit residues in addition to liquid waste streams from washing operations which must be handled in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unsound fruit from packing houses are usually sent off to be processed for juice and the solid ...

  9. WADEABLE STREAMS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provides the first statistically defensible summary of the condition of the nation’s streams and small rivers, which are so integrally tied to our history. This report brings the results of this ground-breaking study to the American public....

  10. Stream Restoration Flow Estimation for Kentucky Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M.; Connelly, A.

    2005-05-01

    Stream restoration analysis and natural stream design include components of channel analysis related to flow magnitude and estimation of bank-full flow return period events. The more frequent flood events, associated with return periods less than 5 years, are important in restoration project planning and channel stability. Concepts proposed by Costa and O'Connor (1995) including components of flow duration, stream power per unit area, flood energy, and other characteristics indicate flood effectiveness as a source of geomorphic change in channels and floodplains. This study considers stream gage sites in the Cumberland, Tennessee and Mississippi watersheds of Kentucky. The magnitude and variability of recorded flood events is described, as well as the frequency of observed peak flow record. The importance of the higher frequency events is presented in the context of channel forming flow, bank-full discharge, effective discharge, and mean annual discharge (FISRWG 1998). Comparison of historical flow records, estimated bank-full flow derived from observed conditions is presented as a link between these information resources.

  11. Mass streams for spacecraft propulsion and energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J H

    2005-08-31

    A speculative propulsion concept is presented, based on accelerating a spacecraft by impact of a stream of matter in relative motion with respect to the spacecraft. To accelerate the stream to the needed velocity the stream mass is contained in a transit vehicle, launched at low velocity and hence low energy cost, and then sent on a trajectory with near encounters of the planets for gravitational assist. The mass arrives at Earth or wherever the propellant is needed at much higher velocity and kinetic energy, where it is released into an extended stream suitable for propulsion. The stream, moving at a relative velocity in the range of 10 to 30km/s, should be capable of both high thrust and high specific impulse. Means of limiting the transverse expansion of the stream during release and for the {approx}1000 seconds duration of impact are a critical requirement for practicality of the concept. The scheme could potentially lead to a virtually unlimited energy source. One can imagine using a portion of one stream to launch another, larger payload on a similar trajectory. This creates, in effect, an energy amplifier extracting energy from the orbital motions of the planets. The gain of the energy amplifier is only limited by the capacity to prepare mass in transit vehicles.

  12. Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  13. Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastook, James

    1993-01-01

    The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along

  14. The need to differentiate the magnocellular system from the dorsal stream in connection with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Skottun, Bernt C

    2015-04-01

    A number of authors have postulated a "magnocellular-dorsal stream" deficit in dyslexia. Combining the magnocellular system and the dorsal stream into a single entity in this context faces the problem that contrast sensitivity data do not point to a magnocellular deficiency linked to dyslexia, while, on the other hand, motion perception data are largely consistent with a dorsal stream dysfunction. Thus, there are data both for and against a "magnocellular-dorsal stream" deficit in connection with dyslexia. It is here pointed out that this inconsistency is abolished once it is recognized that the magnocellular system and the dorsal stream are separate entities.

  15. Explaining the "Pulse of Protoplasm": the search for molecular mechanisms of protoplasmic streaming.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Explanations for protoplasmic streaming began with appeals to contraction in the eighteenth century and ended with appeals to contraction in the twentieth. During the intervening years, biologists proposed a diverse array of mechanisms for streaming motions. This paper focuses on the re-emergence of contraction among the molecular mechanisms proposed for protoplasmic streaming during the twentieth century. The revival of contraction is a result of a broader transition from colloidal chemistry to a macromolecular approach to the chemistry of proteins, the recognition of the phenomena of shuttle streaming and the pulse of protoplasm, and the influential analogy between protoplasmic streaming and muscle contraction.

  16. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept pollutants before they reach the stream. High percentages of agriculture along streams increase the likelihood of elevated nutrient, pesticide and sediment levels in the stream. Agricultural land cover along streams (RIPAG) is the percent of total stream length adjacent to agriculture. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  17. Twitter Stream Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2014-07-01

    The Twitter Archiver system allows a user to enter their Twitter developer account credentials (obtained separately from the Twitter developer website) and read from the freely available Twitter sample stream. The Twitter sample stream provides a random sample of the overall volume of tweets that are contributed by users to the system. The Twitter Archiver system consumes the stream and serializes the information to text files at some predefined interval. A separate utility reads the text files and creates a searchable index using the open source Apache Lucene text indexing system.

  18. Wadeable Streams Assessment Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of small streams throughout the U.S. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) worked with the states to conduct the assessment in 2004-2005. Data for each parameter sampled in the Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) are available for downloading in a series of files as comma separated values (*.csv). Each *.csv data file has a companion text file (*.txt) that lists a dataset label and individual descriptions for each variable. Users should view the *.txt files first to help guide their understanding and use of the data.

  19. Twitter Stream Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2014-07-01

    The Twitter Archiver system allows a user to enter their Twitter developer account credentials (obtained separately from the Twitter developer website) and read from the freely available Twitter sample stream. The Twitter sample stream provides a random sample of the overall volume of tweets that are contributed by users to the system. The Twitter Archiver system consumes the stream and serializes the information to text files at some predefined interval. A separate utility reads the text files and creates a searchable index using the open source Apache Lucene text indexing system.

  20. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Christopher C.; Ehrsson, H. Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates. PMID:27994538

  1. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Raymond E; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2015-08-06

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed 100 µm. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant Chara, whose cells can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Two spiralling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to 100 µm s(-1), motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as 'cytoplasmic streaming', found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms-algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes and flies-often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size and discuss the possible role of self-organization phenomena in establishing the observed patterns of streaming.

  2. Collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  3. Urban Stream Ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience “flashy” stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

  4. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960

  5. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  6. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  7. Streaming tearing mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  8. Urban Stream Ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience “flashy” stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

  9. Dunes Streaming through Hills

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-26

    This dramatic image observed by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows dark rippled bodies of sand, sometimes in the form of dunes, streaming through Ganges Chasma. The floor of the canyon is covered by hills and mesas.

  10. Streams of Charged Particles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    This graphic shows the different streams of charged particles inside the bubble around our sun and outside, in the unexplored territory of interstellar space. The heliosheath, where NASA two Voyager spacecraft are now traveling, is shown in red.

  11. Discontinuous ephemeral streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.

    1997-07-01

    Many ephemeral streams in western North America flowed over smooth valley floors before transformation from shallow discontinuous channels into deep arroyos. These inherently unstable streams of semiarid regions are sensitive to short-term climatic changes, and to human impacts, because hillslopes supply abundant sediment to infrequent large streamflow events. Discontinuous ephemeral streams appear to be constantly changing as they alternate between two primary modes of operation; either aggradation or degradation may become dominant. Attainment of equilibrium conditions is brief. Disequilibrium is promoted by channel entrenchment that causes the fall of local base level, and by deposition of channel fans that causes the rise of local base level. These opposing base-level processes in adjacent reaches are maintained by self-enhancing feedback mechanisms. The threshold between erosion and deposition is crossed when aggradational or degradational reaches shift upstream or downstream. Extension of entrenched reaches into channel fans tends to create continuous arroyos. Upvalley migration of fan apexes tends to create depositional valley floors with few stream channels. Less than 100 years is required for arroyo cutting, but more than 500 years is required for complete aggradation of entrenched stream channels and valley floors. Discontinuous ephemeral streams have a repetitive sequence of streamflow characteristics that is as distinctive as sequences of meander bends or braided gravel bars in perennial rivers. The sequence changes from degradation to aggradation — headcuts concentrate sheetflow, a single trunk channel conveys flow to the apex of a channel fan, braided distributary channels end in an area of diverging sheetflow, and converging sheetflow drains to headcuts. The sequence is repeated at intervals ranging from 15 m for small streams to more than 10 km for large streams. Lithologic controls on the response of discontinuous ephemeral streams include: (1

  12. Android Video Streaming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Android Video Streaming by Jonathan Fletcher, David Doria, and David Bruno ARL-TR-6947 May 2014...the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5067 ARL-TR-6947 May 2014 Android Video Streaming...1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) May 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2013–September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Android

  13. Isentropic Analysis of Convective Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauluis, Olivier M.; Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convective mass transport by sorting air parcels in terms of their equivalent potential temperature to determine an isentropic streamfunction. By averaging the vertical mass flux at a constant value of the equivalent potential temperature, one can compute an isentropic mass transport that filters out reversible oscillatory motions such as gravity waves. This novel approach emphasizes the fact that the vertical energy and entropy transports by convection are due to the combination of ascending air parcels with high energy and entropy and subsiding air parcels with lower energy and entropy. Such conditional averaging can be extended to other dynamic and thermodynamic variables such as vertical velocity, temperature, or relative humidity to obtain a comprehensive description of convective motions. It is also shown how this approach can be used to determine the mean diabatic tendencies from the three-dimensional dynamic and thermodynamic fields. A two-stream approximation that partitions the isentropic circulation into a mean updraft and a mean downdraft is also introduced. This offers a straightforward way to identify the mean properties of rising and subsiding air parcels. The results from the two-stream approximation are compared with two other definitions of the cloud mass flux. It is argued that the isentropic analysis offers a robust definition of the convective mass transport that is not tainted by the need to arbitrarily distinguish between convection and its environment, and that separates the irreversible convective overturning fromoscillations associated with gravity waves.

  14. Visual motion aftereffect from understanding motion language.

    PubMed

    Dils, Alexia Toskos; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-09-14

    Do people spontaneously form visual mental images when understanding language, and if so, how truly visual are these representations? We test whether processing linguistic descriptions of motion produces sufficiently vivid mental images to cause direction-selective motion adaptation in the visual system (i.e., cause a motion aftereffect illusion). We tested for motion aftereffects (MAEs) following explicit motion imagery, and after processing literal or metaphorical motion language (without instructions to imagine). Intentionally imagining motion produced reliable MAEs. The aftereffect from processing motion language gained strength as people heard more and more of a story (participants heard motion stories in four installments, with a test after each). For the last two story installments, motion language produced reliable MAEs across participants. Individuals differed in how early in the story this effect appeared, and this difference was predicted by the strength of an individual's MAE from imagining motion. Strong imagers (participants who showed the largest MAEs from imagining motion) were more likely to show an MAE in the course of understanding motion language than were weak imagers. The results demonstrate that processing language can spontaneously create sufficiently vivid mental images to produce direction-selective adaptation in the visual system. The timecourse of adaptation suggests that individuals may differ in how efficiently they recruit visual mechanisms in the service of language understanding. Further, the results reveal an intriguing link between the vividness of mental imagery and the nature of the processes and representations involved in language understanding.

  15. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  16. Isentropic analysis of polar cold air mass streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kanno, Yuki

    2015-04-01

    1. Introduction A diagnostic method is presented of polar cold air mass streams defined below a threshold potential temperature. The isentropic threshold facilitates a Lagrangian view of the cold air mass streams from diabatic generation to disappearance. 2. Mass-weighted isentropic zonal mean (MIM) cold air streams In winter hemispheres, MIM's mass stream functions show a distinct extratropical direct (ETD) cell in addition to the Hadley cell. The mass stream functions have local maxima at around (280K, 45N) for NH winter and, around (280K, 50S) for SH winter. Thus, =280K may be appropriate to a threshold of the polar cold air mass for both hemispheres. The high-latitude downward motion indicates the diabatic generation of cold air mass, whereas the mid-latitude equatorward flow does its outbreak. The strength of equatorward flow is under significant control of wave-mean flow interactions. 3. Geographical distribution of the cold air mass streams in the NH winter In the NH winter, the polar cold air mass flux has two distinct mainstreams, hereafter called as East Asian (EA) stream and the North American (NA) stream. The former grows over the northern part of the Eurasian continent, turns down southeastward toward East Asia and disappears over the western North Pacific Ocean. The latter grows over the Arctic Ocean, flows toward the East Coast of North America and disappears over the western North Atlantic Ocean. These coincide well with main routes of cold surges. 4. Comparison between NH and SH winter streams The cold air mass streams in NH winter are more asymmetric than those in SH winter. The NH total cold air mass below =280K is about 1.5 times greater than the SH one. These come mainly from the topography and land-sea distribution. The mid-latitude mountains steer the cold air mass streams on the northern sides and enhance the residence time over its genesis region.

  17. Self Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    The studies conducted in this research project examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  18. FACTORS CONTROLLING HYDROLOGIC PERMANENCE OF HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams compose the majority of stream miles within most drainages. Interest in monitoring headwater streams is increasing because headwater streams are vital linkages between upland land use and downstream water bodies. However, traditional stream assessment tools ar...

  19. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse P; Lorenzi, Lauren J; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-09-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral 'form' (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion.

  20. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  1. Coincident vortices in Antarctic wind fields and sea ice motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassermann, S.; Schmitt, C.; Kottmeier, C.; Simmonds, I.

    2006-08-01

    This study introduces a method to examine the coincidence of rotational ice drift and winds caused by the forcing of ice motion by Antarctic cyclones. Vortices are automatically detected using the algorithm of Murray and Simmonds (1991) from both ECMWF surface pressures and SSM/I sea ice motions. For compatibility with this algorithm sea ice motion vectors are transformed to a scalar stream function. During a seven-day test period positions of pressure minima and stream function maxima (SFM) of ice drift are within 300 km in 96% of the cases. Lowest pressure minima are related to highest stream function maxima. The results promise the method to provide a complementary tool of detecting and localizing low-pressure systems over sea ice, adding to numerical pressure analyses.

  2. Self-Motion Perception and Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Motion sickness typically is considered a bothersome artifact of exposure to passive motion in vehicles of conveyance. This condition seldom has significant impact on the health of individuals because it is of brief duration, it usually can be prevented by simply avoiding the eliciting condition and, when the conditions that produce it are unavoidable, sickness dissipates with continued exposure. The studies conducted examined several aspects of motion sickness in animal models. A principle objective of these studies was to investigate the neuroanatomy that is important in motion sickness with the objectives of examining both the utility of putative models and defining neural mechanisms that are important in motion sickness.

  3. Fully scalable video coding with packed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Manuel F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian G.; Ortiz, Juan Pablo; Dana, Jose Miguel; Ruiz, Vicente G.; Garcia, Inmaculada

    2005-03-01

    Scalable video coding is a technique which allows a compressed video stream to be decoded in several different ways. This ability allows a user to adaptively recover a specific version of a video depending on its own requirements. Video sequences have temporal, spatial and quality scalabilities. In this work we introduce a novel fully scalable video codec. It is based on a motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF) of the video sequences and it uses some of the basic elements of JPEG 2000. This paper describes several specific proposals for video on demand and video-conferencing applications over non-reliable packet-switching data networks.

  4. Montana StreamStats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  5. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  6. Introduction to Tidal Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberg, Heidi Jo

    Dwarf galaxies that come too close to larger galaxies suffer tidal disruption; the differential gravitational force between one side of the galaxy and the other serves to rip the stars from the dwarf galaxy so that they instead orbit the larger galaxy. This process produces "tidal streams" of stars, which can be found in the stellar halo of the Milky Way, as well as in halos of other galaxies. This chapter provides a general introduction to tidal streams, including the mechanism through which the streams are created, the history of how they were discovered, and the observational techniques by which they can be detected. In addition, their use in unraveling galaxy formation histories and the distribution of dark matter in galaxies is discussed, as is the interaction between these dwarf galaxy satellites and the disk of the larger galaxy.

  7. An Orbit Fit for the Grillmair Dionatos Cold Stellar Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, Benjamin A.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Zhang, Haotong; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    We use velocity and metallicity information from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration stellar spectroscopy to fit an orbit to the narrow 63{sup o} stellar stream of Grillmair and Dionatos. The stars in the stream have a retrograde orbit with eccentricity e = 0.33 (perigalacticon of 14.4 kpc and apogalacticon of 28.7 kpc) and inclination approximately i {approx} 35{sup o}. In the region of the orbit which is detected, it has a distance of about 7-11 kpc from the Sun. Assuming a standard disk plus bulge and logarithmic halo potential for the Milky Way stars plus dark matter, the stream stars are moving with a large space velocity of approximately 276 km s{sup -1} at perigalacticon. Using this stream alone, we are unable to determine if the dark matter halo is oblate or prolate. The metallicity of the stream is [Fe/H] = -2.1 {+-} 0.1. Observed proper motions for individual stream members above the main sequence turnoff are consistent with the derived orbit. None of the known globular clusters in the Milky Way have positions, radial velocities, and metallicities that are consistent with being the progenitor of the GD-1 stream.

  8. Possible Streams of the Globular Clusters in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuang; Jiang, Bi-Wei; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2007-02-01

    We aim to retrieve ghost streams under the assumption that all the globular clusters in our Galaxy were formed in very early merge events. Our results are based on two speculations: that the specific energy and angular momentum of the globular clusters after merge are not changed in the course of evolution and that the globular clusters with a common origin would stay in the same orbit plane as the parent galaxy. After taking into account the apogalacticum distance of the orbits, we suggest with some confidence five possible streams. The number of streams is consistent with the previous results. Three of the four well established members of the Sagittarius stream were found to be in one of our streams. Several other globular clusters in our result were also thought to come from accretion by previous researchers. The orbital parameters of the streams are derived, which provide a way to test whether these streams are true with the help of more accurate measurement of proper motions of the globular clusters.

  9. Toward Third Stream Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel M.; Endo, George T.

    Third stream evaluation, the fusing of the ecological perspective with experimental or quasi-experimental evaluation design, is described. The ecological perspective necessitates that the conceptualization and analysis of a setting and the design of the study emphasize the interdependent relations among organisms, behavior and environment in…

  10. Reincarnation of Streaming Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    while preserving the original specification (the soul). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Legacy Application Code, Program Reincarnation, Parallelization, Multicores... original specification (“the soul”). Our technique originally focused on streaming applications such as multimedia, graphics, and signal processing...engineer the exact algorithm implemented and any special cases handled by the application. The original programmers are no longer available in many

  11. Two Phase Streaming Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, S S; Wheatall, M W

    1987-01-20

    The streaming potentials generated by the flow of both liquid and gas through either a Pyrex capillary tube or else an unconsolidated Pyrex porous medium were investigated. This mixture of distilled water plus nitrogen gas simulated wet stream but allowed experiments to be run at room temperature. Single-phase flow of distilled water alone resulted in a constant voltage-to-pressure drop ratio, E/Δp, of +0.15 v/psi for the capillary tube and -0.52 v/psi for the porous medium. For both single- and two-phase flow through the capillary tube, the upstream potential was always positive relative to the downstream electrode while the opposite was true for the porous medium. The maximum two-phase potentials generated in the porous medium were about four times as great as those generated in the capillary tube for similar gas fractions, Γ. For the capillary tube experiments the potentials generated when Γ < ≈ 0.5 were equal to or slightly less than those for single-phase flow, while for the porous medium the potentials were always greater than those for single-phase flow. When Γ > ≈ 0.5 for both kinds of flow systems Γ had a profound effect on streaming potential and reached a pronounced maximum when 0.94 < Γ < 0.99. The implications of these streaming potentials for geothermal exploration and delineation of geothermal reservoirs is also discussed in the paper. 7 figs., 10 refs.

  12. Stream Management: A Rebirth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coler, Robert A.; Zatryka, Simon A.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a stream management course designed to give non-science majors an in-depth study of water quality. The course includes work in determining and measuring water quality parameters and the discussion of management techniques. Construction of a Hewitt Ramp and wing deflectors are illustrated in the article. (MA)

  13. Practical Meteor Stream Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the recent Leonid meteor storms, researchers have made great strides in our ability to predict enhanced meteor activity. However, the necessary calibration of the meteor stream models with Earth-based ZHRs (Zenith Hourly Rates) has placed emphasis on the terran observer and meteor activity predictions are published in such a manner to reflect this emphasis. As a consequence, many predictions are often unusable by the satellite community, which has the most at stake and the greatest interest in meteor forecasting. This paper suggests that stream modelers need to pay more attention to the needs of this community and publish not just durations and times of maxima for Earth, but everything needed to characterize the meteor stream in and out of the plane of the ecliptic, which, at a minimum, consists of the location of maximum stream density (ZHR) and the functional form of the density decay with distance from this point. It is also suggested that some of the terminology associated with meteor showers may need to be more strictly defined in order to eliminate the perception of crying wolf by meteor scientists. An outburst is especially problematic, as it usually denotes an enhancement by a factor of 2 or more to researchers, but conveys the notion of a sky filled with meteors to satellite operators and the public. Experience has also taught that predicted ZHRs often lead to public disappointment, as these values vastly overestimate what is seen.

  14. ASSESSING HEADWATER STREAMS: LINKING LANDSCAPES TO STREAM NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams represent a significant land-water boundary and drain 70-80% of the landscape. Headwater streams are vital components to drainage systems and are directly linked to our downstream rivers and lakes. However, alteration and loss of headwater streams have occurre...

  15. ASSESSING HEADWATER STREAMS: LINKING LANDSCAPES TO STREAM NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams represent a significant land-water boundary and drain 70-80% of the landscape. Headwater streams are vital components to drainage systems and are directly linked to our downstream rivers and lakes. However, alteration and loss of headwater streams have occurre...

  16. The Origin of the Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, B.; Davis, M.

    1994-09-01

    Recent measurements of the proper motion of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) show it to be moving in a nearly circular orbit around the Milky Way, and to be leading the Magellanic Stream which stretches in a well- confined arc 100^deg^ behind it. We present numerical investigations designed to test models of the origin of the Magellanic Stream critically. The most developed model is the tidal model, but this fails to reproduce several characteristic properties of the Stream. (i) High- resolution numerical simulations of tidal stripping show that material stripped from the LMC would retain the internal velocities of the LMC and would define a thick plane surrounding the Milky Way, not the tightly confined wake actually observed. (ii) There is no leading stream as would be expected if it were tidally produced. (iii) The observed radial velocity along the Stream is inconsistent with the observed orbital parameters of the Magellanic Clouds. (iv) The uniform variation in column density along the Stream cannot be reproduced by tidal forces. (v) No stars have been observed within the Stream, but stars should be tidally stripped from the LMC as easily as gas. Recent refinements to the tidal model (Gardiner et al.; Lin et al.) address some, but not all, of these problems. We suggest an alternative model for the origin of the Magellanic Stream which can explain all of its observed features and dynamics, as well as provide a strong constraint on the distribution of gas within the halo of the Milky Way. We propose that the Stream consists of material that was ram-pressure-stripped from the Magellanic System during its last passage through an extended ionized disc of the Galaxy. This collision took place some 500 million years ago at a galactocentric distance of about 65 kpc, and swept ~20 per cent of the least-bound HI into the Stream. The gas with the lowest column density lost the most orbital angular momentum. At the present time this material is at the tip of the Stream

  17. A physical perspective on cytoplasmic streaming

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Raymond E.; van de Meent, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Organisms show a remarkable range of sizes, yet the dimensions of a single cell rarely exceed 100 µm. While the physical and biological origins of this constraint remain poorly understood, exceptions to this rule give valuable insights. A well-known counterexample is the aquatic plant Chara, whose cells can exceed 10 cm in length and 1 mm in diameter. Two spiralling bands of molecular motors at the cell periphery drive the cellular fluid up and down at speeds up to 100 µm s−1, motion that has been hypothesized to mitigate the slowness of metabolite transport on these scales and to aid in homeostasis. This is the most organized instance of a broad class of continuous motions known as ‘cytoplasmic streaming’, found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms—algae, plants, amoebae, nematodes and flies—often in unusually large cells. In this overview of the physics of this phenomenon, we examine the interplay between streaming, transport and cell size and discuss the possible role of self-organization phenomena in establishing the observed patterns of streaming. PMID:26464789

  18. A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampella, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

  19. A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampella, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

  20. The Debris Streams from Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    When a star comes within a critical distance of a supermassive black hole, the tidal force exerted by the hole overcomes the stellar self-gravity. The star is subsequently torn apart, creating a stream of tidally-shredded debris that initially recedes from the hole, eventually returns to pericenter, forms an accretion disk and generates a highly luminous event that can sometimes be accompanied by the production of relativistic jets. This entire process is known as a tidal disruption event (TDE), and dozens of these events have already been observed. I will discuss my most recent work that has analyzed the tidal disruption process, and in particular I will focus on the results of numerical and analytical investigations that show that the streams of debris produced during TDEs can be gravitationally unstable. Specifically, I will describe how compressive motions augment the importance of self-gravity not long after the star is disrupted, resulting in the fragmentation of the debris stream into small-scale clumps. These findings will be discussed in the context of the observational signatures of tidal disruption events, and I will also relate these results to my past investigations concerning accretion disk formation and jet launching during TDEs.

  1. Visualizing and Quantifying Oceanic Motion.

    PubMed

    Rossby, T

    2016-01-01

    Here I review the use of two highly complementary acoustical technologies for measuring currents in the ocean: acoustically tracked neutrally buoyant floats and vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The beauty of floats lies in their ability to efficiently and accurately visualize fluid motion in fronts and vortices and the dispersion caused by mesoscale eddy processes. Floats complement classical hydrography by articulating mechanisms and pathways by which waters spread out from their source region. Vessel-mounted ADCPs can profile the water column at O(1 km) horizontal resolution to depths greater than 1,000 m. These vessel-based scans capture in detail the cross-stream structure of fronts and eddies as well as the impact of bathymetry on currents. Sustained sampling along selected routes builds up valuable databases both for statistical studies of the submesoscale velocity field and for accurate estimates of fluid transport, as well as how these vary over time.

  2. Visualizing and Quantifying Oceanic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossby, T.

    2016-01-01

    Here I review the use of two highly complementary acoustical technologies for measuring currents in the ocean: acoustically tracked neutrally buoyant floats and vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The beauty of floats lies in their ability to efficiently and accurately visualize fluid motion in fronts and vortices and the dispersion caused by mesoscale eddy processes. Floats complement classical hydrography by articulating mechanisms and pathways by which waters spread out from their source region. Vessel-mounted ADCPs can profile the water column at O(1 km) horizontal resolution to depths greater than 1,000 m. These vessel-based scans capture in detail the cross-stream structure of fronts and eddies as well as the impact of bathymetry on currents. Sustained sampling along selected routes builds up valuable databases both for statistical studies of the submesoscale velocity field and for accurate estimates of fluid transport, as well as how these vary over time.

  3. Sensitivity and Bias in the Resolution of Stream-Bounce Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Mick; Grove, Philip M

    2017-02-01

    The audiovisual stream-bounce effect refers to the resolution of ambiguous motion sequences as streaming or bouncing depending on the presence or absence of a sound. We used a novel experimental design and signal detection theory (SDT) to determine its sensory or decisional origins. To account for issues raised by Witt et al. on the interpretation of SDT results, we devised a pure signal detection (as opposed to signal discrimination) paradigm and measured participants' sensitivity and criterion when detecting a weak tone concurrent with objectively streaming or bouncing visual displays. We observed no change in sensitivity but a significant change in criterion with participants' criterion more liberal with bouncing targets than for streaming targets with. In a second experiment, we tasked participants with detecting a weak tone in noise while viewing an ambiguous motion sequence. They also indicated whether the targets appeared to stream or bounce. Participants' reported equivalent, mostly bouncing responses for hit and false alarm trials, and equivalent, mostly streaming responses for correct rejection and miss trials. Further, differences in participants' sensitivity and criterion measures for detecting tones in subjectively streaming compared to subjectively bouncing targets were inconsistent with sensory factors. These results support a decisional account of the sound-induced switch from mostly streaming to mostly bouncing responses in audiovisual stream-bounce displays.

  4. Motion regularization for matting motion blurred objects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai Ting; Tai, Yu-Wing; Brown, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of matting motion blurred objects from a single image. Existing single image matting methods are designed to extract static objects that have fractional pixel occupancy. This arises because the physical scene object has a finer resolution than the discrete image pixel and therefore only occupies a fraction of the pixel. For a motion blurred object, however, fractional pixel occupancy is attributed to the object’s motion over the exposure period. While conventional matting techniques can be used to matte motion blurred objects, they are not formulated in a manner that considers the object’s motion and tend to work only when the object is on a homogeneous background. We show how to obtain better alpha mattes by introducing a regularization term in the matting formulation to account for the object’s motion. In addition, we outline a method for estimating local object motion based on local gradient statistics from the original image. For the sake of completeness, we also discuss how user markup can be used to denote the local direction in lieu of motion estimation. Improvements to alpha mattes computed with our regularization are demonstrated on a variety of examples.

  5. Stream Channel Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    geometry of the stilling basin and appurtenances for optimum energy dissipation. The hydraulic design, based on a 100-year return period design storm...cases the only viable alternative based on present technology is to let the channel seek its oa equilibrium, but attempt to minimize total losses by...are degrading, resulting in bank caving, land loss , and damage to highway bridges. Many streams have enlarged to the extent that 50 to 100-year runoff

  6. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  7. STL conform infinite streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szűgyi, Zalán; Góbi, Attila

    2013-10-01

    Self-referencing data is widely-used in lazy functional languages. This technique enables us to express infinite data with a finite structure. Since C++ is a multiparadigm language, it is possible to utilize the advantages of these functional methods in C++ programs. In this paper besides we describe the basic concept of stream-oriented programming in C++ we mainly focus on integration to the Standard Template Library (STL).

  8. Gas stream cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The LHCb Turbo stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, A.

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb experiment will record an unprecedented dataset of beauty and charm hadron decays during Run II of the LHC, set to take place between 2015 and 2018. A key computing challenge is to store and process this data, which limits the maximum output rate of the LHCb trigger. So far, LHCb has written out a few kHz of events containing the full raw sub-detector data, which are passed through a full offline event reconstruction before being considered for physics analysis. Charm physics in particular is limited by trigger output rate constraints. A new streaming strategy includes the possibility to perform the physics analysis with candidates reconstructed in the trigger, thus bypassing the offline reconstruction. In the Turbo stream the trigger will write out a compact summary of physics objects containing all information necessary for analyses. This will allow an increased output rate and thus higher average efficiencies and smaller selection biases. This idea will be commissioned and developed during 2015 with a selection of physics analyses. It is anticipated that the turbo stream will be adopted by an increasing number of analyses during the remainder of LHC Run II (2015-2018) and ultimately in Run III (starting in 2020) with the upgraded LHCb detector.

  10. Stream processing health card application.

    PubMed

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  11. Managing Motion Sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166982.html Managing Motion Sickness You may never love some pursuits, like ... there anything you can do to quell your motion sickness so you can join in the fun? ...

  12. Essay on Gyroscopic Motions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tea, Peter L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Explains gyroscopic motions to college freshman or high school seniors who have learned about centripetal acceleration and the transformations of a couple. Contains several figures showing the direction of forces and motion. (YP)

  13. Conceptualizing Mathematics "Motion Problems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeough, William J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes an instructional method in secondary school mathematics applicable to physics instruction, to develop conceptual understanding of motion word problems. Distance, rate, and time are defined, used as variables and considered with relative motion as a unifying concept. (JM)

  14. Limited range of motion

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003173.htm Limited range of motion To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or ...

  15. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    PubMed

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  16. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleva, I.; Lecheva, A.

    2015-10-28

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  17. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, I.; Lecheva, A.

    2015-10-01

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  18. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  19. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  20. Cosmological Perturbation Theory for streams of relativistic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Hélène; Bernardeau, Francis E-mail: francis.bernardeau@iap.fr

    2015-03-01

    Motion equations describing streams of relativistic particles and their properties are explored in detail in the framework of Cosmological Perturbation Theory. Those equations, derived in any metric both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, express the matter and momentum conservation. In this context we extend the setup of adiabatic initial conditions—that was initially performed in the conformal Newtonian gauge—to the synchronous gauge. The subhorizon limit of the nonlinear motion equations written in a generic perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître metric is then derived and analyzed. We show in particular that the momentum field P{sub i}(x) is always potential in the linear regime and remains so at subhorizon scales in the nonlinear regime. Finally the equivalence principle is exploited to highlight invariance properties satisfied by such a system of equations, extending that known for streams of non-relativistic particles, namely the extended Galilean invariance.

  1. Dual motion valve with single motion input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A dual motion valve includes two dual motion valve assemblies with a rotary input which allows the benefits of applying both rotary and axial motion to a rotary sealing element with a plurality of ports. The motion of the rotary sealing element during actuation provides axial engagement of the rotary sealing element with a stationary valve plate which also has ports. Fluid passages are created through the valve when the ports of the rotary sealing element are aligned with the ports of the stationary valve plate. Alignment is achieved through rotation of the rotary sealing element with respect to the stationary valve plate. The fluid passages provide direct paths which minimize fluid turbulence created in the fluid as it passes through the valve.

  2. Directional motion of liquid under mechanical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costalonga, Maxime; Brunet, Philippe; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    When a liquid is submitted to mechanical vibrations, steady flows or motion can be generated by non-linear effects. One example is the steady acoustic streaming one can observe when an acoustic wave propagates in a fluid. At the scale of a droplet, steady motion of the whole amount of liquid can arise from zero-mean periodic forcing. As It has been observed by Brunet et al. (PRL 2007), a drop can climb an inclined surface when submitted to vertical vibrations above a threshold in acceleration. Later, Noblin et al. (PRL 2009) showed the velocity and the direction of motion of a sessile drop submitted to both horizontal and vertical vibrations can be tuned by the phase shift between these two excitations. Here we present an experimental study of the mean motion of a sessile drop under slanted vibrations, focusing on the effects of drop properties, as well as the inclination angle of the axis of vibrations. It is shown that the volume and viscosity strongly affect the drop mean velocity, and can even change the direction of its motion. In the case of a low viscous drop, gravity can become significant and be modulated by the inclination of the axis of vibrations. Contact line dynamic during the drop oscillations is also investigated.

  3. Attentive Motion Discrimination Recruits an Area in Inferotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Stemmann, Heiko; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2016-11-23

    Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields. This pattern of activation supports early selection, feature-based, and biased-competition attention accounts, as well as the frontoparietal theory of attentional control. While high-level motion-selective dorsal stream areas did not exhibit strong attentional modulation, ventral stream areas V4d and the dorsal posterior inferotemporal cortex (PITd) did. The PITd in fact was, consistently across task variations, the most significantly and most strongly attention-modulated area, even though it did not exhibit signs of motion selectivity. Thus the recruitment of the PITd in attention tasks involving different kinds of motion analysis is not predicted by any theoretical account of attention. These functional data, together with known anatomical connections, suggest a general and possibly critical role of the PITd in attentional selection.

  4. STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Geoffrey; Jha, Shantenu; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) facilities including accelerators, light sources and neutron sources and sensors that study, the environment, and the atmosphere, are producing streaming data that needs to be analyzed for next-generation scientific discoveries. There has been an explosion of new research and technologies for stream analytics arising from the academic and private sectors. However, there has been no corresponding effort in either documenting the critical research opportunities or building a community that can create and foster productive collaborations. The two-part workshop series, STREAM: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop (STREAM2015 and STREAM2016), were conducted to bring the community together and identify gaps and future efforts needed by both NSF and DOE. This report describes the discussions, outcomes and conclusions from STREAM2016: Streaming Requirements, Experience, Applications and Middleware Workshop, the second of these workshops held on March 22-23, 2016 in Tysons, VA. STREAM2016 focused on the Department of Energy (DOE) applications, computational and experimental facilities, as well software systems. Thus, the role of “streaming and steering” as a critical mode of connecting the experimental and computing facilities was pervasive through the workshop. Given the overlap in interests and challenges with industry, the workshop had significant presence from several innovative companies and major contributors. The requirements that drive the proposed research directions, identified in this report, show an important opportunity for building competitive research and development program around streaming data. These findings and recommendations are consistent with vision outlined in NRC Frontiers of Data and National Strategic Computing Initiative (NCSI) [1, 2]. The discussions from the workshop are captured as topic areas covered in this report's sections. The report discusses

  5. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    DOE PAGES

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with agemore » $$\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$$\\pm$$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$$^{\\circ}.$$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $$\\sim$$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).« less

  6. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age $\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$\\pm$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$^{\\circ}.$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $\\sim$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).

  7. Rechanneling the waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G

    1989-08-01

    Like energy, garbage can be changed into different forms, but it can never be wholly destroyed. Whether it is burned, buried, or recycled, some residue will always remain. The purpose of waste management goes beyond more disposal to the more difficult task of ensuring that the authors and their habitat sustain the least possible damage from the masses of things they discard every day. The article is divided into the following areas: Recycling: An elusive ideal; A lucrative waste stream; Making plastics a resource; Turning waste into power; Recovery the continental way; Solid fuel; Ash: The final product.

  8. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Bernard W.; Bott, Thomas L.; Jackson, John K.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Newbold, J. Denis; Standley, Laurel J.; Hession, W. Cully; Horwitz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries. PMID:15381768

  9. Riparian deforestation, stream narrowing, and loss of stream ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Bernard W; Bott, Thomas L; Jackson, John K; Kaplan, Louis A; Newbold, J Denis; Standley, Laurel J; Hession, W Cully; Horwitz, Richard J

    2004-09-28

    A study of 16 streams in eastern North America shows that riparian deforestation causes channel narrowing, which reduces the total amount of stream habitat and ecosystem per unit channel length and compromises in-stream processing of pollutants. Wide forest reaches had more macroinvertebrates, total ecosystem processing of organic matter, and nitrogen uptake per unit channel length than contiguous narrow deforested reaches. Stream narrowing nullified any potential advantages of deforestation regarding abundance of fish, quality of dissolved organic matter, and pesticide degradation. These findings show that forested stream channels have a wider and more natural configuration, which significantly affects the total in-stream amount and activity of the ecosystem, including the processing of pollutants. The results reinforce both current policy of the United States that endorses riparian forest buffers as best management practice and federal and state programs that subsidize riparian reforestation for stream restoration and water quality. Not only do forest buffers prevent nonpoint source pollutants from entering small streams, they also enhance the in-stream processing of both nonpoint and point source pollutants, thereby reducing their impact on downstream rivers and estuaries.

  10. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions. Motions...

  11. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions. Motions...

  12. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions. Motions...

  13. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions. Motions...

  14. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Motions; disposition of motions. 60-30.8 Section 60-30.8 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Prehearing Procedures § 60-30.8 Motions; disposition of motions. (a) Motions. Motions...

  15. The Southeast Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. The goal of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) is to characterize multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life—contaminants, nutrients, sediment, and streamflow alteration—and the relation of these stressors to ecological conditions in streams throughout the region. Findings will provide communities and policymakers with information on which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve stream quality. The SESQA study will be the second regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment conducted in 2013 (Van Metre and others, 2012).

  16. The California stream quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  17. Tidal Streams Near and Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardal, Mark A.

    2014-06-01

    The Pandas survey of stars in M31's disk and halo is crisscrossed by numerous tidal features from both M31 and the Milky Way. Here I focus on two narrow stellar streams visible in the survey. They have comparable angular extent in the survey (10-13 degrees long versus only 0.3 degree wide), but one is a local Milky Way stream at about 30 kpc and one is in M31, roughly 25 times more distant. I estimate the stellar mass and metallicity in the streams and the distance gradient along them. The kinematics of the M31 stream is sparsely sampled by red giant stars and globular clusters. Bayesian modeling of the stream data yields accurate constraints on the orbital parameters of the streams.

  18. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  19. Stream salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southerland, M.T.; Jung, R.E.; Baxter, D.P.; Chellman, I.C.; Mercurio, G.; Volstad, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators are critical to the protection of small, headwater streams and the ecological values they provide. Maryland and other state monitoring programs have determined that fish indicators are ineffective in small streams, where stream salamanders may replace fish as top predators. Because of their life history, physiology, abundance, and ubiquity, stream salamanders are likely representative of biological integrity in these streams. The goal of this study was to determine whether stream salamanders are effective indicators of ecological conditions across biogeographic regions and gradients of human disturbance. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we intensively surveyed for stream salamanders at 76 stream sites located west of the Maryland Coastal Plain, sites also monitored by the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) and City of Gaithersburg. We found 1,584 stream salamanders, including all eight species known in Maryland, using two 15 ? 2 m transects and two 4 m2 quadrats that spanned both stream bank and channel. We performed removal sampling on transects to estimate salamander species detection probabilities, which ranged from 0.67-0.85. Stepwise regressions identified 15 of 52 non-salamander variables, representing water quality, physical habitat, land use, and biological conditions, which best predicted salamander metrics. Indicator development involved (1) identifying reference (non-degraded) and degraded sites (using percent forest, shading, riparian buffer width, aesthetic rating, and benthic macroinvertebrate and fish indices of biotic integrity); (2) testing 12 candidate salamander metrics (representing species richness and composition, abundance, species tolerance, and reproductive function) for their ability to distinguish reference from degraded sites; and (3) combining metrics into an index that effectively discriminated sites according to known stream conditions. Final indices for Highlands, Piedmont, and Non-Coastal Plain

  20. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  1. Absolute Proper Motions and Chemical Abundances of Stars Along the Sagittarius Trailing Tidal Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, S. R.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Patterson, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    We show results from our deep proper-motion survey of Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs; Casetti-Dinescu et al. 2006, AJ,132,2082), with a focus on fields that intersect the Sagittarius (Sgr) trailing tidal stream. Our data set, derived from matched, deep photographic plate pairs taken nearly 100 years apart, provides a unique window on the motions of stars in these SA fields. We find the signature of a common-motion population among our accurate proper motions of stars in five of these fields, as well as corresponding stellar excesses which are identified as stellar debris from the disrupted Sgr dwarf. Spectroscopic follow-up confirms that these stars are Sgr members, and the resultant radial velocities and spectroscopic parallaxes are combined with proper motions to derive full space motions of 30-100 tidal stream members per field. These kinematical data are compared to the predictions of the Law et al. (2009, ApJL,703,67) models of Sgr disruption, which have thus far reproduced most observed features of the Sgr stream, and have also constrained the triaxial shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo. We also derive low-resolution spectroscopic abundances along this stretch of the Sgr stream, and explore the stream metallicity gradient reported by Chou et al. (2007, ApJ,670,346). Majewski et al. (2006, ApJL,627,25) showed that because the Sgr debris plane is nearly coincident with the Galactic X-Z Cartesian plane, proper motions in the portion of the Sgr trailing tail in our study almost entirely reflect the solar motion, and can be used to make a direct measurement of the rotation speed at the Solar circle (the "Local Standard of Rest") almost completely independent of the Sun's distance from the Galactic center. Here, we report our derived constraints on the solar motion from absolute proper motions of Sgr debris in our SA fields.

  2. Analyzing indicators of stream health for Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, U.; Kocian, M.; Wilson, B.; Bolton, A.; Nieber, J.; Vondracek, B.; Perry, J.; Magner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has emphasized the importance of using physical, chemical, and biological indicators of stream health for diagnosing impaired watersheds and their receiving water bodies. A multidisciplinary team at the University of Minnesota is carrying out research to develop a stream classification system for Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessment. Funding for this research is provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. One objective of the research study involves investigating the relationships between indicators of stream health and localized stream characteristics. Measured data from Minnesota streams collected by various government and non-government agencies and research institutions have been obtained for the research study. Innovative Geographic Information Systems tools developed by the Environmental Science Research Institute and the University of Texas are being utilized to combine and organize the data. Simple linear relationships between index of biological integrity (IBI) and channel slope, two-year stream flow, and drainage area are presented for the Redwood River and the Snake River Basins. Results suggest that more rigorous techniques are needed to successfully capture trends in IBI scores. Additional analyses will be done using multiple regression, principal component analysis, and clustering techniques. Uncovering key independent variables and understanding how they fit together to influence stream health are critical in the development of a stream classification for TMDL assessment.

  3. Stream Temperature Climate in a Set of Southern Appalachian Streams

    Treesearch

    Lloyd W. Swift; Patsy P. Clinton

    1997-01-01

    Water temperature patterns are described for five streams on forested watersheds in western North Carolina as part of stream monitoring in the Wine Spring Ecosystem Management Area. Elevation ranged from 918 m at Nantahaia Lake to 1660 m at Wine Spring Bald with, four temperature measurement sites Itied between 1145 m and 1200 m elevation, and one site at 925 m. Summer...

  4. ASSESSING STREAM BED STABILITY AND EXCESS SEDIMENTATION IN MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use and resource exploitation in headwaters catchments?such as logging, mining, and road building?often increase sediment supply to streams, potentially causing excess sedimentation. Decreases in mean substrate size and increases in fine stream bed sediments can lead to inc...

  5. ASSESSING STREAM BED STABILITY AND EXCESS SEDIMENTATION IN MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use and resource exploitation in headwaters catchments?such as logging, mining, and road building?often increase sediment supply to streams, potentially causing excess sedimentation. Decreases in mean substrate size and increases in fine stream bed sediments can lead to inc...

  6. Motion through syntactic frames.

    PubMed

    Feist, Michele I

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of Talmy's (1985, 2000) typology sparked significant interest in linguistic relativity in the arena of motion language. Through careful analysis of the conflation patterns evident in the language of motion events, Talmy noted that one class of languages, V-languages, tends to encode path along with the fact of motion in motion verbs, while a second class, S-languages, tends to encode manner. In the experimental literature, it was reasoned that speakers may be expected to extend novel verbs in accordance with the lexicalization patterns of their native languages. However, the results regarding this prediction are mixed. In this paper, I examine the interplay between the meaning encoded in the motion verb itself and the meaning encoded in the motion description construction, offering a Gricean explanation for co-occurrence patterns and, by extension, for the mixed results. I then explore the implications of this argument for research on possible language effects on thought in this domain.

  7. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  8. The Magellanic Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidever, David Lee

    We have performed a detailed HI study of the Magellanic Stream (MS). Using the LAB all-sky HI survey, we expose the MS to be composed of two filaments distinct both spatially (as first pointed out by Putman et al. 2003) and in velocity. One of the MS filaments and parts of the Leading Arm (LA) can be traced back to their origin in the SouthEast HI Overdensity (SEHO) of the LMC, which includes 30 Doradus. Therefore, at least one-half of the trailing Stream and most of the LA originates in the LMC, contrary to previous assertions that they originate in the SMC and/or in the Magellanic Bridge. The two MS filaments show periodic spatial and velocity patterns that we speculate are an imprint of the LMC rotation curve. If true, then the drift rate of the Stream gas away from the Magellanic Clouds is ˜49 km s-1 and the age of the MS is ˜1.74 Gyr. High-resolution HI data of the LMC show gas outflows from supergiant shells in the SEHO that seem to be creating the LA and LMC filament of the MS. We lay out a new model, the "Blowout Hypothesis", for the formation of the MS that fits all of the available data and solves some longstanding problems. We also conducted a ˜200 deg2 H I survey with the GBT at the tip of the MS in order to bridge the gap between the ˜100°-long "classical" MS and the MS-like emission reported by Braun & Thilker (2004). Our survey shows that the MS gas is continuous across the gap and that the MS is at least ˜140° long. A previously unknown velocity inflection in the MS-tip is also revealed in the data. The mass of the newly-found ˜40° extension of the MS-tip is ˜5x107 M⊙ which increases the total mass of the MS by ˜10%. We estimate that the age of the ˜140°-long MS is ˜2.5 Gyr which coincides with bursts of star formation in the Magellanic Clouds and a possible close encounter of these two galaxies with each other. These new observational characteristics of the MS offer additional new constraints on MS simulations.

  9. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  10. A Model of Binocular Motion Integration in MT Neurons.

    PubMed

    Baker, Pamela M; Bair, Wyeth

    2016-06-15

    Primate cortical area MT plays a central role in visual motion perception, but models of this area have largely overlooked the binocular integration of motion signals. Recent electrophysiological studies tested binocular integration in MT and found surprisingly that MT neurons lose their hallmark "pattern motion" selectivity when stimuli are presented dichoptically and that many neurons are selective for motion-in-depth (MID). By unifying these novel observations with insights from monocular, frontoparallel motion studies concurrently in a binocular MT motion model, we generated clear, testable predictions about the circuitry and mechanisms underlying visual motion processing. We built binocular models in which signals from left- and right-eye streams could be integrated at various stages from V1 to MT, attempting to create the simplest plausible circuits that accounted for the physiological range of pattern motion selectivity, that explained changes across this range for dichoptic stimulus presentation, and that spanned the spectrum of MID selectivity observed in MT. Our successful models predict that motion-opponent suppression is the key mechanism to account for the striking loss of pattern motion sensitivity with dichoptic plaids, that opponent suppression precedes binocular integration, and that opponent suppression will be stronger in inputs to pattern cells than to component cells. We also found an unexpected connection between circuits for pattern motion selectivity and MID selectivity, suggesting that these two separately studied phenomena could be related. These results also hold in models that include binocular disparity computations, providing a platform for future exploration of binocular response properties in MT. The neural pathways underlying our sense of visual motion are among the most studied and well-understood parts of the primate cerebral cortex. Nevertheless, our understanding is incomplete because electrophysiological research has focused

  11. Measurement of visual motion

    SciTech Connect

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  12. The Personal Motion Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian Vandellyn

    1993-01-01

    The Neutral Body Posture experienced in microgravity creates a biomechanical equilibrium by enabling the internal forces within the body to find their own balance. A patented reclining chair based on this posture provides a minimal stress environment for interfacing with computer systems for extended periods. When the chair is mounted on a 3 or 6 axis motion platform, a generic motion simulator for simulated digital environments is created. The Personal Motion Platform provides motional feedback to the occupant in synchronization with their movements inside the digital world which enhances the simulation experience. Existing HMD based simulation systems can be integrated to the turnkey system. Future developments are discussed.

  13. The mass of the Geminid meteoroid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabova, G. O.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a method for calculation of the mass of a meteoroid stream. The idea of the proposed method is simple: comparing observed meteor showers of the stream with their model. If we have a mathematical model for the stream, we know the total number of particles in the model stream and the number of particles registered at the Earth. We also know the mass distributions in the model stream and the model shower. Assuming that relations for the model stream are valid for the real stream, we calculate the real stream mass. The Geminid stream mass estimated on radar and visual observations is found to be 1016-1018 g.

  14. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  15. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  16. We All Stream for Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  17. We All Stream for Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    More than ever, teachers are using digital video to enhance their lessons. In fact, the number of schools using video streaming increased from 30 percent to 45 percent between 2004 and 2006, according to Market Data Retrieval. Why the popularity? For starters, video-streaming products are easy to use. They allow teachers to punctuate lessons with…

  18. Industrial-Strength Streaming Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…

  19. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact solutions, where available. For rectangular and elliptic cross sections results are also compared with those obtained by using a commercial package (FIDAP). For developing flow, finite element results are compared with corresponding theoretical and experimental results from previous work, where available.

  20. Emittance Growth in Intense Non-Circular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, O. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electrostatic energy of intense beams in linear uniform focusing channels is minimized when the initial beam configuration is both uniform and round.(In the case of quadrupole focusing, this means round on the average.) Deviations from either uniformity or roundness produce free energy and emittance growth. Over the past 25 years, the consequences of beam nonuniformity have been thoroughly investigated for the case of round beams. Recently, there has been interest in more complex beam configurations such as those that occur in Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) combiners or splitters. We discuss free energy and emittance growth for a variety of cases: (a) square beams, (b) hexagonal beams, (c) beams bounded by a quadrant or sextant of a circle, (d) rectangular beams, (e) elliptical beams, (f) pairs of beamlets, and (g) arrays of many beamlets. Cases (a) and (b) are approximations for large arrays of beamlets as proposed for HIF combiners or for negative-ion sources. Beam splitting, suggested for a particular HIF final focus scheme, leads to (c). The large emittance growth in cases (d)-(f), calculated by a new method,(O.A. Anderson, Proceedings of EPAC 96 conference.) illustrates the importance of maintaining symmetry. Practical examples are given for several cases.

  1. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Anderson, Steve Plimpton

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the stream of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.

  2. Dynamical modelling of meteoroid streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. L.; Wiegert, P. A.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate simulations of meteoroid streams permit the prediction of stream interaction with Earth, and provide a measure of risk to Earth satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. Current cometary ejecta and meteoroid stream models have been somewhat successful in predicting some stream observations, but have required significant assumptions and simplifications. Extending on the approach of Vaubaillon et al. 2005, we model dust ejection from the cometary nucleus, and generate sample particles representing bins of distinct dynamical evolution-regulating characteristics (size, density, direction, albedo). Ephemerides of the sample particles are integrated and recorded for later assignment of weights based on model parameter changes. To assist in model analysis we are developing interactive software to permit the "turning of knobs" of model parameters, allowing for near-real-time 3D visualization of resulting stream structure. Using the tool, we will revisit prior assumptions made, and will observe the impact of introducing non-uniform and time-variant cometary surface attributes and processes.

  3. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Anderson, Steve Plimpton

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the stream of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.

  4. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  5. The role of penetrating gas streams in setting the dynamical state of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinger, E.; Dekel, A.; Birnboim, Y.; Kravtsov, A.; Nagai, D.

    2016-09-01

    We utilize cosmological simulations of 16 galaxy clusters at redshifts z = 0 and z = 0.6 to study the effect of inflowing streams on the properties of the X-ray emitting intracluster medium. We find that the mass accretion occurs predominantly along streams that originate from the cosmic web and consist of heated gas. Clusters that are unrelaxed in terms of their X-ray morphology are characterized by higher mass inflow rates and deeper penetration of the streams, typically into the inner third of the virial radius. The penetrating streams generate elevated random motions, bulk flows and cold fronts. The degree of penetration of the streams may change over time such that clusters can switch from being unrelaxed to relaxed over a time-scale of several giga years.

  6. What a Tangled Web We Weave: Hermus as the Northern Extension of the Phoenix Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillmair, Carl J.; Carlberg, Raymond G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the recently discovered Phoenix stream may be part of a much longer stream that includes the previously discovered Hermus stream. Using a simple model of the Galaxy with a disk, bulge, and a spherical dark matter halo, we show that a nearly circular orbit, highly inclined with respect to the disk, can be found that fits the positions, orientations, and distances of both streams. While the two streams are somewhat misaligned in the sense that they do not occupy the same plane, nodal precession due to the Milky Way disk potential naturally brings the orbit into line with each stream in the course of half an orbit. We consequently consider a common origin for the two streams as plausible. Based on our best-fitting orbit, we make predictions for the positions, distances, radial velocities, and proper motions along each stream. If our hypothesis is borne out by measurements, then at ≈183° (≈235° with respect to the Galactic center) and ≈76 kpc in length, Phoenix-Hermus would become the longest cold stream yet found. This would make it a particularly valuable new probe of the shape and mass of the Galactic halo out to ≈20 kpc.

  7. Dynamical modeling of tidal streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo

    2014-11-01

    I present a new framework for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams. The framework consists of simple models for the initial action-angle distribution of tidal debris, which can be straightforwardly evolved forward in time. Taking advantage of the essentially one-dimensional nature of tidal streams, the transformation to position-velocity coordinates can be linearized and interpolated near a small number of points along the stream, thus allowing for efficient computations of a stream's properties in observable quantities. I illustrate how to calculate the stream's average location (its 'track') in different coordinate systems, how to quickly estimate the dispersion around its track, and how to draw mock stream data. As a generative model, this framework allows one to compute the full probability distribution function and marginalize over or condition it on certain phase-space dimensions as well as convolve it with observational uncertainties. This will be instrumental in proper data analysis of stream data. In addition to providing a computationally efficient practical tool for modeling the dynamics of tidal streams, the action-angle nature of the framework helps elucidate how the observed width of the stream relates to the velocity dispersion or mass of the progenitor, and how the progenitors of 'orphan' streams could be located. The practical usefulness of the proposed framework crucially depends on the ability to calculate action-angle variables for any orbit in any gravitational potential. A novel method for calculating actions, frequencies, and angles in any static potential using a single orbit integration is described in the Appendix.

  8. Impact of baryonic streaming velocities on the formation of supermassive black holes via direct collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Niemeyer, J. C.; Schleicher, D. R. G.

    2014-06-01

    Baryonic streaming motions produced prior to the epoch of recombination became supersonic during the cosmic dark ages. Various studies suggest that such streaming velocities change the halo statistics and also influence the formation of Population III stars. In this study, we aim to explore the impact of streaming velocities on the formation of supermassive black holes at z>10 via the direct collapse scenario. To accomplish this goal, we perform cosmological large eddy simulations for two haloes of a few times 107M⊙ with initial streaming velocities of 3, 6 and 9 km s-1. These massive primordial haloes illuminated by the strong Lyman-Werner flux are the potential cradles for the formation of direct collapse seed black holes. To study the evolution for longer times, we employ sink particles and track the accretion for 10 000 years. Our findings show that higher streaming velocities increase the circular velocities from about 14 to 16 km s-1. They also delay the collapse of haloes for a few million years, but do not have any significant impact on the halo properties such as turbulent energy, radial velocity, density and accretion rates. Sink particles of about ˜105M⊙ are formed at the end of our simulations and no clear distribution of sink masses is observed in the presence of streaming motions. It is further found that the impact of streaming velocities is less severe in massive haloes compared to the minihaloes as reported in the previous studies.

  9. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  10. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John T.

    1973-01-01

    The generally regular three-dimensional geometry of drainage networks is the basis for a simple method of terrain analysis providing clues to bedrock conditions and other factors that determine topographic forms. On a reach of any stream, a gradient-index value can be obtained which allows meaningful comparisons of channel slope on streams of different sizes. The index is believed to reflect stream power or competence and is simply the product of the channel slope at a point and channel length measured along the longest stream above the pointwhere the calculation is made. In an adjusted topography, changes in gradient-index values along a stream generally correspond to differences in bedrock or introduced load. In any landscape the gradient index of a stream is related to total relief and stream regimen. Thus, climate, tectonic events, and geomorphic history must be considered in using the gradient index. Gradient-index values can be obtained quickly by simple measurements on topographic maps, or they can be obtained by more sophisticated photogrammetric measurements that involve simple computer calculations from x, y, z coordinates.

  11. A Motion-from-Form Mechanism Contributes to Extracting Pattern Motion from Plaids

    PubMed Central

    Optican, Lance M.; Cumming, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of neurons selective for pattern motion direction in primate middle temporal area MT (Albright, 1984; Movshon et al., 1985), the neural computation of this signal has been the subject of intense study. The bulk of this work has explored responses to plaids obtained by summing two drifting sinusoidal gratings. Unfortunately, with these stimuli, many different mechanisms are similarly effective at extracting pattern motion. We devised a new set of stimuli, obtained by summing two random line stimuli with different orientations. This allowed several novel manipulations, including generating plaids that do not contain rigid 2D motion. Importantly, these stimuli do not engage most of the previously proposed mechanisms. We then recorded the ocular following responses that such stimuli induce in human subjects. We found that pattern motion is computed even with stimuli that do not cohere perceptually, including those without rigid motion, and even when the two gratings are presented separately to the two eyes. Moderate temporal and/or spatial separation of the gratings impairs the computation. We show that, of the models proposed so far, only those based on the intersection-of-constraints rule, embedding a motion-from-form mechanism (in which orientation signals are used in the computation of motion direction signals), can account for our results. At least for the eye movements reported here, a motion-from-form mechanism is thus involved in one of the most basic functions of the visual motion system: extracting motion direction from complex scenes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Anatomical considerations led to the proposal that visual function is organized in separate processing streams: one (ventral) devoted to form and one (dorsal) devoted to motion. Several experimental results have challenged this view, arguing in favor of a more integrated view of visual processing. Here we add to this body of work, supporting a role for form information even in a

  12. Making Sense of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    When watching a small child with a toy car, it is seen that interest in motion comes early. Children often suggest speed through sounds such as "RRRrrrRRRooooommMMMmmmm" as the toy car is made to speed up, slow down, or accelerate through a turn. Older children start to consider force and motion studies in more detail, and experiences in school…

  13. Body Motion and Graphing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed two children's use of a computer-based motion detector to make sense of symbolic expressions (Cartesian graphs). Found three themes: (1) tool perspectives, efforts to understand graphical responses to body motion; (2) fusion, emergent ways of talking and behaving that merge symbols and referents; and (3) graphical spaces, when changing…

  14. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  15. Teaching Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  16. Measuring mandibular motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Rositano, S.; Taylor, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mandibular motion along three axes is measured by three motion transducers on floating yoke that rests against mandible. System includes electronics to provide variety of outputs for data display and processing. Head frame is strapped to test subject's skull to provide fixed point of reference for transducers.

  17. Teaching Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  18. Making Sense of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    When watching a small child with a toy car, it is seen that interest in motion comes early. Children often suggest speed through sounds such as "RRRrrrRRRooooommMMMmmmm" as the toy car is made to speed up, slow down, or accelerate through a turn. Older children start to consider force and motion studies in more detail, and experiences in school…

  19. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  20. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  1. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  2. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-12-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The purpose of this feasibility study was therefore to develop and evaluate motion-compensated DTS (MC-DTS). MC-DTS images were reconstructed by back projection of X-ray projection images acquired over 30° arcs. Back projection lines were deformed according to an a priori motion model derived from the 4D planning CT. MC-DTS was evaluated on a respiratory motion phantom and 3 lung cancer patients. Respiratory artifact reduction was assessed visually and quantified by fitting a cumulative Gaussian function to profiles along the background-GTV transition in the CC direction. MC reconstruction was fast enough to keep up with image acquisition and considerably reduced motion blur visually. Quantitatively, MC reduced the background-GTV transition distance by 49%. Motion compensation considerably improved the image quality of DTS images of lung cancer patients, giving an opportunity for more accurate DTS guidance and intra-fraction monitoring concurrent with VMAT delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Naive Conceptions of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize the system of beliefs that make up the naive impetus theory of motion and to determine what effects physics instruction has on students' conceptions of motion. Thirteen college students were asked to solve several quantitative problems and were interviewed about their answers in the first experiment.…

  4. Object motion analysis study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of optical data processing (ODP) techniques for motion analysis in two-dimensional imagery was studied. The basic feasibility of this approach was demonstrated, but inconsistent performance of the photoplastic used for recording spatial filters prevented totally automatic operation. Promising solutions to the problems encountered are discussed, and it is concluded that ODP techniques could be quite useful for motion analysis.

  5. Naive Conceptions of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Michael

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize the system of beliefs that make up the naive impetus theory of motion and to determine what effects physics instruction has on students' conceptions of motion. Thirteen college students were asked to solve several quantitative problems and were interviewed about their answers in the first experiment.…

  6. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  7. Electronic Eye: Streaming Video On-Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulen, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of on-demand streaming video in school libraries. Explains how streaming works, considers advantages and technical issues, and describes products from three companies that are pioneering streaming in the educational video market. (LRW)

  8. Electronic Eye: Streaming Video On-Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meulen, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of on-demand streaming video in school libraries. Explains how streaming works, considers advantages and technical issues, and describes products from three companies that are pioneering streaming in the educational video market. (LRW)

  9. A fast biologically inspired algorithm for recurrent motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Bayerl, Pierre; Neumann, Heiko

    2007-02-01

    We have previously developed a neurodynamical model of motion segregation in cortical visual area V1 and MT of the dorsal stream. The model explains how motion ambiguities caused by the motion aperture problem can be solved for coherently moving objects of arbitrary size by means of cortical mechanisms. The major bottleneck in the development of a reliable biologically inspired technical system with real-time motion analysis capabilities based on this neural model is the amount of memory necessary for the representation of neural activation in velocity space. We propose a sparse coding framework for neural motion activity patterns and suggest a means by which initial activities are detected efficiently. We realize neural mechanisms such as shunting inhibition and feedback modulation in the sparse framework to implement an efficient algorithmic version of our neural model of cortical motion segregation. We demonstrate that the algorithm behaves similarly to the original neural model and is able to extract image motion from real world image sequences. Our investigation transfers a neuroscience model of cortical motion computation to achieve technologically demanding constraints such as real-time performance and hardware implementation. In addition, the proposed biologically inspired algorithm provides a tool for modeling investigations to achieve acceptable simulation time.

  10. An application of Galactic parallax: the distance to the tidal stream GD-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyre, Andy

    2010-04-01

    We assess the practicality of computing the distance to stellar streams in our Galaxy, using the method of Galactic parallax suggested by Eyre & Binney. We find that the uncertainty in Galactic parallax is dependent upon the specific geometry of the problem in question. In the case of the tidal stream GD-1, the problem geometry indicates that available proper-motion data, with individual accuracy ~4masyr-1, should allow estimation of its distance with about 50 per cent uncertainty. Proper motions accurate to ~1masyr-1, which are expected from the forthcoming Pan-STARRS PS-1 survey, will allow estimation of its distance to about 10 per cent uncertainty. Proper motions from the future Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Gaia projects will be more accurate still, and will allow the parallax for a stream 30 kpc distant to be measured with ~14 per cent uncertainty. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method and show that our uncertainty estimates are accurate by computing Galactic parallax using simulated data for the GD-1 stream. We also apply the method to actual data for the GD-1 stream, published by Koposov, Rix & Hogg. With the exception of one datum, the distances estimated using Galactic parallax match photometric estimates with less than 1 kpc discrepancy. The scatter in the distances recovered using Galactic parallax is very low, suggesting that the proper-motion uncertainty reported by Koposov et al. is in fact overestimated. We conclude that the GD-1 stream is (8 +/- 1)kpc distant, on a retrograde orbit inclined 37° to the plane, and that the visible portion of the stream is likely to be near pericentre.

  11. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Dawn A; Furman, Joseph M; Balaban, Carey D

    2005-12-01

    Motion sickness commonly occurs after exposure to actual motion, such as car or amusement park rides, or virtual motion, such as panoramic movies. Motion sickness symptoms may be disabling, significantly limiting business, travel and leisure activities. Motion sickness occurs in approximately 50% of migraine sufferers. Understanding motion sickness in migraine patients may improve understanding of the physiology of both conditions. Recent literature suggests important relationships between the trigeminal system and vestibular nuclei that may have implications for both motion sickness and migraine. Studies demonstrating an important relationship between serotonin receptors and motion sickness susceptibility in both rodents and humans suggest possible new motion sickness prevention therapies.

  12. WADEABLE STREAMS ASSESSMENT | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) provides the first statistically defensible summary of the condition of the nation’s streams and small rivers, which are so integrally tied to our history. This report brings the results of this ground-breaking study to the American public.This assessment encompasses the wadeable streams and rivers that account for a vast majority of the length of flowing waters in the United States. To perform this assessment, EPA, the states, and tribes collected chemical, physical, and biological data at more 1,392 wadeable perennial stream locations to determine the biological condition of these waters and the most important factors affecting their water quality. Teams collected samples at sites chosen using an innovative statistical design to ensure representative results. The results of this analysis provide a clear assessment of the biological quality of wadeable, perennial streams and rivers across the country, within each of three major climatic and landform regions, and nine ecological regions. Information provided in this report fills an important gap in meeting the requirements of the CWA. The purpose of this assessment is fourfold: 1. Report on the ecological condition of all wadeable, perennial streams and rivers within the conterminous United States. (Pilot projects are underway in Alaska and Hawaii.) 2. Describe the biological condition of these systems using direct measures of aquatic life. Assessments of stream

  13. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) Dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream environments reflect, in part, the hydrologic integration of upstream landscapes. Characterizing upstream landscape features is critical for effectively understanding, managing, and conserving riverine ecosystems. However, watershed delineation is a major challenge if hund...

  14. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  15. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) Dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream environments reflect, in part, the hydrologic integration of upstream landscapes. Characterizing upstream landscape features is critical for effectively understanding, managing, and conserving riverine ecosystems. However, watershed delineation is a major challenge if hund...

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of Acoustic streaming (Eckart streaming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, Walid; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Ben Hadid, Hamda

    The application of sound waves in the bulk of a fluid can generate steady or quasi-steady flows reffered to as Acoustic streaming flows. We can distinguish two kind of acoustic streaming: The Rayleigh Streaming is generated when a standing acoustic waves interfere with solid walls to give birth to an acoustic boundary layer. Steady recirculations are then driven out of the boundary layer and can be used in micro-gravity, where the free convection is too weak or absent, to enhance the convective heat or mass transfer and cooling the electronic devises [1]. The second kind is the Eckart streaming, which is a flow generated far from the solid boundaries, it can be used to mix a chemical solutions [2], and to drive a viscous liquids in channels [3-4], in micro-gravity area. Our study focuses on the Eckart streaming configuration, which is investigated both numerical and experimental means. The experimental configuration is restricted to the case of a cylindrical non-heated cavity full of water or of a water+glycerol mixture. At the middle of one side of the cavity, a plane ultrasonic transducer generates a 2MHz wave; an absorber is set at the opposite side of the cavity to avoid any reflections. The velocity field is measured with a standard PIV system. [1] P. Vainshtein, M. Fichman and C. Gutfinger, "Acoustic enhancement of heat transfer between two parallel plates", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfert, 1995, 38(10), 1893. [2] C. Suri, K. Tekenaka, H. Yanagida, Y. Kojima and K. Koyama, "Chaotic mixing generated by acoustic streaming", Ultrasonics, 2002, 40, 393 [3] O.V. Rudenko and A.A. Sukhorukov, "Nonstationnary Eckart streaming and pumping of liquid in ultrasonic field", Acoustical Physics, 1998, 44, 653. [4] Kenneth D. Frampton, Shawn E. Martin and Keith Minor, "The scaling of acoustic streaming for application in micro-fluidic devices", Applied Acoustics, 2003, 64,681

  17. Visualizing motion in video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Lisa M.; Crayne, Susan

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we present a visualization system and method for measuring, inspecting and analyzing motion in video. Starting from a simple motion video, the system creates a still image representation which we call a digital strobe photograph. Similar to visualization techniques used in conventional film photography to capture high-speed motion using strobe lamps or very fast shutters, and to capture time-lapse motion where the shutter is left open, this methodology creates a single image showing the motion of one or a small number of objects over time. Based on digital background subtraction, we assume that the background is stationary or at most slowing changing and that the camera position is fixed. The method is capable of displaying the motion based on a parameter indicating the time step between successive movements. It can also overcome problems of visualizing movement that is obscured by previous movements. The method is used in an educational software tool for children to measure and analyze various motions. Examples are given using simple physical objects such as balls and pendulums, astronomical events such as the path of the stars around the north pole at night, or the different types of locomotion used by snakes.

  18. Scalable motion vector coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  19. Motion stability. Analytical mechanics. Motion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrosov, V. M.; Demin, V. G.

    Topics discussed include the optimal control of trajectory ensembles, the stability of orbital systems, the dynamics of gyroscopic systems, the control of linear delay-differential systems, singular perturbations in problems of optimal control, and resonance problems in the theory of motion stability. Also considered are the comparison principle in the dynamics of distributed parameter systems, the development of an integrated walking robot, stability and stabilization in differential games, geometric methods to describe rigid-body dynamics, and spin-stabilized satellites.

  20. Motion Recognition and Modifying Motion Generation for Imitation Robot Based on Motion Knowledge Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzawa, Yuki; Kato, Shohei; Kanoh, Masayoshi; Itoh, Hidenori

    A knowledge-based approach to imitation learning of motion generation for humanoid robots and an imitative motion generation system based on motion knowledge learning and modification are described. The system has three parts: recognizing, learning, and modifying parts. The first part recognizes an instructed motion distinguishing it from the motion knowledge database by the continuous hidden markov model. When the motion is recognized as being unfamiliar, the second part learns it using locally weighted regression and acquires a knowledge of the motion. When a robot recognizes the instructed motion as familiar or judges that its acquired knowledge is applicable to the motion generation, the third part imitates the instructed motion by modifying a learned motion. This paper reports some performance results: the motion imitation of several radio gymnastics motions.

  1. Generalized compliant motion primitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-08-01

    This invention relates to a general primitive for controlling a telerobot with a set of input parameters. The primitive includes a trajectory generator; a teleoperation sensor; a joint limit generator; a force setpoint generator; a dither function generator, which produces telerobot motion inputs in a common coordinate frame for simultaneous combination in sensor summers. Virtual return spring motion input is provided by a restoration spring subsystem. The novel features of this invention include use of a single general motion primitive at a remote site to permit the shared and supervisory control of the robot manipulator to perform tasks via a remotely transferred input parameter set.

  2. Inflation and cyclotron motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the Universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that slow roll conditions on the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field satisfying unconventional dispersion relations.

  3. Motion perception correlates with volitional but not reflexive eye movements.

    PubMed

    Price, N S C; Blum, J

    2014-09-26

    Visually-driven actions and perception are traditionally ascribed to the dorsal and ventral visual streams of the cortical processing hierarchy. However, motion perception and the control of tracking eye movements both depend on sensory motion analysis by neurons in the dorsal stream, suggesting that the same sensory circuits may underlie both action and perception. Previous studies have suggested that multiple sensory modules may be responsible for the perception of low- and high-level motion, or the detection versus identification of motion direction. However, it remains unclear whether the sensory processing systems that contribute to direction perception and the control of eye movements have the same neuronal constraints. To address this, we examined inter-individual variability across 36 observers, using two tasks that simultaneously assessed the precision of eye movements and direction perception: in the smooth pursuit task, observers volitionally tracked a small moving target and reported its direction; in the ocular following task, observers reflexively tracked a large moving stimulus and reported its direction. We determined perceptual-oculomotor correlations across observers, defined as the correlation between each observer's mean perceptual precision and mean oculomotor precision. Across observers, we found that: (i) mean perceptual precision was correlated between the two tasks; (ii) mean oculomotor precision was correlated between the tasks, and (iii) oculomotor and perceptual precision were correlated for volitional smooth pursuit, but not reflexive ocular following. Collectively, these results demonstrate that sensory circuits with common neuronal constraints subserve motion perception and volitional, but not reflexive eye movements.

  4. Motion discrimination in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Landy, Kelly M; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas; Filoteo, J Vincent; Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Hansen, Lawrence A; Hamilton, Joanne M

    2015-10-20

    Visual processing abilities of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia were assessed psychophysically using a simple horizontal motion discrimination task that engages the dorsal visual processing stream. Participants included patients with mild dementia with DLB, AD dementia or Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD), without dementia with PD, and normal controls. Participants indicated the left or right direction of coherently moving dots that were embedded within dynamic visual noise provided by randomly moving dots. The proportion of coherently moving dots was increased or decreased across trials to determine a threshold at which participants could correctly indicate their direction with greater than 80% accuracy. Motion discrimination thresholds of patients with DLB and PDD were comparable and significantly higher (i.e., worse) than those of patients with AD dementia. The thresholds of patients with AD dementia and patients with PD were normal. These results were confirmed in subgroups of patients with DLB/PDD and AD dementia with autopsy-confirmed disease. A motion discrimination threshold greater than 0.23 distinguished between DLB/PDD and AD dementia with 67% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Differential deficits in detecting direction of simple horizontal motion suggest that dorsal processing stream dysfunction is greater in DLB and PDD than in AD dementia. Therefore, impaired performance on simple visual motion discrimination tasks that specifically engage occipitoparietal brain regions suggests the presence of Lewy body pathology. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Stream Mitigation Protocol Compendium - 2004

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is intended as a reference in order to select, adapt, or devise stream assessment methods appropriate for impact assessment and mitigation of fluvial resources in the CWA Section 404 Program.

  6. Streaming in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acland, H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend our knowledge of ability grouping through the reanalysis of two sets of survey data, the Plowden survey (Peaker, 1967) and the NFER streaming survey (Barker Lunn, 1970). (Editor)

  7. MODELING PLUMES IN SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides accumulate on land surfaces from agricultural, commercial, and domestic application, and wash into streams and rivers during dry and wet weather. Flood water retention basins or structures often collect this contaminated runoff, providing intermediate storage and limit...

  8. MVSP: multithreaded VLIW stream processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardashti, Somayeh; Ghasemi, Hamid Reza; Fatemi, Omid

    2006-02-01

    Stream processing is a new trend in computer architecture design which fills the gap between inflexible special-purpose media architectures and programmable architectures with low computational ability for media processing. Stream processors are designed for computationally intensive media applications characterized by high data parallelism and producer-consumer locality with little global data reuse. In this paper, we propose a new stream processor, named MVSP1. This processor is a programmable stream processor based on Imagine [1]. MVSP exploits TLP2, DLP 3, SP 4 and ILP 5 parallelisms inherent in media applications. Full simulator of MVSP has been implemented and several media workloads composed of EEMBC [2] benchmarks have been applied. The simulation results show the performance and functional unit utilization improvements of more than two times in comparison with Imagine processor.

  9. Video streaming into the mainstream.

    PubMed

    Garrison, W

    2001-12-01

    Changes in Internet technology are making possible the delivery of a richer mixture of media through data streaming. High-quality, dynamic content, such as video and audio, can be incorporated into Websites simply, flexibly and interactively. Technologies such as G3 mobile communication, ADSL, cable and satellites enable new ways of delivering medical services, information and learning. Systems such as Quicktime, Windows Media and Real Video provide reliable data streams as video-on-demand and users can tailor the experience to their own interests. The Learning Development Centre at the University of Portsmouth have used streaming technologies together with e-learning tools such as dynamic HTML, Flash, 3D objects and online assessment successfully to deliver on-line course content in economics and earth science. The Lifesign project--to develop, catalogue and stream health sciences media for teaching--is described and future medical applications are discussed.

  10. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  11. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    PubMed

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming.

  12. National Rivers and Streams Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NRSA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's rivers and streams. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  13. vysmaw: Fast visibility stream muncher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, Martin; Law, Casey J.

    2017-10-01

    The vysmaw client library facilitates the development of code for processes to tap into the fast visibility stream on the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array correlator back-end InfiniBand network.

  14. Distillation plus membrane processing of gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, R.A.; Burkinshaw, J.R.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes a process for separating components of a feed gas stream comprising carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, methane, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons to form a carbon dioxide-rich stream and a methane-rich stream. It comprises: passing the feed gas stream to a first fractional distillation column; withdrawing a first overhead stream from the first fractional distillation column; withdrawing a first bottoms stream from the first fractional distillation column; passing the first overhead stream to a second fractional distillation column; withdrawing a second overhead stream wherein the second overhead stream is withdrawn from the second fractional distillation column; withdrawing a second bottoms stream wherein the second bottoms stream is withdrawn from the second fractional distillation column; passing the second overhead stream to a membrane separation unit; withdrawing a residual gas stream from the membrane separation unit to form the methane-rich stream; and withdrawing a residual gas stream from the membrane separation unit to form a recycle stream having a substantially increased concentration of carbon dioxide relative to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the second overhead stream.

  15. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 10 rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  16. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  17. Mixing of Supersonic Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, C. W.; Landrum, D. B.; Muller, S.; Turner, M.; Parkinson, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Strutjet approach to Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion depends upon fuel-rich flows from the rocket nozzles and turbine exhaust products mixing with the ingested air for successful operation in the ramjet and scramjet modes. It is desirable to delay this mixing process in the air-augmented mode of operation present during low speed flight. A model of the Strutjet device has been built and is undergoing test to investigate the mixing of the streams as a function of distance from the Strutjet exit plane during simulated low speed flight conditions. Cold flow testing of a 1/6 scale Strutjet model is underway and nearing completion. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic methods are being employed to observe the mixing of the turbine exhaust gas with the gases from both the primary rockets and the ingested air simulating low speed, air augmented operation of the RBCC. The ratio of the pressure in the turbine exhaust duct to that in the rocket nozzle wall at the point of their intersection is the independent variable in these experiments. Tests were accomplished at values of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for this parameter. Qualitative results illustrate the development of the mixing zone from the exit plane of the model to a distance of about 19 equivalent rocket nozzle exit diameters downstream. These data show the mixing to be confined in the vertical plane for all cases, The lateral expansion is more pronounced at a pressure ratio of 1.0 and suggests that mixing with the ingested flow would be likely beginning at a distance of 7 nozzle exit diameters downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  18. The motion of bubbles inside drops in containerless processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, N.; Annamalai, P.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical model of thermocapillary bubble motion inside a drop, located in a space laboratory, due to an arbitrary axisymmetric temperature distribution on the drop surface was constructed. Typical results for the stream function and temperature fields as well as the migration velocity of the bubble were obtained in the quasistatic limit. The motion of bubbles in a rotating body of liquid was studied experimentally, and an approximate theoretical model was developed. Comparison of the experimental observations of the bubble trajectories and centering times with theoretical predictions lends qualified support to the theory.

  19. Self-organized Motion During Dictyostelium amoebae aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2004-03-01

    After starvation, amoeba of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum aggregate to form rudimentary multicellular organisms. The coordination of the individual motions of hundreds of thousands of individual cells is an important ingredient in the success of this process. This coordination is accomplished by chemical signaling during the early stages and by direct cell-cell interactions once the cells reach the nascent mound. This talk will review the basic nonequilibrium physics underlying the spatial patterns formed by these cooperative motions, including high-density incoming streams and spontaneously rotating mounds.

  20. Geomorphology of ice stream beds: recent progress and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.

    2016-04-01

    Ice sheets lose mass primarily by melting and discharge via rapidly-flowing ice streams. Surface and basal melting (e.g. of ice shelves) are closely linked to atmospheric and oceanic conditions, but the mechanisms that drive changes in ice stream discharge are more complex; and are influenced by conditions at their bed which can sustain, enhance or inhibit their motion. Although explicit comparisons are rare, the ice-bed interface is similar to the 'boundary layer' in fluvial and aeolian environments, where shear stresses (both basal and lateral in the case of ice streams) oppose the flow of the overlying medium. The analogy extends further because processes within the boundary layer create a distinctive geomorphology (and roughness) that is characterised by subglacial bedforms that resemble features in fluvial and aeolian environments. Their creation results from erosion, transport and deposition of sediment which is poorly constrained, but which is intimately linked to the mechanisms through which ice streams are able to flow rapidly. The study of ice stream geomorphology is, therefore, critical to our understanding of their dynamics. Despite difficulty in observing the subglacial environment of active ice streams, our understanding of their geomorphology has grown rapidly in the last three decades, from almost complete ignorance to a detailed knowledge of their geomorphological products. This has been brought about by two main approaches: (i) geophysical investigation of modern (active) ice streams, and (ii) sedimentological and geomorphological investigation of palaeo-ice stream beds. The aim of this paper is to review progress in these two areas, highlight the key questions that remain, and discuss the opportunities that are likely to arise that will enable them to be addressed. It is clear that whilst these two main approaches have led to important advances, they have often been viewed as separate sub-disciplines, with minimal cross-pollination of ideas and

  1. Morphological assessment of reconstructed lowland streams in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eekhout, Joris P. C.; Hoitink, Antonius J. F.; de Brouwer, Jan H. F.; Verdonschot, Piet F. M.

    2015-07-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three reconstructed streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realise water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  2. Morphological Assessment of Reconstructed Lowland Streams in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoitink, T.; Eekhout, J.; de Brouwer, J.; Verdonschot, P.

    2014-12-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three lowland streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realize water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  3. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  4. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  5. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... soon as the motion stops. The more you travel, the more easily you'll adjust to being ... at least 30 to 60 minutes before you travel. Expect drowsiness as a side effect. Consider scopolamine ( ...

  6. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  7. Projectile Motion Details.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  8. Toying with Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  9. Projectile Motion Details.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  10. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  11. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  12. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  13. Mathisson's helical motions demystified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, L. Filipe; Natário, José; Zilhão, Miguel

    2012-07-01

    The motion of spinning test particles in general relativity is described by Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations, which are undetermined up to a spin supplementary condition, the latter being today still an open question. The Mathisson-Pirani (MP) condition is known to lead to rather mysterious helical motions which have been deemed unphysical, and for this reason discarded. We show that these assessments are unfounded and originate from a subtle (but crucial) misconception. We discuss the kinematical explanation of the helical motions, and dynamically interpret them through the concept of hidden momentum, which has an electromagnetic analogue. We also show that, contrary to previous claims, the frequency of the helical motions coincides exactly with the zitterbewegung frequency of the Dirac equation for the electron.

  14. Toying with Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  15. Explanations of Superluminal Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, P. A. G.

    Recent developments in models of core-jet sources with apparent superluminal motions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to new versions of the so-called "Christmas tree" model and the relativistic beaming model.

  16. Dragging force on galaxies due to streaming dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    It has been reported that galaxies in large regions (approx. 10(exp 2) Mpc), including some clusters of galaxies, may be streaming coherently with velocities up to 600 km/sec or more with respect to the rest frame determined by the microwave background radiation. On the other hand, it is suggested that the dominant mass component of the universe is dark matter. Because we can only speculate the motion of dark matter from the galaxy motions, much attention should be paid to the correlation of velocities between the observed galaxies and cold dark matter. So the authors investigated whether such coherent large-scale streaming velocities are due to dark matter or only to baryonic objects which may be formed by piling up of gases due to some explosive events. It seems that, although each galaxy will not follow the motion of dark matter, clusters of galaxies may represent the velocity field of dark matter. The origin of the velocity field of dark matter would be due to the initial adiabatic perturbations and, in fact, the observed peculiar velocities of clusters are within the allowed region constrained from the isotropy of the microwave background radiation.

  17. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  18. TIDAL STREAMS OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Rudick, Craig S.; Christopher Mihos, J.; Frey, Lucille H.; McBride, Cameron K. E-mail: mihos@case.edu E-mail: cameron.mcbride@vanderbilt.edu

    2009-07-10

    Using N-body simulations, we have modeled the production and evolution of substructures in the intracluster light (ICL) of a simulated galaxy cluster. We use a density-based definition of ICL, where ICL consists of luminous particles which are at low densities, to identify ICL particles and track their evolution. We have implemented a friends-of-friends-type clustering algorithm which finds groups of particles correlated in both position and velocity space to identify substructures in the ICL, hereafter referred to as 'streams'. We find that {approx}40% of the cluster's ICL is generated in the form of these massive (M {>=} 7.0 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}), dynamically cold streams. The fraction of the ICL generated in streams is greater early in the cluster's evolution, when galaxies are interacting in the group environment, than later in its evolution when the massive cluster potential has been assembled. The production of streams requires the strong tidal fields associated with close interactions between pairs of galaxies, and is usually associated with merging pairs of galaxies, or fast, close encounters with the cluster's central galaxy. Once streams are formed, they begin to decay as they are disrupted by the tidal field of the cluster. We find that streams have decay timescales which are {approx}1.5 times their dynamical time in the cluster.

  19. Lexical Influences on Auditory Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Billig, Alexander J.; Davis, Matthew H.; Deeks, John M.; Monstrey, Jolijn; Carlyon, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biologically salient sounds, including speech, are rarely heard in isolation. Our brains must therefore organize the input arising from multiple sources into separate “streams” and, in the case of speech, map the acoustic components of the target signal onto meaning. These auditory and linguistic processes have traditionally been considered to occur sequentially and are typically studied independently [1, 2]. However, evidence that streaming is modified or reset by attention [3], and that lexical knowledge can affect reports of speech sound identity [4, 5], suggests that higher-level factors may influence perceptual organization. In two experiments, listeners heard sequences of repeated words or acoustically matched nonwords. After several presentations, they reported that the initial /s/ sound in each syllable formed a separate stream; the percept then fluctuated between the streamed and fused states in a bistable manner. In addition to measuring these verbal transformations, we assessed streaming objectively by requiring listeners to detect occasional targets—syllables containing a gap after the initial /s/. Performance was better when streaming caused the syllables preceding the target to transform from words into nonwords, rather than from nonwords into words. Our results show that auditory stream formation is influenced not only by the acoustic properties of speech sounds, but also by higher-level processes involved in recognizing familiar words. PMID:23891107

  20. Numerical simulation of 3D boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Lei, Junjun; Hill, Martyn; Glynne-Jones, Peter

    2014-02-07

    This article discusses three-dimensional (3D) boundary-driven streaming in acoustofluidic devices. Firstly, the 3D Rayleigh streaming pattern in a microchannel is simulated and its effect on the movement of microparticles of various sizes is demonstrated. The results obtained from this model show good comparisons with 3D experimental visualisations and demonstrate the fully 3D nature of the acoustic streaming field and the associated acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in acoustofluidic devices. This method is then applied to another acoustofluidic device in order to gain insights into an unusual in-plane streaming pattern. The origin of this streaming has not been fully described and its characteristics cannot be explained from the classical theory of Rayleigh streaming. The simulated in-plane streaming pattern was in good agreement with the experimental visualisation. The mechanism behind it is shown to be related to the active sound intensity field, which supports our previous findings on the mechanism of the in-plane acoustic streaming pattern visualised and modelled in a thin-layered capillary device.

  1. TIDAL STREAM MORPHOLOGY AS AN INDICATOR OF DARK MATTER HALO GEOMETRY: THE CASE OF PALOMAR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Sarah; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Küpper, Andreas H. W.

    2015-01-20

    This paper presents an example where the morphology of a single stellar stream can be used to rule out a specific galactic potential form without the need for velocity information. We investigate the globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5), which is tidally disrupting into a cold, thin stream mapped over 22 deg on the sky with a typical width of 0.7 deg. We generate models of this stream by fixing Pal 5's present-day position, distance, and radial velocity via observations, while allowing its proper motion to vary. In a spherical dark matter halo we easily find models that fit the observed morphology. However, no plausible Pal 5 model could be found in the triaxial potential of Law and Majewski, which has been proposed to explain the properties of the Sagittarius stream. In this case, the long, thin, and curved morphology of the Pal 5 stream alone can be used to rule out such a potential configuration. Pal 5-like streams in this potential are either too straight, missing the curvature of the observations, or show an unusual morphology which we dub stream-fanning: a signature sensitive to the triaxiality of a potential. We conclude that the mere existence of other thin tidal streams must provide broad constraints on the orientation and shape of the dark matter halo they inhabit.

  2. Stray, swing and scatter: angular momentum evolution of orbits and streams in aspherical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason L.; Belokurov, Vasily

    2016-09-01

    In aspherical potentials orbital planes continuously evolve. The gravitational torques impel the angular momentum vector to precess, that is to slowly stray around the symmetry axis, and nutate, i.e. swing up and down periodically in the perpendicular direction. This familiar orbital pole motion - if detected and measured - can reveal the shape of the underlying gravitational potential, the quantity only crudely gauged in the Galaxy so far. Here we demonstrate that the debris poles of stellar tidal streams show a very similar straying and swinging behaviour, and give analytic expressions to link the amplitude and the frequency of the pole evolution to the flattening of the dark matter distribution. While these results are derived for near-circular orbits, we show they are also valid for eccentric orbits. Most importantly, we explain how the differential orbital plane precession leads to the broadening of the stream and show that streams on polar orbits ought to scatter faster. We provide expressions for the stream width evolution as a function of the axisymmetric potential flattening and the angle from the symmetry plane and prove that our models are in good agreement with streams produced in N-body simulations. Interestingly, the same intuition applies to streams whose progenitors are on short- or long-axis loops in a triaxial potential. Finally, we present a compilation of the Galactic cold stream data, and discuss how the simple picture developed here, along with stream modelling, can be used to constrain the symmetry axes and flattening of the Milky Way.

  3. Characterization of HIFU transducers designed for sonochemistry application: Acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J-Y; Bailly, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cavitation distribution in a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound sonoreactors (HIFU) has been extensively described in the recent literature, including quantification by an optical method (Sonochemiluminescence SCL). The present paper provides complementary measurements through the study of acoustic streaming generated by the same kind of HIFU transducers. To this end, results of mass transfer measurements (electrodiffusional method) were compared to optical method ones (Particle Image Velocimetry). This last one was used in various configurations: with or without an electrode in the acoustic field in order to have the same perturbation of the wave propagation. Results show that the maximum velocity is not located at the focal but shifted near the transducer, and that this shift is greater for high powers. The two cavitation modes (stationary and moving bubbles) are greatly affect the hydrodynamic behavior of our sonoreactors: acoustic streaming and the fluid generated by bubble motion. The results obtained by electrochemical measurements show the same low hydrodynamic activity in the transducer vicinity, the same shift of the active focal toward the transducer, and the same absence of activity in the post-focal axial zone. The comparison with theoretical Eckart's velocities (acoustic streaming in non-cavitating media) confirms a very high activity at the "sonochemical focal", accounted for by wave distortion, which induced greater absorption coefficients. Moreover, the equivalent liquid velocities are one order of magnitude larger than the ones measured by PIV, confirming the enhancement of mass transfer by bubbles oscillation and collapse close to the surface, rather than from a pure streaming effect.

  4. Online temporal synchronization of pose and endoscopic video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, Özgür; Yaniv, Ziv; Freysinger, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    Computer assisted navigation systems that combine real-time endoscopy images with pre-operative volumetric data sets aim at improving the physician's understanding of the underlying anatomical structures. To achieve accurate and safe guidance these systems are required to provide a consistent representation of the physical world. This implies that all data streams are synchronized. In our case, we are dealing with synchronization of tracking data and a video stream obtained by a tracked endoscope. Previously, such synchronization was obtained pre-operatively using phantoms. This type of approach assumes a constant latency between the data streams and is less desirable for clinical use due to the required additional hardware. In this work we describe an online temporal synchronization method. The method is based on the observation that in clinical practice the endoscope is not in constant motion. By identifying corresponding stationary points in the video and tracking streams temporal synchronization can be performed online in a manner that is transparent to the user. Initial evaluation of our approach in a laboratory study has shown that it provides comparable estimates to a phantom based approach we had previously proposed.

  5. Quantification of the multi-streaming effect in redshift space distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Pengjie; Oh, Minji

    2017-05-01

    Both multi-streaming (random motion) and bulk motion cause the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect in redshift space distortion (RSD). We apply a direct measurement of the multi-streaming effect in RSD from simulations, proving that it induces an additional, non-negligible FoG damping to the redshift space density power spectrum. We show that, including the multi-streaming effect, the RSD modelling is significantly improved. We also provide a theoretical explanation based on halo model for the measured effect, including a fitting formula with one to two free parameters. The improved understanding of FoG helps break the fσ8-σv degeneracy in RSD cosmology, and has the potential of significantly improving cosmological constraints.

  6. Miscellaneous streams best management practices (BMP) report

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and U.S. Department of Energy Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 (Consent Order) lists regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-216 (`State Waste Discharge Permit Program`) or WAC 173-218 (`Washington Underground Injection Control Program`) where applicable. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column are categorized as Phase I and Phase II Streams, and Miscellaneous Streams. There were originally 33 Phase I and Phase II Streams, however some of these streams have been eliminated. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluent streams discharged to the ground that are not categorized as Phase I or Phase II Streams, and are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the Consent Order. The three criteria for identifying streams that are potentially affecting groundwater are: (1) streams discharging to surface contaminated areas (referred to as category `b` streams); (2) potentially contaminated streams (referred to as category `c` streams); and (3) streams discharging within 91 meters (300 feet) of a contaminated crib, ditch, or trench (referred to as category `d` streams). Miscellaneous Streams that meet any of these criteria must be evaluated for application of best management practices (BMP). The purpose of this report is to provide the best management practice preferred alternative. The list of BMP streams has been revised since the original submittal. Several streams from the original list of BMP streams have already been eliminated through facility upgrades, reduction of steam usage, and facility shutdowns. This document contains a description of the changes to the list of BMP streams, applicable definitions and regulatory requirements and possible alternatives, and a schedule for implementing the preferred alternatives.

  7. Unique Challenges to (Federal) Enterprise Streaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Enterprise streaming has different parameters than consumer Streaming. The government enterprise has some differences on top of that. I'd like to highlight some issues shared by the Federal government as a whole, with a closer look at streaming within NASA. Then we'll look at NASA's strategy for streaming.

  8. Coho salmon dependence on intermittent streams.

    Treesearch

    P.J. Wigington; J.L. Ebersole; M.E. Colvin; S.G. Leibowitz; B. Miller; B. Hansen; H. Lavigne; D. White; J.P. Baker; M.R. Church; J.R. Brooks; M.A. Cairns; J.E. Compton

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the contributions of intermittent streams to coho salmon production in an Oregon coastal watershed. We provide estimates of (1) proportion of spawning that occurred in intermittent streams, (2) movement of juveniles into intermittent streams, (3) juvenile survival in intermittent and perennial streams during winter, and (4) relative size of...

  9. Jet stream related observations by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

  10. THE DYNAMICS OF STAR STREAM GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.

    2013-10-01

    A massive object crossing a narrow stream of stars orbiting in the halo of the galaxy induces velocity changes both along and transverse to the stream that can lead to the development of a visible gap. For a stream narrow relative to its orbital radius, the stream crossing time is sufficiently short that the impact approximation can be used to derive the changes in angular momenta and radial actions along the star stream. The epicyclic approximation is used to calculate the evolution of the density of the stream as it orbits around in a galactic potential. Analytic expressions are available for a point mass, however, the general expressions are easily numerically evaluated for perturbing objects with arbitrary density profiles. With a simple allowance for the velocity dispersion of the stream, moderately warm streams can be modeled. The predicted evolution agrees well with the outcomes of simulations of stellar streams for streams with widths up to 1% of the orbital radius of the stream. The angular momentum distribution within the stream shears out gaps with time, further reducing the visibility of streams, although the size of the shear effect requires more detailed simulations that account for the creation of the stream. An illustrative model indicates that shear will set a lower limit of a few times the stream width for the length of gaps that persist. In general, the equations are useful for dynamical insights into the development of stream gaps and their measurement.

  11. Collisions with meteoroid streams as one possible mechanism for the formation of hyperbolic cometary orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, Ayyub; Nabiyev, Shaig

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the dynamic parameters of 300 comets that have osculating hyperbolic orbits. It is shown that such comets differ from other comets by their large perihelion distances and by a predominance of retrograde motion. It is shown that the values of i, the inclination of the hyperbolic comets, are in comparative excess over the interval 90-120°. The dominance by q, the perihelion distance, renders it difficult to suggest that the excess hyperbolic velocity of these comets can be the result of physical processes that take place in their nuclei. Aspects of the following working hypothesis, that the hyperbolic excess of parameter e might be formed after comets pass through meteoroid streams, are also studied. To evaluate this hypothesis, the distribution of the orbits of hyperbolic comets relative to the plane of motion of 112 established meteoroid streams are analyzed. The number (N) of orbit nodes for hyperbolic comets with respect to the plane of each stream at various distances is calculated. To determine the degree of redundancy of N, a special computing algorithm was applied that provided the expected value nav as well as the standard deviation σ for the number of cometary nodes at the plane of each stream. A comparative analysis of the N and nav values that take σ into account suggests an excess in 40 stream cases. This implies that the passage of comets through meteoroid streams can lead to an acceleration of the comets' heliocentric velocity.

  12. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Harding, Jane E.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioural measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n = 117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (rho=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (rho= −0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children. PMID:26318529

  13. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, K.; Marenduzzo, D.; Cates, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite slip layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the slip layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells. PMID:22337633

  14. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  15. It's, Like, Relative Motion at the Mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2003-03-01

    Almost all introductory textbooks, both algebra- and calculus-based, include sections on relative motion and relative velocity, in both one and two dimensions. The most popular examples in discussions of 2-D relative velocity in such texts seem to be the motion of airplanes/blimps flying in the presence of wind or the conceptually identical cases of boats/rafts piloted across rivers/streams, including the effects of currents. These and similar cases are rather removed from the everyday experience of some students, and the use of simple lecture demonstrations to illustrate these concepts can be quite useful. For example, the motion of a simple toy "wind-up" car moving at constant speed across a horizontal tabletop, with a plastic sheet underneath providing the "moving frame of reference," can illustrate many aspects of such problems, including the need to "point" the plane/boat in an appropriate direction, just as illustrated in many textbook figures. On the other hand, it is also useful if students can directly experience concepts for themselves, especially in a kinesthetic manner, but there are seemingly far fewer human-sized lecture demonstrations on this topic. In this paper, we will point out one such example which might well be just a short drive away.

  16. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) and USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) will be collaborating with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA) to assess stream quality across the Midwestern United States. The sites selected for this study are a subset of the larger NRSA, implemented by the EPA, States and Tribes to sample flowing waters across the United States (http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/riverssurvey/index.cfm). The goals are to characterize water-quality stressors—contaminants, nutrients, and sediment—and ecological conditions in streams throughout the Midwest and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic organisms in the streams. Findings will contribute useful information for communities and policymakers by identifying which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality. This collaborative study enhances information provided to the public and policymakers and minimizes costs by leveraging and sharing data gathered under existing programs. In the spring and early summer, NAWQA will sample streams weekly for contaminants, nutrients, and sediment. During the same time period, CERC will test sediment and water samples for toxicity, deploy time-integrating samplers, and measure reproductive effects and biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fish or amphibians. NRSA will sample sites once during the summer to assess ecological and habitat conditions in the streams by collecting data on algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities and collecting detailed physical-habitat measurements. Study-team members from all three programs will work in collaboration with USGS Water Science Centers and State agencies on study design, execution of sampling and analysis, and reporting.

  17. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  18. A Solar Electron Burst Spanning a Stream Interface: ACE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, J. T.; Skoug, R. M.; McComas, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Where coronal hole fast wind runs into slow wind ahead, a compression region forms. The boundary between the compressed slow and fast wind is referred to as the stream interface (SI). Ideally, if the coronal source regions of slow and fast wind are distinct and stationary, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) foot point locations are fixed, the SI is a discontinuous plasma boundary for both solar wind ions and 100eV-1keV suprathermal electrons which stream out from the sun through the ions along the IMF. In the ideal case, IMF lines do not cross the SI. However, field line crossing of the SI may result from IMF foot point motion during the time required for solar wind ions to travel from the sun to 1 AU. On January 29, 2005 ACE encountered a stream interface within a CIR at the leading edge of a coronal hole fast stream. A solar electron burst was observed from 11-15 UT at 0.5-1.3 keV energies. The burst was observed across the SI, indicating magnetic connection to the electron burst source region on both sides of the SI. This could indicate that the electron burst source region spanned a coronal hole boundary. A more likely alternative is that field lines on opposite sides of the SI at 1 AU were no longer connected to different sides of a coronal hole boundary. Instead, footpoint motion occurred during solar wind ion transit to 1 AU, so that field lines on both sides of the SI were connected to a single coronal electron burst source region.

  19. Possible Stick-Slip Mechanism for Whillans Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; King, Matt; Vornberger, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Tidally-induced stick-slip motion in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream provides a unique natural experiment in ice-stream response behavior and fiom which we might learn a great deal about subglacial till properties and sub-ice-stream conditions. At the IGS Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow (Yakutat, 2002), we reported our observations of stick- slip motion and demonstrated its synchronicity with tidal forcing. Recently, we have completed additional processing of our GPS data in differential mode. It reveals more details of the stick-slip events and illustrates that within 30 seconds, the temporal interval of our data, the ice stream accelerates to a speed corresponding to a completely lubricated bed. While details of individual events vary, there seems to be strong evidence of an elastic rebound on the time scale of one hour following most events. This suggests the event involves the release of stored elastic strain energy in the ice. The similar displacements of events suggest further that till or subglacial hydrologic properties limit the amount of elastic strain released in any single event. We follow a line of reasoning that dilatant strengthening limits the slip displacement and present model of the stick-slip process. To match the observed delay between the peak ocean tide and stick-slip events, our model includes a propagating pressure wave in the subglacial hydrologic system between the grounding line, where the rising tide first increases the subglacial water pressure and regions upstream where stored elastic strain increases the basal shear stress. This high-tide event is released when the increased water pressure reaches the region of increased shear stress. Dilatant strengthening stops the event by increasing pore volume and lowering the water pressure. Following this event, falling tide increases the normal forces, compresses the till and increases pore pressure again, leading to the second falling-tide event we observe every tidal cycle.

  20. Possible Stick-Slip Mechanism for Whillans Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; King, Matt; Vornberger, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Tidally-induced stick-slip motion in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream provides a unique natural experiment in ice-stream response behavior and from which we might learn a great deal about subglacial till properties and sub-ice-stream conditions. At the IGS Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow (Yakutat, 2002), we reported our observations of stick- slip motion and demonstrated its synchronicity with tidal forcing. Recently, we have completed additional processing of our GPS data in differential mode. It reveals more details of the stick-slip events and illustrates that within 30 seconds, the temporal interval of our data, the ice stream accelerates to a speed corresponding to a completely lubricated bed. While details of individual events vary, there seems to be strong evidence of an elastic rebound on the time scale of one hour following most events. This suggests the event involves the release of stored elastic strain energy in the ice. The similar displacements of events suggest further that till or subglacial hydrologic properties limit the amount of elastic strain released in any single event. We follow a line of reasoning that dilatant strengthening limits the slip displacement and present model of the stick-slip process. To match the observed delay between the peak ocean tide and stick-slip events, our model includes a propagating pressure wave in the subglacial hydrologic system between the grounding line, where the rising tide first increases the subglacial water pressure and regions upstream where stored elastic strain increases the basal shear stress. This high-tide event is released when the increased water pressure reaches the region of increased shear stress. Dilatant strengthening stops the event by increasing pore volume and lowering the water pressure. Following this event, falling tide increases the normal forces, compresses the till and increases pore pressure again, leading to the second falling-tide event we observe every tidal cycle.

  1. Possible Stick-Slip Mechanism for Whillans Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; King, Matt; Vornberger, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Tidally-induced stick-slip motion in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream provides a unique natural experiment in ice-stream response behavior and from which we might learn a great deal about subglacial till properties and sub-ice-stream conditions. At the IGS Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow (Yakutat, 2002), we reported our observations of stick- slip motion and demonstrated its synchronicity with tidal forcing. Recently, we have completed additional processing of our GPS data in differential mode. It reveals more details of the stick-slip events and illustrates that within 30 seconds, the temporal interval of our data, the ice stream accelerates to a speed corresponding to a completely lubricated bed. While details of individual events vary, there seems to be strong evidence of an elastic rebound on the time scale of one hour following most events. This suggests the event involves the release of stored elastic strain energy in the ice. The similar displacements of events suggest further that till or subglacial hydrologic properties limit the amount of elastic strain released in any single event. We follow a line of reasoning that dilatant strengthening limits the slip displacement and present model of the stick-slip process. To match the observed delay between the peak ocean tide and stick-slip events, our model includes a propagating pressure wave in the subglacial hydrologic system between the grounding line, where the rising tide first increases the subglacial water pressure and regions upstream where stored elastic strain increases the basal shear stress. This high-tide event is released when the increased water pressure reaches the region of increased shear stress. Dilatant strengthening stops the event by increasing pore volume and lowering the water pressure. Following this event, falling tide increases the normal forces, compresses the till and increases pore pressure again, leading to the second falling-tide event we observe every tidal cycle.

  2. Possible Stick-Slip Mechanism for Whillans Ice Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; King, Matt; Vornberger, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Tidally-induced stick-slip motion in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream provides a unique natural experiment in ice-stream response behavior and fiom which we might learn a great deal about subglacial till properties and sub-ice-stream conditions. At the IGS Symposium on Fast Glacier Flow (Yakutat, 2002), we reported our observations of stick- slip motion and demonstrated its synchronicity with tidal forcing. Recently, we have completed additional processing of our GPS data in differential mode. It reveals more details of the stick-slip events and illustrates that within 30 seconds, the temporal interval of our data, the ice stream accelerates to a speed corresponding to a completely lubricated bed. While details of individual events vary, there seems to be strong evidence of an elastic rebound on the time scale of one hour following most events. This suggests the event involves the release of stored elastic strain energy in the ice. The similar displacements of events suggest further that till or subglacial hydrologic properties limit the amount of elastic strain released in any single event. We follow a line of reasoning that dilatant strengthening limits the slip displacement and present model of the stick-slip process. To match the observed delay between the peak ocean tide and stick-slip events, our model includes a propagating pressure wave in the subglacial hydrologic system between the grounding line, where the rising tide first increases the subglacial water pressure and regions upstream where stored elastic strain increases the basal shear stress. This high-tide event is released when the increased water pressure reaches the region of increased shear stress. Dilatant strengthening stops the event by increasing pore volume and lowering the water pressure. Following this event, falling tide increases the normal forces, compresses the till and increases pore pressure again, leading to the second falling-tide event we observe every tidal cycle.

  3. Mechanical guidance through cell-cell and cell-surface contact during multicellular streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenlu; Driscoll, Meghan; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    During collective cell migration, mechanical forces arise from the extracellular matrix (ECM) through cell-surface contact and from other cells through cell-cell contact. These forces regulate the motion of migrating cell groups. To determine how these mechanical interactions balance during cell migration, we measured the shape dynamics of Dictyostelium discoideum cells at the multicellular streaming stage. We found that cells can coordinate their motion by synchronizing protrusion waves that travel along their membranes when they form proper cell-cell adhesion and cell-surface adhesion. In addition, our experiments on live actin labeled cells show that intracellular actin polymerization actively responds to the change of cell-cell/surface adhesion and helps to stabilize multicellular migration streams. Our finding suggests that the coordination of motion between neighboring cells in collective migration requires a balance between cell-cell adhesion and cell-surface adhesion, and that the cell cytoskeleton plays an important role in this balance.

  4. Yugoslav strong motion network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailov, Vladimir

    1985-04-01

    Data concerning ground motion and the response of structures during strong earthquakes are necessary for seismic hazard evaluation and the definition of design criteria for structures to be constructed in seismically active zones. The only way to obtain such data is the installation of a strong-motion instrument network. The Yugoslav strong-motion programme was created in 1972 to recover strong-motion response data used by the structural engineering community in developing earthquake resistant design. Instruments, accelerographs SMA-1 and seismoscopes WM-1, were installed in free-field stations and on structures (high-rise buildings, dams, bridges, etc.). A total number of 176 accelerographs and 137 seismoscopes have been installed and are operating in Yugoslavia. The strong-motion programme in Yugoslavia consists of five subactivities: network design, network operation, data processing, network management and research as well as application. All these activities are under the responsibility of IZIIS in cooperation with the Yugoslav Association of Seismology. By 1975 in the realisation of this project participated the CALTECH as cooperative institution in the joint American-Yugoslav cooperative project. The results obtained which are presented in this paper, and their application in the aseismic design justify the necessity for the existence of such a network in Yugoslavia.

  5. Ultraslow scaled Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodrova, Anna S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    We define and study in detail utraslow scaled Brownian motion (USBM) characterized by a time dependent diffusion coefficient of the form D(t)≃ 1/t. For unconfined motion the mean squared displacement (MSD) of USBM exhibits an ultraslow, logarithmic growth as function of time, in contrast to the conventional scaled Brownian motion. In a harmonic potential the MSD of USBM does not saturate but asymptotically decays inverse-proportionally to time, reflecting the highly non-stationary character of the process. We show that the process is weakly non-ergodic in the sense that the time averaged MSD does not converge to the regular MSD even at long times, and for unconfined motion combines a linear lag time dependence with a logarithmic term. The weakly non-ergodic behaviour is quantified in terms of the ergodicity breaking parameter. The USBM process is also shown to be ageing: observables of the system depend on the time gap between initiation of the test particle and start of the measurement of its motion. Our analytical results are shown to agree excellently with extensive computer simulations.

  6. Space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homick, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the etiology, prediction, treatment and prevention of space motion sickness, designed to minimize the impact of this syndrome which was experienced frequently and with severity by individuals on the Skylab missions, on Space Shuttle crews is reviewed. Theories of the cause of space motion sickness currently under investigation by NASA include sensory conflict, which argues that motion sickness symptoms result from a mismatch between the total pattern of information from the spatial senses and that stored from previous experiences, and fluid shift, based upon the redistribution of bodily fluids that occurs upon continued exposure to weightlessness. Attempts are underway to correlate space motion sickness susceptibility to different provocative environments, vestibular and nonvestibular responses, and the rate of acquisition and length of retention of sensory adaptation. Space motion sickness countermeasures under investigation include various drug combinations, of which the equal combination of promethazine and ephedrine has been found to be as effective as the scopolomine and dexedrine combination, and vestibular adaptation and biofeedback training and autogenic therapy.

  7. Bedload transport associated with high stream power, Jordan River, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Inbar, Moshe; Schick, Asher P.

    1979-01-01

    During a flood of a magnitude that recurs once in 100 years, boulders up to 1700 mm in size were transported in the Jordan and Meshushim Rivers, northern Israel. Bedload discharge rates were estimated for periods of 3-72 hr of peak flow by a combination of hydrologic and geomorphic methods. Bedload transport rate is proportional to unit stream power in excess of that necessary for initial motion, raised to the power 3/2, as has been shown for data on other rivers. PMID:16592661

  8. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  9. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  10. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  11. Tornadogenesis Versus Newton's Third Law of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwig, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    For over 90 years scientists have tried to explain how tornadoes form and function. The present general consensus is that a tornado is just a function of the thunderstorm. Much research has been done to find the answer and numerous articles and papers have been written, all to no avail. This research explores the fact that a tornado cannot be just a function of a thunderstorm, as there is no opposite force within the thunderstorm to the air drawn up by the tornado, so there must be some external force involved in a tornado's formation. To have compliance with Newton's Third Law of Motion we must see an equal downforce or some other force within the thunderstorm, to that drawn up by the tornado. And if there was a downforce, that force would be virtually as damaging as the tornado itself. But we don't see this downforce or any other opposing force within the thunderstorm. Therefore, we must look for some other force that could cause a tornado's formation. And if that opposing force is not within the thunderstorm we need to be looking for some external force, outside the thunderstorm, that could cause a tornado. Also the fact that we have Waterspouts, Landspouts and Gustnadoes all without a thunderstorm, but since they all look and function just like a tornado, tells us that there must be some other force that is responsible for causing a tornado just like a Waterspout, Landspout or Gustnado. My research shows that there is one other force of energy that could cause all of these vortexes and is most likely the source of energy for a tornado's formation. That force is the High Velocity Overhead Jet Stream. My research shows a direct relationship between the High Velocity Overhead Jet Stream and Tornadogenesis as well as Waterspouts, Landspouts and Gustnadoes. Therefore, with the High Velocity Overhead Jet Stream providing the Action, at its interface with the tornado in the stratosphere, the Reaction is what we see on the ground as a tornado. With this explanation we

  12. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  13. Diurnal polar motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, P.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical theory is developed to describe diurnal polar motion in the earth which arises as a forced response due to lunisolar torques and tidal deformation. Doodson's expansion of the tide generating potential is used to represent the lunisolar torques. Both the magnitudes and the rates of change of perturbations in the earth's inertia tensor are included in the dynamical equations for the polar motion so as to account for rotational and tidal deformation. It is found that in a deformable earth with Love's number k = 0.29, the angular momentum vector departs by as much as 20 cm from the rotation axis rather than remaining within 1 or 2 cm as it would in a rigid earth. This 20 cm separation is significant in the interpretation of submeter polar motion observations because it necessitates an additional coordinate transformation in order to remove what would otherwise be a 20 cm error source in the conversion between inertial and terrestrial reference systems.

  14. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  15. Motion detector and analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Unruh, W.P.

    1987-03-23

    Method and apparatus are provided for deriving positive and negative Doppler spectrum to enable analysis of objects in motion, and particularly, objects having rotary motion. First and second returned radar signals are mixed with internal signals to obtain an in-phase process signal and a quadrature process signal. A broad-band phase shifter shifts the quadrature signal through 90/degree/ relative to the in-phase signal over a predetermined frequency range. A pair of signals is output from the broad-band phase shifter which are then combined to provide a first side band signal which is functionally related to a negative Doppler shift spectrum. The distinct positive and negative Doppler spectra may then be analyzed for the motion characteristics of the object being examined.

  16. Brownian motion of graphene.

    PubMed

    Maragó, Onofrio M; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Saija, Rosalba; Privitera, Giulia; Gucciardi, Pietro G; Iatì, Maria Antonia; Calogero, Giuseppe; Jones, Philip H; Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Nicolosi, Valeria; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2010-12-28

    Brownian motion is a manifestation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of statistical mechanics. It regulates systems in physics, biology, chemistry, and finance. We use graphene as prototype material to unravel the consequences of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in two dimensions, by studying the Brownian motion of optically trapped graphene flakes. These orient orthogonal to the light polarization, due to the optical constants anisotropy. We explain the flake dynamics in the optical trap and measure force and torque constants from the correlation functions of the tracking signals, as well as comparing experiments with a full electromagnetic theory of optical trapping. The understanding of optical trapping of two-dimensional nanostructures gained through our Brownian motion analysis paves the way to light-controlled manipulation and all-optical sorting of biological membranes and anisotropic macromolecules.

  17. Quasilinear saturation of the aperiodic ordinary mode streaming instability

    SciTech Connect

    Stockem Novo, A. Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Seough, J.

    2015-09-15

    In collisionless plasmas, only kinetic instabilities and fluctuations are effective in reducing the free energy and scatter plasma particles, preventing an increase of their anisotropy. Solar energetic outflows into the interplanetary plasma give rise to important thermal anisotropies and counterstreaming motions of plasma shells, and the resulting instabilities are expected to regulate the expansion of the solar wind. The present paper combines quasilinear theory and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations in order to study the weakly nonlinear saturation of the ordinary mode in hot counter-streaming plasmas with a temperature anisotropy as a follow-up of the paper by Seough et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 082122 (2015)]. This instability provides a plausible mechanism for the origin of dominating, two-dimensional spectrum of transverse magnetic fluctuations observed in the solar wind. Stimulated by the differential motion of electron counterstreams the O mode instability may convert their free large-scale energy by nonlinear collisionless dissipation on plasma particles.

  18. Dynamic visualization of data streams

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richalnd, WA; Foote, Harlan P [Richland, WA; Adams, Daniel R [Kennewick, WA; Cowley, Wendy E [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA

    2009-07-07

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a data communication subsystem to receive a data stream, and a data processing subsystem responsive to the data communication subsystem to generate a visualization output based on a group of data vectors corresponding to a first portion of the data stream. The processing subsystem is further responsive to a change in rate of receipt of the data to modify the visualization output with one or more other data vectors corresponding to a second portion of the data stream as a function of eigenspace defined with the group of data vectors. The system further includes a display device responsive to the visualization output to provide a corresponding visualization.

  19. A Robust Streaming Media System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youwei, Zhang

    Presently, application layer multicast protocols (ALM) are proposed as substitute for IP multicast and have made extraordinary achievements. Integrated with Multi-data-stream mode such as Multiple Description Coding (MDC), ALM becomes more scalable and robust in high-dynamic Internet environment compared with single data stream. Although MDC can provide a flexible data transmission style, the synchronization of different descriptions encoded from one video source is proved to be difficult due to different delay on diverse transmission paths. In this paper, an ALM system called HMDC is proposed to improve accepted video quality of streaming media, hosts can join the separate overlay trees in different layers simultaneously, then the maximum synchronized descriptions of the same layer are worked out to acquire the best video quality. Simulations implemented on Internet-like topology indicate that HMDC achieves better video quality, lower link stress, higher robustness and comparable latency compared with traditional ALM protocols.

  20. Meteoroid streams and comet disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the statistical analysis of the dynamic parameters of 114 comets that have undergone nuclear splitting are presented in the article. The list of the objects contains: comets that have split in the period of the observation; data of twin-comets; lost comets with designation D; comets with large-scale structure in the coma. We will describe these comets as "splitted". Some aspects of the following hypothesis are studied: disintegration of comet nuclei happens as the result of their collision with meteoroid streams. For the verification of this hypothesis, the position of splitted comet orbits relatively to 125 meteor streams from Kronk's list is analyzed. It was found that the total number of comet orbit nodes located close to the meteor stream planes (for the distances up to 0.1 AU) is N = 1041. It is shown that if these comets are replaced by randomly selected different comets, N will be reduced by a factor of approximately three.

  1. Streaming simplification of tetrahedral meshes.

    PubMed

    Vo, Huy T; Callahan, Steven P; Lindstrom, Peter; Pascucci, Valerio; Silva, Cláudio T

    2007-01-01

    Unstructured tetrahedral meshes are commonly used in scientific computing to represent scalar, vector, and tensor fields in three dimensions. Visualization of these meshes can be difficult to perform interactively due to their size and complexity. By reducing the size of the data, we can accomplish real-time visualization necessary for scientific analysis. We propose a two-step approach for streaming simplification of large tetrahedral meshes. Our algorithm arranges the data on disk in a streaming, I/O-efficient format that allows coherent access to the tetrahedral cells. A quadric-based simplification is sequentially performed on small portions of the mesh in-core. Our output is a coherent streaming mesh which facilitates future processing. Our technique is fast, produces high quality approximations, and operates out-of-core to process meshes too large for main memory.

  2. Analysis of swimming motions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallenstein, J.; Huston, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of swimming motion with specific attention given to the flutter kick, the breast-stroke kick, and the breast stroke. The analysis is completely theoretical. It employs a mathematical model of the human body consisting of frustrums of elliptical cones. Dynamical equations are written for this model including both viscous and inertia forces. These equations are then applied with approximated swimming strokes and solved numerically using a digital computer. The procedure is to specify the input of the swimming motion. The computer solution then provides the output displacement, velocity, and rotation or body roll of the swimmer.

  3. Analysis of swimming motions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallenstein, J.; Huston, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of swimming motion with specific attention given to the flutter kick, the breast-stroke kick, and the breast stroke. The analysis is completely theoretical. It employs a mathematical model of the human body consisting of frustrums of elliptical cones. Dynamical equations are written for this model including both viscous and inertia forces. These equations are then applied with approximated swimming strokes and solved numerically using a digital computer. The procedure is to specify the input of the swimming motion. The computer solution then provides the output displacement, velocity, and rotation or body roll of the swimmer.

  4. Motion in microfluidic ratchets.

    PubMed

    Caballero, D; Katuri, J; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-11-15

    The ubiquitous random motion of mesoscopic active particles, such as cells, can be "rectified" or directed by embedding the particles in systems containing local and periodic asymmetric cues. Incorporated on lab-on-a-chip devices, these microratchet-like structures can be used to self-propel fluids, transport particles, and direct cell motion in the absence of external power sources. In this Focus article we discuss recent advances in the use of ratchet-like geometries in microfluidics which could open new avenues in biomedicine for applications in diagnosis, cancer biology, and bioengineering.

  5. Dislocation motion and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yichao; Chapman, Stephen Jonathan; Acharya, Amit

    2013-08-01

    The Peach-Koehler expression for the stress generated by a single (non-planar) curvilinear dislocation is evaluated to calculate the dislocation self stress. This is combined with a law of motion to give the self-induced motion of a general dislocation curve. A stability analysis of a rectilinear, uniformly translating dislocation is then performed. The dislocation is found to be susceptible to a helical instability, with the maximum growth rate occurring when the dislocation is almost, but not exactly, pure screw. The non-linear evolution of the instability is determined numerically, and implications for slip band formation and non-Schmid behavior in yielding are discussed.

  6. Noncommutative Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Willien O.; Almeida, Guilherme M. A.; Souza, Andre M. C.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the classical Brownian motion of a particle in a two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) space. Using the standard NC algebra embodied by the symplectic Weyl-Moyal formalism we find that noncommutativity induces a nonvanishing correlation between both coordinates at different times. The effect stands out as a signature of spatial noncommutativity and thus could offer a way to experimentally detect the phenomena. We further discuss some limiting scenarios and the trade-off between the scale imposed by the NC structure and the parameters of the Brownian motion itself.

  7. Morphodynamics of supraglacial streams (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, L.; Manga, M.; Gajjar, P.

    2010-12-01

    Supraglacial hydrologic networks exhibit structure and morphodynamics reminiscent of alluvial channels, in an environment where the primary mechanism of erosion is thermal and timescales of topographic adjustment are days to weeks. Supraglacial stream incision is strongly modulated by solar forcing, at times faster or slower than the large-scale lowering of the glacial surface. This variability, in combination with control by structures within the ice or other surface topography, produces a time-evolving drainage network over the course of the melt season. Near the snow line, porous ice facilitates channel development and abandonment via seepage, whereas near the terminus channels are more stable and larger in scale. Discharge generally increases with drainage area, except in cases where water is lost through moulins or crevasses. We report here on fieldwork at the Mendenhall and Llewellyn glaciers on the Juneau Icefield, aimed at better characterizing flow and incision dynamics of supraglacial streams. Time series of temperature, velocity and isotopic composition reveal diurnal variability in flow processes, with clear discharge dependence. GPS profiles show slope dependence of stream sinuousity, and we observe differential incision of ice surface and streams along with downstream migration of meanders and of ice bedforms. We document drainage density, and identify subsurface water movement near the snow line that facilitates channelization. These field measurements are used to develop and validate a theoretical model of meander formation in supraglacial streams, based on the framework of bend theory in alluvial meanders (Karlstrom et al., in review). We find empirically that meandering in supraglacial streams globally follows the linear wavelength-width power law relation found in alluvial and bedrock rivers, but with a smaller intercept. Our linear theory can reproduce this relation, as well as the observed downstream migration of meanders.

  8. Hand in Motion Reveals Mind in Motion

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Dale, Rick; Farmer, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-tracking can provide unusually high-fidelity, real-time motor traces of the mind. These motor traces cast novel theoretical and empirical light onto a wide range of phenomena and serve as a potential bridge between far-reaching areas of psychological science – from language, to high-level cognition and learning, to social cognitive processes. PMID:21687437

  9. Induced motion at texture-defined motion boundaries.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A; Benton, C P; McOwan, P W

    1999-01-01

    When a static textured background is covered and uncovered by a moving bar of the same mean luminance we can clearly see the motion of the bar. Texture-defined motion provides an example of a naturally occurring second-order motion. Second-order motion sequences defeat standard spatio-temporal energy models of motion perception. It has been proposed that second-order stimuli are analysed by separate systems, operating in parallel with luminance-defined motion processing, which incorporate identifiable pre-processing stages that make second-order patterns visible to standard techniques. However, the proposal of multiple paths to motion analysis remains controversial. Here we describe the behaviour of a model that recovers both luminance-defined and an important class of texture-defined motion. The model also accounts for the induced motion that is seen in some texture-defined motion sequences. We measured the perceived direction and speed of both the contrast envelope and induced motion in the case of a contrast modulation of static noise textures. Significantly, the model predicts the perceived speed of the induced motion seen at second-order texture boundaries. The induced motion investigated here appears distinct from classical induced effects resulting from motion contrast or the movement of a reference frame. PMID:10643088

  10. NARS Rivers and Streams Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data are from 1,000 river and stream sites across the conterminous US where consistent biological, chemical, physical and watershed data were gathered. The sites were selected using a probability survey design so that the results provide inferences to all perennial flowing waters in the lower 48 states.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Omernik, J., S. Paulsen , M. Weber , and G. Griffith. Regional patterns of total nitrogen concentrations in the National Rivers and Streams Assessment. JOURNAL OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. Soil and Water Conservation Society, 71(3): 167-181, (2016).

  11. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  12. Temperature of the Gulf Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf Stream is one of the strong ocean currents that carries warm water from the sunny tropics to higher latitudes. The current stretches from the Gulf of Mexico up the East Coast of the United States, departs from North America south of the Chesapeake Bay, and heads across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The water within the Gulf Stream moves at the stately pace of 4 miles per hour. Even though the current cools as the water travels thousands of miles, it remains strong enough to moderate the Northern European climate. The image above was derived from the infrared measurements of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on a nearly cloud-free day over the east coast of the United States. The coldest waters are shown as purple, with blue, green, yellow, and red representing progressively warmer water. Temperatures range from about 7 to 22 degrees Celsius. The core of the Gulf Stream is very apparent as the warmest water, dark red. It departs from the coast at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The cool, shelf water from the north entrains the warmer outflows from the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays. The north wall of the Gulf Stream reveals very complex structure associated with frontal instabilities that lead to exchanges between the Gulf Stream and inshore waters. Several clockwise-rotating warm core eddies are evident north of the core of the Gulf Stream, which enhance the exchange of heat and water between the coastal and deep ocean. Cold core eddies, which rotate counter clockwise, are seen south of the Gulf Stream. The one closest to Cape Hatteras is entraining very warm Gulf Stream waters on its northwest circumference. Near the coast, shallower waters have warmed due to solar heating, while the deeper waters offshore are markedly cooler (dark blue). MODIS made this observation on May 8, 2000, at 11:45 a.m. EDT. For more information, see the MODIS-Ocean web page. The sea surface temperature image was created at the University of Miami using

  13. Salamander occupancy in headwater stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Green, L.E.; Lowe, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. Stream ecosystems exhibit a highly consistent dendritic geometry in which linear habitat units intersect to create a hierarchical network of connected branches. 2. Ecological and life history traits of species living in streams, such as the potential for overland movement, may interact with this architecture to shape patterns of occupancy and response to disturbance. Specifically, large-scale habitat alteration that fragments stream networks and reduces connectivity may reduce the probability a stream is occupied by sensitive species, such as stream salamanders. 3. We collected habitat occupancy data on four species of stream salamanders in first-order (i.e. headwater) streams in undeveloped and urbanised regions of the eastern U.S.A. We then used an information-theoretic approach to test alternative models of salamander occupancy based on a priori predictions of the effects of network configuration, region and salamander life history. 4. Across all four species, we found that streams connected to other first-order streams had higher occupancy than those flowing directly into larger streams and rivers. For three of the four species, occupancy was lower in the urbanised region than in the undeveloped region. 5. These results demonstrate that the spatial configuration of stream networks within protected areas affects the occurrences of stream salamander species. We strongly encourage preservation of network connections between first-order streams in conservation planning and management decisions that may affect stream species.

  14. Efficient Generation of Dancing Animation Synchronizing with Music Based on Meta Motion Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Takagi, Koichi; Sakazawa, Shigeyuki

    This paper presents a system for automatic generation of dancing animation that is synchronized with a piece of music by re-using motion capture data. Basically, the dancing motion is synthesized according to the rhythm and intensity features of music. For this purpose, we propose a novel meta motion graph structure to embed the necessary features including both rhythm and intensity, which is constructed on the motion capture database beforehand. In this paper, we consider two scenarios for non-streaming music and streaming music, where global search and local search are required respectively. In the case of the former, once a piece of music is input, the efficient dynamic programming algorithm can be employed to globally search a best path in the meta motion graph, where an objective function is properly designed by measuring the quality of beat synchronization, intensity matching, and motion smoothness. In the case of the latter, the input music is stored in a buffer in a streaming mode, then an efficient search method is presented for a certain amount of music data (called a segment) in the buffer with the same objective function, resulting in a segment-based search approach. For streaming applications, we define an additional property in the above meta motion graph to deal with the unpredictable future music, which guarantees that there is some motion to match the unknown remaining music. A user study with totally 60 subjects demonstrates that our system outperforms the stat-of-the-art techniques in both scenarios. Furthermore, our system improves the synthesis speed greatly (maximal speedup is more than 500 times), which is essential for mobile applications. We have implemented our system on commercially available smart phones and confirmed that it works well on these mobile phones.

  15. Stream-floodwave propagation through the Great Bend alluvial aquifer, Kansas: Field measurements and numerical simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis is explored that groundwater-level rises in the Great Bend Prairie aquifer of Kansas are caused not only by water percolating downward through the soil but also by pressure pulses from stream flooding that propagate in a translatory motion through numerous high hydraulic diffusivity buried channels crossing the Great Bend Prairie aquifer in an approximately west to east direction. To validate this hypothesis, two transects of wells in a north-south and east-west orientation crossing and alongside some paleochannels in the area were instrumented with water-level-recording devices; streamflow data from all area streams were obtained from available stream-gaging stations. A theoretical approach was also developed to conceptualize numerically the stream-aquifer processes. The field data and numerical simulations provided support for the hypothesis. Thus, observation wells located along the shoulders or in between the inferred paleochannels show little or no fluctuations and no correlations with streamflow, whereas wells located along paleochannels show high water-level fluctuations and good correlation with the streamflows of the stream connected to the observation site by means of the paleochannels. The stream-aquifer numerical simulation results demonstrate that the larger the hydraulic diffusivity of the aquifer, the larger the extent of pressure pulse propagation and the faster the propagation speed. The conceptual simulation results indicate that long-distance propagation of stream floodwaves (of the order of tens of kilometers) through the Great Bend aquifer is indeed feasible with plausible stream and aquifer parameters. The sensitivity analysis results indicate that the extent and speed of pulse propagation is more sensitive to variations of stream roughness (Manning's coefficient) and stream channel slope than to any aquifer parameter. ?? 1991.

  16. Controlling acoustic streaming in an ultrasonic heptagonal tweezers with application to cell manipulation.

    PubMed

    Bernassau, A L; Glynne-Jones, P; Gesellchen, F; Riehle, M; Hill, M; Cumming, D R S

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force has been demonstrated as a method for manipulating micron-scale particles, but is frequently affected by unwanted streaming. In this paper the streaming in a multi-transducer quasi-standing wave acoustic particle manipulation device is assessed, and found to be dominated by a form of Eckart streaming. The experimentally observed streaming takes the form of two main vortices that have their highest velocity in the region where the standing wave is established. A finite element model is developed that agrees well with experimental results, and shows that the Reynolds stresses that give rise to the fluid motion are strongest in the high velocity region. A technical solution to reduce the streaming is explored that entails the introduction of a biocompatible agar gel layer at the bottom of the chamber so as to reduce the fluid depth and volume. By this means, we reduce the region of fluid that experiences the Reynolds stresses; the viscous drag per unit volume of fluid is also increased. Particle Image Velocimetry data is used to observe the streaming as a function of agar-modified cavity depth. It was found that, in an optimised structure, Eckart streaming could be reduced to negligible levels so that we could make a sonotweezers device with a large working area of up to 13 mm × 13 mm.

  17. Using Gaps in N-body Tidal Streams to Probe Missing Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, W. H. W.; Carlberg, R. G.

    2014-06-01

    We use N-body simulations to model the tidal disruption of a star cluster in a Milky-Way-sized dark matter halo, which results in a narrow stream comparable to (but slightly wider than) Pal-5 or GD-1. The mean Galactic dark matter halo is modeled by a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White potential with subhalos predicted by the ΛCDM cosmological model. The distribution and mass function of the subhalos follow the results from the Aquarius simulation. We use a matched filter approach to look for "gaps" in tidal streams at 12 length scales from 0.1 kpc to 5 kpc, which appear as characteristic dips in the linear densities along the streams. We find that, in addition to the subhalos' perturbations, the epicyclic overdensities (EOs) due to the coherent epicyclic motions of particles in a stream also produce gap-like signals near the progenitor. We measure the gap spectra—the gap formation rates as functions of gap length—due to both subhalo perturbations and EOs, which have not been accounted for together by previous studies. Finally, we project the simulated streams onto the sky to investigate issues when interpreting gap spectra in observations. In particular, we find that gap spectra from low signal-to-noise observations can be biased by the orbital phase of the stream. This indicates that the study of stream gaps will benefit greatly from high-quality data from future missions.

  18. Riparian influences on stream fish assemblage structure in urbanizing streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, A.H.; Freeman, B.J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the influence of land cover at multiple spatial extents on fish assemblage integrity, and the degree to which riparian forests can mitigate the negative effects of catchment urbanization on stream fish assemblages. Riparian cover (urban, forest, and agriculture) was determined within 30 m buffers at longitudinal distances of 200 m, 1 km, and the entire network upstream of 59 non-nested fish sampling locations. Catchment and riparian land cover within the upstream network were highly correlated, so we were unable to distinguish between those variables. Most fish assemblage variables were related to % forest and % urban land cover, with the strongest relations at the largest spatial extent of land cover (catchment), followed by riparian land cover in the 1-km and 200-m reach, respectively. For fish variables related to urban land cover in the catchment, we asked whether the influence of riparian land cover on fish assemblages was dependent on the amount of urban development in the catchment. Several fish assemblage metrics (endemic richness, endemic:cosmopolitan abundance, insectivorous cyprinid richness and abundance, and fluvial specialist richness) were all best predicted by single variable models with % urban land cover. However, endemic:cosmopolitan richness, cosmopolitan abundance, and lentic tolerant abundance were related to % forest cover in the 1-km stream reach, but only in streams that had <15% catchment urban land cover. In these cases, catchment urbanization overwhelmed the potential mitigating effects of riparian forests on stream fishes. Together, these results suggest that catchment land cover is an important driver of fish assemblages in urbanizing catchments, and riparian forests are important but not sufficient for protecting stream ecosystems from the impacts of high levels of urbanization.

  19. Development of motion control method for laser soldering process

    SciTech Connect

    Yerganian, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Development of a method to generate the motion control data for sealing an electronic housing using laser soldering is described. The motion required to move the housing under the laser is a nonstandard application and was performed with a four-axis system using the timed data streaming mode capabilities of a Compumotor AT6400 indexer. A Microsoft Excel 5.0 spreadsheet (named Israuto.xls) was created to calculate the movement of the part under the laser, and macros were written into the spreadsheet to allow the user to easily create this data. A data verification method was developed for simulating the motion data. The geometry of the assembly was generated using Parametric Technology Corporation Pro/E version 15. This geometry was then converted using Pro/DADS version 3.1 from Computer Aided Design Software Inc. (CADSI), and the simulation was carried out using DADS version 8.0 from CADSI.

  20. Real-time motion tracking of three-dimensional objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, Gilbert; Gale, Karey Lynch; Dyer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    The problem in which the three-dimensional motion of an object corresponding to a known polyhedral model is to be computed using only the motion of edge features in a continuous stream of two-dimensional images is considered. Advantage is taken of the spatiotemporal density of the input signal and the limitations of long-range trajectory-prediction methods are avoided. Two parallel algorithms which use feature-based, short-range (spatiotemporally local) motion processes to achieve real-time tracking of modeled objects are presented. Both algorithms have been implemented and tested on a tightly coupled multiprocessor system consisting of an Aspex Pipe for low-level, image-feature computations and a Sequent Symmetry for high-level, model-based computations. An analysis is given of the actual performance limits of each method using the current hardware configuration.

  1. The Proper Motion of Palomar 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, T. K.; Kallivayalil, N.

    2015-10-01

    Palomar 5 (Pal 5) is a faint halo globular cluster associated with narrow tidal tails. It is a useful system to understand the process of tidal dissolution, as well as to constrain the potential of the Milky Way. A well-determined orbit for Pal 5 would enable detailed study of these open questions. We present here the first CCD-based proper motion measurement of Pal 5 obtained using SDSS as a first epoch and new Large Binocular Telescope/Large Binocular Camera (LBC) images as a second, giving a baseline of 15 years. We perform relative astrometry, using SDSS as a distortion-free reference, and images of the cluster and also of the Pal 5 stream for the derivation of the distortion correction for LBC. The reference frame is made up of background galaxies. We correct for differential chromatic refraction using relations obtained from SDSS colors as well as from flux-calibrated spectra, finding that the correction relations for stars and for galaxies are different. We obtain μα = -2.296 ± 0.186 mas yr-1 and μδ = -2.257 ± 0.181 mas yr-1 for the proper motion of Pal 5. We use this motion, and the publicly available code galpy, to model the disruption of Pal 5 in different Milky Way models consisting of a bulge, a disk, and a spherical dark matter halo. Our fits to the observed stream properties (streak and radial velocity gradient) result in a preference for a relatively large Pal 5 distance of around 24 kpc. A slightly larger absolute proper motion than what we measure also results in better matches but the best solutions need a change in distance. We find that a spherical Milky Way model, with V0 = 220 km s-1 and V20 kpc, i.e., approximately at the apocenter of Pal 5, of 218 km s-1, can match the data well, at least for our choice of disk and bulge parametrization. Based on LBT data. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The Ohio State University, and The Research

  2. THE PROPER MOTION OF PALOMAR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, T. K.; Kallivayalil, N.

    2015-10-01

    Palomar 5 (Pal 5) is a faint halo globular cluster associated with narrow tidal tails. It is a useful system to understand the process of tidal dissolution, as well as to constrain the potential of the Milky Way. A well-determined orbit for Pal 5 would enable detailed study of these open questions. We present here the first CCD-based proper motion measurement of Pal 5 obtained using SDSS as a first epoch and new Large Binocular Telescope/Large Binocular Camera (LBC) images as a second, giving a baseline of 15 years. We perform relative astrometry, using SDSS as a distortion-free reference, and images of the cluster and also of the Pal 5 stream for the derivation of the distortion correction for LBC. The reference frame is made up of background galaxies. We correct for differential chromatic refraction using relations obtained from SDSS colors as well as from flux-calibrated spectra, finding that the correction relations for stars and for galaxies are different. We obtain μ{sub α} = −2.296 ± 0.186 mas yr{sup −1} and μ{sub δ} = −2.257 ± 0.181 mas yr{sup −1} for the proper motion of Pal 5. We use this motion, and the publicly available code galpy, to model the disruption of Pal 5 in different Milky Way models consisting of a bulge, a disk, and a spherical dark matter halo. Our fits to the observed stream properties (streak and radial velocity gradient) result in a preference for a relatively large Pal 5 distance of around 24 kpc. A slightly larger absolute proper motion than what we measure also results in better matches but the best solutions need a change in distance. We find that a spherical Milky Way model, with V{sub 0} = 220 km s{sup −1} and V{sub 20} {sub kpc}, i.e., approximately at the apocenter of Pal 5, of 218 km s{sup −1}, can match the data well, at least for our choice of disk and bulge parametrization.

  3. A world in motion

    SciTech Connect

    Boynton, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A World in Motion is a physical science curriculum supplement for grades four, five, and six which responds to the need to promote and teach sound science and mathematics concepts. Using the A World in Motion kits, teachers work in partnership with practicing engineer or scientists volunteers to provide students with fun, exciting, and relevant hands-on science and math experiences. During the A World in Motion experience, students work together in {open_quotes}Engineering Design Teams{close_quotes} exploring physics concepts through a series of activities. Each student is assigned a role as either a facilities engineer, development engineer, test engineer, or project engineer and is given responsibilities paralleling those of engineers in industry. The program culminates in a {open_quotes}Design Review{close_quotes} where students can communicate their results, demonstrate their designs, and receive recognition for their efforts. They are given a chance to take on responsibility and build self-esteem. Since January 1991, over 12,000 volunteers engineers have been involved with the program, with a distribution of 20,000 A World in Motion kit throughout the U.S. and Canada.

  4. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  5. Solar Motion from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treschman, Keith

    2009-01-01

    At noon throughout the year the Sun has a north-south and east-west motion around the meridian. Earliest/latest sunrises and sunsets do not occur at the solstices and the effect is more pronounced with decreasing latitude. This phenomenon is calculated for 25 Australian cities and the following observations are recorded: (1) The latest sunrise…

  6. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  7. Theory of orthodontic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.

  8. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  9. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  10. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  11. Solar Motion from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treschman, Keith

    2009-01-01

    At noon throughout the year the Sun has a north-south and east-west motion around the meridian. Earliest/latest sunrises and sunsets do not occur at the solstices and the effect is more pronounced with decreasing latitude. This phenomenon is calculated for 25 Australian cities and the following observations are recorded: (1) The latest sunrise…

  12. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  13. Marbles in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Meyers, Bernice; Schmidt, William

    1999-01-01

    Marbles were successfully used to help primary students develop concepts of motion. Marble-unit activities began with shaking and rattling inference bags and predicting by listening just how many marbles were in each bag. Students made qualitative and quantitative observations of the marbles, manipulated marbles with a partner, and observed…

  14. Introducing Simple Harmonic Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, John

    2002-01-01

    Explains the origin and significance of harmonic motion which is an important topic that has wide application in the world. Describes the phenomenon by using an auxiliary circle to help illustrate the key relationships between acceleration, displacement, time, velocity, and phase. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Theory of orthodontic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.

  16. Superluminal motion (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  17. Planets in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2005-01-01

    All the planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun in the same direction, clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. This is referred to as direct motion. From the perspective on the Earth's surface, the planets travel east across the sky in relation to the background of stars. The Sun also moves eastward daily, but this is an…

  18. Marbles in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Meyers, Bernice; Schmidt, William

    1999-01-01

    Marbles were successfully used to help primary students develop concepts of motion. Marble-unit activities began with shaking and rattling inference bags and predicting by listening just how many marbles were in each bag. Students made qualitative and quantitative observations of the marbles, manipulated marbles with a partner, and observed…

  19. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  20. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  1. Linear motion valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The linear motion valve is described. The valve spool employs magnetically permeable rings, spaced apart axially, which engage a sealing assembly having magnetically permeable pole pieces in magnetic relationship with a magnet. The gap between the ring and the pole pieces is sealed with a ferrofluid. Depletion of the ferrofluid is minimized.

  2. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  3. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  4. Motion perception in children with foetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gummel, Kristina; Ygge, Jan; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Bolzani, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the visual magnocellular pathway by a coherent motion perception test in children with foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Eighty-nine children (49 with verified FAS and 40 without FAS) aged from 10 to 16 years were included into the study. Both the study and the control group were children living in orphanages. A coherent motion perception test was used. The test consisted of 150 white moving dots on a black background presented in different signal-to-noise ratio conditions. The task was direction detection of the coherently moving dots whose percentage decreased at each step. A significant difference between the two groups was found (p = 0.018). Children with FAS had lower coherent motion perception ability in all the signal-to-noise ratio conditions. A significant difference between difficulty levels (p < 0.001) was found for all subjects in both groups - decreasing the stimulus signal-to-noise level decreased the motion perception score. In both groups, the motion perception score differed for vertical and horizontal stimuli (p = 0.003) with better performance with vertical stimuli. Impaired motion perception in FAS children could be indicative of a dorsal stream developmental dysfunction resulting from alcohol brain damage. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  5. Multisensory space: from eye-movements to self-motion

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We perceive the world around us as stable. This is remarkable given that our body parts as well as we ourselves are constantly in motion. Humans and other primates move their eyes more often than their hearts beat. Such eye movements lead to coherent motion of the images of the outside world across the retina. Furthermore, during everyday life, we constantly approach targets, avoid obstacles or otherwise move in space. These movements induce motion across different sensory receptor epithels: optical flow across the retina, tactile flow across the body surface and even auditory flow as detected from the two ears. It is generally assumed that motion signals as induced by one's own movement have to be identified and differentiated from the real motion in the outside world. In a number of experimental studies we and others have functionally characterized the primate posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and its role in multisensory encoding of spatial and motion information. Extracellular recordings in the macaque monkey showed that during steady fixation the visual, auditory and tactile spatial representations in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) are congruent. This finding was of major importance given that a functional MRI (fMRI) study determined the functional equivalent of macaque area VIP in humans. Further recordings in other areas of the dorsal stream of the visual cortical system of the macaque pointed towards the neural basis of perceptual phenomena (heading detection during eye movements, saccadic suppression, mislocalization of visual stimuli during eye movements) as determined in psychophysical studies in humans. PMID:20921203

  6. Visual Target Tracking in the Presence of Unknown Observer Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Stephen; Lu, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the visual tracking problem due to its obvious uses in military surveillance. However, visual tracking is complicated by the presence of motion of the observer in addition to the target motion, especially when the image changes caused by the observer motion are large compared to those caused by the target motion. Techniques for estimating the motion of the observer based on image registration techniques and Kalman filtering are presented and simulated. With the effects of the observer motion removed, an additional phase is implemented to track individual targets. This tracking method is demonstrated on an image stream from a buoy-mounted or periscope-mounted camera, where large inter-frame displacements are present due to the wave action on the camera. This system has been shown to be effective at tracking and predicting the global position of a planar vehicle (boat) being observed from a single, out-of-plane camera. Finally, the tracking system has been extended to a multi-target scenario.

  7. Collective cell motion in endothelial monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, A.; Ünnep, R.; Méhes, E.; Twal, W. O.; Argraves, S. W.; Cao, Y.; Czirók, A.

    2011-01-01

    Collective cell motility is an important aspect of several developmental and pathophysiological processes. Despite its importance, the mechanisms that allow cells to be both motile and adhere to one another are poorly understood. In this study we establish statistical properties of the random streaming behavior of endothelial monolayer cultures. To understand the reported empirical findings, we expand the widely used cellular Potts model to include active cell motility. For spontaneous directed motility we assume a positive feedback between cell displacements and cell polarity. The resulting model is studied with computer simulations, and is shown to exhibit behavior compatible with experimental findings. In particular, in monolayer cultures both the speed and persistence of cell motion decreases, transient cell chains move together as groups, and velocity correlations extend over several cell diameters. As active cell motility is ubiquitous both in vitro and in vivo, our model is expected to be a generally applicable representation of cellular behavior. PMID:21076204

  8. Motion dominance in binocular rivalry depends on extraretinal motions.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Ryohei; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Sato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    In binocular rivalry, moving stimulus is dominant over stationary stimulus. This is called motion dominance. The motion here is usually a motion defined on the retina (retinal motion). However, motion can be defined in several different coordinates. It can be defined with respect to objects in the background (object-based motion) or to observers' head or body (spatiotopic motion), as well as to the retinal coordinate. In this study, we examined the role of motions defined by these three coordinates. A dichoptic pair of gratings was presented to create a binocular rivalry, one of which was moving and the other stationary. A fixation point and a reference background were either moving with the grating or stationary, depending on the condition. Different combinations of the three types of motions were created by having the observer track the fixation point or the background when they are moving. It was found that the retinal motion does not necessarily yield motion dominance, and that the motion dominance is determined by the combination of motions defined by different coordinate systems.

  9. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Chemical quality of Michigan streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Warren W.

    1970-01-01

    Concentrations of chemical constituents of Michigan streams exhibit regional patterns that are primarily a function of geology and evapotranspiration. However, in some areas waste disposal by municipal and industrial organizations has altered the natural distribution and concentrations of dissolved material. Concentration and areal distribution of chemical constitutents were found to change very little from high spring to low summer flow conditions.

  11. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  12. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  13. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  14. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  15. Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  17. Video Streaming in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin

    2006-01-01

    The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…

  18. Mixed Ability Teaching Versus Streaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Sixten

    1984-01-01

    Discusses development of pupil grouping in European compulsory education into two opposite class organization types, mixed ability classes and ability-grouped classes. Categorizes the types along two dimensions with three program types and three grouping types, yielding nine teaching categories. Discusses comparative results of streaming and mixed…

  19. Water Chemistry of Ephemeral Streams

    Treesearch

    J.L. Michael; W.P. Fowler; H.L. Gibbs; J.B. Fischer

    1994-01-01

    Four individual, but related, studies are currently being conducted to determine the effects of clearcut and seed tree reproduction cutting methods on stream chemistry, sedimentation, and bedload movement by monitoring herbicide and nutrient movement in stemflow, overland flow, streamflow, and zonal subsurface flow. Sediment movement is being quantified for...

  20. Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Effects of Stream Channel Characteristics on Nitrate Delivery to Streams and In-Stream Denitrification Rates, Raccoon River, Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; O'Connell, M.

    2004-05-01

    Streams in agricultural areas often exhibit significant channel and sediment modifications; they are often incised and transport more fine sediment than non-agricultural streams. These channel characteristics can influence stream water quality by modifying surface-groundwater interactions. In the Raccoon River basin, channel incision increases the delivery of nitrate from the groundwater to the streams. The sandy in-stream sediments, however, serve as very effective sites for in-stream denitrification. Nitrate delivery and in-stream denitrification was examined in 3 subwatersheds of the Raccoon River. Stream morphology, water quality, and sediment characteristics were measured at 35 sites with varying land uses. Headwater stream nitrate concentration increased with percent row crops and the amount of channel incision. Downstream sites showed a wide variation in nitrate concentration with land use. Stream nitrate concentrations were measured at 6 sites in each of 3 streams with high percentages of row crop land uses during high summer baseflow following the 1993 floods and during average summer baseflow in 1995. Nitrate concentrations were systematically higher for the high baseflow conditions of 1993 than the average year (1995). This change in nitrate concentration is interpreted as the increased effectiveness of nitrate delivery to the stream during periods of high water tables. The effect was most pronounced in incised reaches. All 3 streams show downstream decreases in nitrate concentration. Water samples for all the sites in the watersheds were analyzed for nitrogen isotopic composition. The nitrogen isotopic composition shifts with towards higher d 15N values with decreasing nitrate concentration. This is consistent with denitrification reactions that selectively remove the 14N leaving a higher proportion of 15N in the nitrate. This suggests that most of the downstream decrease in nitrate concentrations is a result of in-stream denitrification. The high rates

  2. Runoff characteristics of California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1972-01-01

    California streams exhibit a wide range of runoff characteristics that are related to the climatologic, topographic, and geologic characteristics of the basins they drain. The annual volume of runoff of a stream, expressed in inches, may be large or small, and daily discharge rates may be highly variable or relatively steady. The bulk of the annual runoff may be storm runoff, or snowmelt runoff, or a combination of both. The streamflow may be ephemeral, intermittent, or perennial; if perennial, base flow may be well sustained or poorly sustained. In this report the various runoff characteristics are identified by numerical index values. They are shown to be related generally to mean annual precipitation, altitude, latitude, and location with respect to the 11 geomorphic provinces in the California Region. With respect to mean annual precipitation on the watershed, streamflow is generally (1) ephemeral if the mean annual precipitation is less than 10 inches, (2) intermittent if the mean annual precipitation is between 10 and 40 inches, and (3) perennial if the mean annual precipitation is more than 40 inches. Departures from those generalizations are associated with (a) the areal variation of such geologic factors as the infiltration and storage capacities of the rocks underlying the watersheds, and (b) the areal variation of evapotranspiration loss as influenced by varying conditions of climate, soil, vegetal cover, and geologic structure. Latitude and altitude determine the proportion of the winter precipitation that will be stored for subsequent runoff in the late spring and summer. In general, if a watershed has at least 30 percent of its area above the normal altitude of the snowline on April 1, it will have significant snowmelt runoff. Snowmelt runoff in California is said to be significant if at least 30 percent of the annual runoff occurs during the 4 months, April through July. Storm runoff is said to be predominant if at least 65 percent of the annual

  3. Sediment transported by Georgia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Vance C.

    1964-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of the sediment transported by selected Georgia streams during the period December 1957 to June 1959 was made to provide a general understanding of the physical quality of stream water in Georgia and to supply facts needed in planning more detailed work. The investigation was made by studying the variation of sediment concentration and sediment load with stream discharge at 33 sites and by relating the available data to topographic, geologic, climatic, and soil conditions in the State. In the Blue Ridge Mountains area of northern Georgia the great relief, moderately heavy precipitation, fast runoff, and loamy soils cause sediment concentrations and sediment loads which are above average for the State. During periods of moderate to low streamflow, the concentration of suspended sediment ranges from 1 to 25 ppm (parts per million). After heavy rainfall, sediment concentration increases rapidly as water discharge rises, and occasionally exceeds 1,000 ppm before decreasing again. The concentration may reach a maximum and decrease before the discharge peak is reached. A major part of the annual sediment load can be carried during a short period of time because of the great increase in both water discharge and sediment concentration during floods. The lower Coastal Plain differs from the mountainous areas in several respects. The topography is gently rolling to almost level, precipitation and runoff are less than average for the State, and topsoils generally consist of hard and loamy sand. Concentration of suspended sediment in streamflow commonly ranges from 1 to 20 ppm during periods of low to moderate discharge and increases to 15 to 60 ppm at high discharge. Because of the small increase in concentration with increasing stream discharge, the sediment load varies approximately in proportion to the discharge. The sediment characteristics of streams in the Piedmont, the Valley and Ridge area. and the upper Coastal Plain are intermediate

  4. Indiana stream-temperature characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shampine, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic stream-temperature data have been collected at 280 different sites in Indiana by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Indiana State Board of Health. These data have been analyzed using a simple-harmonic curve-fitting procedure. When the equation coefficients are known, calculations can be made for a given stream to estimate the maximum and minimum temperatures, the temperature on a given day, the day a given temperature is expected, or the length of time temperatures will exceed, or be less than, a specific. The calculated harmonic coefficients were related to 23 topographic, basin, and climatic characteristics, and were analyzed by multiple-regression analysis techniques. The regional regression analysis for the harmonic- mean stream temperature, M, resulted in the following arithmetic function of station latitude (LAT). M = 41.36 - 0.7166 (LAT) The multiple correlation coefficient (r) was .72. Poor correlations were found for the harmonic phase-angle and amplitude coefficients, C and A, respectively. Constants of 4.32 radians for C and 11.27° Celsius for A are suggested as average statewide values in Indiana streams. The mean temperature of the White River at Indianapolis was raised 3.5° Celsius above expected ambient levels caused by climatic conditions alone, primarily as a result of discharges from powerplants. In general, the harmonic coefficients depicting annual variability in stream temperatures, generated from the Indiana State board of Health data collected every 2 weeks, are the same as coefficients generated from the U.S. Geological Survey date collected every 4-6 weeks.

  5. Dynamical Modelling of Meteoroid Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David; Wiegert, P. A.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulations of meteoroid streams permit the prediction of stream interaction with Earth, and provide a measure of risk to Earth satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. Current cometary ejecta and meteoroid stream models have been somewhat successful in predicting some stream observations, but have required questionable assumptions and significant simplifications. Extending on the approach of Vaubaillon et al. (2005)1, we model dust ejection from the cometary nucleus, and generate sample particles representing bins of distinct dynamical evolution-regulating characteristics (size, density, direction, albedo). Ephemerides of the sample particles are integrated and recorded for later assignment of frequency based on model parameter changes. To assist in model analysis we are developing interactive software to permit the “turning of knobs” of model parameters, allowing for near-real-time 3D visualization of resulting stream structure. With this tool, we will revisit prior assumptions made, and will observe the impact of introducing non-uniform cometary surface attributes and temporal activity. The software uses a single model definition and implementation throughout model verification, sample particle bin generation and integration, and analysis. It supports the adjustment with feedback of both independent and independent model values, with the intent of providing an interface supporting multivariate analysis. Propagations of measurement uncertainties and model parameter precisions are tracked rigorously throughout. We maintain a separation of the model itself from the abstract concepts of model definition, parameter manipulation, and real-time analysis and visualization. Therefore we are able to quickly adapt to fundamental model changes. It is hoped the tool will also be of use in other solar system dynamics problems. 1 Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Jorda, L. (2005) A new method to predict meteor showers. I. Description of the model. Astronomy and

  6. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  7. A recirculating stream aquarium for ecological studies.

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Fred H. Everest; Carl E. McLemore

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of the ecological behavior of fishes often require studies in both natural and artificial stream environments. We describe a large, recirculating stream aquarium and its controls, constructed for ecological studies at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in Corvallis.

  8. Efficient stream distributions in radiative transfer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper discusses a new, computationally-efficient method for approximating the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer with a finite set of coupled differential equations for discrete streams. The method uses recommended spatial distributions of streams that are quite different from those typically used in that they are based on the symmetry of several regular Platonic solids. To facilitate the use of such distributions, an explicit, one-parameter relationship between the physical radiance and the abstract stream is formulated. The parameter is used to determine the minimum number of streams required in the radiative transfer model. Accuracy and computational efficiency are shown to be served best by choosing a stream distribution that is invariant to a large number of three space rotations. For various values of the above-mentioned parameter, the resulting recommended stream distribution is shown to be more computationally efficient than more conventional stream distributions. Finally, the incorporation of polarization in the stream definition is described.

  9. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  10. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  11. Global motion perception is associated with motor function in 2-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; Paudel, Nabin; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Ansell, Judith M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Harding, Jane E

    2017-08-31

    The dorsal visual processing stream that includes V1, motion sensitive area V5 and the posterior parietal lobe, supports visually guided motor function. Two recent studies have reported associations between global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing in V5, and motor function in pre-school and school aged children. This indicates a relationship between visual and motor development and also supports the use of global motion perception to assess overall dorsal stream function in studies of human neurodevelopment. We investigated whether associations between vision and motor function were present at 2 years of age, a substantially earlier stage of development. The Bayley III test of Infant and Toddler Development and measures of vision including visual acuity (Cardiff Acuity Cards), stereopsis (Lang stereotest) and global motion perception were attempted in 404 2-year-old children (±4 weeks). Global motion perception (quantified as a motion coherence threshold) was assessed by observing optokinetic nystagmus in response to random dot kinematograms of varying coherence. Linear regression revealed that global motion perception was modestly, but statistically significantly associated with Bayley III composite motor (r(2)=0.06, P<0.001, n=375) and gross motor scores (r(2)=0.06, p<0.001, n=375). The associations remained significant when language score was included in the regression model. In addition, when language score was included in the model, stereopsis was significantly associated with composite motor and fine motor scores, but unaided visual acuity was not statistically significantly associated with any of the motor scores. These results demonstrate that global motion perception and binocular vision are associated with motor function at an early stage of development. Global motion perception can be used as a partial measure of dorsal stream function from early childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IN A FIRST INFALL SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect

    Besla, G.; Hernquist, L.; Keres, D.; Kallivayalil, N.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Cox, T. J.

    2010-10-01

    Recent high-precision proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope suggest that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) are either on their first passage or on an eccentric long period (>6 Gyr) orbit about the Milky Way (MW). This differs markedly from the canonical picture in which the Clouds travel on a quasi-periodic orbit about the MW (period of {approx}2 Gyr). Without a short-period orbit about the MW, the origin of the Magellanic Stream, a young (1-2 Gyr old) coherent stream of H I gas that trails the Clouds {approx}150{sup 0} across the sky, can no longer be attributed to stripping by MW tides and/or ram pressure stripping by MW halo gas. We propose an alternative formation mechanism in which material is removed by LMC tides acting on the SMC before the system is accreted by the MW. We demonstrate the feasibility and generality of this scenario using an N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with cosmologically motivated initial conditions constrained by the observations. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that it is possible to explain the origin of the Magellanic Stream in a first infall scenario. This picture is generically applicable to any gas-rich dwarf galaxy pair infalling toward a massive host or interacting in isolation.

  13. Thermal Evolution of the Phaethon-Geminid Stream Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2009-09-01

    The thermal evolution of the Geminid meteor stream and the Phaethon-Geminid stream Complex (PGC) are summarized. Sodium contents of Geminid meteor streams are altered thermally, perhaps during orbital motion in interplanetary space due to the short perihelion distance of the orbit ( q ˜ 0.14 AU). However, the temperature of meteoroids is less than the sublimation temperature of Na in alkali silicates, suggesting that the parent body 3200 Phaethon itself might have suffered from the thermal processing. On the other hand, a breakup event on PGC parent is suggested by the existence of dynamically associated asteroids (Phaethon, 2005 UD and 1999 YC) sharing pristine features (C, B types). A possible mechanism behind the breakup is the sublimation of ice inside the PGC parent due to its thermal evolution. It is tempting to guess that the PGC parent might be evolved dynamically from the outer part of the main asteroid belt where the residence of ice-rich asteroids (main belt comets) into current PGC-like orbit.

  14. Visible Motion Blur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of measuring motion blur is disclosed comprising obtaining a moving edge temporal profile r(sub 1)(k) of an image of a high-contrast moving edge, calculating the masked local contrast m(sub1)(k) for r(sub 1)(k) and the masked local contrast m(sub 2)(k) for an ideal step edge waveform r(sub 2)(k) with the same amplitude as r(sub 1)(k), and calculating the measure or motion blur Psi as a difference function, The masked local contrasts are calculated using a set of convolution kernels scaled to simulate the performance of the human visual system, and Psi is measured in units of just-noticeable differences.

  15. Motion restraining device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A motion-restraining device for dissipating at a controlled rate the force of a moving body is discussed. The device is characterized by a drive shaft adapted to be driven in rotation by a moving body connected to a tape wound about a reel mounted on the drive shaft, and an elongated pitman link having one end pivotally connected to the crankshaft and the opposite end thereof connected with the mass through an energy dissipating linkage. A shuttle is disposed within a slot and guided by rectilinear motion between a pair of spaced impact surfaces. Reaction forces applied at impact of the shuttle with the impact surfaces include oppositely projected force components angularly related to the direction of the applied impact forces.

  16. Dynamics of Oceanic Motions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-31

    Sciences, Harvard University This project researched the dynamics of oceanic motions: aspects of the theory and mod- eling of fundamental dynamical and...84-C-0461 Published 1. Pinardi, N. (1985) Quasigeostrophic Energetics and Oceanic Mesoscale Dynamics, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA (Ph.D. Thesis...Layer Model to the Harvard Quasigeostrophic Model, Harvard University , Cam- bridge, MA (Ph.D. thesis). 15. Robinson, A.R., M.A. Spell and N. Pinardi

  17. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  18. Stream dynamics: An overview for land managers

    Treesearch

    Burchard H. Heede

    1980-01-01

    Concepts of stream dynamics are demonstrated through discussion of processes and process indicators; theory is included only where helpful to explain concepts. Present knowledge allows only qualitative prediction of stream behavior. However, such predictions show how management actions will affect the stream and its environment.

  19. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  20. Hydrology of Channelized and Natural Headwater Streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding hydrology is paramount for optimal ecologic function and management of headwater streams. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare headwater streams within the Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed in Ohio. Two channelized and two unchannelized streams were instrumented w...

  1. The Stream Table in Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikle, Thomas A.; Lightfoot, Dale R.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a number of activities to be conducted with a stream table (large wooden box filled with sediment and designed for water to pass through) in class. Activities illustrate such fluvial processes as stream meandering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. Includes a diagram for constructing a stream table. (MJP)

  2. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  3. Predicting Stream Temperature After Riparian Vegetation Removal

    Treesearch

    Bruce J. McGurk

    1989-01-01

    Removal of stream channel shading during timber harvest operations may raise the stream temperature and adversely affect desirable aquatic populations. Field work in California at one clearcut and one mature fir site demonstrated diurnal water temperature cycles and provided data to evaluate two stream temperature prediction techniques. Larger diurnal temperature...

  4. The Stream Table in Physical Geography Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikle, Thomas A.; Lightfoot, Dale R.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a number of activities to be conducted with a stream table (large wooden box filled with sediment and designed for water to pass through) in class. Activities illustrate such fluvial processes as stream meandering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. Includes a diagram for constructing a stream table. (MJP)

  5. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  6. Motion of the Esophagus Due to Cardiac Motion

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jacob; Yang, Jinzhong; Pan, Tinsu; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-01-01

    When imaging studies (e.g. CT) are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion). The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm) in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle. PMID:24586540

  7. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jacob; Yang, Jinzhong; Pan, Tinsu; Court, Laurence E

    2014-01-01

    When imaging studies (e.g. CT) are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion). The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm) in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  8. Pit disassembly motion control

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.; Pittman, P. C.

    2001-01-01

    A Department of Energy (DOE) Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed for the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The facility will recover plutonium from excess nuclear weapon pits defined in START II and START III treaties. The plutonium will be stored and used to produce mixed oxide reactor fuel at another new DOE facility. Because of radiation dose issues, much of the pit disassembly work and material transfer will be automated. Automated material handling systems will interface with disassembly lathes, conversion reactors that produce oxide for storage, robotic container welding stations, vault retrieval systems, and nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation. The goal is to use common motion control hardware for material transfer and possibly common motion controllers for the unique PDCF systems. The latter is complicated by the different directions manufactures are considering for distributed control, such as Firewire, SERCOS, etc., and by the unique control requirements of machines such as lathes compared to controls for an integrated NDA system. The current design approach is to standardize where possible, use network cables to replace wire bundles where possible, but to first select hardware and motion controllers that meet specific machine or process requirements.

  9. Aging scaled Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Jafari, Gholamreza R.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time.

  10. Aging scaled Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Jafari, Gholamreza R; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time.

  11. Where Did All the Streams Go? Effects of Urbanization on Hydrologic Permanence of Headwater Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams represent a majority (up to 70%) of the stream length in the United States; however, these small streams are often piped or filled to accommodate residential, commercial, and industrial development. Legal protection of headwater streams under the Clean Water Ac...

  12. The long term response of stream flow to climatic warming in headwater streams of interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    Jeremy B. Jones; Amanda J. Rinehart

    2010-01-01

    Warming in the boreal forest of interior Alaska will have fundamental impacts on stream ecosystems through changes in stream hydrology resulting from upslope loss of permafrost, alteration of availability of soil moisture, and the distribution of vegetation. We examined stream flow in three headwater streams of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) in...

  13. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  14. Where Did All the Streams Go? Effects of Urbanization on Hydrologic Permanence of Headwater Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Headwater streams represent a majority (up to 70%) of the stream length in the United States; however, these small streams are often piped or filled to accommodate residential, commercial, and industrial development. Legal protection of headwater streams under the Clean Water Ac...

  15. The role of observer variation in determining Rosgen stream types in northeastern Oregon mountain streams

    Treesearch

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Eric Archer; Chris Moyer; Mike Ward

    2008-01-01

    Consistency in determining Rosgen stream types was evaluated in 12 streams within the John Day Basin, northeastern Oregon. The Rosgen classification system is commonly used in the western United States and is based on the measurement of five stream attributes: entrenchment ratio, width-to-depth ratio, sinuosity, slope, and substrate size. Streams were classified from...

  16. Academic Self-Concepts in Ability Streams: Considering Domain Specificity and Same-Stream Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relations between academic achievement and self-concepts in a sample of 1,067 seventh-grade students from 3 core ability streams in Singapore secondary education. Although between-stream differences in achievement were large, between-stream differences in academic self-concepts were negligible. Within each stream, levels of…

  17. Assessing Stream Bed Stability and Excess Sedimentation in Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustini, J. M.; Kaufmann, P. R.

    2002-12-01

    Land use and resource exploitation in headwaters catchments, such as logging, mining, and road building, often increase sediment supply to streams, potentially causing excess sedimentation. Decreases in mean substrate size and increases in fine stream bed sediments can lead to increased frequency of bed scour, while accumulation of fine sediments in the interstices of coarse bed particles can adversely impact salmon spawning habitat and reduce habitat availability for benthic organisms. We are testing an index of relative bed stability (RBS), based on reach-scale synoptic stream surveys, that is calculated as the ratio of the observed geometric mean particle diameter to the estimated critical diameter at bankfull flow after adjusting for shear stress losses due to channel morphology and large woody debris (LWD). We hypothesize that in watersheds not altered by human disturbances, transport capacity should be in rough equilibrium with sediment supply and RBS should be close to unity. In streams where human activity has substantially augmented sediment supply, we expect that textural fining may occur, leading to lower RBS values. However, downstream trends of decreasing slope and particle size and increasing sediment supply might lead to systematic downstream trends in RBS, and variations in local channel characteristics could cause variability in calculated RBS values. To test whether RBS is useful as an indicator of textural fining in response to anthropogenic disturbance, we sampled streams in watersheds spanning a wide range of disturbance intensity (high, medium and low) in two sub-regions of contrasting lithology in the northern Coast Range of Oregon and in the mid-Atlantic U.S. In each watershed we sampled 3 closely-spaced main stem reaches (30-50 km2 drainage area) and 3 reaches in one or more smaller tributaries (5-10 km2) to assess local variability and within-basin longitudinal trends in RBS relative to variation between watersheds with different land use

  18. Stream biogeochemical and suspended sediment responses to permafrost degradation in stream banks in Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Van Horn, David; Sudman, Zachary; McKnight, Diane M.; Welch, Kathleene A.; Lyons, William B.

    2016-03-01

    Stream channels in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are characteristically wide, incised, and stable. At typical flows, streams occupy a fraction of the oversized channels, providing habitat for algal mats. In January 2012, we discovered substantial channel erosion and subsurface thermomechanical erosion undercutting banks of the Crescent Stream. We sampled stream water along the impacted reach and compared concentrations of solutes to the long-term data from this stream ( ˜ 20 years of monitoring). Thermokarst-impacted stream water demonstrated higher electrical conductivity, and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and nitrate than the long-term medians. These results suggest that this mode of lateral permafrost degradation may substantially impact stream solute loads and potentially fertilize stream and lake ecosystems. The potential for sediment to scour or bury stream algal mats is yet to be determined, though it may offset impacts of associated increased nutrient loads to streams.

  19. Metamers of the ventral stream

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeremy; Simoncelli, Eero P.

    2011-01-01

    The human capacity to recognize complex visual patterns emerges in a sequence of brain areas known as the ventral stream, beginning with primary visual cortex (V1). We develop a population model for mid-ventral processing, in which non-linear combinations of V1 responses are averaged within receptive fields that grow with eccentricity. To test the model, we generate novel forms of visual metamers — stimuli that differ physically, but look the same. We develop a behavioral protocol that uses metameric stimuli to estimate the receptive field sizes in which the model features are represented. Because receptive field sizes change along the ventral stream, the behavioral results can identify the visual area corresponding to the representation. Measurements in human observers implicate V2, providing a new functional account of this area. The model explains deficits of peripheral vision known as “crowding”, and provides a quantitative framework for assessing the capabilities of everyday vision. PMID:21841776

  20. Thermal loading of natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)