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Sample records for non-clinical post-marketing commitments

  1. New horizons in post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Waller, P; Wood, S

    1993-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance is the process of monitoring and evaluating the safety of marketed medicines using a variety of methods. However, many doctors believe that post-marketing surveillance has a more limited meaning, ie an observational study of a new medicine sponsored by a pharmaceutical company. Although such studies were performed extensively in the United Kingdom during the 1980s, few have been published. Their purpose was to study large populations of users in ordinary practice with the aim of identifying hazards that had been missed, because clinical trials were too small, too short or did not always reflect real life. To some extent these studies have now fallen into disrepute, both on scientific grounds and because they have often been thought to be a thinly-disguised promotional exercise. The purpose of this article is to examine some of the previous problems with post-marketing surveillance and to propose new directions for the future.

  2. [Importance of Post-Marketing Studies in Gathering of Clinical Evidences for Proper Usage of Anti-Cancer Drugs, and the StudyRequirements for Their Credibility].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical companies recognize the importance of post-marketing studies because they are crucial in the generation of clinical evidences for the usage of new medicines. To generate clinical evidences, quality of post-marketing studies should be well controlled from view point of "ethical conduction" and "reliability of results". In addition, control of conflict of interest (COI) between researchers and industries is also indispensable and is requested for the transparency of the studies. Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association(JPMA)stresses its commitment to the progressof transparency in post-marketing studies.

  3. Design and analysis of post-marketing research.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hua Andrew; Yang, Wei

    2013-07-01

    A post-marketing study is an integral part of research that helps to ensure a favorable risk-benefit profile for approved drugs used in the market. Because most of post-marketing studies use observational designs, which are liable to confounding, estimation of the causal effect of a drug versus a comparative one is very challenging. This article focuses on methodological issues of importance in designing and analyzing studies to evaluate the safety of marketed drugs, especially marketed traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. Advantages and limitations of the current designs and analytic methods for postmarketing studies are discussed, and recommendations are given for improving the validity of postmarketing studies in TCM products.

  4. The ethics of post-marketing surveillance of therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Beran, R G

    2001-01-01

    Trials of new therapies have strict codes of conduct which expect the highest of ethical practice. Local ethics committees review protocols, patient information, consent. National research councils delineate guidelines for minimum standards regarding subjects in such trials. Once medications enter the market place, there is less definition of minimal codes of conduct. Clinical trials are designed to meet regulatory demands to access commercial markets. Prior to marketing, there is a usual drug trial exposure of less than 5,000 individuals which diminishes identification of rare adverse events. Australian case law has found negligence for not warning of a 1:14,000 risk of sympathetic ophthalmia and more recently, in Chappel v Hart, even a speculative risk was grounds for negligence. Recent reports of serious adverse events for conditions such as epilepsy or depression resulted in companies appearing to expend considerable effort to suppress concern rather than to seriously investigate these complications in the post marketing period. This paper will explore such cases and discuss approaches to improve post marketing surveillance and patient protection.

  5. [Study of post marketing safety reevaluation of shenqi fuzheng injection].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In order to promote the Shenqifuzheng injection (SQFZ) clinical medication safety, this study reevaluate on SQFZ post marketing safety study systematically. Including multi center large sample registration type safety monitoring research, the analysis based on national spontaneous reporting system data, the analysis based on the 20 national hospital information system data and literature research. Above the analysis, it suggests that SQFZ has good security. The more adverse drug reaction (ADR) as allergic reactions, mainly involved in the damage of skin, appendages and its systemic damage, serious person can appear allergic shock. ADR/E is more common in the elderly, may be related to medication (tumor) populations. Early warning analysis based on SRS data and literature research are of the view that "phlebitis" has a strong association with SQFZ used.

  6. [Discussion on the building of post market risk analysis method in hemodialysis device].

    PubMed

    Xu, Honglei; Peng, Xiaolong; Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Peilian

    2014-09-01

    This paper discussed the building of post market risk analysis method in hemodialysis device from the point of government supervision. By proposing practical research methods for post market risk identification and estimation on hemodialysis device, providing technical guidance for government to put risk management of hemodialysis device into effect, and offering reference for enterprises to carry out post market risk evaluation on their products as well.

  7. Japanese Physicians’ Views on Drug Post-Marketing Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kazuki; Katashima, Rumi; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Yanagawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Registration trials leading to the approval of drugs are paramount in drug development. After approval, continuous efforts are necessary to ensure proper use of the approved drugs. In Japan, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) by drug companies is conducted in accordance with good post-marketing study practice (GPSP). Although the global standard for pharmacovigilance is incorporated into GPSP, attention has recently been focused on disassociating them. In this study, we examined physicians’ views on PMS with the aim of conducting PMS more effectively. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records between 2009 and 2013 from the institutional review board of Tokushima University Hospital, an academic hospital in rural Japan. The annual number of times PMS was performed was then determined. Next, we assessed physicians’ attitudes toward drug PMS, including ethical issues, in a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire designed for this study. Five- and two-point scales were used. The questionnaire was distributed in 2014 to 221 physicians listed as investigators in PMS contracts. Results Of the 221 physicians, 103 (46.6%) responded to the questionnaire. About 50% of the respondents had experience writing PMS reports. Many of the physicians considered PMS to be important but burdensome. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of research ethics, many physicians considered it improper within the present PMS framework to collect and provide data beyond the scope of routine clinical practice without obtaining informed consent in the case of extra blood sampling, provision of images, monitoring and controlled studies. Conclusions Beyond practical factors such as workload, attention should be given to establishing an ethical infrastructure and globally harmonized system with regard to the Japanese PMS system. Given the limitations of this single-institution study, further research is needed to collect information for developing a suitable infrastructure. PMID:26566409

  8. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    Background In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA’s pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. Methods and results We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. PMID:26060416

  9. [Technical specifications for post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation of Chinese medicine (draft version for comments)].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Xin; Wang, Nuo; Chang, Yan-Peng

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics is an important part of the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese medicine, post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation can better reflect the clinical and market value of Chinese medicine, the purpose of establishing the technical specifications for pharmacoeconomic evaluation is to make the evaluation process and results regarding Chinese patent medicines more scientific and fair. Every country's technical specifications for pharmacoeconomic evaluation act as reference guidelines, we have already drawn up the technical specifications which take into account the special characteristics of Chinese medicine; these are in preparation for post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation Chinese medicine.

  10. [Application of Markov model in post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Su, Xia; Sun, Wentao; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    In post-marketing study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), pharmacoeconomic evaluation has an important applied significance. However, the economic literatures of TCM have been unable to fully and accurately reflect the unique overall outcomes of treatment with TCM. For the special nature of TCM itself, we recommend that Markov model could be introduced into post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation of TCM, and also explore the feasibility of model application. Markov model can extrapolate the study time horizon, suit with effectiveness indicators of TCM, and provide measurable comprehensive outcome. In addition, Markov model can promote the development of TCM quality of life scale and the methodology of post-marketing pharmacoeconomic evaluation.

  11. A pre-marketing ALT signal predicts post-marketing liver safety.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Cynthia A; Suzuki, Ayako; Papay, Julie I; Yuen, Nancy A; Ames, Michael; Hunt, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Drug induced liver injury during drug development is evidenced by a higher incidence of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations in treated versus placebo populations and termed an "ALT signal". We sought to quantify whether an ALT signal in pre-marketing clinical trials predicted post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Incidence of ALT elevations (ALT ≥ 3 times upper limits normal [× ULN]) for drug and placebo of new chemical entities and approved drugs associated with hepatotoxicity was calculated using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Post-marketing liver safety events were identified using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). The association of FDA AERS signal score (EB05 ≥ 2) and excess risk of pre-marketing ALT elevation (difference in incidence of ALT ≥ 3× ULN in treated versus placebo) was examined. An ALT signal of ≥ 1.2% was significantly associated with a post-marketing liver safety signal (p ≤ 0.013) and a 71.4% positive predictive value. An absent ALT signal was associated with a high likelihood of post-marketing liver safety; negative predictive value of 89.7%. Daily drug dose information improved the prediction of post-marketing liver safety. A cut-off of 1.2% increase in ALT ≥ 3× ULN in treated versus placebo groups provides an easily calculated method for predicting post-marketing liver safety.

  12. [Exploration of how to formulate guidelines on post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine surveillance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yu, Wen-Ya

    2013-09-01

    Combining the world health organization's (WHO), the United States and the European union's relevant laws and guidelines on post-marketing drug surveillance to judge the status of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in China. We found that due to the late start of post-marketing surveillance of traditional Chinese medicine, the appropriate guidelines are yet to be developed. Hence, hospitals, enterprises and research institutions do not have a shared foundation from which to compare their research results. Therefore there is an urgent need to formulate such post-marketing surveillance guidelines. This paper has used as guidance various technical documents such as, "procedures to formulate national standards" and "testing methods of management in formulating traditional Chinese medicine standards" and has combined these to produce a version of post-marketing surveillance particular to Chinese medicine in China. How to formulate these guidelines is discussed and procedures and methods to formulate technical specifications are introduced. These provide a reference for future technical specifications and will assist in the development of TCM.

  13. [Clinical orientation and thought on several problems in post-marketed reassessment of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Su, Xia; Yu, Jie; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The post-marketed reassessment is an important link to ensure the safety and effectiveness of traditional chinese medicine. It is also the expansion and stretch of new drug evaluation. Through the systematic, standard, rigorous post-marketed reassessment, the enterprise can full access to drugs after listing the efficacy and safety information, evaluate the interests and risk of the drug and provide the scientific basis for the drug use. It can also provide timely, scientific technology basis for government health decisions, the enterprise marketing decision and public health security. This paper mainly discussed the thought on clinical orientation of traditional chinese medicine in the post-marketed reassessment and how to reach the goal through systematic consideration and overall plan.

  14. [Study on method on post-marketing traditonal Chinese medicine safety assessment].

    PubMed

    Kou, Qiuai; Zhao, Suping; Feng, Guoshuang; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) safety assessment is an important content of post-marketing Chinese herbal medicine assessment and the primary question. It includes safety monitoring and safety evaluation. China has established the elementary system for the TCM safety monitoring, but did few things on safety evaluation. People have knew that the methods of pharmacoepidemiology have good practicability on drug safety assessment in recent years. This article analyzed three methods of pharmacoepidemiology used in post-marketing Chinese herbal medicine safety assessment. There are three examples that may give some suggestions to fellow doctors working for safety monitoring and evaluation of TCM.

  15. [Necessity of applying pharmacovigilance in post-marketing safety monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine injections].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Nan; Chen, Wen; Fu, Zheng; Du, Wen-min; He, Jia

    2008-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection has become one of the hotspots in the new TCM research and development. The serious adverse drug reactions happened in clinical have arosed attention widely in the whole society. It's very urgent to monitor the post-marketing safety of TCM injections. This paper elucidated the pharmacovigilance's necessity in the post-marketing safety monitoring of TCM injections, basing on the reason of safety problem of TCM injections and the future developing trend of adverse drug reaction monitoring. Also, this paper introduced the rapid signal detection method of spontaneous reporting system database by data mining technology.

  16. [Sample size calculation in clinical post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingkun; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, as the Chinese government and people pay more attention on the post-marketing research of Chinese Medicine, part of traditional Chinese medicine breed has or is about to begin after the listing of post-marketing evaluation study. In the post-marketing evaluation design, sample size calculation plays a decisive role. It not only ensures the accuracy and reliability of post-marketing evaluation. but also assures that the intended trials will have a desired power for correctly detecting a clinically meaningful difference of different medicine under study if such a difference truly exists. Up to now, there is no systemic method of sample size calculation in view of the traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, according to the basic method of sample size calculation and the characteristic of the traditional Chinese medicine clinical evaluation, the sample size calculation methods of the Chinese medicine efficacy and safety are discussed respectively. We hope the paper would be beneficial to medical researchers, and pharmaceutical scientists who are engaged in the areas of Chinese medicine research.

  17. [Thinking on risk assessment and risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xueqing; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    Drug risk assessment and management is an important measure for reducing the adverse drug reaction and enhancing medication safety of the patient. Based on the concepts of drug risk assessment and risk management, and domestic and international drug risk management situation, this paper discusses the risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine.

  18. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.

  19. [Opportunity and challenge of post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Xi; Song, Hai-Bo; Ren, Jing-Tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-Xin; Pang, Yu

    2014-09-01

    Post-marketing evaluation is a process which evaluate the risks and benefits of drug clinical application comprehensively and systematically, scientific and systematic results of post-marketing evaluation not only can provide data support for clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, but also can be a reliable basis for the supervision department to develop risk control measures. With the increasing demands for treatment and prevention of disease, traditional Chinese medicine has been widely used, and security issues are also exposed. How to find risk signal of traditional Chinese medicine in the early stages, carry out targeted evaluation work and control risk timely have become challenges in the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  20. [Withdrawal of cerivastatin revealed a flaw of post-marketing surveillance system in the United States].

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsuo; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Miyake, Shinji; Hasegawa, Ryuichi

    2005-01-01

    Cerivastatin, a lipid-lowering agent, was voluntarily withdrawn from the market because of high risk of rhabdomyolysis when used as monotherapy and as comedication with fibrates, especially gemfibrozil. Thereafter, investigators found a five-fold increase in the area under the curve (AUC) when cerivastatin was used as comedication with gemfibrozil and theorized that the increase was associated with inhibition of the hepatic uptake and metabolism. By contrast, a number of pharmacoepidemiological investigations--one of which involved evaluation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database for suspected adverse drug reactions and 11 cohort studies of statin and fibrate users in United States showed the risk of rhabdomyolysis to be greater in cerivastatin than in other statins used in either monotherapy or in comedication with fibrates, especially gemfibrozil. This incident regarding risk of rhabdomyolysis in cerivastatin monotherapy was taken to court in the United States and unpublished company (manufacturer of cerivastatin) documents were opened. The incident was then analyzed and discussed in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) as a concern of the current US post-marketing surveillance system. The company's action and timing were judged and found to be inappropriate (although companies of this sort generally have insurmountable conflicts of interest), and the work of the US regulatory system and funding for post-marketing safety management were found to be insufficient. On the basis of the current situation, the authors and editors recommend further improvement of post-marketing regulations including the establishment of an independent drug safety board to oversee post-marketing surveillance. Among the opened, unpublished data, was the finding that cerivastatin obviously induced myopathy in a dose-dependent manner when administrated as monotherapy. As for other statins, only limited data was available for the relationship between the dosage and

  1. Estimating post-marketing exposure to pharmaceutical products using ex-factory distribution data.

    PubMed

    Telfair, Tamara; Mohan, Aparna K; Shahani, Shalini; Klincewicz, Stephen; Atsma, Willem Jan; Thomas, Adrian; Fife, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has an obligation to identify adverse reactions to drug products during all phases of drug development, including the post-marketing period. Estimates of population exposure to pharmaceutical products are important to the post-marketing surveillance of drugs, and provide a context for assessing the various risks and benefits, including drug safety, associated with drug treatment. This paper describes a systematic approach to estimating post-marketing drug exposure using ex-factory shipment data to estimate the quantity of medication available, and dosage information (stratified by indication or other factors as appropriate) to convert the quantity of medication to person time of exposure. Unlike the non-standardized methods often used to estimate exposure, this approach provides estimates whose calculations are explicit, documented, and consistent across products and over time. The methods can readily be carried out by an individual or small group specializing in this function, and lend themselves to automation. The present estimation approach is practical and relatively uncomplicated to implement. We believe it is a useful innovation.

  2. [Clinical orientation of post-marketing Chinese patent drugs: an evidence-based practice].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Cai; Zhang, Bo-Li; Li, You-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Unclear clinical orientation in practice has become one of the common problems with the effective application of famous and excellent Chinese herbal drugs, consequently restricting their development. The authors suggest that there are three aspects to be considered in dealing with this problem. Clinical evaluation and orientation of the famous and excellent Chinese herbal drugs is an important task, and it is also a requirement for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Literature evaluation-pharmacology research-clinical expertise analysis method will establish a theoretical basis and method for post-marketing development of famous and excellent Chinese patent drugs.

  3. [Thought on several problems of post-marketing herbs clinical evaluation in special populations].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai; Lian, Fengmei

    2011-10-01

    The re-evaluation of clinical post-marketing herbs in special populations, such as children, the aged, pregnant women, lactating women, has attracted attention in our country. The media is drug adverse reaction reports and package insert. The safety of combined administration in aged and children's growth should have been taken long-term follow-up study. Perfecting traditional chinese medicine FDA system will be beneficial to the re-evaluation of clinical postmarketing herbs in pregnant women. Dose-effect study in children also should cause the concern of researchers.

  4. [The problem of post-marketing surveillance planning on drugs for infectious disease].

    PubMed

    Sato, J

    2001-12-01

    In principle, a new drug is approved via the assessments of safety and efficacy by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). After approval, conduct of post-marketing surveillance is requested by law in order to assess the safety and efficacy of the drug in a large number of patients. Before initiating a surveillance, submission to MHLW of a document on the plan of survey is necessary in the purpose of inspection if it includes any ethical or regulatory problem or not. Through the inspections of the plans submitted during the period of April 1998 and March 2000, many problems have been pointed out. In this report, the author introduces some of the concrete problems noted in the plans on drugs for infectious diseases and shows some of the guidance made by the authority how to improve them. It is expected that such practical analyses of cases may be useful for future planning of post-marketing surveillance on drugs for infectious diseases.

  5. Post-marketing surveillance and vigilance for medical devices: the European approach.

    PubMed

    Randall, H

    2001-01-01

    The extent to which the medical device manufacturers are responsible for actively monitoring the performance of their products after they have successfully passed the rigorous pre-market approval process has always been a matter of diverse opinion. Within Europe, the law is unhelpfully vague on this point. While there are some comparatively clear obligations for reporting incidents to the authorities (known as the 'vigilance system'), little detail is given on how diligently the manufacturer should try to find out about such incidents. In the early stages of the European Community Directives covering medical devices, there was much emphasis upon formulating guidance to help interpret the vigilance reporting requirements. It is, however, only recently that attention has turned to attempting to clarify what is expected from post-marketing surveillance (PMS) in its broader sense. This article discuses both the vigilance and PMS processes and outlines the currently available European, and particularly UK, guidance documents which are aimed at promoting a more level playing field across industry where these activities are concerned. In particular, it explains the principle differences between vigilance and post-marketing surveillance: the former being the reporting of adverse incidents by manufacturers to the regulatory authorities and their subsequent sharing of key incident data between each other; the latter being the process by which information on overall devise performance is captured, analysed and acted upon. Nevertheless, it is still a struggle to gain widespread appreciation that these two activities are not in fact one and the same.

  6. [Establish research model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai

    2015-09-01

    The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research.

  7. Pinimenthol ointment in patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections - a post-marketing observational study.

    PubMed

    Kamin, Wolfgang; Kieser, Meinhard

    2007-12-01

    In order to gain further experience regarding the tolerability of Pinimenthol ointment(1) in adolescents (> or = 12 years) and adults suffering from upper respiratory tract infections, a post-marketing observational study was performed. In this study, data of 3060 patients were collected (64.9% prospectively over an individual observation period of 5-14 days, 35.1% retrospectively). The prospective documentation also comprised data concerning treatment effects. Sample size of the post-marketing observational study was calculated in the way that adverse drug reactions with an event probability of at least 1:1000 would occur within the study at least once with a probability of 95%. Most patients suffered from cold, acute or chronic bronchitis, bronchial catarrh or hoarseness. Pinimenthol ointment was prescribed to inunction (29.6%), inhalation (17.3%) or inunction and inhalation (53.1%), respectively. The mean duration of study participation was 8.0 +/- 3.4 days. The tolerability was rated as excellent or good by 96.7% of physicians and 95.7% of patients. A total of 22 patients (0.7%) reported adverse drug reactions which mostly affected the skin or mucus membrane and therefore correspond to the expected adverse effects profile of Pinimenthol ointment. The treatment effect was mostly judged as excellent or good (physicians: 88.3%; patients: 88.1%). In conclusion, the study confirms Pinimenthol ointment as a well tolerated therapy option for upper respiratory tract infections in both adolescents and adults.

  8. An evaluation of computer-aided disproportionality analysis for post-marketing signal detection.

    PubMed

    Lehman, H P; Chen, J; Gould, A L; Kassekert, R; Beninger, P R; Carney, R; Goldberg, M; Goss, M A; Kidos, K; Sharrar, R G; Shields, K; Sweet, A; Wiholm, B E; Honig, P K

    2007-08-01

    To understand the value of computer-aided disproportionality analysis (DA) in relation to current pharmacovigilance signal detection methods, four products were retrospectively evaluated by applying an empirical Bayes method to Merck's post-marketing safety database. Findings were compared with the prior detection of labeled post-marketing adverse events. Disproportionality ratios (empirical Bayes geometric mean lower 95% bounds for the posterior distribution (EBGM05)) were generated for product-event pairs. Overall (1993-2004 data, EBGM05> or =2, individual terms) results of signal detection using DA compared to standard methods were sensitivity, 31.1%; specificity, 95.3%; and positive predictive value, 19.9%. Using groupings of synonymous labeled terms, sensitivity improved (40.9%). More of the adverse events detected by both methods were detected earlier using DA and grouped (versus individual) terms. With 1939-2004 data, diagnostic properties were similar to those from 1993 to 2004. DA methods using Merck's safety database demonstrate sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be considered for use as an adjunct to conventional signal detection methods.

  9. Continuous versus group sequential analysis for post-market drug and vaccine safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Silva, I R; Kulldorff, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of sequential statistical analysis for post-market drug safety surveillance is quickly emerging. Both continuous and group sequential analysis have been used, but consensus is lacking as to when to use which approach. We compare the statistical performance of continuous and group sequential analysis in terms of type I error probability; statistical power; expected time to signal when the null hypothesis is rejected; and the sample size required to end surveillance without rejecting the null. We present a mathematical proposition to show that for any group sequential design there always exists a continuous sequential design that is uniformly better. As a consequence, it is shown that more frequent testing is always better. Additionally, for a Poisson based probability model and a flat rejection boundary in terms of the log likelihood ratio, we compare the performance of various continuous and group sequential designs. Using exact calculations, we found that, for the parameter settings used, there is always a continuous design with shorter expected time to signal than the best group design. The two key conclusions from this article are (i) that any post-market safety surveillance system should attempt to obtain data as frequently as possible, and (ii) that sequential testing should always be performed when new data arrives without deliberately waiting for additional data.

  10. Improving retention and motivation in non-clinical dialysis employees.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne

    2004-02-01

    For no additional expense, little intrusion into the schedule or duties of the day, and no additional personnel to hire, dialysis facilities can make a dramatic impact on the training, motivation, and retention of employees through the use of classes designed specifically for the needs of newly employed non-clinical personnel. In today's world where many are expected to do a task with little or no orientation to the overall values and goals of the organization and how their tasks matter, what other action can accomplish so much for employee motivation and retention for so little time and expense? At DCI Mid-Missouri this program has been successful in retaining many excellent employees over many years and has been part of an ongoing effort to increase employees' interest and commitment to their work and the organization. It has also made them much more aware of treatments, other personnel and most of all, of our patients and their needs. It fulfills the needs of humans to be valued and have meaningful work. It contains costs and helps efficiency and productivity. Most of all, it keeps excellent people on the job and enjoying their work more than they would have. Participants' words when evaluating the most recent series of classes speak for themselves in demonstrating these important benefits that can be achieved easily in dialysis facilities throughout the United States and the world.

  11. [Basic requirements on post-marketing clinical re-evaluation of chinese medicine and phase IV clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yanping; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    As information on safety and effectiveness is not comprehensive, gained from the researches for listing approval of Chinese medicine, it is very necessary to conduct post-marketing clinical re-evaluation of Chinese medicine. Effectiveness, safety and economic evaluation are three main aspects of post-marketing clinical re-evaluation. In this paper, the difference and relations between the post-marketing clinical re-evaluation and the phase IV clinical trials were discussed, and the basic requests and suggestions were proposed, according to the domestic and foreign relevant regulations and experts' suggestions, and discussed the requirements of the phase IV clinical trials on indications, design methods, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, etc.

  12. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation.

  13. [Post-marketing clinical study of traditional Chinese medicine--lessons learned from comprehensive evaluation of Fufang Zaoren capsule].

    PubMed

    Qing, Shan; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Li; Jia, Jian-Ping; Liu, Xin-Min; Ji, Shao-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2013-11-01

    By comprehensive review and analysis of post-marketing clinical research on the efficacy and safety,we concluded that Fufang Zaoren capsule has certain therapeutic effects for insomnia, although current clinical research design needs improving. The post-marketing clinical studies also showed that it causes several adverse reactions at the recommended doses, such as chills, fever, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath, chest tightness and palpitations, whereas high doses of Fufang Zaoren capsule can cause delayed extrapyramidal symptoms. Health Canada government website also prompted the L-tetrahydropalmatine in Fufang Zaoren capsule caused liver damage in pregnant women. The authors summarized the risk points, factors and risk control in the clinical use of Fufang Zaoren capsule and also present their perspective on the research status, existing problems and corresponding countermeasures in the post-marketing clinical re-evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Post-marketing surveillance of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine safety in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Dong, Duo; Cheng, Gang; Zuo, Shuyan; Liu, Dawei; Du, Xiaoxi

    2014-10-07

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most severe form of viral encephalitis in Asia and no specific treatment is available. Vaccination provides an effective intervention to prevent JE. In this paper, surveillance data for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) related to SA-14-14-2 live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Chengdu Institute of Biological Products) was presented. This information has been routinely generated by the Chinese national surveillance system for the period 2009-2012. There were 6024 AEFI cases (estimated reported rate 96.55 per million doses). Most common symptoms of adverse events were fever, redness, induration and skin rash. There were 70 serious AEFI cases (1.12 per million doses), including 9 cases of meningoencephalitis and 4 cases of death. The post-marketing surveillance data add the evidence that the Chengdu institute live attenutated vaccine has a reasonable safety profile. The relationship between encephalitis and SA-14-14-2 vaccination should be further studied.

  15. Composite sequential Monte Carlo test for post-market vaccine safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ivair R

    2016-04-30

    Group sequential hypothesis testing is now widely used to analyze prospective data. If Monte Carlo simulation is used to construct the signaling threshold, the challenge is how to manage the type I error probability for each one of the multiple tests without losing control on the overall significance level. This paper introduces a valid method for a true management of the alpha spending at each one of a sequence of Monte Carlo tests. The method also enables the use of a sequential simulation strategy for each Monte Carlo test, which is useful for saving computational execution time. Thus, the proposed procedure allows for sequential Monte Carlo test in sequential analysis, and this is the reason that it is called 'composite sequential' test. An upper bound for the potential power losses from the proposed method is deduced. The composite sequential design is illustrated through an application for post-market vaccine safety surveillance data.

  16. Decision support methods for the detection of adverse events in post-marketing data.

    PubMed

    Hauben, M; Bate, A

    2009-04-01

    Spontaneous reporting is a crucial component of post-marketing drug safety surveillance despite its significant limitations. The size and complexity of some spontaneous reporting system databases represent a challenge for drug safety professionals who traditionally have relied heavily on the scientific and clinical acumen of the prepared mind. Computer algorithms that calculate statistical measures of reporting frequency for huge numbers of drug-event combinations are increasingly used to support pharamcovigilance analysts screening large spontaneous reporting system databases. After an overview of pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting systems, we discuss the theory and application of contemporary computer algorithms in regular use, those under development, and the practical considerations involved in the implementation of computer algorithms within a comprehensive and holistic drug safety signal detection program.

  17. The role of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency and healthcare professionals in post-marketing safety.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Meguru; Horiuchi, Naoya; Tamura, Atsushi; Kutsumi, Hiromu

    2014-04-01

    The development of drugs and medical devices is necessary for medical progress; however, safety measures need to be put in place to protect the health of the population. In order to ensure the safety of drugs and medical devices, it is important to determine measures for appropriate management of risks at any time during the development phase, the regulatory review and the post-marketing phase. Adverse events detected in clinical trials are limited due to the restricted numbers of patients enrolled in the trials. Therefore, it is almost impossible to predict rare serious adverse events during the post-marketing phase. The revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was established in Japan in November 20, 2013. The new act focuses on increased safety of drugs and medical devices. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) is the regulatory authority in Japan that promotes safety measures from the development phase through to the post-marketing phase. In the post-marketing phase, the PMDA collects information from the medical product companies and healthcare professionals, as well as instructing and advising them with regard to post-marketing safety measures for each drug and medical device. Since Japan has a national health insurance system, a new drug or a medical device is available throughout the country when the drug price or medical fee is listed in the National Health Insurance price list. Healthcare professionals in medical institutions must learn about the drugs and medical devices they handle, and should make an effort to maintain patient safety. The PMDA medi-navi is a very useful electronic mail delivery service that provides critical information for protecting patients from health hazards caused by adverse events. The 'risk management plan' is also important as it contains important information about safety profile and post-marketing measures of a new drug.

  18. Technical success from endovascular aneurysm repair in the post-marketing era: a multicenter prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Naslund, Thomas C; Becker, Stacey Y

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of post-marketing success with the Ancure Endovascular Graft (AEG) was accomplished by review of a multicenter, prospective trial involving 46 centers and 163 patients. A second cohort of patients (n = 350) treated with the AEG under a controlled-use interval prior to the prospective trial was simultaneously evaluated. Technical success in both groups of patients (96.9% and 97.4%, respectively) was similar to what was reported in pre-market clinical trials. Operative implantation complications unique to the AEG included graft limb stenosis/occlusion in 35.6 and 31.4%, contralateral pull wire being caught on hooks in 33.7 and 28%, failure to seal (type I endoleak) in 17.2 and 18.3%, jacket guard being stuck in 12.9 and 11%, contralateral wire being stuck in 6.8 and 7.1%, high jacket retraction force in 16 and 8.5%, and inability to retract jacket in 1.8 and 0.5% of patients involved in the multicenter trial and controlled-use interval, respectively. One of four patients undergoing conversion in the prospective trial had graft misdeployment as a mode of failure. Three were converted for access failure. The 30-day mortality rate in the prospective trial was 3.7%. Interventions to resolve implantation-related events included stenting, guide catheter manipulations, wire exchanges, and delivery catheter disassembly. These interventions were successful in virtually every case. Open surgical procedures were not needed to correct these operative problems. Results from this study demonstrate excellent technical success with the AEG in the post-market era. Interventions to resolve implantation complications, when utilized, are highly successful in facilitating AEG implantation and providing technical success.

  19. [Technical specifications for intensive hospital safety monitoring of post-marketing Chinese medicine (draft version for comments)].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Liao, Xing; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Li, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Ma, Rong; Xian, Shao-Xiang; Liu, Jian; Li, Su-Yun; Wen, Ze-Huai; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Zou, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Sheng; He, Yan; Li, Xue-Lin; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Fei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Lian-Xin; Chang, Yan-Peng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    It is of vital significance to conduct active post-marketing surveillance of Chinese medicine, as an active response to laws, rules and guidelines issued by the China food and drug administration. The standards for technological specifications based on expert consensus have been drafted. These will provide technological support in evaluating adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or adverse drug events (ADEs). The technological specifications for post-marketing surveillance focus on two surveillance designs; one is a large sample registry study to explore general population ADR/ADE characteristics, the other is a nested case-control study to explore the characteristic and mechanisms of ADRs.

  20. [Post-marketing reevaluation for potential quality risk and quality control in clinical application of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jiao; He, Li-yun; Liu, Bao-yan

    2015-06-01

    The effective quality control in clinical practices is an effective guarantee for the authenticity and scientificity of the findings. The post-marketing reevaluation for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) focuses on the efficacy, adverse reaction, combined medication and effective dose of drugs in the market by expanded clinical trials, and requires a larger sample size and a wider range of patients. Therefore, this increases the difficulty of quality control in clinical practices. With the experience in quality control in clinical practices for the post-marketing reevaluation for Kangbingdu oral for cold, researchers in this study reviewed the study purpose, project, scheme design and clinical practice process from an overall point of view, analyzed the study characteristics of the post-marketing reevaluation for TCMs and the quality control risks, designed the quality control contents with quality impacting factors, defined key review contents and summarized the precautions in clinical practices, with the aim to improve the efficiency of quality control of clinical practices. This study can provide reference to clinical units and quality control-related personnel in the post-marketing reevaluation for TCMs.

  1. Non-clinical development of CER-001

    PubMed Central

    Barbaras, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most pressing healthcare issue for the developed world and is becoming so for developing countries. There are no currently approved therapies that can rapidly reduce the burden of unstable, inflamed plaque in the overall coronary vascular bed. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has multiple actions that could lead to plaque stabilization, such as rapid removal of large quantities of cholesterol from the vasculature through the process of reverse lipid transport, improvement in endothelial function, protection against oxidative damage, and reduction in inflammation. Short-term infusion of HDL-mimetics in animal models as well as in humans has shown promising effects on the plaque size and morphology. Cerenis Therapeutics has developed CER-001, a negatively charged lipoprotein complex consisting of phospholipid and recombinant human apoA-I that mimics the structure and function of natural HDL. Three clinical trials using CER-001 infusions have demonstrated improvements in the carotid wall thickness of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia and in patients with hypo-alphalipoproteinaemia, as well as an impact on coronary plaque burden measured by intravascular ultrasonography at the lowest tested dose (3 mg/kg) in post-ACS patients. Here, we reviewed the non-clinical data leading to the demonstration that CER-001 is a full HDL mimetic. PMID:26500552

  2. Use of Carabids for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring of Genetically Modified Crops.

    PubMed

    Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Cagáň, Ľudovít; Sehnal, František

    2017-03-29

    Post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of genetically modified (GM) crops is required by EU legislation and has been a subject of debate for many years; however, no consensus on the methodology to be used has been reached. We explored the suitability of carabid beetles as surrogates for the detection of unintended effects of GM crops in general PMEM surveillance. Our study combines data on carabid communities from five maize field trials in Central Europe. Altogether, 86 species and 58,304 individuals were collected. Modeling based on the gradual elimination of the least abundant species, or of the fewest categories of functional traits, showed that a trait-based analysis of the most common species may be suitable for PMEM. Species represented by fewer than 230 individuals (all localities combined) should be excluded and species with an abundance higher than 600 should be preserved for statistical analyses. Sixteen species, representing 15 categories of functional traits fulfill these criteria, are typical dominant inhabitants of agroecocoenoses in Central Europe, are easy to determine, and their functional classification is well known. The effect of sampling year is negligible when at least four samples are collected during maize development beginning from 1 April. The recommended methodology fulfills PMEM requirements, including applicability to large-scale use. However, suggested thresholds of carabid comparability should be verified before definitive conclusions are drawn.

  3. [Utilization of Genomic Biomarkers for Post-marketing Safety of Drugs].

    PubMed

    Kaniwa, Nahoko

    2015-01-01

    To prevent adverse drug reactions in the post-marketing phase, therapeutic drug monitoring and various laboratory tests have been used for decades. Recently, data on associations between drug adverse reactions and biomarkers based on "omics" technologies/studies have been increasing. Using genomic biomarkers, patients at high risk for developing side effects can be distinguished before initiating medical treatment, allowing the choice of an appropriate drug/initial dosage regimen. Biomarkers based on proteomics or metabolomics can detect the onset of adverse reactions at an earlier stage than can be accomplished with classical laboratory tests. However, the clinical use of drug safety-related biomarkers is still limited compared with biomarkers that predict drug efficacy of, for example, molecular-targeted drugs. In this symposium, genomic biomarkers associated with the safety of anticancer drugs and idiosyncratic adverse reactions are introduced and compared between Japan and other countries. Prospective studies evaluating the application of screening tests to prevent adverse drug reactions are also shown, and steps necessary to accelerate the use of drug safety-related biomarkers are discussed.

  4. Post-marketing surveillance of generic amoxicillin using a microbiological assay and pharmacokinetic approach in rats.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Livia I S; Ferraris, Fausto K; Machado, Tiago S C; de Brito, Thais M; Chaves, Amanda S; Pereira, Heliana M; Pinto, Douglas P; da Silva, Diego M D; Amendoeira, Fabio C

    2016-12-01

    Generic medicines were developed to increase population access to health treatment, to reduce costs and to allow drugs with the same outcomes to be purchased at lower prices. They are therapeutically equivalent to their brand-name counterparts and are interchangeable with them. However, the acceptance of generic medicines by physicians and general consumers is often affected by distrust related to quality and efficacy. In this study three different brands of generic amoxicillin were tested. The results showed that two of them were indistinguishable from the innovator in terms of microbiological potency; however, generic B was unable to reach the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia specifications for potency limits. In contrast, generic B was bioequivalent to the innovator amoxicillin in pharmacokinetic assessment and, surprisingly, generic A, which was approved in the microbiological potency assay, lacked pharmacokinetic equivalence compared with the innovator. Both tests, when used singly, may not be effective at detecting quality deviations in antimicrobial medicines, which indicates that pharmacokinetic tests in rats in association with microbiological potency assays are a valuable tool for post-marketing surveillance of generic antibiotics.

  5. Interim analysis of post-marketing surveillance of eculizumab for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Haruhiko; Obara, Naoshi; Chiba, Shigeru; Usuki, Kensuke; Nishiwaki, Kaichi; Matsumura, Itaru; Shichishima, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Nishimura, Jun-Ichi; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Nakao, Shinji; Ando, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Nakakuma, Hideki; Harada, Daisuke; Akiyama, Hirozumi; Kinoshita, Taroh; Ozawa, Keiya; Omine, Mitsuhiro; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-11-01

    Data characterizing the safety and effectiveness of eculizumab in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are limited. We describe the safety and effectiveness of eculizumab in PNH patients enrolled in a post-marketing surveillance study. Types and frequencies of observed adverse events were similar to those reported in previous clinical trials and no meningococcal infection was reported. Effectiveness outcomes included the reduction of intravascular hemolysis, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) level, the withdrawal of transfusion and corticosteroids, the change of renal function, and overall survival. The effect of eculizumab on intravascular hemolysis was demonstrated by a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase levels at all measurements after baseline. Significant increases in Hb levels from baseline were also observed after 1 month's treatment with eculizumab (p < 0.01). Of those who were transfusion-dependent at baseline, the median number of transfusions decreased significantly from 18 to 0 unit/year after 1 year of treatment with eculizumab (p < 0.001). An increase in Hb and a high rate of transfusion independence were observed, especially in patients with platelet count ≥150 × 10(9)/L. Approximately 97 % of patients showed maintenance or improvement of renal function. Overall survival rate was about 90 % (median follow-up 1.9 years). These results suggest an acceptable safety profile and favorable prognosis after eculizumab intervention.

  6. [The role of drug registries in the post-marketing surveillance].

    PubMed

    Traversa, Giuseppe; Sagliocca, Luciano; Magrini, Nicola; Venegoni, Mauro

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina, devoted to the role of drug registries in the post-marketing surveillance. We first motivate the need to implement registries as a tool in promoting the appropriateness of drug use and acquiring additional information on the risk-benefit profile of drugs. Then, the different role that can be played by registries in comparison with prescription monitoring systems and observational studies is clarified. The presentation of some of the most relevant registries established in Italy since the end of the '90s, with the analysis of their strengths and weaknesses, helps to understand some of the crucial issues that should be taken into account before a new registry is adopted. Specifically, we deal with the relationship between objectives - of appropriateness, effectiveness and safety - and methods; the overlapping between drug-based registries and disease-based ones; the duration and extension of data collection, which may be either exhaustive or based on a sampling frame; the importance of ensuring the quality of the data and to minimize the number of subjects who are lost to follow-up; the importance of infrastructures, and of ad hoc funding, for the functioning of a registry; the independence in data analysis and publication of findings.

  7. Post-marketing surveillance of the safety of cimetidine: twelve-month morbidity report.

    PubMed

    Colin Jones, D G; Langman, M J; Lawson, D H; Vessey, M P

    1985-03-01

    A total of 9928 patients taking cimetidine and 9351 controls were included in a post-marketing drug surveillance study in Glasgow, Nottingham, Oxford and Portsmouth; 98.8 per cent of the takers and 97.7 per cent of the controls were successfully followed up for at least one year during which hospital visits and deaths were recorded. Methods of identification of subjects and 12-month mortality results have been reported previously. A general analysis of the morbidity experienced by these patients during the study year is presented here. Thirty-nine per cent of takers and 21 per cent of controls were seen at outpatient clinics, and 18 per cent of takers and 8 per cent of controls were admitted to hospital; 15 325 individual diagnoses in takers and 5002 diagnoses in controls were reviewed. An association with cimetidine treatment was found, as expected, for gastrointestinal diseases. Weaker associations were found for haematological disorders, some tumours, infections, disorders of the locomotor system and respiratory diseases. Detailed examination revealed that these were mainly due to confounding from several sources, for example, from the underlying cause of the dyspepsia which resulted in cimetidine use, from the higher level of physician contact in cimetidine takers, and smoking. The scheme successfully detected and quantified some already known adverse effects of cimetidine and did not detect any new effects. It is concluded that this method of collecting information is feasible and useful, but several interpretive pitfalls arise, some of which can be avoided by careful analysis. No evidence of any major unrecognised risk of cimetidine treatment emerged from the study.

  8. The DELTA Network Study of Distributed Automated Post-Market Cardiovascular Device Safety Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Matheny, Michael E.; Ho, Kalon K.L.; Yeh, Robert W.; Piemonte, Thomas C.; Waldman, Howard; Shah, Pinak B.; Cope, Richard; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Donnelly, Sharon; Robbins, Susan; Resnic, Frederic S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current approaches for post-market medical device safety surveillance are limited in their ability to produce timely and accurate assessments of adverse event rates. Methods and Results The DELTA (Data Extraction and Longitudinal Trend Analysis) network study was a multicenter prospective observational study designed to evaluate the safety of devices used during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). All adult patients undergoing PCI from January 2008 through December 2012 at five participating Massachusetts sites were included. A safety alert was triggered if the cumulative observed adverse event rates for the study device exceeded the upper 95% confidence interval of the event rates of propensity-matched control cohort. Pre-specified sensitivity analyses were developed to validate any identified safety signal. A total of 23,805 consecutive PCI procedures were evaluated. Two out of 24 safety analyses triggered safety alerts. Patients receiving Perclose vascular closure device (VCD) experienced an increased risk of minor vascular complications (relative risk [RR] 4.14; p <0.01) and any vascular complication (RR: 2.06; p = 0.01) as compared with propensity-matched patients receiving alternative VCD; a result primarily driven by relatively high event rates at one participating center. Sensitivity analyses based on alternative risk adjustment methods confirmed the a pattern of increased rate of complications at one of the five participating sites in their use of Perclose VCD. Conclusions The DELTA network study demonstrates that distributed automated prospective safety surveillance has the potential of providing near real-time assessment of safety risks of newly approved medical devices. PMID:25491915

  9. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  10. Preliminary Results From the C-Pulse® OPTIONS HF European Multicenter Post-Market Study

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Antonia; Krabatsch, Thomas; Schmitto, Jan D.; Hetzer, Roland; Seidel, Mirko; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Hotz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The C-Pulse® System is an extra-aortic balloon counterpulsation device. It is used to treat patients with heart failure disease in NYHA functional class III or ambulatory class IV. Material/Methods We present preliminary site-reported 6-month data from 3 centers in Germany as part of the prospective observational post-market OPTIONS HF study. Results Between May 2013 and March 2014, the C-Pulse System was implanted in 8 patients (7 male) with a mean age of 61.6±9.3 years. Four had ischemic and 4 had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. No stroke, myocardial infarction, major bleeding, or major infection due to the device were reported. One patient developed non-device-related refractory tachycardia with worsening heart failure 12 h after surgery and underwent left ventricular assist device implantation. Within 6 months of observation, functional status improved from NYHA III to II in 5 patients, and 2 remained in NYHA III. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 24.3±7.9% to 44.5±4.5% (p<0.0001). Mean Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall score improved from 28.6±19.1 to 59.1±22.5 (p=0.0183). Six-minute walk test was performed in 6 out of 7 patients at follow-up. The mean distance improved from 252.0±85.1 m to 279.2±87.5 m (p>0.05). One patient was weaned off the device after 6 months of support. Conclusions The C-Pulse System provides a therapeutic option for patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure and seems to improve quality of life and cardiac function over time. PMID:26887528

  11. Regulations and guidelines should be strengthened urgently for re-evaluation on post-marketing medicines in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviewed the situation of regulations and guidelines on post-marketing medicines in the developed countries and in China. The developed countries have accumulated a lot of empirical principles and techniques on postmarketing surveillance (also named pharmacovigilance), therefore, their regulation systems are nearly perfect. In China, the regulations on post-marketing re-evaluation and relative technical guidelines do not cover the whole aspects, even lack in some important aspects, and long-term risk management mechanisms have not been established. So it is urgent to establish new regulations and improve the regulatory system in China based on the existing regulations and guidelines, by learning from the ideas of foreign advanced regulations, then fully integrating them with China's actual conditions, and cooperating with multidisciplinary researchers.

  12. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  13. Drug- and herb-induced liver injury: Progress, current challenges and emerging signals of post-marketing risk.

    PubMed

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-07-08

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications in the past 15 years. This review will first provide clues for clinicians to suspect idiosyncratic (unpredictable) DILI and succeed in diagnosis. Causality assessment remains challenging and requires careful medical history as well as awareness of multifaceted aspects, especially for herbs. Drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation remain the mainstay in patent's management to minimize occurrence of acute liver failure. The second section will address novel agents associated with liver injury in 2014 (referred to as "signals"), especially in terms of clinical, research and drug development implications. Insights will be provided into recent trends by highlighting the contribution of different post-marketing data, especially registries and spontaneous reporting systems. This literature scrutiny suggests: (1) the importance of post-marketing databases as tools of clinical evidence to detect signals of DILI risk; and (2) the need for joining efforts in improving predictivity of pre-clinical assays, continuing post-marketing surveillance and design ad hoc post-authorization safety studies. In this context, ongoing European/United States research consortia and novel pharmaco-epidemiological tools (e.g., specialist prescription event monitoring) will support innovation in this field. Direct oral anticoagulants and herbal/dietary supplements appear as key research priorities.

  14. Drug- and herb-induced liver injury: Progress, current challenges and emerging signals of post-marketing risk

    PubMed Central

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications in the past 15 years. This review will first provide clues for clinicians to suspect idiosyncratic (unpredictable) DILI and succeed in diagnosis. Causality assessment remains challenging and requires careful medical history as well as awareness of multifaceted aspects, especially for herbs. Drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation remain the mainstay in patent’s management to minimize occurrence of acute liver failure. The second section will address novel agents associated with liver injury in 2014 (referred to as “signals”), especially in terms of clinical, research and drug development implications. Insights will be provided into recent trends by highlighting the contribution of different post-marketing data, especially registries and spontaneous reporting systems. This literature scrutiny suggests: (1) the importance of post-marketing databases as tools of clinical evidence to detect signals of DILI risk; and (2) the need for joining efforts in improving predictivity of pre-clinical assays, continuing post-marketing surveillance and design ad hoc post-authorization safety studies. In this context, ongoing European/United States research consortia and novel pharmaco-epidemiological tools (e.g., specialist prescription event monitoring) will support innovation in this field. Direct oral anticoagulants and herbal/dietary supplements appear as key research priorities. PMID:26167249

  15. Levodopa therapy with entacapone in daily clinical practice: results of a post-marketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Kupsch, Andreas; Trottenberg, Thomas; Bremen, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor entacapone is given in combination with levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experiencing end-of-dose wearing-off. This 4-week post-marketing surveillance study was undertaken to assess patients' responses to levodopa combined with entacapone in a real clinical practice setting. Overall, 466 patients with idiopathic PD treated with levodopa and experiencing symptoms of wearing-off were recruited. Both physicians and patients recorded the response to therapy, including improvements and side-effects. Following initiation of entacapone treatment, the average daily levodopa dose was reduced from 510 to 453 mg. Physician assessment of entacapone efficacy was judged to be "very good" or "good" in 77.6% of the patients, and tolerability was considered to be "very good" or "good" in 92.4% of patients, with only 12 patients (2.6%) withdrawing from the study. Compared with baseline, there was a decrease in the mean duration of daily 'off' time from 3.0 to 1.3 h per day during the treatment period. Adverse events were in line with those previously reported, with diarrhoea being the most frequent event. The percentage of patients suffering from dyskinesia decreased from 46 to 34%, and of those patients still suffering from dyskinesia, the average daily duration of dyskinesia was reduced from 2.2 to 1.7 h. The use of adjunct dopamine agonists decreased from 67 to 59%. At study end, the percentage of patients who rated their quality of life (QoL) as "very good" or "good" increased from 12.1 to 51.7% and the percentage of patients who rated their QoL as "bad" or "very bad" decreased from 40 to 10.7%. In summary, the results of this survey conducted in real clinical practice support the findings of previous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and tolerability of entacapone, as well as the benefits of improved QoL, for patients achieved with entacapone.

  16. [Research on the issues in the process of post-market surveillance for medical devices based on the typical case analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sumin; Zhang, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Regarding the information collected, analysis and actions that have been taken, the issues in the process of the Post-market Surveillance for Medical Device were analyzed, and some suggestions were given at the same time.

  17. Construction and analysis of a human hepatotoxicity database suitable for QSAR modeling using post-market safety data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao; Kruhlak, Naomi L

    2014-07-03

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most common drug-induced adverse events (AEs) leading to life-threatening conditions such as acute liver failure. It has also been recognized as the single most common cause of safety-related post-market withdrawals or warnings. Efforts to develop new predictive methods to assess the likelihood of a drug being a hepatotoxicant have been challenging due to the complexity and idiosyncrasy of clinical manifestations of DILI. The FDA adverse event reporting system (AERS) contains post-market data that depict the morbidity of AEs. Here, we developed a scalable approach to construct a hepatotoxicity database using post-market data for the purpose of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling. A set of 2029 unique and modelable drug entities with 13,555 drug-AE combinations was extracted from the AERS database using 37 hepatotoxicity-related query preferred terms (PTs). In order to determine the optimal classification scheme to partition positive from negative drugs, a manually-curated DILI calibration set composed of 105 negatives and 177 positives was developed based on the published literature. The final classification scheme combines hepatotoxicity-related PT data with supporting information that optimize the predictive performance across the calibration set. Data for other toxicological endpoints related to liver injury such as liver enzyme abnormalities, cholestasis, and bile duct disorders, were also extracted and classified. Collectively, these datasets can be used to generate a battery of QSAR models that assess a drug's potential to cause DILI.

  18. [Taking evaluation of post-marketing as point of cut-in to promote systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-yan; Wang, Zhi-fei; Xie, Yan-ming

    2014-09-01

    Research on post-marketing Chinese medicine should be the systematic study from application to mechanism. Clinical evaluation is the basis of mechanism study, we can find the clue from clinical evaluation, then make a mechanism study to find the reason, then apply the results to clinic. So it is a virtuous circle. In order to achieve it, we cannot be limited to traditional Chinese medicine, we should form multi-disciplinary team under the direction of grand science thinking, try hard to put industry-university-research institute collaboration association to use, and if necessary, explore the new model of the whole nation system. An appropriate operation mechanism is very important.

  19. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  20. Post-marketing surveillance of immediate allergic reactions: polygeline-based versus polygeline-free pediatric TBE vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zent, Olaf; Hennig, Renald

    2004-12-16

    Scattered cases of immediate allergic reactions occurred in the nineties after widespread use of the original (polygeline-based) pediatric tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine and were reported to Pharmacovigilance, Chiron Vaccines. Although, still indicating a very rare frequency of about two cases per 100,000 doses sold, the benefit/risk assessment resulted in its withdrawal from the market in early 1998. An intensive evaluation revealed that polygeline used as a vaccine stabilizer was the most probable cause of the reported allergic reactions. Consequently, an improved pediatric TBE vaccine, free of polygeline and other protein-derived vaccine stabilizers, was developed. A post-marketing surveillance analysis covering the first two vaccination seasons after the introduction of this new pediatric TBE vaccine in early 2002 reveals a very low reporting rate of immediate allergic reactions post immunization (within the range as noted for other widely used vaccines for childhood immunization), i.e., 0.08-0.24 cases per 100,000 doses sold depending on case definition and medical assessment. In conclusion, this analysis provides post-marketing surveillance evidence that the change in the vaccine formulation, with regards to the potential risk of immediate allergic reactions, has led to an intended improvement in the vaccine's safety profile.

  1. Commitment to health theory.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces commitment to health as a middle-range. Commitment to health (CTH) is derived from Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. CTH theory is designed to predict the likelihood of behavior change between the action and maintenance stages of change. Commitment is defined as a freely chosen internal resolve to perform health behaviors, even when encumbered or inconvenienced by difficulties. Health is defined as the optimal level of well-being. Commitment is an independent continuous variable, but it can be categorized into three time-oriented categories: (1) low-level, (2) middle-level, and (3) high-level commitment. The higher the level of commitment, the more likely the individual will adopt long-term behavior change. This article presents the definitions, assumptions, and relational statements of CTH.

  2. [Post-marketing clinical safety assessment of Shenmai injection based on active monitoring and passive monitoring in large data background].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Song, Nian-bin

    2015-12-01

    This paper adopted a series of related analysis methods to comprehensively analyze post-marketing clinical safety data of Shenmai injection from 4,220 cases of SRS and 32,358 cases of multicenter, prospective, registered hospital centralized monitoring in large data background, calculated ADR incidence rate was 0.93 per 1,000, main symptoms of ADR includes chest pain, chills, skin itching, palpitations, fever, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, flushing, numbness, allergic reaction, cyanosis, rash, low back pain, and "breath", "anaphylactoid reaction" and "flush" were the safety warning signals of Shenmai injection. Primary disease for chronic pulmonary heart disease, thyroid disease, and combined with cerebral vascular disease, prior to the injection and continuous use of alprostadil, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, combined with quinolones, penicillins were suspicious influence factors of ADR of Shenmai injection, these promot the clinical safety.

  3. Post-market safety warnings for drugs approved in Canada under the Notice of Compliance with conditions policy

    PubMed Central

    Lexchin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Health Canada has developed a pathway to approve drugs that have limited efficacy and safety data, the Notice of Compliance with conditions (NOC/c) policy. Increased safety reporting is required for these drugs but there has not been any systematic review of their post-market safety. This study compares safety warnings for NOC/c drugs with drugs with a priority and a standard review. Methods A list of drugs approved between January 1 1998 and March 31 2013 was developed and serious safety warnings for these drugs were identified. Drugs were put into one of three groups based on the way that they were approved. Kaplan−Meier curves were generated to examine the likelihood of NOC/c drugs receiving a serious safety warning compared with drugs with a priority and a standard review. The time spent in the review process for each of the groups was also measured. Results Compared with drugs with a priority review, NOC/c drugs were not more likely to receive a serious safety warning (P = 0.5940) but were more likely than drugs with a standard review (P = 0.0113). NOC/c drugs spent less time in the review process compared with drugs with a standard review. Conclusions Possible reasons for the increase likelihood of a serious safety warning are the limited knowledge of the safety of NOC/c drugs when they are approved and the length of time that they spend in the review process. Health Canada should consider spending longer reviewing these drugs and monitor their post-market safety more closely. PMID:25393960

  4. Safety of inhaled glycopyrronium in patients with COPD: a comprehensive analysis of clinical studies and post-marketing data

    PubMed Central

    D’Urzo, Anthony D; Kerwin, Edward M; Chapman, Kenneth R; Decramer, Marc; DiGiovanni, Robert; D’Andrea, Peter; Hu, Huilin; Goyal, Pankaj; Altman, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic use of inhaled anticholinergics by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has raised long-term safety concerns, particularly cardiovascular. Glycopyrronium is a once-daily anticholinergic with greater receptor selectivity than previously available agents. Methods We assessed the safety of inhaled glycopyrronium using data pooled from two analysis sets, involving six clinical studies and over 4,000 patients with COPD who received one of the following treatments: glycopyrronium 50μg, placebo (both delivered via the Breezhaler® device), or tiotropium 18 μg (delivered via the HandiHaler® device). Data were pooled from studies that varied in their duration and severity of COPD of the patients (ie, ≤12 weeks duration with patients having moderate or severe COPD; and >1 year duration with patients having severe and very severe COPD). Safety comparisons were made for glycopyrronium vs tiotropium or placebo. Poisson regression was used to assess the relative risk for either active drug or placebo (and between drugs where placebo was not available) for assessing the incidence of safety events. During post-marketing surveillance (PMS), safety was assessed by obtaining reports from various sources, and disproportionality scores were computed using EMPIRICA™. In particular, the cardiac safety of glycopyrronium during the post-marketing phase was evaluated. Results The overall incidence of adverse events and deaths was similar across groups, while the incidence of serious adverse events was numerically higher in placebo. Furthermore, glycopyrronium did not result in an increased risk of cerebro-cardiovascular events vs placebo. There were no new safety reports during the PMS phase that suggested an increased risk compared to results from the clinical studies. Moreover, the cardiac safety of glycopyrronium during the PMS phase was also consistent with the clinical data. Conclusion The overall safety profile of glycopyrronium was

  5. Priming to induce paranoid thought in a non clinical population.

    PubMed

    Isnanda, Reza Giga; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Veling, Wim; van der Gaag, Mark; Neerincx, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Freeman et al. reported that a substantial minority of the general population has paranoid thoughts while exposed in a virtual environment. This suggested that in a development phase of a virtual reality exposure system for paranoid patients initially a non-clinical sample could be used to evaluate the system's ability to induce paranoid thoughts. To increase the efficiency of such an evaluation, this paper takes the position that when appropriately primed a larger group of a non-clinical sample will display paranoid thoughts. A 2-by-2 experiment was conducted with priming for insecurity and vigilance as a within-subject factor and prior-paranoid thoughts (low or high) as a between-subjects factor. Before exposure into the virtual world, participants (n=24) were shown a video and read a text about violence or about mountain animals. While exposed, participants were asked to comment freely on their virtual environment. The results of the experiment confirmed that exposure in a virtual environment could induce paranoid thought. In addition, priming with an aim to create a feeling of insecurity and vigilance increased paranoid comments in the non-clinical group that otherwise would less often exhibit ideas of persecution.

  6. Post-marketing survey on clinical response to interferon beta in relapsing multiple sclerosis: the Roman experience.

    PubMed

    Pozzilli, C; Prosperini, L; Sbardella, E; De Giglio, L; Onesti, E; Tomassini, V

    2005-12-01

    Safety, tolerability and efficacy profiles of interferon beta (IFNbeta) therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) has been widely verified both in trial settings and in daily clinical practice. However, for a variable percentage of treated patients, it remains only partially effective. In this study, we reported the post-marketing experience of the efficacy of IFNbeta therapy for a large cohort of MS patients regularly attending the MS Outpatient Clinic of "La Sapienza University" in Rome. In this cohort we also sought clinical and paraclinical variables responsible for the clinical course of MS during IFNbeta therapy. Patients that received treatment with one of the IFNbeta formulations for at least 1 year were included. Clinical outcomes (i. e., relapses and disability score) were monitored throughout the entire study period. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed twice for each subject: at baseline and after 1 year of therapy. The occurrence of more than one relapse during the study period or a sustained disability progression in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score were considered as criteria for the definition of suboptimal clinical response to IFNbeta therapy. During IFNbeta therapy (number of patients 242, mean length of treatment 4.3+/-2.3 years) a reduction in the annualised relapse rate of 59% (p<0.001) was observed. Eighty-six patients (35%) fulfilled the criterion for defining "suboptimal responder" on the basis of relapses, and 69 (28.5%) did the same on the basis of EDSS sustained progression. Twenty-seven (11.1%) patients showed both an EDSS progression and two or more relapses. The presence of T1-enhancing lesions and new T2 hyperintense lesions on the scan performed after the first year of therapy were the best MRI features associated with both the occurrence of relapses during the treatment period (OR for enhancing lesions and relapses 3.6; OR for new T2 lesion and relapses 2.8). The present post-marketing experience

  7. Estimating Commit Sizes Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Philipp; Riehle, Dirk

    The quantitative analysis of software projects can provide insights that let us better understand open source and other software development projects. An important variable used in the analysis of software projects is the amount of work being contributed, the commit size. Unfortunately, post-facto, the commit size can only be estimated, not measured. This paper presents several algorithms for estimating the commit size. Our performance evaluation shows that simple, straightforward heuristics are superior to the more complex text-analysis-based algorithms. Not only are the heuristics significantly faster to compute, they also deliver more accurate results when estimating commit sizes. Based on this experience, we design and present an algorithm that improves on the heuristics, can be computed equally fast, and is more accurate than any of the prior approaches.

  8. Tolerability of modified tick-borne encephalitis vaccine FSME-IMMUN "NEW" in children: results of post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Borislava G; Loew-Baselli, Alexandra; Fritsch, Sandor; Poellabauer, Eva Maria; Vartian, Nina; Rinke, Ingeborg; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2003-01-30

    A new, highly purified, inactivated tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine FSME-IMMUN "NEW" has been developed by Baxter using a production virus seed derived from chick embryo cells instead of mouse brain. In clinical trials, the vaccine was shown to be highly immunogenic and well tolerated in adults and children. Following licensure in 2001, the tolerability of half the adult dose of FSME-IMMUN "NEW" (1.2 microg antigen/0.25 ml) was investigated in a post-marketing surveillance in 1899 children aged 6 months to 12 years. Rectal body temperature was measured daily for 3 days after the first vaccination. An overall fever rate of 20.3% (95% CI=18.5; 22%) was observed, which was mostly mild in nature (>38.0 to

  9. An update on the safety and tolerability of pimecrolimus cream 1%: evidence from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Langley, Richard G B; Luger, Thomas A; Cork, Michael J; Schneider, Dirk; Paul, Carle

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we review the data on the safety and tolerability of pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel) from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance in patients with atopic dermatitis. These data demonstrate that topically applied pimecrolimus is minimally absorbed through the skin and has a favourable safety margin. The most common treatment-related adverse events are transient local reactions, particularly skin burning (16.1 and 12.9 events per 1,000 patient-months of follow-up in adults and children, respectively). When compared to the vehicle, the use of pimecrolimus cream 1% is associated with an increased incidence of herpes simplex virus infections in children (relative risk: 2.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-5.8; p = 0.017). However, pimecrolimus cream 1% does not increase the incidence of any skin infection in comparison with moderately potent topical corticosteroids and lacks other corticosteroid-related side effects such as skin atrophy. While cases of malignancy have been reported in patients who have used pimecrolimus cream 1%, there is no clinical evidence to establish that treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% increases the risk of malignancy.

  10. [Safety and efficacy of docetaxel in prostate cancer patients: based on the post-marketing surveillance in Japan].

    PubMed

    Mera, Takeshi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2012-04-01

    The safety and efficacy of docetaxel in prostate cancer were evaluated based on the results of post-marketing surveillance. 149 patients were enrolled between September 2008 and May 2010. The starting dose of docetaxel was 75 mg/m² in 53 patients(36%), 70 mg/m² in 55 (37%), and ≤ 60 mg/m² in 41(28%). The median number of treatment cycles was 8 (range, 1 to 10). There was no age difference observed in the starting doses and the treatment cycles. The most common ≥ grade 3 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were neutropenia (71%)and leukocytopenia (51%), and they occurred more frequently in patients receiving ≥ 70 mg/m². However, the multi-variate analyses revealed that ≥ grade 3 ADRs did not correlate with the starting doses. Infection-related events (≥ grade 3) and interstitial pneumonia were observed in 15% and 1% of patients, respectively. Prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) flare appeared in 19% of 95 evaluable patients at median period of 26 days from treatment initiation. It continued with median duration of 39. 5 days. PSA response rate as defined ≥ 50% level decline was 37%(95%confidence interval: 27-47) in evaluable patients. It was low in patients receiving ≤ 60 mg/m² (18%). There was no notable difference between patients with initial dose of 75 and 70 mg/m². Further investigation for the longer term is warranted.

  11. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information.

  12. Post-marketing surveillance study of the efficacy and safety of vardenafil among patients with erectile dysfunction in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kim, C M; Kim, Y S; Sunwoo, S; Cho, B; Rho, M; Yang, Y J; Kim, C H; Shin, H C; Lee, S Y; Kim, D H

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of vardenafil in primary care, we undertook a post-marketing surveillance study in 384 men with erectile dysfunction (ED), enrolled by 22 family physicians in Korea, from July 2004 to August 2005. Of the 384 patients enrolled, 343 (89.3%) returned for efficacy assessment and safety evaluation. Among the latter, 279 patients (81.3%) reported that their erectile function improved, 292 (92.1%) showed enhanced IIEF (International Index of Erectile Function)-5 scores and 265 (77.9%) responded that they were 'very satisfied' or 'satisfied' with vardenafil treatment. The most frequent reason for patient satisfaction with vardenafil was erectile potency (62.4%), followed by safety (42.4%), rapid onset (35.3%), adequate duration of efficacy (28.5%) and easy administration (25.9%). A total of 23 adverse events were observed in 18 patients, with the most frequent being hot flushes (3.2%), followed by headache (1.2%), nasal congestion (0.6%), color vision disturbance (0.3%), dizziness (0.3%), dry mouth (0.3%), dyspepsia (0.3%), nausea (0.3%) and diarrhea (0.3%). Only one patient discontinued vardenafil as a direct result of an adverse event. These results suggest that vardenafil prescribed by primary care physicians improved erectile function and was well tolerated by patients with ED.

  13. Can Disproportionality Analysis of Post-marketing Case Reports be Used for Comparison of Drug Safety Profiles?

    PubMed

    Michel, Christiane; Scosyrev, Emil; Petrin, Michael; Schmouder, Robert

    2017-02-21

    Clinical trials usually do not have the power to detect rare adverse drug reactions. Spontaneous adverse reaction reports as for example available in post-marketing safety databases such as the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) are therefore a valuable source of information to detect new safety signals early. To screen such large data-volumes for safety signals, data-mining algorithms based on the concept of disproportionality have been developed. Because disproportionality analysis is based on spontaneous reports submitted for a large number of drugs and adverse event types, one might consider using these data to compare safety profiles across drugs. In fact, recent publications have promoted this practice, claiming to provide guidance on treatment decisions to healthcare decision makers. In this article we investigate the validity of this approach. We argue that disproportionality cannot be used for comparative drug safety analysis beyond basic hypothesis generation because measures of disproportionality are: (1) missing the incidence denominators, (2) subject to severe reporting bias, and (3) not adjusted for confounding. Hypotheses generated by disproportionality analyses must be investigated by more robust methods before they can be allowed to influence clinical decisions.

  14. Vaccine adverse events reported in post-marketing study of the Kitasato Institute from 1994 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Onoda, Kazumasa

    2007-01-05

    General physicians, pediatricians and parents realize that serious adverse events occur with an extremely rare incidence, but have no information on the incidences of vaccine-associated adverse events. A proper understanding of vaccine adverse events would be helpful in promoting an immunization strategy. Causal association can rarely be determined in adverse events through laboratory examinations. We examined the cases reported in the post-marketing surveillance of the Kitasato Institute, categorizing them into two groups: allergic reactions and severe systemic illnesses. Anaphylactic patients with gelatin allergy after immunization with live measles, rubella and mumps monovalent vaccines have been reported since 1993, but the number of reported cases with anaphylaxis dramatically decreased after 1999 when gelatin was removed from all brands of DPT. The incidence of anaphylactic reaction was estimated to be 0.63 per million for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, 0.95 for DPT and 0.68 for Influenza vaccine, but the causative component has not yet been specified. Among 67.2 million immunization practices, 6 cases with encephalitis or encephalopathy, 7 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 10 with Guillain-Barré syndrome and 12 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were reported. The wild-type measles virus genome was detected in a patient with encephalitis and in two of four bone marrow aspirates obtained from ITP after measles vaccination. Enterovirus infection was identified in two patients after mumps vaccination (one each with encephalitis and ADEM), one patient with encephalitis after immunization with JEV vaccine, and one with aseptic meningitis after immunization with influenza vaccine. The total estimated incidence of serious neurological illness after vaccination was 0.1-0.2 per million immunization practices. We found that enterovirus or wild-type measles virus infection was coincidentally associated with vaccination in

  15. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  16. The safety of quetiapine: results of a post-marketing surveillance study on 1728 patients in England.

    PubMed

    Twaites, Beverley R; Wilton, Lynda V; Shakir, Saad A W

    2007-06-01

    The safety of the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine as used in general practice in England was examined by prescription-event monitoring (PEM). Patients were identified from dispensed National Health Service (NHS) prescriptions issued by general practitioners (GPs) for quetiapine between October 1997 and July 1999. The outcome data were event reports obtained by sending questionnaires ('green forms') to the prescribing doctor at Least 6 months after the first prescription for an individual patient. Green forms with clinically useful information on 1728 patients (median age 39 years (IQR 30-56); 53% female) were received. The most frequently reported event during the first month of treatment was 'drowsiness/sedation' (47; 3% cohort). This was also the most frequently reported specified adverse drug reaction (ADR) to quetiapine (7; 11% of 65 reported ADRs) and the highest reported clinical reason for stopping quetiapine (51; 6% of the 734 reported reasons for stopping). There was a low incidence of extrapyramidal disease (21 during treatment, 1% of cohort) and hyperprolactinaemia (three during treatment, 0.2%) in this study. Three cases of diabetes mellitus in this cohort were reported to be a new diagnosis. Six pregnancies were reported during treatment with quetiapine, five of which were exposed during the first trimester only. There were four Live births with no reported congenital abnormaLities. Fifty-six deaths were reported during this study (3% cohort). The most frequently reported causes of death reLated to the cardiovascular (18) and respiratory (15) systems. The results of this post-marketing surveillance study demonstrated that quetiapine is generally well-tolerated when used in general practice.

  17. The clinical efficacy of a clarithromycin-based regimen for Mycobacterium avium complex disease: A nationwide post-marketing study.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

    2017-02-26

    The revised 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America statement recommend clarithromycin-based combination therapy for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and stipulates approximately 1 year of continuous treatment after bacilli negative conversion. However, supporting data are insufficient. Our objective was to obtain data on the clinical outcome of clarithromycin-based daily regimens by conducting a nationwide retrospective post-marketing study of M.avium complex lung disease. In accordance with the Japanese guidelines, patients were enrolled in this survey according to their chest radiographic findings and microbiologic test results. They were treated with a multidrug regimen including clarithromycin, rifampicin, and ethambutol (clarithromycin-based regimen) until bacilli negative conversion, and the treatment was continued for approximately 1 year after the initial conversion. Data were collected before administration, at the time of bacilli negative conversion, at the end of treatment, and at 6 months after the end of treatment. Of the 466 subjects enrolled in the study, 271 patients who received clarithromycin at 800 mg/day underwent evaluation for M.avium complex disease. The final bacilli negative conversion rate in those patients was 94.7%. The bacteriological relapse rate was 5.0% (5/100 patients). Bacteriological relapse was noted in patients treated for less than 15 months after conversion. No life-threatening or serious adverse drug reactions were observed. This study demonstrated that a clarithromycin-based daily regimen can yield a high bacteriological conversion rate in M.avium complex disease. After conversion, treatment for less than 15 months might be insufficient to prevent bacteriological relapse.

  18. Memantine effects on behaviour in moderately severe to severe Alzheimer's disease: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Francesca; Vanacore, Nicola; Elia, Antonietta; Spila-Alegiani, Stefania; Pomati, Simone; Da Cas, Roberto; Raschetti, Roberto; Mariani, Claudio

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate memantine effectiveness on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in clinical practice and to identify variables that may predict the therapy effects. The effects of memantine on behaviour were analysed in the database of a post-marketing surveillance study promoted by the Lombardy Region Health Office and involving 43 Alzheimer's disease (AD) Units. From July to December 2005, 399 moderately severe-to-severe AD patients free of cholinergic medications were enrolled, treated with memantine and followed-up for 6 months. BPSD were assessed in a subgroup of 297 patients [mean age 77 ± 8 years; 73% females; mean neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) score 28 ± 24] for whom the 12-item NPI subscores at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months were available. The 12 BPSD were clustered as follows: affect, physical behaviour, psychosis and hypomania. The main outcome measure was the proportion of individual cluster responders at 6 months of therapy. The proportion of individual cluster responders was 30% affect, 24% physical behaviour, 29% psychosis, 27% hypomania. Patients taking 20 mg memantine daily during the study period had a statistically significant higher probability to experience behavioural improvement than those who discontinued treatment or did not complete memantine titration (affect OR 9.0; 95% CI 3.8-21.6; physical behaviour OR 17.8; 95% CI 5.9-53.6; psychosis OR 23.6; 95% CI 5.1-110.8). The logistic regression analysis was not applicable to the hypomania subsyndrome because of the low cluster prevalence. The standard 20 mg daily memantine treatment regimen was found to be associated with a modest 6-month behavioural improvement in the affect, physical behaviour and psychosis domains in 24-30% of patients.

  19. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun

    2011-10-01

    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration.

  20. Commitment to Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2005-01-01

    The Commitment to Health Scale (CHS) was developed to predict likelihood of clients being able to permanently adopt new health-promoting behaviors. Commitment is based on the association between starting new health behaviors and long-term performance of those behaviors. The CHS evolved from an examination of Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Algorithm, Decisional Balance Scale, and Strong and Weak Principle (Velicer, Rossi, Prochaska, & DiClemente, 1996). Scale items were assessed by classical and Rasch measurement methods. The research was performed in three separate studies at various locations in the United States and included approximately 1100 subjects. A new unidimensional variable was identified called Commitment to Health. Internal consistency reliability of the scale was .94 (Cronbach's alpha). External validity and reliability were assessed based on expected and observed ordering and between known groups. Scale scores predicted self-reported health behaviors and body mass index.

  1. Assessment and non-clinical impact of medical devices.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Josseran, Anne; Barna, Alexandre; Carbonneil, Cédric; Chevrie, Karine; Debroucker, Frédérique; Grumblat, Anne; Grumel, Olivier; Massol, Jacques; Maugendre, Philippe; Méchin, Hubert; Orlikowski, David; Roussel, Christophe; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine; Sales, Jean-Patrick; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Medical devices (MDs) cover a wide variety of products. They accompany changes in medical practice in step with technology innovations. Innovations in the field of MDs can improve the conditions of use of health technology and/or modify the organisation of care beyond the strict diagnostic or therapeutic benefit for the patients. However, these non purely clinical criteria seem to be only rarely documented or taken into account in the assessment of MDs during reimbursement decisions at national level or for formulary listing by hospitals even though multidimensional models for the assessment of health technologies have been developed that take into account the views of all stakeholders in the healthcare system In this article, after summarising the background concerning the assessment of health technologies in France, a definition of non-clinical criteria for the assessment of MDs is proposed and a decision tree for the assessment of MDs is described. Future lines of approach are proposed as a conclusion.

  2. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed.

  3. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  4. Commitment to Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  5. The Vocational Commitment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    1973-01-01

    The Index is the result of an effort made to examine all components of vocational commitment and to translate this information into an instrument which could be used to assess the relationship of an individual to a vocation.. The predictive ability of the 74-item device requires further research. (Author/AG)

  6. From controlled to committed.

    PubMed

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose.

  7. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2002-02-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, penicillins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Changes in CZOP susceptibility for the bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated with the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (3,362 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2000, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (n = 136), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 289), Escherichia coli (n = 276), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 192), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 157), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 189), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 93), Serratia marcescens (n = 172), Serratia liquefaciens (n = 24), Citrobacter freundii (n = 177), Citrobacter koseri (n = 70), Proteus mirabilis (n = 113), Proteus vulgaris (n = 89), Morganella morganii (n = 116), Providencia spp. (n = 41), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 290), Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 56), Pseudomonas putida (n = 63), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 146), Acinetobacter lwoffii (n = 34), Burkholderia cepacia (n = 101), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 169), Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 196), and Prevotella/Porphyromonas (n = 173). An antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, and S. marcescens was potent and consistent with or more preferable than the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against M.(B.) catarrhalis, C. koseri, and P. aeruginosa was not considerably changed and consistent with the study results obtained until the new drug application approval. MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, and P. mirabilis increased year by year. The increase in MIC90 of CZOP against E. aerogenes and P. mirabilis, however, was not considered to be an obvious decline in susceptibility. In

  8. Striatal Abnormalities and Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Orr, Joseph M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica; Gupta, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals experiencing non-clinical psychosis (NCP) represent a critical group for improving understanding of etiological factors underlying the broader psychosis continuum. Although a wealth of evidence supports widespread neural dysfunction in formal psychosis, there has been little empirical evidence to support our understanding of putative vulnerability markers or brain structure in NCP. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of spontaneous movement abnormalities, a neural biomarker previously detected in NCP that is linked to abnormalities in the striatal dopamine. Methods We screened a total of 1,285 adolescents/young adults, and those scoring in the upper 15 percentile on a NCP scale were invited to participate; 20 of those invited agreed and these individuals were matched with healthy controls. Participants were administered a structural scan, clinical interviews, and an instrumental motor assessment. Results The NCP group showed elevated force variability, smaller putamen (but not caudate), and there was a significant relationship between motor dysfunction and striatal abnormalities for the sample. Elevated force variability was associated with both higher positive and negative symptoms, and there was a strong trend (p=.06) to suggest that smaller left putamen volumes were associated with elevated positive symptoms. Conclusions The results are among the first to suggest an association between neural structure and a risk marker in NCP. Findings indicate that vulnerabilities seen in schizophrenia also characterize the lower end of the psychosis spectrum. PMID:24156901

  9. Non-Clinical Safety Evaluation of Intranasal Iota-Carrageenan

    PubMed Central

    Hebar, Alexandra; Koller, Christiane; Seifert, Jan-Marcus; Chabicovsky, Monika; Bodenteich, Angelika; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Carrageenan has been widely used as food additive for decades and therefore, an extended oral data set is available in the public domain. Less data are available for other routes of administration, especially intranasal administration. The current publication describes the non-clinical safety and toxicity of native (non-degraded) iota-carrageenan when applied intranasally or via inhalation. Intranasally applied iota-carrageenan is a topically applied, locally acting compound with no need of systemic bioavailability for the drug’s action. Animal experiments included repeated dose local tolerance and toxicity studies with intranasally applied 0.12% iota-carrageenan for 7 or 28 days in New Zealand White rabbits and nebulized 0.12% iota-carrageenan administered to F344 rats for 7 days. Permeation studies revealed no penetration of iota-carrageenan across nasal mucosa, demonstrating that iota-carrageenan does not reach the blood stream. Consistent with this, no relevant toxic or secondary pharmacological effects due to systemic exposure were observed in the rabbit or rat repeated dose toxicity studies. Data do not provide any evidence for local intolerance or toxicity, when carrageenan is applied intranasally or by inhalation. No signs for immunogenicity or immunotoxicity have been observed in the in vivo studies. This is substantiated by in vitro assays showing no stimulation of a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines by iota-carrageenan. In conclusion, 0.12% iota-carrageenan is safe for clinical use via intranasal application. PMID:25875737

  10. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  11. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.46 Commitment issuance....

  12. 24 CFR 200.46 - Commitment issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.46 Commitment issuance....

  13. [Post-marketing surveillance of antibacterial activities of cefozopran against various clinical isolates--II. Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Igari, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Nobuyoshi; Akiyama, Kazumitsu; Koyama, Tsuneo

    2003-10-01

    As a post-marketing surveillance, the in vitro antibacterial activities of cefozopran (CZOP), an agent of cephems, against various clinical isolates were yearly evaluated and compared with those of other cephems, oxacephems, carbapenems, monobactams, and penicillins. Changes in CZOP susceptibility among bacteria were also evaluated with the bacterial resistance ratio calculated from the breakpoint MIC. Twenty-five species (4,154 strains) of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the clinical materials annually collected from 1996 to 2001, and consisted of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Serratia liquefaciens, Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacteroides fragilis group, and Prevotella/Porphyromonas. CZOP preserved its antibacterial activity against M. (B.) catarrhalis (MIC90: 4 micrograms/mL) and showed comparable activity to carbapenems against H. influenzae (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. coli was preferable (MIC90: 0.125 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of cefpirome (CPR), cefepime (CFPM), and imipenem (IPM). The MIC90 of CZOP against K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca was 1 and 0.25 microgram/mL, respectively. The MIC90 of CZOP against E. cloacae increased during 6 years (32 to 128 micrograms/mL). The antibacterial activity of CZOP against E. aerogenes was preferable (MIC90: 1 microgram/mL). The antibacterial activities of CZOP against S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens were relatively potent (MIC90: 0.5 and 0.25 microgram/mL) and comparable to those of CPR, CFPM, and carumonam. CZOP preserved comparable antibacterial

  14. A post-marketing surveillance study of a human live-virus pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (Nasovac (®) ) in India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Prasad S; Raut, Sidram K; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2013-01-01

    A live attenuated pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine was developed in India. A post marketing surveillance was conducted retrospectively in healthy individuals (³ 3 years) who were vaccinated intranasally around one year before. After consent, the subjects recorded adverse events developing within 42 days. Among 7565 individuals (3 - 85 years), a total of 81 solicited adverse reactions (1%) were reported in 49 subjects (0.65%). The reactions included mild to moderate respiratory symptoms. No H1N1 case was encountered during one year postvaccination. The data show the safety of the live attenuated influenza vaccine platform developed in India.

  15. Human pregnancy safety for agents used to treat rheumatoid arthritis: adequacy of available information and strategies for developing post-marketing data

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Christina D; Tutuncu, Zuhre N; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Kenneth L

    2006-01-01

    For female patients with rheumatoid arthritis, the availability of a host of new disease modifying antirheumatic drugs has raised important questions about fetal safety if a woman becomes pregnant while she is being treated. In addition, there is limited safety information regarding many of the older medications commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in women of reproductive age. Current summary pregnancy risk information for selected medications used to treat rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed in the context of the pregnancy label category. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of post-marketing strategies for developing new pregnancy safety information are described. PMID:16774693

  16. [Standard Cancer Therapy Are Established by the Investigator-Initiated Post-Marketing Clinical Trials, Not by the Indication-Directed Clinical Trials].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The financial supports for investigator-initiated post-marketing clinical trial in clinical oncology are reduced after scandals related to the other fields of clinical trials in Japan. These clinical trials are the essential final steps of clinical development in newer cancer therapy, which should be conducted in the investigator-initiated clinical trial groups with well-organized infrastructure and continuous financial supports. The present problems are discussed and summarized. Future perspectives with the national viewpoints needed to be included the idea of "health technology assessment".

  17. [Discussion about relativity between post-marketed safety outcome and treatment course of traditional Chinese medicine drugs on basis of reinforced urn processes].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng-Liang; Hu, Si-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Based on relevant research and development, the possibility of applying the reinforced urn processes (RUPs) statistical approach to traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) drugs safety research is discussed in this paper, primarily through theoretical discussion and simulations. Also introduced are work flows and the key points for the application of the RUPs approach. This potentially new approach has recently been applied to the target estimation of phase I human tolerance clinical trials. A traditional RUPs approach has also been widely applied in the precise point-estimation of allowable longest treatment courses, according to the particular safety outcomes of post-marketed TCM.

  18. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  19. Texas hospitals share creative uses of non-clinical staff to reduce ER costs.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Texas hospitals share creative uses of non-clinical staff to reduce ER costs. In central Texas, Christus Spohn Hospital and Seton Health Care are independently exploring the use of non-clinical staff to improve utilization of clinical and emergency services, but their existing programs employ different structures and outcomes measurements.

  20. 78 FR 53773 - Select Updates for Non-Clinical Engineering Tests and Recommended Labeling for Intravascular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Select Updates for Non-Clinical Engineering Tests and... guidance entitled ``Select Updates for Non- Clinical Engineering Tests and Recommended Labeling for... issuing this update on select sections in order to notify the industry in a timely manner of our...

  1. Comparative genetic characterization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains recovered from clinical and non-clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Gu, Dan-xia; Huang, Yong-lu; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Gong-Xiang; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The origin of pathogenic Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), a major causative agent of childhood diarrhea worldwide, remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of EAEC in clinical and non-clinical sources and compare their genetic characteristics in order to identify strains that rarely and commonly cause human diarrhea. The virulence gene astA was commonly detectable in both clinical and non-clinical EAEC, while clinical isolates, but not the non-clinical strains, were consistently found to harbor other virulence factors such as aap (32%), aatA (18%) and aggR (11%). MLST analysis revealed the extremely high diversity of EAEC ST types, which can be grouped into three categories including: (i) non-clinical EAEC that rarely cause human infections; (ii) virulent strains recoverable in diarrhea patients that are also commonly found in the non-clinical sources; (iii) organisms causing human infections but rarely recoverable in the non-clinical setting. In addition, the high resistance in these EAEC isolates in particular resistance to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins raised a huge concern for clinical EAEC infection control. The data from this study suggests that EAEC strains were diversely distributed in non-clinical and clinical setting and some of the clinical isolates may originate from the non-clinical setting. PMID:27062991

  2. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  3. The Measurement of Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowday, Richard T.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Satisfactory test-retest reliabilities and internal consistency reliabilities were found. (Author)

  4. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  5. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  6. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  7. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with the use of biologic and other investigational agents: the importance of long-term post-marketing safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Allison; Borovicka, Judy H; West, Dennis P; Evens, Andrew M; Laumann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who developed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after receiving courses of two investigational biologic agents and cyclosporine followed by more than four years of subcutaneous efalizumab for the treatment of extensive chronic plaque psoriasis. Three years later, the patient remains free of lymphoma and his psoriasis is well controlled with thrice-weekly narrow-band ultraviolet phototherapy. This case emphasizes the importance of continued long-term post-marketing safety surveillance and the early reporting of all possible serious side effects, including cancers, related to the use of any newly available product. In particular, surveillance should focus on the immunomodulating biologic agents in order to identify possible dangerous sequelae.

  8. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  9. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  10. [Explore method about post-marketing safety re-evaluation of Chinese patent medicines based on HIS database in real world].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Zhuang, Yan

    2011-10-01

    There are many kinds of Chinese traditional patent medicine used in clinical practice and many adverse events have been reported by clinical professionals. Chinese patent medicine's safety problems are the most concerned by patients and physicians. At present, many researchers have studied re-evaluation methods about post marketing Chinese medicine safety inside and outside China. However, it is rare that using data from hospital information system (HIS) to re-evaluating post marketing Chinese traditional patent medicine safety problems. HIS database in real world is a good resource with rich information to research medicine safety. This study planed to analyze HIS data selected from ten top general hospitals in Beijing, formed a large HIS database in real world with a capacity of 1 000 000 cases in total after a series of data cleaning and integrating procedures. This study could be a new project that using information to evaluate traditional Chinese medicine safety based on HIS database. A clear protocol has been completed as for the first step for the whole study. The protocol is as follows. First of all, separate each of the Chinese traditional patent medicines existing in the total HIS database as a single database. Secondly, select some related laboratory tests indexes as the safety evaluating outcomes, such as routine blood, routine urine, feces routine, conventional coagulation, liver function, kidney function and other tests. Thirdly, use the data mining method to analyze those selected safety outcomes which had abnormal change before and after using Chinese patent medicines. Finally, judge the relationship between those abnormal changing and Chinese patent medicine. We hope this method could imply useful information to Chinese medicine researchers interested in safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. A Pharmacovigilance Approach for Post-Marketing in Japan Using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database and Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed. Methods and Findings We utilized the REAC and DEMO tables from the May 2015 version of JADER for patients taking antidepressant drugs (SSRI, SNRI, and NaSSA). We evaluated the associations using association analyses with an apriori algorithm. Support, confidence, lift, and conviction were used as indicators for associations. The highest score in adverse drug reactions for SSRI was obtained for "aspartate aminotransferase increased", "alanine aminotransferase increased", with values of 0.0059, 0.93, 135.5, and 13.9 for support, confidence, lift and conviction, respectively. For SNRI, "international normalized ratio increased", "drug interaction" were observed with 0.0064, 1.00, 71.9, and NA. For NaSSA, "anxiety", "irritability" were observed with 0.0058, 0.80, 49.9, and 4.9. For female taking SSRI, the highest support scores were observed in "twenties", "suicide attempt", whereas "thirties", "neuroleptic malignant syndrome" were observed for male. Second, for SNRI, "eighties", "inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion" were observed for female, whereas "interstitial lung disease" and "hepatitis fulminant" were for male. Finally, for NaSSA, "suicidal ideation" was for female, and "rhabdomyolysis" was for male. Conclusions Different combinations of adverse drug reactions were noted between the antidepressants. In addition, the reported

  12. Neurocognitive Features of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Non-Clinical Adult Sample

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    relationship between ADHD symptoms and cognitive performance in a non-clinical adult sample of 75 men and women (ages 20 to 49). Self-report measures of ADHD ...unknown. The current study examined the relationship between ADHD symptoms and cognitive performance in a non-clinical adult sample of 75 men and...symptoms as adults . Consistent with this estimate, a longitudinal study of boys with ADHD revealed that at age 19, 38% had symptoms that met full

  13. Arbitrarily Long Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    We consider the recent relativistic bit commitment protocol introduced by Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015)] and present a new security analysis against classical attacks. In particular, while the initial complexity of the protocol scales double exponentially with the commitment time, our analysis shows that the correct dependence is only linear. This has dramatic implications in terms of implementation: in particular, the commitment time can easily be made arbitrarily long, by only requiring both parties to communicate classically and perform efficient classical computation.

  14. Reporters and Their Professional and Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Secondary analyses of data gathered in a national study of United States journalists yielded information about variables that predict professional and organizational commitment. The factors selected for analysis were found to explain organizational commitment better than professional commitment. (GT)

  15. Communication, Leadership, and Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, Anna L.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship of leadership style and communication behavior to employee commitment. Finds that leaders' stylistic qualities and socially skilled communication play a part in predicting how subordinates feel about their organization. (MS)

  16. ["Re-evaluation upon suspected event" is an approach for post-marketing clinical study: lessons from adverse drug events related to Bupleuri Radix preparations].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Xin; Sun, Hong-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Long, Hong-Zhu; Ye, Zu-Guang; Ji, Shao-Liang; Zhang, Li

    2014-08-01

    We revisited the "Xiao Chaihu Decoction event (XCHDE)" occurred in late 1980s in Japan and the Bupleuri Radix related adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in China After careful review, comparison, analysis and evaluation, we think the interstitial pneumonitis, drug induced Liver injury (DILI) and other severe adverse drug envents (ADEs) including death happened in Japan is probably results from multiple factors, including combinatory use of XCHDE with interferon, Kampo usage under modern medicine theory guidance, and use of XCHD on the basis of disease diagnosis instead of traditional Chinese syndrome complex differentiation. There are less ADE case reports related to XCHD preparation in China compared to Japan, mostly manifest with hypersensitivity responses of skin and perfuse perspiration. The symptoms of Radix Bupleuri injection related ADEs mainly manifest hypersensitivity-like response, 2 cases of intravenous infusion instead of intramuscular injection developed hypokalemia and renal failure. One case died from severe hypersensitivity shock. In Chinese literatures, there is no report of the interstitial pneumonitis and DILI associated with XCHDG in Japan. So far, there is no voluntary monitoring data and large sample clinical research data available. The author elaborated the classification of "reevaluation" and clarified "re-evaluation upon events" included the reaction to the suspected safety and efficacy events. Based on the current status of the clinical research on the Radix Bupleuri preparations, the author points out that post-marketing "re-evaluation upon suspected event" is not only a necessity of continuous evaluation of the safety, efficacy of drugs, it is also a necessity for providing objective clinical research data to share with the international and domestic drug administrations in the risk-benefit evaluation. It is also the unavoidable pathway to culture and push the excellent species and famous brands of TCM to the international market, in

  17. Post-market surveillance of GM foods: applicability and limitations of schemes used with pharmaceuticals and some non-GM novel foods.

    PubMed

    Wal, J-M; Hepburn, P A; Lea, L J; Crevel, R W R

    2003-08-01

    Post-market surveillance (PMS) is increasingly required by some regulatory authorities for the marketing approval of GM-Novel Foods. This requirement, in addition to a complete conventional safety assessment, aims to show that unexpected (adverse) effects do not occur after long-term everyday exposure. Large food manufacturers have systems to obtain feedback from consumers on their products. We show that such systems can be enhanced to collect information on possible health effects of specific products and relate these to intake in specific groups of consumers. The term post-launch monitoring (PLM) is proposed to distinguish the process from that used for pharmaceuticals. GM foods differ from branded products to which existing systems have been applied. The paper discusses whether and how such systems could be applied to GM foods and what additional elements would need to be incorporated in them. A PLM system should define and organize the flow of information between the different stakeholders. We conclude that because such data will be generated from a range of sources and will need to be collated, verified, and integrated, an independent agency will be essential to undertake this activity in order to balance the interests of all stakeholders and ensure public trust.

  18. An immunogenicity, safety and post-marketing surveillance of a novel adsorbed human diploid cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax) in Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, M K; Bhardwaj, S; Mahendra, B J; Sharma, H; Sanjay, T V; Ashwathnarayana, D H; Bilagumba, Gangaboraiah

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, Serum Institute of India indigenously developed an adsorbed human diploid cell rabies vaccine (Rabivax). During 2000-04, this new vaccine was subjected to a series of immunogenecity and safety studies. Initially, an experimental batch of Rabivax (adsorbed) was assessed on ten healthy adult volunteers and its response was comparable with that of Merieux inactivated rabies vaccine (MIRV, lyophilized) which was used as a control. Subsequently, Rabivax (adsorbed) was assessed on forty-five suspect rabid dog bite cases with MIRV as control. The vaccine was found to be equally safe and immunogenic as MIRV and showed better rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) response on day 90 than MIRV. A post-licensing study conducted on 150 cases of suspect rabid animal bites showed it to be safe and immunogenic. To assess its long-term sero-efficacy some of these subjects tested after one year of follow up showed that 84% of them had adequate RVNA titers. In addition, a routine post-marketing surveillance done on 1608 animal bite cases demonstrated that Rabivax (adsorbed) was safe and efficacious. The adverse events to Rabivax (adsorbed) included pain at injection site (3.4%), swelling with induration (2.8%), fever and headache (1.4%). No serious adverse event was reported from the studies. In conclusion, Rabivax (adsorbed) is an immunogenic, safe and efficacious vaccine for rabies prophylaxis in humans.

  19. Adverse events after Japanese encephalitis vaccination: review of post-marketing surveillance data from Japan and the United States. The VAERS Working Group.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Pool, V; Tsai, T F; Chen, R T

    2000-07-01

    We determined the reporting rates for adverse events following the administration of inactivated mouse-brain derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JEV) based on post-marketing surveillance data from Japan and the United States. The rate of total adverse events per 100,000 doses was 2.8 in Japan and 15.0 in the United States. In Japan, 17 neurological disorders were reported from April 1996 to October 1998 for a rate of 0.2 per 100,000 doses. In the United States, no serious neurological adverse events temporally associated with JEV were reported from January 1993 to June 1999. Rates for systemic hypersensitivity reactions were 0.8 and 6.3 per 100,000 doses in Japan and the United States, respectively. Passively collected VAERS surveillance data indicate that characteristic hypersensitivity reactions with a delayed onset continue to occur among JEV recipients and that conservative recommendations limiting its use to travelers at high risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis are appropriate.

  20. [Response of Pharmaceutical Companies to the Crisis of Post-Marketing Clinical Trials of Anti-Cancer Agents -- Results of Questionnaires to Pharmaceutical Companies].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshifusa

    2016-04-01

    Investigator-oriented post-marketing clinical trials of anti-cancer agents are faced to financial crisis due to drastic decrease in research-funds from pharmaceutical companies caused by a scandal in 2013. In order to assess the balance of research funds between 2012 and 2014, we made queries to 26 companies manufacturing anti-cancer agents, and only 10 of 26 responded to our queries. Decrease in the fund was observed in 5 of 10, no change in 1, increase in 3 and no answer in 1. Companies showed passive attitude to carry out doctor-oriented clinical trials of off-patent drugs or unapproved drugs according to advanced medical care B program, though some companies answered to proceed approved routines of these drugs if clinical trials showed good results. Most companies declined to make comments on the activity of Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), but some insisted to produce good corroboration between AMED and pharmaceutical companies in order to improve the quality of trials. Further corroboration must be necessary for this purpose among researchers, governmental administrative organs, pharmaceutical companies, patients' groups, and mass-media.

  1. Long-term post-marketing surveillance of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: Safety and efficacy during a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kenya; Sudo, Yohei; Itoh, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Hisao; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of long-term use of mizoribine by undertaking a 3-year post-marketing surveillance study. Methods: Subjects were all lupus nephritis patients newly treated with mizoribine between 1 October 2003 and 30 September 2005 at contracted study sites. Results: Mizoribine was administered to 881 lupus nephritis patients in the safety analysis set consisting of 946 patients recruited from 281 contracted study sites after satisfying the eligibility criteria. There were 301 events of adverse drug reactions that were observed in 196 (20.7%) of the 946 subjects. There were 34 events of serious adverse drug reactions in 31 patients (3.2%). No deterioration in hematological and biochemical test values was observed, but immunological testing showed significant improvements in C3, CH50, and anti-DNA antibody titers. The negative rate of proteinuria also increased over time. The median steroid dosage was 15 mg/day at the commencement of treatment, but was reduced to 10 mg/day at 12 months and 8 mg/day at 36 months. Conclusion: The findings of the 3-year long-term drug use surveillance study indicated that mizoribine can be used over the long term with relatively few adverse drug reactions, suggesting its suitability for use in maintenance drug therapy. PMID:26770729

  2. What is different about medical students interested in non-clinical careers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The proportion of medical school graduates who pursue careers other than full-time clinical practice has increased in some countries as the physician’s role has evolved and diversified with the changing landscape of clinical practice and the advancement of biomedicine. Still, past studies of medical students’ career choices have focused on clinical specialties and little is known about their choice of non-clinical careers. The present study examined backgrounds, motivation and perceptions of medical students who intended non-clinical careers. Methods A questionnaire was administered to students at six Korean medical schools distributed across all provinces in the nation. The questionnaire comprised 40 items on respondents’ backgrounds, their motivation for and interest in the study of medicine, their perceptions of medical professions, and their career intentions. Data was analyzed using various descriptive and inferential statistics. Results In total, 1,388 students returned the questionnaire (60% response rate), 12.3% of whom intended non-clinical careers (i.e., basic sciences, non-clinical medical fields, and non-medical fields). Those who planned non-clinical careers were comparable with their peers in their motivation for studying medicine and in their views of medical professions, but they were less interested in the study of medicine (P < 0.01). The two groups also differed significantly on their perceptions of what was uninteresting about the study of medicine (P < 0.01). The two groups were comparable in gender and entry-level ratios but their distributions across ages and years of study differed significantly (P < 0.01). A majority of respondents agreed with the statements that “it is necessary for medical school graduates to pursue non-clinical careers” and that “medical schools need to offer programs that provide information on such careers.” Still, our finding indicates that medical school curricula do not address

  3. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  4. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  5. Clinical and Non-Clinical Characteristics Associated with Medication Use among Children with Serious Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Walrath, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Our study explores the clinical and non-clinical characteristics associated with medication use among children with serious emotional disturbance who are referred into community-based family-driven system of care settings. Using data collected as part of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program…

  6. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  7. Mediators of the Link between Autistic Traits and Relationship Satisfaction in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Begeer, Sander

    2010-01-01

    People with ASD have deficits in their social skills and may therefore experience lower relationship satisfaction. This study investigated possible mechanisms to explain whether and how autistic traits, measured with the AQ, influence relationship satisfaction in a non-clinical sample of 195 married couples. More autistic traits were associated…

  8. The Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis and Dyslexic Tendencies in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Stirling, John

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between cerebellar deficits and dyslexic tendencies in a non-clinical sample, 27 primary school children aged 8-9 completed a cerebellar soft signs battery and were additionally assessed for reading age, sequential memory, picture arrangement and knowledge of common sequences. An average measure of the soft…

  9. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  10. The Measurement of Vocational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Susan F.; Hubbard, Constance F.

    Recent efforts toward career education and the rise in occupationally oriented programs on the secondary and postsecondary level encourage a close examination of the nature of the relationship between people and their vocations. A 74 item device, the Vocational Commitment Index was developed to assess this relationship. Based upon a theoretically…

  11. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  13. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  14. Predictors of Child Caregiver Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Nancy Carnahan; Lowther, Malcolm

    This study examined the relationship between child caregiver commitment and the caregiver's personal characteristics and work experience, the characteristics of the job, and the quality of the child care center. Questionnaires that included several measurement instruments were sent to 381 full-time child caregivers in 94 centers. Caregiver…

  15. Hampshire Country School Staff Commitments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampshire Country School, Rindge, NH.

    Intended for professional personnel of the Hampshire Country School, which treats gifted children with immobilizing emotional dysfunctions, the handbook specifies staff commitments. The Code of Ethics, adapted from the National Education Association Code as supplemented by The Council for Exceptional Children, sets forth four principles:…

  16. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  17. Commitment Profiles and Employee Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Laura; Vandenberghe, Christian; Vandenberg, Robert; Bentein, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    We examined how affective (AC), normative (NC), perceived sacrifice (PS), and few alternatives (FA) commitments combine to form profiles and determine turnover intention and turnover. We theorized that three mechanisms account for how profiles operate, i.e., the degree to which membership is internally regulated, the perceived desirability and…

  18. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  19. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  20. Faculty Organizational Commitment and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…

  1. The Relationships between Collegiate DECA Commitment, Mentoring and College Students' Perceived Career Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between student's Collegiate DECA commitment, psychological capital, mentoring, and perceived career commitment. Proposed relationships were supported with several psychological theories and frameworks including Organizational Commitment, Psychological Capital, and Social Identity Theory. Data was…

  2. The impact of neutralizing antibodies on the risk of disease worsening in interferon β-treated relapsing multiple sclerosis: a 5 year post-marketing study.

    PubMed

    Paolicelli, D; D'Onghia, M; Pellegrini, F; Direnzo, V; Iaffaldano, P; Lavolpe, V; Trojano, M

    2013-06-01

    The impact of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) on interferon β (IFNβ) efficacy in MS patients is still an object of controversy. To evaluate the clinical response to IFNβ during NAb-positive (NAb+) and NAb-negative (NAb-) statuses on a large population of relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients were followed up to 5 years. Sera from 567 RR MS patients treated with IFNβ for 2-5 years were collected every 6-12 months and evaluated for NAb presence by a cytopathic effect assay. The relapse rate and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score were assessed at baseline and every 6 months for each patient. A NAb+ status was defined after two consecutive positive titers of NAbs >/= 20 neutralizing units (NU)/mL. Multivariate models were used to analyze the relapse rate, the time to first relapse, the time to confirmed EDSS score 4 during NAb+ and NAb- statuses. A propensity score (PS) matching analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the multivariate models. Fourteen percent of patients became NAb+ during the follow-up. A significant increase of the relapse rate (IRR = 1.38; p = 0.0247) and decrease of the time to 1st relapse (IRR = 1.51; p = 0.0111) were found during NAb+ periods. The PS matching analysis, in a selected cohort of patients, demonstrated a negative trend of NAbs on the time to reach the milestone EDSS 4 (IRR = 2.94; p = 0.0879). This long-term post-marketing observational study further confirms that the occurrence of NAbs significantly affects the risk of disease worsening in IFNβ- treated RRMS.

  3. [Safety and effectiveness of pemetrexed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer in Japan - analysis of post-marketing surveillance].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Sumiko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Taketsuna, Masanori; Kaneko, Naoya; Enatsu, Sotaro; Nishiuma, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of pemetrexed(PEM)in patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC)were reviewed using data from post-marketing surveillance. Among 699 patients registered from June 2009 to May 2010, 683 patients were analyzed(343, first-line therapy: 340, second-line therapy or beyond). Patient backgrounds were as follows: median age=65 years(16.1%B75 years old); 64.7% male; 91.9% performance status 0-1; 83.2% Stage IV; 99.0% non-squamous cell cancer. Also, 86% of the first-line and 20% of the second-line cohort were receiving a concomitant anti-cancer drug(mostly platinum agents). The incidence rate of adverse drug reactions(ADR)was 76.7%, including serious cases(18.0%). The most common ADRs were decreased white blood cell count(26.8%), decreased neutrophil count(25.3%), anemia(19.2%), decreased platelet count(17.0%), and nausea(23.0%). The incidence of interstitial lung disease, which is a concern during chemotherapy, was 2.6%. Peripheral neuropathy and alopecia, events influencing a patient's quality of life, were less than 1%. The estimated median survival time was 23.2 months[95%CI: 19.8 months-not calculable]in the first-line cohort, and 11.8 months[95% CI: 10.5-13.7 months]in the B second-line cohort. The surveillance results showed no apparent difference in total ADRs in this current study compared to the safety profile established in clinical trials previously conducted in Japan and overseas. These results demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of PEM treatment for NSCLC patients in daily clinical settings.

  4. WIN OVER study: Efficacy and safety of olmesartan in Indian hypertensive patients: Results of an open label, non-comparative, multi-centric, post marketing observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kumbla, D.K.; Kumar, S.; Reddy, Y.V.; Trailokya, A.; Naik, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a global health problem. Multiple classes of drugs including angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are available for the treatment of hypertension. Olmesartan is a relatively newer ARB used in hypertension management. Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of WIN-BP (Olmesartan 20 mg/40 mg) tablet in Indian patients with hypertension. Material and methods An open label, non-comparative, multi-centric, real world post marketing observational study included Indian adult hypertensive patients who were treated with olmesartan 20 mg/40 mg tablet once daily for six months. The primary outcome was reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to <140 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) to <90 mmHg at 3 and 6 months after initiation of treatment with olmesartan. All reported adverse events were recorded. Results A total of 8940 patients were enrolled in this study. Baseline SBP of 164 mmHg was reduced to 153, 145, 134 and 130 mmHg at the end of 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months respectively. Similarly, baseline DBP of 100 mmHg was reduced to 93, 89, 84 and 82 mmHg at the end of 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months respectively. The reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure from day 15 to month 6 was statistically significant (p < 0.0001) with olmesartan treatment. The percentage of responders for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased consistently from day 15 to month 6. Only 0.08% patients reported the adverse events. No serious adverse event was reported in the study. Conclusion Olmesartan 20 mg/40 mg is effective and well tolerated without any serious adverse events in patients with hypertension. PMID:24973841

  5. Post-marketing safety surveillance conducted in Korea (2008–2013) following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 (Rotarix™)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Chun Soo; Karkada, Naveen; Liu, Aixue; Jayadeva, Girish; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: According to regulations from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea, additional safety information on the use of Rotarix™ vaccine (RIX4414; GSK, Belgium) in ≥3000 evaluable Korean infants was required following vaccine registration. In order to comply with these regulations, we conducted a 6-year open, non-comparative, multicenter post-marketing surveillance (NCT00750893). Methods: During this time, the original lyophilized vaccine formulation of RIX4414 was replaced by a liquid formulation. Healthy infants aged ≥6 weeks were enrolled and given 2 doses of the RIX4414 vaccine, separated by an interval of ≥4 weeks. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) (expected and unexpected) was then assessed for up to 30 days along with the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs: any AE whose causality to the drug could not be ruled out) were identified. Results: A total of 3040 children (mean age: 9.55 weeks) were analyzed. One or more expected AE was experienced by 30.5% infants and 8.6% had an ADR. The most commonly seen expected AE was irritability (14.0%). One or more unexpected AE was seen in 32.5% infants and 3.1% experienced an ADR. The most commonly seen unexpected AE was upper respiratory tract infection (8.7%). Of 34 SAEs recorded in 24 subjects, none were related to vaccination. Conclusions: We conclude that this 6-year surveillance showed both formulations of RIX4414 to have acceptable safety profiles when administered to Korean infants according to local prescribing recommendations and current clinical practice. PMID:27494163

  6. Part IV: effects of zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet on migraine symptoms and ability to perform normal activities: a post-marketing surveillance study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Gendolla, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Zolmitriptan has been developed in an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation that rapidly dissolves on the tongue and can be taken quickly, conveniently and discreetly without fluid intake. In this 3-month, non-comparative, observational, post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study, 5,570 physicians prescribed the zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT for 16,261 patients with migraine. Of the 14,543 patients who were evaluable for efficacy analysis, 94% had reduced headache intensity within 2 hours of taking zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT for the first attack. Improvements were reported within 30 minutes in 35% of patients and within 15 minutes in 7% of patients. Non-headache migraine symptoms and normal daily activities improved for the majority of patients within 2 hours of taking zolmitriptan ODT. Ninety-one percent of patients required only a single dose of zolmitriptan 2.5 mg ODT to treat each attack. Ninety-two percent of patients considered zolmitriptan ODT as having very good or good efficacy and 96% said that tolerability was very good or good. This study also demonstrated that 94% of patients would be willing to continue to use zolmitriptan ODT in the future and 81% of patients considered that being able to take the ODT without water was important or very import ant. In summary, zolmitriptan ODT has demonstrated high efficacy and excellent tolerability. In addition, patients found zolmitriptan ODT to be convenient and easy to use, and were willing to continue using the product. Following placebo-controlled studies, these PMS results provide insight into the use of zolmitriptan ODT in a setting more representative of real life than randomised clinical trials, further demonstrating that it provides a reliable and convenient alternative to conventional tablets.

  7. Reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Lulu; Chitraka, Amarjeet; Liu, Aixue; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Kumar, Kishore; Berezo, Lennie; Cimafranca, Leonard; Chatterjee, Pallab; Garg, Pankaj; Siriwardene, Prasanna; Bernardo, Rommel; Mehta, Shailesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Karkada, Naveen; Htay Han, Htay

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory bodies in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India require post-marketing surveillance to provide additional safety data on Rotarix™ in real-life settings. In such studies conducted in The Philippines (November 2006 to July 2012; NCT00353366), Sri Lanka (November 2008 to August 2009; NCT00779779), and India (August 2009 to April 2010; NCT00938327), 2 doses of Rotarix™ were administered according to the local prescribing information (PI). The occurrence of at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited adverse event (AE) (fever, vomiting, or diarrhea), within 15 days in The Philippines or 8 days in Sri Lanka and India; unsolicited AEs within 31 days and serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study were recorded. Of the 1494, 522, and 332 infants enrolled in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India, 14.7% 14.9% and 12.7% infants, respectively recorded at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited AEs. The most commonly reported solicited AEs were irritability in The Philippines (32.2% post-Dose-1; 23.5% post-Dose-2) and India (23.0% post-Dose-1; 13.2% post-Dose-2), and fever (18.0% post-Dose-1; 20.2% post-Dose-2) in Sri Lanka. Unsolicited AEs were recorded in 24.5% (The Philippines), 4.8% (Sri Lanka), and 6.9% (India) of infants. Forty-one SAEs were recorded in the Philippines of which 6 (decreased oral intake with increased sleeping time and constipation; pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and intussusception) were considered by the investigators as causally related to vaccination. One vaccine-unrelated SAE occurred in a Sri Lankan infant. All SAEs resolved and the infants recovered. Two doses of Rotarix™, administered to healthy infants according to local PI, were well tolerated in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India.

  8. Real-life versus package insert: a post-marketing study on adverse-event rates of the virosomal hepatitis A vaccine Epaxal® in healthy travellers.

    PubMed

    Hatz, Christoph; Beck, Bernhard; Steffen, Robert; Genton, Blaise; d'Acremont, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Hartmann, Katharina; Herzog, Christian

    2011-07-12

    There are various methods to collect adverse events (AEs) in clinical trials. The methods how AEs are collected in vaccine trials is of special interest: solicited reporting can lead to over-reporting events that have little or no biological relationship to the vaccine. We assessed the rate of AEs listed in the package insert for the virosomal hepatitis A vaccine Epaxal(®), comparing data collected by solicited or unsolicited self-reporting. In an open, multi-centre post-marketing study, 2675 healthy travellers received single doses of vaccine administered intramuscularly. AEs were recorded based on solicited and unsolicited questioning during a four-day period after vaccination. A total of 2541 questionnaires could be evaluated (95.0% return rate). Solicited self-reporting resulted in significantly higher (p<0.0001) rates of subjects with AEs than unsolicited reporting, both at baseline (18.9% solicited versus 2.1% unsolicited systemic AEs) and following immunization (29.6% versus 19.3% local AEs; 33.8% versus 18.2% systemic AEs). This could indicate that actual reporting rates of AEs with Epaxal(®) may be substantially lower than described in the package insert. The distribution of AEs differed significantly between the applied methods of collecting AEs. The most common AEs listed in the package insert were reported almost exclusively with solicited questioning. The reporting of local AEs was more likely than that of systemic AEs to be influenced by subjects' sex, age and study centre. Women reported higher rates of AEs than men. The results highlight the need for detailing the methods how vaccine tolerability was reported and assessed.

  9. Confirmation of in vitro and clinical safety assessment of behentrimonium chloride-containing leave-on body lotions using post-marketing adverse event data.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D M; Donahue, D A; Costin, G-E; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Downey, M E; Billhimer, W L; Gilpin, S; Wilt, N; Simion, F A

    2013-12-01

    Behentrimonium chloride (BTC) is a straight-chain alkyltrimonium chloride compound commonly used as an antistatic, hair conditioning, emulsifier, or preservative agent in personal care products. Although the European Union recently restricted the use of alkyltrimonium chlorides and bromides as preservatives to ≤0.1%, these compounds have been safely used for many years at ≤5% in hundreds of cosmetic products for other uses than as a preservative. In vitro, clinical, and controlled consumer usage tests in barrier-impaired individuals were conducted to determine if whole body, leave-on skin care products containing 1-5% BTC cause dermal irritation or any other skin reaction with use. BTC-containing formulations were predicted to be non-irritants by the EpiDerm® skin irritation test and the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP)/chorioallantoic membrane vascular assay (CAMVA) ocular irritation test battery. No evidence of allergic contact dermatitis or cumulative dermal irritation was noted under the exaggerated conditions of human occlusive patch tests. No clinically assessed or self-reported adverse reactions were noted in adults or children with atopic, eczematous, and/or xerotic skin during two-week and four-week monitored home usage studies. These results were confirmed by post-marketing data for five body lotions, which showed only 0.69 undesirable effects (mostly skin irritation) reported per million shipped consumer units during 2006-2011; a value consistent with a non-irritating body lotion. No serious undesirable effects were reported during in-market use of the products. Therefore, if formulated in appropriate conditions at 1-5%, BTC will not cause dermal irritation or delayed contact sensitization when used in a whole-body, leave-on product.

  10. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  11. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... into the required agreements; (4) Be financially responsible and have the ability to finance or obtain... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... as bad weather, materials shortages, or marketing difficulties. Conditional commitments may...

  12. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the “cycle of the seminiferous epithelium” is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation. PMID:26537427

  13. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the "cycle of the seminiferous epithelium" is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation.

  14. 40 CFR 63.75 - Enforceable commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... made, and any other emission reduction measures to be used; and (6) A statement of commitment, signed... approval of commitments that have not been approved by December 1, 1993. (g) The control measure... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforceable commitments. 63.75...

  15. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  16. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  17. Professionalism as a Form of Work Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.; Goetz, Joe F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated concept of professionalism as a form of work commitment using a modified version of Hall's (1968) multidimensional measure of professionalism on 325 accountants in public practice. Examined three forms of work commitment--job involvement, organizational commitment, and work ethic endorsement--and four professional behaviors. Suggests the…

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Joint Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint…

  19. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  20. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm... completion of construction or substantial rehabilitation of the project; or (2) Upon completion of...

  1. 24 CFR 200.47 - Firm commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Commitment Applications § 200.47 Firm commitments. A valid firm... completion of construction or substantial rehabilitation of the project; or (2) Upon completion of...

  2. Base rate of performance invalidity among non-clinical undergraduate research participants.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Stenclik, Jessica H; Gavett, Brandon E; Adams, Jason W; Lynch, Julie K; Mccaffrey, Robert J

    2014-08-01

    Neuropsychological research frequently uses non-clinical undergraduate participants to evaluate neuropsychological tests. However, a recent study by An and colleagues (2012, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27, 849-857) called into question that the extent to which the interpretation of these participants' performance on neuropsychological tests is valid. This study found that in a sample of 36 participants, 55.6% exhibited performance invalidity at an initial session and 30.8% exhibited performance invalidity at a follow-up session. The current study attempted to replicate these findings in a larger, more representative sample using a more rigorous methodology. Archival data from 133 non-clinical undergraduate research participants were analyzed. Participants were classified as performance invalid if they failed any one PVT. In the current sample, only 2.26% of participants exhibited performance invalidity. Thus, concerns regarding insufficient effort and performance invalidity when using undergraduate research participants appear to be overstated.

  3. Meeting the non-clinical education and training needs of new consultants.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R; Gallen, D; Whiteman, S

    2005-08-01

    This review highlights the non-clinical training needs of new consultants, identifying strategies for meeting these needs. Non-clinical activities are integral to the consultant's role and senior clinicians need training in these areas. Concerns over the quantity and quality of current provision are compounded by changes the European Working Time Directive and Modernising Medical Careers initiative will bring. Accelerated progression to senior level and reduction in time for training suggest a pressing need to respond to the needs of new consultants. Ad hoc initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts offer examples of how training needs may be met, including mentoring and continuing professional development schemes. A multi-professional strategy, incorporating elements of higher professional education in general practice and other NHS initiatives (particularly management/leadership training), may offer an appropriate framework within which to capitalise on existing opportunities. There are, however, resource implications that need to be addressed.

  4. Meeting the non-clinical education and training needs of new consultants

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R; Gallen, D; Whiteman, S

    2005-01-01

    This review highlights the non-clinical training needs of new consultants, identifying strategies for meeting these needs. Non-clinical activities are integral to the consultant's role and senior clinicians need training in these areas. Concerns over the quantity and quality of current provision are compounded by changes the European Working Time Directive and Modernising Medical Careers initiative will bring. Accelerated progression to senior level and reduction in time for training suggest a pressing need to respond to the needs of new consultants. Ad hoc initiatives in a range of healthcare contexts offer examples of how training needs may be met, including mentoring and continuing professional development schemes. A multi-professional strategy, incorporating elements of higher professional education in general practice and other NHS initiatives (particularly management/leadership training), may offer an appropriate framework within which to capitalise on existing opportunities. There are, however, resource implications that need to be addressed. PMID:16085744

  5. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  6. Non-clinical factors influencing the selection of patients with acute coronary syndromes for angiography

    PubMed Central

    Quaas, A; Curzen, N; Garratt, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse clinical and non-clinical factors determining the selection for coronary angiography in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Design: Single centre, prospective cohort study. Participants: Eighty consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS during the period 21 May 2001 to 4 July 2001. Setting: Coronary care unit of a tertiary referral centre, the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Data collection: Information concerning baseline patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and the selection for angiography was collected from the patient notes. Data analysis: Windows SPSS version 9.0 using cross tabulations with χ2 estimation and binomial logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Selection for angiography in ACS. Results: Cross tabulations with χ2 analysis and logistic regression analysis identified significant non-clinical factors predicting the use of angiography. Although clinical factors such as recurrent ischaemia (odds ratio 5.11) influenced the decision to undergo coronary angiography, non-clinical factors such as young age (odds ratio 6.88 for <65 years old), gender (odds ratio 3.81 for males), admission on a weekday (odds ratio 0.2488 for admission on the weekend), and consultant in charge (odds ratio 0.111 for consultant "2") independently predicted the use of angiography in ACS. Conclusion: The selection of patients for angiography in ACS is not based purely on clinical criteria. Awareness of the apparent sources of bias among clinical decision makers may improve management of these patients. PMID:15254306

  7. Post-marketing surveillance on the long-term use of dabigatran in Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: Preliminary report of the J-dabigatran surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Ken; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Yasaka, Masahiro; Yamashita, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Makiko; Yagi, Nobutaka; Fukaya, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim A post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study is being conducted to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the long-term use of dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran) in Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Results of an interim analysis of this prospective cohort study including patient characteristics and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) collected up to September 17, 2014 are reported here. Methods Patients with NVAF who began to receive dabigatran for the first time from December 2011 to November 2013 were enrolled at 1042 study sites in Japan. Clinical parameters included patient characteristics, dabigatran dose strength, concomitant medications and outcome events. All outcome events were collected as serious and non-serious adverse events (AEs). ADRs were evaluated in this report. Pre-defined safety events of special interest for intensive survey were serious and non-serious outcome events such as myocardial infarction, as well as the total number of hemorrhage and gastrointestinal disorders. Results A total of 6772 patients were registered. The safety analysis set included 6148 patients; mean age was 70.8±9.9 (SD) years: 2323 patients (37.8%) were aged 75 years or older. Males accounted for 66.8% of the patients. Mean CHADS2 score was 1.8±1.3; the CHADS2 score was 0 in 13.6%, 1 in 31.3%, 2 in 25.9%, 3 in 14.9%, and 4 to 6 in 11.1% of the patients. Of the 6148 patients, 1701 patients (27.7%) were switchers from warfarin and 4407 patients (71.7%) were non-switchers (OAC naïve patients). Treatment adherence was assessed for the first 3 months from the start of treatment for this analysis. Total 5656 patients (92.0%) reported taking dabigatran twice daily (bid) every day according to the label recommendation. During the follow up period [mean duration of follow up: 498±259 days (corresponding to 8386 patient-years)], pre-defined safety events of special interest for intensive survey (reported as serious ADRs) were: myocardial

  8. The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a starting point for psychological research on the sense of commitment within the context of joint action. We begin by formulating three desiderata: to illuminate the motivational factors that lead agents to feel and act committed, to pick out the cognitive processes and situational factors that lead agents to sense that implicit commitments are in place, and to illuminate the development of an understanding of commitment in ontogeny. In order to satisfy these three desiderata, we propose a minimal framework, the core of which is an analysis of the minimal structure of situations which can elicit a sense of commitment. We then propose a way of conceptualizing and operationalizing the sense of commitment, and discuss cognitive and motivational processes which may underpin the sense of commitment. PMID:26779080

  9. Commitment accounting for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Socolow, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived energy infrastructure that burns fossil fuels represents a multi-decade 'commitment' to emit CO2. Today's global power sector, alone, represents hundreds of billions of tons of still unrealized 'committed emissions' of CO2. And every year, substantial new commitments to future emissions are made, as new power plants are built. The socioeconomic inertia of these commitments is a major barrier to climate change mitigation. Here, we quantify these annual commitments by a bottom-up analysis of all power plants commissioned between 1950 and 2011; assigning emission commitments to the year when each generator came on line. We find, assuming 40-year commitments, that the global commitment to future emissions from the world's generators in 2011 (the most recent year in our analysis) was 318 Gt CO2, of which 216 Gt CO2 were commitments from the world's coal-fired generators and 134 Gt CO2 were commitments from China's generators. Annual new global commitments exceeded 15 Gt CO2 per year in every year since 2000. Moreover, between 2005-2010 (the latest year of available emissions data), new global commitments were more than twice as large as actual emissions from all power plants. Country-specific ratios of new committed emissions to actual emissions, averaged over 1990-2010 were 4.1 for China, 2.6 for India, 0.9 for the EU, and 0.6 for the US. We urge that the reporting of annual CO2 emissions, already widely institutionalized, be augmented by 'commitment accounting' which makes these future emissions salient. Annual committed emissions and annual emissions of primary power infrastructure. New committed emissions (light green) have grown from approximately 4 Gt CO2 per year in 1960 to roughly 10 Gt CO2 per year between 1970-1995, and then to more than 15 Gt CO2 per year since 2000. Throughout this period, new committed emissions have exceeded annual emissions (blue curve, source: IEA). Although the commitments made 30-40 years ago have largely been realized (dark

  10. Measuring government commitment to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Amanda; Zoloa, Juan Ignacio; Duran, Denizhan

    2013-04-18

    Vaccination is among the most cost-effective health interventions and has attracted ever greater levels of funding from public and private donors. However, some countries, mainly populous lower-middle income countries, are lagging behind on vaccination financing and performance. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for investing in vaccination and construct a metric to measure government commitment to vaccination that could promote accountability and better tracking of performance. While noting the limitations of available data, we find that populous middle-income countries, which stand to gain tremendously from increased vaccination uptake, perform poorly in terms of their vaccination outcomes.

  11. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  12. Outpatient civil commitment: a dangerous charade or a component of a comprehensive institution of civil commitment?

    PubMed

    Schopp, Robert F

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three criticisms frequently directed toward preventive commitment as one form of outpatient commitment. These criticisms contend that preventive commitment (a) abandons the dangerousness criteria for civil commitmnet, (b) promotes unwarranted inpatient commitment of those who do not meet civil commitment criteria, and (c) undermines important individual liberties by diluting the right to refuse treatment. Understanding and evaluating these criticisms requires analysis of the intersection among empirical, conceptual, and justificatory claims. According to the analysis presented here, advocates of preventive commitment can defend a legitimate role for preventive commitment. This analysis applies to preventive commitment as a dispositional alternative within a comprehensive institution of civil commitment involving distinct parens patriae and police power components.

  13. Anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing: Associations with pain and somatization in non-clinical children

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Allen, Laura B.; Evans, Subhadra; Lu, Qian; Myers, Cynthia D.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among anxiety sensitivity (AS), catastrophizing, somatization, and pain in 240 non-clinical children (121 girls; mean age = 12.7 years). Children with pain problems (n = 81; 33.8%) reported greater AS and catastrophizing (p’s < .01) relative to children without pain problems. AS but not catastrophizing was significantly associated with current pain. However, both AS and catastrophizing were significantly associated with somatization. AS and catastrophizing represent related but partially distinct cognitive constructs that may be targeted by interventions aimed at alleviating pain and somatization in children. PMID:19858329

  14. 76 FR 58999 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0... the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, Or Support Terrorism On... persons who commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International...

  15. Leadership and satisfaction in change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    Managerial transformational leadership skills may directly influence banking counter staff toward change commitment and improve job satisfaction and service quality, or the influence instead may be mediated by change commitment. For a sample comprised of 246 managers from four large Taiwanese banks, the following path relationships were tested: (1) the association of transformational leadership with change commitment, (2) the association of change commitment with job satisfaction, and (3) the direct or indirect (through the mediation of change commitment) effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction. Regression was utilized to gain insight into the effects of transformational leadership and change commitment on job satisfaction. Transformational leadership may foster change by providing psychological support to the banking counter staff, enabling them to use their skills to meet the needs of individual customers in response to complex environments.

  16. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    7 A A03 357 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOLSOF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/ 5/1 EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATIONS: A CONC PTUAL REVIEW.CU...Management University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403 \\ . ’k. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review Richard M. Steers, University of...Review. 5 TYPE OF REPORT 8 PERIO’ COVERED .’ Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Concep- ’ tual Review. 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) 8

  17. Commitment, Careers, and Retention in Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    validation of a measure of employee commitment to organizations. This instrument has been used to carry out several studies relating to both the antecedents...validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational...34 Employee Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness." Invited speaker, University of Washington, November 1978. Steers, R. M. "Facilitating

  18. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition.

  19. Brain structures associated with executive functions during everyday events in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions involve control processes such as goal-oriented planning, flexible strategy generation, sustaining set maintenance, self-monitoring, and inhibition. Executive functions during everyday events (EFEEs) are distinct from those measured under laboratory settings; the former can be severely impaired while the latter remain intact. Non-routine everyday problems due to executive dysfunctions affect individual functioning in everyday life and are of great clinical interest. Despite the importance of anatomical bases underlying better EFEEs, such bases have never been investigated among non-clinical samples. Using voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and regional white matter volume (rWMV) and diffusion tensor imaging to determine fractional anisotropy values, we identified the anatomical correlates of better EFEEs using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire in 303 normal young subjects (168 men and 135 women). Better EFEEs were associated with a smaller rGMV in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) spread across Brodmann areas (BA) 25, 11, and 12 and larger rWMV in the WM area of OFC adjacent to BA 11. Furthermore, individual EFEEs were positively associated with rWMV in the temporal areas, primarily the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the latter of which connects OFC and posterior regions. Thus, our findings suggest that brain structures involving OFC, together with other regions, contribute to the maintenance of effective EFEEs among non-clinical subjects.

  20. “Female Preponderance” of Depression in Non-clinical Populations: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kui; Lu, Han; Cheung, Eric F. C.; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical observations and research suggest a female preponderance in major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether a similar gender difference is found for the reporting of depressive symptoms in non-clinical populations. The present meta-analysis was conducted to address this issue. We searched for published papers targeting non-clinical populations in which the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. Eighty-four papers (91 studies) published between 1977 and 2014 were included in the final meta-analysis, which comprised 23,579 males and 29,470 females. Females in the general population reported higher level of depressive symptoms than males (d = -0.187, corresponding to 1.159 points in the 21-item BDI). This pattern was not found to influence by years of publication, socioeconomic status, or version of the BDI used. Using age group as a moderator, studies with adolescents and young adults were found to show a smaller effect size than studies with older participants. Our results appear to confirm the “female preponderance” in the level of self-report depressive symptoms in the general population, and support the social gender role theory in explaining gender difference over biological susceptibility theory and evolutionary theory. PMID:27695433

  1. Best Practices in Stability Indicating Method Development and Validation for Non-clinical Dose Formulations.

    PubMed

    Henry, Teresa R; Penn, Lara D; Conerty, Jason R; Wright, Francesca E; Gorman, Gregory; Pack, Brian W

    2016-11-01

    Non-clinical dose formulations (also known as pre-clinical or GLP formulations) play a key role in early drug development. These formulations are used to introduce active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into test organisms for both pharmacokinetic and toxicological studies. Since these studies are ultimately used to support dose and safety ranges in human studies, it is important to understand not only the concentration and PK/PD of the active ingredient but also to generate safety data for likely process impurities and degradation products of the active ingredient. As such, many in the industry have chosen to develop and validate methods which can accurately detect and quantify the active ingredient along with impurities and degradation products. Such methods often provide trendable results which are predictive of stability, thus leading to the name; stability indicating methods. This document provides an overview of best practices for those choosing to include development and validation of such methods as part of their non-clinical drug development program. This document is intended to support teams who are either new to stability indicating method development and validation or who are less familiar with the requirements of validation due to their position within the product development life cycle.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Revised Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales in non-clinical young adults.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Villazón-García, Ursula; Bobes, Julio; Muñiz, José

    2009-11-01

    Anhedonia, a central dimension within the schizotypy construct, has been considered to be a promising vulnerability marker for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPhA) and Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) are two self-reports widely used in the assessment of anhedonia; however, they psychometric characteristics have been scarcely investigated in Spanish population. The objective of the current work was to study the psychometric properties of the Revised Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales in non-clinical young adults. The sample was composed of 728 college students with a mean age of 20.1 years (SD = 2.5). The data indicated that the scales showed adequate psychometric characteristics. The Cronbach alpha was 0.95 (RSAS) and 0.92 (RPhA) respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis carried out on the matrix of tetrachoric correlations showed that both scales presented an essentially unidimensional solution. The Revised Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales seem to be adequate for psychosis-risk assessment in non-clinical populations. Future research should further investigate the construct validity in other populations and cultures as well as study its relation to emotional aspects and cognitive endophenotypes.

  3. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  4. Psychology & employee commitment. Promoting physician loyalty.

    PubMed

    Lakin, J D

    1998-01-01

    Physician and staff loyalty has become more important and more difficult to maintain. Group managers should realize that not all forms of commitment are equal and should actively work to build commitment to the organization, not just to the practice of medicine.

  5. Juvenile Court Commitment Rates: The National Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosin, Michael

    There is less geographic variation in the commitment rate of juvenile offenders than is commonly assumed. Apparently, judges across the country develop a similar standard of what percentage of youths they face should be committed. This standard may be similar across the country because it represents broadly shared ideals. However, there is much…

  6. Commitment: A Behavioral Approach to Job Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Yoash; Gechman, Arthur S.

    1977-01-01

    Work commitment behaviors were defined as a special class of socially acceptable work behaviors exceeding formal and/or normative expectations relevant to work. For a sample of 54 female elementary school teachers, work commitment measures demonstrated moderate correlations with two attitudinal measures of job involvement and a job satisfaction…

  7. Predicting the Social Commitments of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Ellen; O'Ryan, Leslie W.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the nature of social beliefs and commitments during the college years in relation to developmental orientations as measured by the Dakota Inventory of Student Orientations. Results support Creative-Reflective scale scores as predictive of commitment to the more humanitarian issues such as race and women's rights, whereas…

  8. The Social Construction of Marital Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Stephanie Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This paper articulates a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals orient themselves toward marital commitment. Using a life history interview methodology and interpretive framework, it examines the orientations toward marital commitment for a sample of women and men, single and married, between the ages of 28 and 35 (N = 75).…

  9. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical…

  10. Overview of the Core Commitments Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTighe Musil, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the Core Commitments Initiative conducted by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U). Core Commitments was intended to reinvigorate the conversation about personal and social responsibility within higher education, and served as the impetus for this "New Directions" volume.

  11. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  12. Predictors of Commitment to Athletic Training Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: In order for athletic training students to be successful in any athletic training education program (ATEP), a certain level of commitment to the program and profession is required. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the sport commitment model (SCM) to an ATEP by applying the SCM in an academic setting…

  13. Report on the use of non-clinical studies in the regulatory evaluation of oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Kawada, Manabu; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Yao, Ryoji; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kai, Chieko; Matsuda, Akira; Naoe, Tomoki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Okazaki, Taku; Saji, Hideo; Sata, Masataka; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Toi, Masakazu; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-02-01

    Non-clinical studies are necessary at each stage of the development of oncology drugs. Many experimental cancer models have been developed to investigate carcinogenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, and other aspects in cancer biology and these models turned out to be useful in the efficacy evaluation and the safety prediction of oncology drugs. While the diversity and the degree of engagement in genetic changes in the initiation of cancer cell growth and progression are widely accepted, it has become increasingly clear that the roles of host cells, tissue microenvironment, and the immune system also play important roles in cancer. Therefore, the methods used to develop oncology drugs should continuously be revised based on the advances in our understanding of cancer. In this review, we extensively summarize the effective use of those models, their advantages and disadvantages, ranges to be evaluated and limitations of the models currently used for the development and for the evaluation of oncology drugs.

  14. The broader autism phenotype and friendships in non-clinical dyads.

    PubMed

    Wainer, Allison L; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-10-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and friendship similarity was evaluated, and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test how both friends' BAP characteristics jointly and uniquely contribute to the experiences of friendships. Results suggest self-informant agreement about the BAP, friendship closeness, quality, and conflict. Actor effects were observed for the BAP and friendship values, quality, conflict, and loneliness. Findings suggest that the BAP relates in meaningful ways to self-perceptions of friendship variables in the general population.

  15. Who are we and where are we going? Primary care academics in non-clinical posts.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Anne; O'Donnell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The development of a high-quality primary healthcare system requires multidisciplinary perspectives and collaborations between clinicians and non-clinicians. Academic primary care departments across the United Kingdom and Ireland employ academics from a range of disciplines. However, questions remain about the parity of opportunity for career progression with a consistent trend to focus more on clinicians than non-clinicians. In this paper, we analyse the employment and careers of non-clinical primary care academics working in Ireland and Scotland. We draw on survey data from the island of Ireland and conference workshop discussions among Irish- and Scottish-based academics. We highlight problems with career progression and identify some strategic actions. We argue for a renewed attempt to ensure that all academics who are contributing to the discipline of primary care are appropriately acknowledged and supported to continue their endeavours to develop high-quality primary care health systems.

  16. How Do Different Types of Community Commitment Influence Brand Commitment? The Mediation of Brand Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management. PMID:23768073

  17. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  18. 75 FR 57159 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001... commit, threaten to commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers... grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed by foreign terrorists, including...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order... commit, or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  2. Clinical care ratios: quantifying clinical versus non-clinical care for allied health professionals.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Cherie; Govier, Adam; Semciw, Adam Ivan

    2016-07-04

    Objective Clinical care ratios (CCRs) are a useful tool that can be used to quantify and benchmark the clinical and non-clinical workloads of allied health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine if CCRs are influenced by level of seniority, type of role or profession. This will provide meaningful information for allied health service managers to better manage service demand and capacity.Method Data was collected from 2036 allied health professionals from five professions across 11 Australian tertiary hospitals. Mean (95% confidence intervals) CCRs were calculated according to profession, seniority and role type. A two-way ANOVA was performed to assess the association of CCRs (dependent variable) with seniority level and profession (independent variables). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons identified where significant main or interaction effects occurred (α = 0.05).Results Significant main effects for seniority level and profession were identified (P < 0.05), but there was no interaction effect. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences between all tier combinations (P < 0.05) with more senior staff having the lowest CCRs.Conclusion The direct and non-direct clinical components of the allied health professional's workload can be quantified and benchmarked with like roles and according to seniority. The benchmarked CCRs for predominantly clinical roles will enable managers to compare and evaluate like roles and modify non-direct clinical components according to seniority and discipline.What is known about the topic? CCRs are a useful tool to quantify, monitor and compare workloads of allied health professionals. They are thought to change with increased seniority of roles. The CCRs for different allied health professional roles has yet to be defined in the literature.What does this paper add? CCRs decrease as level of seniority increases, indicating higher seniority increases non-clinical time. CCRs differ across professions, suggesting

  3. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  4. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  5. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  6. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  7. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  8. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  9. 24 CFR 241.510 - Commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... insured. (b) Types of firm commitment. (1) Where the amount of the loan is $250,000 or more, the...

  10. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  11. Quantum Bit Commitment with a Composite Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, R.

    2004-01-01

    Entanglement-based attacks, which are subtle and powerful, are usually believed to render quantum bit commitment insecure. We point out that the no-go argument leading to this view implicitly assumes the evidence-of-commitment to be a monolithic quantum system. We argue that more general evidence structures, allowing for a composite, hybrid (classical quantum) evidence, conduce to improved security. In particular, we present and prove the security of the following protocol Bob sends Alice an anonymous state. She inscribes her commitment b by measuring part of it in the + (for b = 0) or × (for b = 1) basis. She then communicates to him the (classical) measurement outcome Rx and the partmeasured anonymous state interpolated into other, randomly prepared qubits as her evidence-of-commitment.

  12. Higher Education's Commitment to Instructional Improvement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1974-01-01

    Supports the contention that current attempts to improve the quality of university instruction represent meagre efforts due to insufficient commitment, and a lack of resources, both in finances and in personnel. (AM)

  13. Safety profiles and efficacy of infliximab therapy in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis with or without psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis or psoriatic erythroderma: Results from the prospective post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Torii, Hideshi; Terui, Tadashi; Matsukawa, Miyuki; Takesaki, Kazumi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2016-07-01

    A large-scale prospective post-marketing surveillance was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of infliximab in Japanese patients with plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma. This study was conducted in all psoriasis patients treated with infliximab after its Japanese regulatory approval. Infliximab was administrated at 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Patients were serially enrolled and observed for 6 months to evaluate the safety and efficacy. The safety and efficacy were evaluated in 764 and 746 patients, respectively. Incidences of any and serious adverse drug reactions were 22.51% and 6.94%, respectively, and those of any and serious infusion reactions were 6.15% and 1.31%, respectively, which were comparable with the results in the post-marketing surveillance with 5000 rheumatoid arthritis patients in Japan. Major adverse drug reactions during the follow-up period were infections (5.10%) including pneumonia, cellulitis and herpes zoster, however, no tuberculosis was observed. The safety profiles were equivalent, regardless of the psoriasis types. No new safety problems were identified. The response rates on global improvement and median improvement rate of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index in all patients were 88.0% and 85.0%, respectively. Of note, the efficacy was equivalent for each psoriasis type as well as for each body region. Infliximab was also effective in pustular psoriasis symptoms, joint symptoms and nail psoriasis, as well as improvement of quality of life. Infliximab was confirmed to be highly effective and well tolerated in treating refractory psoriasis, including pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma.

  14. Young children's understanding of joint commitments.

    PubMed

    Gräfenhain, Maria; Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    When adults make a joint commitment to act together, they feel an obligation to their partner. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether young children also understand joint commitments to act together. In the first study, when an adult orchestrated with the child a joint commitment to play a game together and then broke off from their joint activity, 3-year-olds (n = 24) reacted to the break significantly more often (e.g., by trying to re-engage her or waiting for her to restart playing) than when she simply joined the child's individual activity unbidden. Two-year-olds (n = 24) did not differentiate between these 2 situations. In the second study, 3- and 4-year-old children (n = 30 at each age) were enticed away from their activity with an adult. Children acknowledged their leaving (e.g., by looking to the adult or handing her the object they had been playing with) significantly more often when they had made a joint commitment to act together than when they had not. By 3 years of age, children thus recognize both when an adult is committed and when they themselves are committed to a joint activity.

  15. Genetic diversity of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical and non clinical samples in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bendary, M M; Solyman, S M; Azab, M M; Mahmoud, N F; Hanora, A M

    2016-08-31

    In recent years, the increasing incidence of diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been noted in the university hospitals of El-Sharkia and Assuit governorates - Egypt. Therefore, we studied the genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from different sources in the above mentioned governorates. One hundred and fifty six S. aureus isolates were divided into 5 different groups, 1 non clinical isolates from different food products and 4 different clinical isolates of human and animal sources in the 2 different governorates. Epidemiological characteristics of 156 S. aureus isolates were determined by phenotypic methods including quantitative antibiogram typing and biofilm production. Genetic typing of 35 multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates (7 from each group) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles was done. The genetic relatedness of the highest virulent strain from each group was detected based on different single locus sequence typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). S. aureus strains isolated from different sources and geographical areas showed high diversity. The genetic typing revealed different sequence types and different sequences of coa and spa genes. S. aureus isolates were found highly diverse in Egypt.

  16. Gender differences, personality and eating behaviors in non-clinical adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, F; Larcan, R; Lanzarone, C

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have focused on the relationship between personality trait and eating behaviors in a normal sample of adolescents. The purpose of this research was to examine differences between male and female non-clinical adolescents in eating behaviors, personality traits and state and trait anxiety and to verify the relationship between personality traits, anxiety and eating behaviors in males and females. 592 individuals (324 male and 267 females) were selected. Participants were asked to fill: Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), State-Training Anxiety Inventory (STAI - Forma Y) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised (EPQ-R). The results highlighted specific differences in eating behaviors and in personality traits between genders. No statistical differences in anxiety were found. Our results underline the importance of focussing on anxiety levels for girls, while, for boys, on personality traits such as neuroticism and psychoticism. It was confirmed the opinion that, to prevent eating disorders, not only is it necessary to carry out a campaign based on proper nutrition, but also to investigate thoroughly aspects of personality that may be predictive of these disorders.

  17. Distress related to subclinical negative symptoms in a non-clinical sample: Role of dysfunctional attitudes.

    PubMed

    Fervaha, Gagan; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-12-15

    Negative symptoms are a prominent feature of schizophrenia that are intimately linked to poor outcomes characterizing the illness. One mechanistic model suggests that these symptoms are produced and maintained, at least in part, through maladaptive attitudes. Beyond mechanisms, it remains phenomenologically unclear if these symptoms are particularly distressing. In the present study we examined whether subclinical negative symptoms evaluated in a non-clinical sample of young adults (N=370) were distressful or bothersome to participants and, further, whether these symptoms were associated with dysfunctional attitudes. We found that greater severity of subclinical negative symptoms such as amotivation and anhedonia were associated with higher ratings of distress specifically attributable to these symptoms. This relationship held even after controlling for severity of depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater negative symptom burden was associated with greater endorsement of defeatist performance beliefs. Negative symptoms expressed in the general population were found to be particularly distressing. Maladaptive cognitive schemas are implicated in the expression of these symptoms, as well as the amount of distress these symptoms instil. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying negative symptoms, including both neurobiological and cognitive, is needed in order to effectively develop treatment strategies for these disabling symptoms.

  18. Impact analysis of ICH S9 on non-clinical development of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Bonelli, Milton; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Beken, Sonja

    2015-10-01

    Cancer presents a major healthcare challenge worldwide, with several millions new cases a year, and represents a therapeutic area with a high need for new drugs. To respond to this, the parties of the International Conference for Harmonization agreed in 2007 to develop a guideline on nonclinical requirements for oncology therapeutics' development (ICH S9), which came into effect in early 2010. This guideline includes recommendations to facilitate and accelerate the development and marketing of cancer therapeutic agents for serious and life threatening malignancies and aims to address this need through a refinement and a reduction in the use of experimental animals, following the 3Rs principles. To assess the impact of ICH S9 on drug development and reduction of animal use, we performed an analysis of Marketing Authorization Applications at the European Medicines Agency relevant to the period in which the development of the guideline was approaching the final steps and its early implementation period. From the analysis performed, a consistent trend towards a decrease in the average number of non-clinical studies performed (-40.7%) and number of animals used per development program (-58.1%) for new chemical entities has been detected, highlighting increasing compliance by companies to the recommendations of ICH S9.

  19. Non-clinical models: validation, study design and statistical consideration in safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Towart, R; Authier, S; Gallacher, D J; Curtis, M J

    2010-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) focuses exclusively on safety pharmacology methods. This is the 7th year the Journal has published on this topic. Methods and models that specifically relate to methods relating to the assessment of the safety profile of a new chemical entity (NCE) prior to first in human (FIH) studies are described. Since the Journal started publishing on this topic there has been a major effort by safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and regulatory scientists within Industry (both large and small Pharma as well as Biotechnology companies) and also from Contract Research Organizations (CRO) to publish the surgical details of the non-clinical methods utilized but also provide important details related to standard and non-standard (or integrated) study models and designs. These details from core battery and secondary (or ancillary) drug safety assessment methods used in drug development programs have been the focus of these special issues and have been an attempt to provide validation of methods. Similarly, the safety pharmacology issues of the Journal provide the most relevant forum for scientists to present novel and modified methods with direct applicability to determination of drug safety-directly to the safety pharmacology scientific community. The content of the manuscripts in this issue includes the introduction of additional important surgical methods, novel data capture and data analysis methods, improved study design and effects of positive control compounds with known activity in the model.

  20. Ecto-ATPases of clinical and non-clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Sissons, James; Alsam, Selwa; Jayasekera, Samantha; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2004-11-01

    Acanthamoeba are opportunistic protozoan parasites that can cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and eye keratitis, however the pathogenic mechanisms of Acanthamoeba remain unclear. In this study, we described the ability of live Acanthamoeba to hydrolyse extracellular ATP. Both clinical and non-clinical isolates belonging to genotypes, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T7 exhibited ecto-ATPase activities in vitro. Using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ecto-ATPases were further characterized. All Acanthamoeba isolates tested, exhibited a single ecto-ATPase band (approximate molecular weight of 272 kDa). However, clinical isolates exhibited additional bands suggesting that ecto-ATPases may play a role in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba. This was supported using suramin (ecto-ATPase inhibitor), which inhibited Acanthamoeba-induced host cell cytotoxicity. Previously, we and others have shown that Acanthamoeba binds to host cells using their mannose-binding protein and binding can be blocked using exogenous alpha-mannose. In this study, we observed that alpha-mannose significantly increased ecto-ATPase activities of pathogenic Acanthamoeba belonging to T1, T2, T3 and T4 genotypes but had no effect on non-pathogenic Acanthamoeba (belonging to T7 genotype). Overall, we have shown, for the first time, that Acanthamoeba exhibit ecto-ATPase activities, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba as well as their potential role in the differentiation of pathogenic Acanthamoeba.

  1. 'Dealing with sperm': comparing lesbians' clinical and non-clinical donor conception processes.

    PubMed

    Nordqvist, Petra

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature investigates heterosexual donor conception and there is now also a small body of work which investigates the experiences of single women and lesbian couples. Both of these focus on a clinical setting. Women, notably single and lesbians, also undertake non-clinical donor conception, and insufficient consideration has been paid to these self-arranged reproductive practices, and how they may compare with the clinical ones. Seeking to fill this gap, this paper explores women's experiences of accessing donor sperm inside and outside reproductive health clinics by drawing on a qualitative interview study with 25 lesbian couples in England and Wales with experiences of jointly pursuing donor conception. The paper explores the differences embedded in the two conception routes with regard to donor recruitment, access to donor sperm over time, space and the management of sperm as a bodily fluid. Utilising the framework of 'ontological choreography' developed by Thompson (2005), as well as Douglas's (1966) work around bodies, dirt and disgust, the paper argues that the clinic functions as a containment for legal as well as practical and bodily dimensions of donor conception, and this in turn shapes practices and perceptions of self-arranged conception.

  2. Are Problems Prevalent and Stable in Non-Clinical Populations? Problems and Test-Retest Stability of a Patient-Generated Measure, PSYCHLOPS (Psychological Outcome Profiles), in a Non-Clinical Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Chris; Ashworth, Mark; Peters, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In straightened times counselling must evidence the changes it promotes on reputable measures. Patient-generated measures complement nomothetic measures and may be nearer the ethos of counselling in eliciting individuals' problems. Scores from such measures from non-clinical samples are rarely reported, making their test-retest stability…

  3. Increasing Medical Practice Team Commitment: Twenty-Five Strategies.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Employee commitment is one of the most important principles of practice man- agement. Yet commitment is delicate; it must be carefully earned, and it can easily deteriorate. This article explores practical strategies the medical practice manager can use to assess, foster, and increase employee commitment. It de- fines commitment and how commitment is manifested in employee attitudes and behavior. It provides a 10-question guide medical practice managers can use to assess employee commitment, and a four-part roadmap that will inspire commitment through leadership. This article also offers 25 hands-on strate- gies to increase employee commitment, and more than a dozen questions to guide difficult conversations with employees when their commitment level to the medical practice is low or unclear. Finally, this article suggest four drivers of employee commitment and a five-part strategy medical practice managers can use to model commitment through their own leadership.

  4. Dysexecutive symptoms among a non-clinical sample: A study with the use of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2001-08-01

    Clinical studies indicate that damage to the frontal lobes may lead to a set of symptoms collectively known as 'Dysexecutive syndrome', which is characterized by changes in emotion, personality, motivation, behaviour and cognitive aspects. Factor analytical study using questionnaires measuring dysexecutive problems in everyday life also suggests a fractionation of the dysexecutive syndrome among patients with neurological disorders. As yet, very little research has been conducted to explore the base-rate of executive problems in everyday life among the non-clinical population. This pilot study aimed to explore dysexecutive behaviour similar to that of dysexecutive syndrome reported by a non-clinical sample. A total of 93 presumably normal participants were recruited. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire and a set of clinical tests of executive function were administered to all the participants. A 5-factor solution very similar to that of a previous study was derived: inhibition (factor 1), intentionality (factor 2), knowing-doing dissociation (factor 3), in-resistance (factor 4), and social regulation (factor 5). Correlation was established among the derived factors and tests of executive function. This study provides empirical evidence that a non-clinical sample may encounter similar dysexecutive behaviours in daily life. The issue of the fractionation of the executive system among the non-clinical sample will also be discussed.

  5. Dysexecutive symptoms among a non-clinical sample: a study with the use of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C

    2001-08-01

    Clinical studies indicate that damage to the frontal lobes may lead to a set of symptoms collectively known as 'Dysexecutive syndrome', which is characterized by changes in emotion, personality, motivation, behaviour and cognitive aspects. Factor analytical study using questionnaires measuring dysexecutive problems in everyday life also suggests a fractionation of the dysexecutive syndrome among patients with neurological disorders. As yet, very little research has been conducted to explore the base-rate of executive problems in everyday life among the non-clinical population. This pilot study aimed to explore dysexecutive behaviour similar to that of dysexecutive syndrome reported by a non-clinical sample. A total of 93 presumably normal participants were recruited. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire and a set of clinical tests of executive function were administered to all the participants. A 5-factor solution very similar to that of a previous study was derived: inhibition (factor 1), intentionality (factor 2), knowing-doing dissociation (factor 3), in-resistance (factor 4), and social regulation (factor 5). Correlation was established among the derived factors and tests of executive function. This study provides empirical evidence that a non-clinical sample may encounter similar dysexecutive behaviours in daily life. The issue of the fractionation of the executive system among the non-clinical sample will also be discussed.

  6. Relations between Behavioral Inhibition, Big Five Personality Factors, and Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Non-Clinical and Clinically Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…

  7. Avoidance of Affect Mediates the Effect of Invalidating Childhood Environments on Borderline Personality Symptomatology in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Bonnie A.; Francis, Andrew; Carr, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the Linehan (1993) proposal regarding associations between invalidating childhood environments, distress tolerance (e.g., avoidance of affect), and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The sample consisted of 141 non-clinical participants (51 men, 89 women, one gender unknown), ranging in age from 18 to…

  8. Criterion Validity of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Depressive Episodes in Clinic and Non-Clinic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Birmaher, Boris; Melhem, Nadine A.; Axelson, David A.; Michaels, Shana M.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous measures of pediatric depression have shown inconsistent validity in groups with differing demographics, comorbid diagnoses, and clinic or non-clinic origins. The current study re-examines the criterion validity of child- and parent-versions of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-C, MFQ-P) in a heterogeneous sample of…

  9. Brief Report: Examining the Link between Autistic Traits and Compulsive Internet Use in a Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Begeer, Sander; Kerkhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with a non-clinical community sample (n = 390). As…

  10. Genotypic diversity and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical origins.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Fábio; Falcão, Juliana P

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A (B1A) strains are considered as non-pathogenic; however, some reports have identified some strains as the causal agents of infection. In South America, few studies molecularly characterized the strains of this biotype. This work typed 51 B1A strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources from Brazil and Chile by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) to elucidate their genotypic diversity, and verify the distribution of 11 virulence markers by PCR. The strains were divided into two groups, ERIC-A and ERIC-B, clustered independently of their clinical or non-clinical origin. No differences were observed in the frequencies of the virulence markers between clinical and non-clinical strains. However, the genes ystB, hreP and myfA occurred exclusively in the strains of the group ERIC-A. Some clinical and non-clinical strains were clustered in the same genetic group and presented the same number of virulence markers, which might suggest the role of the environment and food as a potential source of infection for humans and animals. The results corroborate with the hypothesis that B1A strains are divided into two main clusters that differ in the frequency of some virulence markers, a fact observed for the first time in South American strains.

  11. On the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Executive Functioning in a Non-Clinical Dutch Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Joseph HR; Vissers, Constance ThWM; Egger, Jos IM; Eling, Paul ATM

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between autistic traits and different aspects of executive functioning (EF), using non-clinical Social Science and Science students as participants. Autistic traits, and associated personality traits, were measured using the Autism Quotient (AQ) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), respectively. EF was…

  12. On the Links between Attachment Style, Parental Rearing Behaviors, and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Non-Clinical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Jeffrey; Meesters, Cor; ter Huurne, Mijke; Bamelis, Lotte; Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We sought to investigate the relationships between negative family factors such as insecure attachment and adverse parental rearing, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a large sample of non-clinical children (N = 237) aged 9 to 12 years. All children completed a set of self-report questionnaires including a single-item measure of…

  13. The Revised Commitment Inventory: Psychometrics and Use with Unmarried Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Commitment Inventory measures interpersonal commitment (dedication) and constraint commitment. Since it was first published, substantial revisions have been made, but there are no published data on the psychometric properties of the new version. Furthermore, little information is available on measuring commitment for unmarried couples. This…

  14. 28 CFR 522.11 - Civil contempt commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil contempt commitments. 522.11..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.11 Civil contempt commitments. Inmates can come into Bureau custody for civil contempt commitments in two ways: (a) The...

  15. Further Exploring the Meaning and Measurement of Career Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the reliability and validity of a career commitment measure using employees (N=266) of newspaper and insurance companies. Results showed career commitment could be reliably measured and was operationally distinct from job involvement and organizational commitment. Discusses findings in terms of meaning of career commitment. (Author/ABL)

  16. The Behavioural Inhibition System, anxiety and hippocampal volume in a non-clinical population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested that the hippocampus may play an important role in anxiety as part of the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), which mediates reactivity to threat and punishment and can predict an individual’s response to anxiety-relevant cues in a given environment. The aim of the present structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to examine the relationship between individual differences in BIS and hippocampal structure, since this has not received sufficient attention in non-clinical populations. Thirty healthy right-handed participants with no history of alcohol or drug abuse, neurological or psychiatric disorders, or traumatic brain injury were recruited (16 male, 14 female, age 18 to 32 years). T1-weighted structural MRI scans were used to derive estimates of total intracranial volume, and hippocampal and amygdala gray matter volume using FreeSurfer. To relate brain structure to Gray’s BIS, participants completed the Sensitivity to Punishment questionnaire. They also completed questionnaires assessing other measures potentially associated with hippocampal volume (Beck Depression Inventory, Negative Life Experience Survey), and two other measures of anxiety (Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory). Results We found that high scores on the Sensitivity to Punishment scale were positively associated with hippocampal volume, and that this phenomenon was lateralized to the right side. In other words, greater levels of behavioural inhibition (BIS) were positively associated with right hippocampal volume. Conclusions Our data suggest that hippocampal volume is related to the cognitive and affective dimensions of anxiety indexed by the Sensitivity to Punishment, and support the idea that morphological differences in the hippocampal formation may be associated with behavioural inhibition contributions to anxiety. PMID:24607258

  17. Cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical sample of users

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Arbid, Natalie; Sayegh, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the recent debates over marijuana legalization and increases in use, it is critical to examine its role in cognition. While many studies generally support the adverse acute effects of cannabis on neurocognition, the non-acute effects remain less clear. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine relationships between recent and past cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical adult sample. Method One hundred and fifty-eight participants were recruited through fliers distributed around local college campuses and the community. All participants completed the Brief Drug Use History Form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, and neurocognitive assessment, and underwent urine toxicology screening. Participants consisted of recent users (n = 68), past users (n = 41), and non-users (n = 49). Results Recent users demonstrated significantly (p < .05) worse performance than non-users across cognitive domains of attention/working memory (M = 42.4, SD = 16.1 vs. M = 50.5, SD = 10.2), information processing speed (M = 44.3, SD = 7.3 vs. M = 52.1, SD = 11.0), and executive functioning (M = 43.6, SD = 13.4 vs. M = 48.6, SD = 7.2). There were no statistically significant differences between recent users and past users on neurocognitive performance. Frequency of cannabis use in the last 4 weeks was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and all individual cognitive domains. Similarly, amount of daily cannabis use was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and individual cognitive domains. Conclusions Our results support the widespread adverse effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning. Although some of these adverse effects appear to attenuate with abstinence, past users' neurocognitive functioning was consistently lower than non-users. PMID:24556155

  18. Civil Commitment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    West, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States—from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry. PMID:22778709

  19. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  20. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  1. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  2. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  3. Highly Committed Teachers: What Makes Them Tick? A Study of Sustained Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransson, Göran; Frelin, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on teacher commitment, and particularly on teachers displaying sustained high levels of commitment throughout their teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme responded to an open-ended questionnaire conducted on 10 occasions concerning their work as teachers, from graduation in 1993 to…

  4. Landscape Architects and Environmental Concern: An Examination of Attitudes, Verbal Commitment and Actual Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Anita Anne

    Landscape architects have a combination of abilities that have been gained through education and experience that could make their demonstration of environmental concern as citizens very effective. This study assessed the attitudes, verbal commitment, and actual commitment regarding environmental concern held by landscape architects registered and…

  5. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism Presidential Documents Other... Persons Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order..., or support terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  7. Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Gerald D.

    1984-01-01

    The assigned topic, "Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment," is a subject about vitally interested. The successes of the U.S. space program were built on such teamwork and commitment. It seems only a short time ago that man's role in space was an unknown quantity. In rapid succession, however, the flights of Shepard, Glenn, and Armstrong demonstrated man's capability to live and travel in space. Consequently, we no longer live with the same awe of space. The success of these joint industry-NASA efforts in achieving our Nation's space goals testifies to the validity of our team's past commitment, management expertise, communications techniques, and teamwork over a period of 25 years. Today, however, We are at the beginning of a new era in space.

  8. Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.

  9. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    PubMed

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments.

  10. Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises

    SciTech Connect

    He Guangping

    2006-08-15

    The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.

  11. A comparison of three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hopwood, Christopher J; Wainer, Allison; Brent Donnellan, M

    2011-12-01

    Three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) were evaluated in terms of their internal consistency, distribution of scores, factor structure, and criterion-related validity in a non-clinical sample. All measures showed a continuous distribution. The SRS-A and BAPQ showed expected sex differences and were superior to the AQ in terms of internal consistency. The proposed factor structure of the BAPQ replicated better than the proposed structures of the other measures. All measures showed evidence of criterion validity via correlations with related constructs and each measure incremented the others in predicting related constructs. However, the SRS-A and BAPQ were generally stronger in this domain. Recommendations for the use of these instruments for measuring the BAP in non-clinical populations are discussed.

  12. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making: a major challenge to evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Hajjaj, FM; Salek, MS; Basra, MKA; Finlay, AY

    2010-01-01

    Summary This article reviews an aspect of daily clinical practice which is of critical importance in virtually every clinical consultation, but which is seldom formally considered. Non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making profoundly affect medical decisions. These influences include patient-related factors such as socioeconomic status, quality of life and patient's expectations and wishes, physician-related factors such as personal characteristics and interaction with their professional community, and features of clinical practice such as private versus public practice as well as local management policies. This review brings together the different strands of knowledge concerning non-clinical influences on clinical decision-making. This aspect of decision-making may be the biggest obstacle to the reality of practising evidence-based medicine. It needs to be understood in order to develop clinical strategies that will facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:20436026

  13. Factors Predicting Faculty Commitment to the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjortoft, Nancy

    This paper examines the effect of faculty rank, satisfaction with salary, working conditions, institutional reputation, perceived influence on institutional policies, participation in meetings, and perceived governance on organizational commitment (at both the departmental and institutional level) using a representative sample of 4,925 faculty.…

  14. Crime, Commitment and the Responsive Bystander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Thomas

    The paper describes a field experiment conducted at Jones Beach, New York, to determine (1) how responsive are individuals who witness a crime, and (2) under what conditions will bystanders take action to prevent a crime. The major independent variable in this study was the degree of prior commitment to the victim; whether or not the subject had…

  15. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  16. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  17. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  18. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  20. Work Commitment through the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitin, Teresa E.; Quinn, Robert P.

    Data obtained from a national, cross-sectional survey of the American work force were used to examine the relationship between age and an interview measure of psychological involvement with work (i.e., paid employment). For men, this relationship was curvilinear. Commitment began at a low level among the 16-20 year old men, rose to its highest…

  1. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  2. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  3. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  4. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  5. Sex, Love, and the Committed Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Carl A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Six responses are presented to the question of relationship of love, sex, and commitment as revised by Sager in the Spring 1976 issue of this journal. Theoretical and historical perspectives as well as issues of coupling, eroticism, sexual dysfunction and therapy, and psychosexual development are discussed. (HLM)

  6. Committed to the Cause: James Forman Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Steeped in the values of the civil rights movement, James Forman Jr. has charted a path into academia that has demonstrated both a keen commitment to social justice as well as impressive legal and academic achievements. Among his most notable accomplishments prior to his Georgetown appointment in 2003, Forman co-founded the nationally acclaimed…

  7. Commitment at Work and Independence from Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Jacques; Edwards, Paul K.; Wright, Martyn

    2003-01-01

    Case study of a Canadian aluminum smelter through 15 interviews, observation, and employee survey (n=214) revealed high commitment, acceptance of change, and worker independence from management. This pattern emerged from a traditionally strong union presence. Comparison with other cases underlines the centrality of collective organization to…

  8. Public Television: Commitment to Children's Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distance Education Report, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates public television's early commitment to children's programming, discussing the popularity of "Sesame Street" and noting other shows launched under Joan Ganz Cooney, president of CTW from 1970 until 1988. Discusses the erosion of television network ratings by cable television in the mid '80s, and concludes by posing questions…

  9. Organizational Commitment among Public Service Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Brian S.; Worchel, Stephen; Woehr, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A study that examined factors associated with organizational commitment among 64 blue-collar workers found that the following were positively and significantly related: promotion satisfaction, job characteristics, communication, leadership satisfaction, job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic exchange, and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.…

  10. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  11. Measuring Cognitive Errors Using the Cognitive Distortions Scale (CDS): Psychometric Properties in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Özdel, Kadir; Taymur, Ibrahim; Guriz, Seher Olga; Tulaci, Riza Gökcer; Kuru, Erkan; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess thinking errors using case examples in two domains: interpersonal and personal achievement. Although its validity and reliability has been previously demonstrated in non-clinical samples, its psychometric properties and scoring has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Distortions Scale in two Turkish samples and to examine the usefulness of the categorical scoring system. A total of 325 individuals (Sample 1 and Sample 2) were enrolled in this study to assess those psychometric properties. Our Sample 1 consisted of 225 individuals working as interns at the Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital and Sample 2 consisted of 100 patients diagnosed with depression presenting to the outpatient unit of the same Hospital. Construct validity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire. Factor analyses supported a one-factor model in these clinical and non-clinical samples. Cronbach's α values were excellent in both the non-clinical and clinical samples (0.933 and 0.918 respectively). Cognitive Distortions Scale scores showed significant correlation with relevant clinical measures. Study Cognitive Distortions Scale scores were stable over a time span of two weeks. This study showed that the Cognitive Distortions Scale is a valid and reliable measure in clinical and non-clinical populations. In addition, it shows that the categorical exists/does not exist scoring system is relevant and could be used in clinical settings. PMID:25170942

  12. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: part 1. pH

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; du Plessis, Johan; John, Swen M; Eloff, Fritz; Agner, Tove; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Nixon, Rosemary; Steiner, Markus F C; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin surface pH is known to influence the dissolution and partitioning of chemicals and may influence exposures that lead to skin diseases. Non-clinical environments (e.g. workplaces) are highly variable, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges that are not typically encountered in clinical settings. Hence, guidelines are needed for consistent measurement of skin surface pH in environments that are difficult to control. Methods An expert workshop was convened at the 5th International Conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposure of Skin to Chemicals to review available data on factors that could influence the determination of skin surface pH in non-clinical settings with emphasis on the workplace as a worst case scenario. Results The key elements of the guidelines are: (i) minimize, to the extent feasible, the influences of relevant endogenous (anatomical position, skin health, time of day), exogenous (hand washing, barrier creams, soaps and detergents, occlusion), environmental (seasonality), and measurement (atmospheric conditions) factors; (ii) report pH measurements results as a difference or percent change (not absolute values) using a measure of central tendency and variability; and (iii) report notable deviations from these guidelines and other relevant factors that may influence measurements. Conclusion Guidelines on the measurement and reporting of skin surface pH in non-clinical settings should promote consistency in data reporting, facilitate inter-comparison of study results, and aid in understanding and preventing occupational skin diseases. PMID:23279097

  13. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  14. Safety and effectiveness responses to etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis in Japan: a sub-analysis of a post-marketing surveillance study focusing on the duration of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takao; Harigai, Masayoshi; Inokuma, Shigeko; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ryu, Junnosuke; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Fujii, Koichi; Yoshinaga, Takunari; Freundlich, Bruce; Suzukawa, Michio

    2012-06-01

    The aim is to investigate the relationship of duration of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with safety and effectiveness of etanercept (ETN) in Japan. Post-marketing surveillance data for 7,099 patients treated with ETN were analyzed. Baseline characteristics, treatment effectiveness, incidence of adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs (SAEs) in relation to duration of RA were studied. At baseline, patients with RA for longer duration were older, weighed less, had more comorbidities, allergies, and corticosteroid use, but smoked less and had less morning stiffness. By 2-5 years with RA, more than half of the patients had advanced to Steinbrocker radiographic stage III or IV. Methotrexate (MTX) was the most commonly used pre-treatment disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; however, concomitant MTX use and its dose were lower among patients with longer duration of RA. Remission rates (26.6%) were greatest among patients having RA for <2 years. Less AEs and SAEs were observed among patients with shorter duration of RA. These results suggest that RA treatment in Japan in the era pre-biologics may not have been adequate to control disease activity and prevent joint destruction. Patients with shorter duration of RA may have better physical status which allows the opportunity to treat more intensively putting a higher percentage of patients in remission and possibly decreasing exposure to SAEs.

  15. Efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) for the treatment of post-stroke arm spasticity: results of the German-Austrian open-label post-marketing surveillance prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jost, Wolfgang H; Hefter, Harald; Reissig, Andrea; Kollewe, Katja; Wissel, Joerg

    2014-02-15

    The current practice in Germany and Austria, and the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A; Dysport) in the treatment of patients with post-stroke arm spasticity (with no fixed upper-limb contractures), were assessed in this observational prospective non-interventional study. One treatment cycle was documented with assessments at baseline, approximately week 4 (optional), and approximately week 12. Pattern of spasticity, treatment goal, safety and efficacy were recorded. Overall response and goal achievement was rated on a 4-point scale ('no goal achievement', 'goal achievement', 'good goal achievement', 'best goal achievement'). In total, 409 patients were included and 99% assigned to one of five arm-spasticity patterns. Therapy goals included reduced muscle tone (92.6%), physiotherapy or occupational therapy support (63.8%), increased range of motion (61.8%), pain reduction (58.9%), facilitation of care or hygiene (55.7%), and functional improvement (17.0%). Goals were achieved in 84% of patients. The following factors had the most potential as predictors of treatment outcome: pre-treatment; time since onset of spasticity; pattern of arm spasticity. Mean Dysport dose was 728 U and an inverse dose-response relationship was observed. Treatment was well tolerated. 500-1000 U was a safe and effective treatment for post-stroke arm spasticity in this post-marketing evaluation.

  16. Understanding variation in primary medical care: a nine-country qualitative study of clinicians’ accounts of the non-clinical factors that shape antibiotic prescribing decisions for lower respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Hood, Kerenza; Cooper, Lucy; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Melbye, Hasse; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Worby, Patricia; Jakobsen, Kristin; Goossens, Herman; Butler, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There is a wide variation between European countries in antibiotic prescribing for patients in primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) that is not explained by case mix and clinical factors alone. Variation in antibiotic prescribing that is not warranted by differences in illness and clinical presentation may increase selection of resistant organisms, contributing to the problem of antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to investigate clinicians’ accounts of non-clinical factors that influence their antibiotic prescribing decision for patients with LRTI, to understand variation and identify opportunities for addressing possible unhelpful variation. Design Multicountry qualitative semistructured interview study, with data subjected to a five-stage analytic framework approach (familiarisation, developing a thematic framework from interview questions and emerging themes, indexing, charting and interpretation), and with interviewers commenting on preliminary analytic themes. Setting Primary care. Participants Eighty primary care clinicians randomly selected from primary care research networks based in nine European cities. Results Clinicians’ accounts identified non-clinical factors imposed by the healthcare system operating within specific regional primary care research networks, including patient access to antibiotics before consulting a doctor (Barcelona and Milan), systems to reduce patient expectations for antibiotics (Southampton and Antwerp) and lack of consistent treatment guidelines (Balatonfüred and Łódź). Secondly, accounts revealed factors related to specific characteristics of clinicians regardless of network (professional ethos, self-belief in decision-making and commitment to shared decision-making). Conclusions Addressing healthcare system factors (eg, limiting patients’ self-management with antibiotics before consulting in primary care, increased public awareness and provision of more consistent guidelines) may

  17. Observing Joint Action: Coordination Creates Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that interpersonal coordination enhances pro-social attitudes and behavior. Here, we extend this research by investigating whether the degree of coordination observed in a joint action enhances the perception of individuals’ commitment to the joint action. In four experiments, participants viewed videos of joint actions. In the low coordination condition, two agents made independent individual contributions to a joint action. In the high coordination condition, the individual contributions were tightly linked. Participants judged whether and for how long the observed agents would resist a tempting outside option and remain engaged in the joint action. The results showed that participants were more likely to expect agents to resist outside options when observing joint actions with a high degree of coordination. This indicates that observing interpersonal coordination is sufficient to enhance the perception of commitment to joint action. PMID:27610745

  18. [Involuntary commitment: implication for psychiatric nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Lilian Hortale de Oliveira; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of involuntary psychiatric commitment (IPI) may cause implications on the nursing/patient relationship. The objectives of this study were to list the forms of nursing care delivered to psychiatric patients, according to the type of commitment; analyze the reaction of the nursing team towards the IPI patient, and discuss on the implications that IPI have on the practice o psychiatric nursing. A field research was performed with the nursing team of a psychiatric institution in Rio de Janeiro. After 50 hours of participant observation and 9 of focal group meetings, we found that the teams are concerned with the clinical evolution of the patients. No references of the nursing team to the IPI patient were observed. There are no records or actions of any kind that would suggest a specific look towards this type of patient. Nursing professionals are not able to clearly identify this type of patient, thus the care is provided as per the patient's needs or requests.

  19. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation.

  20. Acceptance and Commitment: Implications for Prevention Science

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recent research in behavior analysis and clinical psychology points to the importance of language processes having to do with the control of negative cognition and emotion and the commitment to valued action. Efforts to control unwanted thoughts and feelings, also referred to as experiential avoidance, appear to be associated with a diverse array of psychological and behavioral difficulties. Recent research shows that interventions that reduce experiential avoidance (EA) and help people to identify and commit to the pursuit of valued directions is beneficial for ameliorating diverse problems in living. These developments have the potential to improve the efficacy of many preventive interventions. This paper reviews the basic findings in these areas and points to some ways in which these developments could enhance the impact of preventive interventions. PMID:18690535

  1. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  2. Teaching in a web of commitments.

    PubMed

    Sutphen, Molly; Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal

    2012-04-01

    Drawing on interviews and survey results from a national study of nursing education, this article discusses teaching professional responsibilities in prelicensure nursing education and explores how to help students reflect on multiple commitments they will meet in nursing. Inspired by the moral philosopher Larry May's communitarian approach, we suggest strategies for teaching students a broad notion of professional responsibility, including the profession's moral and societal responsibilities.

  3. Climate commitment in an uncertain world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K. C.; Roe, G. H.

    2011-01-01

    Climate commitment—the warming that would still occur given no further human influence—is a fundamental metric for both science and policy. It informs us of the minimum climate change we face and, moreover, depends only on our knowledge of the natural climate system. Studies of the climate commitment due to CO2 find that global temperature would remain near current levels, or even decrease slightly, in the millennium following the cessation of emissions. However, this result overlooks the important role of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols. This paper shows that global energetics require an immediate and significant warming following the cessation of emissions as aerosols are quickly washed from the atmosphere, and the large uncertainty in current aerosol radiative forcing implies a large uncertainty in the climate commitment. Fundamental constraints preclude Earth returning to pre-industrial temperatures for the indefinite future. These same constraints mean that observations are currently unable to eliminate the possibility that we are already beyond the point where the ultimate warming will exceed dangerous levels. Models produce a narrower range of climate commitment, but undersample observed forcing constraints.

  4. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  5. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  6. Advantages of a leveled commitment contracting protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandholm, T.W.; Lesser, V.R.

    1996-12-31

    In automated negotiation systems consisting of self-interested agents, contracts have traditionally been binding. Such contracts do not allow agents to efficiently accommodate future events. Game theory has proposed contingency contracts to solve this problem. Among computational agents, contingency contracts are often impractical due to large numbers of interdependent and unanticipated future events to be conditioned on, and because some events are not mutually observable. This paper proposes a leveled commitment contracting protocol that allows self-interested agents to efficiently accommodate future events by having the possibility of unilaterally decommitting from a contract based on local reasoning. A decommitment penalty is assigned to both agents in a contract: to be freed from the contract, an agent only pays this penalty to the other party. It is shown through formal analysis of several contracting settings that this leveled commitment feature in a contracting protocol increases Pareto efficiency of deals and can make contracts individually rational when no full commitment contract can. This advantage holds even if the agents decommit manipulatively.

  7. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  8. Job Stress and Organizational Commitment among Mentoring Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Orly; Court, Deborah; Petal, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the impact of job stress on the organizational commitment of a random, representative sample of coordinators in the Israeli educational mentoring organization PMP. Organizational commitment, including affective, continuance and normative commitment, refers to worker relations in the organization, and how…

  9. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the corrective management measures to prevent future unauthorized commitments. If the individual who... unauthorized commitments. 2401.602-3 Section 2401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 2401.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments....

  10. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  11. The Relationship between Employee Commitment and Conflict Resolution Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel; Howat, Gary

    1978-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between the use of five conflict resolution strategies (withdrawing, smoothing, compromising, forcing, and confronting) and three measures of employee commitment (commitment to the organization, profession, and community). The relationships varied between the different types of commitment and between…

  12. Personal, Role, Structural, Alternative and Affective Correlates of Organizational Commitment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Commitment Among Chinese Workers Employee commitment to organizations has been the topic of considerable conceptual and empirical attention in recent years...Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T., & Porter, L.W., Employee Commitment to organizations: A conceptual review. ONR Technical Report 7, Graduate School of

  13. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  14. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  15. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  16. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  17. 12 CFR 1807.501 - Commitment for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commitment for use. 1807.501 Section 1807.501 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.501 Commitment for use. (a) CMF awards shall...

  18. Satisfied and Dissatisfied Commitment: Teachers in Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the self-appraisal of teacher commitment and their associated emotional experiences in the first ten years of teaching among three generations of Hong Kong teachers. Findings affirm previous view that high commitment level of teachers is characterized with psychological attachment to the commitment objects. However the…

  19. Professional Commitment: An Analysis of Students and Alumni.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjortoft, Nancy F.; Lee, Mary W. L.

    "Professional commitment" has been defined as "one's attitude toward one's profession or vocation." This study developed and tested a model to predict the development of professional commitment in students by examining the qualities of the college experience that may lead to that commitment. Factors such as background and…

  20. A large-scale prospective registration study of the safety and efficacy of sorafenib tosylate in unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Japan: results of over 3200 consecutive cases in post-marketing all-patient surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Oya, Mototsugu; Iijima, Masafumi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Gemma, Akihiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Adachi, Masatoshi; Okayama, Yutaka; Sunaya, Toshiyuki; Inuyama, Lyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Real-life safety and efficacy of sorafenib in advanced renal cell carcinoma in a nationwide patient population were evaluated by post-marketing all-patient surveillance. Methods All patients with unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Japan who started sorafenib therapy from February 2008 to September 2009 were registered and followed for up to 12 months. Baseline characteristics, treatment status, tumor response, survival and safety data were recorded by the prescribing physicians. Results Safety and efficacy were evaluated in 3255 and 3171 patients, respectively. The initial daily dose was 800 mg in 78.2% of patients. Median duration of treatment was 6.7 months and the mean relative dose intensity was 68.4%. Overall, 2227 patients (68.4%) discontinued the treatment by 12 months, half of which (52.0% of discontinued patients) were due to adverse events. The most common adverse drug reactions were hand–foot skin reaction (59%), hypertension (36%), rash (25%) and increase in lipase/amylase (23%). The median progression-free survival was 7.3 months (95% confidence intervals: 6.7–8.1), and the overall survival rate at 1 year was 75.4% (73.5–77.1). Prognostic factors for overall survival were mostly consistent with those in previous clinical trials in the univariate analysis and largely similar to those for progression-free survival and duration of treatment in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Sorafenib for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma under the labeled dose was feasible in daily medical practice, for its acceptable toxicity profile and favorable clinical benefit that were consistent with those in clinical trials. PMID:26206897

  1. Commitment in different relationships statuses: validation study of the personal commitment scale.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana Pego; Costa-Ramalho, Susana; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa; Pinto, Alexandra Marques

    2015-06-03

    This study presents the validation process of the Portuguese version of the short-form Dedication Scale (Rhoades, Stanley, & Markman, 2006; Stanley, 1986), with a sample of 924 participants in different relationship statutes. With 14 items, this short version is recommended by the authors for its simple use, when wanting to measure commitment in romantic relationships. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the instrument did not have a totally acceptable fit with the data so an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. This revealed a one-dimensional structure of the scale, and led to the exclusion of two items, which relate to a distinct meta-commitment dimension. In sum, the Portuguese version (ECP - Personal Commitment Scale) has 12 items, with good internal consistency (α = .82), correlations item-total between .36 and .60, and good criteria validity (p < .001). Its use for research is therefore appropriate. In a second study, significant differences were found between the participants' four relationship statuses (dating non-cohabiting and cohabiting relationships, formal unions and marriage) (p < .001; η2 p = .03). Results showed that married participants were more committed than those in a formal union, even when controlling for several relational and socio-demographic variables. No differences were found between cohabiting and non-cohabiting dating participants. Men reported higher levels of commitment than women (p < .001; η2 p = .02). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... economy of the United States constituted by the grave acts of terrorism and threats of terrorism committed... United States nationals or the United States. The actions of persons who commit, threaten to commit, or... policy, and economy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared in...

  3. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  4. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Whitton, Sarah W

    2010-12-01

    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage.

  5. Personality and non-suicidal deliberate self-harm: Trait differences among a non-clinical population.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A

    2009-08-30

    Limited information is available on understanding why particular individuals engage in non-suicidal deliberate self-harm (DSH), especially among non-clinical populations. An array of personality traits, such as those included in the five-factor model of personality, may further an understanding of DSH. The purpose of this study was to examine personality traits among non-clinical groups with or without a history of DSH. College students (N=238) completed self-report measures of DSH and personality. Both multivariate (MANOVA, discriminant analysis) and univariate (ANOVA) statistical procedures supported the hypothesis that those with a history of DSH (n=59) had significantly higher levels of neuroticism and openness to experience, and significantly lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in extraversion between the two groups. These results indicate personality differences among those with a history of DSH, which with additional research, may prove to be risk factors or targets of intervention for future DSH or collateral problems.

  6. Exploring the Role of Social Anhedonia in the Positive and Negative Dimensions of Schizotypy in a Non-Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    CİHAN, Burçin; SAKA, Meram Can; GÖNÜLLÜ, İpek; ÖZEL KIZIL, Erguvan Tuğba; BASKAK, Bora; ATBAŞOĞLU, Eşref Cem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to investigate the role of social anhedonia, defined as the lack of ability to feel pleasure from interpersonal relationship, in a multidimensional model of schizotypy and to determine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Chapman’s Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) in a non-clinical sample. Methods Second-grade students of Ankara University Medical Faculty were recruited (n=266, Mage=20.28). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test schizotypy dimensions. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency value, test–retest reliability and congruent validity of SAS were calculated. Results The model in which social anhedonia was allowed to load on both schizotypy dimensions fit the data set better than the model in which social anhedonia was allowed to load on negative dimension alone. The internal consistency assessed with Cronbach’s alpha was .84, test–retest reliability was r=.76 and the congruent validity of SAS was r=.55. Conclusion The results of current study were consistent with those of earlier studies showing that social anhedonia was related to both schizotypy dimensions. Furthermore, the psychometric properties of the Turkish Version of SAS revealed that it is a reliable and valid measurement to assess social anhedonia in a non-clinical population.

  7. Neuroticism and introversion: a risky combination for disordered eating among a non-clinical sample of undergraduate women.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessie L; Schmidt, Louis A; Vaillancourt, Tracy; McDougall, Patricia; Laliberte, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that people who score low on measures of sociability may be at risk for certain types of psychopathology, including mood and anxiety disorders. In an attempt to extend these findings to other forms of psychopathology, we examined levels of neuroticism and extraversion in relation to eating problems in a non-clinical sample of undergraduate women. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were completed by 196 first-year undergraduate females. We found that high neuroticism was related to high scores on both of the EDI subscales (Bulimia and Drive for Thinness) as well as high scores on the EAT-26 measure, replicating previous work. In addition, neuroticism served as a moderator such that lower extraversion (i.e., introversion) was related to greater disordered eating, but only for those women who scored high on neuroticism. Thus, a combination of neuroticism and introversion may be a risk-factor for symptoms of eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of university women.

  8. Body checking in non-clinical women: experimental evidence of a specific impact on fear of uncontrollable weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Natalie; Waller, Glenn

    2017-01-20

    Body checking is used widely among clinical and non-clinical individuals. It is suggested to be a safety behavior, reducing anxiety initially but potentially enhancing eating and shape concerns in the longer term. However, there is little causal evidence of those negative effects. This experimental study tests the potential negative impact of body checking. Fifty non-clinical women took part in a study of the effects of body checking in naturalistic settings. Each checked their wrist size every 15 minutes for eight hours on one day, then did not check the next day (order randomized). The impact on eating cognitions and body dissatisfaction was measured at the end of each day, and levels of change in those characteristics were also associated with eating pathology levels. Body checking did not result in more negative general eating attitudes or body dissatisfaction, but did result in a significant increase in a specific cognition that is hypothesised to be relevant to eating pathology - the fear of uncontrollable weight gain following eating. This impact was greater among those women with more negative existing eating attitudes. These findings add to the small experimental evidence base, demonstrating negative causal links between body checking and eating pathology. The findings need to be extended to clinical groups, but support the use of existing cognitive-behavioral methods to reduce body checking behavior.

  9. Coping food craving with neurofeedback. Evaluation of the usefulness of alpha/theta training in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Valenti, Enrico Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo; Amoroso, Noemi; Massullo, Chiara; Carbone, Giuseppe Alessio; Maestoso, Giulia; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the alpha/theta (A/T) training in reducing Food Craving (FC) in a non-clinical sample. The modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra associated with A/T training was also investigated. Fifty subjects were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive ten sessions of A/T training [neurofeedback group (NFG)=25], or to act as controls [waiting list group (WLG)=25]. All participants were administered the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. In the post training assessment, compared to the WLG, the NFG showed a significant reduction of intentions and plans to consume food (F1; 49=4.90; p=.033; d=0.626) and of craving as a physiological state (F1; 49=8.09; p=.007; d=803). In NFG, changes in FC persisted after 4months follow-up. Furthermore, A/T training was associated with significant a increase of resting EEG alpha power in several brain areas involved in FC (e.g., insula) and food cue reactivity (e.g., parahippocampal gyrus, inferior and superior temporal gyrus). Taken together, our results showed that ten sessions of A/T training are associated with a decrease of self-reported FC in a non-clinical sample. These findings suggest that this brain-directed intervention may be useful in the treatment of dysfunctional eating behaviors characterized by FC.

  10. GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL VERSUS NON-CLINICAL ORIGIN PROVIDES INSIGHTS INTO SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE PATHOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Ludo A. H.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Georgianna, D. Ryan; McCusker, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Because domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been used to produce fermented food and beverages for centuries without apparent health implications, S. cerevisiae has always been considered a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) microorganism. However, the number of reported mucosal and systemic S. cerevisiae infections in the human population has increased and fatal infections have occured even in relatively healthy individuals. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of S. cerevisiae and improve our understanding of the emergence of fungal pathogens, we performed a population-based genome-wide environmental association analysis of clinical versus non-clinical origin in S. cerevisiae. Using tiling array-based, high density genotypes of 44 clinical and 44 non-clinical S. cerevisiae strains from diverse geographical origins and source substrates, we identified several genetic loci associated with clinical background in S. cerevisiae. Associated polymorphisms within the coding sequences of VRP1, KIC1, SBE22 and PDR5, and the 5′ upstream region of YGR146C indicate the importance of pseudohyphal formation, robust cell wall maintenance and cellular detoxification for S. cerevisiae pathogenesis, and constitute good candidates for follow-up verification of virulence and virulence-related factors underlying the pathogenicity of S. cerevisiae. PMID:21880084

  11. Toward a Theory of Organizational Commitment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    A0D-AI03 358 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/0 5/1 TOWARD A THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT.(U) AUG A1 R T MOWDAY, R...M STEERS, L W PORTER N00014-81-K 0026 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8 ML EhEE"hE hhEEE~EE7hhhh LEVEr / 00 Gradate choo of anagmen Univrsit of rego -VI Euee0reo 70...Oregon Eugene , OR 97403 Dr. Gerald R. Stoffer Aerospace Psychologist LT, Medical Service Corp. Code N-712 HAVTRAEQUIPCEN Orlando, FL 32813 Dr

  12. International Military Commitment: A Conceptual Definition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    commitments chiefly in military terms--most recently, in terms of the threat to our interest posed by the Soviet Union and by Communist China" (1973...nd accurate the poli t i c i t, n policy o 198 0’s wi1 i (Sprout i.arch 25/ ns, Europea t i-polar condi t ions h y d i fferont f...behavior had been effected -- if only crudely and at a very basic level. A nuclear weapons duopoly by the Lmited States and the Soviet Union and a less

  13. Commitment and exploration as mechanisms of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Meeus, W; Iedema, J; Maassen, G H

    2002-06-01

    We report a two-wave longitudinal study of 1,571 Dutch adolescents concerning the role of commitment and exploration in identity development. We used the Utrecht-Groningen Identity Development Scale to measure commitment and exploration in the domains of relational and societal identity. Our results can be summarized in three points. (1) Commitment and exploration are related processes in the development of identity. Adolescents with strong commitments also frequently explore them, and adolescents with low exploration in general have weak commitments. (2) The longitudinal stability of commitment and exploration has a medium effect size. For relational identity the stability of commitment is greater than that of exploration, but this is not the case for societal identity. The explanation we give for the lack of this difference in stability between commitment and exploration in societal identity is that the formative period for societal identity comes primarily at the end of adolescence. In that connection, we conclude that for present-day Dutch adolescents the formation of relational identity probably precedes that of societal identity. (3) In neither identity domain is commitment predictive of exploration three years later, nor is the reverse the case. We conclude that no long-term developmental sequentiality of commitment and exploration was found, but the results do not rule out the possibility of short-term developmental sequentiality.

  14. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  15. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  16. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Religious Commitment of Full-Time University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna; Sargeant, Marcel A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of job satisfaction and organizational and religious commitment among full time workers at Akra University (a pseudonym) based on a number of demographic factors. Analysis of variance using the Games-Howell procedure revealed that workers who were older than age 46 years had higher job satisfaction and…

  17. Employee Commitment in Context: The Nature and Implication of Commitment Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, Laura J.; Parfyonova, Natalya M.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that employee commitment can take different forms (e.g., affective, normative, and continuance), yet it is only recently that theory has been advanced to explain how these different forms combine to influence behavior (Meyer & Herscovitch, 2001). We tested this theory with data from employees in three human services…

  18. [Results of the Russian EKSPERT program: post-marketing supervision over efficacy and influence of the preparation Ekvator on quality of life at out-patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Glezer, M G; Vygodin, V A; Avakian, A A; Prokof'eva, E B

    2014-01-01

    Results of an open multicenter prospective postmarketing observational program EKSPERT (post-marketing surveillance of the effectiveness and impact of the EKVATOR treatment on quality of life in patients with arterial hypertension in ambulatory practice). Observation of 10 000 patients conducted in 300 medical center in various regions of the Russian Federation in 1005 doctors. Selected for the final analysis 4954 registration cards. It is shown that in patients with initially insufficient effective antihypertensive treatment has a large number of risk factors: men older than 55 years--56.5%, women older than 65 years--27.8%, unfavorable family history of arterial hypertension (AH)--87.9%, diabetes mellitus (DM)--13.4%, smoking--of patients 18.6%, obesity--35%, angina--35.59%, heart failure--41.3% with a history of myocardial infarction--10.9%, stroke--4.5%, renal disease--11.8%, hypercholesterolemia > 5.0 mmol/l--76.7%. Initially drug antihypertensive treatment was performed in 76.6% of patients, while 43.9% were treated regularly. Prior studies angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) afforded 60.56%, sartans--11% of patients, beta-blockers--41.9%, duretics--41.46%, calcium antagonists used in 21.42% of the patients. After the cancellation of previously used other ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists and sartans patients were switched to therapy with the EKVATOR (amlodipine and lisinopril). Intensity reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) did not depend on sex of the patients, the presence of angina, diabetes. Greater reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive duration more than 5 years, in the presence of congestive heart failure due to more frequent initiation of therapy with full-dose combination (amlodipine 10 mg and lisinopril 20 mg). After 1 months of starting therapy changes uorvney target blood pressure (< 140 and 90 mmHg) reached 51.5% of patients. Target SBP reached 59.7% of patients, the target level of DBP--69.4%. It is

  19. Sociosexual orientation, commitment, and infidelity: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, Brent A; Clark, Eddie M; Weidler, Daniel J; Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Blankmeyer, Katheryn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation (SO) are less committed to their romantic relationships and more likely to engage in infidelity. Furthermore, commitment is negatively associated with tendencies to cheat. However, no previous research has examined the possible mediating role of commitment in the relationship between SO and infidelity. The current study examined whether commitment mediated the relationship between SO and willingness to engage in three types of cheating behaviors (Ambiguous, Deceptive, and Explicit). Results suggested that commitment partially mediated the relationship between SO and infidelity, such that unrestricted individuals had lower commitment, which in turn led to a greater likelihood of cheating. Implications of this association and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    PubMed

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  1. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  2. Safety pharmacology: an essential interface of pharmacology and toxicology in the non-clinical assessment of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Claude, Jean-Roger; Claude, Nancy

    2004-06-15

    Safety pharmacology studies are defined as the studies that investigate the potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of a substance on physiological functions in relation to exposure. In consequence, these studies are an integral part of the non-clinical safety assessment of new pharmaceuticals, in association with toxicological studies. A retrospective shows the evolution of the discipline in these last years. Safety pharmacology studies are of special interest, and some drawbacks and pitfalls must be considered (i.e. invasive methods, difficulties related to GLP (good laboratory practices) requirements, choice of a strategy). In the future, some priority should be given to education, promotion of scientific activities, reinforcement of the links between pharmacologists and toxicologists and implementation of relevant guidelines.

  3. Career planning for the non-clinical workforce - an opportunity to develop a sustainable workforce in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tavabie, Jacqueline A; Simms, Jacqueline M

    2017-03-01

    Many health and social care systems worldwide have been developing a variety of navigator and signposting roles to help patients negotiate care through increasingly complex systems and multiple provider agencies. This UK project aims to explore, through a combination of job description review and workshops of stakeholders, the common competencies and features of non-clinical roles. The information is collated to develop common job descriptions at four key levels. These form the basis for a career pathway supported by portfolio-based educational programmes, embracing Apprenticeship Training Programmes. The programmes have the potential to support recruitment and retention of an increasingly skilled workforce to move between traditional health and social care provider boundaries. This offers the opportunity to release clinicians from significant administrative workload and support patients in an integrated care system.

  4. Obsessions and compulsions: normative data on the Padua Inventory from an Italian non-clinical adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Gragnani, A; Orazi, F; Pietrangeli, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the present study the structure of obsessive-compulsive phenomena in non-clinical adolescents was investigated by 'The Padua Inventory' (PI). The PI is a self-report measure of obsessive and compulsive symptoms which is used in clinical and research settings. The use of PI in adolescents has been limited by the lack of normative data. Consequently, adolescent validation has both theoretical and practical implications. PI was administered to 566 normal Italian high school subjects, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years. The mean total score of PI and the mean score of 'mental activities', 'becoming contaminated' and 'urges and worries' sub-scales points to significant differences between males and females. Females reported more obsessions and cleaning rituals than males. Males show more urges and fears than females. Moreover, our data underline that younger subjects get higher mean scores than older subjects in all scales.

  5. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270

  6. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder.

  7. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-20

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  8. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-01

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  9. [The publication and its commitment to the society].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Publishing a research is one of the most important achievements for a researcher, since it is one of the tools to evaluate his scientific work. This achievement has a three-dimensional commitment: the personal commitment, the commitment with the population from which the data were obtained, and the commitment to the institution where he works. Therefore, publishing in the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social should be a priority and an honor for a researcher of this Institution, since he is working with it to provide solutions to medical problems that affect their beneficiaries.

  10. Outpatient commitment and procedural due process.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice Teri-Lowe

    2015-01-01

    A large empirical literature on Kendra's Law has assessed the impact of court ordered outpatient treatment on outcomes such as treatment adherence, psychiatric hospitalization, quality of life, and treatment costs. Missing from the empirical literature, however, is a better understanding of procedural due process under Kendra's Law. Procedural due process concerns the safeguards that must be in place when governments deprive persons of their liberties, for example--notice, the right to a hearing and the right to appeal. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study of procedural due process and assisted outpatient treatment hearings under Kendra's Law. Attorneys reported significant barriers to effective advocacy on behalf of their clients. Further, despite the shift from a medical model of civil commitment to a judicial model in the 1970s, by and large judges continue to accord great deference to clinical testimony.

  11. Neuronal Polarity: Demarcation, growth and commitment

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Alfredo; Ye, Bing; Dotti, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    In a biological sense, polarity refers to the extremity of the main axis of an organelle, cell, or organism. In neurons, morphological polarity begins with the appearance of the first neurite from the cell body. In multipolar neurons, a second phase of polarization occurs when a single neurite initiates a phase of rapid growth to become the neuron’s axon, while the others later differentiate as dendrites. Finally, during a third phase, axons and dendrites develop an elaborate architecture, acquiring special morphological and molecular features that commit them to their final identities. Mechanistically, each phase must be preceded by spatial restriction of growth activity. We will review recent work on the mechanisms underlying the polarized growth of neurons. PMID:22726583

  12. Nanotechnology to drive stem cell commitment.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Eriberto; Carraro, Amedeo; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Stellini, Edoardo; Roman, Marco; Pinton, Paolo; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells responsible for the growth, homeostasis and repair of many tissues. The maintenance and survival of SCs is strongly influenced by several stimuli from the local microenvironment. The majority of signaling molecules interact with SCs at the nanoscale level. Therefore, scaffolds with surface nanostructures have potential applications for SCs and in the field of regenerative medicine. Although some strategies have already reached the field of cell biology, strategies based on modification at nanoscale level are new players in the fields of SCs and tissue regeneration. The introduction of the possibility to perform such modifications to these fields is probably due to increasing improvements in nanomaterials for biomedical applications, as well as new insights into SC biology. The aim of the present review is to exhibit the most recent applications of nanostructured materials that drive the commitment of adult SCs for potential clinical applications.

  13. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Affective Commitment Predictors in a Group of Professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Maria Santa

    Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have long been identified as relevant factors for the well-being of individuals within an organization and the success of the organization itself. As the well-being can be, in principle, considered as emergent from the influence of a number of factors, the main goal of a theory of organizations is to identify these factors and the role they can play. In this regard job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been often identified with structural factors allowing an organization to be considered as a system, or a wholistic entity, rather than a simple aggregate of individuals. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that job satisfaction has a significant, direct effect on determining individuals' attachment to an organization and a significant but indirect effect on their intention to leave a company. However, a complete assessment of the role of these factors in establishing and keeping the emergence of an organization is still lacking, due to shortage of measuring instruments and to practical difficulties in interviewing organization members. The present study aims to give a further contribution to what is currently known about the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment by using a group of professionals, all at management level. A questionnaire to measure these constructs, following a pilot study, was designed and administered to 1042 participants who were all professionals and had the title of industrial manager or director. The factors relating to job satisfaction and the predictive value of these factors (to predict an employee's emotional involvement with their organization) were simultaneously tested by a confirmative factorial model. The results were generalized with a multi-sample procedure by using models of structural equations. This procedure was used to check whether these factors could be considered or not as causes producing the measured affective commitment. The results

  14. Intrusive thoughts in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and non-clinical participants: a comparison using the International Intrusive Thought Interview Schedule.

    PubMed

    Bouvard, Martine; Fournet, Nathalie; Denis, Anne; Sixdenier, Adelaide; Clark, David

    2016-12-22

    The International Intrusive Thought Interview Schedule (IITIS) was used to assess and compare the unwanted intrusive thoughts (UITs) reported in a group of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and a non-clinical group. Although all participants reported at least one type of intrusion, OCD patients experienced more intrusive thoughts than non-clinical participants, and this difference was statistically significant. In the OCD group, intrusive thoughts were more frequent, interfered more with daily life, were considered to be more important to get out of the mind, and were more difficult to stop than in non-clinical participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of five appraisals of the most distressing intrusive thought. One appraisal (importance) was used far more by the OCD group than the non-clinical group. For three appraisals (intolerance of anxiety, need to control, and intolerance of uncertainty), the difference was smaller. Only two of the strategies for controlling the most upsetting intrusive thought (ritual and avoidance) were of value in differentiating between the two groups. The IITIS (an instrument used to assess intrusions in non-clinical samples) appears to be of value for the assessment of patients with OCD.

  15. Commitment and self-control in a prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Humans often make seemingly irrational choices in situations of conflict between a particular smaller-sooner reinforcer and a more abstract, temporally extended, but larger reinforcer. In two experiments, the extent to which the availability of commitment responses-self-imposed restrictions on future choices-might improve self-control in such situations was investigated. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game against a computer that played a tit-for-tat strategy-cooperating after a participant cooperated, defecting after a participant defected. Defecting produced a small-immediate reinforcer (consisting of points convertible to gift cards) whereas cooperating increased the amount of subsequent reinforcers, yielding a greater overall reinforcer rate. Participants were normally free to cooperate or defect on each trial. Additionally, they could choose to make a commitment response that forced their choice for the ensuing five trials. For some participants, the commitment response forced cooperation; for others, it forced defection. Most participants, with either commitment response available, chose to commit repeatedly despite a minor point loss for doing so. After extended exposure to these contingencies, the commit-to-cooperate group cooperated significantly more than a control group (with no commitment available). The commit-to-defect group cooperated significantly less than the control group. When both commitment alternatives were simultaneously available-one for cooperation and one for defection-cooperation commitment was strongly preferred. In Experiment 2, the commitment alternative was removed at the end of the session; gains in cooperation, relative to the control group, were not sustained in the absence of the self-imposed behavioral scaffold.

  16. Commit* to change? A call to end the publication of the phrase ‘commit* suicide’

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Countering stigma is a fundamental facet of suicide prevention efforts.  Integral to this is the promotion of accurate and sensitive language.  The phrase ‘commit* suicide’ has prompted marked opposition primarily due to the connotations of immorality and illegality.  Methods. The study investigated the frequency of the use of the wordstem ‘commit’, in relation to self-harm and suicidal behaviours, in the three leading suicide-specific academic journals between 2000 and 2015.  Results. One third (34%) of articles published since the year 2000 used the word ‘commit*’ when describing an act of self-harm or suicide. Over half of these articles (57%) used the phrase on more than one occasion, with 6% using it more than 10 times in the same manuscript. The percentage of papers utilising the word ‘commit*’ has fluctuated over time, but there is a promising downward trend in the use of this phrase from 33% in 2000 to 13% in 2015 (p < 0.001).  Discussion. We advocate for the implementation of publication requirements regarding the language used when discussing suicide. Whilst we call for collective responsibility amongst academics and clinicians, editors hold a unique position in ensuring that outdated, inaccurate and stigma-laden terms are expunged from the scientific literature. PMID:28286872

  17. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  18. 10 CFR 609.8 - Term sheets and conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Term sheets and conditional commitments. 609.8 Section 609.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.8 Term sheets and conditional commitments. (a) DOE, after review...

  19. Enhancing Commitment Improves Adherence to a Medical Regimen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Dana E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated commitment-based intervention for improvement of adherence to 10-day antibiotic regimen. Subjects were 60 college students. Experimental subjects made verbal and written commitments for adherence and completed tasks designed to increase their investment in medication regimen. Controls performed similarly structured tasks unrelated to…

  20. 49 CFR 611.11 - Local financial commitment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.11 Local financial... proposed project is supported by an acceptable degree of local financial commitment, as required by section 5309(e)(1)(C). The local financial commitment to a proposed project will be evaluated according to...

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  2. Teacher Team Commitment, Teamwork and Trust: Exploring Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungmin; Henkin, Alan B.; Egley, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate relationships between teamwork, trust and teacher team commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Research has confirmed the value-added effects of organizational commitment in terms of job performance, organizational effectiveness, and employee retention. This study focused on teacher teams as the unit of analysis, and…

  3. Commitment Contingencies in the Behavioral Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Richard S.; Powers, Richard B.

    Commitment is a self-control technique to induce weight loss. Tow targets of commitment contingencies, completion of the study and behavior change, were examined among 42 female and 3 male subjects who made a monetary deposit to enroll in the 10-week program. The treatment consisted of self-monitoring of eating and exercise behavior. Subjects were…

  4. The Five Commitments: A Philosophical Framework Manifested through Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakamatsu, Kori

    2013-01-01

    The philosophical framework known as the Five Commitments was recently approved by the Governing Board of the Brigham Young University-Public School Partnership. The Five Commitments consist of: Civic Preparation and Engagement; Engaged Learning Through Nurturing Pedagogy; Equitable Access to Academic Knowledge and Achievement; Stewardship in…

  5. 38 CFR 36.4526 - Issuance of fund reservation commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... except with the written approval of the Department of Veterans Affairs. (b) Notwithstanding that direct... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4526 Issuance of fund reservation commitments... eligible for direct loans may apply for a commitment for the reservation of direct loan funds to be...

  6. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  7. 46 CFR 308.5 - Voluntary contract of commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE General § 308.5 Voluntary contract of commitment. Applications for insurance on vessels described in § 308... obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD. The effective date of the contract of commitment...

  8. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  9. Commitment to Community Practice among Social Work Students: Contributing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Amnon; Cohen, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop commitment to community practice among social work students to encourage their engagement in this field as professionals later in life. This research examines factors that affect commitment to community practice among social work students. A structured questionnaire was administered to 277 social work students in one…

  10. 48 CFR 3001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 3001.602-3 Section 3001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 3001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) policy requires that acquisitions be made...

  11. 48 CFR 852.215-71 - Evaluation factor commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation factor....215-71 Evaluation factor commitments. As prescribed in 815.304-71(b), insert the following clause: Evaluation Factor Commitments (DEC 2009) The offeror agrees, if awarded a contract, to use the...

  12. Toward a Theory of Commitment To Environmental Education Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Dorothea Kunz; Ham, Sam H.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses why some teachers are more committed than others to environmental education. Offers a theoretical perspective that links teachers' commitments to environmental education to significant life experiences and to beliefs and attitudes about teaching environmental concepts. Theoretical development led to a Model of Environmental Education…

  13. 40 CFR 52.238 - Commitment to undertake rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commitment to undertake rulemaking. 52.238 Section 52.238 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.238 Commitment to...

  14. Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular. PMID:25346509

  15. Principal Leadership and Organizational Commitment: The Principal Must Deliver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Theoretically, schools led by principals providing structure, resources, consideration, useful influence, and professional support in an even-handed, noncontrolling manner should be work places that elicit teacher commitment. This hypothesis was tested using a sample of 72 New Jersey secondary schools. Close control blunts teacher commitment.…

  16. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  17. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayir, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: It can be said that one of the key factors ensuring teachers adaptation to developments is teachers' level of commitment to their schools. In this commitment, the teacher is expected to internalize the organizational objectives. The teacher's perception of organizational support is important for him to internalize the…

  18. 17 CFR 229.1207 - (Item 1207) Delivery commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 1207) Delivery... Gas Producing Activities § 229.1207 (Item 1207) Delivery commitments. (a) If the registrant is... delivery commitments; and (3) The steps that the registrant has taken to ensure that available reserves...

  19. Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anari, Nahid Naderi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment, and between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among high-school English teachers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine the role of gender and age in…

  20. Attachment and Commitment in College Students' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Vocaturo, Loran C.

    1999-01-01

    Study examines attachment organization and dimensions of commitment in 101 females and 30 males with the use of an attachment questionnaire and the Commitment Inventory. Persons in a relationship who endorsed a secure or preoccupied attachment prototype reported stronger personal dedication than those endorsing a fearful-avoidant or…

  1. Primary Teacher Commitment and the Attractions of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troman, Geoff; Raggl, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The article examines data collected from six primary schools in the ESRC Project: Primary Teacher Identity, Commitment and Career in Performative Cultures, and compares it to classic analyses of teacher commitment made by Dan Lortie and Jennifer Nias in order to assess continuity and change. The "mission" to teach is still there, as is…

  2. 37 CFR 251.38 - Billing and commitment to standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billing and commitment to... PROCEDURE Standards of Conduct § 251.38 Billing and commitment to standards. (a) Arbitrators are bound by... abide by all the terms therein, including all of the standards of conduct and billing...

  3. 37 CFR 251.38 - Billing and commitment to standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Billing and commitment to... PROCEDURE Standards of Conduct § 251.38 Billing and commitment to standards. (a) Arbitrators are bound by... abide by all the terms therein, including all of the standards of conduct and billing...

  4. School Health and Its Relation to Teacher Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between teacher commitment to school and students and organizational health, using survey data from 54 elementary schools in Israel. Finds, for example, that the principal's administrative behavior is the most significant predictor of teacher commitment. (Contains 50 references.) (PKP)

  5. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states.

  6. Generational Differences as a Determinant of Women's Perspectives on Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Marcella D.; Kirk, Amy Manning; Bruhn, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Differences between 116 graduate and undergraduate women, representing 4 generations (i.e., Baby Boomers, Transitionals, Generation Xers, and Millennials), were studied to categorize earliest awareness and definitions of commitment in relationships. More than 63% of participants in each generation viewed relationship commitment in terms of…

  7. The Relationship between Career Growth and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.; Morrow, Paula C.; Liu, Rongzhi

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between employees' career growth and organizational commitment. Career growth was conceptualized by four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed and remuneration growth, while organizational commitment was conceptualized using Meyer and Allen's (1997) three component…

  8. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  9. Transferability of Skills and Education and Thai Academics' Organisational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…

  10. 49 CFR 611.11 - Local financial commitment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Local financial commitment criteria. 611.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.11 Local financial... proposed project is supported by an acceptable degree of local financial commitment, as required by...

  11. School-Based Management and Its Effect on Teacher Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam E.

    2002-01-01

    Report of a study from Israel that reveals that SBM positively affects teachers' commitment to the profession and students' academic achievement, and negatively affects their commitment to the school and students' social well-being. Further, teachers' autonomy remained unchanged after SBM was introduced. (Contains 4 figures, a questionnaire, and…

  12. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  13. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  14. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  15. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  16. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  17. 48 CFR 2001.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 2001.602-3 Section 2001.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR... Authority and Responsibilities 2001.602-3 Ratification of unauthorized commitments. (a) The Government is..., all other terms of subpart 2001.6 are applicable. All ratification actions exceeding $2,500 shall...

  18. Impact of Satisfaction and Commitment on Teachers' Organizational Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Harun; Basim, Nejat H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on teachers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a structural equation model. The study was employed to a group of teachers and their supervisors. The results indicated that job satisfaction and commitment to the school had an impact on OCBs of the teachers…

  19. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  20. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL) in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1) years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229). The total DES symptom scores (TDSS) in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P < 0.001). The values of tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were significantly lower in participants with DES and those with dry eye signs only (F = 55.158 and 40.778, P < 0.001). The composite score of the NEI VFQ-25 was significantly lower in subjects with DES (F = 4.901, P = 0.003). Moreover, the subscale scores of ocular pain and mental health were significantly lower in those with either DES or dry eye symptoms only (F = 10.962 and 7.362 respectively, both P < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that the TDSS had a significant negative correlation with the VFQ-25 composite score as well as with the subscale score for ocular pain and mental health, even after the

  1. Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.

  2. Exploring commitment, professional identity, and support for student nurses.

    PubMed

    Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra; Teoh, Kevin; Guppy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Problems with the recruitment and retention of nurses globally mean that insight into the factors that might increase retention in qualified staff and students is crucial. Despite clear links between work commitment and retention, there is little research exploring commitment in student nurses and midwives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study designed to provide insight into commitment using semi-structured interviews conducted with nine pre-registration students and a qualitative survey completed by 171 pre-registration students. Thematic analysis of the data emphasised the impact of placement experiences on commitment via interpersonal relationships. Students typically emphasised their professional identity as the basis for commitment, although many participants also highlighted a lack of acceptance by qualified practitioners, which reduced it. There was evidence that suggested that practitioner workload may impact the student experience due to challenges in making sufficient time to provide support. Implications for retention strategies are discussed.

  3. Nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Fariba; Jalali, Tayebe; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2014-05-01

    The high turnover of nurses has become a universal issue. The manner in which nurses view their organization's ethical climate has direct bearing on their organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment in teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. A descriptive analytical design was used in this study. The sample consisted of 275 nurses working in four teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. The instruments used in this study included a demographic questionnaire, Ethical Climate Questionnaire, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson's correlation, t-test, and descriptive statistic through Statistical Package for Social Science, version 16. The result of this research indicated a positive correlation among professionalism, caring, rules, independence climate, and organizational commitment. Therefore, findings of this study are a guideline for researchers and managers alike who endeavor to improve organizational commitment.

  4. Facility's employment practices reflect affirmative action commitment.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J W; Madden, M J

    1984-04-01

    The U.S. bishops' statements on racism over the last 40 years have addressed the structural as well as the personal aspects of racial discrimination. They have noted its persistence, described it as a moral and religious problem, and called for aggressive action among Catholics to combat it. "Meaningful equality" for blacks, however, remains a distant dream, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in a recent case involving institutional discrimination, because of the basically disadvantaged position into which blacks are born. As statistics on health, education, work, and standard of living illustrate, the socioeconomic opportunities available to blacks are markedly lower than those available to white Americans. Despite these odds, efforts to improve blacks' chances of contributing to society--through affirmative action programs--have achieved striking results in industry. Hospitals, as major workplaces, likewise should focus greater attention on developing and extending minority employment and advancement programs. Catholic health care facilities especially should evaluate their commitments to affirmative action. Increased efforts to eliminate discrimination in all aspects of a hospital's relationships with the business community as well as with its own employees will cause them to be recognized as symbols of justice not only in the workplace but also in society.

  5. Cellular commitment in the developing cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Marzban, Hassan; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Alizadeh, Javad; Ghavami, Saeid; Zachariah, Robby M.; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa and is critical for motor coordination and non-motor functions including cognitive and emotional processes. The anatomical structure of cerebellum is distinct with a three-layered cortex. During development, neurogenesis and fate decisions of cerebellar primordium cells are orchestrated through tightly controlled molecular events involving multiple genetic pathways. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical structure of human and mouse cerebellum, the cellular composition of developing cerebellum, and the underlying gene expression programs involved in cell fate commitments in the cerebellum. A critical evaluation of the cell death literature suggests that apoptosis occurs in ~5% of cerebellar cells, most shortly after mitosis. Apoptosis and cellular autophagy likely play significant roles in cerebellar development, we provide a comprehensive discussion of their role in cerebellar development and organization. We also address the possible function of unfolded protein response in regulation of cerebellar neurogenesis. We discuss recent advancements in understanding the epigenetic signature of cerebellar compartments and possible connections between DNA methylation, microRNAs and cerebellar neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss genetic diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction and their role in the aging cerebellum. PMID:25628535

  6. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  7. 77 FR 56519 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism On September 23, 2001, by Executive Order 13224, the... terrorism, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). The President... policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the grave acts of terrorism and threats...

  8. 78 FR 58149 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Friday, No. 183 September 20, 2013 Part VI The President Notice of September 18, 2013--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Persons Who Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78...

  9. Relationship of High School Principal Organizational Commitment and Campus Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edison, David Allen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of Texas high school principals' organizational commitment and the academic performance of the high schools served by the principals. Three components of principal organizational commitment--affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment--were assessed using the…

  10. An "alternating instructions" version of the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing autobiographical memory specificity in non-clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Dritschel, Barbara; Beltsos, Stamatis; McClintock, Shawn M; Beltosis, Stamatis

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research regarding how executive processes contribute to key cognitive deficits in depression, particularly impoverished retrieval of autobiographical memory. This study tested a novel version of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), the "Alternating Instructions" AMT (AMT-AI), to determine how participants could flexibly retrieve specific and categoric autobiographical memories. The AMT-AI consisted of a standard AMT (AMT-S), a categoric version of the AMT (AMT-R), and a section of alternating instructions (AI) in which the rules required the participant to alternate between retrieval of categoric and specific memories. A total of 49 university students completed the AMT-AI, and self-report measures of depressive symptomatology and ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of specific memories recalled on the AMT-AI was significantly lower than on the AMT-S. Also, reduced memory specificity on the AMT-AI, but not the AMT-S, was significantly negatively correlated with increased scores on measures of depressive symptomatology and ruminative thinking. Collectively the data suggested that the AMT-AI, relative to the traditional AMT, may be more sensitive to memory specificity in non-clinical populations. Future research is warranted to further determine the psychometric properties and utility of the AMT-AI.

  11. Relationships between magical thinking, obsessive-compulsiveness and other forms of anxiety in a sample of non-clinical children.

    PubMed

    Simonds, Laura M; Demetre, James D; Read, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    Despite the obvious phenomenological similarities between magical thinking and obsessive-compulsiveness, the relationship between them has been the subject of few empirical investigations in samples of children. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between a general epistemic stance towards magical causation and tendencies towards obsessive-compulsiveness in a non-clinical sample of schoolchildren. One-hundred and two children, aged between 5 and 10 years (48 boys and 54 girls), completed questionnaire measures designed to assess magical thinking, obsessive-compulsiveness, and other forms of anxiety. School teachers completed a measure of strengths and difficulties for each child. General belief in magical causation was correlated with all types of anxiety, not just obsessive-compulsiveness, with significant correlations shown for boys in the sample, but not girls. General belief in magical causation contributed little to the prediction of obsessive-compulsiveness beyond general anxiety. In this study, a general epistemic stance towards magical causation did not differentiate obsessive-compulsiveness from other anxiety dimensions. The findings are considered in the context of developmental theories of magical and scientific causal reasoning.

  12. Manipulation of responsibility in non-clinical subjects: does expectation of failure exacerbate obsessive-compulsive behaviors?

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesco; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Cieri, Luca

    2004-04-01

    An exaggerated sense of responsibility is currently considered as the ground for the obsessive-compulsive disorder. Obsessive-like behaviors, such as hesitations and checks, may be induced in non-clinical subjects by increasing perceived responsibility (i.e., perceived personal influence on negative outcomes). In line with Salkovskis' proposal [The cognitive approach to anxiety: threat beliefs, safety-seeking behavior, and the special case of health anxiety and obsessions, in: P.M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy, Guilford, New York], we tested the hypothesis that reduced coping abilities (i.e., an exaggerated expectation of failure) are another effectual factor contributing to obsessive-like behaviors. We examined 47 normal volunteers in a visuo-spatial memory task, and manipulated their perceived personal influence and expectation of failure by giving differential instructions and feedback about their performance. Increase of perceived personal influence induced slowness, hesitations and checks without enhancing performance. Expectation of failure exacerbated obsessive-like behaviors, again without affecting performance. These results confirm the role of responsibility in obsessive-like behavior and indicate that reduced coping abilities may contribute to worsen dysfunctional strategies.

  13. I just want my research credit: frequency of suboptimal effort in a non-clinical healthy undergraduate sample.

    PubMed

    DeRight, Jonathan; Jorgensen, Randall S

    2015-01-01

    Although performance validity testing is becoming fairly routine in clinical settings, research protocols involving neuropsychological tests infrequently include assessments of performance validity. The current study utilized an embedded measure of effort over two administrations of CNS Vital Signs to determine the frequency of poor effort in non-clinical healthy undergraduate students participating in a research study for course credit. Results indicate that more than 1 in 10 college students participating in a cognitive test battery for research showed test scores consistent with inadequate effort, which was associated with poor performance on testing across many domains. This conclusion was supported by poor performance on many other subtests. Healthy college students with suboptimal effort (n = 11) had an overall score in the 15th percentile on average compared to the 48th percentile in the rest of the students (n = 66). Those who failed validity indicators on the baseline administration were more likely to fail validity indicators on the repeat administration. Those who were tested in the morning were also more likely to fail validity indicators. The current study provides evidence for the potential limitations of conducting research using neuropsychological tests with healthy college student volunteers in the absence of performance validity testing. Revised college-level cutoffs are proposed.

  14. Hyperbolic Discounting: Value and Time Processes of Substance Abusers and Non-Clinical Individuals in Intertemporal Choice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The single parameter hyperbolic model has been frequently used to describe value discounting as a function of time and to differentiate substance abusers and non-clinical participants with the model's parameter k. However, k says little about the mechanisms underlying the observed differences. The present study evaluates several alternative models with the purpose of identifying whether group differences stem from differences in subjective valuation, and/or time perceptions. Using three two-parameter models, plus secondary data analyses of 14 studies with 471 indifference point curves, results demonstrated that adding a valuation, or a time perception function led to better model fits. However, the gain in fit due to the flexibility granted by a second parameter did not always lead to a better understanding of the data patterns and corresponding psychological processes. The k parameter consistently indexed group and context (magnitude) differences; it is thus a mixed measure of person and task level effects. This was similar for a parameter meant to index payoff devaluation. A time perception parameter, on the other hand, fluctuated with contexts in a non-predicted fashion and the interpretation of its values was inconsistent with prior findings that supported enlarged perceived delays for substance abusers compared to controls. Overall, the results provide mixed support for hyperbolic models of intertemporal choice in terms of the psychological meaning afforded by their parameters. PMID:25390941

  15. Concept analysis of professional commitment in Iranian nurses

    PubMed Central

    Jafaragaee, Fateme; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehrdad, Neda; Rafii, Forough

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Professional commitment has been widely discussed during the last decade. There is no comprehensive definition about “professional commitment in Iranian nurses.” Hence, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the concept of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: Hybrid model was used in three phases. Firstly, in the theoretical phase, data were retrieved from the CINHAl, MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID, Google scholar, and SID databases. The literature search used the keywords “professional commitment” and “nursing.” The final sample included 27 papers published in English between 2001 and 2011.Secondly, in the fieldwork phase, deep interviews with five clinical nurses were carried out, and thirdly, in the final analytical phase, the obtained data from theoretical and fieldwork phases were combined and a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Results: Loyalty and tendency to remain in the profession and responsibility to the professional issues were extracted in theoretical phase. Commitment to promote caring abilities, satisfying of being a nurse, and belonging to the nursing profession were obtained in fieldwork phase. Finally, two main themes including “commitment to offering the best nursing care” and “commitment to promotion of the nursing profession” were extracted. Conclusion: Nursing is a humanistic profession; it has some particular characteristics due to the profession’s nature. In this paper, a definition composed of two main dimensions of professional commitment in nursing has been introduced. PMID:23922592

  16. Elementary teachers committed to actively teaching science and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opperman, Julianne Radkowski

    Committed elementary teachers of science and engineering, members of a professional learning community called Collaborative Conversations in STEM, were studied to elicit their perceptions of experiences that influenced their commitment to, and their pedagogical content knowledge of, STEM teaching and learning. The hermeneutic phenomenological interviews enabled the teachers to express their beliefs in their own words. Data analysis employed a theoretical framework that investigated teacher epistemology and knowledge in light of their experiences. Findings revealed a web of lifelong experiences unique to each individual, and evidential of the committed elementary scientist-teachers' present day values, teaching epistemology, lifelong learning, and emotional and intellectual engagement. Scientist-teachers are individuals whose teaching and learning characteristics reflect those of scientists and engineers. Evidence indicated that no single transformative learning experience resulted in those elementary teachers' commitment to STEM teaching and learning, but recent professional development activities were influential. Formal K-16 STEM learning was not uniformly or positively influential to the teachers' commitment to, or knowledge of, STEM. Findings suggest that ongoing professional development for STEM teaching and learning can influence elementary teachers to become committed to actively teaching STEM. The Collaborative Conversations in STEM provided intellectual and emotional engagement that empowered the teachers to provide STEM teaching and learning for their students and their colleagues overcoming impediments encountered in a literacy-focused curriculum. Elementary teachers actively committed to teaching science and engineering can undergo further transformation and emerge as leaders.

  17. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  18. Efficient Non-interactive Universally Composable String-Commitment Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaki, Ryo; Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke

    The universal composability (UC) for commitment is a very strong security notion. It guarantees that commitment schemes remain secure even if they are composed with arbitrary protocols and polynomially many copies of the schemes are run concurrently. Several UC commitment schemes in the common reference string (CRS) model have been proposed, but, they are either interactive commitment or bit-commitment (not string-commitment) schemes. We propose new non-interactive string-commitment schemes that achieve UC security in the CRS model assuming the difficulty of the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem or the decisional composite residuosity problem, but our schemes are not reusable. The main building blocks of our constructions are all-but-one trapdoor functions (ABO-TDFs) introduced by Peikert and Waters in STOC 2008 to construct secure public-key encryption schemes. Our main idea is to use the homomorphic properties of the function indices of the all-but-one trapdoor functions and to extend the functions to probabilistic ones by using re-randomization of ciphertexts. This is a new application of ABO-TDFs.

  19. [Changes in nursing professional commitment among junior college graduates].

    PubMed

    Lu, K Y; Chang, Y Y; Chiou, S L

    2001-02-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal study were to understand the changes in professional commitment from nursing students before graduation to registered nurses one year and two years after their graduation, and to find the relationship among these changes, work backgrounds and organizational satisfaction. The sample consisted of 890 junior college graduates. The Nursing Professional Commitment Scale was used for data collection at the first and the second test, while work backgrounds and organizational satisfaction were included at the third test. The data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, standard deviation, correlation and repeated measure ANOVA statistical methods. The results showed that: (1) The average scores of the three tests were 2.96, 2.84 and 2.79, with a full point scale of 4. (2) There were positive correlations among the three tests of professional commitments; also, positive correlation was shown between organizational satisfaction and professional commitment on the third test. (3) The scores for overall nursing professional commitment decreased significantly one year after graduation, but there was no significant changes from one year to two years after graduation. (4) There was a significant relationship between the changes in professional commitment and grades of hospital, but no significant relationship with job category or work unit. (5) Organizational satisfaction influenced the decrease in professional commitment from nursing students before graduation to two years after graduation; it also changed professional commitment from one to two years after graduation significantly. The author suggests that nursing educators and administrators should be concerned with changes in the professional commitment of nurses so as to increase nurses' organizational satisfaction.

  20. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Context An independent evaluation of the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) marketplace pledge found that the participating companies met and exceeded their interim 2012 sales reduction pledge. Evidence acquisition This follow-up study conducted in 2013 used purchase data from 2000–2012 among U.S. households with children and compared trends in calorie purchases of HWCF, non-HWCF name brands, and private label (PL) products in the pre-pledge period (2000–2007) and the post-pledge period (2008–2012); controlled for potential effects of concurrent changes in demographic and economic factors, including the Great Recession and food prices; and assessed whether the HWCF marketplace pledge was associated with reductions in consumer packaged goods (CPG) calorie purchases by households with children. Evidence synthesis There has been a significant per capita decline in average daily CPG caloric purchases between 2000 and 2012 among households with children from all brand categories. Based on pre-pledge trends, declines in CPG caloric purchases were already occurring. However, post-pledge reductions in calories purchased from HWCF brands were less than expected, and reductions in calories purchased from non-HWCF name brands and PLs were greater than expected after economic, sociodemographic, and secular factors were accounted for. Conclusions If the 16 HWCF companies had been able to maintain their pre-pledge trajectory, there should have been an additional 42 kcals/capita/day reduction in calories purchased from HWCF products in 2012 among households with children. A lack of change in total CPG calories purchased between 2011 and 2012 calls into question the sustainability of the decline and a need for continued monitoring. PMID:25240968

  1. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  2. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have not been held to either explicit measurable outcomes or a framework for independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation’s leading consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively sell 1 trillion fewer calories in the U.S. marketplace by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and sell 1.5 trillion fewer calories by 2015. This paper presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the 2012 HWCF marketplace pledge, conducted in 2013. The 16 HWCF companies collectively sold approximately 6.4 trillion fewer calories (−10.6%) in 2012 than in the baseline year of 2007. Taking into account population changes over the 5-year period of 2007–2012, CPG caloric sales from brands included in the HWCF pledge declined by an average of 78 kcals/capita/day. CPG caloric sales from non-HWCF national brands during the same period declined by 11 kcals/capita/day, but there was little change in calories from private label products. Thus, the total reduction in CPG caloric sales between 2007 and 2012 was 87 kcals/capita/day. This independent evaluation is the first to evaluate food industry compliance with its calorie reduction pledges and to assess how sales from the CPG food and beverage sector are changing. An accompanying paper investigates the extent to which the HWCF pledge affected household-level changes in CPG calories purchased, controlling for important economic and sociodemographic factors affecting household food purchases over this period. PMID:25240967

  3. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) status of Asian countries and its implementation in non-clinical safety studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Madoka; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2009-10-01

    Non-clinical animal studies to assess the safety of compounds under development have to comply with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has established the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) system in OECD member countries for the mutual acceptance of non-clinical safety study data. Since 1997 non-OECD-member countries have also been able to participate in the MAD system, if the country meets the level of standardized compliance with OECD GLP. Thus, several Asian non-OECD countries are trying to develop their GLP standards in order to become official members of the MAD system. Pharmaceutical companies face significant expense in the drug-development process, including the cost of non-clinical safety studies; in response, companies in Asian countries are seeking to establish GLP facilities to provide cost-effective services for drug development. To assess the quality and cost of GLP performance in Asian countries, in this study we approached GLP facilities in a number of Asian countries to obtain price and quality information on a 'virtual compound' to be assessed in non-clinical safety studies. Also, the development status of GLP in Asian countries in terms of policy and infrastructure was analyzed. We found that, among Asian countries, India and Singapore may be candidates for participation in te MAD system in terms of their compliance with GLP, language, and costs. These findings will be beneficial to pharmaceutical companies planning GLP studies in Asian countries.

  4. An analysis of commitment strategies in planning: The details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steven; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark; Philips, Andrew B.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the utility of different commitment strategies in planning. Under a 'least commitment strategy', plans are represented as partial orders and operators are ordered only when interactions are detected. We investigate claims of the inherent advantages of planning with partial orders, as compared to planning with total orders. By focusing our analysis on the issue of operator ordering commitment, we are able to carry out a rigorous comparative analysis of two planners. We show that partial-order planning can be more efficient than total-order planning, but we also show that this is not necessarily so.

  5. Non-clinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of propylene glycol aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; McDonald, Paddy; Lilly, Patrick; Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Wallery, Jeffrey; Byron, Peter; Venitz, Jürgen

    2011-09-05

    Aerosolized propylene glycol (PG) was generated as log-normally distributed particulate clouds in different concentrations using a novel capillary aerosol generator (CAG) and evaluated in a battery of non-clinical studies intended to assess its potential inhalation and systemic toxicity in 2 species before ICH-compliant "first-time-in-man" studies. Exposures were nose-only in rats, and via face mask with oropharyngeal tube in dogs. The CAG-generated PG aerosol had a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.29μm, with a 1.56 geometric standard deviation (GSD) in the rat studies, and a MMAD of 1.34μm (1.45 GSD) in the dog studies, consistent with expected particle size exposures in man. International Congress on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines were followed, which recommend preliminary non-clinical safety studies using the vehicle and device (CAG-PG) prior to the first human exposure including safety pharmacology, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, single dose toxicity studies, and repeated dose toxicity studies in two species. In the rat, the only biologically relevant findings included clinical signs of ocular and nasal irritation indicated by minor bleeding around the eyes and nose, and minimal laryngeal squamous metaplasia. This finding is commonly observed in inhalation studies in the rat, and likely related to the unique sensitivity of the tissue, as well as the circuitous airflow pathway through the larynx which increases particle deposition. In the female Beagle dog, treatment-related decreases in hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit were observed in the two highest exposure groups, equivalent to approximately 18 and 60mg/kg/day. In male dogs from the high dose group, similar small decreases, albeit, non-statistically significant decreases were observed in these hematological markers as well. PK studies in rats and dogs showed that the absorption of PG following pulmonary inhalation exposure occurs rapidly, and equilibrium between lung tissue and plasma

  6. Altered functional brain connectivity in a non-clinical sample of young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Luca; Bramati, Ivanei E; Zalesky, Andrew; Furukawa, Emi; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Moll, Jorge; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo

    2012-12-05

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity that often persist in adulthood. There is a growing consensus that ADHD is associated with abnormal function of diffuse brain networks, but such alterations remain poorly characterized. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized multivariate (complex network measures), bivariate (network-based statistic), and univariate (regional homogeneity) properties of brain networks in a non-clinical, drug-naive sample of high-functioning young men and women with ADHD (nine males, seven females) and a group of matched healthy controls. Data from our sample allowed the isolation of intrinsic functional connectivity alterations specific to ADHD diagnosis and symptoms that are not related to developmental delays, general cognitive dysfunction, or history of medication use. Multivariate results suggested that frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices were abnormally connected locally as well as with the rest of the brain in individuals with ADHD. Results from the network-based statistic support and extend multivariate results by isolating two brain networks comprising regions between which inter-regional connectivity was significantly altered in the ADHD group; namely, a frontal amygdala-occipital network and a frontal temporal-occipital network. Brain behavior correlations further highlighted the key role of altered orbitofrontal-temporal and frontal-amygdala connectivity for symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. All univariate properties were similar between groups. Taken together, results from this study show that the diagnosis and the two main symptom dimensions of ADHD are related to altered intrinsic connectivity in orbitofrontal-temporal-occipital and fronto-amygdala-occipital networks. Accordingly, our findings highlight the importance of extending the conceptualization of ADHD beyond segregated fronto

  7. The relationship between early life stress and microstructural integrity of the corpus callosum in a non-clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert; Henry, Lorrie; Grieve, Stuart M; Guilmette, Thomas J; Niaura, Raymond; Bryant, Richard; Bruce, Steven; Williams, Leanne M; Richard, Clark C; Cohen, Ronald A; Gordon, Evian

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies have examined the impact of early life stress (ELS) on the gross morphometry of brain regions, including the corpus callosum. However, studies have not examined the relationship between ELS and the microstructural integrity of the brain. Methods In the present study we evaluated this relationship in healthy non-clinical participants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and self-reported history of ELS. Results Regression analyses revealed significant reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the genu of the corpus callosum among those exposed to the greatest number of early life stressors, suggesting reduced microstructural integrity associated with increased ELS. These effects were most pronounced in the genu of the corpus callosum compared to the body and splenium, and were evident for females rather than males despite no differences in total ELS exposure between the sexes. In addition, a further comparison of those participants who were exposed to no ELS vs. three or more ELS events revealed lower FA in the genu of the corpus callosum among the ELS-exposed group, with trends of FA reduction in the body and the whole corpus callosum. By contrast, there were no relationships between ELS and volumetric analysis of the CC regions. The two group did not differ significantly on measures of current depression, stress or anxiety. Conclusion Our results reveal that greater exposure to ELS is associated with microstructural alterations in the white matter in the absence of significant volumetric changes. Importantly, our results indicate that exposure to ELS is associated with abnormalities on DTI despite the absence of clinically significant psychiatric symptoms. Future studies are needed to determine whether specific types of ELS are more likely to impact brain structure and function. PMID:18728817

  8. Associations between ADHD Symptoms and Smoking Outcome Expectancies in a Non-Clinical Sample of Daily Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Goldenson, Nicholas I.; Pang, Raina D.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Smoking outcome expectancies for positive reinforcement (PR; beliefs that smoking produces desirable outcomes) and negative reinforcement (NR; beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect) are modifiable cognitive manifestations of affect-mediated smoking motivation. Based on prior data and theory, we hypothesized that NR and PR expectancies are associated with ADHD symptom levels in a non-clinical sample of cigarette smokers. Methods Daily cigarette smokers (N=256) completed self-report measures of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies. Cross-sectional associations of overall ADHD symptomatology and the ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention (IN; difficulty concentrating and distractibility) and hyperactivity impulsivity (HI; poor inhibitory control and motor activity restlessness) with PR and NR smoking outcome expectancies were examined. Results Higher levels of overall, IN and HI ADHD symptoms were positively associated with NR smoking expectancies after statistically controlling for anxiety, depression, alcohol/drug use problems, nicotine dependence and other smoking expectancies. Although neither HI nor IN symptom dimensions exhibited empirically unique relations to NR expectancies over and above one another, the collective variance across IN and HI was associated with NR expectancies. PR expectancies were not associated with ADHD symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions While PR and NR expectancies may be important etiological influences in the overall population of smokers, NR outcome expectancies appear to be disproportionately expressed in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Cognitive manifestations of NR motivation, which may be modifiable via intervention, are prominent in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Scientific Significance Beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect may underlie ADHD-smoking comorbidity. PMID:26871681

  9. 47 CFR 54.644 - Multi-year commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.644 Multi-year commitments. (a) Participants in the Healthcare Connect Fund are permitted to enter into multi-year...

  10. 47 CFR 54.644 - Multi-year commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.644 Multi-year commitments. (a) Participants in the Healthcare Connect Fund are permitted to enter into multi-year...

  11. Organisational Commitment and Committee Turnover of Volunteers in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Graham

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 328 volunteers serving on sports committees in Australia found that organizational commitment was higher in organizations with open decision making, conflict resolution, and attention to group process. Positive, effective committee functioning led to lower turnover. (SK)

  12. Alcohol affects goal commitment by explicitly and implicitly induced myopia.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele; Lerner, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol commits people to personally important goals even if expectations of reaching the goals are low. To illuminate this effect, we used alcohol myopia theory, stating that alcohol intoxicated people disproportionally attend to the most salient aspects of a situation and ignore peripheral aspects. When low expectations of reaching an important goal were activated students who consumed alcohol were less committed than students who consumed a placebo. We observed less commitment regardless of whether low expectations were explicitly activated in a questionnaire (Study 1) or implicitly activated through subliminal priming (Study 2). The results imply that, intoxicated people commit to goals according to what aspects of a goal are activated either explicitly or implicitly.

  13. The probate judge and involuntary civil commitment in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Ferlauto, Michael J; Frierson, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have scrutinized the decision-making process of physicians involved in the civil commitment of mentally ill persons, but few have examined the process used by probate judges when deciding to issue orders of detention and when conducting commitment hearings. This study consisted of a written survey sent to all probate court judges (n = 68) in South Carolina. Factors examined in the survey included the education and experience of the judges, their approach to the decision-making process, their view of lay and expert testimony at commitment hearings, and their knowledge about four items: two common psychiatric terms (delusion and psychosis), the leading suicide risk factor (previous attempt), and the standard of proof required for civil commitment (clear and convincing evidence). We attempt to analyze existing training standards for South Carolina probate judges and to explore possible areas for improvement so that proper dispositions of emergency psychiatric detainees are made and overcrowded emergency centers are less burdened.

  14. Relationships among perceived career support, affective commitment, and work engagement.

    PubMed

    Poon, June M L

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to test the predictive effects of perceived career support and affective commitment on work engagement. It was hypothesized that perceived career support would relate positively to work engagement and this relationship would be transmitted through affective commitment. Survey data were collected from 115 full-time employees enrolled as part-time graduate students in a large public university in Malaysia. Multiple regression analysis yielded results indicating that the relationship between perceived career support and work engagement was mediated by affective commitment. This finding suggests that employers can promote employee work engagement by ensuring employees perceive their organization to be supportive of their career and increasing employees' level of affective commitment.

  15. Length of hospitalization and outcome of commitment and recommitment hearings.

    PubMed

    Parry, C D; Turkheimer, E

    1992-01-01

    Despite extensive legislative reformulation of civil commitment procedures, empirical studies have shown that civil commitment hearings continue to be largely nonadversarial. The authors observed all civil commitment hearings during a three-month period at a large state hospital in Virginia and examined the characteristics of patients and the actions of attorneys, clinical examiners, and judges as a function of the length of time the patient had been in the hospital. The analysis revealed that as the length of a patient's hospitalization increased, the hearings became shorter and less adversarial; patients tended to show fewer signs of acute psychiatric illness and more signs of chronic schizophrenia. The implications of these findings for civil commitment policy are discussed.

  16. The Management Team: A Structure or a Commitment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegall, Hugh H.

    1980-01-01

    More important than the structure, formation or organizational plan of the school district's management team are the commitments of team members, particularly the superintendent and board members, to both the spirit and purposes of team management. (Author)

  17. Dual Incarceration and Condom Use in Committed Relationships.

    PubMed

    Groves, Allison K; Zhan, WeiHai; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Rosenberg, Alana; Blankenship, Kim M

    2017-02-13

    Incarceration fractures relationship ties and has been associated with unprotected sex. Relationships where both individuals have a history of incarceration (dual incarceration) may face even greater disruption and involve more unprotected sex than relationships where only one individual has been incarcerated. We sought to determine whether dual incarceration is associated with condom use, and whether this association varies by relationship type. Data come from 499 sexual partnerships reported by 210 individuals with a history of incarceration. We used generalized estimating equations to examine whether dual incarceration was associated with condom use after controlling for individual and relationship characteristics. Interaction terms between dual incarceration and relationship commitment were also examined. Among currently committed relationships, dual incarceration was associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 4.33; 95% CI 1.02, 18.45). Dual incarceration did not affect condom use in never committed relationships. Reducing incarcerations may positively impact committed relationships and subsequently decrease HIV-related risk.

  18. Rorschach object relations of adolescents who committed homicide.

    PubMed

    Greco, C M; Cornell, D G

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the object relations of adolescents who committed homicide. A clinical sample of 55 adolescents who committed homicide did not differ from a comparison group of nonviolent delinquents on Rorschach measures of object differentiation, mutuality of autonomy, and aggressive content. However, the subgroup of adolescents who committed homicides in the context of another crime (e.g., robbery or burglary) did manifest significantly lower object relations (poorer object differentiation and more victim responses) than the subgroup of adolescents whose homicides were committed in the context of an interpersonal conflict or dispute with the victim. These findings support the need for differentiated classification of violent individuals as urged by Megargee (1970) over 20 years ago.

  19. The Measurement of International Military Commitments for Crisis Early Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    MEASUREMENT OF INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING TR&A Technical Report #33 Threat Recognition and Analysis Project "Approved for...INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENTS FOR CRISIS EARLY WARNING Wayne R. Martin California State College, Dominguez Hills International Relations Research...Institute August 1976 The scope of the crisis analysis problem is both wide and complex. It ranges from early - warning --which is concerned primarily with the

  20. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  1. Dimensions of Attachment and Commitment Across the Transition to Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Ferriby, Megan; Kotila, Letitia; Dush, Claire Kamp; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIM) to test dyadic associations between adult attachment and changes in relationship commitment at the transition to parenthood in a sample of 182 dual-earner couples. Overall, more avoidant individuals experienced significant changes in commitment at the transition to parenthood; specifically higher avoidance was associated with decreases in personal confidence and dedication. More anxious fathers experienced increases in personal felt constraint while anxious mothers’ commitment remained stable. Partners of more anxious individuals experienced changes in commitment at the transition to parenthood. Higher anxiety was associated with decreases in partners’ confidence and dedication and increases in partners’ felt constraint. These results suggest that interventions focused on couple relationships at the transition to parenthood should address commitment as well as relationship skills and explore how adult attachment may influence the parents’ reactions to stress during this disruptive transition. Future research should examine whether commitment levels recover once the initial stress of the transition to parenthood decreases and family roles and routines renegotiated. PMID:26168264

  2. Employee commitment and motivation: a conceptual analysis and integrative model.

    PubMed

    Myer, John P; Becker, Thomas E; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2004-12-01

    Theorists and researchers interested in employee commitment and motivation have not made optimal use of each other's work. Commitment researchers seldom address the motivational processes through which commitment affects behavior, and motivation researchers have not recognized important distinctions in the forms, foci, and bases of commitment. To encourage greater cross-fertilization, the authors present an integrative framework in which commitment is presented as one of several energizing forces for motivated behavior. E. A. Locke's (1997) model of the work motivation process and J. P. Meyer and L. Herscovitch's (2001) model of workplace commitments serve as the foundation for the development of this new framework. To facilitate the merger, a new concept, goal regulation, is derived from self-determination theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 1985) and regulatory focus theory (E. I. Higgins, 1997). By including goal regulation, it is acknowledged that motivated behavior can be accompanied by different mindsets that have particularly important implications for the explanation and prediction of discretionary work behavior.

  3. The impact of work rewards on radiographers' organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Akroyd, D; Mulkey, W; Utley-Smith, Q

    1995-01-01

    Organizational commitment is an affective work outcome that has been used to predict work-related behaviors such as turnover, absenteeism and intent-to-leave. There has been little research in organizational commitment for the allied health professions and no empirical studies in the radiologic sciences. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive value of selected intrinsic and extrinsic work reward variables--involvement, significance, autonomy, general working conditions, supervision and salary--on staff radiographers' organizational commitment. In this study of 600 full-time staff radiographers in North and South Carolina, supervision (for ages 20-37 years) and involvement (for ages 38-66 years) were significant predictors of organizational commitment. The results of the study indicate that healthcare organizations should provide potential supervisors with managerial training, especially for radiographers who move to supervisory positions based on clinical skills and years of experience. In the long run, such programs are much less expensive than costs associated with replacing employees who leave the organization because of low organizational commitment. Also, management strategies and programs to redesign and enhance job tasks may help maintain or increase organizational commitment.

  4. Professional commitment: Does it buffer or intensify job demands?

    PubMed

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted. Multiple regression was performed to test the hypothesis. The results provide support to a buffering effect; thus, individuals with a higher degree of professional commitment conveyed a weaker association between job demands and emotional exhaustion compared with nurses with a lower degree of commitment. Developing a better understanding of the potential buffering effect of professional commitment is of great interest. The present study is the first to utilize professional commitment as a resource within the job demands-resources framework.

  5. Sport commitment among competitive female gymnasts: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and competitive level differences in the relationship between determinants and level of sport commitment. Gymnasts (N = 304) comprised three age groups (8-11, 11-14.5, and 14.5-18 years) and two competitive levels (Levels 5-6 and 8-10). Multiple regression analyses revealed: (a) perceived costs and social constraints from parents and best friends were the strongest predictors of commitment for the youngest gymnasts, (b) perceived costs, personal investments, and parent social constraints predicted commitment for 11-14.5-year-old gymnasts, and (c) perceived competence and costs predicted commitment for the oldest gymnasts. Competitive level differences also emerged; for Level 5-6 gymnasts, personal investments, perceived costs, coach social support, and social constraints by coach, best friend, and teammates were predictors of commitment. Personal investments and teammate social constraints were significant predictors for Level 8-10 gymnasts. Developmental factors and additional determinants are important to consider in further studies of the sport commitment model.

  6. What climate changes do 400 ppm commit us to? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickfeld, K.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is approaching an annual average concentration of 400 ppm. This paper explores the long-term climate changes that this level of atmospheric CO2 commits us to. Climate change commitment refers to the climate changes that are to be expected in the future in response to past human activities. Several types of climate change commitment have been discussed in the literature. This paper investigates the long-term climate response to the current atmospheric composition perpetuated over several centuries (constant composition commitment) and the response to an abrupt cessation of greenhouse gas emissions (zero emission commitment) using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC). The committed changes in both the physical and biogeochemical Earth system components are quantified, and the uncertainties in the magnitude and the time scales of the simulated changes are explored using sensitivity analysis and results from an EMIC intercomparison undertaken in support of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC. A second research question addresses whether it is feasible to return from 400 ppm to lower levels of atmospheric CO2 on human timescales using 'negative emissions' (i.e. net removal of atmospheric CO2 from the atmosphere). The implementation of negative emission technology (e.g. biomass energy with carbon capture and geological storage) may be desirable if the committed climate changes of 400 ppm exceed 'safe' levels. The feasibility of returning to lower CO2 levels is assessed based on the response of the Earth System and currently known limits of negative emission technology.

  7. The importance of knowledge, skills, and attitude attributes for veterinarians in clinical and non-clinical fields of practice: a survey of licensed veterinarians in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Vrins, André

    2009-01-01

    To improve content validity and the pertinence of outcome assessment tools used for the undergraduate Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of Montreal's Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, a survey of members of the Quebec veterinary association was conducted. This survey aimed to determine the importance of a list of 71 attributes-categorized as knowledge, general skills, specific skills, and attitudes-for clinical and non-clinical types of professional activities. The results indicated that all basic knowledge components, general skills, and attitudes were equally important for all types of veterinary professional activities, while the importance of specific skills was significantly different for clinical practice and non-clinical fields. It was therefore proposed that outcomes assessment surveys of stakeholders, such as alumni and employers, be analyzed separately for each type of career option.

  8. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in clinical and non-clinical samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Burton, Kirsteen; Mollayeva, Shirin; Shapiro, Colin M; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-02-01

    This review appraises the process of development and the measurement properties of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), gauging its potential as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in non-clinical and clinical samples; it also compares non-clinical and clinical populations in terms of PSQI scores. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and HAPI databases were searched. Critical appraisal of studies of measurement properties was performed using COSMIN. Of 37 reviewed studies, 22 examined construct validity, 19 - known-group validity, 15 - internal consistency, and three - test-retest reliability. Study quality ranged from poor to excellent, with the majority designated fair. Internal consistency, based on Cronbach's alpha, was good. Discrepancies were observed in factor analytic studies. In non-clinical and clinical samples with known differences in sleep quality, the PSQI global scores and all subscale scores, with the exception of sleep disturbance, differed significantly. The best evidence synthesis for the PSQI showed strong reliability and validity, and moderate structural validity in a variety of samples, suggesting the tool fulfills its intended utility. A taxonometric analysis can contribute to better understanding of sleep dysfunction as either a dichotomous or continuous construct.

  9. Impaired Self-Monitoring of Inner Speech in Schizophrenia Patients with Verbal Hallucinations and in Non-clinical Individuals Prone to Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Ochoa, Susana; Roca, Mercedes; Nieto, Lourdes; Usall, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that various memory errors reflecting failure in the self-monitoring of speech were associated with auditory/verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients and with proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical individuals. Method: We administered to 57 schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy participants a verbal memory task involving free recall and recognition of lists of words with different structures (high-frequency, low-frequency, and semantically organisable words). Extra-list intrusions in free recall were tallied, and the response bias reflecting tendency to make false recognitions of non-presented words was computed for each list. Results: In the male patient subsample, extra-list intrusions were positively associated with verbal hallucinations and inversely associated with negative symptoms. In the healthy participants the extra-list intrusions were positively associated with proneness to hallucinations. A liberal response bias in the recognition of the high-frequency words was associated with verbal hallucinations in male patients and with proneness to hallucinations in healthy men. Meanwhile, a conservative response bias for these high-frequency words was associated with negative symptoms in male patients and with social anhedonia in healthy men. Conclusion: Misattribution of inner speech to an external source, reflected by false recollection of familiar material, seems to underlie both clinical and non-clinical hallucinations. Further, both clinical and non-clinical negative symptoms may exert on verbal memory errors an effect opposite to that of hallucinations. PMID:27683568

  10. A meta-meta-analysis of the effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety in non-clinical adult populations.

    PubMed

    Rebar, Amanda L; Stanton, Robert; Geard, David; Short, Camille; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2015-01-01

    Amidst strong efforts to promote the therapeutic benefits of physical activity for reducing depression and anxiety in clinical populations, little focus has been directed towards the mental health benefits of activity for non-clinical populations. The objective of this meta-meta-analysis was to systematically aggregate and quantify high-quality meta-analytic findings of the effects of physical activity on depression and anxiety for non-clinical populations. A systematic search identified eight meta-analytic outcomes of randomised trials that investigated the effects of physical activity on depression or anxiety. The subsequent meta-meta-analyses were based on a total of 92 studies with 4310 participants for the effect of physical activity on depression and 306 study effects with 10,755 participants for the effect of physical activity on anxiety. Physical activity reduced depression by a medium effect [standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.50; 95% CI: -0.93 to -0.06] and anxiety by a small effect (SMD = -0.38; 95% CI: -0.66 to -0.11). Neither effect showed significant heterogeneity across meta-analyses. These findings represent a comprehensive body of high-quality evidence that physical activity reduces depression and anxiety in non-clinical populations.

  11. The influence of variations in eating disorder-related symptoms on processing of emotional faces in a non-clinical female sample: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Ridout, Nathan

    2016-06-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine if the attention bias towards angry faces reported in eating disorders generalises to a non-clinical sample varying in eating disorder-related symptoms; (ii) examine if the bias occurs during initial orientation or later strategic processing; and (iii) confirm previous findings of impaired facial emotion recognition in non-clinical disordered eating. Fifty-two females viewed a series of face-pairs (happy or angry paired with neutral) whilst their attentional deployment was continuously monitored using an eye-tracker. They subsequently identified the emotion portrayed in a separate series of faces. The highest (n=18) and lowest scorers (n=17) on the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were compared on the attention and facial emotion recognition tasks. Those with relatively high scores exhibited impaired facial emotion recognition, confirming previous findings in similar non-clinical samples. They also displayed biased attention away from emotional faces during later strategic processing, which is consistent with previously observed impairments in clinical samples. These differences were related to drive-for-thinness. Although we found no evidence of a bias towards angry faces, it is plausible that the observed impairments in emotion recognition and avoidance of emotional faces could disrupt social functioning and act as a risk factor for the development of eating disorders.

  12. Non-clinical studies in the process of new drug development - Part II: Good laboratory practice, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety and dose translation to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E L; Bento, A F; Cavalli, J; Oliveira, S K; Schwanke, R C; Siqueira, J M; Freitas, C S; Marcon, R; Calixto, J B

    2016-12-12

    The process of drug development involves non-clinical and clinical studies. Non-clinical studies are conducted using different protocols including animal studies, which mostly follow the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. During the early pre-clinical development process, also known as Go/No-Go decision, a drug candidate needs to pass through several steps, such as determination of drug availability (studies on pharmacokinetics), absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) and preliminary studies that aim to investigate the candidate safety including genotoxicity, mutagenicity, safety pharmacology and general toxicology. These preliminary studies generally do not need to comply with GLP regulations. These studies aim at investigating the drug safety to obtain the first information about its tolerability in different systems that are relevant for further decisions. There are, however, other studies that should be performed according to GLP standards and are mandatory for the safe exposure to humans, such as repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and safety pharmacology. These studies must be conducted before the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. The package of non-clinical studies should cover all information needed for the safe transposition of drugs from animals to humans, generally based on the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from general toxicity studies. After IND approval, other GLP experiments for the evaluation of chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, are carried out during the clinical phase of development. However, the necessity of performing such studies depends on the new drug clinical application purpose.

  13. A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk; Williams, J Mark G; Eelen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) has been proposed as a vulnerability factor for depression (Williams et al., 2007) or depressive reactivity to stressful life-events (e.g., Gibbs & Rude, 2004). Traditionally, a cue word procedure known as the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) is used to assess OGM. Although frequently and validly used in clinical populations, there is evidence suggesting that the AMT is insufficiently sensitive to measure OGM in non-clinical groups. Study 1 evaluated the usefulness of a sentence completion method to assess OGM in non-clinical groups, as an alternative to the AMT. Participants were 197 students who completed the AMT, the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT), a depression measure, and visual analogue scales assessing ruminative thinking. Results showed that the mean proportion of overgeneral responses was markedly higher for the SCEPT than for the standard AMT. Also, overgeneral responding on the SCEPT was positively associated to depression scores and depressive rumination scores, whereas overgeneral responding on the AMT was not. Results suggest that the SCEPT, relative to the AMT, is a more sensitive instrument to measure OGM, at least in non-clinical populations. Study 2 further showed that this enhanced sensitivity is most likely due to the omission of the instruction to be specific rather than to the SCEPT's sentence completion format (as opposed to free recall to cue words).

  14. Non-clinical studies in the process of new drug development - Part II: Good laboratory practice, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety and dose translation to clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, E.L.; Bento, A.F.; Cavalli, J.; Oliveira, S.K.; Schwanke, R.C.; Siqueira, J.M.; Freitas, C.S.; Marcon, R.; Calixto, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    The process of drug development involves non-clinical and clinical studies. Non-clinical studies are conducted using different protocols including animal studies, which mostly follow the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. During the early pre-clinical development process, also known as Go/No-Go decision, a drug candidate needs to pass through several steps, such as determination of drug availability (studies on pharmacokinetics), absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) and preliminary studies that aim to investigate the candidate safety including genotoxicity, mutagenicity, safety pharmacology and general toxicology. These preliminary studies generally do not need to comply with GLP regulations. These studies aim at investigating the drug safety to obtain the first information about its tolerability in different systems that are relevant for further decisions. There are, however, other studies that should be performed according to GLP standards and are mandatory for the safe exposure to humans, such as repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and safety pharmacology. These studies must be conducted before the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. The package of non-clinical studies should cover all information needed for the safe transposition of drugs from animals to humans, generally based on the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from general toxicity studies. After IND approval, other GLP experiments for the evaluation of chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, are carried out during the clinical phase of development. However, the necessity of performing such studies depends on the new drug clinical application purpose. PMID:27982281

  15. The Relationship between Career Maturity and Work Commitment in a Sample of Australian High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter A.

    2002-01-01

    Australian high school students (n=377) completed the Career Development Inventory and a work commitment measure. Commitment was moderately correlated with career development. Commitment and the knowledge component of career maturity were strongly related for females. Females had higher work commitment scores than males. (Contains 39 references.)…

  16. Teacher Commitment and Its Effects on Student Achievement in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Insim

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the effects of teacher commitment on student achievement. Three teacher commitment dimensions of organizational, professional, and student commitment were derived. The three-dimensional teacher commitment measurement model was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, the relationships among individual and organizational…

  17. CME planning series: article five of five, using commitment to change within educational activities.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Commitment to change is an educational practice that encourages participants to commit to doing something differently in their respective practices based on an educational activity. Evidence suggests that such commitment increases the likelihood that changes in behavior will occur above and beyond what might be expected from participation without explicit commitments. Educators should consider options for incorporating this practice into their educational activities.

  18. Transitioning to a waterways city: municipal context, capacity and commitment.

    PubMed

    Morison, P J; Brown, R R; Cocklin, C

    2010-01-01

    In Melbourne, Australia, the adoption of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and the inclusion of best practice in new urban development has shifted the "drained city" of the 1960s toward an environmentally-oriented "waterways city" for the future. However, the "waterways city" is tenuous owing to the variable commitment of local municipalities to WSUD. This paper reports on the first phase of a social research project, which aims to secure a model of the waterways city by addressing the commitment and capacity deficits of local municipalities. Municipal commitment and capacity across three geographical areas in Melbourne are measured quantitatively using an innovative, comprehensive, and replicable assessment technique. The results show variability in municipal capacity and commitment across the areas, with a pronounced deficit in the rural-regional area. Consequently, intergovernmental attempts to normalise modes of integrated urban water management (such as WSUD) need to include innovative and flexible mechanisms that are responsive to the dynamics of municipal commitment and capacity. These principles have broader application to cities internationally where the management of urban stormwater is the shared responsibility of multiple governments.

  19. Dual Level Study of Organizational Commitment and Its Relationship with Intentions to Remain in Service.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    model of the ante- cedents of employee commitment to organizations. From his work, Steers contended that the antecedents of commitment were grouped...commitment attitudes of federal service employees, Stevens and others (1978:389) reported a correlation of .404 between employee commitment atti- tudes...attitudes of hospital employees and scientists, Steers noted diverse sources of factors affecting employee commitment . As a result, there was a substantial

  20. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  1. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  2. Procedural justice and layoff survivors' commitment: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Grubb, W Lee

    2006-10-01

    Layoffs are common in today's organizations. Most studies that have examined the correlation between procedural justice and the organizational commitment of layoff survivors have yielded positive correlations, but the magnitude of the correlations varies widely. This study is the first to estimate the population correlation and to identify the primary sources that cause variation in the correlation across studies. The results indicated that justice and commitment correlations can always be expected to be positive. Based on a total sample size of 9080 individuals, the estimated mean population correlation was .34. Variation was primarily explained by attributes of the justice measure where multiple items scales and scales composed of both interactional and procedural justice items yielded higher correlations than single item measures. Therefore, it is important that employers recognize the substantial assuaging affect that procedural and interactional justice can have on survivors' organizational commitment.

  3. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.

  4. Love, Hate and Murder: Commitment Devices in Violent Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Aizer, Anna; Bó, Pedro Dal

    2009-01-01

    Many violent relationships are characterized by a high degree of cyclicality: women who are the victims of domestic violence often leave and return multiple times. To explain this we develop a model of time inconsistent preferences in the context of domestic violence. This time inconsistency generates a demand for commitment. We present supporting evidence that women in violent relationships display time inconsistent preferences by examining their demand for commitment devices. We find that no-drop policies – which compel the prosecutor to continue with prosecution even if the victim expresses a desire to drop the charges – result in an increase in reporting. No-drop policies also result in a decrease in the number of men murdered by intimates suggesting that some women in violent relationships move away from an extreme type of commitment device when a less costly one is offered. PMID:24244055

  5. Counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-04-01

    Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances empirical perspectives on social justice by testing the external validity of M. J. Miller et al.'s (2009) social-cognitive model of social justice interest and commitment in a sample of 229 doctoral trainees in counseling psychology. Present findings support the ability of the model to explain, in part, counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment. In addition, the present study provides novel findings that demonstrate the direct and indirect ways in which program training environment and personal moral imperative relate to social justice interest and commitment. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for training are discussed.

  6. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  7. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    PubMed Central

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977

  8. Economic perspectives on the advance market commitment for pneumococcal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Christopher M; Begor, Wills; Berndt, Ernst R

    2011-08-01

    Pharmaceutical companies have long been reluctant to invest in producing new vaccines for the developing world because they have little prospect of earning an attractive return. One way to stimulate such investment is the use of an advance market commitment, an innovative financing program that guarantees manufacturers a long-term market. Under this arrangement, international donors pay a premium for initial doses sold to developing countries. In exchange, companies agree to continue supplying the vaccine over the longer term at more sustainable prices. This article provides a preliminary economic analysis of a pilot advance market commitment program for pneumococcal vaccines, explaining the principles behind the program's design and assessing its early performance. Spurred by the advance market commitment--and other contemporaneous initiatives that also increased resources to vaccine suppliers--new, second-generation pneumococcal vaccines have experienced a much more rapid rollout in developing countries than older first-generation vaccines.

  9. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lanseng, Even J.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences. PMID:27746749

  10. Love, Hate and Murder: Commitment Devices in Violent Relationships.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna; Bó, Pedro Dal

    2009-04-01

    Many violent relationships are characterized by a high degree of cyclicality: women who are the victims of domestic violence often leave and return multiple times. To explain this we develop a model of time inconsistent preferences in the context of domestic violence. This time inconsistency generates a demand for commitment. We present supporting evidence that women in violent relationships display time inconsistent preferences by examining their demand for commitment devices. We find that no-drop policies - which compel the prosecutor to continue with prosecution even if the victim expresses a desire to drop the charges - result in an increase in reporting. No-drop policies also result in a decrease in the number of men murdered by intimates suggesting that some women in violent relationships move away from an extreme type of commitment device when a less costly one is offered.

  11. Why the evidence for outpatient commitment is good enough.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-06-01

    After nearly three decades of studies evaluating the legal practice of involuntary outpatient commitment, there is yet little consensus about its effectiveness and only limited implementation. Debate continues over how best to assist adults with serious mental illnesses who are unable or unwilling to participate in prescribed community treatment and as a result experience repeated involuntary hospitalizations or involvement with the criminal justice system. The authors comment on the Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET), a recently conducted randomized trial of outpatient commitment, and discuss the limitations of the study's design for resolving the persistent question of whether compulsory treatment is more effective than purely voluntary treatment for this difficult-to-reach target population. The authors conclude that the search for a definitive and generalizable randomized trial of outpatient commitment may be a quixotic quest; the field should, rather, welcome the results of well-conducted, large-scale, quasi-experimental and naturalistic studies with rigorous multivariable statistical controls.

  12. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    PubMed Central

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive. PMID:27867448

  13. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  14. Bases of social power, leadership styles, and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Raven, Bertram H; Amato, Clara; Bélanger, Jocelyn J

    2013-01-01

    Affective organizational commitment reflects the extent to which organizational members are loyal and willing to work toward organizational objectives (Meyer & Allen, 1997). In particular, affective organizational commitment holds very important implications at all organizational levels (e.g., turnover rates, performance, and citizenship behavior). Whereas previous research has evinced the positive influence of transformational and charismatic leadership styles on affective commitment toward the organization (Bass & Avolio, 1994), little is known with regard to the nature of this relationship. In line with the interpersonal power/interaction model, the present investigation aimed to investigate the mechanism at play between transformational leadership style and affective organizational commitment. Specifically, we hypothesized that transformational leadership style would increase affective organizational commitment through its effect on willingness to comply with soft bases of power. In two studies, we subjected the foregoing hypotheses to empirical scrutiny. In Study 1, the proposed mediation model was empirically supported with Italian employees in the public sector. Attesting to the robustness of our findings, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 with Italian employees from the public and private sectors. In addition, Study 2 replicated Study 1 using a different measure of transformational leadership. Both Study 1 and Study 2 provided results consistent with our hypotheses. Specifically, the present paper reports empirical evidence that (1) the more participants report having a transformational leader, the more willing they become to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases, (2) in turn, greater willingness to comply with soft (but not harsh) power bases increases one's affective organizational commitment. These findings provide additional support for the interpersonal power/interaction model and pave the way for new research directions.

  15. Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2014-10-01

    We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.

  16. Judges' assumptions about the appropriateness of civil and forensic commitment.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, K L; Fisher, W H

    1997-05-01

    The study examined judges' reasons for ordering pretrial forensic evaluation instead of civil commitment for persons with mental illness who are arrested. Fifty-five of 58 judges acknowledged having concerns about the adequacy of treatment or confinement in the civil mental health system, and 31 reported ordering pretrial forensic evaluations as a means of ensuring adequate treatment for patients who appear in their courts. Other frequently endorsed reasons for ordering these evaluations included lack of confidence in the ability to civilly commit mentally ill offenders and concerns about their being discharged prematurely. This study confirms suspicions that judges order pretrial evaluations to fill perceived gaps in the civil system.

  17. Pre-engagement cohabitation and gender asymmetry in marital commitment.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2006-12-01

    The authors longitudinally examined couples' (N = 197) dedication (interpersonal commitment) levels on the basis of their premarital cohabitation history. Findings suggested that men who cohabited with their spouse before engagement were less dedicated than men who cohabited only after engagement or not at all before marriage. Furthermore, these husbands were less dedicated to their wives than their wives were to them. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that such asymmetries were apparent before marriage and through the early years of marriage. Relationship adjustment and religiousness were related to dedication but did not account for the findings. The authors suggest that couples considering cohabitation before engagement could benefit from discussions about commitment and expectations about marriage.

  18. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  19. Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-09-28

    We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling.

  20. [Study of psychometric properties of two new questionnaires assessing beliefs in hypochondriasis in a non-clinical population].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, O; Gosselin, P; Langlois, F; Ladouceur, R

    2002-01-01

    's and the WW-H's psychometric qualities and the factorial structure were assessed. More precisely, this study examined the factorial structure, the temporal stability, the convergent, divergent and criteria validities of the GHBQ and the WW-H. Four hundred and twenty nine French-speaking university students (non-clinical participants) completed a battery of questionnaires at the beginning of a class. The questionnaires were: The General Health Beliefs Questionnaire (GHBQ), the Why do people Worry about Health (WW-H), the Illness Worry Scale (IWS), the Beck Depression Inventory-short form (BDI-short form) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A second administration took place three weeks later with the same sample to test the temporal stability of the GHBQ and the WW-H. The principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (varimax) supports a five components solution for the GHBQ: 1) magical thinking, 2) health, 3) consequences, 4) responsibility, and 5) vulnerability. The principal component analysis with oblique rotation (direct oblimin) (d=0) found a two components solution for the WW-H: 1) utility and 2) magical thinking associated to worries about health. The internal consistency of the GHBQ and the WW-H is excellent (a=.80 and a=.90, respectively). A correlation of 0.49 was found between the GHBQ and the WW-H. The correlation between the GHBQ and the IWS who evaluates the tendency to worry (r=.50) and between the WW-H and the IWS (r=.49) showed that the convergent validity of these questionnaires is adequate. On a three weeks interval, the GHBQ (r=.70) and the WW-H (r=.71) showed a satisfying temporal stability. The means of the high worriers (80 superior percentile at the IWS) (M=38.8, ET=8.93) and the means of the moderate worriers (between the 40 and the 60 percentile at the IWS) (M=32.8, ET=8.00) on the GHBQ have been compared. A significant difference has been found between the two groups [F(1,181)=23,129, p<0,001]. Also, the means of the high worriers

  1. Commitment to organizational change: extension of a three-component model.

    PubMed

    Herscovitch, Lynne; Meyer, John P

    2002-06-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the application of a three-component model of workplace commitment (J. P. Meyer & N. J. Allen, 1991: J. P. Meyer & L. Herscovitch, 2001) in the context of employee commitment to organizational change. Study 1, conducted with 224 university students, provided preliminary evidence for the validity of newly developed Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to Change Scales. Studies 2 and 3, conducted with hospital nurses (N = 157 and 108, respectively), provided further support for the validity of the three Commitment to Change Scales, and demonstrated that (a) commitment to a change is a better predictor of behavioral support for a change than is organizational commitment, (b) affective and normative commitment to a change are associated with higher levels of support than is continuance commitment, and (c) the components of commitment combine to predict behavior.

  2. Sport commitment among competitive female athletes: test of an expanded model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Windee M; Weiss, Maureen R; Amorose, Anthony J

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we examined an expanded model of sport commitment by adding two determinants (perceived costs and perceived competence) and behavioural commitment as a consequence of psychological commitment, as well as identifying psychological commitment as a mediator of relationships between determinants and behavioural commitment. Competitive female gymnasts (N = 304, age 8-18 years) completed relevant measures while coaches rated each gymnast's training behaviours as an indicator of behavioural commitment. Path analysis revealed that the best fitting model was one in which original determinants (enjoyment, involvement opportunities, investments, attractive alternatives) and an added determinant (perceived costs) predicted psychological commitment, in addition to investments and perceived costs directly predicting behavioural commitment. These results provide further, but partial, support for the sport commitment model and also suggest that additional determinants and behavioural consequences be considered in future research.

  3. Distributive and Procedural Justice as Related to Satisfaction and Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Sarsfield-Baldwin, Linda J.

    Randomly selected employees from a Veterans Administration Medical Center (n=200) were asked to complete measures on distributive justice and procedural justice 4 weeks before their performance appraisal; and on job satisfaction, commitment, involvement, and self-reported performance feedback 4 weeks after their performance appraisals.…

  4. Beyond motivation: Initial validation of the commitment to sobriety scale.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire

    2014-02-01

    From an addiction treatment and recovery standpoint maladaptive motivational hierarchies lie at the core of the challenge in mobilizing salutary behavior change. Motivation has been conceptualized as dynamic, interactive and modifiable, as well as multidimensional. Measures of recovery motivation have been developed and validated, but are generally only modest and variable predictors of future behavior. A related, but potentially more potent, construct, is that of commitment to sobriety as it denotes a clearer re-ranking of motivational hierarchies such that the recovery task is now given a top priority potentially less susceptible to the risks associated with undulating future circumstance. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a novel commitment to sobriety scale (CSS). Results revealed a coherent, psychometrically valid, and reliable tool that outperformed an existing commitment to abstinence scale (ATAQ; J. Morgenstern, R.M. Frey, B.S. McCrady, E. Labouvie, & C.J. Neighbors, 1996) and a gold standard measure of motivation (SOCRATES; W.R. Miller & J.S. Tonigan, 1996). This study highlights commitment to sobriety as an important addiction construct. Researchers and theoreticians may find the CSS useful in helping to explain how individuals achieve recovery, and practitioners may find clinical utility in the CSS in helping identify patients in need of more intensive or alternative intervention.

  5. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  6. New Principals, Accountability, and Commitment in Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirrell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine first-year principals' sense-making about two potentially conflicting demands as they take over low-performing urban schools: the demand to exert control over their teachers' practice, and the need to build their teachers' trust, collegiality, and commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This study…

  7. Effects of Commitment and Psychological Centrality on Fathering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasley, Kay; Furtis, Ted G.; Skinner, Martie L.

    2002-01-01

    Identity theory model was tested with fathers (N=186) to assess whether commitment to the fathering role identity affected the psychological centrality of that role. Results showed that fathers who perceived that their wives evaluated them positively as fathers were more likely to report higher levels of involvement in child-related activities and…

  8. The Problem of Convergence and Commitment in Multigroup Evaluation Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausken, Chester A.

    This paper outlines a model for multigroup evaluation planning in a rural-education setting wherein the commitment to the structure necessary to evaluate a program is needed on the part of a research and development laboratory, the state departments of education, county supervisors, and the rural schools. To bridge the gap between basic research,…

  9. Play Context, Commitment, and Dating Violence: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Hernandez-Cabrera, Juan Andres

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a structural equation model to describe the effect of two groups of factors (type of commitment and play context) on the violence experienced during intimate partner conflict. After contrasting the model in adolescents and university students, we have confirmed that aggressive play and the simulation of jealousy and anger…

  10. Maybe I Do: Interpersonal Commitment and Premarital or Nonmarital Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Scott M.; Whitton, Sarah W.; Markman, Howard J.

    2004-01-01

    Explanations for the risks associated with premarital and nonmarital cohabitation (e.g., higher rates of breakup and divorce, lower relationship satisfaction, and greater risk for violent interaction) have focused on levels of conventionality, including attitudes about commitment to the institution of marriage. However, relatively little attention…

  11. Employee Absenteeism, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction: Another Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Abraham

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between work attitudes and voluntary and involuntary absences used data from 140 Israeli municipal clerks. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction were strongly related to duration of voluntary but not involuntary absences. Intention to quit was not significantly related to either type of absence. (SK)

  12. Employer Engagement: The Critical Role of Employee Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Julie; Blake, Joanne; Swallow, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a case study that identifies the practical issues and implications of employer engagement through course design, delivery and employee commitment in a higher education course delivered in the financial services sector. Design/methodology/approach: Using a case study the paper draws on the course…

  13. 24 CFR 599.107 - Required State and local commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Eligibility Requirements for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Required State and local commitments. 599.107 Section 599.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  14. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  15. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  16. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  17. 24 CFR 599.107 - Required State and local commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Eligibility Requirements for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Required State and local commitments. 599.107 Section 599.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  18. 24 CFR 599.509 - Modification of commitments and plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES RENEWAL COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 599... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Modification of commitments and plans. 599.509 Section 599.509 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  19. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) as a Career Counselling Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; McIlveen, Peter; Hamilton, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has potential to contribute to career counselling. In this paper, the theoretical tenets of ACT and a selection of its counselling techniques are overviewed along with a descriptive case vignette. There is limited empirical research into ACT's application in career counselling. Accordingly, a research agenda…

  20. 10 CFR 609.8 - Term sheets and conditional commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.8 Term sheets and conditional commitments. (a) DOE, after review and... preliminary credit rating or credit assessment, and information obtained as the result of meeting with the... meetings on the terms and conditions contained in the Term Sheet, including requests for clarifications...

  1. The Ethical Commitments of Academic Faculty in Psychiatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the commitment of faculty to ethics training in psychiatric education. Although psychiatry has insufficiently addressed the profession's need for ethics training in education, program directors acknowledge its critical importance, and its positive impact has been demonstrated. Additionally, residents often seek…

  2. 48 CFR 852.215-71 - Evaluation factor commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evaluation factor commitments. 852.215-71 Section 852.215-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  3. Preparing for Undergraduate Teaching: Competence, Collaboration, and Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Patricia S.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the qualifications of an ideal candidate for an undergraduate teaching position, such as competence, including linguistic, cultural and pedagogical skills; collaboration, or the ability to cooperate effectively with students, colleagues, and people from the local community; and commitment, i.e., a dedication to serving one's…

  4. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  5. 48 CFR 815.304-70 - Evaluation factor commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation factor... Evaluation factor commitments. (a) VA contracting officers shall: (1) Include provisions in negotiated... SDVOSBs; (2) Use past performance in meeting SDVOSB subcontracting goals as a non-price evaluation...

  6. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy with Juveniles Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newring, Kirk A. B.; Wheeler, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously discussed the application of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) with adults who have committed sexual offense behaviors (Newring & Wheeler, 2010). The present entry borrows heavily from the foundation presented in that chapter, and extends this approach to working with adolescents, youth, and juveniles with sexual offense…

  7. 19 CFR 206.16 - Industry adjustment plan and commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Industry adjustment plan and commitments. 206.16 Section 206.16 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND...

  8. 48 CFR 2901.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting... supervisor of the individual who made the unauthorized commitment shall prepare a corrective action plan to... training, or other appropriate action). The ratifying official may approve the corrective action plan....

  9. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 1501.602-3 Section 1501.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... are; (1) Ordering supplies or services by an individual without contracting authority; (2...; (iii) A statement of the delivery status of the supplies or services associated with the...

  10. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 1501.602-3 Section 1501.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... are; (1) Ordering supplies or services by an individual without contracting authority; (2...; (iii) A statement of the delivery status of the supplies or services associated with the...

  11. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unauthorized commitments. 1501.602-3 Section 1501.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... are; (1) Ordering supplies or services by an individual without contracting authority; (2...; (iii) A statement of the delivery status of the supplies or services associated with the...

  12. Working Smart: Turning Everyday Commitments into Scholarly Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Barbara S.; Heinrich, Kathleen T.

    2000-01-01

    Using Boyer's model of scholarship (teaching and learning, practice and engagement, integration, discovery), nursing faculty used a professional commitment to conduct a research project as an opportunity to teach graduate students and contribute to the nursing knowledge base. Their recommendations are to think scholarship, share the workload,…

  13. Effects of parental divorce on marital commitment and confidence.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2008-10-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce.

  14. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  15. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  16. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  17. 48 CFR 3401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ratification of unauthorized commitments. 3401.602-3 Section 3401.602-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development,...

  18. Brand Attachment to Specific Technology, Means Efficacy, and Organizational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Kevin V.

    2010-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature and examined the organizational commitment (dependent variable) impact of evangelistic marketing and training efforts. There was sufficient evidence from the practitioner press that many technology companies have adopted an evangelism marketing approach. This marketing method seeks to create attachments to…

  19. 19 CFR 206.16 - Industry adjustment plan and commitments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industry adjustment plan and commitments. 206.16 Section 206.16 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND...

  20. Personal Commitment, Support and Progress in Doctoral Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsuo, Miia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research on doctoral education has associated study progress with the student's own capabilities and faculty support. The purpose of this study is to investigate how students' personal commitment and various forms of support, as well as their complementary effects, explain progress in doctoral studies. Data were collected by a…