Science.gov

Sample records for non-destructive trace element

  1. Non-destructive trace element microanalysis of as-received cometary nucleus samples using synchrotron x ray fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    The Synchrotron X ray Fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be an excellent instrument for non-destructive trace element analyses of cometary nucleus samples. Trace element analyses of as-received cometary nucleus material will also be possible with this technique. Bulk analysis of relatively volatile elements will be important in establishing comet formation conditions. However, as demonstrated for meteorites, microanalyses of individual phases in their petrographic context are crucial in defining the histories of particular components in unequilibrated specimens. Perhaps most informative in comparing cometary material with meteorites will be the halogens and trace metals. In-situ, high spatial resolution microanalyses will be essential in establishing host phases for these elements and identifying terrestrial (collection/processing) overprints. The present SXRF microprobe is a simple, yet powerful, instrument in which specimens are excited with filtered, continuum synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. A refrigerated cell will be constructed to permit analyses at low temperatures. The cell will consist essentially of an air tight housing with a cold stage. Kapton windows will be used to allow the incident synchrotron beam to enter the cell and fluorescent x rays to exit it. The cell will be either under vacuum or continuous purge by ultrapure helium during analyses. Several other improvements of the NSLS microprobe will be made prior to the cometary nucleus sample return mission that will greatly enhance the sensitivity of the technique.

  2. Non-destructive Spectrometric Determination of Trace Element Concentration of Rubidium, Strontium, Yttrium Zirconium and Niobium in Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, C. T.

    1987-11-01

    A simple X-ray spectrometric method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the trace elements Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb in Chinese porcelains is described. The results of the analysis show that Jingdezhen porcelains from later Ming to the Republic period have concentrations of these elements lying within narrow ranges whereas modern (after World War II) porcelains, whether Jingdezhen or otherwise, have concentrations of one or more of these elements lying outside these ranges. This offers a simple nondestructive method of detecting modern fakes.

  3. Non-destructive monitoring of trace element levels in short-tailed albatrosses (Phoebastria albatrus) and black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) from Torishima Island, Japan using eggs and blood.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Tsurumi, Miyako; Sato, Fumio; Oka, Nariko

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in abandoned eggs of short-tailed albatrosses and abandoned eggs and blood of black-footed albatrosses from Torishima Island, Japan in 2002. Mercury concentration was highest among the toxic elements in egg content of both the two species. In some egg contents of black-footed albatrosses, Hg concentrations were higher than the threshold level that may cause decreased hatchability and aberrant nesting behavior in some avian species. Concentrations of Cd in egg content and Ba in egg content and shell increased with an increase in egg breadth/length ratio, whereas Hg in egg content showed an opposite trend in black-footed albatrosses. Since egg breadth/length ratio is known to increase with the age of mother bird, this result may imply that concentrations of these elements in eggs vary with age of mother bird. In blood of black-footed albatross chicks, concentration of Hg was highest among the toxic elements and the Hg concentration showed an increase in the later growth stages. In contrast, concentration of Sr in blood decreased with growth stage. Since the behaviour of Sr is similar to that of Ca in animals, it is conceivable that Sr was used along with Ca for the formation of bone.

  4. The effect of variation in phased array element performance for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE).

    PubMed

    Duxbury, David; Russell, Jonathan; Lowe, Michael

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the effects of phased array element performance on ultrasonic beam integrity. This investigation has been performed using an array beam model based on Huygens' principle to independently investigate the effects of element sensitivity and phase, and non-functioning elements via Monte Carlo simulation. The purpose of this work is to allow a new method of array calibration for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) to be adopted that focuses on probe integrity rather than beam integrity. This approach is better suited to component inspections that utilise Full Matrix Capture (FMC) to record data as the calibration routine is uncoupled from the beams that the array is required to produce. For this approach to be adopted specifications must be placed on element performance that guarantee beam quality without carrying out any beam forming. The principal result of this investigation is that the dominant outcome following variations in array element performance is the introduction of beam artefacts such as main beam broadening, raising of the noise floor of the ultrasonic field, and the enlargement or creation of side lobes. Specifications for practical allowable limits of element sensitivity, element phase, and the number of non-functioning elements have been suggested based on a minimum amplitude difference between beam artefacts and the main beam peak of 8 dB. Simulation at a number of centre frequencies has led to a recommendation that the product of transducer bandwidth and maximum phase error should be kept below 0.051 and 0.035 for focused and plane beams respectively. Element sensitivity should be within 50% of mean value of the aperture, and no more than 9% of the elements should be non-functioning.

  5. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  6. METAPHIX-1 non destructive post irradiation examinations in the irradiated elements cell at Phenix

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Laurent; Masson, M.; Garces, E.; Desjardins, S.; Fontaine, B.; Lacroix, B.; Martella, T.; Loubet, L.; Ohta, H.; Yokoo, T.; Ougier, M.; Glatz, J.P.

    2007-07-01

    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been developing minor actinide (MA) transmutation technology in homogeneous loading mode by use of metal fuel fast reactors in cooperation with Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Fast reactor metal fuel pins of Uranium- Plutonium-Zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) alloy containing 2 wt% MAs and 2 wt% rare earth elements (REs), 5 wt% MAs, and 5 wt% MAs and 5 wt% REs were irradiated in the PHENIX French fast reactor as METAPHIX experiments. In these METAPHIX experiments, three rigs each consisting of three metal fuel experimental pins and sixteen oxide fuel driver pins were irradiated. The target burnup of the three rigs is 2.4 at%, 7 at% and 11 at% which corresponds to 120, 360 and 600 equivalent full power days (EFPD) in terms of irradiation periods, respectively. The low burnup rig of 2.4 at%, METAPHIX-1, was discharged from the core in August 2004. After cooling, the non-destructive post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of the rig (visual examination, measurement of rig length and deformation) and of the metal fuel pins (visual examination, measurement of pin length and deformation, {gamma}-spectrometry and neutron radiography) were conducted in the Irradiated Elements Cell (IEC) at PHENIX. (authors)

  7. Non-destructive geochemical analysis and element mapping using bench-top μ-XRF: applications and uses for geoscience problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flude, Stephanie; Haschke, Michael; Tagle, Roald; Storey, Michael

    2013-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) has long been used to provide valuable geochemical analysis of bulk rock samples in geological studies. However, it is a destructive technique, requiring samples to be homogenised by grinding to a fine powder and formed into a compacted pellet, or fused glass disk and the resulting sample has to be completely flat for reliable analysis. Until recently, non-destructive, high spatial resolution µ- XRF analysis was possible only at specialised Synchrotron radiation facilities, where high excitation beam energies are possible and specialised X-ray focussing optical systems are available. Recently, a number of bench-top µ-XRF systems have become available, allowing easy, rapid and non-destructive geochemical analysis of various materials. We present a number of examples of how the new bench-top M4 Tornado µ-XRF system, developed by Bruker Nano, can be used to provide valuable geochemical information on geological samples. Both quantitative and qualitative (in the form of X-Ray area-maps) data can be quickly and easily acquired for a wide range of elements (as light as Na, using a vacuum), with minimal sample preparation, using an X-Ray spot size as low as 25 µm. Large specimens up to 30 cm and 5 kg in weight can be analysed due to the large sample chamber, allowing non-destructive characterisation of rare or valuable materials. This technique is particularly useful in characterising heterogeneous samples, such as drill cores, sedimentary and pyroclastic rocks containing a variety of clasts, lavas sourced from mixed and mingled magmas, mineralised samples and fossils. An obvious application is the ability to produce element maps or line-scans of minerals, allowing zoning of major and trace elements to be identified and thus informing on crystallisation histories. An application of particular interest to 40Ar/39Ar geochronologists is the ability to screen and assess the purity of mineral separates, or to characterise polished slabs for

  8. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-09-11

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

  9. Non-destructive elemental quantification of polymer-embedded thin films using laboratory based X-ray techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Havrilla, George J.; Usov, Igor O.; Obrey, Kimberly A.; Patterson, Brian M.

    2014-11-01

    Thin coatings are important for a variety of industries including energy (e.g., solar cells, batteries), consumer electronics (e.g., LCD displays, computer chips), and medical devices (e.g., implants). These coatings are typically highly uniform layers with thicknesses ranging from a monolayer up to several micrometers. Characterizing these highly uniform coatings for their thickness, elemental composition, and uniformity are all paramount, but obtaining these measurements can be more difficult when the layers are subsurface and must be interrogated non-destructively. The coupling of confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (confocal MXRF) and nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) together can make these measurements while meeting these sensitivity and resolution specifications necessary for characterizing thin films. Elemental composition, atomic percent, placement, and uniformity can be measured in three dimensions with this integrated approach. Confocal MXRF uses a pair of polycapillary optics to focus and collect X-rays from a material from a 3D spatially restricted confocal volume. Because of the spatial definition, individual layers (of differing composition) can be characterized based upon the elementally characteristic X-ray fluorescence collected for each element. Nano-scale X-ray computed tomography, in comparison, can image the layers at very high resolution (down to 50 nm) to precisely measure the embedded layer thickness. These two techniques must be used together if both the thickness and atomic density of a layer are unknown. This manuscript will demonstrate that it is possible to measure both the atomic percent of an embedded thin film layer and confirm its manufacturing quality. As a proof of principle, a 1.5 atomic percent, 2 μm-thick Ge layer embedded within polymer capsules, used for laser plasma experiments at the Omega Laser Facility and National Ignition Facility, are measured.

  10. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainieri, C.; Marra, A.; Rainieri, G. M.; Gargaro, D.; Pepe, M.; Fabbrocino, G.

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented.

  11. Novel application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) for the non-destructive micro-elemental analysis of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects.

    PubMed

    Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S; Lenehan, Claire E; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Paterson, David; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan

    2016-06-07

    This manuscript presents the first non-destructive synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence study of natural mineral pigments on Aboriginal Australian objects. Our results demonstrate the advantage of XFM (X-ray fluorescence microscopy) of Aboriginal Australian objects for optimum sensitivity, elemental analysis, micron-resolution mapping of pigment areas and the method also has the advantage of being non-destructive to the cultural heritage objects. Estimates of pigment thickness can be calculated. In addition, based on the elemental maps of the pigments, further conclusions can be drawn on the composition and mixtures and uses of natural mineral pigments and whether the objects were made using traditional or modern methods and materials. This manuscript highlights the results of this first application of XFM to investigate complex mineral pigments used on Aboriginal Australian objects.

  12. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  13. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  14. Trace elements in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  15. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.

    2017-01-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5–10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity. PMID:28102285

  16. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.

    2017-01-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5–10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity.

  17. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tremsin, Anton S; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S; Vogel, Sven C

    2017-01-19

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5-10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity.

  18. Confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis as a new tool for the non-destructive study of the elemental distributions in pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Mazel, Vincent; Reiche, Ina; Busignies, Virginies; Walter, Philippe; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2011-07-15

    Chemical imaging studies of pharmaceutical tablets are currently an important emerging field in the pharmaceutical industry. Finding the distribution of the different compounds inside the tablet is an important issue for production quality control but also for counterfeit detection. Most of the currently used techniques are limited to the study of the surface of the compacts, whereas the study of the bulk requires a time-consuming sample preparation. In this paper, we present the use of 3D micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis (3D μXRF) for the non-destructive study of pharmaceutical tablets. Based on two different examples, it was shown that it was possible to measure the distribution of several inorganic elements (Zn, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu) from the surface to a depth of several hundred microns under the surface. The X-ray absorption, depending on both matrix composition and energy, is one of the most critical factors of this analytical method while performing depth profiling or mapping. Therefore, an original method to correct the absorption, in order to accurately measure the true elemental distribution, was proposed. Moreover, by using the presence of titanium dioxide in a pharmaceutical coating, we proved that this technique is also suited to the non-destructive measurement of coating thickness.

  19. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    SciTech Connect

    Dahing, Lahasen Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

    2014-09-03

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} and 15×15×15 cm{sup 3} were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  20. Elemental X-ray mapping of agglutinated foraminifer tests: a non- destructive technique for determining compositional characteristics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Poag, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of agglutinated foraminiferal tests vary remarkably in response to local substrate characteristics, physiochemical properties of the water column and species- dependant selectivity of test components. We have employed a technique that combines a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer system to identify major and minor elemental constituents of agglutinated foraminiferal walls. As a sample is bombarded with a beam of high energy electrons, X-rays are generated that are characteristic of the elements present. As a result, X- ray density maps can be produced for each of several elements present in the tests of agglutinated foraminifers. -Authors

  1. Elemental X-ray mapping of agglutinated foraminifer tests: A non- destructive technique for determining compositional characteristics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Poag, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of agglutinated foraminiferal tests vary remarkably in response to local substrate characteristics, physiochemical properties of the water column and species- dependant selectivity of test components. We have employed a technique that combines a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer system to identify major and minor elemental constituents of agglutinated foraminiferal walls. As a sample is bombarded with a beam of high energy electrons, X-rays are generated that are characteristic of the elements present. As a result, X- ray density maps can be produced for each of several elements present in the tests of agglutinated foraminifers. 

  2. Integrated application of in situ non destructive techniques for the evaluation of the architectural elements of monumental structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Casula, Giuseppe; Cuccuru, Francesco; Ligas, Paola; Bianchi, Maria Giovanna; Marraccini, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The need to integrate different non invasive geophysical datasets for an effective diagnostic process of the stone materials of cultural heritage buildings is due to the complexity of the intrinsic characteristics of the different types of stones and of their degradation process. Consequently integration between different geophysical techniques is required for the characterization of stone building materials. In order to perform the diagnostic process by different non-invasive techniques thus interpreting in a realistic way the different geophysical parameters, it is necessary to link the petrophysical characteristics of stones with the geophysical ones. In this study the complementary application of three different non invasive techniques (terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), infrared thermography and ultrasonic surface and tomography measurements) was carried out to analyse the conservation state and quality of the carbonate building materials of three inner columns of the old precious church of San Lorenzo in the historical city center of Cagliari (Sardinia). In previous works (Casula et al., 2009; Fais et al., 2015), especially the integrated application of TLS and ultrasonic techniques has been demonstrated to represent a powerful tool in evaluating the quality of the stone building materials by solving or limiting the uncertainties typical of all indirect methods. Thanks to the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) technique it was possible to 3D model the investigated columns and their surface geometrical anomalies. The TLS measurements were complemented by several ultrasonic in situ and laboratory tests in the 24kHz - 54kHz range. The ultrasonic parameters, especially longitudinal and transversal velocities, allow to recover information on materials related with mechanical properties. A good correlation between TLS surface geometrical anomalies and the ultrasonic velocity ones is evident at the surface and in shallow parts of the investigated architectural elements

  3. Rapid and non-destructive analysis of metallic dental restorations using X-ray fluorescence spectra and light-element sampling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhashi, K.; Uo, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Watari, F.

    2012-12-01

    IntroductionRecently, allergic diseases caused by dental metals have been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate analytical methods for the metal restorations in the oral cavities of patients are required. The purpose of this study was to develop a non-destructive extraction method for dental alloys, along with a subsequent, rapid and accurate elemental analysis. Materials and methodSamples were obtained by polishing the surfaces of metal restorations using a dental rotating tool with disposable buffs and polishing pastes. As materials for the analysis, three dental alloys were used. To compare the sampling and analysis efficiencies, two buffs and seven pastes were used. After polishing the surface of a metal restoration, the buff was analyzed using X-ray scanning analytical microscopy (XSAM). ResultsThe efficiency of the analysis was judged based on the sampling rate achieved and the absence of disturbing elements in the background in fluorescence X-ray spectra. The best results were obtained for the combination of TexMet as a buff with diamond as a paste. This combination produced a good collection efficiency and a plain background in the fluorescence X-ray spectra, resulting in a high precision of the analysis.

  4. Assessment of trace element status.

    PubMed

    Delves, H T

    1985-08-01

    Biochemical and clinical investigations involving trace elements are made for the diagnosis of inherited or acquired deficiencies of essential trace elements and their treatment, to monitor the efficacy of the therapeutic administration of non-essential trace elements in order to achieve maximum clinical response with minimum toxicity, and for the early detection of excessive ingestion of non-essential toxic trace elements. The wide range of tests used to assess trace element status in these three areas of clinical importance is discussed with examples of essential and of toxic trace elements since therapeutic use of trace elements is discussed elsewhere in this issue. Particular attention is given to zinc, copper, selenium, lead and cadmium because the various tests used to assess the status of these elements encompass the principles of all currently available tests. Although trace element analysis of body fluids and tissues is the most useful and most commonly used method of assessment of trace element status, this is of limited value and no single test may be considered as ideal for any element. The provision of more detailed information from elemental analysis of cellular and subcellular fractions and of protein fractions from plasma leads inexorably to measurements of element-dependent enzymes, metalloproteins and of low molecular weight element-binding ligands. Even at this level of discrimination the choice of body tissue or tissue fluid for investigation is determined by the trace element and its principal metabolic targets.

  5. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used.

  6. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  7. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  8. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  9. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  10. Atlantis Non-destructive Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-29

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, the nose cap (foreground) removed from Atlantis (behind) waits to be shipped to the original manufacturing company, Vought in Ft. Worth, Texas, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, to undergo non-destructive testing such as CAT scan and thermography.

  11. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  12. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  13. Trace elements and bone health.

    PubMed

    Zofková, Ivana; Nemcikova, Petra; Matucha, Petr

    2013-08-01

    The importance of nutrition factors such as calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K for the integrity of the skeleton is well known. Moreover, bone health is positively influenced by certain elements (e.g., zinc, copper, fluorine, manganese, magnesium, iron and boron). Deficiency of these elements slows down the increase of bone mass in childhood and/or in adolescence and accelerates bone loss after menopause or in old age. Deterioration of bone quality increases the risk of fractures. Monitoring of homeostasis of the trace elements together with the measurement of bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism should be used to identify and treat patients at risk of non-traumatic fractures. Factors determining the effectivity of supplementation include dose, duration of treatment, serum concentrations, as well as interactions among individual elements. Here, we review the effect of the most important trace elements on the skeleton and evaluate their clinical importance.

  14. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  15. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter summarizes research progress in development of phytoremediation technologies. Some soils have become contaminated by trace elements enough to kill plants, inhibit soil organisms, and/or threaten wildlife, humans or the environment. Traditional remediation by dig and haul methods are v...

  16. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  17. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  18. Trace elements and rat pouchitis.

    PubMed

    Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Walas, Stanisław; Kościński, Tomasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Drews, Michał; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    The procedure of restorative proctocolectomy is associated with a complete removal of the colon and slight reduction of ileum length, which together can lead to systemic shortages of trace elements. Inflammatory changes in the pouch mucosa may also have some impact. However, there is no data on trace elements in pouchitis. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the effect of acute pouchitis on the status of selected trace elements in rats. Restorative proctocolectomy with the construction of intestinal J-pouch was performed in twenty-four Wistar rats. Three weeks after the surgery, pouchitis was induced. Eight untreated rats created the control group. Liver concentrations of selected micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Se) were measured in both groups six weeks later, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Liver concentrations of trace elements did not differ between the study and the control groups. However, copper, cobalt and selenium concentrations [μg/g] were statistically lower (p<0.02, p<0.05 and p<0.04, respectively) in rats with severe pouchitis (n=9) as compared with rats with mild pouchitis (n=7) [median (range): Cu--7.05 (3.02-14.57) vs 10.47 (5.16-14.97); Co--0.55 (0.37-0.96) vs 0.61 (0.52-0.86); Se--1.17 (0.69-1.54) vs 1.18 (0.29-1.91)]. In conclusion, it seems that acute pouchitis can lead to a significant deficiency of trace elements.

  19. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  20. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  1. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  2. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  3. Trace Elements and Chemotherapy Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Yang, Weiping; Long, Gang; Wei, Changyuan

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements might be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association between trace elements and efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with HCC. Cancer, cancer-adjacent, and cancer-free tissues were collected intraoperatively from 55 patients with HCC between January 2001 and April 2004 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Guangxi (China), a high HCC incidence area in the world. Trace element levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In vitro sensitivity of cancer cells to five chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and mitomycin) was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in cancer cells from 32 patients. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels had the same gradient distribution in different liver tissues: cancer < cancer-adjacent < cancer-free tissues. Copper levels of cancer tissues were negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.278, P = 0.027), while manganese and selenium levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.297, P = 0.015; r = -0.285, P = 0.018, respectively). Simple correlation analyses revealed that the carboplatin sensitivity was negatively correlated with selenium levels of cancer tissues, while doxorubicin sensitivity was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.497, P = 0.004). Partial correlation analyses showed that doxorubicin sensitivity only was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.450, P = 0.014). These results suggest that the selenium and manganese content in primary HCC tissues could influence the response of the HCC cells to carboplatin and doxorubicin. These preliminary results provide a basis for future studies.

  4. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  5. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  6. Trace elements of fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Navon, O.

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-seven fibrous diamonds from Kankan, Udachnaya, Diavik, DeBeers Pool and Koingnaas were analyzed for their trace element contents using the cellulose calibration LA-ICP-MS method; their major and volatile content were previously determined by EPMA and FTIR. This set of diamonds carries high-Mg carbonatitic, saline and low-Mg carbonatitic to silicic high-density fluid (HDFs) which represent the four end-members found in microinclusion-bearing diamonds. The trapped HDFs in all diamonds are highly enriched in incompatible elements typically reaching levels of a few thousand times the primitive mantle values. The majority of diamonds show similar patterns from Pr towards the more compatible elements, with moderate to high negative anomalies of Sr, Zr, Hf, Ti and Y. These anomalies are found in kimberlitic melts as well as in other metasomatic fluids in the lithospheric mantle. In the low-Mg carbonatitic to silicic HDFs and in the saline ones, two patterns are distinguished in the most incompatible elements (Cs-Ce). The first (designated "Table") has significantly higher Ba, U, Th and LREE compared to Nb, Ta and, in most cases, K, Rb and Cs. The second pattern ("Bench") is flatter with no significant anomalies in this range. The high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs do not show such defined patterns. Still, high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs from Kankan show higher depletion of the alkalis, and to a lesser extent Nb and Ta, compared with Udachnaya high-Mg HDFs. The present database is still limited, but "Table" patterns were found in the coat of a Kankan diamond that carries eclogitic inclusions in its core and in a Diavik diamond with peridotitic micro-mineral inclusions in its coat. Thus, the two patterns are probably not related to the peridotitic or eclogitic rocks that host the diamonds. "Table" and "Bench" patterns of the incompatible elements are found in HDFs of diverse major-element compositions (carbonatitic, silicic and saline). This suggests that the two patterns reflect

  7. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications.

  8. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary.

  9. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    DOEpatents

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  10. A comparison between finite element modeling and various thermographic non-destructive testing techniques for the quantification of the thermal integrity of macro-brush plasma facing components used in a tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Santosh P.; Pandya, Shwetang N.; Patil, Yashashri V.; Krishnan, Deepu S.; Murugesan, Menaka; Sharath, D.; Singh, K. Premjit; Khan, Md. Shoaib; Arafat, M.; Biju, N.; Khirwadkar, Samir S.; Govidarajan, Jagannathan; Venkatraman, B.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    The plasma facing components (PFCs) inside a tokamak are typically exposed to extremely high heat flux of the order of MW/m2. The brazing quality between the plasma facing materials (PFMs) and the heat sink will determine the structural integrity and hence the effective service life of these PFCs. Suitable non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for the pre-qualification of these components are thus essential to evaluate their structural integrity at various stages of their service life. Macro-brush type mockups of prototype PFCs with graphite as PFM have been inspected for their brazing quality using different active Infrared (IR)-thermographic NDT techniques. The results obtained from these techniques are compared and discussed. The brazing quality was quantified by establishing a comparison between the experimental results and the results from Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The percentage of contact between the PFM and the substrate was varied in FEA. FEA results when compared with experiments shows that tiles have different amounts of contact with the substrate ranging between 10% and 80%.

  11. A comparison between finite element modeling and various thermographic non-destructive testing techniques for the quantification of the thermal integrity of macro-brush plasma facing components used in a tokamak.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Santosh P; Pandya, Shwetang N; Patil, Yashashri V; Krishnan, Deepu S; Murugesan, Menaka; Sharath, D; Singh, K Premjit; Khan, Md Shoaib; Arafat, M; Biju, N; Khirwadkar, Samir S; Govidarajan, Jagannathan; Venkatraman, B; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    The plasma facing components (PFCs) inside a tokamak are typically exposed to extremely high heat flux of the order of MW/m(2). The brazing quality between the plasma facing materials (PFMs) and the heat sink will determine the structural integrity and hence the effective service life of these PFCs. Suitable non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for the pre-qualification of these components are thus essential to evaluate their structural integrity at various stages of their service life. Macro-brush type mockups of prototype PFCs with graphite as PFM have been inspected for their brazing quality using different active Infrared (IR)-thermographic NDT techniques. The results obtained from these techniques are compared and discussed. The brazing quality was quantified by establishing a comparison between the experimental results and the results from Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The percentage of contact between the PFM and the substrate was varied in FEA. FEA results when compared with experiments shows that tiles have different amounts of contact with the substrate ranging between 10% and 80%.

  12. Trace element analysis on speleothems using micro-XRF scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Dudashvilli, Alexey; Cheng, Hai; Wolff, Christian; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2015-04-01

    Non-destructive micro-XRF scanning is a well-established, accurate and efficient method for high-resolution geochemical analyses on finely laminated sediments, e.g. for distinguishing detrital and authigenic layers in lake sediments. To test this method's applicability on speleothems, micro-XRF scanning analyses were performed on finely polished speleothems using the EAGLE-III-XL micro-XRF scanner at GFZ Potsdam. This scanner can perform multi-element analyses over a predefined sampling profile at sampling rates between 20 and 250 micro m trace of samples no larger than 30 x 30 cm. We measured profiles on two late to mid Holocene stalagmites from caves of the Keklik and Uluu Too mountains near Osh (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) with a spot size of 53 micro m. We ran each profile at least twice to obtain replicate measurements of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr. The caves are situated in Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous limestone formations at the SE rim of the Fergana Basin. Both speleothems are characterized by distinct alternating light and darker colored laminae that also reveal strong variations of trace elements and potentially provide information concerning variations in dust load, soil development, vegetation, precipitation and infiltration. One speleothem shows elevated Cl and S contents during relatively dry periods associated with salt dust input, probably derived from the Aral Sea region. Identification of the dry periods is further supported by stable oxygen and carbon isotope data. The multi-proxy chemical analyses suggest that Holocene humidity variations in this region are linked to variable strength of the North Atlantic westerlies regime. However, further validation of element variations in speleothems based on host rock and soil chemistry, monitored drip water composition and local climatic variations are needed to improve climatic and of environmental interpretations.

  13. Trace elements in ocean ridge basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the trace elements found in ocean ridge basalts. General assumptions regarding melting behavior, trace element fractionation, and alteration effects are presented. Data on the trace elements are grouped according to refractory lithophile elements, refractory siderophile elements, and volatile metals. Variations in ocean ridge basalt chemistry are noted both for regional and temporal characteristics. Ocean ridge basalts are compared to other terrestrial basalts, such as those having La/Yb ratios greater than those of chondrites, and those having La/Yb ratios less than those of chondrites. It is found that (1) as compared to solar or chondrite ratios, ocean ridge basalts have low ratios of large, highly-charged elements to smaller less highly-charged elements, (2) ocean ridge basalts exhibit low ratios of volatile to nonvolatile elements, and (3) the transition metals Cr through Zn in ocean ridge basalts are not fractionated more than a factor of 2 or 3 from the chondritic abundance ratios.

  14. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  15. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  16. Rapid, non-destructive coral paleothermometry by synchrotron XR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, N.; Mehta, A.; Marks, R.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present advances in the use of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to recover climate signals from coral exoskeleton. Corals record sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and other environmental conditions in the density and composition of their exoskeletons; in particular, SST is reflected in both the Sr/Ca ratio and the annual density banding. Synchrotron XRF has previously been used to examine the fine-scaled variability of Sr concentrations in the exoskeleton structure, but has not yet yielded any long-term SST reconstructions. Modern XRF techniques allow the detection of sub-ppm trace element concentrations and appear ideally suited to long climate reconstructions, as they are non-destructive, high-resolution (250 um) and potentially quite rapid ( 40 years of sample in 24 hours of instrument time). The low Sr content of the coral and its low change in concentration require a high brightness synchrotron source to generate a high signal-to-background ratio. However, difficulties arise from the local heterogeneity of Sr that is unrelated to environmental conditions. These variations of biological origin in Sr concentrations often mask the smaller-amplitude, annual and interannual SST signals. The challenge is to normalize the local variability in order to extract the climate signal. Other techniques have normalized against Ca, but in XRF the Ca signal is sensitive to only the surface 50 um of material, whereas the Sr signal comes from 1mm, so the values are not comparable. Instead, we normalize against density as calculated from beam transmission. We also explore the use of Rb normalization to filter out collection artifacts. Both Sr and Rb show strong annual signals and interesting departures from the density signal. Finally, we pair the XRF results with δ18O measurements to recover a convincing record of SST variation. Although challenges remain, we believe that synchrotron XRF techniques hold considerable promise to rapidly and accurately recover

  17. Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veillon, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

  18. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  19. Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veillon, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

  20. Trace elements in Jamaican tobacco.

    PubMed

    Grant, C N; Lalor, G C; Vutchkov, M K

    2004-03-01

    The concentrations of 28 elements, in hand-made cigars, "rope" tobacco and freshly picked tobacco leaves from the parish of Manchester in central Jamaica, were compared with locally packaged and imported cigarettes and cigars. Except for chromium and vanadium, which are lower in the imported products, the elemental concentrations of all the brands sold in Jamaica are rather similar. The means for aluminium, cadmium, caesium, cerium, chromium, iron, thorium, uranium, vanadium and zinc for the Manchester material exceed the maximum values of the other tobaccos. The significant concentrations of heavy metals, and especially cadmium, which is about 50 times that of commercial cigarettes, reflect the known high concentrations in the soils in the region. This tobacco is not filtered and the smoke contains 50% of the cadmium. This, and the concentrations of radioactive elements, may indicate an additional health risk compared with commercial cigarettes. A study of three samples of marijuana indicates a similar level of risk from heavy metals.

  1. Investigation of trace element content of cheese.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli Favretto, L

    1990-01-01

    Nine trace elements (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined in cheese by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomization in a graphite tube, using the ashing procedure. Associations among mineral constituents were studied by means of principal component analysis, which allows determination of interdependences among trace elements in foods. A test for normality was used to investigate monovariate distributions, in order to estimate the symmetry of data vector. The correlation matrix was used as a starting matrix for principal component analysis; nine variables were reduced to four principal components. The clusters of elements appear to be determined by their origin.

  2. Minerals and trace elements in milk.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A

    1992-01-01

    The nutritional roles, requirements, and metabolism and the quantitative relationship between dietary intakes and health for a number of the minerals and trace elements have been more clearly defined in recent years, but there are still considerable deficiencies in our understanding of these issues, e.g., the significance of calcium in the etiology and treatment of osteoporosis and hypertension. Reliable information is now available on the content, and the principal factors affecting it, of most of the minerals and trace elements in human and cow's milks. However, for some of the trace elements, there is still a wide variation in reported values in the literature, which is due, at least in part, to analytical difficulties. The contribution of cow milk and milk products to the diet in Western countries is significant for sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and iodine. Iodine is the only trace element for which there has been any suggestion of excessive amounts in cow milk. However, there is evidence of a decline in milk iodine concentrations in the United States in recent years, although the situation in other countries less clear. Breast milk usually has adequate mineral and trace element contents for feeding full-term infants, with the exceptions of fluoride, for which supplementation of infants is recommended, and of selenium in some countries, such as Finland and New Zealand, where maternal intakes are low. However, breast milk selenium contents have increased in these countries in recent years due to increased maternal selenium intakes. The concentrations of minerals and trace elements in infant formulas for full-term infants are generally higher than in human milk, and all appear to be more than adequate, with the possible exception of selenium, which may need to be increased in some formulas. Considerable changes in the mineral and trace element contents of formulas have been instituted in recent years in the light of improved knowledge of

  3. [Trace elements maintaining the vital functions].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yasuaki

    2016-07-01

    In a healthy condition, trace elements constituting the living body are regulated and maintained their balance of each other and their range of physiological optimum concentration in order to maintain the normal vital functions. When the optimum conditions of their balance and their homeostasis, however, are broken down by deficiency or excess of certain trace element, an excess accumulation or deficiency of specified element is induced and it follows that peculiar disease is caused according to function of each specified element. Generally, the disturbance of major elements such as O, C, H, N, Ca, P will induce a nutrition lesion and electrolytic abnormality, and the disturbance of 10 trace elements such as Fe, F, Si, Zn, Sr, Rb, Br, Pb, Mn, Cu being at ppm order and 14 ultra-trace elements such as Al, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Se, I, Mo, Ni, B, Cr, As, Co, V being at ppb order will give rise to functional disorder of enzyme and physiological active substance in living body.

  4. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references.

  5. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  6. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  7. Non-Destructive State Machine Reverse Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jessica L.

    2013-10-10

    Most of the integrated circuits (ICs) that are in electronic systems today are based on state machines. We are taking advantage of this to develop a hardware reverse engineering method that discovers the IC’s underlying state machine, rather than its transistors and gates. While there are other methods for destructively reverse engineering ICs or for non-destructively characterizing ICs, our method offers a fast and accurate analysis while remaining non-destructive. To do this, we present an intelligent brute-force method of exploring the logic of the IC using only the input and outputs designed into the IC - the I/O pins. From this exploration, we can apply a folding algorithm to discover the designed state machine.

  8. Trace elements in magnetite as petrogenetic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges; Méric, Julien; Boutroy, Emilie; Potvin-Doucet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the distribution of 25 trace elements in magnetite (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sn, Hf, Ta, W, and Pb), using laser ablation ICP-MS and electron microprobe, from a variety of magmatic and hydrothermal ore-forming environments and compared them with data from the literature. We propose a new multielement diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust, designed to emphasize the partitioning behavior of trace elements between magnetite, the melt/fluid, and co-crystallizing phases. The normalized pattern of magnetite reflects the composition of the melt/fluid, which in both magmatic and hydrothermal systems varies with temperature. Thus, it is possible to distinguish magnetite formed at different degrees of crystal fractionation in both silicate and sulfide melts. The crystallization of ilmenite or sulfide before magnetite is recorded as a marked depletion in Ti or Cu, respectively. The chemical signature of hydrothermal magnetite is distinct being depleted in elements that are relatively immobile during alteration and commonly enriched in elements that are highly incompatible into magnetite (e.g., Si and Ca). Magnetite formed from low-temperature fluids has the lowest overall abundance of trace elements due to their lower solubility. Chemical zonation of magnetite is rare but occurs in some hydrothermal deposits where laser mapping reveals oscillatory zoning, which records the changing conditions and composition of the fluid during magnetite growth. This new way of plotting all 25 trace elements on 1 diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust and elements in order of compatibility into magnetite, provides a tool to help understand the processes that control partitioning of a full suit of trace elements in magnetite and aid discrimination of magnetite formed in different environments. It has applications in both petrogenetic and provenance studies, such as in the exploration of ore deposits and in

  9. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aerospace Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Master of Science in Materials Science Jeremy D. Johnson, BS Captain, USAF March 2009 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...non-destructive material evaluation (NDE) were used to inspect various forms of damage commonly found in aerospace fiberglass composites: voids...ultrasound, and flash IR thermography were analyzed for the detection of defects. Test results and analysis of each NDE method’s capabilities

  10. Geochemical environments, trace elements, and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masironi, R.; Miesch, A. T.; Crawford, M. D.; Hamilton, E. I.

    1972-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are often found to be associated with certain physicochemical characteristics of the environment—namely, the hardness of the water and the types of rock and soil underlying the area. Areas supplied with soft water usually have higher cardiovascular death rates than do areas supplied with hard water. Evidence linking cardiovascular diseases with the geochemistry of rocks and soils is more limited. The nature of these associations is still speculative but it is possible that certain trace elements are involved, some being beneficial and others harmful. Further epidemiological studies to identify these various trace elements are desirable. PMID:4539410

  11. Trace elements in marine ostracodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Baker, Paul A.

    Extending the work of Cadot, Kaesler, De Deckker, Chivas, and Corrège, we have measured the elemental chemistry of shells of marine ostracodes to evaluate the usefulness of ostracode shell chemistry as a paleoenvironmental proxy. Our work has focused primarily on Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Na/Ca ratios of two common genera: deep-sea genus Krithe and shallow marine/estuarine genus Loxoconcha. We evaluated in vivo effects including genus, species, gender, ontogeny, shell size, intra-shell heterogeneity (Mg), water temperature, and salinity, and postmortem diagenetic effects including partial dissolution, recrystallization, and shell surface contamination. Analysis of modern (core-top), fossil, and laboratory-raised specimens across a wide range of temperature and salinity conditions confirms earlier work indicating that Krithe and Loxoconcha Mg/Ca ratios are dominantly controlled by water temperature. Sr/Ca and Na/Ca ratios co-vary with temperature in core-top Krithe, but not in cultured Loxoconcha suggesting that the Krithe Sr/Ca and Na/Ca correlation with temperature may be related to another variable that broadly co-varies with temperature. Phylogenetic and ontogenetic effects are also indicated, including different Mg-thermodependence and intra-shell Mg distribution between Krithe and Loxoconcha. Inter-specific effects are suggested for two species of Krithe. Magnesium uptake in eldest juvenile shells seems to be identical to that of adult shells, thus greatly increasing the amount of shell material available for paleoenvironmental studies. No salinity effects were observed. Shell Na/Ca ratios showed a dramatic decrease with increasing dissolution (natural and artificial) in waters that are undersaturated with respect to calcite, whereas Mg/Ca ratios displayed a minor decrease and Sr/Ca ratios showed no change. Of the ratios studied, Mg/Ca offers the most promise for Quaternary marine studies as a paleothermometer. Further calibration studies are needed to better

  12. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  13. Phytomanagement of trace elements in soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological trace elements (TEs) occur at minor concentrations (< 1000 mg/kg) in organisms, yet they may have a major effect on life, both as essential nutrients and environmental contaminants. Excess consumption of and exposure to TEs has a detrimental effect on humans. Human activities such as mini...

  14. Trace Elements: The Little Things that Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines recent findings regarding the importance of trace elements to good health. Copper, chromium, and zinc are discussed. Described also are multi-disciplinary experiments in progress at the Human Nutrition Laboratory, a federal facility in Grand Forks, North Dakota. (CS)

  15. Trace Elements: The Little Things that Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines recent findings regarding the importance of trace elements to good health. Copper, chromium, and zinc are discussed. Described also are multi-disciplinary experiments in progress at the Human Nutrition Laboratory, a federal facility in Grand Forks, North Dakota. (CS)

  16. The lithophile trace elements in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Jambon, A.; Bollinger, C.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the abundances of a selected set of lithophile trace elements (namely REEs, Y, Rb, Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, Nb, Th, U) in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC-13 EH and 11 EL). EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is observed and suggests a mobility of many of the elements studied during the history of these rocks. For example, EL6 chondrites exhibit light-REE and Nb depletions, negative Eu anomalies, and positive Y anomalies. More important trace element fractionations are observed in metamorphosed EH like St Marks (Rb depletion), LAP 02225 (Rb, Nb, Zr, Eu, light REE depletions) and Galim (b), which displays large Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb and light REE depletions. Leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the contributions of sulfides in the whole rock budgets. These phases control not only the REE budget, but also important fractions of the other elements we studied. These fractions strongly depend on the type of the rock (EH or EL, and metamorphic grade). For many elements, the sulfide contributions increase with the metamorphic grades. The trace element abundances of silicate residues are extremely variable. Negative Sm and Yb anomalies are observed in EL3 and EH3 residues, and are certainly the results of early nebular processes. Such anomalies are lacking in residues obtained with most metamorphosed EC, underlining the importance of trace element redistributions during metamorphism. In addition, EL6 residues display distinctive positive Y anomalies that could be potentially ascribed to a less chalcophile behavior than Ho in the conditions that prevailed during EL metamorphism. EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is obtained and indicates undeniably a mobility of many of the elements studied during the complex thermal history

  17. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  18. Rapid screening of heavy metals and trace elements in environmental samples using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Jacqueline Q.; Rogers, Christian; Han, Fengxiang X.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    With industrialization, great amounts of trace elements and heavy metals have been excavated and released on the surface of the earth and dissipated into the environments. Rapid screening technology for detecting major and trace elements as well as heavy metals in variety of environmental samples is most desired. The objectives of this study were to determine the detection limits, accuracy, repeatability and efficiency of a X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Niton XRF analyzer) in comparison with the traditional analytical methods, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-MS) in screening of major and trace elements of environmental samples including estuary soils and sediments, contaminated soils, and biological samples. XRF is a fast and non-destructive method in measuring the total concentration of multi--elements simultaneously. Contrary to ICP-OES and ICP-MS, XRF analyzer is characterized by the limited preparation required for solid samples, non-destructive analysis, increased total speed and high throughout, the decreased production of hazardous waste and the low running costs as well as multi-elemental determination and portability in the fields. The current comparative study demonstrates that XRF is a good rapid non-destructive method for contaminated soils, sediments and biological samples containing higher concentrations of major and trace elements. Unfortunately, XRF does not have sensitive detection limits of most major and trace elements as ICP-OES or ICP-MS but it may serve as a rapid screening tool for locating hot spots of uncontaminated field soils and sediments. PMID:25861136

  19. Osteoporosis and trace elements--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Boivin, Georges; Andersen, Ole

    2012-06-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified. Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As.

  1. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  2. [Re-evaluation of the fundamentals of trace elements].

    PubMed

    Himeno, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    The roles of trace elements have been extensively studied for decades. However, recent advances in both molecular and epidemiological studies on trace elements have provided new information and concepts on the actions of trace elements. Some of our fundamental knowledge on the roles of trace elements based on classical data should be replaced by new concept based on new findings. This series of "Re-evaluation of the Fundamentals of Trace Elements" aims to provide new fundamentals on trace elements by reviewing rapidly advancing knowledge in this study area. The first article is a critical review on the role of chromium in human nutrition.

  3. Accumulation of trace elements in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from Pangnirtung in the Baffin Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Nomura, Kumiko; Kunito, Takashi; Anan, Yasumi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen trace elements were determined in liver, muscle, kidney, gonads, and hair of 18 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from Pangnirtung in the Baffin Island, Canada. Concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Ag, and Hg in the liver, Co, Cd, and Tl in the kidney, and Ba and Pb in the hair were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Significant positive correlations between Hg concentrations in the hair, and liver, kidney and testis imply usefulness of the hair sample for non-destructive monitoring of Hg in the harp seals. It is suggested that whereas Hg preferentially accumulates in the liver, the accumulation in other tissues is induced at higher hepatic Hg levels. In contrast, Se may not be accumulated in other tissues compared with the liver even at higher hepatic Hg levels because of the presence of excess Se for Hg detoxification in other tissues.

  4. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    PubMed

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, P<0.001), but higher Fe (1.3 (0.4, 4.7) vs 1.1 (0.5, 8.4)μg/mL, P=0.003) and Se (85.7 (43.0, 256.7) vs 77.8 (24.3, 143.8)ng/mL, P=0.002) values compared with elderly controls. The logistic regression analysis identified the combination of Cu and Se as significant predictor variables associated with successful aging (P=0.001), while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed that Cu and Se (either alone or in combination) were independent variables associated with healthy aging. An 'improved' trace element profile (reduced Cu and elevated Se, which are involved in key physiological processes) could play a role in the resistance to disease showed by centenarian 'dodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings.

  5. The Role of Trace Elements in Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Yaşar, Mehmet; Şahin, Mehmet İlhan; Karakükçü, Çiğdem; Güneri, Erhan; Doğan, Murat; Sağıt, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of three trace elements, namely, zinc, copper, and lead, in tinnitus by analyzing the serum level of copper and lead and both the serum and tissue level of zinc. Eighty patients, who applied to outpatient otolaryngology clinic with the complaints of having tinnitus, and 28 healthy volunteers were included. High-frequency audiometry was performed, and participants who had hearing loss according to the pure tone average were excluded; tinnitus frequency and loudness were determined and tinnitus reaction questionnaire scores were obtained from the patients. Of all the participants, serum zinc, copper, and lead values were measured; moreover, zinc levels were examined in hair samples. The levels of trace elements were compared between tinnitus and control groups. The level of copper was found to be significantly lower in the tinnitus group (p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the levels of zinc, neither in serum nor in hair, and lead in serum (p > 0.05). The lack of trace elements, especially that of "zinc," have been doubted for the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus in the literature; however, we only found copper levels to be low in patients having tinnitus.

  6. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  7. Trace element contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, J C

    2000-01-01

    Data concerning trace element concentrations in both abiotic and biotic components of the Antarctic ecosystems are summarized here to be used as a first background database for pollution detection. Antarctic ancient ice and snow cores have been used to assess past and present-day changes in global atmospheric levels of certain trace elements. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg in the Antarctic tropospheric cell have varied according to glacial and interglacial periods before humans began to contaminate the atmosphere with these metals. Based on data of Pb concentrations in the Antarctic ancient ice cores and samples of recent snow, most of the Pb in Antarctica is anthropogenic. Moreover, this metal has decreased in recent years as a consequence of the reduced use of leaded gasoline in countries of the Southern Hemisphere. Reliable experimental and field data have indicated, however, that human activity in Antarctica contributes significantly to increasing atmospheric Pb levels in this continent, whereas the environmental impact of other metals such as Cd, Zn, or Hg is restricted to the area a few hundreds of meters about the anthropogenic source. Trace element concentrations in Antarctic abiotic matrixes are generally at ultratrace levels, challenging analytical detection limits and increasing the risk of unwanted contamination. Pb and Hg concentrations in Antarctic snow, surficial soil, air, and marine sediment have been considered as the lowest concentrations ever reported. Conversely, concentrations in Antarctic biota, are comparable to those from polar and temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere, in particular Cd and Hg. Environmental and biological factors favoring a greater metal accumulation by Antarctic biota are discussed. Growth rate of the organisms and detoxification mechanisms (e.g., metallothioneins, molting cycles) are largely affected by the extreme environmental conditions in Antarctica (water supply, temperature regimen, light availability) that

  8. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  9. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  11. Trace Elements and Endometriosis: The ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Anna Z.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Chen, Zhen; Peterson, C. Matthew; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Croughan, Mary S.; Sun, Liping; Hediger, Mary L.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Varner, Michael W.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been limited study of trace elements and endometriosis. Using a matched cohort design, 473 women aged 18–44 years were recruited into an operative cohort, along with 131 similarly-aged women recruited into a population cohort. Endometriosis was defined as surgically visualized disease in the operative cohort, and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed disease in the population cohort. Twenty trace elements in urine and three in blood were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds (aOR) of endometriosis diagnosis for each element by cohort. No association was observed between any element and endometriosis in the population cohort. In the operative cohort, blood cadmium was associated with a reduced odds of diagnosis (aOR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.98), while urinary chromium and copper reflected an increased odds (aOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.19; aOR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 5.64, respectively). The varied associations underscore the need for continued research. PMID:23892002

  12. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p < 0.001 was verified. The proteinate sources of OTMs were consistently and significantly less inhibitory than the majority of the other sources, p < 0.05. This was verified for Escherichia coli and Peniophora lycii phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  13. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  14. [Trace elements deficiency in children receiving nutritional management].

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouji

    2016-07-01

    The trace elements is very important in growth of children, especially receiving nutritional management, including parenteral or enteral nutrition. Therefore, clinicians treating children should recognize regarding both the function and deficiency of trace elements. In this article, in nutritional management of children, the basic and recent knowledge was described regarding the function of some important trace elements, including zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. In addition, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments in each trace element deficiency were also described.

  15. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  16. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  17. Trace element abnormalities in chronic uremia

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, W.R.; Alfrey, A.C.; Craswell, P.W.; Crouch, C.A.; Ibels, L.S.; Kubo, H.; Nunnelley, L.L.; Rudolph, H.

    1982-03-01

    We studied the elemental composition of autopsy tissue samples to characterize the trace element changes induced in various human tissues by uremia. Samples from the United States and Australia, including those from 120 uremic patients who had been on dialysis, and 64 control subjects, were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence. Tissues analyzed were aorta, bone, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen; elements measured included potassium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin, and uranium. Uremic abnormalities that were statistically very significant were found, including increases of calcium, strontium, molybdenum, cadmium, and tin and decreases of potassium and rubidium. The distributions of iron, copper, and zinc are altered. We conclude that these abnormalities are primarily the result of the uremia and that, generally, they are neither greatly moderated nor exacerbated by the dialysis procedure.

  18. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-04-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation ( r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease ( r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients.

  19. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  20. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS.

    PubMed

    Ashida, A

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a possibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  1. Trace elements in obese Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Tascilar, Mehmet Emre; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga; Abaci, Ayhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Aykut, Osman

    2011-10-01

    The quality of the diet of obese children is poor. Eating habits may alter micronutrient status in obese patients. In this study, we determined the serum levels of selenium, zinc, vanadium, molybdenum, iron, copper, beryllium, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, silver, barium, aluminum, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and lead in obese Turkish children. Thirty-four obese and 33 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum vanadium and cobalt levels of obese children were significantly lower than those of the control group (0.244 ± 0.0179 vs. 0.261 ± 0.012 μg/l, p < 0.001, and 0.14 ± 0.13 vs. 0.24 ± 0.15 μg/l, p = 0.011, respectively). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the other serum trace element levels. In conclusion, there may be alterations in the serum levels of trace elements in obese children and these alterations may have a role in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  2. Trace element accumulation in aquatic plants: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ganje, T.J.; Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Trace elements in sediments and its overlying waters are important constituents of an aquatic plant ecosystem. This review was undertaken to evaluate trace element accumulation in aquatic plants and ascertain to what extent sediment and its overlying waters play in trace element accumulation by aquatic plant species. Aquatic vascular plants tend to accumulate trace elements in relation to the trace element concentration of the water body and sediment in which they are grown and the extent of exposure to the water body. Trace element composition of bryophytes and algae is also closely related to composition of their aquatic environment. It is increasingly apparent that sediments and overlying waters alter the bioavailability of trace elements to aquatic plants in both natural and artificial water bodies, particularly where industrial and agricultural waters are discharged into waterways.

  3. Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Garnet Performed by Electron Microprobe and MicroPIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, A.; Cossio, R.; Mazzoli, C.; Olmi, F.; Vaggelli, G.

    2003-12-01

    The chemical composition of rock-forming minerals reflects their crystallisation history and provides information on the temperature and pressure conditions during their formation. Among metamorphic minerals, garnet is one of the most commonly studied in metamorphic petrology because a chemical zoning is often observed in porphyroblasts that potentially records the changes in the reaction history of the rock. In the past, only major element composition could be determined by non-destructive analytical procedure. However, at high temperature major element growth zoning may be significantly modified by intra-crystalline diffusion. Consequently, the study of trace elements distribution, which may be less susceptible to diffusional modification, becomes of fundamental importance. In this regard, an inverse correlation between yttrium concentration in garnet and metamorphic grade has been recently proposed for pelitic rocks (Pyle & Spear, 2000). This coupling is of great advantage as it may be used to calibrate new geothermometers based on exchange equilibria involving trace elements in garnet In the present paper, a micro-beam Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analytical technique and a WDS electron microprobe (EPMA), were been applied to a specific geological problem particularly affected by the limitations of other techniques. The collected samples come from meta-pelitic samples belonging to the tectonic unit of Monte Rosa Nappe (Western Alps). Selected garnet crystals were analysed for major (Si, Al, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe) and trace elements. The former were analysed by EPMA and the latter by micro-PIXE. The considered garnet crystals show well-defined compositional zoning, characterised by a smooth and concentric variation of the selected elements from core to rim. As regards the trace elements distribution, the two-dimensional X-ray maps display a strong Y enrichment in the core, followed by a flat pattern at the inner and outer rim. Y concentration spreads over

  4. Trace Element Chemistry in Urban Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhana, B.; Husain, L.

    2006-12-01

    Unlike in the United States, the concentration of trace elements in urban air is still high enough in South Asian cities to study the impact of trace elements on climate and human health. Hence, continuous sampling of PM2.5 (particulate matter of <2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter)was carried out using low volume sampler in winter (2005-2006) in Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, which is highly impacted by urban and agricultural emissions and has remained unexplored in terms of atmospheric chemistry. Aerosols collected on this campaign are likely to carry the signatures of emissions from Afghanistan, North and Central Pakistan, North India in addition to the local pollution sources. During sampling from December 2005 to January 2006, it was possible to collect several samples during brief fog episodes. Samples were analyzed for 25 elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High pollutant concentrations were observed throughout the study, for instance, Cr concentrations up to 1.4 μgm-3, As, 135 ngm-3, Cd, 93 ngm-3, Sn, 988 ngm-3 and Sb, 157 ngm-3. Pb and Zn concentrations respectively up to 12 and 48 μgm-3 were observed. Calculation of enrichment factor and crustal correction illustrate the attribution of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb to non-crustal sources. Air parcel back trajectories, interelemental relationships and meteorological observations have been used to explain the sources and the impacts of fog chemistry and mixing heights on atmospheric processing of trace elements in PM2.5. Atmospheric stagnation appeared to be one of factors causing episodic high concentrations. Crustal correction and interelemental relationships apparently suggest the emissions from coal and oil combustion, industrial processes, building construction sites and biomass burning as the prime role players in the atmospheric pollution in

  5. Incompatible Trace Element Abundances in Hawaiian Olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Huang, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of trace elements partitioning between olivine and silicate melt is clouded by large variations in values of partition coefficients presented in the literature. In general, partition coefficients from phenocryst-matrix results are higher than those from experimental equilibration and in-situ measurements (such as LA-ICP-MS and Ion-probe) (Blard and Farley, 2008; Lee et al., 2007). This discrepancy is possibly caused by the presence of melt or micromineral inclusions in the analyzed phenocrysts, or contamination of grain boundaries by enriched glasses or accessory phases or uranium pick up from alteration of olivines. To further investigate why analysis of natural phenocrysts usually results in relative high apparent D’s for incompatible trace elements, six aliquots of olivine grains from a single sediment sample of Waimea river watershed, on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii, were analyzed by solution ICP-MS at Harvard University for trace element concentrations. Two aliquots of olivines were leached in 1% oxalic acid for 45-60 min at 90 OC before dissolution. Leached and unleached olivines mostly show positive linear correlations in plots of incompatible trace elements versus La, which possibly indicates mixing lines between olivine and one end-member with higher incompatible element concentration (possibly melt inclusion). Assuming La concentration in olivine is zero, we estimate concentration of other incompatible elements in olivines using intercepts of these mixing lines. We obtain that U and Th concentration in the olivines to be about 1 ppb and 0.1 ppb respectively, corresponding to apparent DUol/melt and DThol/melt of 0.003 and 0.0001 if host lave has U of 0.3 ppm and Th of 1ppm (Gayer et al.,2008). Recently, helium isotopic measurements were made in these olivines (Gayer et al., 2008) and the results yield a basin-wide average erosion rate of 0.056 mma-1 for Waimea river watershed. Gayer et al. (2008) argued that

  6. Non-destructive analysis of didymium and praseodymium molybdate crystals using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, C. K.; Joseph, Daisy; Pandita, Sanjay; Kotru, P. N.

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of didymium (Di) and praseodymium molybdate crystals were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The assigned empirical chemical formulae of the composites were tested and verified by the EDXRF technique by estimating experimental major elemental concentration ratios. On the Basis of these ratios, the established formulae for some of the composite materials have been verified and suggestions made for their refinement. Non-destructive technique used in this analysis enables to retain the original crystal samples and makes rapid simultaneous scan of major elements such as La, Pr, Ned and Mo as well as impurities such as Ce. Absence of samarium(Sm) in the spectrum during analysis of didymium molybdate crystals indicated an incomplete growth of mixed rare earth single crystal. These crystals (e.g.,Di) are shown to be of modified stoichiometry with Ce as trace impurity.

  7. Quasi ?non-destructive? laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry fingerprinting of sapphires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillong, M.; Günther, D.

    2001-07-01

    A homogenized 193 nm excimer laser with a flat-top beam profile was used to study the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for 'quasi' non-destructive fingerprinting and sourcing of sapphires from different locations. Sapphires contain 97-99% of Al 2O 3 (corundum), with the remainder composed of several trace elements, which can be used to distinguish the origin of these gemstones. The ablation behavior of sapphires, as well as the minimum quantity of sample removal that is required to determine these trace elements, was investigated. The optimum ablation conditions were a fluency of 6 J cm -2, a crater diameter of 120 μm, and a laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. The optimum time for the ablation was determined to be 2 s, equivalent to 20 laser pulses. The mean sample removal was 60 nm per pulse (approx. 3 ng per pulse). This allowed satisfactory trace element determination, and was found to cause the minimum amount of damage, while allowing for the fingerprinting of sapphires. More than 40 isotopes were measured using different spatial resolutions (20-120 μm) and eight elements were reproducibly detected in 25 sapphire samples from five different locations. The reproducibility of the trace element distribution is limited by the heterogeneity of the sample. The mean of five or more replicate analyses per sample was used. Calibration was carried out using NIST 612 glass reference material as external standard. The linear dynamic range of the ICP-MS (nine orders of magnitude) allowed the use of Al, the major element in sapphire, as an internal standard. The limits of detection for most of the light elements were in the μg g -1 range and were better for heavier elements (mass >85), being in the 0.1 μg g -1 range. The accuracy of the determinations was demonstrated by comparison with XRF analyses of the same set of samples. Using the quantitative analyses obtained using LA-ICP-MS, natural sapphires from five different origins were statistically classified using ternary plots and

  8. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  9. Non destructive testing of soft body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhise, Karan

    Pristine bullet proof vests are extremely effective at halting pre-determined projectile threats and have saved over 3000 lives. However, the effectiveness of these vests to halt a bullet is seen to decrease over time.Owing to the importance of bullet proof vests over a period of time, tests to determine their effectiveness have been carried out on every batch of vests at the time of inception and at certain time intervals by shooting a bullet through them. A few vests from every batch are picked up and shot at to check for bullet penetration during this process while these results are extrapolated onto the other vests from the batch.One of the main issues with this method is the fact that testing a few jackets among a large set of jackets does not guarantee the safety of every jacket in the entire batch.Further the jackets that are shot-at have the possibility of undergoing substantial damage during the process thus compromising its safety rendering them unsafe for future use.As the vest penetration phenomenon is extremely complex too, there arose a need for a better testing procedure that could not only help ensure more safety, but also save time and money.The new testing procedure proposed a non-destructive evaluation of the jackets that would solve the issues previous faced in testing the vests. This would lead to the building of a portable set up which could be carried to any location to test jackets in a matter of minutes thus saving time and money.

  10. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  11. Trace element geochemistry of marine biogenic particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, R.W.

    1981-02-01

    Plankton samples were investigated for physical and chemical leaching decomposition to identify the major and trace element composition of particulate carrier phases. The identification of trace element/major element ratios in the biogenic materials was emphasized. The majority of the trace elements in the samples were directly associated with the nonskeletal organic phases of the plankton. Calcium carbonate and opal were not significant carriers for any of the trace elements studied. A refractory phase containing Al and Fe in terrigenous ratios was present in all samples, even from the more remote marine locations.

  12. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, S.; Ranz, J.; Fernández, R.; Albert, V.; Fuente, J. V.; Hernández, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a "pass or fail" evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project "CUREND". This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  14. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  15. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  16. Meteoritic trace element toxification and the terminal Mesozoic mass extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.M.; Erickson, D.J. III

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of trace element fluxes to the earth associated with 5 and 10 kilometer diameter Cl chondrites and iron meteorites are presented. The data indicate that the masses of certain trace elements contained in the bolide, such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cu, are as large as or larger than the world ocean burden. The authors believe that this pulse of trace elements was of sufficient magnitude to perturb the biogeochemical cycles operative 65 million years ago, a probably time of meteorite impact. Geochemical anomalies in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments suggest that elevated concentrations of trace elements may have persisted for thousands of years in the ocean. Through direct exposure and bioaccumulation, many trophic levels of the global food chain, including that of the dinosaurs, would have been adversely affected by these meteoritic trace elements. The trace element toxification hypothesis may account for the selective extinction of both marine and terrestrial species in the enigmatic terminal Mesozoic event.

  17. Classification of hot particles from the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapons detonations by non-destructive methods.

    PubMed

    Zheltonozhsky, V; Mück, K; Bondarkov, M

    2001-01-01

    Both after the Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon detonations, agglomerates of radioactive material, so-called hot particles, were released or formed which show a behaviour in the environment quite different from the activity released in gaseous or aerosol form. The differences in their characteristic properties, in the radionuclide composition and the uranium and actinide contents are described in detail for these particles. While nuclear bomb hot particles (both from fission and fusion bombs) incorporate well detectable trace amounts of 60Co and 152Eu, these radionuclides are absent in Chernobyl hot particles. In contrast, Chernobyl hot particles contain 125Sb and 144Ce which are absent in atomic bomb HPs. Obvious differences are also observable between fusion and fission bombs' hot particles (significant differences in 152Eu/l55Eu, 154Eu/155Eu and 238Pu/239Pu ratios) which facilitate the identification of HPs of unknown provensence. The ratio of 239Pu/240Pu in Chernobyl hot particles could be determined by a non-destructive method at 1:1.5. A non-destructive method to determine the content of non-radioactive elements by Kalpha-emission measurements was developed by which inactive Zr, Nb, Fe and Ni could be verified in the particles.

  18. Mobile trace element contents in Jilin chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakuragi, Y.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A determination is conducted of ppm-ppt levels of Co, Se, Ga, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn and Cd (arranged empirically in order of increasing mobility at 1000 C) by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in eight Jilin samples of known Ar-40 content and a large vein from one of these. The trace element contents of the vein do not differ markedly from those of Jilin whole-rock samples. Only Rb correlates with Ar-40, possibly due to chance. All elements but Cd are present at levels similar to thdse in H4-6 chondrites with long K/Ar age (i.e., presumably mildly shocked). These levels are low relative to those in analogous L4-6 chondrites suggesting that H chondrites formed and/or evolved under higher pre-shock temperatures than did mildly shocked L chondrites. Time-temperature conditions during shock-loading of Jilin parent material were mild relative to those in strongly shocked L chondrites, being sufficient at most only to mobilize Cd.

  19. Subcellular trace element distribution in Geosiphon pyriforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetz, Mischa; Schüßler, Arthur; Wallianos, Alexandros; Traxel, Kurt

    1999-04-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme is a unique endosymbiotic consortium consisting of a soil dwelling fungus and the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. At present this symbiosis becomes very interesting because of its phylogenetic relationship to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Geosiphon pyriforme could be an important model system for these obligate symbiotic fungi, which supply 80-90% of all land plant species with nutrients, in particular phosphorous and trace elements. Combined PIXE and STIM analyses of the various compartments of Geosiphon give hints for the matter exchange between the symbiotic partners and their environment and the kind of nutrient storage and acquisition, in particular related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism. To determine the quality of our PIXE results we analysed several geological and biological standards over a time period of three years. This led to an overall precision of about 6% and an accuracy of 5-10% for nearly all detectable elements. In combination with the correction model for the occurring mass loss during the analyses this holds true even for biological targets.

  20. Characteristics of trace elements in freshwater and seawater cultured pearls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, En; Huang, Fu-Quan; Wang, Zi-Tong; Li, Qian

    2014-09-01

    Trace elements in pearls have characteristic disciplines and functions. The previous work had paid attention to different characteristics of trace elements in freshwater and seawater cultured pearls, but only limited species of trace elements have been detected by former testing techniques and analysis methods, and the test results have not been further analyzed. With the advantages of detection in good capability and high speed, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) can concurrently test various trace and ultra-trace elements. In the present paper, trace elements of cultured pearls in freshwater and seawater were measured by ICP-MS, and analyzed compared by a method of data processing. The results show that: (1) The kinds of higher content of trace elements (Sr, Zn, Ni, Ba, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, Co, Ce, Zr, La, Rb) in cultured pearls are approximately the same, but the total amount of trace elements in freshwater cultured pearls is significantly less than that of seawater cultured pearls. (2) The content of trace elements (Sr, Mn, Ba, Ni, Cr, Pb) in freshwater cultured pearls is more regular, and has a relatively fixed sequence from high to low, namely Sr > Mn > Ba > Ni > Cr > Pb. The content of trace elements in seawater cultured pearls is quite different. Sr is enriched in all samples. There is no a stable order of contents for the other trace elements. (3) There is a significant correlation among some trace elements in cultured pearls. The conclusion is instructive to indicate cultured environment, cultured technology, identification, comprehensive development and utilization of cultured pearls.

  1. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hassen, Ahmed; Taheri, Hossein; Vaidya, Uday

    2016-05-09

    This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D) plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.

  2. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hassen, Ahmed; Taheri, Hossein; Vaidya, Uday

    2016-05-09

    This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D) plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.

  3. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites

    DOE PAGES

    Hassen, Ahmed; Taheri, Hossein; Vaidya, Uday

    2016-05-09

    This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D)more » plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.« less

  4. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  5. Trace element distributions in primitive achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    The primitive achondrites have approximately chondritic bulk chemical composition but achondritic textures. Clayton et al. show that nine of these meteorites, the acapulcoites and the lodranites, have similar oxygen isotopic compositions. The acapulcoites appear to be highly metamorphosed, but undifferentiated meteorites of chondritic composition; whereas, the lodranites appear to have lost a feldspathic partial melt. In order to learn more about metamorphic processes and partial melt removal, we have measured the trace element compositions of constituent phases of a number of primitive achondrites by ion microprobe. We have analyzed two acapulcoites, Acapulco and ALH81261 (paired with ALH77081), and three londranites, Lodran, LEW88280, and MAC88177. In addition, we analyzed LEW88663, which has the bulk composition, mineral chemistry, and oxygen isotopic composition of L-chondrites, but is metal-free and has an achondrite texture; and Divnoe, a plagioclase-poor, olivine-rich primitive achondrite with an oxygen isotopic composition similar to that of the group IAB iron meteorites. These meteorites show a variety of REE patterns in their constituent phases, and there are consistent differences between acapulcoites and lodranites that are consistent with removal of a LREE- and Eu-enriched melt that is apparently responsible for the low plagioclase content of lodranites.

  6. Canned foods: appropriate in trace element studies?

    PubMed

    Henriksen, L K; Mahalko, J R; Johnson, L K

    1985-05-01

    This study was conducted to help decrease the variability of metabolic diets. The effects of production lot and storage time on the trace element content of canned food products were compared. Various production lots of peaches, green beans, and tomatoes, canned in tinplate, were purchased and opened at three different times, spaced at 6-month periods. Storage time contributed more to the variability of tomatoes and green beans than production lot. Production lot was the more important factor in peaches. The following guidelines may be useful for metabolic studies lasting more than a few weeks: Use only frozen foods or foods canned in glass, maintaining constant production lots when possible. If only tin-canned products are available, remove the product from the can and freeze when appropriate. When products are retained in the can, maintain storeroom at a low temperature above freezing. In all cases, purchase specifications should require products to be from the most recent canning season, and kitchen procedures should be constant.

  7. Trace element distributions in primitive achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    The primitive achondrites have approximately chondritic bulk chemical composition but achondritic textures. Clayton et al. show that nine of these meteorites, the acapulcoites and the lodranites, have similar oxygen isotopic compositions. The acapulcoites appear to be highly metamorphosed, but undifferentiated meteorites of chondritic composition; whereas, the lodranites appear to have lost a feldspathic partial melt. In order to learn more about metamorphic processes and partial melt removal, we have measured the trace element compositions of constituent phases of a number of primitive achondrites by ion microprobe. We have analyzed two acapulcoites, Acapulco and ALH81261 (paired with ALH77081), and three londranites, Lodran, LEW88280, and MAC88177. In addition, we analyzed LEW88663, which has the bulk composition, mineral chemistry, and oxygen isotopic composition of L-chondrites, but is metal-free and has an achondrite texture; and Divnoe, a plagioclase-poor, olivine-rich primitive achondrite with an oxygen isotopic composition similar to that of the group IAB iron meteorites. These meteorites show a variety of REE patterns in their constituent phases, and there are consistent differences between acapulcoites and lodranites that are consistent with removal of a LREE- and Eu-enriched melt that is apparently responsible for the low plagioclase content of lodranites.

  8. Cognitive impairment, genomic instability and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Meramat, A; Rajab, N F; Shahar, S; Sharif, R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline and deficiencies or excess in trace elements are two of the factors relating to it. In this review, we report and discuss the role of micronutrients in cognitive impairment in relation to genomic stability in an aging population. Telomere integrity will also be discussed in relation to aging and cognitive impairment, as well as, the micronutrients related to these events. This review will provide an understanding on how these three aspects can relate with each other and why it is important to keep a homeostasis of micronutrients in relation to healthy aging. Micronutrient deficiencies and aging process can lead to genomic instability.

  9. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Pei, Ma; MacArthur, J. D.; Roeder, P. L.; Mariano, A. N.

    1993-04-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, > 0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found.

  10. Atmospheric transport of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Chance, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews atmospheric inputs of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans in the context of the GEOTRACES programme and provides new data from two Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises. We consider the deposition of nitrogen to the oceans, which is now dominated by anthropogenic emissions, the deposition of mineral dust and related trace elements, and the deposition of other trace elements which have a mixture of anthropogenic and dust sources. We then consider the solubility (as a surrogate for bioavailability) of the various elements. We consider briefly the sources, atmospheric transport and transformations of these elements and how this results in strong spatial deposition gradients. Solubility of the trace elements also varies systematically between elements, reflecting their sources and cycling, and for some trace elements there are also systematic gradients in solubility related to dust loading. Together, these effects create strong spatial gradients in the inputs of bioavailable trace elements to the oceans, and we are only just beginning to understand how these affect ocean biogeochemistry. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  11. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  12. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  14. A Review of Non-destructive Detection for Fruit Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Zhu, Fengmei; Cai, Jinxing

    An overview of non-destructive detection in quality of post-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical properties, sonic vibration, machine vision technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electronic noses, electrical properties, computed tomography. At last, the main problems of non-destructive detection in application were also explained.

  15. Complementary use of the Raman and XRF techniques for non-destructive analysis of historical paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawczak, M.; Kamińska, A.; Rabczuk, G.; Ferretti, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; Śliwiński, G.

    2009-03-01

    The portable XRF spectrometer has been applied in situ for the non-destructive elemental mapping of the pigment components of the XV c. mural painting and frescos of the Little Christopher chamber in the Main Town Hall of Gdańsk, Poland. For a sufficiently large data collection the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to associate the most intense lines of the elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Hg in the XRF spectra with the palette of colors: white, brown, green, blue, red, yellow, and black observed in the painting. This allowed to limit the number of extractions of the micro-samples for the complementary Raman measurements thus assuring the practically non-destructive character of the entire analysis. The reliable identification of the pigment compositions was based on coincidence of the XRF, PCA and the Raman results which confirmed the presence of the chalk, malachite, azurite, red lead, mars red, mars yellow and candle black in the historical paints, except of the carbon-based black pigment being out of the XRF detection range. Different hues of the green paint were specified and the variety of the red and brown ones was ascribed to compositions of the Pb- and Fe-based red pigments (Fe 2O 3 and Pb 3O 4) with addition of the vermilion (HgS) and carbon black, in agreement with literature. The traces of elements: Ba and Sr, Sb and Mo, and also Cd, were ascribed to the impurities of Ca, those of some ochre pigments, and to the soluble Cd salts, respectively.

  16. Non-destructive assessment of human ribs mechanical properties using quantitative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mitton, David; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Ellouz, Rafaa; Rongieras, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine

    2014-04-11

    Advanced finite element models of the thorax have been developed to study, for example, the effects of car crashes. While there is a need for material properties to parameterize such models, specific properties are largely missing. Non-destructive techniques applicable in vivo would, therefore, be of interest to support further development of thorax models. The only non-destructive technique available today to derive rib bone properties would be based on quantitative computed tomography that measures bone mineral density. However, this approach is limited by the radiation dose. Bidirectional ultrasound axial transmission was developed on long bones ex vivo and used to assess in vivo health status of the radius. However, it is currently unknown if the ribs are good candidates for such a measurement. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ex vivo ultrasonic measurements (axial transmission) and the mechanical properties of human ribs to determine if the mechanical properties of the ribs can be quantified non-destructively. The results show statistically significant relationships between the ultrasonic measurements and mechanical properties of the ribs. These results are promising with respect to a non-destructive and non-ionizing assessment of rib mechanical properties. This ex vivo study is a first step toward in vivo studies to derive subject-specific rib properties.

  17. Trace element partitioning between ionic crystal and liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Philpotts, J. A.; Yin, L.

    1978-01-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between ionic crystals and the melt has been correlated with lattice energy of the host. The solid-liquid partition coefficient has been expressed in terms of the difference in relative ionic radius of the trace element and the homogeneous and heterogeneous strain of the host lattice. Predictions based on this model appear to be in general agreement with data for alkali nitrates and for rare-earth elements in natural garnet phenocrysts.

  18. The measurement of trace elements in interplanetary dust and cometary particles by ultra-high sensitivity INAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    Today the major elemental composition of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is routinely determined in many laboratories. These and mineralogical studies have revealed the presence of at least two major types of IDPs, chondritic and refractory. Preliminary results of a successful attempt to determine abundances of a large suite of trace elements from both chondritic and refractory IDPs are reported. The analytical procedure can be used in the grain-by-grain analysis of returned cometary samples. Chondritic and refractory IDPs are characterized by standard scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. With this system, detection limits for many elements are well below picogram levels, and some approach femtogram levels. This technique is non-destructive, although some sample handling is required, so particles can be analyzed by other techniques after instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) is completed. Data is presently being reduced from the analyses of 7 IDPs. These are U2015E10, U2015F1, W7029-A2, W7029-A3, W7013A8, LACl (all chondritic) and 705 (refractory). So far, 17 different major and trace elements were detected and measured in these particles, including rare earths and some very volatile elements (Br and Zn).

  19. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  20. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  1. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  2. [Presence and role of trace elements in urinary calculi].

    PubMed

    Hannache, B; Boutefnouchet, A; Bazin, D; Daudon, M; Foy, E; Rouzière, S; Dahdouh, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the possible nature and role of trace elements in the pathogenesis of urinary stones. A series of 76 calculi from the East-Algerian region has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence for detecting trace elements. Among the detected trace elements, Zn, Sr, Pb, Cu, Rb and Se, only the first three had significant values. Overall, the calcium components, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, were the most loaded by these elements contrary to organic components such as uric acid and cystine, which had low contents. The correlation of contents of Zn and Sr with the stone components (carbapatite, weddellite and whewellite) suggests an adsorption of these trace elements in the case of calcium stones rather than a catalytic process. 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Precipitation of trace elements in parenteral nutrition mixtures.

    PubMed

    Allwood, M C; Martin, H; Greenwood, M; Maunder, M

    1998-10-01

    Trace elements are an essential additive to parenteral nutrition (PN) mixtures. Previous studies have indicated that certain trace elements, in particular copper and iron, may interact with complete PN mixtures leading to precipitate formation. The causes of these incompatibilities have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine factors responsible for common trace element incompatibilities, using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy to examine the elemental content of precipitates isolated from stored PN mixtures with added trace elements. Results indicated that copper sulphide precipitated most rapidly in PN mixtures containing Vamin 9 and in mixtures stored in multilayered bags. Copper sulphide precipitation was delayed in PN mixtures containing Vamin 14 and was not observed in PN mixtures stored in EVA bags. Iron phosphate precipitates were observed in Synthamin-containing PN mixtures after storage, but this was prevented in mixtures containing vitamins stored in multilayered bags.

  4. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  5. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  6. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  7. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  8. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  9. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  10. The partitioning of trace elements during pulverized coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seames, Wayne Stewart

    The environmental impact resulting from the release of trace elements during coal combustion is an important issue for the coal-fired electric utility industry. Trace elements exit the combustor by partitioning between the flue gas and the fly ash particles. A comprehensive study has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms governing the partitioning of trace elements during pulverized coal combustion. The behavior of seven trace elements (arsenic, selenium, antimony, cobalt, cesium, thorium, and cerium) in six pulverized coals were studied under commercially relevant conditions in a well-described laboratory combustion environment. The partitioning of trace elements is governed by the extent of volatilization during combustion, the form of occurrence in the flue gas, and the mechanisms controlling vapor-to-solid phase transformation to fly ash particle surfaces. The most common vapor-to-solid phase partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile trace elements is reaction with active fly ash surfaces. Trace elements that form oxy-anions upon volatilization (e.g. arsenic, selenium, antimony) will react with active calcium and iron cation fly ash surface sites. Trace elements that form simple oxides upon volatilization (e.g. cobalt, cesium) will react with active aluminum oxy-anion fly ash surface sites. The maximum combustion temperature affects the availability of active calcium and iron surface sites but not aluminum sites. Sulfur inhibits the reactivity of oxy-anions with iron surface sites. For coals with high sulfur contents (>1 wt % as SO 2), volatilized trace elements that form oxy-anions will partition by reaction with calcium surface sites if sufficient sites are available. For coals with low sulfur contents, volatilized trace elements that form oxy-anions, will partition by reaction with iron surface sites. Volatilized trace elements that form oxy-anions will not partition by reaction if the coal sulfur content is high and the calcium content is low (<3 wt

  11. Major and trace elements of selected pedons in the USA.

    PubMed

    Burt, R; Wilson, M A; Mays, M D; Lee, C W

    2003-01-01

    Few studies of soil geochemistry over large geographic areas exist, especially studies encompassing data from major pedogenic horizons that evaluate both native concentrations of elements and anthropogenically contaminated soils. In this study, pedons (n = 486) were analyzed for trace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, Ti, Zr) elements, as well as other soil properties. The objectives were to (i) determine the concentration range of selected elements in a variety of U.S. soils with and without known anthropogenic additions, (ii) illustrate the association of elemental source and content by assessing trace elemental content for several selected pedons, and (iii) evaluate relationships among and between elements and other soil properties. Trace element concentrations in the non-anthropogenic dataset (NAD) were in the order Mn > (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu) > (Pb, Co) > (Cd, Hg), with greatest mean total concentrations for the Andisol order. Geometric means by horizon indicate that trace elements are concentrated in surface and/or B horizons over C horizons. Median values for trace elements are significantly higher in surface horizons of the anthropogenic dataset (AD) over the NAD. Total Al, Fe, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, pH, and clay exhibit significant correlations (0.56, 0.74, 0.50, 0.31, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively) with total trace element concentrations of all horizons of the NAD. Manganese shows the best inter-element correlation (0.33) with these associated total concentrations. Total Fe has one of the strongest relationships, explaining 55 and 30% of the variation in total trace element concentrations for all horizons in the NAD and AD, respectively.

  12. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  13. Chemistry of trace elements in soils and groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present information about sources of processes that affect trace elements in soils and groundwater; precipitation and dissolution, surface interactions and absorption and oxidation-reduction reactions. For each element or group of elements, we provide a review of mode of occurrence, sources and ...

  14. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barapatre, Nirav; Morawski, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo

    2010-06-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  15. In situ determination of trace elements in Fucus spp. by field-portable-XRF.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Poon, Hiu; Taylor, Alex; Brown, Murray T

    2017-03-23

    Fresh and freeze-dried sample sections of the coastal macroalgae, Fucus serratus and F. vesiculosus, and the brackish water macroalga, F. ceranoides, have been analysed for trace elements by field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry using a Niton XL3t in a low density mode with thickness correction. When analysed fresh in a laboratory accessory stand for a period of 200 seconds, As, Br, Fe and Zn were registered in the apex, mid-frond and lower stipe of all species, with detection limits of a few μg g(-1) (As) or a few tens of μg g(-1) (Br, Fe, Zn); when analysed dry under the same conditions, concentrations returned were systematically higher and Cu and Pb were detected in a number of F. ceranoides sections. Concentrations arising from both approaches on a dry weight basis were highly correlated, with deviations from unit slope attributed to the absorption of fluorescent X-rays by internal and surficial water when analysed fresh. With algorithms correcting for the effects of water on mass and X-ray absorption, sections of F. vesiculosus and F. ceranoides were analysed in situ with the XRF connected to a mobile stand and laptop. Dry weight concentrations returned for As and Zn were significantly correlated with respective concentrations subsequently determined by ICP-MS following acid digestion and with a slope close to unity; lower concentrations of Fe returned by ICP were attributed to the incomplete acid digestion of silt particles that evaded an initial cleaning step, while Br concentrations could not be verified independently because of loss of volatile forms during digestion. The in situ determination of trace elements in fucoids by FP-XRF provides a rapid and non-destructive means of monitoring environmental quality and identifying hot-spots of contamination, and enables a research strategy to be developed iteratively that is informed by immediate results.

  16. New essential trace elements for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, F H

    1990-01-01

    The possible importance of some new essential trace elements in nutrition is discussed. Most likely, insufficient intake of a specific trace element becomes obvious only when the body is stressed in some way that enhances the need for that element; this has been supported by recent findings with selenium. The trace elements boron and copper may be of nutritional significance in a manner similar to selenium. When the diets of animals and humans are manipulated to cause possible changes in cellular integrity or in hormone responsiveness, a large number of responses to dietary boron occur. The findings indicate that boron is important for optimal calcium and, thus, bone metabolism. High dietary cystine and fructose exacerbate the signs of copper deficiency in rats; this indicates that the response to copper deficiency by humans would vary with the amino acid and carbohydrate composition of the diet. There is some evidence that chromium, molybdenum, nickel, arsenic, and vanadium may also be of nutritional significance under stress conditions. In other words, an increasing number of studies have been performed that have examined the importance of trace element nutriture in various forms of nutritional, metabolic, hormonal, or physiologic stress in animals and humans. These studies indicate that situations will be found in which a trace element is of nutritional significance. It is likely that some of the trace elements are more important in human nutrition than is now generally acknowledged.

  17. Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic Alaskan snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder-Conn, E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hoffman, G.L.; Oelkers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraclean field and laboratory procedures were used to examine trace element concentrations in northern Alaskan snow. Sixteen soluble trace elements and total mercury were determined in snow core samples representing the annual snowfall deposited during the 1993-94 season at two sites in the Prudhoe Bay oil field and nine sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (Arctic NWR). Results indicate there were two distinct point sources for trace elements in the Prudhoe Bay oil field - a source associated with oil and gas production and a source associated with municipal solid-waste incineration. Soluble trace element concentrations measured in snow from the Arctic NWR resembled concentrations of trace elements measured elsewhere in the Arctic using clean sample-collection and processing techniques and were consistent with deposition resulting from widespread arctic atmospheric contamination. With the exception of elements associated with sea salts, there were no orographic or east-west trends observed in the Arctic NWR data, nor were there any detectable influences from the Prudhoe Bay oil field, probably because of the predominant easterly and northeasterly winds on the North Slope of Alaska. However, regression analysis on latitude suggested significant south-to-north increases in selected trace element concentrations, many of which appear unrelated to the sea salt contribution.

  18. Presence of trace elements in the silverside Odontesthes argentinensis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gustavo A; Volpedo, Alejandra V

    2017-09-09

    The silverside Odontesthes argentinensis is an economically significant resource for commercial fisheries in South America. We evaluated the presence of trace elements in the stomach content and fish tissues (muscle and otoliths) of O. argentinensis. In addition, we assessed the presence of trace elements in its prey (zooplankton) and in seawater in a coastal temperate area. The most abundant trace elements found in the water, zooplankton, stomach content, and fish tissues (muscle and otoliths) constituted of Ba, Mn, Sr and Zn, while Cd, Cu and Pb were observed in lower concentrations. We concluded that O. argentinensis specimens captured from the environment, within the length range analyzed for muscle samples (total length: <21cm), are deemed fit for human consumption because the concentrations of trace elements mostly meet the standards established in the Argentine Food Code. The information obtained in this study is vital for O. argentinensis farming in closed systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines.

  20. Trace element concentrations in hair of healthy Chinese centenarians.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong; Lv, Jinmei; Zou, Xiaoyan

    2011-03-15

    Trace element concentrations, as indicators of micronutrient status of healthy centenarians, have not been widely analyzed. This study aimed to assess trace element concentrations in the hair of healthy centenarians. The effects of gender and age on element concentrations were also investigated. Eleven trace elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn) in the scalp hair of 107 healthy Chinese centenarians were examined. The overall reference values (RVs) in mg/kg for the hair concentrations of trace elements in centenarians were as follows: Al, 14.95; Ba, 2.68; Cd, 0.06; Cr, 0.59; Cu, 6.21); Fe, 19.37; Mo, 0.50; Pb, 4.64; Se, 0.37; Sr, 4.84; and Zn, 154.37. Data analysis found that only Cu and Zn concentrations show a normal distribution, and there is no significant difference between males and females in any element except Zn. However, the levels of Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mo, Pb decrease and the levels of Ba, Cu, Se, Sr, Zn increase with age in the centenarian cohort. Results also revealed that sufficient Zn and Se concentrations as well as low exposure to heavy metals pollution contribute to the longevity of centenarians. The results imply the possibility of manipulating trace element concentrations, especially Zn and Se concentrations in tissues, as a means for therapeutic modality in geriatric disease.

  1. Trace Element Levels and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S.; Murrell, Jill R.; Cheng, Yibin; Shen, Jianzhao; Ying, Bo; Ji, Rongdi; Matesan, Janetta; Liang, Chaoke; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Trace elements are involved in metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction reactions in the central nervous system and could have a possible effect on cognitive function. The relationship between trace elements measured in individual biological samples and cognitive function in an elderly population had not been investigated extensively. Methods The participant population is part of a large cohort study of 2000 rural elderly Chinese persons. Six cognitive assessment tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in this population, and a composite score was created to represent global cognitive function. Trace element levels of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc were analyzed in plasma samples of 188 individuals who were randomly selected and consented to donating fasting blood. Analysis of covariance models were used to assess the association between each trace element and the composite cognitive score adjusting for demographics, medical history of chronic diseases, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Three trace elements—calcium, cadmium, and copper—were found to be significantly related to the composite cognitive score. Increasing plasma calcium level was associated with higher cognitive score (p < .0001). Increasing cadmium and copper, in contrast, were significantly associated with lower composite score (p = .0044 and p = .0121, respectively). Other trace elements did not show significant association with the composite cognitive score. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium, cadmium, and copper may be associated with cognitive function in the elderly population. PMID:18559640

  2. Probability of detection model for the non-destructive inspection of steam generator tubes of PWRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusa, N.

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes a probability of detection (POD) model to discuss the capability of non-destructive testing methods for the detection of stress corrosion cracks appearing in the steam generator tubes of pressurized water reactors. Three-dimensional finite element simulations were conducted to evaluate eddy current signals due to stress corrosion cracks. The simulations consider an absolute type pancake probe and model a stress corrosion crack as a region with a certain electrical conductivity inside to account for eddy currents flowing across a flaw. The probabilistic nature of a non-destructive test is simulated by varying the electrical conductivity of the modelled stress corrosion cracking. A two-dimensional POD model, which provides the POD as a function of the depth and length of a flaw, is presented together with a conventional POD model characterizing a flaw using a single parameter. The effect of the number of the samples on the PODs is also discussed.

  3. Experimental Constraints on Trace Element Behavior in Martian Evaporite Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Tosca, N. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have detected a distinctive suite of evaporite minerals at the Martian surface precipitated from fluids derived from basaltic weathering under low pH conditions. Orbital spectroscopic methods have confirmed global distributions of these materials. The formation and stability of these mineral assemblages have been well modeled at Meridiani Planum for major element chemistry. However, in addition to providing major element chemistry of Martian surface materials, the APXS (Alpha-Proton X-Ray Spectrometer) instruments onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers have returned a selection of trace element abundances in soils and rocks including Ni, Zn, and Cr. These measurements have shown considerable trace element abundance variability that is not well-understood. Accordingly, it is of some interest to constrain the trace element partitioning behavior for the distinctive evaporite minerals that likely exist at Meridiani Planum, including gypsum, Mg- and Fe-sulfates. Determining trace element partitioning during the formation of these materials is difficult through experimental means due to various kinetic effects and complicating factors. Also, analysis of trace element abundances in the final precipitated mineral can be further complicated by the presence of ubiquitous fluid inclusions. Here we describe an experimental approach and preliminary results of trace element incorporation into gypsum (CaSO4\\dot2H2O) - which precipitates early in an evolving evaporation system and for which the precipitation process is well-understood. We record the behavior of Ni, Zn and Cr individually during the carefully controlled precipitation of gypsum at constant pH and temperature (25°C). Future experiments will examine the behavior of these elements for increasingly more complex evaporite formation systems more fully analogous to Meridiani Planum mineralogy.

  4. Trace Element Loss in Urine and Effluent Following Traumatic Injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background and Purpose: Few data are available to establish recommendations for trace element intake during critical illness. This study quantified loss of several elements and assessed the adequacy of manganese and selenium in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods: Men receiving TPN after trau...

  5. NonDestructive Evaluation for Industrial & Development Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, James F.

    2016-10-12

    Provide overview of weld inspection for Non-Destructive Testing at LANL. This includes radiography (RT/DR/CR/CT for x-ray & neutron sources), ultrasonic testing (UT/PAUT), dye penetrant inspection (PT), eddy current inspection (ET) and magnetic particle testing (MT). Facilities and capabilities for weld inspection will be summarized with examples.

  6. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  7. The distribution of trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, H.-J.

    1981-09-01

    Twelve carbonaceous chondrites, among them representatives of nearly all known petrologic types, were analyzed for twenty trace elements by spark source mass spectrography combined with the isotope dilution method. Data on different element groups (refractory, moderately volatile and volatile) show that the distribution of the trace elements in the carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of Renazzo, can be well explained by Anders' two-component model. This is also valid for the highly metamorphosed CV5 chondrite Karoonda. Furthermore, it is observed that the Zr/Hf-ratios in the carbonaceous chondrites increase with increasing petrologic type, which is interpreted as the result of mixing two components with different Zr/Hf-ratios.

  8. Influence of trace elements on dental enamel properties: A review.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Zeeshan; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Chew, Hooi Pin; Fatima, Tayyaba

    2017-01-01

    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.

  9. Environmental influence on trace element levels in human hair

    SciTech Connect

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1986-12-01

    Trace element content of human hair depends on many factors. It has been shown by a large number of investigators that environmental factors play an important role. Elements from air particulates, water, shampoo or other media get incorporated into the hair structure. Here a model is proposed in which different contributions to trace element levels in human hair are factorized and the environmental contribution to the radial and longitudinal concentration profiles can be calculated. With the proper understanding of environmental contamination, hair analysis has better chances of being used as a diagnostic tool.

  10. Trace elements in coal. Environmental and health significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits, coal mines, and coal- burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal- burning power plants in Europe and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic coal combustion in developing countries where millions of people suffer from fluorosis and thousands from arsenism. Better knowledge of coal quality characteristics may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal may help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  11. Major and trace elements in igneous rocks from Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Telander, K.; Weiss, C.; Jacobs, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of major and trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks from Apollo 15. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for minerals separated from sample 15085. Four samples have concentrations of trace elements that are similar to those of KREEP. The samples of mare basalt from Apollo 15 have higher concentrations of FeO, MgO, Mn, and Cr and lower concentrations of CaO, Na2O, K2O, and rare-earth elements (REE) as compared to the samples of mare basalt from Apollos 11, 12, and 14. The samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their normative compositions. One group is quartz normative and has low concentrations of FeO while the other is olivine normative and has high concentrations of FeO. The trace element data indicate that the samples of olivine normative basalt could be from different portions of a single lava flow.

  12. Trace elements in human hair: an international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Imai, S.; Ohmori, Y.; Masuda, T.; Vinson, J.A.; Mehra, M.C.; Puri, B.K.; Kaniewski, A.

    1986-06-01

    Hair as a biological tissue is unique in the sense that it serves as an accumulator for trace elements, and in addition, it is formed in relatively short period of time and remains isolated from the metabolic events in the human body. In view of the interest in the distribution of trace elements in human hair an international survey was conducted to study their distribution in populations of different origin. Hair samples drawn from North America (USA, Canada), Europe (Poland) and Asia (Japan and India) were analyzed for 21 trace elements. An attempt was also made to observe a correlation, if any, between elemental concentration, age, sex and living habits of the individuals in a particular country.

  13. Effects of trace element concentrations on culturing thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Dombard, D R; Shock, E L; Amend, J P

    2012-03-01

    The majority of microorganisms in natural environments resist laboratory cultivation. Sometimes referred to as 'unculturable', many phylogenetic groups are known only by fragments of recovered DNA. As a result, the ecological significance of whole branches of the 'tree of life' remains a mystery; this is particularly true when regarding genetic material retrieved from extreme environments. Geochemically relevant media have been used to improve the success of culturing Archaea and Bacteria, but these efforts have focused primarily on optimizing pH, alkalinity, major ions, carbon sources, and electron acceptor-donor pairs. Here, we cultured thermophilic microorganisms from 'Sylvan Spring' (Yellowstone National Park, USA) on media employing different trace element solutions, including one that mimicked the source fluid of the inocula. The growth medium that best simulated trace elements found in 'Sylvan Spring' produced a more diverse and faster growing mixed culture than media containing highly elevated trace element concentrations. The elevated trace element medium produced fewer phylotypes and inhibited growth. Trace element concentrations appear to influence growth conditions in extreme environments. Incorporating geochemical data into cultivation attempts may improve culturing success.

  14. Trace element-sulfide mineral association in eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-03-01

    Eastern oil shales including the Chattanooga Shale in Tennessee and the various other time-equivalent black shales in the central portion of the United States represent a major source of hydrocarbons. A primary concern for the development of eastern oil shale and all fossil fuels is the high concentration of sulfide minerals and associated with these materials. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate trace elements in sulfide minerals from a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee and (2) establish mineral residence and stratigraphic distribution of selected trace elements. Previous researchers have suggested the residency of the trace elements As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn as being sulfide minerals, either as separate distinct phases, inclusions, or isomorphous substitution. The most significant contribution derived from the present study is the direct observation and association of selected trace and minor elements with sulfide minerals. Rather than an indirect or inferred trace element- sulfide mineral association, sulfide mineral phases were isolated allowing the morphology and composition to be directly evaluated. 9 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Apollo 16: a trace element perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of some inferences regarding the Apollo 16 site that can be arrived at from incompatible element-geochemical data is presented. We use a set of elements not exploited to address some of the questions about the geology of the Apollo 16 site and the evolution of the highlands crust. Others have recognized the great difficulty in disentangling the complex history of the highlands on the basis of petrographic and compositional data. We have previously attempted to reconcile a relatively few interelement relationships with information from many other sources. The Apollo 16 site and the significance of Apollo 16 samples have been examined from the perspectives of data on Cl, P, Ru and Os for the most part and also, in a few cases, data on the heavy metals Pb, Tl and Bi.

  16. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  17. Ureilites - Trace element clues to their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssens, Marie-Josee; Hertogen, Jan; Wolf, Rainer; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Anders, Edward

    1987-01-01

    The question of the origin of ureilites was reexamined using new data obtained by radiochemical NAA for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Pd, Os, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn in two vein separates from Haveroe and Kenna and a bulk sample of Kenna. Vein material was found to be enriched in all elements analyzed, except Zn, and to account for most of the carbon, noble gases, and, presumably, siderophiles in the meteorite. The results support the earlier interpretation of Higuchi et al. (1976) on the composition of ureilite parent body (similar to C3V or H3, but not C3O chondrites).

  18. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  19. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; ...

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  20. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  1. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  2. Trace element biodistribution in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Frances M; Kassim, Brittany L; Delaney, J Patrick; Lange, Ted R; Brunell, Arnold M; Guillette, Louis J; Long, Stephen E; Schock, Tracey B

    2017-08-01

    Routine monitoring of contaminant levels in wildlife is important for understanding chemical exposure and ultimately the link to ecosystem and human health. This is particularly important when the monitored species is recreationally hunted for human consumption. In the southeastern United States, recreational alligator harvesting takes place annually and in locations that are known to be contaminated with environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the biodistribution of trace elements in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) from five sites in Florida, USA. These sites are locations where annual recreational alligator harvesting is permitted and two of the sites are identified as having high mercury contamination with human consumption advisories in effect. We utilized routinely collected monitoring samples (blood and scute), a commonly consumed tissue (muscle), and a classically analyzed tissue for environmental contaminants (liver) to demonstrate how the trace elements were distributed within the American alligator. We describe elemental tissue compartmentalization in an apex predator and investigate if noninvasive samples (blood and scute) can be used to estimate muscle tissue concentrations for a subset of elements measured. We found significant correlations for Hg, Rb, Se, Zn and Pb between noninvasive samples and consumed tissue and also found that Hg was the only trace metal of concern for this population of alligators. This study fills a gap in trace elemental analysis for reptilian apex predators in contaminated environments. Additionally, comprehensive elemental analysis of routinely collected samples can inform biomonitoring efforts and consumption advisories. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    PubMed

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation.

  4. Atmospheric transport of trace elements toward Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, G.; Ardouin, B.; Sanak, J.

    1990-02-01

    Since 1960, at the French station of Dumont d'Urville (Terre Adelie coast), during more or less long periods, we have monitored Rn-222 and its decay product Pb-210, fission products due to atmospheric nuclear tests, and the cosmonuclides Be-7 and P-32. Almost all these species show seasonal variations, whose general features are maximum concentrations during the local summer (December January), and minima in the middle of winter (June July). A long-term change in the Pb-210 concentrations was also observed at Dumont d'Urville, for all seasons, with a more-or-less continuous decrease since 1969 to 1986, from 2.5 to 1.5 dpm per 1000m3. Such variations seem to be quite usual, because an ice core sampled at the South Pole also displays important fluctuations of the Pb-210 concentration in the fresh snow between 1888 and 1974, from 1 to 3 dpm/kg, particularly from 1920 to 1954. The latitudinal profiles of both Rn-222 and Pb-210 showing minima between 40° and 60° South at sea level, the long-range transport of these nuclides from mid-latitudes toward Antarctica should occur through the higher rather through the lower layers of the troposphere. Therefore, the Pb-210 long-term changes observed can be ascribed to global changes of the general circulation in the Southern hemisphere. The concentrations of Pb-210 at Dumont d'Urville, and the ozone vertical column in October at Halley Bay, show common features, more particularly a significant decrease in the 1980s, meaning that changes in the atmospheric circulation occurred in the Antarctic area from the middle of the 1970s, which can partly account for the ozone decrease beside variations of trace species concentrations.

  5. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures.

    PubMed

    Olmez, I; Hayes, M J

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site.

  6. Trace elements in human body fluids and tissues.

    PubMed

    Versieck, J

    1985-01-01

    Published figures for trace element concentrations in body fluids and tissues of apparently healthy subjects are widely divergent. For a considerable time, the apparent disparities were readily ascribed to biological sources of variation such as age, sex, dietary habits, physiological conditions, environmental exposure, geographical circumstances, or similar influences. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this interpretation may be seriously questioned in numerous instances. First, values obtained in reference materials leave no doubt that some previous studies must have been subject to gross analytical inaccuracies. Second, it has now been thoroughly documented that inadequate sample collection and manipulation may drastically distort the intrinsic trace element content of biological matrices. This review scrutinizes data reported by a number of investigators. In an effort to settle the currently flourishing confusion, critically selected reference values are set forth for trace element levels in human blood plasma or serum, packed blood cells, urine, lung, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle tissue.

  7. Trace element determination in vitamin E using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Ponce De León, Claudia A; Montes Bayón, Maria; Caruso, Joseph A

    2002-09-01

    Vitamin E supplements are either isolated from plants sources or prepared synthetically. Isolation from plants includes eight different tocopherol structures. Vitamin E synthesis includes seven different stereoisomers, which involves the use of several catalysts that may lead to trace element contamination in the vitamin. The use of ICP-MS is an ideal technique for detecting these trace elements. However, the oily nature of the samples requires the development of a sample preparation methodology. This study was done upon the request of synthetic vitamin E manufacturers to test the trace metal purity of their samples. In this work, the comparison of an acid microwave digestion and emulsion preparation is discussed. Cromium, nickel, tin and lead were found in the synthetic vitamin E analyzed and 200, 60, 9 and 45 ppb were the concentrations found respectively for these elements. Digesting the samples gives slightly lower detection limits compared to the emulsion preparation.

  8. Distribution and material balances of trace elements during coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.

    1993-12-31

    A material balance was performed around a coal preparation plant as part of a trace element assessment program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL). The purpose of this program is to follow the fate of selected elements during mining, cleaning, combustion and waste disposal. The material balance reported here was performed at a time when the plant was operating entirely on freshly mined (as opposed to stockpiled) coal . All major inlet and outlet streams were sampled and analyzed. Using the design plant flows, closures of balances of the major components (ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur) were between 81 and 107%. Balance closures for the major coal ash elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Ti, P, Si, and Al) ranged from 73 to 82% based on the design flows, while balance closures for the trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) averaged 89 {+-} 20%, excluding Be, which was below the detection limits in three of the five streams. Most of the balance closures were significantly improved by adjusting the flow rates based on a least-squares fit of the ash, carbon, total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} data. Based on the adjusted flow rates, the major component balance closures were between 94 and 100%, the major inorganic element balance closures were 90 to 100%, and the trace element balance closures, excluding Be, averaged 103 {+-} 23%. Most of the trace elements are associated with the mineral components and are removed from the raw coal in approximately the same proportion as the ash. The only trace elements that are present in the waste water at concentrations more than double those in the feed water are As, Pb, and Sb, and these are discharged at levels 5--20 times lower than those allowed by Federal primary drinking water standards.

  9. Trace element concentration of central Appalachian coal beds

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M.; Miller, M.S.

    1996-09-01

    As a result of more stringent environmental regulations, there is increasing demand for coal beds with lower sulfur and trace element concentrations. Unfortunately, due to technical difficulties associated with the detection of elemental composition in parts-per-million, reliable trace element is scarce. Examination of the U.S.G.S. COALQUAL database of Appalachian coals was conducted for the following metals: antimony, arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. Within an area of approximately 14,000 square miles, 1,500 raw (core, underground and surface mine) coal samples with geographic coordinates were examined, and more than 100 named coal seams from Tennessee, southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia were investigated. Some samples were obtained from formerly active mines which have since been depleted. Researchers have identified approximately 80 coal-related minerals including clays, carbonates, phosphates, chlorides, silicates, sulfates, and sulfides and, of these, sulfides have been found in chemical association with some trace elements. Quality trends over a broad region provide insights into geochemical and depositional processes which may have influenced trace element content. Furthermore, recently published E.P.R.I. data from {open_quotes}as-shipped{close_quotes} coal samples (located by state only) demonstrate similar patterns at the state level. Analysis of these data generally indicates a geographic and stratigraphic preference for coal beds with lower levels of trace elements along the southern edge of the Appalachian coal fields. While these quality trends may be a reasonably good first approximation, additional sampling is needed in minable reserve areas to further identify coal seams which possess favorable trace metal concentrations.

  10. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotheraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.-A.

    1981-03-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks).

  11. Tissue distribution of trace elements and DDE in brown pelicans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Anderson, D.W.; Boellstorff, D.E.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-08-01

    Trace elements and organochlorine pollutants commonly occur in avian tissues. However, concentrations vary among species in the same geographic area, and some compounds can be distributed differently in body tissues among different species. In addition, some heavy metal concentrations vary with the bird's age. The purpose of this paper was to obtain a sample of brown pelicans from these populations to determine which brown pelican tissues contain the highest concentrations of organochlorine pollutants and several trace elements, how much variation might exist in a general sample, and what interrelationships might exist among the tissues and compounds studied.

  12. Mercury and trace elements in crayfish from northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Bergen, D.R.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Meckstroth, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We collected two species of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, from Cache and Putah Creeks, California, and analyzed them for mercury and trace elements. Trace elements were higher in carcasses in 40 cases, higher in tails in 5 cases, and not different in 35 cases; no concentration exceeded levels considered harmful. Mercury concentrations were similar among sites, with no overall sex or species effect in tails. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were higher in tails at all sites. Methylmercury concentrations in crayfish tails (0.156-0.256 ??g/g) exceeded concentrations reported in health advisories for consumption of fish and crayfish from these watersheds. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  13. Covariance biplot analysis of trace element concentrations in urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Wandt, M A; Underhill, L G

    1988-06-01

    The covariance biplot, a relatively new technique for displaying multivariate data, was applied to trace element contents and compound concentrations of urinary stones. The biplot is demonstrated to give a compact graphical representation of the multivariate data with interpretations in terms of familiar statistical concepts such as correlations and standard deviations. It displays strong correlations between various trace elements like Zn and Sr, and Sr and Na. The biplot also suggests concentration relationships which could play a hitherto unknown role in the genesis of calculi. It is shown to help in the interpretation of analytical results as well as in exposing erroneous or incomplete analyses.

  14. [Trace elements in neoplasm tissues of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, G; Caruk, K; Pasternak, K

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements are essential for the proper functioning of the body. Changes in bioelements concentration were observed in numerous pathologic conditions. The aim of this study was evaluation of trace elements concentration in neoplasmatic tissues of the larynx. The study comprised 52 patients operated for cancer of the larynx. Levels of magnesium, zinc and copper in neoplasmatic tissues of the larynx were determined using atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry. The results were compared with the control group. Elevated levels of magnesium were observed in neoplasmatic tissues of the larynx. Zinc and copper levels were lowered in comparison with the control group. The results were statistically analysed.

  15. Mercury and trace elements in crayfish from northern california.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Roger L; Bergen, Darrin R; Bauer, Marissa L; Crayon, John J; Meckstroth, Anne M

    2007-12-01

    We collected two species of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, from Cache and Putah Creeks, California, and analyzed them for mercury and trace elements. Trace elements were higher in carcasses in 40 cases, higher in tails in 5 cases, and not different in 35 cases; no concentration exceeded levels considered harmful. Mercury concentrations were similar among sites, with no overall sex or species effect in tails. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were higher in tails at all sites. Methylmercury concentrations in crayfish tails (0.156-0.256 microg/g) exceeded concentrations reported in health advisories for consumption of fish and crayfish from these watersheds.

  16. Trace element partitioning between silicate melts - A molecular dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Johannes; Haigis, Volker; Künzel, Daniela; Jahn, Sandro

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of trace element partition coefficients is crucial for our understanding of global element cycles. While a great number of experimental studies on mineral-melt partitioning have been performed in the past, the influence of melt structure on partitioning has mostly been considered empirically. This is mainly due to the lack of reliable structure models for typical melts at the relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Molecular dynamics simulations on the other hand may open a new window into this problem as they provide a unique approach to both structural and thermodynamic properties of minerals and melts. In this contribution, we employ first-principles and classical molecular dynamics simulations to (1) explore further a new approach to predict trace element partitioning between several silicate melts and (2) simultaneously investigate the structural controls of the observed partitioning. Specifically, we use a thermodynamic integration scheme to investigate the partitioning behavior of various trace elements (Y, La, As) in a granitic and gabbroic as well as two Ti-bearing melts and compare our data to experimental findings. Our results indicate that, similar to the lattice strain model, partitioning in melts as well seems to depend on an ideal coordination environment for each trace element and on how well this environment can be accommodated in a specific melt.

  17. a Continuous Record of Trace Element and Stable Isotope Variations in a West Virginia Speleothem: Pre-Lgm to Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckles, J. A.; Rowe, H. D.; Gao, Y.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Springer, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    A stalagmite (CCC-003) from Culverson Creek Cave, West Virginia, grew uninterrupted for approximately 15,000 years across the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the early Holocene. Stable isotope carbon and oxygen and high resolution trace element (Sr/Ca) chronologies are supported by 37 Th-230 age dates. The timing of Heinrich events 1 and 2, LGM, Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas are well-constrained by abrupt shifts in both stable isotope and trace element records, and provide a detailed account of paleohydrological and paleoclimate change for the southern Appalachian region. Fluctuations in stalagmite δ18O are largely synchronous with well-documented changes observed in the GRIP and GISP2 records. The stable isotope chronology, however, is markedly different from speleothem chronologies from other regions, possibly due to local/regional effects. We present a comparison of the southern Appalachian record with those of other regions, as well as an interpretation of the various climatic mechanisms controlling speleothem deposition. In addition, we also present a novel non-destructive method for trace element analysis (Sr/Ca) through μ-X Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF). Trace element ratios in speleothems (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Ba/Ca) have been used to interpret the hydrogeochemical processes in the epikarst zone as well as partitioning that occurs at the calcite-water interface. The Sr/Ca results from CCC-003 reflect changes observed in δ13C, which further supports the interpretation of trace element variation. During periods of low rainfall, trace element ratios generally increase as a result of the longer residence time of water in the soil and epikarst zones. High-resolution time series analyses of these elements in speleothems provide evidence for changing paleohydrological and geochemical conditions over time. CCC-003 has produced a high resolution record of the LGM and YD utilizing conventional stable isotopes and μ-XRF.

  18. Non-destructive microstructural analysis with depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotoyabko, E.; Quintana, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    A depth-sensitive X-ray diffraction technique has been developed with the aim of studying microstructural modifications in inhomogeneous polycrystalline materials. In that method, diffraction profiles are measured at different X-ray energies varied by small steps. X-rays at higher energies probe deeper layers of material. Depth-resolved structural information is retrieved by comparing energy-dependent diffraction profiles. The method provides non-destructive depth profiling of the preferred orientation, grain size, microstrain fluctuations and residual strains. This technique is applied to the characterization of seashells. Similarly, energy-variable X-ray diffraction can be used for the non-destructive characterization of different laminated structures and composite materials.

  19. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  20. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  1. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2014-07-10

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed.

  2. Non-destructive NIR FT Raman analysis of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Klump, H. H.; Schenzel, K.; Schulz, H.

    1999-10-01

    Non-destructive analyses of animal and plant cells and tissues by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range have not been possible since the samples are destroyed photochemically or their fluorescence conceals the Raman spectra completely. When excited with the Nd:YAG laser line at 1064 nm fluorescence-free Raman spectra of animal or plant cells and tissues can be recorded without special preparation. In this paper we concentrate on plants and its constituents: essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices, alkaloids and fibers can be characterized. The spectra allow the observation of biochemical processes, to observe the distribution of natural products, application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding, the harvesting time and control of food—everything non-destructively in living plants!

  3. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  4. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  5. Interlaboratory variability in trace element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, K.W.; Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1985-02-01

    The precision characteristics of 18 analytical methods for metals and other elements subjected to interlaboratory collaborative studies over the last 10 years by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were examined. Outlier removal and statistical calculations were standardized by the use of a computer program, FDACHEMIST. Most of the studies, representing a variety of analytes, matrices, and measurement techniques over a concentration (C) range of 100 g/kg to 10 ..mu..g/kg, were distributed about a curve defined by the equation, among-laboratories relative standard deviation, %RSD/sub x/ = 2/sup 1-0.5 log C/, where C is expressed as a decimal fraction, e.g., 1 ppm = 10/sup -6/, regardless of analyte, matrix, or measurement technique. The within-laboratory relative standard deviation, RSD/sub o/ is usually 1/2-2/3 of RSD/sub x/. Positive deviations from this curve with decreasing concentration are explainable by heterogeneity of the parent material, free choice of method of analysis, or a concentration below the limit of determination. The presence of greater than 20% outlying laboratory results or RSD/sub x/ degenerating at greater than the ''normal'' rate with decreasing concentration is taken to indicate that the method is not applicable at or below the level generating the imprecise data. 19 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  6. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  7. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-05

    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  8. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  9. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  10. [Blood trace elements content in adolescents in an industrial town].

    PubMed

    Namazbaeva, Z I; Amanzhol, I A; Shibuchikova, Zh B; Sabirov, Zh B; Zhumabekova, S Zh

    2013-01-01

    A cohort blind study of blood trace elements content in children-adolescents aged 14-16 years old, residing in an industrial town, where large industrial enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy have been functioning for long periods, has been performed There was established a lack of vital important element selenium in the blood, that causes the accumulation of toxic metals, cadmium and mercury.

  11. Relative trace-element concern indexes for eastern Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Coal trace elements that could affect environmental quality were studied in 372 samples (collected and analyzed by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey) from 36 coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Relative trace-element concern indexes are defined as the weighted sum of standarized (substract mean; divide by standard deviation) concentrations. Index R is calculated from uranium and thorium, index 1 from elements of minor concern (antimony, barium, bromine, chloride, cobalt, lithium, manganese, sodium, and strontium), index 2 from elements of moderate concern (chromium, copper, fluorine, nickel, vanadium, and zinc), and index 4 from elements of greatest concern (arsenic, boron, cadmium, lead, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium). Numericals indicate weights, except that index R is weighted by 1, and index 124 is the unweighted sum of indexes 1, 2, and 4. Contour mapping indexes is valid because all indexes have nonnugget effect variograms. Index 124 is low west of Lee and Bell counties, and in Pike County. Index 124 is high in the area bounded by Boyd, Menifee, Knott, and Martin counties and in Owsley, Clay, and Leslie counties. Coal from some areas of eastern Kentucky is less likely to cause environmental problems than that from other areas. Positive correlations of all indexes with the centered log ratios of ash, and negative correlations with centered log ratios of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur indicate that trace elements of concern are predominantly associated with ash. Beneficiation probably would reduce indexes significantly.

  12. Trace-Element Concentrations in Northwest Africa 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wang, A.; Gillis, J. J.; Haskin, L. A.; Fagan, T. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    2001-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations (INAA) are presented for four samples of the NWA 032 lunar meteorite. The mare basalt has a moderately high Th concentration (1.9 ppm) and a higher Th/REE ratio than any other known mare basalt. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Trace elements removal from water using modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Buchler, P M

    2008-02-01

    This paper present the possible alternative options for the remove of trace elements from drinking water supplies in the trace. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causing various adverse effects on living bodies. The performance of three filter bed methods was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon, powder carbon steel and ceramic spheres in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The modified powdered block carbon is a satisfactory and economical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water due to its low unit cost of about $23 and compatibility with the traditional household filtration system.

  14. Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, Abdullahi; Al-Saad, Samira

    2005-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of natural trace elements has been implicated in the etiology of autism. This study explores whether concentration levels of toxic metals in the hair of children with autism significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In-hair concentration levels of antimony, uranium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury,…

  15. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  16. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  17. Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples. The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples.

  18. Transformation of substances containing trace elements in coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, E. V.; Lebedeva, L. N.; Faminskaya, M. V.; Pokrovskaya, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    A new complex approach to simulation of phase and chemical transformation of substances containing trace elements in coal burning units is proposed; this approach unites capabilities of geochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, and physical-chemical kinetics. Processes of transformation of these substances in the flow of combustion products of Moscow basin coals along the flow path of the P-59 boiler are studied.

  19. An inventory of trace elements inputs to French agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Belon, E; Boisson, M; Deportes, I Z; Eglin, T K; Feix, I; Bispo, A O; Galsomies, L; Leblond, S; Guellier, C R

    2012-11-15

    The inputs of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) to French agricultural soils have been assessed. The six main sources considered were: pesticides, mineral fertilizers, animal manure, liming materials, sludge and composts and atmospheric deposition. Data were collected to compute inputs at both national and regional (departmental) scales. The inventory methodology is based on two principles: data are traceable and easy to update. At a national scale, the inventory showed that trace elements inputs can be ranked: Zn≫Cu≫Cr>Pb>Ni>As=Mo>Se>Cd>Hg. Animal manure, mineral fertilizers and pesticides are the predominant sources of TEs. These results are globally in agreement with literature data though atmospheric deposition is shown to be lower than in more industrial countries such as China and United Kingdom where similar surveys were conducted. The inputs of trace elements vary strongly between regions in relation with agricultural activities. This inventory (and the related database) provides basis for developing and monitoring policies to control and reduce trace elements contamination of agricultural soils at both national and regional (departmental) scales.

  20. Trace elements in human milk, selenium a case study.

    PubMed

    Roekens, E; Deelstra, H; Robberecht, H

    1985-03-15

    Longitudinal changes of the trace element (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, Cr, Co, As, Se) composition of human milk are discussed. The mean daily intake of breast fed infants is compared with the intake of infants fed cow's milk and with recommended dietary allowances. Parameters which can be used to check the selenium status are discussed. Clinical consequences of selenium deficiency are discussed.

  1. Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, Abdullahi; Al-Saad, Samira

    2005-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of natural trace elements has been implicated in the etiology of autism. This study explores whether concentration levels of toxic metals in the hair of children with autism significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In-hair concentration levels of antimony, uranium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury,…

  2. Trace Element Abundances in Extraterrestrial Apatite and Merrillite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Bischoff, A.; Roszjar, J.; Berndt, J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    The trace element abundances (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, as well as the REE) of 133 apatite and 163 merrillite grains from 24 meteorites, covering 9 different classes were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS.

  3. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  4. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters.

  5. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  6. Association of trace elements with iron oxides during rock weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, R.D.; Helmke, P.A.; Jackson, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    The association of trace elements with Fe oxides during the early stages of rock weathering was determined by analysis of fresh diabase and granite rocks, their associated whole and size-separated saprolites, and goethite by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence. The same elements are found to be associated with Fe oxides when the results are interpreted by analysis of correlation, by the distribution of elements in the various size fractions by the effects of removing free Fe oxides, and by direct analysis of geothite from the saprolite. The elements Co, Cr, Mn, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of diabase, and As, Co, Cr, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of granite are associated with Fe oxides. The concentrations of Mn are too low in this system to separate the effects of Mn oxides from those of Fe oxides.

  7. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  8. Trace and minor elements in sphalerite from metamorphosed sulphide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockington, Julian A.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2014-12-01

    Sphalerite is a common sulphide and is the dominant ore mineral in Zn-Pb sulphide deposits. Precise determination of minor and trace element concentrations in sulphides, including sphalerite, by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a potentially valuable petrogenetic tool. In this study, LA-ICP-MS is used to analyse 19 sphalerite samples from metamorphosed, sphalerite-bearing volcanic-associated and sedimentary exhalative massive sulphide deposits in Norway and Australia. The distributions of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ga, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi are addressed with emphasis on how concentrations of these elements vary with metamorphic grade of the deposit and the extent of sulphide recrystallization. Results show that the concentrations of a group of trace elements which are believed to be present in sphalerite as micro- to nano-scale inclusions (Pb, Bi, and to some degree Cu and Ag) diminish with increasing metamorphic grade. This is interpreted as due to release of these elements during sphalerite recrystallization and subsequent remobilization to form discrete minerals elsewhere. The concentrations of lattice-bound elements (Mn, Fe, Cd, In and Hg) show no correlation with metamorphic grade. Primary metal sources, physico-chemical conditions during initial deposition, and element partitioning between sphalerite and co-existing sulphides are dominant in defining the concentrations of these elements and they appear to be readily re-incorporated into recrystallized sphalerite, offering potential insights into ore genesis. Given that sphalerite accommodates a variety of trace elements that can be precisely determined by contemporary microanalytical techniques, the mineral has considerable potential as a geothermometer, providing that element partitioning between sphalerite and coexisting minerals (galena, chalcopyrite etc.) can be quantified in samples for which the crystallization temperature can be independently

  9. Dating stalagmites in mediterranean climates using annual trace element cycles.

    PubMed

    Nagra, Gurinder; Treble, Pauline C; Andersen, Martin S; Bajo, Petra; Hellstrom, John; Baker, Andy

    2017-04-04

    Speleothems may preserve geochemical information at annual resolution, preserving information about past hydrology, environment and climate. In this study, we advance information-extraction from speleothems in two ways. First, the limitations in dating modern stalagmites are overcome by refining a dating method that uses annual trace element cycles. It is shown that high-frequency variations in elements affected by prior calcite precipitation (PCP) can be used to date speleothems and yield an age within 2-4% chronological uncertainty of the actual age of the stalagmite. This is of particular relevance to mediterranean regions that display strong seasonal controls on PCP, due to seasonal variability in water availability and cave-air pCO2. Second, using the chronology for one stalagmite sample, trace elements and growth-rate are compared with a record of climate and local environmental change i.e. land-use and fire, over the 20(th) century. Well-defined peaks in soil-derived trace elements and simultaneous decreases in growth-rate coincide with extreme annual rainfall totals in 1934 and 1974. One of which, 1934, was due to a recorded cyclone. We also find that bedrock-derived elements that are dominated by PCP processes, reflect a well-known period of drying in southwest Australia which began in the 1970's.

  10. Trace elements in the atmosphere over the North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Arimoto, R.; Duce, R.A.; Ray, B.J.; Ellis, W.G. Jr.; Cullen, J.D.; Merrill, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of trace elements in aerosol particles from the atmosphere over the North Atlantic Ocean were determined at Tudor Hill, Bermuda (BTT), Ragged Point, Barbados (BAT), Mace Head, Ireland (MHT), and the Izana Observatory, Tenerife, Canary Islands (IZT). One major component of the aerosol was atmospheric dust. The Al concentrations at BAT, IZT, and BTT ranged over 4 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 0.001 to 10 microg/cu m. At MHT the maximum dust concentrations were about a factor of 10 lower than at the other sites. The mineral dust concentrations generally were highest in summer, and the flux of atmospheric dust was dominated by sources in North Africa. The elements showing clear enrichments over the concentrations expected from sea salt or crustal sources were I, Sb, Se, V, and Zn. The impact of pollution sources on trace element concentrations was evident at all sites but varied with season and location. The concentrations of elements originating from pollution sources generally were low at Barbados. Analyses of trace element ratios indicate that there are large-scale differences in the pollution emissions from North America versus those from Europe and Africa. Emissions from pyrometallurgical industries, steel and iron manufacturing, and possibly biomass burning are more evident in the atmospheric samples influenced by transport from Europe and Africa.

  11. Non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of quarantined Mars Returned Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionovici, Alexandre; Viso, Michel; Beck, Pierre; Lemelle, Laurence; Westphal, Andrew; Vincze, Laszlo; Schoonjans, Tom; Fihman, Francois; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Ferroir, Tristan; Solé, Vicente Armando; Tucoulou, R.

    Introduction: In preparation for the upcoming International Mars Sample Return mission (MSR), returning samples containing potential biohazards, we have implemented a hyperspec-tral method of in-situ analysis of grains performed in BSL4 quarantine conditions, by combining several non-destructive imaging diagnostics. This allows sample transportation on optimized experimental setups, while monitoring the sample quarantine conditions. Our hyperspectral methodology was tested during analyses of meteorites [1-2] and cometary and interstellar grains from the recent NASA Stardust mission [3-6]. Synchrotron Radiation protocols: X-ray analysis methods are widely accepted as the least destructive probes of fragile, unique samples. Diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and ab-sorption micro/nano-spectroscopies were performed on chondritic test samples using focused monochromatic beams at the ESRF synchrotron in Grenoble, France. 2D maps of grain com-position down to ppm concentrations and polycrystalline structure have simultaneously been acquired, followed by X-ray absorption performed on elements of Z 26. Ideally, absorption micro-tomography can later be performed in full-beam mode to record the 3D morphology of the grain followed by fluorescence-tomography in focus-beam mode which complements this picture with a 3D elemental image of the grain. Lab-based protocols: Raman and IR-based spectroscopies have been performed in reflection mode for mineralogical imaging of the grains in the laboratory using commercial microscopes. The spatial resolution varied in the 1-10 m range. Laser limited penetration of opaque samples permits only 2D imaging of the few nanometer-thick outer layers of the grains. Mineralogical maps are now routinely acquired using Raman spectroscopy at sub-micron scales through the 3 container walls of the Martian sample holder, followed by IR few-micrometer spot measurements recording C-based and potential aqueous alteration distributions. Sample Holder: A

  12. A review of radiologically important trace elements in human bones.

    PubMed

    Tandon, L; Iyengar, G V; Parr, R M

    1998-08-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature for minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. Various aspects of elemental composition, analytical methodologies, quality assurance and quality control methods for hard tissue analysis were evaluated. Important data on selected radiologically important elements (Cs, Pu, Ra, Sr, Th, and U) in calcified tissue from various countries are discussed. The results of this compilation study suggest a need for new reference materials with matrix properties similar to bones including one with separated cortical and trabecular segments.

  13. Trace-element abundances in several new ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, William V.; Hill, Dolores H.

    1993-01-01

    Four new ureilites are analyzed for trace-element abundances. Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90054 is an augite-rich ureilite and has high rare earth element (REE) abundances with a pattern expected of augite. FRO 90036 and Acfer 277 have REE patterns similar to the V-shape pattern of other ureilites. Nuevo Mercurio (b) has very high REE abundances, but they look like they are due to terrestrial alteration. The siderophile-element pattern of these ureilites are similar to those of known ureilites.

  14. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  15. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  16. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  17. PIXE measurement applied to trace elemental analysis of human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Matsugi, E.; Miyasaki, K.; Yamagata, T.; Inoue, M.; Ogata, H.; Shimoura, S.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE measurement was applied for trace elemental analyses of 40 autoptic human kidneys. To investigate the reproducibility of the PIXE data, 9 targets obtained from one human liver were examined. The targets were prepared by wet-digestion using nitric and sulfuric acid. Yttrium was used as an internal standard. The extracted elemental concentrations for K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and flame photometry (FP). Various correlations among the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Cd were examined individually for the renal cortex and renal medulla.

  18. Trace element analysis by PIXE in several biomedical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.; Beguin, Y.; Roelandts, I.; Delbrouck, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Since 1980 in the University of Liége trace element analysis by PIXE has been developed in several directions, among these: the elemental composition of lung parenchyma, hilar lymph nodes, blood content in hematological disorders and renal insufficiency. The content in trace elements of lung tumor and surrounding tissue is measured and compared to similar content previously obtained on unselected patients of comparable ages. The normalization of the bromine deficiency observed in hemodialized patients is achieved by using a dialyzing bath doped with NaBr in order to obtain a normal bromine level of 5.7 μg/ml. The content of Cu, Zn, Br and Se in blood serum from more than 100 patients suffering from malignant hemopathy has been measured. The results are compared with a reference group. These oligoelements have also been measured sequentially for patients under intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

  19. Correlation of trace elements in hair with colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K.W.; Shore, R.E.; Redrick, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppM were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala-Kukuś , A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banaś , D.; Majewska, U.; Góź Dź , S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-04-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described.

  1. Trace elements in soils fertilized with poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G; Charles, S

    1999-12-01

    Poultry litter is used on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. The litter contains trace elements. With land application of litter, these elements may accumulate in the soil or plants, may be transported as run-off to surface water, or may be leached into groundwater. The objective of this research was to measure the concentrations of trace elements in soils fertilized with poultry litter. Soil was collected from three agricultural farms in Wicomico County, MD. These farms had a long history of poultry litter application. A nitric acid extraction was performed on soil samples collected to a depth of 60 cm. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic, Cd, Cu, and Mn concentrations were higher in the manured fields than in the control fields. Lead and Zn concentrations did not significantly change with the application of poultry litter.

  2. Trace element composition of Luna 24 Crisium VLT basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    The origins of the individual particles analyzed from the Luna 24 core and the information they provide on the trace-element composition of Mare Crisium basalt are considered. Previous analyses of several Luna 24 soil fragments are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1) the average trace-element concentrations for 12 VLT basalt fragments are the best available estimates for bulk samples of Crisium VLT basalt; (2) there is weak evidence that the average Crisium basalt might have a small positive Eu anomaly relative to chondritic matter; (3) the soils contain components from sources other than the Crisium VLT basalt; and (4) there is no convincing information in concentrations of rare-earth elements, Co, Sc, FeO, or Na2O among the analyzed fragments to indicate more than one parent basalt.

  3. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.

    1999-11-14

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  4. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro-and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. In conclusion, it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  5. Trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru; Wolf, Rainer; Warren, Paul H.; Anders, Edward

    1992-01-01

    New chemical analyses for up to 26 trace elements, including seldom-determined highly siderophile elements Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pd, and Ge, for 59 lunar samples are reported. Most of these samples are polymict breccias from Apollo 16. Remarkably few have Group 7 (extremely low Au/Ir) meteoritic components. Several samples have uncommonly high Au/(Ir + Re) ratios, even higher than group 1L. Volatile-element enrichments are found in several fragments from rusty rock 66095. A matrix sample from fragmental breccia 60639 shows Cd and In enrichments, also observed previously in samples of anorthosite and mare basalt from the same breccia. Evidently, for these highly labile elements, chemical exchange has affected clasts that for most other elements are pristine.

  6. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  7. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    PubMed Central

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies. PMID:26911251

  8. Release of trace elements in wetlands: role of seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Olivie-Lauquet, G; Gruau, G; Dia, A; Riou, C; Jaffrezic, A; Henin, O

    2001-03-01

    Dissolved concentrations were determined for Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, La, U, Th, Cd and As in a wetland and its recipient stream to reveal the effect of seasonal changes in environmental conditions on the cycling and transfer of trace elements at the transition between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. These preliminary results from the wetland show marked seasonal changes in dissolved concentration for all elements except Zn and Cu. Concentrations are found to be low until about mid-February and then increase abruptly. The onset of trace element release appears to coincide with a marked decline in redox potential and increase of organic carbon content. Because this decline is itself correlated with a pronounced increase in temperature and dissolved Fe. Mn and organic carbon content, we suggest that the microorganisms which use soil iron and manganese oxy-hydroxides as electron acceptors catalyzed the change in redox conditions and induced an increase of DOC. Temporal changes were also observed in the recipient stream which showed marked positive concentration peaks during stormflow events (except Zn). The seasonal processes occurring in the wetland appear to play a major role in determining the amount of trace elements which are transferred from the wetland to the river.

  9. Trace elements in diabetic cardiomyopathy: An electrophysiological overview

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Ozdemir, Semir

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that Diabetes Mellitus leads to a specific cardiomyopathy apart from vascular disease and bring about high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent clinical and experimental studies have extensively demonstrated that this cardiomyopathy causes impaired cardiac performance manifested by early diastolic and late systolic dysfunction. This impaired cardiac performance most probably have emerged upon the expression and activity of regulatory proteins such as Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. Over years many therapeutic strategies have been recommended for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Lately, inorganic elements have been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects due to their suggested ability to regulate glucose homeostasis, reduce oxidative stress or suppress phosphatases. Recent findings have shown that trace elements exert many biological effects including insulin-mimetic or antioxidant activity and in this manner they have been recommended as potential candidates for treatment of diabetes-induced cardiac complications, an effect based on their modes of action. Some of these trace elements are known to play an essential role as component of enzymes and thus modulate the organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides, they can also manipulate redox state of the channels via antioxidant properties and thus contribute to the regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis and cardiac ion channels. On account of little information about some trace elements, we discussed the effect of vanadium, selenium, zinc and tungstate on diabetic heart complications. PMID:23961319

  10. [Analysis study of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kang, Wan-Li; Xin, Shi-Gang; Xing, Wan-Quan

    2009-02-01

    Abalone and sea cucumbers are useful, which is related with trace elements in them. In the present paper, using high-pressure sealed nitrifying pots for digestion of samples, Orthogonal test was applied to the determination of 15 kinds of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber such as Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr, Se, Hg, Cd etc by ICP-AES. The orthogonal table of L16 (4(4)) and experiment programs were designed. More information could be obtained with a small number of experimental times by combining chemistry with mathematical statistics, and the best experimental operation conditions could be chosen by square-error analysis. The method was simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate, but also features multi-element determination at the same time, with little environment pollution. The recovery rate of the method is in the range of 91.0%-110.0%, and relative standard deviations is less than 3.55%. The experimental results showed that both abalone and sea cucumber are of nutritional value of seafood, and are rich in Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr and other kinds of trace elements helpful to the human body. At the same time, because of severe environment pollution, seawater pollution should not be neglected. When seawater was polluted, hazardous substances were deposited in abalone or sea cucumber body with high levels of harmful heavy metals. Therefore, it should be a reminder that people must be careful to eat them.

  11. Bloodletting therapy in hemochromatosis: Does it affect trace element homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Bolann, Bjørn J; Distante, Sonia; Mørkrid, Lars; Ulvik, Rune J

    2015-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is the most common hereditary disorder in the Nordic population, if left untreated it can result in severe parenchymal iron accumulation. Bloodletting is mainstay treatment. Iron and trace elements partially share cellular uptake and transport mechanisms, and the aim of the present study was to see if bloodletting for hemochromatosis affects trace elements homeostasis. We recruited patients referred for diagnosis and treatment of hemochromatosis, four women and 22 men 23-68 years of age. Thirteen were C282Y homozygote, one was C282Y heterozygote, three were H63D homozygote, seven were compound heterozygote and two had none of the mutations above. Iron and liver function tests were performed; serum levels of trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results before the start of treatment and after normalization of iron parameters were compared. On completion of the bloodlettings the following average serum concentrations increased: Co from 5.6 to 11.5 nmol/L, serum Cu 16.2-17.6 μmol/L, Ni increased from 50.0 to 52.6 nmol/L and Sb from 13.2 to 16.3 nmol/L. Average serum Mn concentration declined from 30.2 to 28.3 nmol/L. All changes were statistically significant (by paired t-test). B, Ba, Cs, Mo, Se, Sr and Zn were not significantly changed. We conclude that bloodlettings in hemochromatosis lead to changes in trace element metabolism, including increased absorption of potentially toxic elements.

  12. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure

    DOEpatents

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

    1983-11-01

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure at regions of interest within the object.

  13. APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CANTILEVERED MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, E.R.; Mahoney, C.H.; Lay, C.R.

    1961-10-24

    An apparatus for non-destructive inspection of cantilevered members, such as compressor blades, is described. The member under inspection is vibrated with a regulated source of air under pressure. The amplitude of vibration of the member is maintained at its natural frequency. The frequency of vibration of the member is measured. An indication of an excessive decay or erratic shifting in the measured frequency above an allowable hysteretic decay is provided as an indication of a fault in the member. The member is vibrated for a selected test period. (AEC)

  14. Non-Destructive Inspection Methods for Propulsion Systems and Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    Oftopulsion and Energetics Panel", et du "Consuiltant and Exchange Programm" d. 1’AGARD. RII* a pour but d’exarniner et do commenter l𔃾tat actual do l’art...Exchange Program" of AGARD. Its aim is to examine and comment on to-day’s state of the art, and the foreseeable or hoped progress of the non-destructive...should be recognised as such. These notes will therefore review and comment on the general problem, but emphaais will be on the application of minute

  15. Estimating Trace Element Emissions Using USGS Coal Data.

    PubMed

    Tumati, Prasad R; Bilonick, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    The COALQUAL data base1 was assembled by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) from publicly available coal deposit samples. The USGS collected the data without the benefit of a carefully considered sampling plan aimed at specific coal quality estimates. Therefore, the analysis of the collected data is problematical. This does not necessarily mean that the data set cannot provide useful estimates, only that the statistical techniques used would ordinarily be more complex. Spatially weighted average trace element concentrations estimated for the entire coal field within western Pennsylvania differed substantially from simple equally weighted average concentrations. The percentage differences ranged from -36% (where the spatially weighted average exceeds the equally weighted average) to +42%. Regression models were constructed to predict the effects of coal washing (i.e., the removal of ash and sulfur) on trace element concentrations. The percent of trace element variance accounted for by ash and sulfur ranged as high as 89%. The predictions based on these models for the only two CONSOL mines in the region tended to be significantly closer to the actual values than those produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)2 using equally weighted averages. Finally, the paper discusses the advantages of providing accurate estimates of trace element concentrations for coal burned at power plants which are part of a relatively small sample set. An accurate and reliable estimate of total national emissions from all power plants can be achieved by using stratified random sampling, where power plant boiler size is used to define the boundaries for each of a small number of strata.

  16. [Is chromium an essential trace element in human nutrition?].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that chromium is an essential trace element associated with carbohydrate metabolism, and chromium deficiency causes an impaired glucose tolerance. Recently, however, Vincent et al. have reported that chromium is not an essential trace element. In the present report, the author evaluated the nutritional essentiality of chromium by reviewing several previous reports. In almost all previous reports, the chromium concentration in the animal feed used was higher than 0.1 μg/g, and it is difficult to consider that the experimental animals were in a low-chromium state. In addition, the amount of chromium administered to the animals for the improvement of glucose tolerance was at a pharmacological level, and corresponded to a level that far exceeded the human daily chromium intake (20 to 80 μg/day). On the other hand, recent research has clearly shown that feeding with a severely low-chromium diet (0.016 μg/g) does not impair glucose tolerance. The amount of chromium absorbed in humans estimated from chromium intake (20 to 80 μg/day), chromium absorption rate (1%), and urinary chromium excretion (<1 μg/day) is less than 1 μg/day, which is much lower than those of other essential trace elements. In addition, because there is an inconsistency between the chromium concentration in food and chromium intake, chromium intake seems to be dependent on chromium contamination during food processing and cooking. It is concluded that there is a high possibility that chromium is not an essential trace element.

  17. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-xin, Chen; Yuan-zhuang, Guo; Hong-kou, Li; Chi-gang, Ren; Guo-hun, Tang; Xi-de, Wang; Fu-chia, Yang; Hui-ying, Yao

    1981-03-01

    PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in human hair. Using an external beam, hair from workers exposed to GaAs was examined. The results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the PIXE technique in vacuum hair from mentally defective children was analyzed and compared with the hair of normal children. In a similar way, hair from a 3200 year old preserved mummy was studied.

  18. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  19. Local defect resonance for sensitive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebahr, W.; Solodov, I.; Rahammer, M.; Gulnizkij, N.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave-defect interaction is a background of ultrasound activated techniques for imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials and industrial components. The interaction, primarily, results in acoustic response of a defect which provides attenuation and scattering of ultrasound used as an indicator of defects in conventional ultrasonic NDT. The derivative ultrasonic-induced effects include e.g. nonlinear, thermal, acousto-optic, etc. responses also applied for NDT and defect imaging. These secondary effects are normally relatively inefficient so that the corresponding NDT techniques require an elevated acoustic power and stand out from conventional ultrasonic NDT counterparts for their specific instrumentation particularly adapted to high-power ultrasonic. In this paper, a consistent way to enhance ultrasonic, optical and thermal defect responses and thus to reduce an ultrasonic power required is suggested by using selective ultrasonic activation of defects based on the concept of local defect resonance (LDR). A strong increase in vibration amplitude at LDR enables to reliably detect and visualize the defect as soon as the driving ultrasonic frequency is matched to the LDR frequency. This also provides a high frequency selectivity of the LDR-based imaging, i.e. an opportunity of detecting a certain defect among a multitude of other defects in material. Some examples are shown how to use LDR in non-destructive testing techniques, like vibrometry, ultrasonic thermography and shearography in order to enhance the sensitivity of defect visualization.

  20. Non destructive testing of works of art by terahertz analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Metayer, Jean-Jacques; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Improvements in technologies and the growing security needs in airport terminals lead to the development of non destructive testing devices using terahertz waves. Indeed, these waves have the advantage of being, on one hand, relatively penetrating. They also have the asset of not being ionizing. It is thus potentially an interesting contribution in the non destructive testing field. With the help of the VISIOM Company, the possibilities of this new industrial analysis method in assisting the restoration of works of art were then approached. The results obtained within this framework are presented here and compared with those obtained by infrared thermography. The results obtained show first that the THZ method, like the stimulated infrared thermography allows the detection of delamination located in murals paintings or in marquetries. They show then that the THZ method seems to allow detecting defects located relatively deeply (10 mm) and defects potentially concealed by other defects. It is an advantage compared to the stimulated infra-red thermography which does not make it possible to obtain these results. Furthermore, they show that the method does not seem sensitive to the various pigments constituting the pictorial layer, to the presence of a layer of "Japan paper" and to the presence of a layer of whitewash. It is not the case of the stimulated infrared thermography. It is another advantage of the THZ method. Finally, they show that the THZ method is limited in the detection of low-size defects. It is a disadvantage compared to the stimulated infrared thermography.

  1. Novel use of field-portable-XRF for the direct analysis of trace elements in marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Bull, Annie; Brown, Murray T; Turner, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Samples of dried marine macroalgae (Fucus serratus, Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca) have been analysed for trace elements by a novel, non-destructive approach involving a Niton field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer configured in a low density plastics mode with thickness correction. Detection limits for a 200-s counting time ranged from <5 μg g(-1) for As and Pb in F. serratus and As in P. palmata to several tens of μg g(-1) for Cd, Sb and Sn in all species tested. Arsenic, Cu, Pb and Zn were detected by the XRF in samples collected from a protected beach (n = 18) and in samples therefrom that had been exposed to additional aqueous elements in combination (n = 72) with concentrations returned (in μg g(-1)) ranging from 3.9 to 39.7 for As, 13.0 to 307 for Cu, 6.1 to 14.7 for Pb and 12.5 to 522 for Zn. Independent measurements of trace elements in the macroalgae by ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion revealed a direct and significant proportionality with concentrations returned by the XRF, with slopes of the XRF-ICP relationships (As = 1.0; Cu = 2.3; Pb = 2.4; Zn = 1.7) that can be used to calibrate the instrument for direct measurements. The approach shows potential for the in situ monitoring of macroalgae in coastal regions that is currently being investigated.

  2. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  3. [Determination of trace elements in beans by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Xin, Shi-gang

    2004-02-01

    In this paper,the contents of trace elements in beans such as Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Fe, Co, Ni, Se and Ba were determined by ICP-AES uing nitrifying method of high pressure nitrifying pot, and compared with the results of wet method. The two methods showed no obvious differences. The method proves to be simple, rapid, highly sensitive, accurate and can be used to determine many elements at the same time. In addition, there was little environment pollution. Its recovery is 96.8%-102%, and relative standard deviation is 3.35%.

  4. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  5. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    PubMed

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The effect of social stress on salivary trace elements.

    PubMed

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Social stress can alter the saliva in favor of metabolism of trace elements. This study aimed to assess the effect of social stress on salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) contents in dental students before and after a comprehensive English test. Twelve students with an average age of 27 years were selected from three dental schools. The students were carries-free, and salivary samples were collected 1 week before the test day and right before the comprehensive English test. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the participants. The pH of the saliva samples was measured using a portable pH meter, and the salivary trace element contents were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After checking data to be normally distributed, Student's paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Salivary pH significantly increased right before the English test. Salivary Cu concentration decreased in students after the test (P > 0.05). The level of Zn, Mn, and Fe increased, while only Mn change was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Under the limitations of this study, induction of social stress led to a significant increase in Mn concentration in the saliva. The salivary Cu, Zn, and Fe contents, however, did not exhibit significant changes. Changes in salivary inorganic trace element content, as a result of physiological stress, might influence health of teeth, enamel, and oral mucosal tissues.

  7. Trace elements in little egrets and flamingos of Camargue, France.

    PubMed

    Cosson, R P; Amiard, J C; Amiard-Triquet, C

    1988-02-01

    Trace elements (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) were measured in nine organs (liver, kidney, breast muscle, lungs, breastbone, stomach, gizzard, spleen, feathers) of several specimens of Greater Flamingos (Phaenicopterus ruber (Pallas] and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta (L.] from the Camargue, in the Rhône river delta. In both species, individual fluctuations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se levels were important in all organs, whereas Zn and Cu, essential metals, exhibited only moderate variations. The organotropism of trace elements supports the hypothesis that major routes of contamination would be both nutritional and aerial for flamingos, and prevailingly alimentary for egrets. In both species we found the highest levels in liver and kidney, with the exception of lead, the highest levels of which were found in breastbone and feathers. Our study indicates that trace element concentrations in flamingos and egrets are higher than or equivalent to those reported in the literature for birds living in polluted areas. Because the Camargue is a unique area in western Europe it would be of interest to develop more studies to evaluate the impact of surrounding human activities on this Biosphere Reserve.

  8. Trace elements in little egrets and flamingos of Camargue, France

    SciTech Connect

    Cosson, R.P.; Amiard, J.C.; Amiard-Triquet, C.

    1988-02-01

    Trace elements (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) were measured in nine organs (liver, kidney, breast muscle, lungs, breastbone, stomach, gizzard, spleen, feathers) of several specimens of Greater Flamingos (Phaenicopterus ruber (Pallas) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta (L.) from the Camargue, in the Rhone river delta. In both species, individual fluctuations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se levels were important in all organs, whereas Zn and Cu, essential metals, exhibited only moderate variations. The organotropism of trace elements supports the hypothesis that major routes of contamination would be both nutritional and aerial for flamingos, and prevailingly alimentary for egrets. In both species we found the highest levels in liver and kidney, with the exception of lead, the highest levels of which were found in breastbone and feathers. Our study indicates that trace element concentrations in flamingos and egrets are higher than or equivalent to those reported in the literature for birds living in polluted areas. Because the Camargue is a unique area in western Europe it would be of interest to develop more studies to evaluate the impact of surrounding human activities on this Biosphere Reserve.

  9. Coarse atmospheric aerosol: size distributions of trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriadis, K.; Colbeck, I.

    A sampler, employing nine single stage impactors placed in parallel within a portable wind tunnel, has been used to determine the metal content of coarse atmospheric aerosol. The wind tunnel maintains a constant flow environment for the collectors housed inside it, so that representative sampling conditions are achieved compared to the varied ambient wind conditions. At a flow rate of 8 m s -1 the 50% cut-off diameters of the impactors ranged from 7.8 to 38.8 μm. Measurements were conducted at a rural and urban site near Colchester in south east England. The samplers were analysed by PIXE for P, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, Cu, V, Co, Cr, Br, Zn, Ni, Sc and Pb. It is found that the sampler can be employed to quantitatively characterise the elemental mass size distribution for aerosol larger than 10 μm. The results indicate that a small fraction of the above earth and trace elements' metal mass is present in particles greater than 10 μm. This fraction for earth metals (Ca, K, Ti) is comparatively greater in the rural site than the urban site, while for trace metals (Mn, V, Cu, Cr) this fraction constitutes a more significant part of the coarse mass at the urban site. Trace element concentrations were of a similar order of magnitude to earlier literature reports. Although the number of measurements was limited it can be concluded that the size distributions obtained were characteristic of an unpolluted area.

  10. Trace elements: water-sediment interactions in tropical rivers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique Santana; Tejerina-Garro, Francisco Leonardo; Rocha, Cleonice

    2017-08-07

    This research aimed to determine the water-sediment interaction (partition coefficient Kd) of trace element (Cd, Cu, total Cr, Pb, and Zn) in tropical rivers of the Upper Paraná River basin, Central Brazil. Three trace elements (Cu, total Cr, and Zn) presented quantifiable concentration values in the water and sediment. Neither the element trace considered nor the rivers displayed a similar water-sediment interaction. The evaluation of Kd values indicates the tendency of total Cr to be adsorbed into the sediment (min Kd = 6.244, max Kd = 131.389), mainly in one sampling station (São Francisco River, Kd = 131.389) and the availability of Zn in the water column in all sampling stations (min Kd = 0.234, max Kd = 1.289). The sediment concentrations of Cr in the São Francisco sampling station (0.118 mg L(-1)) are above international reference values suggesting a risk of contamination for the biota, whereas in four rivers, Cr concentrations represent a risk. The water-sediment interaction of Cu is influenced by water temperature, whereas the pH influenced the Zn interaction.

  11. Trace elements as an activator of antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wołonciej, Marta; Milewska, Elżbieta; Roszkowska-Jakimiec, Wiesława

    2016-12-31

    Oxidative stress is a state of impaired balance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of the body. It causes many defects of the body, e.g. lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage. In order to prevent the effects of oxidative stress, the organism has developed defence mechanisms. These mechanisms capture and inhibit the formation of free radicals and also chelate ion metals that catalyse free radical reactions. Trace elements are components of antioxidant enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms. Selenium, as a selenocysteine, is a component of the active site of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The main function of GPx is neutralization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxide (LOOH). Furthermore, selenium is a structural part of a large group of selenoproteins that are necessary for proper functioning of the body. Manganese, copper and zinc are a part of the group of superoxide dismutase enzymes (MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD), which catalyse the superoxide anion dismutation into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Formed hydrogen peroxide is decomposed into water and oxygen by catalase or glutathione peroxidase. An integral component of catalase (CAT) is iron ions. The concentration of these trace elements has a significant influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thus on defence against oxidative stress. Even a small change in the level of trace elements in the tissue causes a disturbance in their metabolism, leading to the occurrence of many diseases.

  12. Concentrations of trace elements in Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Henry F.; Edgington, David N.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    The concentration of 15 trace elements was determined by activation analysis of samples of whole fish and fish livers from three of the Great Lakes: Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The average concentrations of 7 elements in 19 whole fish from 3 species were as follows: uranium, 3 ppb (parts per billion); thorium, 6 ppb; cobalt, 28 ppb; cadmium, 94 ppb; arsenic, 16 ppb; chromium, 1 ppm; and copper, 1.3 ppm. The average concentrations of 8 elements in 40 liver samples from 10 species of fish were as follows: uranium, ~ 2 ppb; thorium, a?? 2 ppb; cobalt, 40 ppb; copper, 9 ppm; zinc, 30 ppm; bromine, 0.4 ppm; arsenic, 30 ppb; and cadmium, 0.4 ppm. Other elements observed in most of the samples were: antimony, 5-100 ppb; gold, 2-5 ppb; lanthanum, 1-20 ppb; rhenium, 0.5-5 ppb; rubidium, 0.06-4 ppm; and selenium, 0.1-2 ppb. Trace element concentrations varied with species and lake. Uranium and thorium varied with species, but not for the same species from different lakes. The levels of copper, cobalt, zinc, and bromine varied little between species and lakes. The concentration of cadmium, arsenic, and chromium varied between species and with species between lakes.

  13. Trace Elements in Diatom Frustules as a Paleochemical Proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, T.; Ariztegui, D.

    2003-12-01

    The calibration in modern environments of the different proxies used in any paleoenvironmental study is a critical aspect leading to more realistic reconstructions of past conditions. Diatoms are among the main contributors to phytoplankton blooms in both lakes and oceans. They have been widely used as ecological and biogeochemical indicators of present and former environmental conditions. During the formation of highly ornamented cell walls or frustules, these algae take up dissolved silicic acid from the water to precipitate it as opaline silica that is further preserved in the sediments. Recent investigations have shown that diatoms can also incorporate trace elements in the opal. The causes and mechanisms of this incorporation, however, remain elusive. Thus, understanding the processes leading and regulating the uptake of different trace elements by diatoms will potentially furnish a new proxy for past water conditions. This indicator would be independent of the mobility of the elements and/or of diagenetic effects within the sediments. We tested the potential of this approach by determining the elemental composition of recent diatom frustules from Lake Geneva (Switzerland). The studied samples were further placed in a well defined chronological framework and compared with the most recent environmental history of the lake. Our preliminary results imply that the incorporation of different trace elements into the frustule has substantially changed throughout the studied time interval. A similar trend characterize most of the analyzed metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ga, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb) with comparatively higher concentrations for the last half of the twentieth century. Some other elements such as Sc seems to follow a rather opposite trend whereas Zn concentrations show a more scatter distribution. The calibration of these results with the well-known environmental history of Lake Geneva and its catchment area will allow us to evaluate the use of this technique

  14. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. [Titanites; bitite

    SciTech Connect

    Lemarchand, F.; Villemant, B.; Calas, G.

    1987-05-01

    Mineral/groundmass partition coefficients for U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, Rb, REE, Co and Sc have been systematically measured in olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, Ti-magnetites, titanite, zircon and feldspars, in basaltic to trachytic lavas from alkaline series (Velay, Chaine des Puys: Massif Central, France and Fayal: Azores). Average partition coefficients are defined within the experimental uncertainty for limited compositional ranges (basalt-hawaiite, mugearites, benmoreite-trachyte), and are useful for trace element modelling. The new results for U, Th, Ta, Zr and Hf partition coefficients show contrasting behaviour. They can thus be used as ''key elements'' for identifying fractionating mineral phases in differentiation processes (e.g. Ta and Th for amphibole and mica). Partition coefficient may be calculated using the two-lattice model suggested by NIELSEN (1985). Such values show a considerably reduced chemical dependence in natural systems, relative to weight per cent D values. The residual variations may be accounted for by temperature or volatile influence. This calculation greatly enhances modelling possibilities using trace elements for comparing differentiation series as well as for predicting the behaviour of elements during magmatic differentiation.

  16. Portable generator-based XRF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  17. Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products.

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Schäfer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-12

    The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).

  18. Geochemical Peculiarities of the Distribution of Trace Elements in Caustobioliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    This research covers the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative contents of trace elements (TE) in naphtides. This work is based on the analysis and generalization of the large volume of scientific literature as well as on the author's analytical research covering oils and organic matter of rocks of different fascial composition and thermal maturity, collected from the wide range of depths in the fields of Volgo-Ural, Western Siberia, Timan-Pechiora, South Caspian, North Caucasian-Mangyshlak, and other oil and gas-bearing basins (OGB). Analysis of TE contents of oils, coals, oil-and-black shales - caustobioliths of the single genetic series - has been undertaken. The scientific and practical interest in the information on shale formations is connected with the prospects that they offer for extraction and industrial utilization of the trace elements. It is shown that the ontogenesis of naphtides is accompanied by the functional transformation of both the organic components (hydrocarbons) and non-organic components (various metal and non-metal compositions). Possible origins of accumulation of trace elements in oils were evaluated. Classification of oils of oil-and-gas bearing basins of different tectonic structure based on their physical and chemical properties as well as the contents and ratios of their "biogenesis" elements (V, Ni, Fe) were performed. It was shown that the differentiation of naphtides is due to lithophascial conditions of deposition of the original organic matter and also due to diagenic, cathagenic and hypergenic processes of the evolution of the hydrocarbons. The most significant redistribution in the concentrations of some of the metals occur during the hypergenic transformations of oils. Existence of oils with different metallogeny is related to the contents of the original organic matter and the processes of the transformation of hydrocarbon fluids during the course of geological development of the OGB.

  19. Estimation of annual trace element deposition to the Chesapeake watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.; Lynch, J.; Ondov, J.

    1995-12-31

    Trace elements are emitted to the atmosphere from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources, including fossil fuel combustion, incineration, and agricultural and construction activities. In recent years precipitation and aerosol concentrations have been made at several locations throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which have been used to estimate direct deposition to the Bay surface. These measurements indicate that for many elements (e.g., Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) atmospheric flux is comparable to their dissolved riverine input. Furthermore, an unknown fraction of the fluvial input is derived indirectly from atmospheric deposition to the watershed and eventual transmission through the watersheds. Although the degree of transmission is presumed to be relatively small, by virtue of the large watershed to open water ratio of the Chesapeake ({approximately} 16:1), the net indirect loading may in fact be quite significant. A first step in assessing the importance of watershed transmission of atmospherically deposited trace elements is to estimate the annual integrated deposition to the watershed. This has been done using a statistical precipitation model developed at Pennsylvania State University, employing existing data from a number of studies. Wet deposition was estimated using flux measurements from 5 sites: Wye-Island, the Elms, Bear Branch and Haven Beach, VA. Dry deposition estimates are based on measured aerosol concentrations at several locations, using appropriate deposition velocities (V{sub d}) for land use specification produced by the Chesapeake Bay Program. Source attribution analysis of selected trace elements and major ions were based on seven years of precipitation event data from the Lewes, DE site using Chemical Mass Balance, factor analysis and air-mass back-trajectories.

  20. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  1. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  2. Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Lava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ross; Sabella, Jordan; Thomas, Keenan; Norman, Eric; Guillamon, P.; Goldman, I.; Smith, A.

    2012-10-01

    The elemental compositions of lavas vary with the locations of the volcanoes from which they emerged. We have used neutron activa- tion analysis to measure the abundances of approximately 32 different elements in lava samples collected from three different Hawaiian islands and from the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Two different neutron ir- radiations were performed at the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center to optimize our sensitivities to both short- and long-lived radioisotopes. Gamma-ray counting was done at McClellan, UC Berkeley, and LBNL using large-volume high-purity Ge detectors. Results from the mea- surements will be presented and comparisons will be made between the trace-element compositions of the lavas from these different sites.

  3. Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Lava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R. E.; Sabella, J. L.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Guillamon, P. V.; Goldman, I. D.; Smith, A. R.

    2012-10-01

    The elemental compositions of lavas vary with the locations of the volcanoes from which they emerged. We have used neutron activation analysis to measure the abundances of approximately 32 different elements in lava samples collected from three different Hawaiian islands and from the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Two different neutron irradiations were performed at the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center to optimize our sensitivities to both short- and long-lived radioisotopes. Gamma-ray counting was done at McClellan, UC Berkeley, and LBNL using large-volume high-purity Ge detectors. Results from the measurements will be presented and comparisons will be made between the trace-element compositions of the lavas from these different sites.

  4. Trace-element and phase relations in fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D.; Weinberger, A.J.; Ferguson, N.M.; Northcutt, K.J.; Lyon, W.S.

    1981-05-01

    Chemical forms of elements have been studied in fly ash specimens collected from four Tennessee Valley Authority steam plants. Matrix components have been isolated and individually analyzed to determine trace element distributions. After particle sizing and extraction of magnetic components, the aluminosilicate phases were etched in 1% HF to remove glasses comingled with mullite and quartz. Neutron activation and atomic absorption analyses showed that most of the +1- and +2-valent elements, rare earths, and certain transition metals were concentrated in the glass phases. Cr, V, Ti, Fe, Ga, and Zr, which are trivalent and tetravalent, were concentrated in the crystal phases. X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses show that the main components of the magnetic phase are ferrite compounds with compositions of approximately Fe/sub 2/ /sub 3/Al/sub 0/ /sub 7/O/sub 4/. First-row transition elements, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn are concentrated by factors as high as 50 in the magnetic phases. This infers that they occur as isomorphic substitutions in the magnetic spinel lattice since such compounds are well known. Because the spinel is magnetic, a magnetic separation could be used to remove spinel, along with its associated transition metals. Scanning electron microscopy studies of mullite phases remaining after 1% etching suggest that they have resource value. As mullite and quartz crystallize during the solidification of fly ash particles, they purify themselves of trace elements by freezing them out into interstitial glass phases. An analytic scheme for routine chemical specification and pollution hazard assessment of fly ash is suggested. Studies of fly ash exposed to sluice pond waters show tht iron in the magnetic spinel phases is oxidized and subsequently adsorbed on alumino-silicate and other particles. Arsenic and molybdenum are translocated and concentrated into these iron-rich surface phases.

  5. Non-destructive shadowgraph imaging of ultra-cold atoms.

    PubMed

    Wigley, P B; Everitt, P J; Hardman, K S; Hush, M R; Wei, C H; Sooriyabandara, M A; Manju, P; Close, J D; Robins, N P; Kuhn, C C N

    2016-10-15

    An imaging system is presented that is capable of far-detuned non-destructive imaging of a Bose-Einstein condensate with the signal proportional to the second spatial derivative of the density. Whilst demonstrated with application to Rb85, the technique generalizes to other atomic species and is shown to be capable of a signal-to-noise of ∼25 at 1 GHz detuning with 100 in-trap images showing no observable heating or atom loss. The technique is also applied to the observation of individual trajectories of stochastic dynamics inaccessible to single shot imaging. Coupled with a fast optical phase locked loop, the system is capable of dynamically switching to resonant absorption imaging during the experiment.

  6. Non-destructive shadowgraph imaging of ultra-cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigley, P. B.; Everitt, P. J.; Hardman, K. S.; Hush, M. R.; Wei, C. H.; Sooriyabandara, M. A.; Manju, P.; Close, J. D.; Robins, N. P.; Kuhn, C. C. N.

    2016-10-01

    An imaging system is presented that is capable of far-detuned non-destructive imaging of a Bose-Einstein condensate with the signal proportional to the second spatial derivative of the density. Whilst demonstrated with application to $^{85}\\text{Rb}$, the technique generalizes to other atomic species and is shown to be capable of a signal to noise of ${\\sim}25$ at $1$GHz detuning with $100$ in-trap images showing no observable heating or atom loss. The technique is also applied to the observation of individual trajectories of stochastic dynamics inaccessible to single shot imaging. Coupled with a fast optical phase lock loop, the system is capable of dynamically switching to resonant absorption imaging during the experiment.

  7. Non-destructive photoacoustic imaging of metal surface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-11-01

    The detection of metal surface defects is important in achieving the goals of product quality enhancement and manufacturing cost reduction. Identifying the defects with visual inspection is difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Thus, several inspection methods using line cameras, magnetic field, and ultrasound have been proposed. However, identifying small defects on metal surfaces remains a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a new non-destructive imaging tool to detect metal surface defects. We successfully visualized two types of cracks (i.e., unclassified and seam cracks) in metal plate samples using PAI. In addition, we successfully extracted cracked edges from height-encoded photoacoustic maximum amplitude projection images using the Laplacian of Gaussian filtering method, and then, quantified the detected edges for a statistical analysis. We concluded that PAI can be useful in detecting metal surface defects reducing the defect rate and manufacturing cost during metal production.

  8. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  9. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack

    2017-03-07

    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, a focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.

  10. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  11. Non-destructive monitoring of river embankments using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Prinzio, Monica; Bittelli, Marco; Castellarin, Attilio; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Non-destructive investigations and controls of civil structures are improving day by day, however the scientific literature reports only a few documented cases of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications to the detection of voids and discontinuities in hydraulic defense structures such as river embankments and levee systems. GPR can assist decision making in a number of fields by enhancing our knowledge of subsurface features. We applied successfully GPR to the monitoring of river levees for the detectioning of animal burrows in river levees, which may trigger levee failures by piping. The manageability and the non-invasivity of GPR have resulted to be particularly suitable for this application. First because GPR is an extensive investigation method that enables one to rapidly cover a wide area, locating voids that are difficult and costly to locate using other intrusive methods. Second, GPR returns detailed information about the possible presence of voids and discontinuities within river embankments.

  12. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-15

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  13. What We Have Learned About the Existing Trace Element Partitioning data During the Population Phase of traceDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Trischman, T.

    2015-12-01

    The database traceDs is designed to provide a transparent and accessible resource of experimental partitioning data. It now includes ~ 90% of all the experimental trace element partitioning data (~4000 experiments) produced over the past 45 years, and is accessible through a web based interface (using the portal lepr.ofm-research.org). We set a minimum standard for inclusion, with the threshold criteria being the inclusion of: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without knowledge of composition of the phases, and the temperature and pressure of formation/equilibration. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. In the process of populating the database, we have learned a number of things about the existing published experimental partitioning data. Most important are: ~ 20% of the papers do not satisfy one or more of the threshold criteria. The standard format for presenting data is the average. This was developed as the standard during the time where there were space constraints for publication in spite of fact that all the information can now be published as electronic supplements. The uncertainties that are published with the compositional data are often not adequately explained (e.g. 1 or 2 sigma, standard deviation of the average, etc.). We propose a new set of publication standards for experimental data that include the minimum criteria described above, the publication

  14. Non-destructive diffraction enhanced imaging of seeds.

    PubMed

    Young, Lester W; Parham, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong; Chapman, Dean; Reaney, Martin J T

    2007-01-01

    Techniques that make possible the non-destructive continuous observation of plant anatomy and developmental processes provide novel insights into these phenomena. Non-destructive imaging of seeds was demonstrated using the synchrotron-based X-ray imaging technique, diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI). The seed images obtained had good contrast and definition, allowing anatomical structures and physiological events to be observed. Structures such as hypocotyl-root axes, cotyledons, seed coats, air cavities, and embryo-less Brassica napus L. seeds were readily observed using DEI. Embryo axes, scutella, pericarp furrows, coleoptiles, and roots were observable over a time-course in individual germinating Triticum aestivum L. caryopses. Novel anatomical and physiological observations were also made that would have been difficult to make continuously using other techniques. The physical principles behind DEI make it a unique imaging technique. Contrast in DEI is the result of X-ray refraction at the density differences occurring at tissue boundaries, scatter caused by regions containing ordered molecules such as cellulose fibres, and attenuation. Sectioning of samples and the infusion of stains or other contrast agents are not necessary. Furthermore, as high-energy X-rays are used (30-40 keV), little X-ray absorption occurs, resulting in low levels of radiation damage. Consequently, studies of developmental processes may be performed on individuals. Individual germinating B. napus and T. aestivum seeds were imaged at several time points without incurring any apparent radiation damage. DEI offers a unique way of examining plant anatomy, development, and physiology, and provides images that are complementary to those obtained through other techniques.

  15. Trace element characteristics of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle in the Rio Grande rift region

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    Trace element analyses of 10 mafic volcanic rocks from the Colorado Plateau transition zone, Colorado Plateau, Rio Grande rift, and Great Plains were obtained to characterize the trace element characteristics of asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle beneath these regions. Characterization of these mantle reservoirs using the trace element contents of basalts allows one to track the response of the lithosphere to continental rifting and extension.

  16. Prospecting for hyperaccumulators of trace elements: a review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Specific plant species that can take up and accumulate abnormally high concentrations of elements in their aboveground tissues are referred to as "hyperaccumulators". The use of this term is justified in the case of enormous element-binding capacity of plants growing in their natural habitats and showing no toxicity symptoms. An increasing interest in the study of hyperaccumulators results from their potential applications in environmental biotechnology (phytoremediation, phytomining) and their emerging role in nanotechnology. The highest number of plant species with confirmed hyperaccumulative properties has been reported for hyperaccumulators of nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium. More limited data exist for plants accumulating other elements, including common pollutants (chromium, lead and boron) or elements of commercial value, such as copper, gold and rare earth elements. Different approaches have been used for the study of hyperaccumulators - geobotanical, chemical, biochemical and genetic. The chemical approach is the most important in screening for new hyperaccumulators. This article presents and critically reviews current trends in new hyperaccumulator research, emphasizing analytical methodology that is applied in identification of new hyperaccumulators of trace elements and its future perspectives.

  17. Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Lee, B.-G.; Fisher, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

  18. NON-DESTRUCTIVE THERMAL BARRIER COATING SPALLATION PREDICTION BY A LOADBASED MICRO-INDENTATION TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Tannenbaum; K. Lee; B. S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2010-11-18

    Currently, the durability and life cycle of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) applied to gas turbine blades and combustor components are limiting the maximum temperature and subsequent efficiency at which gas turbine engines operate. The development of new materials, coating technologies and evaluation techniques is required if enhanced efficiency is to be achieved. Of the current ceramic coating materials used in gas turbine engines, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is most prevalent, its low thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion coefficient and outstanding mechanical strength make it ideal for use in TBC systems. However, residual stresses caused by coefficients of thermal expansion mismatches within the TBC system and unstable thermally grown oxides are considered the primary causes for its premature and erratic spallation failure. Through finite element simulations, it is shown that the residual stresses generated within the thermally grown oxide (TGO), bond coat (BC), YSZ and their interfaces create slight variations in indentation unloading surface stiffness response prior to spallation failure. In this research, seven air plasma sprayed and one electron beam physical vapor deposition yttria partially stabilized zirconia TBCs were subjected to isothermal and cyclic loadings at 1100°C. The associated coating degradation was evaluated using a non-destructive multiple partial unloading micro-indentation procedure. The results show that the proposed non-destructive micro-indentation evaluation technique can be an effective and specimenindependent TBC failure prediction tool capable of determining the location of initial spallation failure prior to its actual occurrence.

  19. Non-destructive Testing of Forged Metallic Materials by Active Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, S.; Cadith, J.; Bouteille, P.; Legros, G.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, infrared thermography is considered as the reference method in many applications such as safety, the inspection of electric installations, or the inspection of buildings' heat insulation. In recent years, the evolution of both material and data-processing tools also allows the development of thermography as a real non-destructive testing method. Thus, by subjecting the element to be inspected to an external excitation and by analyzing the propagation of heat in the examined zone, it is possible to highlight surface or subsurface defects such as cracks, delaminations, or corrosion. One speaks then about active infrared thermography. In this study, some results obtained during the collective studies carried out by CETIM and the University of Reims for the forging industry are presented. Various experimental possibilities offered by active thermography are presented and the interest in this method in comparison with the traditional non-destructive testing methods (penetrant testing and magnetic particle inspection) is discussed. For example, comparative results on a forged cracked hub, a steering joint, and a threaded rod are presented. They highlight the interest of infrared thermography stimulated by induction for forged parts.

  20. Non-destructive investigation of a time capsule using neutron radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, B. L.; Vanderstelt, J.; O'Meara, J.; McNeill, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important for the study of objects of cultural heritage interest. This study applied two techniques: X-ray fluorescence and neutron radiography, for the investigation of a capped, tubular metal object recovered from an urban construction site in Gore Park, Hamilton, Canada. The site is an urban park containing a World War I commemorative monument that underwent renovation and relocation. Historical documentation suggested that the object buried underneath the monument was a time capsule containing a paper document listing the names of 1800 Canadians who died during WWI. The purpose of this study was to assess the condition of the object, and to verify if it was what the historical records purported. XRF analysis was used to characterize the elemental composition of the metal artifact, while neutron radiography revealed that its contents were congruent with historical records and remained intact after being interred for 91 years. Results of this study demonstrate the value of non-destructive techniques for the analysis and preservation of cultural heritage.

  1. Orthopyroxenes as recorders of diogenite petrogenesis: Trace element systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Layne, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    Eucrite, howardite, and diogenite members of the achondrites are considered, by many, to be genetically related. Therefore, each provide a piece of the puzzle for reconstructing magmatic processes on the eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship between eucrites and diogenites can be viewed within the context of two distinctly different models: (1) fractional crystallization; and (2) partial melting. In fractional crystallization models, eucrites and diogenites represent a complementary continuum of planetary fractional crystallization products in which the diogenites represent crystal accumulations during the crystallization of eucritic magmas at shallow to deep levels in the EPB. Alternatively, experimental studies may be interpreted as indicating eucrites represent peritectic partial melts of a primitive, chondritic EPB mantle. Within this type of model, the diogenites are also generally considered to be cumulates; however, their petrogenetic relationship to the eucrites is less clear. Sack et al. proposed that the olivine diogenites represent residua from the partial melting events that produced eucritic liquids. Initial trace element studies of orthopyroxene (OPX) are consistent with this model. However, this trace element modeling of the olivine diogenites is nonunique. As a further test of these models, we did the following three things: (1) analyzed OPX from cumulate diogenites to compare with the olibine diogenite data; (2) improved ion microprobe analytical techniques for the analysis of elements critical to our interpretations; and (3) selected more relevant Kd's for OPX-eucritic melt.

  2. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions.

  3. Trace Elements Status in Sera of Patients with Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nazila, Ariaee; Reza, Farid; Fahimeh, Shabestari; Mohamad, Shabestari; Farahzad, Jabbari Azad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and its severity varies with the inflammatory grade. There are conflicting reports about the roles of trace elements in asthma. This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) concentrations in sera of patients with allergic asthma attending Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Methods: Forty-nine patients, aged 10 to 50 years, with asthma in moderate or severe stages, and 24 healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. After demographic data collection and clinical evaluations, the subjects’ serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Se were measured via atomic absorbency. Results: Mean serum levels of Zn and Se in patients with allergic asthma were lower than in the healthy control group, but the Cu concentration in sera of patients with allergic asthma was slightly higher than healthy controls. Conclusion: Low levels of trace elements, specifically Zn, may have a role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma; replacement of these elements may be an effective treatment. PMID:28070530

  4. Trace elements in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Keshin, S.S.; Xudong Huang; Olmez, I. ); Langway, C.C. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    Aerosol particles from both natural and anthropogenic sources are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind systems by various mechanisms. Once airborne, the particles, which contain various trace elements, accumulate on the earth's surface as either condensation nuclei or by dry fallout processes. In the polar regions, these particles are incorporated and deposited in snow layers in sequential time-unit increments. The trace analysis of elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere for the same time interval. A 164-m-deep, 10-cm-diam ice core was obtained at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in November 1989. Other physical and chemistry studies on this ice core have identified its detailed chronology in annual increments for the past 1360 yr. This study presents the results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) measurements made on 26 individually dated samples of this core, selected between the 6.43- and 118.15-m depths.

  5. Trace elements in PM 2.5 in Gothenburg, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, Johan; Wagner, Annemarie; Gatari, Michael J.

    2010-06-01

    Ambient aerosol particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5) are getting more and more attention worldwide. While legal focus is mainly on sample mass, the composition of the particles is an important research field gaining increased interest. The interest is not only connected to possible health effects of the elemental content of the particles, but the elemental determination can also add valuable information for source apportionment. Samples were collected during 20 days in November 2007 at the campus of the Chemistry Department, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. The particles were collected using a cyclone that separates the PM 2.5 particles from the air stream and impacts them on polycarbonate filters. Filters were changed at early afternoon. The samples were analyzed for particulate mass, black carbon (BC) and the elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Cd and Pb. Several of the elements were above detection limit in only a few of the samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on the Wobi TXRF module supplied by the International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) has been used for the determination of most trace elements in the samples. A Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF-AAS) was used for complementary trace element analysis and a reflectometer was used to analyze black carbon. Before elemental analysis the filters were digested using a microwave digestion system with temperature and pressure control. The results showed a large variation in sample mass, BC and analyzed elemental concentrations. The variation of the different constituents did not show the same pattern. This added to the picture of different sources for different pollutants. The highest S concentration was noted on a day when the air masses were determined to come from the southeast, i.e. Poland and some other Eastern European countries. From the results it can be concluded that more work is needed on the TXRF spectrometer to optimize

  6. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  7. Pancreatic cancer risk and levels of trace elements

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F. S.; Porta, Miquel; Silverman, Debra T.; Milne, Roger L.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Rothman, Nathaniel; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Brian P.; Pumarega, José A.; López, Tomàs; Carrato, Alfredo; Guarner, Luisa; Real, Francisco X.; Malats, Núria

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Knowledge on the etiology of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC) is scant. The best established risk factor for EPC is tobacco smoking. Among other carcinogens, tobacco contains cadmium, a metal previously associated with an increased risk of EPC. We evaluated the association between concentrations of trace elements in toenails and EPC risk. Methods The study included 118 EPC cases and 399 hospital controls from Eastern Spain. Levels of twelve trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders, were calculated using logistic regression. Results Significantly increased risks of EPC were observed among subjects whose concentrations of cadmium (OR=3.58, 95%CI 1.86–6·88; Ptrend=5×10−6), arsenic (OR=2.02, 95%CI 1.08–3.78; Ptrend=0.009), and lead (OR=6.26, 95%CI 2.71–14.47; Ptrend=3×10−5) were in the highest quartile. High concentrations of selenium (OR=0.05, 95%CI 0.02–0.15; Ptrend=8×10−11) and nickel (OR=0.27, 95%CI 0.12–0.59; Ptrend=2×10−4) were inversely associated with risk of EPC. Conclusion We report novel associations of lead, nickel, and selenium toenail concentrations with pancreas cancer risk. Furthermore, results confirm previous associations with cadmium and arsenic. These novel findings, if replicated in independent studies, would point to an important role of trace elements in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22184070

  8. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal

    PubMed Central

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross–validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment. PMID:27438794

  9. [Routine comparison of trace element deficiencies during parenteral alimentation].

    PubMed

    du Cailar, J; Mathieu-Daudé, J C; Kienlen, J; Béssou, D; Griffe, O; Bélé-Binda

    1977-01-01

    In 50 patients aged between 3 and 84 years treated in a multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit and receiving parenteral alimentation, deficiency in certain trace elements or electrolytes (Cu++, Zn++, Mn++, Co++, PO-4, Mg++) was prevented or treated by the administration of a glucose solution (MB 147 G) enriched in trace elements. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate, on the basis of assay of serum levels of the trace elements involved, with the exception of Mn and Co, the effectiveness of treatment. Reference values were determined on the one hand in healthy individuals for normal figures and secondly on subjects included in the study, already on parenteral alimentation for several days, before treatment with MB 147 G, in order to demonstrate the existence of a deficiency (patient control values). In the case of PO--4, however, the patient control values concerned at one and the same time subjects in the study before treatment with MB 147 G and other patients receiving parenteral alimentation who were not part of the trial. MB 147 G solution was presented in units of 500 ml associated with glucose of varying concentrations (15 p. 100, 30 p. 100, 50 p. 100). The average daily amount administered, over a period of 236 days, was 3 unites per 24 hours, corresponding to an intake of copper of 3.78 mg, 3.90 mg of zinc, 0.20 mg of manganese, 0.24 mg of cobalt, 363 mg of magnesium, 240 mg of calcium and 15 mEz of phosphates. The results show that levels of copper, zinc, magnesium and phosphates were low during parenteral alimentation. The administration of MB 147 G resulted in a significant increase in these values, without there being any evidence of accumulation.

  10. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of trace elements in barbecue charcoals.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Annabel; Turner, Andrew

    2013-11-15

    Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16 μg g(-1) for Cd to 3240 μg g(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007 μg g(-1) for Cd to 28 μg g(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  12. Trace elements in Antarctic meteorites: Weathering and genetic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite discoveries have created great scientific interest due to the large number of specimens recovered (approximately 7000) and because included are representatives of hitherto rare or unknown types. Antarctic meteorites are abundant because they have fallen over long periods and were preserved, transported, and concentrated by the ice sheets. The weathering effects on the Antarctic meteorites are described. Weathering effects of trace element contents of H5 chondrites were studied in detail. The results are examined. The properties of Antarctic finds and non-Antarctic falls are discussed.

  13. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Karoonda /C4/ chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matza, S. D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of ten volatile/mobile trace elements and of nonvolatile Co in the Karoonda (C4) meteorite were determined, and the atomic abundances relative to C1 are compared with values for the Murchison (C2) and Allende (C3) meteorites. Empirical Bi, In, and Tl data for Karoonda and heated Allende and Murchison are compared with theoretical curves for condensation from a gas of cosmic composition at low pressures. It is suggested that Karoonda might derive from low-temperature open-system metamorphism of pristine C3-like material.

  14. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    DOE PAGES

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; ...

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro-and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (whichmore » some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. In conclusion, it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.« less

  15. Trace Element Geochemistry of Martian Iddingsite in the Lafayette Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite contains abundant iddingsite, a fine-grained intergrowth of smectite clay, ferrihydrite, and ionic salt minerals. Both the meteorite and iddingsite formed on Mars. Samples of iddingsite, olivine, and augite pyroxene were extracted from Lafayette and analyzed for trace elements by instrumental neutron activation. Our results are comparable to independent analyses by electron and ion microbeam methods. Abundances of most elements in the iddingsite do not covary significantly. The iddingsite is extremely rich in Hg, which is probably terrestrial contamination. For the elements Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn, the composition of the iddingsite is close to a mixture of approximately 50% Lafayette olivine + approximately 40% Lafayette siliceous glass + approximately 1O% water. Concordant behavior among these elements is not compatible with element fractionations between smectite and water, but the hydrous nature and petrographic setting of the iddingsite clearly suggest an aqueous origin. These inferences are both consistent, however, with deposition of the iddingsite originally as a silicate gel, which then crystallized (neoformed) nearly isochemically. The iddingsite contains significantly more magnesium than implied by the model, which may suggest that the altering solutions were rich in Mg(2+).

  16. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Małgorzata I.; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  17. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  18. Thermodynamics of selected trace elements in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Lewis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The thermochemistry of several hundred compounds of twelve selected trace elements (Ge, Se, Ga, As, Te, Pb, Sn, Cd, Sb, Tl, In, and Bi) has been investigated for solar composition material along a Jupiter adiabat. The results indicate that AsF3, InBr, TlI, and SbS, in addition to CO, PH3, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HCl, HF, and H3BO3 proposed by Barshay and Lewis (1978), may be potential chemical tracers of atmospheric dynamics. The reported observation of GeH4 is interpreted on the basis of new calculations as implying rapid vertical transport from levels where the temperature is greater than or equal to 800 K. Upper limits are also set on the abundances of many gaseous compounds of the elements investigated.

  19. Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.

  20. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    PubMed

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2017-02-12

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from <21 to 11,900 mg/kg, in same brand, super-premium dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  1. Enstatite chondrites - Trace element clues to their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertogen, J.; Janssens, M.-J.; Takahashi, H.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three EH and three EL chondrites have been subjected to RNAA analysis for 20 trace elements, and interelement correlations were examined in order to assess the effects of nebular fractionation and metamorphism. The refractory siderophiles Ir, Os, and Re correlate with the normal siderophiles Ni, Pd, Au, Sb, and Ge, in ELs but not in EHs. The two element groups presumably condensed on separate phases at first, but concentrated in metal during metabolism. Volatiles are consistently more depleted in ELs than EHs. Strong correlations are found for In-Tl, Tl-Bi, and Zn-Cd-In, which are equally consistent with predicted condensation curves for the solar nebula and with volatilization curves for artificially heated Abee. The three factors accounting for 93 percent of variance reflect volatile, siderophile, and chalcophile behavior.

  2. Experimental Constraints on Trace Element Mobility in Martian Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavon, L. J.; McLennan, S. M.; Lindsley, D. H.; Tosca, N. J.

    2007-12-01

    It is widely believed that aqueous alteration on Mars has been strongly influenced by low pH conditions. Experimental work has shown that these low pH environments result in the mobility of elements, such as Fe (III) and Al, that are relatively insoluble under most near surface conditions on Earth. Although these studies have increased our understanding of major element behavior, little is known about the mobility of trace elements under Martian conditions. The Mars Exploration Rovers have provided and continue to provide analyses of Ni, Zn, and Cr at both the Spirit and Opportunity landing sites. In-situ rock and soil analyses show that these trace elements are highly variable, which generates many questions about the processes that control their distribution. Among the issues that need to be considered are the roles of meteoritic contributions, aqueous alteration, residual enrichments, evaporative concentrations, and so forth. A central question to addressing these issues is the nature of the mobility of Ni, Zn, and Cr during aqueous alteration under Martian conditions. Accordingly, we have begun a series of batch aqueous alteration experiments on synthesized Martian basalt in an attempt to better understand the mobility of Ni, Zn, and Cr on the Martian surface. Basalt analog compositions are the same as those used in previous studies from our lab and are based on average S- and Cl-free Pathfinder soil, with Ni, Zn, and Cr added in the form of oxides. Mixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, with varying concentrations (ranging from 1M H2SO4/0.25M HCl to 100 μM H2SO4/25 μM HCl and a S:Cl mole ratio of 4, comparable to typical soils), are added to synthesized basalt in order to achieve a water-to-rock ratio of 10. Fluid-rock mixtures are allowed to react in Teflon beakers at 25 ° C for a period of 14 days, during which time small amounts of fluid are extracted and analyzed for major and trace elements to constrain the nature of alteration mechanisms. At the

  3. Microstructural evolution and trace element mobility in Witwatersrand pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Hough, Robert M.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructural analysis of pyrite from a single sample of Witwatersrand conglomerate indicates a complex deformation history involving components of both plastic and brittle deformation. Internal deformation associated with dislocation creep is heterogeneously developed within grains, shows no systematic relationship to bulk rock strain or the location of grain boundaries and is interpreted to represent an episode of pyrite deformation that predates the incorporation of detrital pyrite grains into the Central Rand conglomerates. In contrast, brittle deformation, manifest by grain fragmentation that transects dislocation-related microstructures, is spatially related to grain contacts and is interpreted to represent post-depositional deformation of the Central Rand conglomerates. Analysis of the low-angle boundaries associated with the early dislocation creep phase of deformation indicates the operation of <010>{100} slip systems. However, some orientation boundaries have geometrical characteristics that are not consistent with simple <010>{100} deformation. These boundaries may represent the combination of multiple slip systems or the operation of the previously unrecognized <001>{120} slip system. These boundaries are associated with order of magnitude enrichments in As, Ni and Co that indicate a deformation control on the remobilization of trace elements within pyrite and a potential slip system control on the effectiveness of fast-diffusion pathways. The results confirm the importance of grain-scale elemental remobilization within pyrite prior to their incorporation into the Witwatersrand gold-bearing conglomerates. Since the relationship between gold and pyrite is intimately related to the trace element geochemistry of pyrite, the results have implications for the application of minor element geochemistry to ore deposit formation, suggest a reason for heterogeneous conductivity and localized gold precipitation in natural pyrite and provide a framework for

  4. Major and trace elements in organically or conventionally produced milk.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, John E; Badsberg, Jens H; Kristensen, Troels; Gundersen, Vagn

    2005-08-01

    A total of 480 samples of milk from 10 organically and 10 conventionally producing dairy farms in Denmark and covering 8 sampling periods over 1 year (triplicate samplings) were analysed for 45 trace elements and 6 major elements by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. The dairy cattle breeds were Danish-Holstein or Jersey. Sources of variance were quantified, and differences between production systems and breeds were tested. The major source of variation for most elements was week of sampling. Concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mo, Rb, Se, and Zn were within published ranges. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb were lower, and concentrations of Co and Sr were higher than published ranges. Compared with Holsteins, Jerseys produced milk with higher concentrations of Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Rh, and Zn and with a lower concentration of Bi. The organically produced milk, compared with conventionally produced milk, contained a significantly higher concentration of Mo (48 v. 37 ng/g) and a lower concentration of Ba (43 v. 62 ng/g), Eu (4 v. 7 ng/g), Mn (16 v. 20 ng/g) and Zn (4400 v. 5150 ng/g respectively). The investigation yielded typical concentrations for the following trace elements in milk, for which no or very few data are available: Ba, Bi, Ce, Cs, Eu, Ga, Gd, In, La, Nb, Nd, Pd, Pr, Rh, Sb, Sm, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Y, and Zr.

  5. Complementary use of PIXE-alpha and XRF portable systems for the non-destructive and in situ characterization of gemstones in museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Karydas, A. G.; Kotzamani, N.; Pappalardo, G.; Romano, F. P.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2005-09-01

    Gemstones on gold Hellenistic (late 4th century BC, 1st AD) jewelry, exhibited at the Benaki Museum of Athens, were analyzed in situ by means of two non-destructive and portable analytical techniques. The composition of major and minor elements was determined using a new portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer. The analytical features of this spectrometer allow the determination of matrix elements from Na to Zn through the K-lines and the determination of higher atomic number elements via the L- or M-lines. The red stones analyzed were revealed as red garnets, displaying a compositional range from Mg-rich garnet to Fe-rich garnet. The complementary use of a portable XRF spectrometer provided additional information on some trace elements (Cr and Y), which are considered to be important for the chemical separation between different garnet groups. A comparison of our results with recent literature data offers useful indications about the possible geographical provenance of the stones. The analytical techniques, their complementarity and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

  6. Environmental impact of trace element emissions from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R; Cateni, D; Nelli, L; Olmastroni, S; Zagarese, B

    1997-08-01

    Concentrations of several trace elements were determined in mosses, higher plants and organs of small mammals from a geothermal area in Tuscany (central Italy). Increased deposition of Hg, As, B, and Sb was detected in biological samples collected within a few hundred meters of geothermal power plants. Among the species considered, the moss Hypnum cupressiforme was the most efficient accumulator of trace elements. Contamination levels in a fodder-plant (Hedysarum coronarium) and vegetables grown in the geothermal field did not seem to pose health risks for consumers. However, a statistically significant increase in Hg, B, and As concentrations was found in the kidney and muscle of small mammals living close to geothermal installations. Biological effects of B pollution were detected in two sensitive plant species. In view of plans to increase the exploitation of geothermal resources in the area, adequate measures to monitor the environment should be taken. Mosses are the most suitable accumulative biomonitors for a surveillance network, and studies on small mammal populations should be intensified. Available technologies should be used to diminish atmospheric emissions from geothermal power plants.

  7. Trace element criteria for selecting unaltered inoceramids for paleotemperature studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell-Gerhardt, K.J.; Dunbar, R.B

    1985-01-01

    Paleocirculation modeling of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway has been hindered by the lack of unaltered biogenic carbonate suitable for isotopic paleotemperature analysis. For this reason, researchers have begun using the extinct Cretaceous bivalve, Inoceramus, for such studies. Oxygen isotopic values obtained from inoceramids are usually light, suggesting either freshwater input into the seaway during original calcite precipitation, or subsequent diagenetic alteration in meteoric waters. In this study, isotopic data were compared to shell fabric and trace element content to establish criteria for rejection of altered materials from further consideration in paleoclimate reconstructions. Fifty inoceramids were collected in Wyoming and Montana from the Cody Shale, of Upper Cretaceous age. Four types of fabric alteration were observed; dissolution, secondary precipitation, pressure solution, and deposition of metallic crusts. Shells were then ranked by fabric into three groups, and analyzed for C and O isotopic rations, and trace element content. Depletion of Mg in altered textures was observed in electron microprobe transects across shells. Mg and delta/sup 18/O covary in the sample set. Shells within the well-preserved fabric group generally had higher Mg concentrations and increased /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios than those in the poorly-preserved group. Combined textural and geochemical data suggest that very subtle alteration of inoceramid carbonate may occur, and great care must be taken in selection of suitable samples for paleotemperature analysis.

  8. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D.; Robinson, L.

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  9. Trace elements in sera from patients with renal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Sera, Kouichiro; Sato, Michirou

    1999-04-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, an accumulation of trace elements such as aluminum, copper, silicon and vanadium has been reported. Aluminum-caused encephalopathy and aluminum-related bone diseases are important trace element-related complications. Using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) we determined concentrations of aluminum, silicon, copper, zinc, selenium and bromine in sera of 29 patients with HD, 14 nondialysis patients with renal disease (RD) and 27 normal controls. The concentration of serum silicon of the patients with HD was 107.4 ± 61.3 μmol/l, which is markedly higher than that of normal controls (48.3 ± 25.8 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The serum concentrations of zinc and bromine in patients with HD were 11.9 ± 1.7 and 21.3 ± 3.0 μmol/l, respectively. Both were markedly lower than those of normal controls (15.6 ± 2.6, 69.2 ± 8.3 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The concentrations of aluminium and bromine in the serum of patients with RD were 171.9 ± 64.3 and 81.9 ± 11.6 μmol/l, which were markedly higher than those of normal controls ( p < 0.0001, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the concentration of copper and selenium among three groups.

  10. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  11. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  12. Reevaluation of the trace element content in Reference Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, G. V.

    1998-06-01

    Using recent analytical data, the total body content of several trace elements for the 70 kg Reference Man has been reevaluated. The evaluation leads to the following conclusions. For Al, Ba, Cu and F, the present estimates show an increase; for Br, Cs, I, Pb and Zn the average values for the total body content derived from the present evaluation have remained close to the 1975 estimates; for As, Cd and Rb, the total contents have declined; for B, Co and Mn the uncertainty of the 1975 evaluations have been reduced; and for Au and Cr the 1997 estimations are far below the 1975 estimates. Provisional estimates for Ni (4-6.5 mg), Se (14-21 mg) and Si (2000-3000 mg) are proposed for the first time. With respect to dietary intakes, in contrast to the earlier estimates intakes of trace elements were found to be decreased by factors of 2 for Cu, 2-5 for Cr, 5-10 for Cd, Hg and Pb, and >10 for Ag, As, Co, Li, Sb and V.

  13. The role of trace elements in juvenile diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tuvemo, T; Gebre-Medhin, M

    There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease. Magnesium deficiency is the most evident disturbance of metal metabolism in diabetes mellitus. Hypomagnesemia might increase the risk of ischemic heart disease and severe retinopathy. Increased urinary loss of zinc is a commonly encountered feature of diabetes. High-dose oral zinc might enhance wound healing, although data regarding diabetes are lacking. Chromium increases tissue sensitivity to insulin and tends to raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and the HDL:low-density lipoprotein ratio. Selenium is involved in processes which protect the cell against oxidative damage by peroxides produced from lipid metabolism. There is one report of elevated serum selenium in diabetic children although the clinical significance of this finding is still unclear. An insulin-like effect has recently been attributed to vanadium in experimental animals, a finding of potential interest to man. Current knowledge does not implicate iron, iodine, manganese, cobalt, nickel, silicone, fluoride, molybdenum or tin in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Appropriate trace element supplementation might prove beneficial in ameliorating some physiological deficiencies associated with diabetes and prevent or retard secondary complications. However, properly designed and well-documented trials, especially on magnesium supplementation, need to be performed before rationales for such supplementation are developed. The potential roles of vanadium, chromium and selenium in diabetes constitute challenging areas for further experimental and clinical research.

  14. Investigation of trace inorganic elements in street doses of heroin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kar-Weng; Tan, Guan-Huat; Wong, Richard C S

    2013-03-01

    Sixteen trace elements found in 309 street heroin samples, piped water and contaminated water were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All the street heroin samples were found to contain high levels of sodium, a reflection of the use of sodium bicarbonate during heroin synthesis. Additionally, this element was also found to be one of the potential contaminants acquired from the piped water. Calcium could be derived from lime while iron, aluminum and zinc could have come from the metallic container used in the processing/cutting stage. The levels of these elements remained low in the heroin and it could be due to the dilution effects from the addition of adulterants. Statistical validation was performed with six links of related heroin samples using principal component analysis to find the best pretreatment for sample classification. It was obtained that normalization followed by fourth root showed promising results with 8% errors in the sample clustering. The technique was then applied to the case samples. Finally, the result suggested that the case samples could have originated from at least two major groups respectively showing unique elemental profiles at the street level. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomonitoring of trace elements in Vietnamese freshwater mussels*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the pollution situation in the northern part of Vietnam with focus on trace elements including heavy metals. A freshwater bivalve species of the Unionidae family ( Pletholophus swinhoei), abundant in this part of the country and frequently used for human consumption, was chosen as biomonitor. Ten specimens each were collected at two rural sites, Duy Minh, approximately 40 km south of the capital Hanoi, and An Thin, situated approximately 11 km south of the Pha Lai power plant. The concentrations of 20 elements were measured using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Significant site-specific differences were found for the elements As, Ba, Be, Br, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, P and Sr. A comparison with other in situ biomonitoring studies using Unionidae bivalves showed that the concentrations of most elements were within the same order of magnitude, whereas heavy metal concentrations were distinctively low, suggesting the absence of major anthropogenic pollution sources in this area. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn were below the levels regarded as harmful according to the international standards for metals in mollusks compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

  16. Trace Element Partitioning Between Metal and Melt at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Moses, M.; Fei, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Fractionations between siderophile trace elements are produced during crystallization of solid metal from a molten planetary core. It has been proposed (e.g., Brandon et al., 2003) that fractionations of Re/Os and Pt/Os produced during crystallization of Earth's inner core are recorded in rocks whose source regions lie at the core-mantle boundary. However, the possible effects of pressure, temperature, composition, and metal crystal structure on metal-melt partitioning have not been fully evaluated experimentally. Accordingly, we have begun to measure the partitioning of major and trace siderophile elements between Fe-rich metal and metal-sulfide melt at high pressures and temperatures using laser ablation ICP-MS of multi-anvil press samples. The starting materials included iron meteorite powder (having natural abundances of PGEs at the /sim10 ppm level) and troilite. In some cases Ru powder was also added to the starting material to promote transformation of the Fe-rich metal to the hcp structure, as described by Campbell et al. (2003). The powders were loaded into an MgO or BN sample capsule in a 10/5 multi-anvil press assembly, and pressurized to 14.5 GPa. The sample chamber thickness was held to <0.4 mm to minimize the temperature gradient experienced by the samples. Melting was achieved at temperatures of 975 C or above, and run durations were 6 to 24 hours. The recovered run products were polished and examined by SEM or electron microprobe before LA-ICP-MS analysis. Laser ablation spot sizes ranged from 15 to 50 microns, depending on the available grain size. Partition coefficients (D) were determined for Co, Ni, Ru, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. Errors on the D values were based on the reproduceability of at least 3 measurements in each phase, and were <10% for major elements and <25% for trace elements. The effects of temperature and composition were evaluated and implications on the chemistry of the core will be discussed. Brandon A. D. et al. (2003) EPSL 206

  17. Biogeochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms: Major and Trace Element Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hot spring biofilms are of obvious biological origin, but of surprising composition. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of chemotrophic and phototrophic biofilms. We have found that the majority of biofilm mass is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Comparisons of biofilms with the compositions of their geochemical surroundings help identify trace elements that are anomalously enriched or depleted. These anomalies provide insight into the processes of active or passive elemental accumulation by biofilms, which could be used to understand microbial processes of element uptake or to identify evidence for life in hydrothermal deposits in the rock record. Five separate hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park were incorporated into this study: 'Bison Pool' and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 93.2 to 56.2 C, pH = 7.4 to 8.3), Flatcone Geyser and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 94.3 to 44.3 C, pH = 7.9 to 8.8, Boulder Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 92.1 to 64.9 C, pH = 8.2 to 8.7), Octopus Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 91.4 to 62.8 C, pH = 7.7 to 8.2), and two unnamed locations in the Obsidian Pool area we have dubbed 'Green Cheese' (temp. = 64.5 to 54.9 C, pH = 5.9 to 6.2) and 'Happy Harfer Pool' (temp. = 59.9 to 48.3 C, pH = 5.5 to 6.3). Analysis of water, biofilm, and contextual samples collected from and around these hot springs offer intriguing patterns of elemental behavior, both similar and dissimilar, among the varying systems. Examples of these patterns include elements that behave the same across all hot spring systems (B, C, Ni, Cu, Ge, Sb, and W), elements with behavior that was consistent throughout most (four of five) of the hot spring systems

  18. Siderophile Elements in Tracing Planetary Formation and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The siderophile elements have many applications in the Earth and planetary sciences. In primitive meteorites, differences in the relative abundances of these elements are likely due to both nebular and parent body processes. In addition, some siderophile elements are also characterized by isotopically distinctive nucleosynthetic signatures. Thus, the relative abundances and isotopic compositions of these elements can be used to trace the genetics of planetary building blocks. Although the siderophile elements are largely concentrated in the metallic cores of differentiated planetary bodies, their absolute and relative abundances, as well as their isotopic compositions can also reveal important information regarding conditions of core formation and subsequent late stages of accretion. For example, the chondritic 187Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os estimated for the bulk silicate Earth require long-term, precisely chondritic Re/Os and Pt/Os, chemical characteristics that are seemingly most easily imposed by late accretion. The lithophile-siderophile nature of the radiogenic 182Hf-182W system allows it to be used to place chronologic constraints on planetary core formation. The differing incompatibilities of the two elements in the silicate portions of planets also means that the system can also be used to study early differentiation processes and efficiency of subsequent convective mixing. Positive and negative 182W anomalies present in rocks throughout the terrestrial rock record indicate the long-term survivability of mantle domains formed within the first 30 to 100 Ma of Solar System history. When matched with other short- and long-lived isotope systems, tungsten isotopes can potentially be used to identify mantle domains created by early magma ocean processes, as well as possible core-mantle interactions.

  19. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Dutay, J.-C.; Heimbürger, L. E.; Jenkins, W. J.; Measures, C. I.; Mills, R. A.; Obata, H.; Turner, D. R.; Whitby, H.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’.

  20. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Casciotti, K. A.; Dutay, J.-C.; Heimbürger, L. E.; Jenkins, W. J.; Measures, C. I.; Mills, R. A.; Obata, H.; Schlitzer, R.; Tagliabue, A.; Turner, D. R.; Whitby, H.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  1. [Supplementation of trace elements in the general medicine].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements are the essential nutrients. Now, 9 elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Go, Cr, Mn, Mo, are recognized as essential trace elements. Serum concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu are about 100 μg/dL, and have important physiological roles. Zinc needs special care because over 300 enzymes contain Zn, and zin deficiency cause various disorders. In advancing age serum Zn concentration decrease. Although the daily requirement of zinc is 10-15 mg in adults, it is necessary to supply much more zinc than adult, by the reason of low intake and low absorption in the elderly. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, many zinc deficient patients suffered from decubitus ulcers, dermatitis, alopecia, taste disorders etc. A 86 y.o. female with deep sacral decubitus ulcer was shown in this report. Her decubitus ulcer was completely recovered after daily administration of polaprezinc containing 34 mg Zn for 18 months, A 76 y.o. female brought about severe hypocupuremia. Serum Cu concentration decreased from 112 μg/dL to 7 μg/dL after 5 months daily administration of 34 mg Zn. Serum Zn concentration elevated from 47 μg/dL to 117 μg/dL, and Cu/Zn ratio decreased 2.38 to 0.06. After stopped zinc supplementation, serum Cu rapidly increased in a 2 month period. At the same time, serum Zn decreased quickly. It was the interesting fact that anemia improved associated with the increase of serum Cu. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, it is necessary to supply zinc in order to prevent respiratory infections such as pneumonia.

  2. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOEpatents

    Fong, James T.

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  3. Non-destructive evaluation of mechanical properties of magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kankolenski, K.P.; Hua, S.Z.; Yang, D.X.; Hicho, G.E.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Zang, Z.; Chopra, H.D.

    2000-07-01

    A magnetic-based non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method, which employs Barkhausen effect and measurement of the hysteresis loops, is used to correlate the magnetic and mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC) steel. In particular, the NDE method was used to detect small deviations from linearity that occur in the stress-strain curve well below the 0.2% offset strain, and which generally defines the yield point in materials. Results show that three parameters: jumpsum and jumpsum rate (derived from the Barkhausen spectrum), and the relative permeability (derived from the B-H loops) varies sensitively with small permanent strains, and can be related to the plastic deformation in ULC steels. Investigation of micromagnetic structure revealed that plastic deformation leaves a residual stress state in the samples; the associated magneto-elastic energy makes the favorable easy axis of magnetization in a given grain to be the one that lies closest to the tensile axis. The consequence of this realignment of domains is that wall motion becomes intergranular in nature (as opposed to intragranular in unstrained samples). As a result, the more complex grain boundaries instead of dislocations, become the dominant pinning sites for domain walls. These observations provide a microscopic interpretation of the observed changes in the measured magnetic properties.

  4. Biomarkers: Non-destructive Method for Predicting Meat Tenderization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arashdeep; Ahluwalia, Preeti; Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita

    2015-07-06

    Meat tenderness is the primary and most important quality attribute for the consumers worldwide. Tenderness is the process of breakdown of collagen tissue in meat to make it palatable. The earlier methods of tenderness evaluation like taste panels and shear force methods are destructive, time consuming and ill suited as they requires removing a piece of steak from the carcass for performing the test. Therefore, a non-destructive method for predicting the tenderness would be more desirable. The development of a meat quality grading and guarantee system through muscle profiling research can help to meet this demand. Biomarkers have the ability to identify if an exposure has occurred. Biomarkers of the meat quality are of prime importance for meat industry, which has ability to satisfy consumers' expectations. The biomarkers so far identified have been then sorted and grouped according to their common biological functions. All of them refer to a series of biological pathways including glycolytic and oxidative energy production, cell detoxification, protease inhibition and production of Heat Shock Proteins. On this basis, a detailed analysis of these metabolic pathways helps in identifying tenderization of meat having some domains of interest. It was, therefore, stressed forward that biomarkers can be used to determine meat tenderness. This review article summarizes the uses of several biomarkers for predicting the meat tenderness.

  5. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  6. Non-destructive characterization of archaeological glasses by neutron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, F.; Giunta, G.; Hilger, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Rustichelli, F.

    2006-11-01

    The present work is carried out in the framework of a National Italian Project, whose aim is the assessment of innovative physical non-destructive techniques applied to archaeology. Towards this end, some archaeological artefacts have been studied by our group, in collaboration with the National Museum of Altino (VE) and EniTecnologie S.p.A. The objects come from the excavations in Altino, near Venice, where at least three different historical layers are present, corresponding to ages starting from approximately VII century B.C. In particular, in this work the results of neutron tomography investigations on three I-II century A.D. glass fragments are reported. The experiments were performed at the cold neutron radiography facility CONRAD at HMI (Berlin). For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 200 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis. The rotation interval was 180 degrees. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct well the structural features of the investigated objects such as, in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk.

  7. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET OUTER COIL SET

    SciTech Connect

    J. BACON; A. BACA; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The controlled power outer coil set of the first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet is described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND controlled power outer coil set consists of seven nested, mechanically independent externally reinforced coils. These coils, in combination, will produce a 47 T platform field in a 225-mm diameter bore. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator provides ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. Each coil consists of a multi-layer winding of high strength conductor supported by an external high strength stainless steel shell. Coils with the highest magnetic loads will utilize a reinforcing shell fabricated from highly cold worked 301 stainless steel strip. The autofrettage conditioning method will be used to pre-stress the coils and thereby limit conductor and reinforcement strains to the elastic range. The purpose of pre-stressing the coils is to attain a design life of 10,000 full field pulses. The operation and conditioning of the coil set will be described along with special features of its design, magnetic and structural analyses and construction.

  8. Non-destructive testing of the MEGAPIE target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Wohlmuther, M.; Boutellier, V.; Hahl, S.; Lagotzki, A.; Leu, H.; Linder, H. P.; Schwarz, R.; Spahr, A.; Zanini, L.; Kuster, D.; Gavillet, D.; Wagner, W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is one important part of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the MEGAPIE target. It includes visual inspection and ultrasonic measurement of the beam window of the T91 LBE container and gamma mapping of the beam window of the AlMg3 safety-container. The visual inspection showed no visible failure in the proton beam window area of the T91 LBE container. The ultrasonic measurement demonstrated no detectable change in the wall thickness of the T91 beam window, which implies no severe corrosion effect induced by flowing LBE during the four-month irradiation period. The gamma mapping provided the distribution of 22Na, a spallation product, in the proton beam window area of the AlMg3 safety-container. The result was used to evaluate the accumulated proton fluence distribution profile, the input data for determining irradiation parameters. A maximum proton fluence of 1.9 × 1025 p/m2 was deduced. The corresponding displacement damage degree in the T91 beam window was 7.1 dpa.

  9. Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Applications of THz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimdars, David

    2005-03-01

    The technology and applications of time domain terahertz (THz) imaging to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) will be discussed. THz imaging has shown great promise in 2 and 3 dimensional non-contact inspection of non-conductive materials such as plastics, foam, composites, ceramics, paper, wood and glass. THz imaging employs safe low power non-ionizing electromagnetic pulses, with lateral resolution < 200 um, and depth resolution < 50 um. THz pulses can be analyzed spectroscopically to reveal chemical content. Recently, highly integrated turn-key THz imaging systems have been introduced commercially. We will demonstrate the detection of voids and disbonds intentionally incorporated within the sprayed on foam insulation of a space shuttle external tank mock-up segments. An industrially hardened THz scanning system which has been deployed to scan the space shuttle tank with small remote transceiver will be described. Additional terahertz security imaging applications for the detection of weapons and explosives will also be discussed, as well as the application of terahertz sensors for high speed industrial process monitoring and quality control.

  10. Non-destructive sub-THz CW imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpowicz, Nicholas; Zhong, Hua; Xu, Jingzhou; Lin, Kuang-I.; Hwang, Jenn-Shyong; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2005-03-01

    A simple, compact CW sub-THz imaging system, utilizing a 0.2 and 0.6 THz Gunn diode source is presented. A silicon beam lead diode detector and a Golay cell are used for the detection. Various results are presented, which show that the CW THz imaging modality is suitable for diverse applications, such as non-destructive testing and security. The key components of the system include the Gunn diode assembly, an optical chopper, a polyethylene lens, a detector, a lock-in amplifier, and two translation stages. The beam from the Gunn diode is focused on the sample being imaged by the polyethylene lens, the transmitted or reflected beam is measured by the detector. The energy transmitted through the sample at each point in the plane of the sample is detected. Since the system has relatively few components compared to pulsed THz imaging systems, it is less expensive and easier to design and operate, although it does not provide depth or spectral information about the sample. Since no time-delay scans take place, scanning can be done quickly compared to a time-domain system, limited by the maximum velocity of the translation stages and response of the detectors. It provides information about the macroscopic features of hidden structures within materials that are transparent to sub THz radiation, such as space shuttle insulating foam, articles of clothing, and luggage.

  11. Non-destructive acoustic defect detection in drug tablets.

    PubMed

    Akseli, Ilgaz; Mani, Girindra N; Cetinkaya, Cetin

    2008-08-06

    For physical defect detection in drug tablets, a non-destructive and non-contact technique based on air coupled excitation and interferometric detection is presented. Physical properties and mechanical integrity of drug tablets can often affect their therapeutic and structural functions. The monitoring for defects and the characterization of tablet mechanical properties therefore have been of practical interest for solid oral dosage forms. The presented monitoring approach is based on the analysis of the transient vibrational responses of an acoustically excited tablet in both in temporal and spectral domains. The pulsed acoustic field exciting the tablet is generated by an air-coupled transducer. Using a laser vibrometer, the out-of-plane vibrational transient response of the tablet is detected and acquired in a non-contact manner. The physical state of the tablet is evaluated based on the spectral properties of these transient responses. In the current study, the effectiveness of three types of simple similarity measures is evaluated for their potential uses as defect detection norms, and for their potential use in quantifying the extent of tablet defect is discussed. It is found that these quantities can not only be used for identification of defective tablets, but could also provide a measure for the extent of the damage.

  12. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  13. Evaluation of Transportation Options for Intermediate Non-destructive Examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non-destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.” This evaluation includes transportation options for intermediate NDE using the GE 2000 cask, BEA Research Reactor (BRR) package, Dry Transfer Cubicle (DTC) insert, and the General Electric Model 100 (GE 100) cask. The GE 2000 cask is the only Type B shipping container currently in use for shipments of irradiated material (exceeding Type A quantities) from ATR to HFEF; therefore it is included as one of the four shipping options in this evaluation. Cost and schedule estimates are provided for performing neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of a five-capsule drop-in-type ATR experiment for each transportation option. All costs provided in this evaluation are rough order-of-magnitude costs based on input from knowledgeable vendor employees and individuals at INL facilities.

  14. A novel thermosonic imaging system for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, C. L.; Xiang, D.; Long, M.

    2017-02-01

    Thermosonic infrared (Sonic IR) imaging is a new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that uses high-frequency sonic excitation together with infrared (IR) detection to image surface and subsurface defects. A conventional Sonic IR imaging system employs an ultrasonic welder, which is designed to operate at a single frequency. This single frequency ultrasonic source has been found to yield a "blind zone" for NDT due to the formation of standing waves inside the test piece. To overcome this limitation, a spring loaded ultrasonic transducer was used to generate the desired multi-frequency acoustic chaos in the test object [1]. The limitation of the spring loaded ultrasonic transducer is its repeatability and reproducibility for field applications. In this work, we present the development of a novel thermosonic imaging system, which is capable of exciting the ultrasonic transducer at difflerent frequencies for thermosonic NDT to overcome the limitations associated with a single frequency power source as well as the spring loaded transducer design. A comparison of experimental results will be made between the single frequency and the developed multi-frequency thermosonic NDT systems.

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones.

  17. Data fusion for automated non-destructive inspection

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, N.; Tippetts, T.; Cawley, P.

    2014-01-01

    In industrial non-destructive evaluation (NDE), it is increasingly common for data acquisition to be automated, driving a recent substantial increase in the availability of data. The collected data need to be analysed, typically necessitating the painstaking manual labour of a skilled operator. Moreover, in automated NDE a region of an inspected component is typically interrogated several times, be it within a single data channel due to multiple probe passes, across several channels acquired simultaneously or over the course of repeated inspections. The systematic combination of these diverse readings is recognized to offer an opportunity to improve the reliability of the inspection, but is not achievable in a manual analysis. This paper describes a data-fusion-based software framework providing a partial automation capability, allowing component regions to be declared defect-free to a very high probability while readily identifying defect indications, thereby optimizing the use of the operator's time. The system is designed to applicable to a wide range of automated NDE scenarios, but the processing is exemplified using the industrial ultrasonic immersion inspection of aerospace turbine discs. Results obtained for industrial datasets demonstrate an orders-of-magnitude reduction in false-call rates, for a given probability of detection, achievable using the developed software system. PMID:25002828

  18. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  19. Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K.

    1999-04-01

    Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

  20. Characterization and comparison of defects detection limits of three ultrasonic non destructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péronnet, E.; Eyma, F.; Welemane, H.; Pescay, C.

    2010-06-01

    This work deals with the Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI) process developed within the research program “FUSelage COMPosite” of DAHER SOCATA. This manufacturing process enables the realization of complex composite structures or fuselage elements in a single phase (mono-material), which considerably reduce connections and relative difficulties. The concern here is the investigation of non destructive testing (NDT) methods that can be applied to LRI-structures in order to define their capacities for defect detection, and especially their associated critical defect size. In aviation industry, the AITM standards require the ultrasonic testing as NDT for composite materials. Therefore the aim of this work is to characterize and compare three different and complementary ultrasonic techniques on composite specimens. Such analysis allows to define the NDT application field of each method in term of defect detection.

  1. Contamination of Outer Surfaces of International Space Station Studied by Non-Destructive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. A.; Naumov, S. F.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilenok, A. O.; Skurat, V. E.; Zhigach, A. N.; Beriozkina, N. G.; Leipunsky, I. O.; Pshechenkov, P. A.; Zotova, E. S.; Volkov, I. O.; Naumkin, A. V.; Artemov, V. V.

    The aim of this work is to study non -volatile components of contamination deposits on outer surfaces of International Space Station (Russian segment) by a complex of non-destructive techniques - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflection infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and local X-ray microanalysis (LXMA). These methods were used for investigation of 40 samples of materials and coatings after their exposure to residual atmosphere of Earth and external conditions of spacecraft. Elemental and chemical composition of surface and sub-surface layers is varied in very broad limits due to concurrence of many processes changing the sample composition. Contamination deposits contain nitrogenous components besides ubiquitous carbonaceous and siliceous components that are typical for spacecraft surface contamination.

  2. Correlation-based imaging technique using ultrasonic transmit-receive array for Non-Destructive Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Masson, Patrice

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a novel array post-processing method for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) using phased-array ultrasonic probes. The approach uses the capture and processing of the full matrix of all transmit-receive time-domain signals from a transducer array as in the case of the Total Focusing Method (TFM), referred as the standard of imaging algorithms. The proposed technique is based on correlation of measured signals with theoretical propagated signals computed over a given grid of points. In that case, real-time imaging can be simply implemented using discrete signal product. The advantage of the present technique is to take into account transducer directivity, dynamics and complex propagation patterns, such that the number of required array elements for a given imaging performance can be greatly reduced. Numerical and experimental application to contact inspection of isotropic structure is presented and real-time implementation issues are discussed.

  3. [Essential trace elements distribution in food micro algae Spirulina platensis biomass fractions].

    PubMed

    Zaretskaia, E S; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Mazo, V K; Zorin, S N; Aleshko-Ozhevskiĭ, Iu P

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of some trace elements elements (zinc, selenium, iron, manganese, chromium) was characterized in enriched biomass of food micro algae Spirulina platensis by means of water-methanol fractionation. The majority of said trace elements was shown to be incorporated in intercellular hydrophylic fraction, e.g. could be connected to cellular proteins. This result enable the conclusion, that Spirulina is a suitable matrix for biotechnological incorporation of new food trace elements preparations.

  4. Serum trace elements in tube-fed neurological dysphagia patients correlate with nutritional indices but do not correlate with trace element intakes: case of patients receiving enough trace elements intake.

    PubMed

    Obara, Hitoshi; Tomite, Yasuka; Doi, Mamoru

    2008-08-01

    Patients who have neurological dysphagia induced by cerebrovascular disease are at high risk of malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Since trace elements in serum bind to serum protein, serum trace elements concentration is influenced by serum protein concentration. In addition, serum protein concentration is influenced by malnutrition and inflammation. Therefore, evaluation of serum trace elements concentration has to consider influence of malnutrition and inflammation. In recent years, enteral formula including rich trace elements were developed to prevent trace elements deficiency. However, serum trace elements concentration showed a low level even if patients were receiving enough trace elements intake. We thought that it was effective in nutritional management of patients with malnutrition and inflammation to clarify about correlation among nutritional indices, serum trace elements, and the amount of trace element intake in tube-fed patients. In this study, we aimed to determine nutritional indices that are predictors of serum trace elements in patients with neurological dysphagia on long-term tube feeding. Subjects were 40 elderly bedridden patients with neurological dysphagia induced by cerebrovascular disease. All subjects were fed total enteral nutrition via nasogastric tube. We investigated serum trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) and nutritional indices (body mass index, albumin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, lymphocyte, trace elements intake), and analyzed by multiple regression analysis. In addition, we divided subjects into two groups based on inflammatory response. The first group was 20 patients with inflammation (inflammation group), and another group was 20 patients without pneumonia (control group). Subjects were malnourished and showed inflammatory response: low body weight (55%), hypoalbuminemia (58%), moderate or severe inflammation (53%), anemia (38%). Ratio of low serum iron concentration was 43%. Ratio of

  5. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  6. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  7. Inorganic arsenic and trace elements in Ghanaian grain staples.

    PubMed

    Adomako, Eureka E; Williams, Paul N; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2011-10-01

    A total of 549 samples of rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and millet were obtained from markets in Ghana, the EU, US and Asia. Analysis of the samples, originating from 21 countries in 5 continents, helped to establish global mean trace element concentrations in grains; thus placing the Ghanaian data within a global context. Ghanaian rice was generally low in potentially toxic elements, but high in essential nutrient elements. Arsenic concentrations in rice from US (0.22 mg/kg) and Thailand (0.15 mg/kg) were higher than in Ghanaian rice (0.11 mg/kg). Percentage inorganic arsenic content of the latter (83%) was, however, higher than for US (42%) and Thai rice (67%). Total arsenic concentration in Ghanaian maize, sorghum and millet samples (0.01 mg/kg) was an order of magnitude lower than in Ghanaian rice, indicating that a shift from rice-centric to multigrain diets could help reduce health risks posed by dietary exposure to inorganic As.

  8. The role of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the cycling of trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Malea, P.; Apostolaki, E. T.; Kalantzi, I.; Marín, A.; Karakassis, I.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica on the cycling of a wide set of trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, V and Zn). We measured the concentration of these trace elements in different compartments of P. oceanica (leaves, rhizomes, roots and epiphytes) in a non-polluted seagrass meadow representative of the Mediterranean and calculated the annual budget from a mass balance. We provide novel data on accumulation dynamics of many trace elements in P. oceanica compartments and demonstrate that trace element accumulation patterns are mainly determined by plant compartment rather than by temporal variability. Epiphytes were the compartment, which showed the greatest concentrations for most trace elements. Thus, they constitute a key compartment when estimating trace element transfer to higher trophic levels by P. oceanica. Trace element translocation in P. oceanica seemed to be low and acropetal in most cases. Zn, Cd, Sr and Rb were the trace elements that showed the highest release rate through decomposition of plant detritus, while Cs, Tl and Bi showed the lowest. P. oceanica acts as a sink of potentially toxic trace elements (Ni, Cr, As and Ag), which can be sequestered, decreasing their bioavailability. P. oceanica may have a relevant role in the cycling of trace elements in the Mediterranean.

  9. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  10. Global multiplicity of dietary standards for trace elements.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Lee, Jane J

    2012-06-01

    Consistent guidelines across the world for dietary standards of trace elements remain elusive. Harmonization of dietary standards has been suggested by international agencies to facilitate consistency in food and nutrition policies and international trade. Yet significant barriers exist to standardize recommendations on a global basis, such as vast differences in geography, food availability and transport; cultural, social and economic constraints, and biological diversity. Simple commonality is precluded further by the variety of terminologies among countries and regions related to diet. Certain unions have created numerous nutritional descriptive categories for standards, while other large countries are limited to only a few. This paper will explore the global multiplicity of dietary standards and efforts for harmonization.

  11. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  12. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Bholghati howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Paul, Rick L.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn by RNAA are determined in two kinds of material from the Bholghati howardite: a carbonaceous chondrite clast (BH-4) that originated by primary nebular condensation/accretion processes; whole-rock samples and clasts resulting from parent-body processes, especially igneous differentiation. Trace element contents in Bholghati whole-rock (matrix) samples and/or white eucritic clasts in it are high for an achondrite, and variable. These characteristics are indicative of random condensation of volcanic emanations admixed with preexisting eucrite, diogenite, and howardite layers in the HED parent body. Other HED samples show similar patterns, and the conclusion that these reflect extensive volcanism in an asteroidal-sized object is supported by other Consortium noble gas and cosmochronologic measurements.

  13. Trace elements and pesticides in Salton Sea area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Setmire, James G.; Wolfe, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations of numerous potentially toxic trace elements and pesticides were determined in water, sediment, and biota from the Salton Sea area in southestern California. Comparison of results with data from other studies in this area and from other areas, and with various water-quality standards or criteria, indicate that selenium probably is the principal contaminant of concern in the Salton Sea basin and that it probably is related to agricultural practices. Selenium is mobilized in the subsurface drainwater produced by agricultural irrigation and transported in ditches and rivers, some of which pass through or near the Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge before entering the Salton Sea. Some selenium apparently is incorporated into the food chain. In response to the finding of elevated selenium residues in fish from the area by State agencies, the Imperial County Health Department has issued a health advisory restricting or prohibiting human consumption of fish from the Salton Sea and drains.

  14. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  15. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  16. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  17. Zinc: an essential trace element with potential benefits to soldiers.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G

    2005-12-01

    Zinc is a trace element known to be an essential nutrient for life. It functions as a cofactor for numerous enzymes, including those involved in DNA and RNA replication and protein synthesis. Soldiers represent a unique population faced with intense metabolic and mental demands, as well as exposure to various immune challenges. Some of these factors may affect their dietary zinc requirements. Although severe zinc deficiency is unlikely to occur, some soldiers may experience less than optimal zinc status because of diminished intake coupled with increased requirements. For those soldiers, supplemental dietary zinc may serve a protective function in numerous disease states affecting modern warfighters. This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutriture to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc in a number of diseases currently affecting soldiers, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.

  18. Composition and trace element content of coal in Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, L.-Y.; Chen, C.-F.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the trace element contents of local coal, four coal samples were collected from operating mines in NW Taiwan. Detailed petrographic and chemical characterization analyses were then conducted. Analytical results indicate that (1) the samples were high volatile bituminous coal in rank with ash content ranging from 4.2 to 14.4% and with moisture content ranging from 2.7 to 4.6%; (2) the macerals were mostly composed of vitrinite with vitrinite reflectance less than 0.8%; (3) the sample of Wukeng mine has the highest Fe2O3 (29.5%), TI (54.8 ppm), Zn (140 ppm), and As (697 ppm) contents in ash and Hg (2.3 ppm) in the coal. If used properly, these coals should not present health hazards.

  19. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper.

    PubMed

    Tapiero, H; Townsend, D M; Tew, K D

    2003-11-01

    Copper is a trace element, important for the function of many cellular enzymes. Copper ions can adopt distinct redox states oxidized Cu(II) or reduced (I), allowing the metal to play a pivotal role in cell physiology as a catalytic cofactor in the redox chemistry of enzymes, mitochondrial respiration, iron absorption, free radical scavenging and elastin cross-linking. If present in excess, free copper ions can cause damage to cellular components and a delicate balance between the uptake and efflux of copper ions determines the amount of cellular copper. In biological systems, copper homeostasis has been characterized at the molecular level. It is coordinated by several proteins such as glutathione, metallothionein, Cu-transporting P-type ATPases, Menkes and Wilson proteins and by cytoplasmic transport proteins called copper chaperones to ensure that it is delivered to specific subcellular compartments and thereby to copper-requiring proteins.

  20. H-chondrites - Trace element clues to their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Janssens, M.-J.; Anders, E.; Takahashi, H.; Hertogen, J.

    1985-01-01

    RNAA is used to determine the abundances of 20 trace elements in four H4, two H3, two H5, and two H6 chondrites from the British Museum, as a contribution to a multiple-method study of these objects. The results are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed in terms of the inhomogeneity of the parent bodies and the depletion of volatiles in the higher petrologic types. Features observed include siderophile depletion in H3 chondrites; systematic variation of siderophile abundance pattern with petrologic type; volatile depletion as a primary feature; mineralogy consistent with accretion at 420-500 K; and the factor-analysis groupings siderophiles (Os, Re, Ir, Ni, Pd, Au, and Ge), volatiles (Ag, Br, In, Cd, Bi, and Tl), and alkalis (Rb and Cs).

  1. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Bholghati howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Paul, Rick L.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn by RNAA are determined in two kinds of material from the Bholghati howardite: a carbonaceous chondrite clast (BH-4) that originated by primary nebular condensation/accretion processes; whole-rock samples and clasts resulting from parent-body processes, especially igneous differentiation. Trace element contents in Bholghati whole-rock (matrix) samples and/or white eucritic clasts in it are high for an achondrite, and variable. These characteristics are indicative of random condensation of volcanic emanations admixed with preexisting eucrite, diogenite, and howardite layers in the HED parent body. Other HED samples show similar patterns, and the conclusion that these reflect extensive volcanism in an asteroidal-sized object is supported by other Consortium noble gas and cosmochronologic measurements.

  2. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma constitutes the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. It is shown that abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. Although compatible and incompatible trace elements are useful in modeling, the present review focuses primarily on examples involving the rare-earth elements.

  3. Cellular Trace Element Changes in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uğurlu, Vahap; Binay, Çiğdem; Şimşek, Enver; Bal, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may lead to deficiencies in trace elements that have substantial functions in the human organism. Changes in serum magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) levels are correlated with metabolic control and diabetes complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-erythrocyte levels of trace elements and urinary Mg excretion following intravenous (iv) Mg tolerance testing in children with T1DM. Methods: A total of 43 children aged 2-18 years with T1DM and age/gender-matched 25 healthy children were included in the study. The iv Mg tolerance test was performed following the measurement of intra-erythrocyte Mg (eMg1), Cu (eCu1), and Zn (eZn1) levels using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. The Mg retention ratio was estimated from measurements in 24 h urine samples. Results: No statistically significant difference was found for eMg1, eCu1, and eZn1 levels between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). In the patient group, the eMg1, eCu1, and eZn1 levels measured after the iv Mg tolerance test significantly increased compared with the baseline levels (p<0.05), and the Mg excretion ratio measured from the urine collected after the iv MgSO4 infusion was >50%. Conclusion: The increased retention value following the iv Mg tolerance testing indicates intracellular Mg deficiency in children with T1DM. PMID:27086726

  4. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-ji; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Xiao, Rui; Tang, Zhi-yong; Ren, Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and fly ash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements were investigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. One coefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. These elements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile. Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be located between groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, the more relative enrichment of trace elements (except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms of trace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of trace elements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not always improve the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Trace elements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  5. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Non Destructive Analysis of Fsw Welds using Ultrasonic Signal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Kumar, T.; Prabhakar Reddy, P.

    2017-08-01

    Friction Stir Welding is an evolving metal joining technique and is mostly used in joining materials which cannot be easily joined by other available welding techniques. It is a technique which can be used for welding dissimilar materials also. The strength of the weld joint is determined by the way in which these material are mixing with each other, since we are not using any filler material for the welding process the intermixing has a significant importance. The complication with the friction stir welding process is that there are many process parameters which effect this intermixing process such as tool geometry, rotating speed of the tool, transverse speed etc., In this study an attempt is made to compare the material flow and weld quality of various weldments by changing the parameters. Ultrasonic signal Analysis is used to characterize the microstructure of the weldments. use of ultrasonic waves is a non destructive, accurate and fast way of characterization of microstructure. In this method the relationship between the ultrasonic measured parameters and microstructures are evaluated using background echo and backscattered signal process techniques. The ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements are dependent on the elastic modulus and any change in the microstructure is reflected in the ultrasonic velocity. An insight into material flow is essential to determine the quality of the weld. Hence an attempt is made in this study to know the relationship between tool geometry and the pattern of material flow and resulting weld quality the experiments are conducted to weld dissimilar aluminum alloys and the weldments are characterized using and ultra Sonic signal processing. Characterization is also done using Scanning Electron Microscopy. It is observed that there is a good correlation between the ultrasonic signal processing results and Scanning Electron Microscopy on the observed precipitates. Tensile tests and hardness tests are conducted on the

  7. Non-destructive detection of corrosion for life management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, David A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, aircraft operators have been driven to increased use of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) to ensure airworthiness during life extensions for ageing aircraft or as an integral part of a damage tolerant lifting philosophy. Major airframe static and fatigue tests are routinely used to highlight problem areas on airframes where design limitations or changes of usage may lead to early failures. The results of such tests become progressively less reliable as the age of the airframe increases and the operating conditions diverge from those under which the tests were conducted. Increased inspection, whether by visual or other means is usually the only alternative to wholesale refurbishment or replacement of aircraft or components. Almost all of the development to date of NDE techniques for corrosion detection and characterization has been concentrated on existing airframe materials, principally Aluminum alloys and steels. The current capabilities of corrosion detection techniques will be reviewed and current research aimed at areas where there is a requirement for improved detection capability will be described. New materials, such as Polymer Matrix Composites, will experience different types of 'corrosive' deterioration. The capability of NDE methods to detect material degradation in new composite materials will be discussed. Finally, reliance on NDE, choice of NDE technique and optimal scheduling of inspections all require an assessment of the reliability of NDE methods. It will be shown that a range of NDE techniques with differing capabilities and characteristics will be required to ensure compatibility with maintenance schedules if full use is to be made of NDE for life management of structures which may be subject to corrosion.

  8. Non-destructive methods of control of thermo-physical properties of fuel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglov, A. B.; Kruglov, V. B.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Struchalin, P. G.; Galkin, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Information about the change of thermal properties of the fuel elements needed for a successful and safe operation of the nuclear power plant. At present, the existing amount of information on the fuel thermal conductivity change and “fuel-shell” thermal resistance is insufficient. Also, there is no technique that would allow for the measurement of these properties on the non-destructive way of irradiated fuel elements. We propose a method of measuring the thermal conductivity of the fuel in the fuel element and the contact thermal resistance between the fuel and the shell without damaging the integrity of the fuel element, which is based on laser flash method. The description of the experimental setup, implementing methodology, experiments scheme. The results of test experiments on mock-ups of the fuel elements and their comparison with reference data, as well as the results of numerical modeling of thermal processes that occur during the measurement. Displaying harmonization of numerical calculation with the experimental thermograms layout shell portions of the fuel cell, confirming the correctness of the calculation model.

  9. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability.

  10. Methods for detecting the mobility of trace elements during medium-temperature pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Konopka, K.L.; Cahill, R.A.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1983-01-01

    The mobility (volatility) of trace elements in coal during pyrolysis has been studied for distances of up to 40 cm between the coal and the trace element collector, which was graphite or a baffled solvent trap. Nineteen elements not previously recorded as mobile were detected. ?? 1983.

  11. Trace Elements Characteristic Based on ICP-AES and the Correlation of Flavonoids from Sparganii rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinsheng; Wu, Yanfang; Wu, Chengying; Wu, Qinan; Niu, Qingshan

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the trace elements and the correlation with flavonoids from Sparganii rhizoma. The ICP-AES and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were employed to analyze trace elements and flavonoids. The concentrations of trace elements and flavonoids were calculated using standard curve. The content of flavonoids was expressed as rutin equivalents. The cluster analysis was applied to evaluate geographical features of S. rhizoma from different geographical regions. The correlation analysis was used to obtain the relationship between the trace elements and flavonoids. The results indicated that the 15 trace elements were measured and the K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, Cu, and Zn are rich in Sparganii rhizome. The different producing regions samples were classified into four groups. There was a weak relationship between trace elements and flavonoids.

  12. Non-Destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-Level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    logarithmic decrement of those amplitudes.7,8 Experiments that did not rely on resonant frequencies used capacitance measurements or pressure sensors to relate...Non-destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer- level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches by Ryan Knight and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7094 September 2014 Non-destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer- level Packaged

  13. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  14. Non-destructive determination of maize leaf and canopy chlorophyll content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid non-destructive technique to estimate total chlorophyll (Chl) content in a maize canopy using Chl content in a single leaf. The approach was (1) to calibrate and validate a reflectance-based non-destructive technique to estimate leaf Chl in maize; (...

  15. The One Health Perspective in Trace Elements Biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Bocca, Beatrice; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Health risks in both animals and humans are associated with chronic exposures to levels of trace elements (TE) eliciting toxic and/or antinutritional effects, including excess exposures to some essential elements. Interferences with essential TE may also lead to secondary nutritional deficiencies and/or imbalances. Although research is still required, biomarkers of exposure, including bioavailability, for TE are established tools for human biomonitoring that can also be applied to animal surveillance. Biomarkers of effect as well as, where available, of susceptibility and bioavailability are necessary to understand whether an ongoing exposure may pose a current or future health concern. In the field of animal health the use of biomarkers is less developed and less widespread than in human health; however, under a One Health perspective, animal biomonitoring can provide important information on the interfaces among humans, animals, and the environment, supporting the prevention and management of health risks. Therefore, a transfer of knowledge from human biomonitoring to farm or free-ranging animals is critical in a risk assessment framework from farm to humans. Advantages and critical aspects in designing and conducting integrative biomonitoring activities in humans and animals were critically reviewed focusing on biomarkers of exposure, effect, susceptibility, and bioavailability for toxic and essential TE. Highlighted aspects include TE metabolism, bioaccessibility, and interactions. Farm or free-ranging animals may provide noninvasive matrices suitable for evaluating animal welfare, environmental stressors, food safety, and potential risks for human health, as proposed by the interdisciplinary concept of One Health.

  16. Fate of trace elements during the combustion of phytoremediation wood.

    PubMed

    Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien; Rogaume, Yann; Provent, Anne-Sonia; Pascual, Christophe

    2012-12-18

    We investigated the fate of trace elements (TE) in poplar wood on the conversion of biomass to heat in a 0.2 MW combustion unit equipped with a fabric filter. The phytoremediation wood was harvested from a TE-contaminated agricultural site planted with a high-density poplar stand. The combustion technology used in the present experiment allows for an efficient separation of the various ash fractions. The combustion process concentrates Cu, Cr, and Ni in the bottom ash, heat exchanger ash, and cyclone ash fractions. Therefore, the impact of the fabric filter is negligible for these elements. Conversely, Cd, Pb, and Zn are significantly recovered in the emission fraction in the absence of the fabric filter above the emission limits. The use of a fabric filter will allow the concentration of these three TEs in the ashes collected below the filter, thus complying with all regulatory thresholds, i.e., those from the large combustion plant EU directive. Because the TE concentrations in the different fractions differed significantly, it is recommended that these fractions be treated separately, especially when recycling of ashes from phytoremediation wood through application in agriculture is envisaged.

  17. Rare earths and other trace elements in Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziege, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    REE and other trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks 14053, 14072, and 14310, in breccias 14063 and 14313, and in fines 14163. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for feldspar fragments from the breccias and igneous fragments from 14063. Igneous rocks 14072 and 14053 have REE concentrations very similar to Apollo 12 basalts; 14310 has the highest REE concentrations yet observed for a large fragment of lunar basalt. The effects of crystallization of a basaltic liquid as a closed system on the concentrations of Sm and Eu in feldspar are considered. Small anorthositic fragments may have originated by simple crystallization from very highly differentiated basalt (KREEP) or by closed-system crystallization in a less differentiated starting material. Application of independent models of igneous differentiation to Sm and Eu in massive anorthosite 15415 and to Sm and Eu in lunar basalts suggests a common starting material with a ratio of concentrations of Sm and Eu about the same as that in chondrites and with concentrations of those elements about 15 times enriched over chondrites.

  18. Comparative bioaccumulation kinetics of trace elements in Mediterranean marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Cachet, Nadja; Oberhänsli, François; Noyer, Charlotte; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While marine organisms such as bivalves, seagrasses and macroalgae are commonly used as biomonitors for the environment pollution assessment, widely distributed sponges received little attention as potential helpful species for monitoring programmes. In this study, the trace element and radionuclide bioaccumulation and retention capacities of some marine sponges were estimated in a species-comparative study using radiotracers technique. Six Mediterranean species were exposed to background dissolved concentrations of (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn allowing the assessment of the uptake and depuration kinetics for selected elements. Globally, massive demosponges Agelas oroides, Chondrosia reniformis and Ircinia variabilis displayed higher concentration factor (CF) than the erectile ones (Acanthella acuta, Cymbaxinella damicornis, Cymbaxinella verrucosa) at the end of exposure, suggesting that the morphology is a key factor in the metal bioaccumulation efficiency. Considering this observation, two exceptions were noted: (1) A. acuta reached the highest CF for (110m)Ag and strongly retained the accumulated metal without significant Ag loss when placed in depuration conditions and (2) C. reniformis did not accumulate Se as much as A. oroides and I. variabilis. These results suggest that peculiar metal uptake properties in sponges could be driven by specific metabolites or contrasting biosilification processes between species, respectively. This study demonstrated that sponges could be considered as valuable candidate for biomonitoring metal contamination but also that there is a need to experimentally highlight metal-dependant characteristic among species.

  19. Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tayyaba; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Lin, Chai Wen; Qamar, Zeeshan

    2016-08-01

    This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common prevalent oral health problems such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and malodour. It is being used in various oral health care products to control the formation of dental plaque and inhibiting the formation of dental calculus. It has the potential to sustain and maintain its elevated concentrations for a longer time particularly in the dental plaque and saliva on delivery from the mouth rinses and toothpastes. It has been reported that low concentrations of zinc have the capability to reduce dissolution and promote remineralization under caries simulating conditions. Most importantly low Zn2+ levels in the serum are useful as a tumour marker. Thus taking a note of its potentials, it can be concluded that zinc is a precious element for the maintenance of oral health.

  20. Breccias 73215 and 73255 - Siderophile and volatile trace elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Petrie, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen siderophile and volatile trace elements (Os, Re, Ir, Pd, Ni, Au, Sb, Ge, Se, Ag, In, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl) and U were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in a spheroidal aphanitic clast and a clast of coarse-grained anorthositic gabbro from breccia 73215 and in three types of aphanite and two clasts of fine-grained anorthositic gabbro from breccia 73255. In common with most Apollo 17 fragment-laden melt rocks, the aphanites from 73215 and 73255 predominantly contain a Group 2 meteoritic component, which is apparently derived from the Serenitatis impact. All aphanitic lithologies contain the same meteoritic component, and are probably cogenetic. The clasts of fine-grained anorthositic gabbro contain substantial amounts (2% to 6% Cl equivalent based on Au) of a pre-Serenitatis Group 3 component. The clast of coarse-grained anorthositic gabbro is low in siderophile elements (0.4% Cl equivalent), and the meteoritic component (Group 5) is not well-defined. A strong correlation exists between Ir and Au in both the aphanites and the anorthositic gabbro clasts, which argues against the breccias 73215 and 73255 being open systems for Au

  1. Nutrient and trace-element enrichment of Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, Paul F.; Beckwith, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The limnological characteristics and geochemistry of lakebed sediments in Coeur d'Alene Lake were assessed during 1991-92 because of the possible interaction of nutrient enrichment with the highly enriched trace-element concentrations stored in the lakebed. The scope included characterization of physical, chemical, and biological variables; quantification of hydrologic, nutrient, and trace-element budgets; development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model; and characterization of trace elements in surficial and subsurface lakebed sediments.

  2. Trace Element Condensation in Circumstellar Envelopes of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    It is now well established that meteorites contain reduced presolar grains, such as graphite and silicon carbide (SiC), which are probably formed by condensation of dust in the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich AGB stars. Here we model condensation in envelopes of carbon stars, with an emphasis on trace elements. Since absolute elemental abundances in stellar atmospheres are generally not known, we assume solar abundances (Anders and Grevesse 1989), except for carbon. A C/O ratio of 2, consistent with the mean and median values of 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, for 61 carbon stars (Gow 1977) was used. The C/O ratio was increased by adding carbon because astrophysicists believe that carbon produced in helium-burning zones may be mixed to the surfaces of C stars (e.g. Lucy 1976). We used physical parameters for the circumstellar shell of the high mass-loss rate, prototypical carbon star IRC +10216 (e.g. Keady et al. 1988, Dominik et al. 1990) and theoretical considerations by Salpeter (1974a,b) to construct a P-T-model of the envelope (see Fig. 1). Thermodynamic equilibrium condensation calculations for a reduced gas include ~600 gaseous and solid compounds of the elements H, C, N, O, S, P, F, Cl, Fe, Mg, Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and REE. Refractory oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides were considered as condensates. The calculations were done from T = 800 to 2500 K, and P= 10^-5 to 10^-13 bars. The effects of nucleation on condensation temperatures were calculated using the nucleation model discussed by Salpeter (1974a,b) and Cameron and Fegley (1982). The temperature drop required for condensation depends on (P,T, density) in the expanding envelope and also on the abundance, density, and surface energy (Es) of the nucleating compound. The range of E(sub)s values for NaCl-type carbides are about 800-1700 erg/cm^2 (Livey & Murray 1956); however, these data are generally poorly known. Another important variable is the sticking coefficient (s

  3. Non-Destructive Micro-Chemical and Micro-Luminescence Characterization of Jadeite.

    PubMed

    Mitrani Viggiano, Alejandro; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Manrique Ortega, Mayra D; Corregidor Berdasco, Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Jadeite was greatly appreciated by pre-Hispanic cultures in Mesoamerica. Despite its importance, knowledge of its mining sources was lost after the Spanish conquest. In the 1950s the only confirmed jadeite deposits in Mesoamerica were found in the Motagua River Fault (MRF), Guatemala. The aim of this study is to present a methodology that is appropriate for the study of archeological jadeite objects using non-destructive spectroscopic and micro-ion beam analysis techniques. This methodology has been applied to perform mineral, elemental, and luminescence characterization of five jadeite samples from the MRF, with white, lilac, and green colors. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of jadeite, albite, and omphacite as the main mineral phases in the samples. Elemental maps using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) with a nuclear microprobe and elemental concentration analysis from individual mineral grains using micro-PIXE coupled with micro-ionoluminescence (IL) allowed the detection of minor feldspar, titanite, and grossular mineral contents. Distinctive features from the mineral, elemental, and luminescence characterization have been found that allow the identification of these five jadeite samples.

  4. Trace elements in sulfide inclusions from Yakutian diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanova, G. P.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.; Shestakova, O. Y.; Barnes, S.-J.

    1996-07-01

    Sulfide inclusions in diamonds may provide the only pristine samples of mantle sulfides, and they carry important information on the distribution and abundances of chalcophile elements in the deep lithosphere. Trace-element abundances were measured by proton microprobe in >50 sulfide inclusions (SDI) from Yakutian diamonds; about half of these were measured in situ in polished plates of diamonds, providing information on the spatial distribution of compositional variations. Many of the diamonds were identified as peridotitic or eclogitic from the nature of coexisting silicate or oxide inclusions. Known peridotitic diamonds contain SDIs with Ni contents of 22 36%, consistent with equilibration between olivine, monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, whereas SDIs in eclogitic diamonds contain 0 12% Ni. A group of diamonds without silicate or oxide inclusions has SDIs with 11 18% Ni, and may be derived from pyroxenitic parageneses. Eclogitic SDIs have lower Ni, Cu and Te than peridotitic SDIs; the ranges of the two parageneses overlap for Se, As and Mo. The Mo and Se contents range up to 700 and 300 ppm, respectively; the highest levels are found in peridotitic diamonds. Among the in-situ SDIs, significant Zn and Pb levels are found in those connected by cracks to diamond surfaces, and these elements reflect interaction with kimberlitic melt. Significant levels of Ru (30 1300 ppm) and Rh (10 170 ppm) are found in many peridotitic SDIs; SDIs in one diamond with wustite and olivine inclusions and complex internal structures have high levels of other platinum-group elements (PGEs) as well, and high chondrite-normalized Ir/Pd. Comparison with experimental data on element partitioning between crystals of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melts suggests that most of the inclusions in both parageneses were trapped as MSS, while some high-Cu SDIs with high Pd±Rh may represent fractionated sulfide melts. Spatial variations of SDI composition within

  5. Trace Elements and Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Organisms from a Tropical Coastal Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    van Hattum, B.; de Boer, J.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Rezende, C. E.; Salomons, W.

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were analyzed in sediments, invertebrates, and fishes from a tropical coastal lagoon influenced by iron ore mining and processing activities to assess the differences in trace element accumulation patterns among species and to investigate relations with trophic levels of the organisms involved. Overall significant negative relations between trophic level (given by 15N) and trace element concentrations in gastropods and crustaceans showed differences in internal controls of trace element accumulation among the species of different trophic positions, leading to trace element dilution. Generally, no significant relation between δ15N and trace element concentrations was observed among fish species, probably due to omnivory in a number of species as well as fast growth. Trace element accumulation was observed in the fish tissues, with higher levels of most trace elements found in liver compared with muscle and gill. Levels of Fe, Mn, Al, and Hg in invertebrates, and Fe and Cu in fish livers, were comparable with levels in organisms and tissues from other contaminated areas. Trace element levels in fish muscle were below the international safety baseline standards for human consumption. PMID:20217062

  6. Trace elements and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in organisms from a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A A; van Hattum, B; de Boer, J; van Bodegom, P M; Rezende, C E; Salomons, W

    2010-10-01

    Trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) and stable isotope ratios (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) were analyzed in sediments, invertebrates, and fishes from a tropical coastal lagoon influenced by iron ore mining and processing activities to assess the differences in trace element accumulation patterns among species and to investigate relations with trophic levels of the organisms involved. Overall significant negative relations between trophic level (given by (15)N) and trace element concentrations in gastropods and crustaceans showed differences in internal controls of trace element accumulation among the species of different trophic positions, leading to trace element dilution. Generally, no significant relation between delta(15)N and trace element concentrations was observed among fish species, probably due to omnivory in a number of species as well as fast growth. Trace element accumulation was observed in the fish tissues, with higher levels of most trace elements found in liver compared with muscle and gill. Levels of Fe, Mn, Al, and Hg in invertebrates, and Fe and Cu in fish livers, were comparable with levels in organisms and tissues from other contaminated areas. Trace element levels in fish muscle were below the international safety baseline standards for human consumption.

  7. [Analysis of trace elements contents in dry-fruit of xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zheng, C; Wang, W; Ruan, X

    2000-08-01

    Ten kinds of trace element's contents in nine kinds of specialities of Xinjiang were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and flame atomic emission spectrometry. The trace element's contents in these different specialities were compared with each other. The relationships between the over-accumulation of trace element in body and some illness of people were also studied. Statistics suggest that there are different contents of the ten kinds of trace elements in every kinds of dry-fruit. The statistics are valuable references.

  8. Fractionation of fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements during differentiation of a tholeiitic magma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenland, L.; Lovering, J. F.

    1966-01-01

    Fluorine, chlorine and other trace elements determined through differentiated tholeiitic dolerite sill from Tasmania using statistical techniques, showing hydroxyl lattice sites by chlorine and fluorine

  9. Trace element trophic transfer in aquatic organisms: A critique of the kinetic model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.; Nichols, J.W.; Wang, W.-X.

    1998-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of trace elements in aquatic organisms can be described with a kinetic model that includes linear expressions for uptake and elimination from dissolved and dietary sources. Within this model, trace element trophic transfer is described by four parameters: the weight-specific ingestion rate (IR); the assimilation efficiency (AE); the physiological loss rate constant (ke); and the weight-specific growth rate (g). These four parameters define the trace element trophic transfer potential (TTP=IR·AE/[ke+g]) which is equal to the ratio of the steady-state trace element concentration in a consumer due to trophic accumulation to that in its prey. Recent work devoted to the quantification of AE and ke for a variety of trace elements in aquatic invertebrates has provided the data needed for comparative studies of trace element trophic transfer among different species and trophic levels and, in at least one group of aquatic consumers (marine bivalves), sensitivity analyses and field tests of kinetic bioaccumulation models. Analysis of the trophic transfer potentials of trace elements for which data are available in zooplankton, bivalves, and fish, suggests that slight variations in assimilation efficiency or elimination rate constant may determine whether or not some trace elements (Cd, Se, and Zn) are biomagnified. A linear, single-compartment model may not be appropriate for fish which, unlike many aquatic invertebrates, have a large mass of tissue in which the concentrations of most trace elements are subject to feedback regulation.

  10. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.

    1995-09-01

    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  11. Trace Elements and Oxygen Isotope Zoning of the Sidewinder Skarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, C.; Gevedon, M. L.; Barnes, J.; Lackey, J. S.; Jiang, H.; Lee, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Skarns of the Verde Antique Quarry and White Horse Mountain areas of the Sidewinder Range give insight into the paleohydrothermal systems operating in the California's Jurassic arc in the Southwestern Mojave Desert. Garnet from these skarns is iron rich: Xand= 55-100. Laser fluorination measurements show oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of garnet crystals and crystals domains have large ranges: -3.1‰ to +4.4‰ and -8.9‰ to +3.4‰, respectively. In general, the garnet cores have more negative δ18O values than rims, although oscillations are present. Negative values have been interpreted as influx of meteoric fluid and positive values as increased magmatic input. Here we report major and trace element concentrations for 17 core to rim Sidewinder garnet transects. REEs concentrations are low in all crystals, with total REE concentrations ranging from 0.710 ppm to 33.7 ppm, values that are lower than Cretaceous skarn garnets in the Sierra Nevada in the White Chief and Empire Mt skarns. Such low concentrations are likely due to the higher fraction of meteoric fluids during formation of the Sidewinder skarns. REE concentrations decrease from core to rim (REE core average=12.2ppm, REE rim average=7.21ppm). This is slightly more pronounced in the LREEs than in the HREEs (LaN/YbN core average= 10.9; rim average= 9.73, normalized to Chondrite). X­and tends to decrease core to rim in the Verde Antique skarn, whereas, Xand of the White Horse skarn does not correlate with distance from core. A large positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 3­-30) in garnet from both skarns suggests oxidizing fluid conditions. Oxygen isotope data from garnet in these same skarns show periods of time with increased proportion of magmatic derived fluids in the total fluid budget. However, there is no corresponding widespread increase in total REE concentrations. Other studies of skarns from the western Sierra Nevadan arc (White Chief and Empire Mountain) observe complete decoupling of d18O values

  12. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.

    PubMed

    Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Połowniak, M; Kozik, V

    2012-11-15

    Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the μg/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thorium and other trace elements in soils from Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, J.; Tume, P.; Roca, N.; Tobias, F. J.; Reverter, F.; Sanchez, P.; Rustullet, J.

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total contents (XRF) of Th and Ba, Ce,Cu, Ga, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, V, Y, Zn and Zr in soils from Catalonia, NE Spain, and to establish relationships between heavy metals and some soil properties. A total of 94 samples (47 soil plots) were collected from topsoils and subsurface soils in the main soil types. The median concentrations (mg kg-1) obtained were Th 7 (range 3-15.5 mg kg-1), Ba 412 (range 113-954 mg kg-1), Ce 55 (13-107 mg kg-1 ), Cu 19.4 (5-91 mg kg-1), Ga 12.5 (5-21.7 mg kg-1 ), Ni 24 (7-56.5 mg kg-1 ), Pb 25 (9-100 mg kg-1), Rb 79 (34-140 mg kg-1 ), Sn 2 (1-8 mg kg-1 ), Sr 102 (43-401 mg kg-1 ), V 68.5 (22-170 mg kg-1 ), Y 20 (7-41.5 mg kg-1 ), Zn 66 (20-137 mg kg-1 ), and Zr 156 (40-417 mg kg-1 ). The concentrations of Th were similar to those given by other authors from different countries of the Mediterranean regions. In terms of soil properties, the results of this study suggest that, in these soils, Th and trace element adsorption and retention are influenced by several properties such as clay minerals and pH. Almost all element concentrations were positively correlated with clay content and negatively correlated with carbonates. The very strong positive correlations between Th, Y, V, Ni, V, Ga and Ce point to their natural origin.

  14. Trace element diffusion and incorporation in quartz during heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottier, B.; Rezeau, H.; Casanova, V.; Kouzmanov, K.; Moritz, R.; Schlöglova, K.; Wälle, M.; Fontboté, L.

    2017-04-01

    Heating of quartz crystals in order to study melt and high-temperature fluid inclusions is a common practice to constrain major physical and chemical parameters of magmatic and hydrothermal processes. Diffusion and modification of trace element content in quartz and its hosted melt inclusions have been investigated through step-heating experiments of both matrix-free quartz crystals and quartz crystals associated with sulfides and other minerals using a Linkam TS1500 stage. Magmatic and hydrothermal quartz were successively analyzed after each heating step for Cu, Al, and Ti using electron probe micro-analyzer. After the last heating step, quartz crystals and their hosted melt inclusions were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared to unheated samples. Heated samples reveal modification of Cu, Li, Na, and B contents in quartz and modification of Cu, Li, Ag, and K concentrations in melt inclusions. Our results show that different mechanisms of Cu, Li, and Na incorporation occur in magmatic and hydrothermal quartz. Heated magmatic quartz records only small, up to a few ppm, enrichment in Cu and Na, mostly substituting for Li. By contrast, heated hydrothermal quartz shows enrichment up to several hundreds of ppm in Cu, Li, and Na, which substitute for originally present H. This study reveals that the composition of both quartz and its hosted melt inclusions may be significantly modified upon heating experiments, leading to erroneous quantification of elemental concentrations. In addition, each quartz crystal also becomes significantly enriched in Cu in the sub-surface layer during heating. We propose that sub-surface Cu enrichment is a direct indication of Cu diffusion in quartz externally sourced from both the surrounding sulfides as well as the copper pins belonging to the heating device. Our study shows that the chemical compositions of both heated quartz and its hosted inclusions must be interpreted with great caution

  15. Nuclear microscopy in trace-element biology — from cellular studies to the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf

    1993-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of trace and major elements in cells are of great interest in cell biology. PIXE can provide elemental concentrations in the bulk of cells or organelles as other bulk techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and nuclear activation analysis. Supplementary information, perhaps more exciting, on the intracellular distributions of trace elements can be provided using nuclear microscopy. Intracellular distributions of trace elements in normal and malignant cells are presented. The toxicity of mercury and cadmium can be prevented by supplementation of the essential trace element selenium. Some results from an experimental animal model are discussed. The intercellular distribution of major and trace elements in isolated blood cells, as revealed by nuclear microscopy, provides useful clinical information. Examples are given concerning inflammatory connective-tissue diseases and the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  16. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  17. Phytoremediation of toxic trace elements in soil and water.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman

    2005-12-01

    Toxic heavy metals and metalloids, such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and selenium, are constantly released into the environment. There is an urgent need to develop low-cost, effective, and sustainable methods for their removal or detoxification. Plant-based approaches, such as phytoremediation, are relatively inexpensive since they are performed in situ and are solar-driven. In this review, we discuss specific advances in plant-based approaches for the remediation of contaminated water and soil. Dilute concentrations of trace element contaminants can be removed from large volumes of wastewater by constructed wetlands. We discuss the potential of constructed wetlands for use in remediating agricultural drainage water and industrial effluent, as well as concerns over their potential ecotoxicity. In upland ecosystems, plants may be used to accumulate metals/metalloids in their harvestable biomass (phytoextraction). Plants can also convert and release certain metals/metalloids in a volatile form (phytovolatilization). We discuss how genetic engineering has been used to develop plants with enhanced efficiencies for phytoextraction and phytovolatilization. For example, metal-hyperaccumulating plants and microbes with unique abilities to tolerate, accumulate, and detoxify metals and metalloids represent an important reservoir of unique genes that could be transferred to fast-growing plant species for enhanced phytoremediation. There is also a need to develop new strategies to improve the acceptability of using genetically engineered plants for phytoremediation.

  18. Serum trace elements and risk of malnutrition in institutionalised elderly.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, G; Lorini, C; Bani Assad, G; Pepe, P; Santomauro, F

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the association between Selenium (Se)-, Copper (Cu)- and Zinc (Zn)-circulating concentrations and indicators of nutritional status. This study enroled 428 institutionalised elderly. The diagnostic tools used are a form to collect data regarding gender, age, duration of stay in nursing home, number of prescribed drugs, chronic diseases, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), anthropometric measurements, albumin, transferrin and serum concentrations of Se, Cu and Zn. The collected data were analysed with descriptive assessments of the differences χ(2), Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Multivariate linear regression were performed to evaluate the association between the concentrations of each trace elements and the other variables. The study population was represented by 327 women and 101 men, of whom 13.8% were 65-75 years old and 47.4% were older than 85 years. According to the MNA score, 58.4% were at risk of malnutrition and 21.3% were malnourished. The results show a significant reduction in the average concentrations of Se and Zn in women when the nutritional status gets worse. The same trend, although not statistically significant, is also observed in men. In both genders, the Cu concentration does not show a statistically significant association with nutritional status. Multivariate linear regression show some positive or negative associations. Our study seems to confirm the association between Se and nutritional status, as well as with some blood chemistry parameters. The length of institutionalisation seems to be an independent predictor of Se concentration.

  19. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  20. Trace elemental distributions in induced atherosclerotic lesions using nuclear microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minqin, Ren; Watt, Frank; Tan Kwong Huat, Benny; Halliwell, B.

    2003-09-01

    Nuclear Microscopy, using the combination of scanning transmission ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and proton induced X-ray emission has the ability to map and accurately quantify localised trace element levels in newly formed atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, New Zealand white rabbits fed on a high cholesterol diet were divided into two groups. One test group was treated with an iron chelating agent desferal, and the second group served as a control model. Tissue sections were taken from the aortic arch, flash frozen and air-dried, and scanned using the nuclear microscope of the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, NUS. Results of this experiment, although not definitive ( p=0.07) indicated that during the treatment with desferal, there was a trend for lesion development to be slowed down. However, analysis of atherosclerotic lesions both from the test and control groups showed that iron concentrations within the lesions exhibit a high degree of correlation with the depth of the lesion in the artery wall, whereas zinc is observed to be anti-correlated to the size of the lesion area. This investigation implies that the observed high iron levels, which can lead to increased free radical damage, may cause premature or accelerated arterial damage.

  1. Hydroponic screening of poplar for trace element tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Migeon, Aude; Richaud, Pierre; Guinet, Frédéric; Blaudez, Damien; Chalot, Michel

    2012-04-01

    Using the nutrient film technique, we screened 21 clones of poplar for growth in the presence of a mix of trace elements (TE) and for TE accumulation capacities. Poplar cuttings were exposed for four weeks to a multipollution solution consisting in 10 microM Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, and 200 microM Zn. Plant biomass and TE accumulation patterns in leaves varied greatly between clones. The highest Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves were detected in P. trichocarpa and P. trichocarpa hybrids, with the clone Skado (P. trichocarpa x P. maximowiczii) accumulating up to 108 mg Cd kg(-1) DW and 1510 mg Zn kg(-1) DW when exposed to a multipollution context. Our data also confirm the importance of pH and multipollution, as these factors greatly affect TE accumulation in above ground biomass. The NFT technique applied here to a large range of poplar clones also revealed the potential of the Rochester, AFO662 and AFO678 poplar clones for use in phytostabilization programs and bioenergy production, where production of less contaminated above ground biomass is suitable.

  2. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals.

  3. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  4. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disturbances of trace element metabolism in ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Prodanchuk, Mykola; Pisarev, Evegnii; Sheiman, Boris; Kulyzkiy, Mykola

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Accumulation of trace elements occurs in conditions of decreased kidney function. In some conditions, increased trace elements can have toxic features. On the other hand, studies are showing that concentration of some trace elements could be decreased in ERSD patients as well. The most important factor affecting trace element concentration in ERSD patients is the degree of renal failure and the usage of replacement therapy. Materials and methods We analyzed the trace elements’ (boron, aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, rubidium, strontium, cadmium, cesium, barium and lead) concentration in the whole blood of 41 ESRD patients who were treated with hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration and also of 61 healthy blood donors. In addition, comparison of trace element blood levels of patients receiving hemodialysis and hemofiltration was carried out. Whole blood trace element concentration was determined using inductive coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICPMS). Results Levels of boron, aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, zinc, strontium, cadmium, barium and lead were significantly increased in ESRD patients. Significantly decreased levels were observed for nickel, arsenic, selenium and rubidium. Blood levels of cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead in hemodialysis patients were significantly higher compared to patients receiving hemodiafiltration. Conclusions ESRD is accompanied with serious and multidirectional changes of trace element blood levels. The highest degree of blood level increases were observed for nonessential and toxic trace elements. Disorders of essential trace elements were manifested in a minor degree. Besides this, there were observed differences of trace element concentrations between ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis and hemo-diafiltration. PMID:24757548

  6. Interspecific differences in egg production affect egg trace element concentrations after a coal fly ash spill.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Beck, Michelle L; Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A

    2013-12-03

    In oviparous vertebrates, trace elements transfer from mother to offspring during egg production. For animals that produce eggs slowly, like turtles, the trace element concentration of each egg reflects an integration of dietary and stored accumulation over the duration of vitellogenesis. Because turtles also produce eggs synchronously, all eggs within a clutch should exhibit uniform trace element concentrations. In contrast, for animals that produce eggs in sequence and primarily from current dietary resources, like many birds, the trace element concentrations of eggs should be less uniform within a clutch, and likely reflect short-term changes in dietary exposure. We tested the hypothesis that stinkpot turtle (Sternotherus odoratus) clutches exhibit lower variability and higher repeatability in barium, selenium, strontium, and thallium concentrations than those of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from a site impacted by a recent coal ash spill. All four trace elements exhibited significantly lower variability and significantly higher repeatability in stinkpot clutches than in swallow clutches. Mean trace element concentrations of stinkpot eggs were also significantly higher than those of swallow eggs although both species feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. Variability in swallow egg trace element concentrations was partially due to significant laying order effects. Our results support the hypothesis that interspecific variation in the source of resources and in the synchronicity and rate of egg production can lead to interspecific differences in the variability of egg trace element concentrations.

  7. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  9. Assessment of serum trace elements and electrolytes in children with childhood and atypical autism.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2016-09-29

    The existing data demonstrate a significant interrelation between ASD and essential and toxic trace elements status of the organism. However, data on trace element homeostasis in particular ASD forms are insufficient. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of children with childhood and atypical autism. A total of 48 children with ASD (24 with childhood and 24 with atypical autism) and age- and sex-adjusted controls were examined. Serum trace elements and electrolytes were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data demonstrate that children with ASD unspecified are characterized by significantly lower Ni, Cr, and Se levels as compared to the age- and sex-matched controls. At the same time, significantly decreased serum Ni and Se concentrations were detected in patients with childhood autism. In turn, children with atypical autism were characterized by more variable serum trace element spectrum. In particular, atypical autism is associated with lower serum Al, As, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Se levels in comparison to the control values. Moreover, Al and Mn concentration in this group was also lower than that in childhood autism patients. Generally, the obtained data demonstrate lower levels of both essential and toxic trace elements in atypical autism group, being indicative of profound alteration of trace elements metabolism. However, further detailed metabolic studies are required to reveal critical differences in metabolic pathways being responsible for difference in trace element status and clinical course of the disease.

  10. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Measurement of Trace Elements During the Development and Immune Response of Heliothis virescens Larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While many studies have examined the effect of microbial infections on the status of trace elements in mammalian tissues, similar studies have not been performed in insects. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify changes in trace elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and ...

  12. Constraints on the bioavailability of trace elements to terrestrial fauna at mining and smelting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; Schoof, R.; LaTier, A.; Mellott, R.; Shields, W.; Ruby, M.

    1995-12-31

    At mining and smelting sites, the bioavailability of waste-related trace elements to terrestrial wildlife is limited by mineralogy of the waste material and the geochemistry of the waste-soil mixture. For example, encapsulation of trace elements in inert mineral matrices limits the assimilation of particle-associated trace elements that are ingested by wildlife. The bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, and zinc at mining and smelting sites in Oklahoma and Montana was evaluated based on analysis of waste material, soil chemistry, and concentrations of trace elements in whole-body samples of key food web species. Concentrations of trace elements were generally elevated relative to reference area values for selected species of vegetation, insects, spiders, and small mammals. Soil-to-tissue bioconcentration factors derived from field data at these sites were generally low (< 1), with the exception of cadmium in vegetation. For all of the trace elements evaluated, wildlife exposure models indicate that the potential for transfer of contaminants to wildlife species of public concern and high trophic-level predators is limited. Moreover, laboratory feeding experiments conducted with cadmium and lead indicate that the assimilation of waste-related trace elements by mammals is relatively low (24--47 percent for lead in blood and bone; 22--44 percent for cadmium in kidney). The relatively low bioavailability of trace elements at mining and smelting sites should be considered when estimating exposure of ecological receptors and when deriving soil cleanup criteria based on measured or modeled ecological risk.

  13. Design of an expert system for mitigating trace element toxicity in cancer risk management.

    PubMed

    Krishna Kumar, P T; Vinod, P T; Phoha, Vir V; Iyengar, S S; Iyengar, Puneeth

    2013-01-01

    Cancer risk management involves obliterating excess concentration of cancer causing trace elements by the natural immune system and hence intake of nutritious diet is of paramount importance. Human diet should consist of essential macronutrients that have to be consumed in large quantities and trace elements are to be consumed in very little amount. As some of these trace elements are causative factors for various types of cancer and build up at the expense of macronutrients, cancer risk management of these trace elements should be based on their initial concentration in the blood of each individual and not on their tolerable upper intake level. We propose an information theory based Expert System (ES) for estimating the lowest limit of toxicity association between the trace elements and the macronutrients. Such an estimate would enable the physician to prescribe required medication containing the macronutrients to annul the toxicity of cancer risk trace elements. The lowest limit of toxicity association is achieved by minimizing the correlated information of the concentration correlation matrix using the concept of Mutual Information (MI) and an algorithm based on a Technique of Determinant Inequalities (TDI) developed by the authors. The novelty of our ES is that it provides the lowest limit of toxicity profile for all trace elements in the blood not restricted to a group of compounds having similar structure. We demonstrate the superiority our algorithm over Principal Component Analysis in mitigating trace element toxicity in blood samples.

  14. Temperature and Gravity Dependence of Trace Element Abundances in Hot DA White Dwarfs (94-EUVE-094)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    EUV spectroscopy has shown that DA white dwarfs hotter than about 45,000 K may contain trace heavy elements, while those hotter than about 50,000 K almost always have significant abundances of trace heavy elements. One of our continuing challenges is to identify and determine the abundances of these trace constituents, and then to relate the observed abundance patterns to the present conditions and previous evolutionary histories of the hot DA white dwarfs.

  15. Trace Element Compositions of Pallasite Olivine Grains and Pallasite Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Pallasites are mixtures of metal with magnesian olivine. Most have similar metal compositions and olivine oxygen isotopic compositions; these are the main-group pallasites (PMG). The Eagle Station grouplet of pallasites (PES) have distinctive metal and olivine compositions and oxygen isotopic compositions. Pallasites are thought to have formed at the core-mantle boundary of their parent asteroids by mixing molten metal with solid olivine of either cumulatic or restitic origin. We have continued our investigation of pallasite olivines by doing in situ trace element analyses in order to further constrain their origin. We determined Al, P, Ca, Ga and first row transition element contents of olivine grains from suite of PMG and PES by LA-ICP-MS at JSC. Included in the PMG suite are some that have anomalous metal compositions (PMG-am) and atypically ferroan olivines (PMG-as). Our EMPA work has shown that there are unanticipated variations in olivine Fe/Mn, even within those PMG that have uni-form Fe/Mg. Manganese is homologous with Fe2+, and thus can be used the same way to investigate magmatic fractionation processes. It has an advantage for pallasite studies in that it is unaffected by redox exchange with the metal. PMG can be divided into three clusters on the basis of Mn/Mg; low, medium and high that can be thought of as less, typically and more fractionated in an igneous sense. The majority of PMG have medium Mn/Mg ratios. PMG-am occur in all three clusters; there does not seem to be any relationship between putative olivine igneous fractionation and metal composition. The PMG-as and one PMG-am make up the high Mn/Mg cluster; no PMG are in this cluster. The high Mn/Mg cluster ought to be the most fractionated (equivalent to the most Fe-rich in igneous suites), yet they have among the lowest contents of incompatible lithophile elements Al and Ti and the two PMG-as in this cluster also have low Ca and Sc contents. This is inconsistent with simple igneous

  16. Variation in macro and trace elements in progression of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Khalid; Bawazeer, Nahla; Joy, Salini Scaria

    2014-01-01

    Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  17. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements. PMID:25162051

  18. Some aspects of statistical distribution of trace element concentrations in biomedical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Braziewicz, J.; Banaś , D.; Kubala-Kukuś , A.; Góź Dź , S.; Pajek, M.; Zadrozsolarna, M.; Jaskóla, M.; Czyzsolarewski, T.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in biomedical samples were studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Used analytical methods were compared in terms of their detection limits and applicability for studying the trace elements in large populations of biomedical samples. In a result, the XRF and TRXRF methods were selected to be used for the trace element concentration measurements in the urine and woman full-term placenta samples. The measured trace element concentration distributions were found to be strongly asymmetric and described by the logarithmic-normal distribution. Such a distribution is expected for the random sequential process, which realistically models a level of trace elements in studied biomedical samples. The importance and consequences of this finding are discussed, especially in the context of comparison of the concentration measurements in different populations of biomedical samples.

  19. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  20. Trace Element Inputs to the Upper West Pacific from Nd Isotopes and Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, M. K.; Pahnke, K.; Schnetger, B.; Brumsack, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Neodymium isotopes (143Nd/144Nd, expressed as ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in the ocean trace water mass transport and margin-seawater exchange processes. The distinct ɛNd and REE signatures of the lithogenic components of margin sediments of the West Pacific allow characterization of trace element inputs to the Pacific Ocean. We present dissolved ɛNdand REE concentrations from twelve vertical profiles of a transect from South Korea to Fiji. Near South Korea, surface waters are marked by unradiogenic ɛNd (as low as -7.3), high REE concentrations (e.g., Nd = 15.3 pmol/kg) and low salinity. Towards the open ocean, these parameters gradually change towards typical Pacific open ocean values (ɛNd = -3.3, [Nd] = 5.55 pmol/kg). Subsurface waters show REE depletions, followed by the typical REE increase with increasing water depth. These distributions indicate trace element input near South Korea and enhanced subsurface scavenging, as indicated by strong heavy REE to light REE fractionation. In the tropical West Pacific (10°N-15°S), high surface and subsurface water ɛNd values (+0.7) and positive Eu anomalies trace the influence of volcanic islands. Yet, absolute REE concentrations are extremely low at these depths (e.g., Nd = 2.77 pmol/kg). Using shale-normalized Nd/Er and Ho/Dy ratios, that show a much stronger surface to subsurface decrease in coastal waters compared to the open ocean, we suggest enhanced scavenging in this area. Eastward flowing intermediate waters (NPIW, AAIW) have ɛNd values up to +1.9 (NPIW) and +3.7 (AAIW) higher than those entering the tropical West Pacific from north and south, respectively. Modified ɛNd at intermediate depths and no change in REE patterns suggest that boundary exchange along volcanic island margins modifies the seawater ɛNd without changing the REE budget.

  1. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: A non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    SciTech Connect

    Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha M. H.; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2013-08-19

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 μm. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). Lastly, this effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

  2. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toops, Todd J.; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Voisin, Sophie; Gregor, Jens; Walker, Lakeisha; Strzelec, Andrea; Finney, Charles E. A.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2013-11-01

    This research describes the development and implementation of high-fidelity neutron imaging and the associated analysis of the images. This advanced capability allows the non-destructive, non-invasive imaging of particulate filters (PFs) and how the deposition of particulate and catalytic washcoat occurs within the filter. The majority of the efforts described here were performed at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) CG-1D neutron imaging beamline at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the current spatial resolution is approximately 50 μm. The sample holder is equipped with a high-precision rotation stage that allows 3D imaging (i.e., computed tomography) of the sample when combined with computerized reconstruction tools. What enables the neutron-based image is the ability of some elements to absorb or scatter neutrons where other elements allow the neutron to pass through them with negligible interaction. Of particular interest in this study is the scattering of neutrons by hydrogen-containing molecules, such as hydrocarbons (HCs) and/or water, which are adsorbed to the surface of soot, ash and catalytic washcoat. Even so, the interactions with this adsorbed water/HC is low and computational techniques were required to enhance the contrast, primarily a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). This effort describes the following systems: particulate randomly distributed in a PF, ash deposition in PFs, a catalyzed washcoat layer in a PF, and three particulate loadings in a SiC PF.

  3. Application of coupled electric field method for eddy current non-destructive inspection of multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchala, T.; Abdelhadi, B.; Benoudjit, A.

    2015-04-01

    The development of fast and accurate method describing the electromagnetic phenomena intervening in eddy current non-destructive systems is very interesting, since it permits the design of reliable systems permitting the detection and the characterisation of defect in conductive materials. The coupled electric field method presented in this article can assume a large part of these objectives, because it is fast in comparison to the finite element method and easily invertible since the sensor impedance variation is an explicit function of target physical and geometrical characteristics. These advantages have motivated us to extend this method for multilayered structures, very interesting in aeronautic industry, by superposing the inductive effects in different layers. The impedance of an absolute sensor operating above three conducting layers will be calculated and compared to those obtained with finite element method. Afterwards, we shall exploit the model to study the effect of defect characteristics on the sensor impedance. Furthermore, regarding to the depth penetration effect, we shall make into evidence the necessity of accomplishing an optimal choice of the exciting field frequency during the inspection of multilayered materials. The essential importance of this method, besides of its rapidity, resides in its possibility to be extended to 2D irregular and 3D asymmetric configurations.

  4. Non-destructive analysis of coins using high-energy PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Griesser, M.; Denk, R.; Winter, H.

    2004-11-01

    At the Ionenstrahllabor (ion beam laboratory) a great variety of ions with variable energies up to several MeV/u can be produced. Performing proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) with protons of 68 MeV, heavy elements can be detected via the K X-rays in addition to their L X-rays. The large proton range and the small absorption coefficients for the K X-rays result in an analysable depth of several millimeters. The L-K line intensity ratio yields further information on the composition of the objects. The objects of the study were so-called "Wiener Pfennige" found in Tulln, Austria. The "hoard of Tulln" contains about 11 000 of these silver coins which were strongly corroded and agglomerated to a single block. After the restoration non-destructive analysis should provide information about the elemental composition. The goal was to show the evolution of the copper content of the coins and the verification of the actual coin classification.

  5. Combined non-destructive XRF and SR-XAS study of archaeological artefacts.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, Fabrizio; Barone, Germana; Crupi, Vincenza; Longo, Francesca; Majolino, Domenico; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Venuti, Valentina

    2011-03-01

    We report on a non-destructive study of Sicilian ceramic fragments of cultural heritage interest, classified as "proto-majolica" pottery and dating back to the twelfth to thirteen centuries AD. The analytical approach used is based on the employment of two totally non-invasive spectroscopic techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), using a portable energy-dispersive XRF analyser, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, using synchrotron radiation as a probe (SR-XAS). XRF measurements allowed us to collect elemental and spatially resolved information on major and minor constituents of the decorated coating of archaeological pottery fragments, so providing preliminary results on the main components characterizing the surface. In particular, we assigned to Fe and Mn the role of key elements of the colouring agent. With the aim of obtaining more detailed information, we performed SR-XAS measurements at the Fe and Mn K-edges at the Italian BM08 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). The experimental data were analysed by applying principal component analysis and least-squares fitting to the near-edge part of the spectra (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) to determine the samples' speciation. From the overall results, umber, a class of brownish pigments characterized by a mixture of hydrated iron and manganese oxides, has been ascribed as a pigmenting agent.

  6. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

    PubMed Central

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal–plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials. PMID:26868040

  7. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M

    2016-02-12

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials.

  8. Zinc is an essential trace element for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Celino, Fritzie T; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Miura, Takeshi

    2009-06-30

    Zinc (Zn) plays important roles in various biological activities but there is little available information regarding its functions in spermatogenesis. In our current study, we further examined the role of Zn during spermatogenesis in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Human CG (hCG) was injected into the animals to induce spermatogenesis, after which the concentration of Zn in the testis increased in tandem with the progression of spermatogenesis. Staining of testicular cells with a Zn-specific fluorescent probe revealed that Zn accumulates in germ cells, particularly in the mitochondria of spermatogonia and spermatozoa. Using an in vitro testicular organ culture system for the Japanese eel, production of a Zn deficiency by chelation with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylemethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) caused apoptosis of the germ cells. However, this cell death was rescued by the addition of Zn to the cultures. Furthermore, an induced deficiency of Zn by TPEN chelation was found to inhibit the germ cell proliferation induced by 11-ketotestosterone (KT), a fish specific androgen, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), the initiator of meiosis in fish, and estradiol-17beta (E2), an inducer of spermatogonial stem-cell renewal. We also investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on sperm motility and observed that TPEN treatment of eel sperm suppressed the rate and duration of their motility but that co-treatment with Zn blocked the effects of TPEN. Our present results thus suggest that Zn is an essential trace element for the maintenance of germ cells, the progression spermatogenesis, and the regulation of sperm motility.

  9. Trace elements in surface sediments of Navarino Bay, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Varnavas, S.P. ); Panagos, A.G.; Laios, G. )

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of a number of trace elements in the Navarino Bay surface sediments is examined and their source and association with the major phases is determined. Cobalt follows Al in its distribution, having its highest values towards the center and deeper parts of the bay; Zn and Cu have their highest values at the effluent outfalls of a distillery and an olive oil and olive kernel factory being decreased away. The highest concentration of Ni is found near the town Pylos, while the highest concentrations of Rb and Y are observed at the mouths of rivers Yalovas and Xerias. Organic matter has its highest content at the port of Pylos, while no significant variations have been observed in the distribution of Sn and Ga. It is demonstrated that there is an anthropogenic input of Zn, Cu, and Corg in the bay. Zn and Cu are discharged by a distillery and an olive oil and olive kernel factory, at Yalova. Organic matter is mainly derived from domestic sewage. Ni enters the bay from its southern coasts and might be derived from weathering of bauxite deposits present in the adjacent limestones. Rb and Y are transported by the rivers Yalovas and Xerias from the northeastern adjacent land area: Ni, Co, and Cu show positive correlation with Al, suggesting their incorporation in clay minerals, while Rb show positive correlation with Si, suggesting its incorporation is silicate detrital minerals. The following areas in the bay are considered to be heavily polluted: (1) the port and a large zone near Pylos (domestic sewage); (2) the port and a small area near Yalova (domestic sewage and industrial effluents); and (3) the eastern coast of the island Sphaktiria (oil). The domestic sewage pollution in Navarino Bay is of the same level as that in other Greek bays.

  10. Trace elements in surface sediments of Navarino Bay, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varnavas, S. P.; Panagos, A. G.; Laios, G.

    1987-10-01

    The distribution of a number of trace elements in the Navarino Bay surface sediments is examined and their source and association with the major phases is determined. Cobalt follows Al in its distribution, having its highest vaues towards the center and deeper parts of the bay; Zn and Cu have their highest values at the effluent outfalls of a distillery and an olive oil and olive kernel factory (at the port of Yalova), being decreased away. The highest concentration of Ni is found near the town Pylos, while the highest concentrations of Rb and Y are observed at the mouths of rivers Yalovas and Xerias. Organic matter has its highest content at the port of Pylos, while no significant variations have been observed in the distribution of Sn and Ga. It is demonstrated that there is an anthropogenic input of Zn, Cu, and Corg in the bay. Zn and Cu are discharged by a distillery and an olive oil and olive kernel factory, at Yalova. Organic matter is mainly derived from domestic sewage. Ni enters the bay from its southern coasts and might be derived from weathering of bauxite deposits present in the adjacent limestones. Rb and Y are transported by the rivers Yalovas and Xerias from the northeastern adjacent land area; Ni, Co, and Cu show positive correlation with Al, suggesting their incorporation in clay minerals, while Rb shows positive correlation with Si, suggesting its incorporation in silicate detrital minerals. The following areas in the bay are considered to be heavily polluted: (1) the port and a large zone near Pylos (domestic sewage); (2) the port and a small area near Yalova (domestic sewage and industrial effluents); and (3) the eastern coast of the island Sphaktiria (oil). The domestic sewage pollution in Navarino Bay is of the same level as that in other Greek bays.

  11. [Analysis of trace elements in the deaf-muted children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi].

    PubMed

    Youledusi, Abudurusuli; Jian-ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between trace elements and auditory function in the deafness children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi. There were 27 deaf-muted children in this study and 30 children with normal hearing as control. Sample of serum and hair from two groups were collected, and we tested 17 kinds of trace elements by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. The content of trace elements in serum including Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Se, V and Pb from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P < 0.01), however, other trace elements including Mn, Sr, Sn, and Bi was much lower than that of control group (P < 0.01). Then, the content of those trace elements including Ba, Cr, Ag, Co, Ti, and Ni in serum from both testing and control groups was found no significant difference with each other (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the content of the trace elements including Sn and Se in hairs from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P < 0.05), but the content of the trace elements including Zn, Fe, Co, Mn, Sr, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ti and Ba in hairs from deaf-muted group was much lower than that of control group (P < 0.05), while the content of the trace element including Cu, Ag, Cd, and Bi in hairs from deaf-muted group was found no significant difference between each other (P > 0.05). The content of some trace elements in serum and hairs of deaf-muted children is found a significant difference compared with children with normal hearing. This study indicates that some trace elements may relate to auditory function among ethnic minorities in Urumchi.

  12. A NEW NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FILTERS: THE CASE OF MANGANESE AIR POLLUTION IN VALLECAMONICA (ITALY)

    PubMed Central

    Borgese, Laura; Zacco, Annalisa; Pal, Sudipto; Bontempi, Elza; Lucchini, Roberto; Zimmerman, Neil; Depero, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a well-established technique for chemical analysis, but it is mainly employed for quality control in the electronics semiconductor industry. The capability to analyze liquid and uniformly thin solid samples makes this technique suitable for other applications, and especially in the very critical field of environmental analysis. Comparison with standard methods like Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) show that TXRF is a practical, accurate, and reliable technique in occupational settings. Due to the greater sensitivity necessary in trace heavy metal detection, TXRF is also suitable for environmental chemical analysis. In this paper we show that based on appropriate standards, TXRF can be considered for non-destructive routine quantitative analysis of environmental matrices such as air filters. This work has been developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 PHIME (Public Health Impact of long-term, low-level Mixed element Exposure in susceptible population strata) Integrated Project (www.phime.org). The aim of this work was to investigate Mn air pollution in the area of Vallecamonica (Italy). PMID:21315919

  13. Distribution of trace elements in coal from the Powhatan No. 6 mine, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Filby, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Size and density separates of low-temperature-ashed coal from the Powhatan No. 6 mine, Ohio, have been used to determine the mode of occurrence of 28 minor and trace elements in coal. The size distribution of the major minerals has been determined, and correlations of trace elements with major minerals have been made. The role of minor minerals in the mode of occurrence of trace elements is also discussed. Instrumental-neutron-activation analysis was used to determine elemental concentrations, and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for mineral identification. ?? 1984.

  14. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shabnam; Richards, Brian K; Steenhuis, Tammo S; McBride, Murray B; Baveye, Philippe; Dousset, Sylvie

    2004-11-01

    Leaching of sludge-borne trace elements has been observed in experimental and field studies. The role of microbial processes in the mobilization of trace elements from wastewater sludge is poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine trace element mobilization from sludge subjected to treatments representing microbial acidification, direct chemical acidification and no acidification, and to determine the readsorption potential of mobilized elements using calcareous sand. Triplicate columns (10-cm diameter) for incubation and leaching of sludge had a top layer of digested dewatered sludge (either untreated, acidified with H2SO4, or limed with CaCO3; all mixed with glass beads to prevent ponding) and a lower glass bead support bed. Glass beads in the sludge layer, support layer or both were replaced by calcareous sand in four treatments used for testing the readsorption potential of mobilized elements. Eight sequential 8-day incubation and leaching cycles were operated, each consisting of 7.6 d of incubation at 28 degrees C followed by 8 h of leaching with synthetic acid rain applied at 0.25 cm/h. Leachates were analyzed for trace elements, nitrate and pH, and sludge layer microbial respiration was measured. The largest trace element, nitrate and S losses occurred in treatments with the greatest pH depression and greatest microbial respiration rates. Cumulative leaching losses from both microbial acidification and direct acidification treatments were > 90% of Zn and 64-80% of Cu and Ni. Preventing acidification with sludge layer lime or sand restricted leaching for all trace elements except Mo. Results suggested that the primary microbial role in the rapid leaching of trace elements was acidification, with results from direct acidification being nearly identical to microbial acidification. Microbial activity in the presence of materials that prevented acidification mobilized far lower concentrations of trace elements, with the exception of Mo. Trace elements

  15. Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; Field, Catherine; Manns, Braden; Thadhani, Ravi; Gill, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. Methods All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at least one of the following elements in whole blood, serum, or plasma: antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. We calculated differences between hemodialysis patients and controls using the differences in mean trace element level, divided by the pooled standard deviation. Results We identified 128 eligible studies. Available data suggested that levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium were higher and that levels of selenium, zinc and manganese were lower in hemodialysis patients, compared with controls. Pooled standard mean differences exceeded 0.8 standard deviation units (a large difference) higher than controls for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, and lower than controls for selenium, zinc, and manganese. No studies reported data on antimony, iodine, tellurium, and thallium concentrations. Conclusion Average blood levels of biologically important trace elements were substantially different in hemodialysis patients, compared with healthy controls. Since both deficiency and excess of trace elements are potentially harmful yet amenable to therapy, the hypothesis that trace element status influences the risk of adverse clinical outcomes is worthy of investigation. PMID:19454005

  16. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-02-21

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically.

  17. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

    2009-08-15

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate.

  18. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M.; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A

  19. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  20. Determination of trace elements in calcium rich carbonate rocks by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for environmental and geological studies.

    PubMed

    Cherkashina, T Yu; Shtel'makh, S I; Pashkova, G V

    2017-09-23

    A simple, rapid and non destructive Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRFS) was developed for the determination of trace elements such as V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb in carbonate rocks with high calcium content. Samples of marble, limestone, fluorite ore and carbonatite-like rocks were chosen as objects under investigation. These samples have wide ranges of major and trace element contents, and high concentration of calcite (70-98%) in calcium rich carbonates. The sample mass required for infinite thickness was calculated for each element. In order to determine V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, La, Nd, Ce, sample weighting 1g was pressed with a pressure of 100kN. For the determination of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Pb, the sample mass was increased up to 5g. The calibration curves were constructed by employing the International Certified reference materials (ICRMs) and in-house standard reference materials (HSRMs) of various types of rocks and sediments, and the matrix effects were taken into account using the influence coefficients (α-correction equations). Analytical figures of merit have also been assessed. The calculated values of the instrumental limit of the detection were within the interval from 0.5 to 4.0mgkg(-1). The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be satisfactory with the relative standard deviations lower than 5%. The accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of two reference materials and the comparison with the ICP-MS results. A good agreement was achieved between the reference and measured values with recoveries ranging from 85% to 115%. The relative disagreements between the XRF and ICP-MS results were less than 10%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  2. Non-destructive testing for the structures and civil infrastructures characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, L.; Rizzo, E.

    2012-04-01

    infrared thermography and sonic testing. Finally, we investigated a radiant floor by GPR (900 MHz to 2000 MHz antennas) and long-wave infrared camera. Non-destructive diagnostic techniques allow to investigate a building structure in reinforced concrete or masonry without altering the characteristics of the element investigated. For this reason, geo-electrical and electromagnetic surveys of masonry are a suitable non-destructive tool for the diagnosis of a deteriorated concrete structure. Moreover, the integration of different NDT techniques (conventional and no-conventional) is a very powerful to maximize the capabilities and to compensate for the limitations of each method.

  3. Trace element partitioning in Fe-P-O-S alloy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Crispin, K. L.; Ash, R. D.; McDonough, W. F.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    An understanding of siderophile trace element partitioning between liquid and solid metal phases and between immiscible liquid metal phases is a key to studying the differentiation of planetary and asteroidal cores. Cores are thought to contain non-metallic 'light' elements like S, P, C and N and Si or / and O which may strongly affect the partitioning behavior of trace elements. In a complex system with multiple light elements, each of these non-metallic elements may have a different influence on the partitioning behavior of the trace elements. However, these influences have not been quantified in most cases. We investigated the partitioning behavior of trace elements within the Fe-P-O-S system with varying concentrations of P, O and S. The experiments were performed under pressures ranging from 1 atm to 2 GPa and temperatures varying from 1000°C to 1300°C. The influence of each light element (i.e. P, O, S) on trace element partitioning and their combined effects have been examined. Some highly siderophile elements including Os, Re, and Ir are strongly repelled by sulfur but even more strongly repelled by oxygen. It is possible that these elements could be fractionated significantly during crystallization of Earth's core, if it is oxygen-rich.

  4. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  5. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. PMID:26197334

  6. [Correlations of trace elements, glucose and body compositions in type 2 diabetics].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changfeng; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Junli; Feng, Li

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the difference in trace elements between diabetic and control groups, and to explore the correlations between trace elements and serum glucose, body compositions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 72 diabetics and 64 controls are selected randomly. The level of serum trace elements, the ratio of copper, zinc were measured and compared between the two groups. A correlation was conducted for the serum trace elements, serum glucose and body compositions and 64 controls are selected randomly. There was a very significant difference in some serum trace elements level between diabetic and control groups (P < 0.01). Serum zinc, selenium,chromium were significantly lower in diabetic group compared with the control group (P < 0.01), copper was significantly higher (P < 0.01). Negative correlations were showed between zinc and serum glucose, manganese and the content of protein, the content of trace elements, hip circumference. And positive correlations were showed between copper and serum glucose, copper and waist circumference. It is concluded that there is trace elements metabolism disorder in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The correction for this disorder might have significant value for the treatment of diabetics and prevention of complications.

  7. Geochemical Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Surface Sediments from the Georges River, Southern Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alyazichi, Yasir M; Jones, Brian G; McLean, Errol; Pease, Joel; Brown, Heidi

    2017-02-01

    Measurement of elevated trace elements is an important component of environmental assessment and management of estuarine marine sediments in systems adjacent to concentrated human activity. The present study surveys the estuarine sediments in selected tributary bays, creeks, and the upper segments of the Georges River system, NSW, Australia, which flows into the Tasman Sea through Botany Bay. A total of 146 surface sediment samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. Potential pollution of sediments was evaluated using potential load index, modified degree of contamination, and potential ecological risk index. The spatial distribution of trace elements varies between sites. Variable sources of contamination, including runoff from catchment areas, and emissions from watercraft and boatyards are contributing sources. Bay morphologies and their interactions with catchment and tidal flows play significant roles in the distribution of trace elements. The greatest concentration of trace elements occurs around discharge points and in the inner parts of bays that have high percentages of mud particles and organic matter. The lowest contamination by trace elements was found in sandy sediments along the shoreline and edges of the bays. Trace element distributions decline in concentration in residential-free areas and reach background levels in deeper sediment cores. The concentrations of trace elements were controlled by discharge points from the catchment area, marine boat activities, bay morphology, and sediment types (sand, silt, and clay). The highest pollutant concentrations are the result of past legal, but uncontrolled, discharge of waste from manufacturing into Salt Pan Creek.

  8. Trophodynamics of mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic food chain from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T; Järvinen, Olli; Mukherjee, Arun B; Verta, Matti; Broman, Dag

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and 13 other trace elements (Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were measured in phytoplankton, zooplankton, mysis and herring in order to examine the trophodynamics in a well-studied pelagic food chain in the Baltic Sea. The fractionation of nitrogen isotopes (delta(15)N) was used to evaluate food web structure and to estimate the extent of trophic biomagnification of the various trace elements. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for each trace element were determined from the slope of the regression between trace element concentrations and delta(15)N. Calculated TMFs showed fundamental differences in the trophodynamics of the trace elements in the pelagic food chain studied. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd showed statistically significant decreases (TMF<1) with increasing trophic levels and thus these trace elements tropically dilute or biodilute in this Baltic food chain. Cu, As, Cr, Mn, V, Ti and Co showed no significant relationships with trophic levels. Hg was unique among the trace elements studied in demonstrating a statistically significant increase (TMF>1) in concentration with trophic level i.e. Hg biomagnifies in this Baltic food chain. The estimated TMF for Hg in this food chain was comparable to TMFs observed elsewhere for diverse food chains and locations.

  9. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-07-21

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  10. Trace Elements Induce Predominance among Methanogenic Activity in Anaerobic Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Wintsche, Babett; Glaser, Karin; Sträuber, Heike; Centler, Florian; Liebetrau, Jan; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller’s grains and supplemented with TEs (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten) and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting TE supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, TE concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH) and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the TE-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on TE supplementation explainable by different TE requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under TE deprivation, Methanoculleus and thus hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was favored although Methanosarcina was not overgrown

  11. Trace Elements Induce Predominance among Methanogenic Activity in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Wintsche, Babett; Glaser, Karin; Sträuber, Heike; Centler, Florian; Liebetrau, Jan; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller's grains and supplemented with TEs (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten) and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting TE supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, TE concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH) and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the TE-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on TE supplementation explainable by different TE requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under TE deprivation, Methanoculleus and thus hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was favored although Methanosarcina was not overgrown by

  12. Isotopic and trace element composition of martian enriched reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, G.; Ikeda, Y.

    2005-12-01

    enriched geochemical reservoir is required to explain the chemical variation of SNC magmas. In the present study, we will discuss the isotopic and trace element composition of martian enriched reservoir.

  13. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H. R.; Dinapoli, Roberto; Müller, Elisabeth; Bunk, Oliver; Raabe, Jörg; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Modern nanoelectronics has advanced to a point at which it is impossible to image entire devices and their interconnections non-destructively because of their small feature sizes and the complex three-dimensional structures resulting from their integration on a chip. This metrology gap implies a lack of direct feedback between design and manufacturing processes, and hampers quality control during production, shipment and use. Here we demonstrate that X-ray ptychography—a high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging technique—can create three-dimensional images of integrated circuits of known and unknown designs with a lateral resolution in all directions down to 14.6 nanometres. We obtained detailed device geometries and corresponding elemental maps, and show how the devices are integrated with each other to form the chip. Our experiments represent a major advance in chip inspection and reverse engineering over the traditional destructive electron microscopy and ion milling techniques. Foreseeable developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors, as well as adoption of an instrument geometry optimized for planar rather than cylindrical samples, could lead to a thousand-fold increase in efficiency, with concomitant reductions in scan times and voxel sizes.

  14. Plane Wave Imaging for ultrasonic non-destructive testing: Generalization to multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Léonard; Robert, Sébastien; Lopez Villaverde, Eduardo; Prada, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new ultrasonic array imaging method for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) which is derived from the medical Plane Wave Imaging (PWI) technique. The objective is to perform fast ultrasound imaging with high image quality. The approach is to transmit plane waves at several angles and to record the back-scattered signals with all the array elements. Focusing in receive is then achieved by coherent summations of the signals in every point of a region of interest. The medical PWI is generalized to immersion setups where water acts as a coupling medium and to multimodal (direct, half-skip modes) imaging in order to detect different types of defects (inclusions, porosities, cracks). This method is compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM) which is the reference imaging technique in NDT. First, the two post-processing algorithms are described. Then experimental results with the array probe either in contact or in immersion are presented. A good agreement between the TFM and the PWI is observed, with three to ten times less transmissions required for the PWI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of spiral-welded pipes using flexural guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Tang, Zhifeng; Lü, Fuzai; Pan, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    Millions of miles of pipes are being used in both civil and industrial fields. Spiral-welded pipes, which are widely applied in fields such as drainage, architecture as well as oil and gas storage and transportation, are difficult to inspect due to their complex geometry. Guided waves have shown a great potential in Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for such cases. Flexural guided waves that propagate at a helix angle relative to the axial direction of pipe, are the most appropriate modes for inspecting spiral-welded pipes. The classical Normal Mode Expansion method (NME) is adopted to disseminate the forced response and perturbation analysis of a steel pipe with respect to a time delay circular loading. A time delay circular array transducer (TDCAT) is proposed for the purpose of exciting pure flexural mode in pipes. Pure flexural mode can be excited when the time delay parameter is specifically designed. The theoretical prediction is verified by finite element numerical evaluation and spiral-welded pipe inspection experiment.

  16. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H R; Dinapoli, Roberto; Müller, Elisabeth; Bunk, Oliver; Raabe, Jörg; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-03-15

    Modern nanoelectronics has advanced to a point at which it is impossible to image entire devices and their interconnections non-destructively because of their small feature sizes and the complex three-dimensional structures resulting from their integration on a chip. This metrology gap implies a lack of direct feedback between design and manufacturing processes, and hampers quality control during production, shipment and use. Here we demonstrate that X-ray ptychography-a high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging technique-can create three-dimensional images of integrated circuits of known and unknown designs with a lateral resolution in all directions down to 14.6 nanometres. We obtained detailed device geometries and corresponding elemental maps, and show how the devices are integrated with each other to form the chip. Our experiments represent a major advance in chip inspection and reverse engineering over the traditional destructive electron microscopy and ion milling techniques. Foreseeable developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors, as well as adoption of an instrument geometry optimized for planar rather than cylindrical samples, could lead to a thousand-fold increase in efficiency, with concomitant reductions in scan times and voxel sizes.

  17. First-time observation of Mastro Giorgio masterpieces by means of non-destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Ingo, G. M.; Bouquillon, A.; Pages-Camagna, S.; Aucouturier, M.; Roehrs, S.; Fermo, P.

    2006-06-01

    For the first time some excellent pieces belonging to the majolica production of the great master Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio (Central Italy) have been characterized from a chemical and structural point of view with the aim to identify the composition of both pigments and lustres. A series of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Raman analyses have been performed on some plates coming from Museo del Palazzo dei Consoli (Gubbio) and several French museums (Louvre, Musée National de la Céramique, Musée National de la Renaissance) lustred by Giorgio Andreoli and decorated by famous majolica painters such as Francesco Xanto Avelli. The three techniques are complementary and useful in the investigation of art objects since they are non-destructive. Furthermore, the low detection limits allow the identification of all elements and compounds present, and RBS allows concentration profiling, too. It is worth noticing that the examined objects are characterized by the presence of both gold and ruby-red lustres, a peculiarity of Mastro Giorgio’s technique. The measurements by PIXE and RBS have been carried out on the AGLAE accelerator at C2RMF, Louvre Palace.

  18. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Wind Turbine Blades Using an Infrared Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.; Rumsey, M.

    1998-12-17

    The use of a digital infrared as a non-destructive evaluation thermography camera (NDE) tool was ex- plored in two separate wind turbine blade fatigue tests. The fwst test was a fatigue test of part of a 13.1 meter wood-epoxy-composite blade. The second test was on a 4.25 meter pultruded fiber glass blade section driven at several mechanical resonant frequencies. The digital infrared camera can produce images of either the static temperature distribution on the surface of the specimen, or the dynamic temperature distribution that is in phase with a specific frequency on a vibrating specimen. The dynamic temperature distribution (due to thermoplastic effects) gives a measure of the sum of the principal stresses at each point on the surface. In the wood- epoxy-composite blade fatigue test, the point of ultimate failure was detected long before failure occurred. The mode shapes obtained with the digital infrared camera, from the resonant blade tests, were in very good agree- ment with the finite-element calculations. In addition, the static temperature images of the resonating blade showed two areas that contained cracks. Close-up dy- namic inf%red images of these areas showed the crack structure that agreed with subsequent dye-penetrant analysis.

  19. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Lia Toledo Moreira; Mota, Alexandre de Assis; Coiado, Lorenzo Campos

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response. PMID:26184208

  20. Enhancing the bandwidth of piezoelectric composite transducers for air-coupled non-destructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Banks, Robert; O'Leary, Richard L; Hayward, Gordon

    2017-03-01

    This paper details the development of a novel method for increasing the operational bandwidth of piezocomposites without the need for lossy backing material, the aim being to increase fractional bandwith by geometrical design. Removing the need for lossy backing materials, should in turn increase the transmit efficiency in the desired direction of propagation. Finite element analysis has been employed to determine the mode of operation of the new piezocomposite devices and shows good correlation with that derived experimentally. Through a series of practical and analytical methods it has been shown that additional thickness mode resonances can be introduced into the structure by a simple machining process. The shaped composites described in this paper offer increased operational bandwidth. A simple example of a two step thickness design is described to validate and illustrate the principle. A more complex conical design is presented that illustrates a possible tenfold increase in bandwidth from 30kHz to 300kHz, operating in air without backing. An illustration of the applicability of this type of transducer technology for frequency agile guided mode non-destructive evaluation is then presented.

  1. Non-Destructive Current Sensing for Energy Efficiency Monitoring in Buildings with Environmental Certification.

    PubMed

    Mota, Lia Toledo Moreira; Mota, Alexandre de Assis; Coiado, Lorenzo Campos

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, buildings environmental certifications encourage the implementation of initiatives aiming to increase energy efficiency in buildings. In these certification systems, increased energy efficiency arising from such initiatives must be demonstrated. Thus, a challenge to be faced is how to check the increase in energy efficiency related to each of the employed initiatives without a considerable building retrofit. In this context, this work presents a non-destructive method for electric current sensing to assess implemented initiatives to increase energy efficiency in buildings with environmental certification. This method proposes the use of a sensor that can be installed directly in the low voltage electrical circuit conductors that are powering the initiative under evaluation, without the need for reforms that result in significant costs, repair, and maintenance. The proposed sensor consists of three elements: an air-core transformer current sensor, an amplifying/filtering stage, and a microprocessor. A prototype of the proposed sensor was developed and tests were performed to validate this sensor. Based on laboratory tests, it was possible to characterize the proposed current sensor with respect to the number of turns and cross-sectional area of the primary and secondary coils. Furthermore, using the Least Squares Method, it was possible to determine the efficiency of the air core transformer current sensor (the best efficiency found, considering different test conditions, was 2%), which leads to a linear output response.

  2. Research Based on Optical Non-Destructive Testing of Pigment Identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jigang; Hao, Shengcai; Zhou, Wenhua; Qi, Xiaokun; Shi, Jilong

    2016-04-01

    Optical Non-Destructive Testing (ONDT) can be applied as penetrating elemental and structure analysis technology in the Pigments identification field. Three-dimensional video microscopy, Raman microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are employed to measure the materials based on a Qing Dynasty meticulous painting. The results revealed that the dark yellow area within the decorative patterns was presented due to the interaction of Emerald green and hematite, and the bright yellow edge area was delineated by Cu-Zn-Pb composition. The interesting thing is that an artificial synthetic ultramarine blue was checked in the painting. According to the first synthesized time of ultramarine blue and Paris green, the time limit of the painting completion can be identified. The principle of Pigment subtractive colorant and nitikaset method were employed to interpreting the results. Optical testing combined with the area of cultural relic identification can be a potential method to build an expert identification system successfully. This work also help lay the optical method groundwork for further cultural relic identification, sterilization, and preservation.

  3. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  4. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.

  5. Trace element emissions when firing pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Title Ed of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designates 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Fourteen of the 189 substances identified are: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (0), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorous (P). Eleven of these elements have been detected in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Currently there are no regulations that limit the emissions of these elements during coal combustion in utility- or industrial-scale boilers. Given the growing body of risk assessment data on these elements and their impact on the environment and human health, it is possible that regulations on emission levels for certain elements will be imposed. A knowledge of the occurrence of trace elements in coal and their behavior during combustion is essential to predict emissions and to develop control technologies for remediation. The partitioning of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the system. For purposes of this paper, the classification of trace elements summarized by Clarke and Sloss will be used: Group I elements, i.e., elements that are not easily volatilized and form larger bottom ash and fly ash particles; Group H elements, i.e., elements that are partially or completely volatilization followed by condensation as small particles or on the surface of small particles; and Group III elements, i.e., elements that are readily volatilized and usually remain in the gas phase system.

  6. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Pounds, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  8. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  9. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  10. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  11. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  12. Trace element content of leaves of desert shrubs in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Garland, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of leaves of desert shrubs showed strong differences in macroelements according to species and location on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) site in south-central Washington. Halophytes were characterized by high levels of K, Cl, Br, Mn, and Na, and glycophytes by high levels of Ca and Mg. However, trace element content was not significantly different. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) leaves from Wyoming and the ALE site were not greatly different in trace element content. Natural leaf fall collections can be used to monitor changing levels of trace element content induced by coal combustion steam-electric plants.

  13. The prediction of aquatic sediment-associated trace element concentration using selected geochemical factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Hooper, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple linear regression models calculated from readily obtainable chemical and physical parameters can explain a high percentage (70 per cent or greater) of observed sediment-trace element variance for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sb, Se, and Hg in a widely divergent suite of 60 sediment samples. The geochemical parameters included in the models were of physical (e.g. grain size, surface area) and a chemical (e.g. organic matter, amorphous iron oxides) nature. Comparison between actual and predicted trace element concentrations obtained from the models may provide a means of defining "average' sediment trace element concentrations. -from Authors

  14. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. New insights into trace element wet deposition in the Himalayas: amounts, seasonal patterns, and implications.

    PubMed

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Yulan; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Liu, Bin; Wan, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Our research provides the first complete year-long dataset of wet deposition of trace elements in the high Himalayas based on a total of 42 wet deposition events on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest). Except for typical crustal elements (Al, Fe, and Mn), the concentration level of most trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Pb, Bi, and U) are generally comparable to those preserved in snow pits and ice cores from the nearby East Rongbuk Glacier. Cadmium was the element most affected by anthropogenic emissions. No pronounced seasonal variations are observed for most trace elements despite different transport pathways. In our study, the composition of wet precipitation reflects a regional background condition and is not clearly related to specific source regions. For the trace element record from ice cores and snow pits in the Himalayas, it could be deduced that the pronounced seasonal patterns were caused by the dry deposition of trace elements (aerosols) during their long exposure to the atmosphere after precipitation events. Our findings are of value for the understanding of the trace element deposition mechanisms in the Himalayas.

  16. Maternal transfer of trace elements in the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs. The greatest concentrations on average transferred to egg tissue were Zn (140 µg/g), Cu (47.8 µg/g), and Fe (38.6 µg/g) for essential elements and As (10.9 µg/g) and Ag (1.23 µg/g) for nonessential elements. For elements that were maternally transferred, correlation analyses were run to assess if the concentration in the eggs were similar to that of adult tissue that is completely internalized (leg) or a boundary to the external environment (gill). Positive correlations between egg and leg tissue were found for As, Hg, Se, Mn, Pb, and Ni. Mercury, Mn, Ni, and Se were the only elements correlated between egg and gill tissue. Although, many trace elements were in low concentration in the eggs, we speculate that the higher transfer of essential elements is related to their potential benefit during early development versus nonessential trace elements, which are known to be toxic. We conclude that maternal transfer as a source of trace elements to horseshoe crabs should not be overlooked and warrants further investigation.

  17. Crime scene investigations using portable, non-destructive space exploration technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, Jacob I.; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Selavka, Carl; Dale, Mark; Gahn, Norman; Floyd, Samuel; Marie, James; Hobson, Maritza; Zeosky, Jerry; Martin, Ken; hide

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals solve crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ programs with state and local forensic laboratories. A working group of NASA scientists and law enforcement professionals has been established to develop and implement a feasibility demonstration program. Specifically, the group has focused its efforts on identifying gunpowder and primer residue, blood, and semen at crime