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Sample records for non-expanded peripheral blood-derived

  1. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  2. Isolation and characterization of peripheral blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shicheng; Tan, Xun; Ali, Shah Qurban; Wei, Liangjun

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been extensively studied in mammals but the isolation and characterization of EPCs in avian species have not been reported. In this study, chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were cultured under conditions favoring endothelial-specific differentiation for 2 weeks. One heterogeneous cell population dominated by spindle-shaped cells (early EPCs) and one homogeneous cell population exhibiting cobblestone-like morphology (endothelial outgrowth cells, EOCs) appeared sequentially. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed the expression of several progenitor and endothelial cell markers such as CD133, VEGFR-2 and CD31 in both cell populations. However, CD34, another progenitor marker, was undetectable in either freshly isolated PBMNCs or cultured cells. The endothelial phenotype of the EOCs was further identified by acetylated low-density lipoprotein/lectin double staining, and in vitro tube formation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chicken EPCs can be isolated and cultured from PBMNCs and suggest that EPCs obtained from peripheral blood may originate mainly from the CD34- subpopulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Enrichment and Biological Characteristics of Peripheral Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rats].

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Qian; Fang, Ning; Chen, Long; Yu, Li-Mei; Liu, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    To explore the effective method for enrichment of rat peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells(PBMSC) and study the cell biological characteristics. Peripheral mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from blood of 4 week old rats after G-CSF mobilization. Thereafter, the fibroblast-like cells were acquired by plastic-adherent culture, and the proliferation curve was assayed. For analyzing surface markers of the second generation cultured isolated PBMSC, both flow cytometry(CD90, CD44, CD29, CD45, CD11b and CD79a) and immunocytochemical staining(CD73, CD105, CD34 and HLA-DR) methods were used. Furthermore, the differentiation capacities of PBMSC into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes were identified. (1) The adherent cells displayed typical colony-forming unit fibroblast(CFU-F) growth pattern after 6-7 day of primary culture and reached 80% confluence after 21 days of culture. The passaged PBMSC possessed high proliferative capacity and spindle growth pattern and was able to grown into exponential phase next day with a doubling time of 39.2 h. (2) PBMSC expressed mesenchymal markers such as CD90, CD44, CD29, CD73 and CD105, but failed to expressed markers of CD45, CD11b, CD79a, CD34 and HLA-DR. (3) After 21 days of culture in osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation media, calcifying nodules, intracellular glycosaminoglycans and lipid droplets could be found by alizarin red, alcian blue and oil red-O staining, respectively. PBMSC can be enriched from rat peripheral blood with high purity and abundance by our methods. The growth and phenotypic characteristics of the isolated PBMSC are consistent with that of well-known MSC, and these cells possess the capability to multi-lineage mesoderm differentiation.

  4. Tissue engineering with peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mengjie; Wang, Xianghai; Chen, Yijing; Cao, Shangtao; Wen, Jinkun; Wu, Guofeng; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Lixia; Qian, Changhui; Qin, Zhenqi; Li, Zhenlin; Tan, Dandan; Fan, Zhihao; Wu, Wutian; Guo, Jiasong

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury repair can be enhanced by Schwann cell (SC) transplantation, but clinical applications are limited by the lack of a cell source. Thus, alternative systems for generating SCs are desired. Herein, we found the peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) could be induced into SC like cells with expressing SC-specific markers (S100, P75NTR and CNPase) and functional factors (NGF, NT-3, c-Fos, and Krox20). When the induced PBMSCs (iPBMSCs) were transplanted into crushed rat sciatic nerves, they functioned as SCs by wrapping the injured axons and expressing myelin specific marker of MBP. Furthermore, iPBMSCs seeded in an artificial nerve conduit to bridge a 10-mm defect in a sciatic nerve achieved significant nerve regeneration outcomes, including axonal regeneration and remyelination, nerve conduction recovery, and restoration of motor function, and attenuated myoatrophy and neuromuscular junction degeneration in the target muscle. Overall, the data from this study indicated that PBMSCs can transdifferentiate towards SC-like cells and have potential as grafting cells for nerve tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Proteome Dynamics in Biobanked Horse Peripheral Blood Derived Lymphocytes (PBL) with Induced Autoimmune Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Lepper, Marlen F; Hertl, Michael; Sekundo, Walter; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2017-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis is the only spontaneous model for recurrent autoimmune uveitis in humans, where T cells target retinal proteins. Differences between normal and autoaggressive lymphocytes were identified in this study by analyzing peripheral blood derived lymphocytes (PBL) proteomes from the same case with interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein induced uveitis sampled before (Day 0), during (Day 15), and after uveitic attack (Day 23). Relative protein abundances of PBL were investigated in a quantitative, label-free differential proteome analysis in cells that were kept frozen for 14 years since the initial experiment. Quantitative data could be acquired for 2632 proteins at all three time points. Profound changes (≥2-fold change) in PBL protein abundance were observed when comparing Day 0 with 15, representing acute inflammation (1070 regulated proteins) and Day 0 with 23 (cessation; 1571 regulated). Significant differences applied to proteins with functions in integrin signaling during active uveitis, involving "Erk and pi-3 kinase are necessary for collagen binding in corneal epithelia," "integrins in angiogenesis," and "integrin-linked kinase signaling" pathways. In contrast, at cessation of uveitic attack, significantly changed proteins belonged to pathways of "nongenotropic androgen signaling," "classical complement pathway," and "Amb2 integrin signaling." Several members of respective pathways were earlier shown to be changed in naturally occurring uveitis, underscoring the significance of these findings here and proofing the value of the induced model in mimicking spontaneous autoimmune uveitis. All MS data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (dataset identifier PXD005580). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Preclinical Study of Cell Therapy for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head with Allogenic Peripheral Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Tang, Ning-Ning; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Yi; Peng, Jia-Chen; Fang, Ning; Yu, Li-Mei; Liu, Jin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the value of transplanting peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells from allogenic rabbits (rPBMSCs) to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Materials and Methods rPBMSCs were separated/cultured from peripheral blood after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization. Afterwards, mobilized rPBMSCs from a second passage labeled with PKH26 were transplanted into rabbit ONFH models, which were established by liquid nitrogen freezing, to observe the effect of rPBMSCs on ONFH repair. Then, the mRNA expressions of BMP-2 and PPAR-γ in the femoral head were assessed by RT-PCR. Results After mobilization, the cultured rPBMSCs expressed mesenchymal markers of CD90, CD44, CD29, and CD105, but failed to express CD45, CD14, and CD34. The colony forming efficiency of mobilized rPBMSCs ranged from 2.8 to 10.8 per million peripheral mononuclear cells. After local transplantation, survival of the engrafted cells reached at least 8 weeks. Therein, BMP-2 was up-regulated, while PPAR-γ mRNA was down-regulated. Additionally, bone density and bone trabeculae tended to increase gradually. Conclusion We confirmed that local transplantation of rPBMSCs benefits ONFH treatment and that the beneficial effects are related to the up-regulation of BMP-2 expression and the down-regulation of PPAR-γ expression. PMID:27189298

  7. Chondrogenic Potential of Peripheral Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Seeded on Demineralized Cancellous Bone Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-Jie; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Huang, Ai-Bing; Qi, Yan-Song; Wang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    As a cell source with large quantity and easy access, peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) were isolated and seeded in porcine demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) scaffolds, cultured in chondrogenic medium and evaluated for in vitro chondrogenesis. Bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs) and articular cartilage chondrocytes (ACCs) underwent the same process as controls. The morphology, viability and proliferation of PBMSCs in DCB scaffolds were similar to those of BMMSCs and ACCs. PBMSCs and BMMSCs showed similar chondrogenesis potential with consistent production of COL 2 and SOX 9 protein and increased COL 2 and AGC mRNA expressions at week 3 but the COL 2 protein production was still less than that of ACCs. Minimal increase of hypertrophic markers was found in all groups. Relatively higher ALP and lower COL 10 mRNA expressions were found in both MSCs groups at week 3 than that in ACCs, whereas no significant difference of COL 1 and SOX 9 mRNA and MMP 13 protein was found among all groups. To conclude, PBMSCs shared similar proliferation and chondrogenic potential with BMMSCs in DCB scaffolds and could be an alternative to BMMSCs for cartilage tissue engineering. Further optimization of chondrogenesis system is needed regardless of the promising results. PMID:27821864

  8. Effect of subcutaneous treatment with human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Ju; Yoon, Tae Gyoon; Kang, Moonkyu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aim to determine the in vivo effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) on neuropathic pain, using three, principal peripheral neuropathic pain models. Four weeks after hUCB-MSC transplantation, we observed significant antinociceptive effect in hUCB-MSC–transplanted rats compared to that in the vehicle-treated control. Spinal cord cells positive for c-fos, CGRP, p-ERK, p-p 38, MMP-9 and MMP 2 were significantly decreased in only CCI model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats, while spinal cord cells positive for CGRP, p-ERK and MMP-2 significantly decreased in SNL model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats and spinal cord cells positive for CGRP and MMP-2 significantly decreased in SNI model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats, compared to the control 4 weeks or 8weeks after transplantation (p<0.05). However, cells positive for TIMP-2, an endogenous tissue inhibitor of MMP-2, were significantly increased in SNL and SNI models of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats. Taken together, subcutaneous injection of hUCB-MSCs may have an antinociceptive effect via modulation of pain signaling during pain signal processing within the nervous system, especially for CCI model. Thus, subcutaneous administration of hUCB-MSCs might be beneficial for improving those patients suffering from neuropathic pain by decreasing neuropathic pain activation factors, while increasing neuropathic pain inhibition factor. PMID:28280408

  9. Characterization of monocyte/macrophage subsets in the skin and peripheral blood derived from patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent accumulating evidence indicates a crucial involvement of macrophage lineage in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). To analyze the assembly of the monocyte/macrophage population, we evaluated the expression of CD163 and CD204 and various activated macrophage markers, in the inflammatory cells of the skin and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with SSc. Methods Skin biopsy specimens from 6 healthy controls and 10 SSc patients (7 limited cutaneous SSc and 3 diffuse cutaneous SSc) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against CD68 (pan-macrophage marker), CD163 and CD204. Surface and/or intracellular protein expression of CD14 (marker for monocyte lineage), CD163 and CD204 was analysed by flow cytometry in PBMCs from 16 healthy controls and 41 SSc patients (26 limited cutaneous SSc and 15 diffuse cutaneous SSc). Statistical analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test for comparison of means. Results In the skin from SSc patients, the number of CD163+ cells or CD204+ cells between the collagen fibers was significantly larger than that in healthy controls. Flow cytometry showed that the population of CD14+ cells was significantly greater in PBMCs from SSc patients than that in healthy controls. Further analysis of CD14+ cells in SSc patients revealed higher expression of CD163 and the presence of two unique peaks in the CD204 histogram. Additionally, we found that the CD163+ cells belong to CD14brightCD204+ population. Conclusions This is the first report indicating CD163+ or CD204+ activated macrophages may be one of the potential fibrogenic regulators in the SSc skin. Furthermore, this study suggests a portion of PBMCs in SSc patients abnormally differentiates into CD14brightCD163+CD204+ subset. The subset specific to SSc may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, as the source of CD163+ or CD204+ macrophages in the skin. PMID:20602758

  10. The effects of carnosine on oxidative DNA damage levels and in vitro lifespan in human peripheral blood derived CD4+T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Hyland, P; Duggan, O; Hipkiss, A; Barnett, C; Barnett, Y

    2000-12-20

    Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), an abundant naturally-occurring dipeptide has been shown to exhibit anti-ageing properties towards cultured cells, possibly due in part to its antioxidant/free radical scavenging abilities. In this paper the results of an investigation on the effects of carnosine, at the physiological concentration of 20 mM, on oxidative DNA damage levels and in vitro lifespan in peripheral blood derived human CD4+ T cell clones are reported. Under the culture conditions used (20% O(2)) long term culture with carnosine resulted in a significant increase in the lifespan of a clone derived from a healthy young subject. No such extension was observed when a T cell clone from a healthy old SENIEUR donor was similarly cultured. Culture with carnosine from the midpoint of each clone's lifespan did not have any effect on longevity, independent of donor age. Oxidative DNA damage levels were measured in the clones at various points in their lifespans. Carnosine acted as a weak antioxidant, with levels of oxidative DNA damage being lower in T cells grown long term in the presence of carnosine. The possibility that carnosine might confer anti-ageing effects to T cells under physiological oxygen tensions would appear to be worthy of further investigation.

  11. Peripheral Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Angiogenesis via Paracrine Stimulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion in the Equine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bussche, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have received much attention as a potential treatment of ischemic diseases, including ischemic tissue injury and cardiac failure. The beneficial effects of MSCs are thought to be mediated by their ability to provide proangiogenic factors, creating a favorable microenvironment that results in neovascularization and tissue regeneration. To study this in more detail and to explore the potential of the horse as a valuable translational model, the objectives of the present study were to examine the presence of angiogenic stimulating factors in the conditioned medium (CM) of peripheral blood-derived equine mesenchymal stromal cells (PB-MSCs) and to study their in vitro effect on angiogenesis-related endothelial cell (EC) behavior, including proliferation and vessel formation. Our salient findings were that CM from PB-MSCs contained significant levels of several proangiogenic factors. Furthermore, we found that CM could induce angiogenesis in equine vascular ECs and confirmed that endothelin-1, insulin growth factor binding protein 2, interleukin-8, and platelet-derived growth factor-AA, but not urokinase-type plasminogen activator, were responsible for this enhanced EC network formation by increasing the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, an important angiogenesis stimulator. PMID:25313202

  12. Impacts of bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood derived platelet-rich plasma on the wound healing in chronic ischaemic limb.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Soh; Kawai, Kenichiro; Tsumano, Tomoko; Fukuda, Kenji; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2013-06-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has attracted attention as a safe and cost-effective source of growth factors that stimulate cells to regenerate tissue. Bone marrow cells are also estimated as an effective material for treating chronic ulcers. With the same technique to concentrate PRP from peripheral blood, bone marrow aspirate was processed and marrow cells were concentrated as well as platelets. Impact of PRP derived from bone marrow aspirate (bm-PRP) and that from peripheral blood (pb-PRP) on wound healing of persistent ischaemic rabbits' limbs were observed. Full thickness skin defects were made on the thighs, which had been treated to be persistent ischaemic status 3 weeks previously. Saline, pb-PRP, and bm-PRP were injected into the wound floor, respectively. Skin defected areas on ischaemic limbs were significantly wider than those on non-ischaemic limbs. bm-PRP injected wounds showed a significantly smaller skin defect area compared with pb-PRP and ischaemic-saline wounds at all time points. Fluorescently dyed cells of bm-PRP, injected into the wounds, could be traced 4 weeks after, whereas those of pb-PRP could be traced no more than 2 weeks. Wound healing on an ischaemic limb was accelerated with bm-PRP, whereas pb-PRP could not show any significance from saline. This difference can be attributed to the kind of cells contained in the PRPs. Injection of bm-PRP is a good candidate for treating wounds on ischaemic limbs.

  13. CD34 expression modulates tube-forming capacity and barrier properties of peripheral blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs).

    PubMed

    Tasev, Dimitar; Konijnenberg, Lara S F; Amado-Azevedo, Joana; van Wijhe, Michiel H; Koolwijk, Pieter; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) are grown from circulating CD34(+) progenitors present in adult peripheral blood, but during in vitro expansion part of the cells lose CD34. To evaluate whether the regulation of CD34 characterizes the angiogenic phenotypical features of PB-ECFCs, we investigated the properties of CD34(+) and CD34(-) ECFCs with respect to their ability to form capillary-like tubes in 3D fibrin matrices, tip-cell gene expression, and barrier integrity. Selection of CD34(+) and CD34(-) ECFCs from subcultured ECFCs was accomplished by magnetic sorting (FACS: CD34(+): 95 % pos; CD34(-): 99 % neg). Both fractions proliferated at same rate, while CD34(+) ECFCs exhibited higher tube-forming capacity and tip-cell gene expression than CD3(4-) cells. However, during cell culture CD34(-) cells re-expressed CD34. Cell-seeding density, cell-cell contact formation, and serum supplements modulated CD34 expression. CD34 expression in ECFCs was strongly suppressed by newborn calf serum. Stimulation with FGF-2, VEGF, or HGF prepared in medium supplemented with 3 % albumin did not change CD34 mRNA or surface expression. Silencing of CD34 with siRNA resulted in strengthening of cell-cell contacts and increased barrier function of ECFC monolayers as measured by ECIS. Furthermore, CD34 siRNA reduced tube formation by ECFC, but did not affect tip-cell gene expression. These findings demonstrate that CD34(+) and CD34(-) cells are different phenotypes of similar cells and that CD34 (1) can be regulated in ECFC; (2) is positively involved in capillary-like sprout formation; (3) is associated but not causally related to tip-cell gene expression; and (4) can affect endothelial barrier function.

  14. Neurogenic and neuro-protective potential of a novel subpopulation of peripheral blood-derived CD133+ ABCG2+CXCR4+ mesenchymal stem cells: development of autologous cell-based therapeutics for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Joan E; Niles, Jean A; DeWitt, Douglas; Prough, Donald; Parsley, Margaret; Vega, Stephanie; Cantu, Andrea; Lee, Eric; Cortiella, Joaquin

    2013-01-06

    Nervous system injuries comprise a diverse group of disorders that include traumatic brain injury (TBI). The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into neural cell types has aroused hope for the possible development of autologous therapies for central nervous system injury. In this study we isolated and characterized a human peripheral blood derived (HPBD) MSC population which we examined for neural lineage potential and ability to migrate in vitro and in vivo. HPBD CD133+, ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2)+, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)+ MSCs were differentiated after priming with β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) combined with trans-retinoic acid (RA) and culture in neural basal media containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) or co-culture with neuronal cell lines. Differentiation efficiencies in vitro were determined using flow cytometry or fluorescent microscopy of cytospins made of FACS sorted positive cells after staining for markers of immature or mature neuronal lineages. RA-primed CD133+ABCG2+CXCR4+ human MSCs were transplanted into the lateral ventricle of male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hours after sham or traumatic brain injury (TBI). All animals were evaluated for spatial memory performance using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) Test. Histological examination of sham or TBI brains was done to evaluate MSC survival, migration and differentiation into neural lineages. We also examined induction of apoptosis at the injury site and production of MSC neuroprotective factors. CD133+ABCG2+CXCR4+ MSCs consistently expressed markers of neural lineage induction and were positive for nestin, microtubule associated protein-1β (MAP-1β), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuron specific nuclear protein (NEUN) or type III beta-tubulin (Tuj1). Animals in the primed MSC treatment group exhibited MWM latency results similar to the uninjured (sham) group with both groups showing improvements in

  15. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  16. [IFN-γ up-regulates PD-L1 expression in human placenta mesenchymal stem cells and enhances cell ability to induce the differentiation of IL-10+ T cells from cord blood- and peripheral blood-derived T cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Heng; Xu, Fenghuang; DU, Haibo; Li, Xiaohua; Yi, Junzhu; Wang, Guoyan; Luan, Xiying

    2016-02-01

    To compare the differentiation, inducing effects of human placenta mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) on IL-10(+) T cells derived from cord blood and peripheral blood, and investigate the effect of IFN-γ on the induction. The hPMSCs were isolated from human placenta and cultured. The expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in hPMSCs was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. Mononuclear cells were isolated from cord blood and peripheral blood of healthy donors by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and T cells were purified by sheep red blood cells. Then hPMSCs, pretreated with PD-L1 mAb or IFN-γ, were co-cultured with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated T cells. Percentages of CD4(+)IL-10(+) and CD8(+)IL-10(+) T cells in cord blood and peripheral blood T cells were analyzed by FCM. hPMSCs could induce the differentiation of CD4(+)IL-10(+) and CD8(+)IL-10(+) T cells from cord blood or peripheral blood T cells, and the number of IL-10(+) T cells in the peripheral blood T cells was significantly higher than that in the cord blood T cells. Pretreatment with IFN-γ markedly enhanced the differentiation, inducing ability of hPMSCs. PD-L1 was highly expressed in hPMSCs, and the expression was also significantly promoted by IFN-γ. After the expression of PD-L1 was blocked in hPMSCs, the percentages of CD4(+)IL-10(+) and CD8(+)IL-10(+) T cells obviously decreased in cord blood and peripheral blood T cells. The ability of hPMSCs to induce the differentiation of IL-10(+) T cells from peripheral blood T cells was apparently stronger than that in cord blood T cells. IFN-γ could up-regulate the number of IL-10(+)T cells differentiated from cord blood and peripheral blood T cells in the present of hPMSCs by enhancing the expression of PD-L1 in hPMSCs.

  17. Effects of periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein, sE-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by peripheral blood-derived macrophages in diabetes. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lalla, E; Kaplan, S; Yang, J; Roth, G A; Papapanou, P N; Greenberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for vascular disease and periodontitis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of periodontal treatment in diabetes with respect to alterations in the pro-inflammatory potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ten patients with diabetes and moderate to severe periodontitis received full-mouth subgingival debridement. Blood samples for serum/plasma and mononuclear cell isolation were collected prior to and 4 wk after therapy. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or ionomycin/phorbol ester to determine the pro-inflammatory capacity of macrophages and lymphocytes, respectively. Following periodontal treatment, all patients demonstrated a significant improvement in clinical periodontal status (p < 0.05), despite only modest reduction in subgingival bacterial load or homologous serum immunoglobulin G titers. CD14(+) blood monocytes decreased by 47% (p < 0.05), and the percentage of macrophages spontaneously releasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased by 78% (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the capacity of lymphocytes to secrete interferon-gamma. Among a number of serum inflammatory markers tested, high-sensitivity-C-reactive protein significantly decreased by 37% (p < 0.01) and soluble E-selectin decreased by 16.6% (p < 0.05). These data suggest a reduced tendency for monocyte/macrophage-driven inflammation with periodontal therapy and a potential impact on atherosclerosis-related complications in diabetic individuals.

  18. Comparison of corneal epitheliotrophic capacities among human platelet lysates and other blood derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Jung; Sun, Yi-Chen; Christopher, Karen; Pai, Amy Shih-I; Lu, Chia-Ju; Hu, Fung-Rong; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the corneal epitheliotropic abilities of two commercialized human platelet lysates (HPLs) and to compare the results with other blood derivatives, including human peripheral serum (HPS) and bovine fetal serum (FBS). Methods In vitro, human corneal epithelial cells were incubated in various concentrations (0%, 3%, 5% and 10%) of blood derivatives. Two commercialized HPLs, including UltraGRO TM (Helios, Atlanta, GA) and PLTMax (Mill Creek, Rochester, MI), were tested and compared with HPS and FBS. Scratch-induced directional wounding assay was performed to evaluate cellular migration. MTS assay was used to evaluate cellular proliferation. Cellular differentiation was examined by scanning electron microscopy, inverted microscopy and transepithelial electrical resistance. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the effects of the blood derivatives on corneal epithelial wound healing in vivo. Different blood derivatives were applied topically every 2 hours for 2 days after corneal epithelial debridement. The concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor -β1 (TGF-β1), fibronectin, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), PDGF-BB, and hyaluronic acid in different blood derivatives were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results In vitro experiments demonstrated statistically comparable epitheliotropic characteristics in cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation for the two commercialized HPLs compared to FBS and HPS. Cells cultured without any serum were used as control group. The epitheliotropic capacities were statistically higher in the two commercialized HPLs compared to the control group (p<0.05). Among the different concentrations of blood derivatives, the preparations with 3% yielded better outcomes compared to 5% and 10%. In rats, HPLs also caused improved but not statistically significant wound healing compared to HPS. All the blood derivatives had better wound healing

  19. Generation of blood-derived dendritic cells in dogs with oral malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, B; Stell, A J; Dobson, J M

    2002-01-01

    Advances in treatment of human melanoma indicate that immunotherapy, particularly dendritic cell (DC) immunization, may prove useful. The aim of this study was to investigate whether blood-derived DCs could be generated from canine melanoma patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from three such dogs and cultured with recombinant canine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), canine interleukin 4 and human Flt3-ligand for 7 days. The resulting cells demonstrated a typical dendritic morphology, and were enriched for cells expressing CD1a, CD11c and MHC II by flow cytometric analysis. Thus, canine blood-derived DCs can be generated in vitro and DC immunization should be feasible in dogs. Copyright Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. Sciatic nerve regeneration by transplantation of menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Farzamfar, Saeed; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ghanavatinejad, Alireza; Vaez, Ahmad; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Salehi, Majid

    2017-10-04

    This is the first study demonstrating the efficacy of menstrual blood-derived stem cell (MenSC) transplantation via a neural guidance conduit, for peripheral nerve regeneration. The synthesized poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/Gelatin conduit, filled with collagen type I and seeded with 3 × 10(4) MenSCs, was implanted into a rat's 10 mm sciatic nerve defect. The results of hot plate latency, sciatic functional index and weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that the MenSC transplantation had comparable nerve regeneration outcome to autograft, as the gold standard of nerve bridging. The transplantation of MenSCs via a synthetic conduit could ameliorate the functional recovery of sciatic nerve-injured rats which make them a potential candidate for cell therapy of peripheral nervous system disorders.

  1. Mass spectrometry in cancer biomarker research: a case for immunodepletion of abundant blood-derived proteins from clinical tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, DaRue A; Johann, Donald J; Wei, Bih-Rong; Ye, Xiaoying; Chan, King C; Nissley, Dwight V; Simpson, R Mark; Citrin, Deborah E; Mackall, Crystal L; Linehan, W Marston; Blonder, Josip

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of clinically relevant cancer biomarkers using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has proven difficult, primarily because of the enormous dynamic range of blood-derived protein concentrations and the fact that the 22 most abundant blood-derived proteins constitute approximately 99% of the total plasma protein mass. Immunodepletion of clinical body fluid specimens (e.g., serum/plasma) for the removal of highly abundant proteins is a reasonable and reproducible solution. Often overlooked, clinical tissue specimens also contain a formidable amount of highly abundant blood-derived proteins present in tissue-embedded networks of blood/lymph capillaries and interstitial fluid. Hence, the dynamic range impediment to biomarker discovery remains a formidable obstacle, regardless of clinical sample type (solid tissue and/or body fluid). Thus, we optimized and applied simultaneous immunodepletion of blood-derived proteins from solid tissue and peripheral blood, using clear cell renal cell carcinoma as a model disease. Integrative analysis of data from this approach and genomic data obtained from the same type of tumor revealed concordant key pathways and protein targets germane to clear cell renal cell carcinoma. This includes the activation of the lipogenic pathway characterized by increased expression of adipophilin (PLIN2) along with 'cadherin switching', a phenomenon indicative of transcriptional reprogramming linked to renal epithelial dedifferentiation. We also applied immunodepletion of abundant blood-derived proteins to various tissue types (e.g., adipose tissue and breast tissue) showing unambiguously that the removal of abundant blood-derived proteins represents a powerful tool for the reproducible profiling of tissue proteomes. Herein, we show that the removal of abundant blood-derived proteins from solid tissue specimens is of equal importance to depletion of body fluids and recommend its routine use in the context of biological discovery and

  2. Human umbilical cord blood-derived f-macrophages retain pluripotentiality after thrombopoietin expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yong . E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu; Mazzone, Theodore

    2005-11-01

    We have previously characterized a new type of stem cell from human peripheral blood, termed fibroblast-like macrophage (f-M{phi}). Here, using umbilical cord blood as a source, we identified cells with similar characteristics including expression of surface markers (CD14, CD34, CD45, CD117, and CD163), phagocytosis, and proliferative capacity. Further, thrombopoietin (TPO) significantly stimulated the proliferation of cord blood-derived f-M{phi} (CB f-M{phi}) at low dosage without inducing a megakaryocytic phenotype. Additional experiments demonstrated that TPO-expanded cord blood-derived f-M{phi} (TCB f-M{phi}) retained their surface markers and differentiation ability. Treatment with vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) gave rise to endothelial-like cells, expressing Flt-1, Flk-1, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), CD31, acetylated low density lipoprotein internalization, and the ability to form endothelial-like cell chains. In the presence of lipopolyssacharide (LPS) and 25 mM glucose, the TCB f-M{phi} differentiated to express insulin mRNA, C-peptide, and insulin. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that these insulin-positive cells could release insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues. These findings demonstrate a potential use of CB f-M{phi} and may lead to develop new therapeutic strategy for treating dominant disease.

  3. [Comparative study of concentrated blood derivatives of factor VIII].

    PubMed

    Baklaja, R; Miletić, V; Stajić, M; Cvetković, V; Grozdanić, V

    1984-01-01

    The work presents results of the investigations of blood derivatives--F VIII concentrates: commercial cryoprecipitate, concentrate of intermediary purity and derivatives of high purity: Kriobulin--Immuno, Octobulin--Landerlan, Profilate--Alfa, Factor VIII--Behring, Hemofil--Hyland, Factorate--Armour Pharma, AHF--Kaote Cutter. The following parameters were investigated: VIII: C, VIIIR: Ag, total protein, protein electrophoresis, IgG, IgA and IgM immunoglobulins and anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins. All derivatives except cyroprecipitate have considerably higher VIIIR: RAg value compared with VIII: C, which indicated inactivation of labile VIII: C component during concentrate preparation. Specific activity varied depending on purity of preparations, but ranged from 1,72 to 22. High isoagglutinin titer of anti-A was noted in preparations of high purity, as well as the presence of immunoglobulins. Despite considerable differences in vitro, all concentrated derivatives F VIII have similar immediate clinical effect and recovery from 0,87 to 1,36. All results indicate that new ways of derivative F VIII purification should be found with lower degree of contamination of other plasma proteins and less risk of hepatitis virus transmission. When certain indications are recognized, cryoprecipitate produced in our country in all blood transfusion services should be used.

  4. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-11-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated.

  5. Generating Peripheral Blood Derived Lymphocytes Reacting Against Autologous Primary AML Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Chen, Xiaohua; Antony, Jeyaraj; Boyiadzis, Michael; Szabolcs, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Expanding on our prior studies with cord blood T-cells, we hypothesized that primary AML-reactive autologous T-cells could be generated ex vivo under immunomodulatory conditions. We purified AML and T-cells from 8 newly diagnosed high-risk patients. After 2 weeks expansion, T-cells were stimulated with IFN-γ treated autologous AML weekly X 3, IL-15 and agonistic anti-CD28 antibody. CTL and ELISpot assays tested functionality; RT-qPCR tested AML and T-cell gene expression profiles. Based on combined positive ELIspot and CTL assays, T-cells reactive against AML were generated in 5/8 patients. Treg proportion declined post-co-cultures in reactive T-cell samples. AML-reactive T-cells displayed an activated gene expression profile. “Resistant” AML blasts displayed genes associated with immunosuppressive MDSC. We discuss our approach to creating primary AML-reactive autologous T-cell and limitations that require further work. Our study provides a platform for future research targeting on generating autologous leukemia reactive T-cells. PMID:26849076

  6. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Alidjinou, Enagnon Kazali; Sané, Famara; Trauet, Jacques; Copin, Marie-Christine; Hober, Didier

    2015-11-24

    Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR) mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα) in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  7. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Alidjinou, Enagnon Kazali; Sané, Famara; Trauet, Jacques; Copin, Marie-Christine; Hober, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR) mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα) in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases. PMID:26610550

  8. Generating Peripheral Blood Derived Lymphocytes Reacting Against Autologous Primary AML Blasts.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohtesh S; Chen, Xiaohua; Antony, Jeyaraj; Boyiadzis, Michael; Szabolcs, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Expanding on our prior studies with cord blood T cells, we hypothesized that primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-reactive autologous T cells could be generated ex vivo under immunomodulatory conditions. We purified AML and T cells from 8 newly diagnosed high-risk patients. After 2 weeks expansion, T cells were stimulated with interferon-γ-treated autologous AML weekly × 3, interleukin-15, and agonistic anti-CD28 antibody. Cytotoxic T cells and ELISpot assays tested functionality; reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction tested AML and T-cell gene expression profiles. On the basis of combined positive ELIspot and cytotoxic T cells assays, T cells reactive against AML were generated in 5 of 8 patients. Treg proportion declined after cocultures in reactive T-cell samples. AML-reactive T cells displayed an activated gene expression profile. "Resistant" AML blasts displayed genes associated with immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We discuss our approach to creating primary AML-reactive autologous T cell and limitations that require further work. Our study provides a platform for future research targeting on generating autologous leukemia-reactive T cells.

  9. Point-of-care seeding of nitinol stents with blood-derived endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Alexandra E; Noviani, Maria; Mills, James S; Baker, Katherine M; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Truskey, George A; Achneck, Hardean E

    2016-11-01

    Nitinol-based vascular devices, for example, peripheral and intracranial stents, are limited by thrombosis and restenosis. To ameliorate these complications, we developed a technology to promote vessel healing by rapidly seeding (QuickSeeding) autologous blood-derived endothelial cells (ECs) onto modified self-expanding nitinol stent delivery systems immediately before implantation. Several thousand micropores were laser-drilled into a delivery system sheath surrounding a commercial nitinol stent to allow for exit of an infused cell suspension. As suspension medium flowed outward through the micropores, ECs flowed through the delivery system attaching to the stent surface. The QuickSeeded ECs adhered to and spread on the stent surface following 24-h in vitro culture under static or flow conditions. Further, QuickSeeded ECs on stents that were deployed into porcine carotid arteries spread to endothelialize stent struts within 48 h (n = 4). The QuickSeeded stent struts produced significantly more nitric oxide in ex vivo flow circuits after 24 h, as compared to static conditions (n = 5). In conclusion, ECs QuickSeeded onto commercial nitinol stents within minutes of implantation spread to form a functional layer in vitro and in vivo, providing proof of concept that the novel QuickSeeding method with modified delivery systems can be used to seed functional autologous endothelium at the point of care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1658-1665, 2016.

  10. Nanopatterned acellular valve conduits drive the commitment of blood-derived multipotent cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Liddo, Rosa; Aguiari, Paola; Barbon, Silvia; Bertalot, Thomas; Mandoli, Amit; Tasso, Alessia; Schrenk, Sandra; Iop, Laura; Gandaglia, Alessandro; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Gerosa, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC) on acellular aortic (AVL) and pulmonary (PVL) valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition. Isolated by our group from Vietnamese pigs before heart valve prosthetic implantation, porcine CMC revealed high proliferative abilities, three-lineage differentiative potential, and distinct hematopoietic/endothelial and mesenchymal properties. Their interaction with valve extracellular matrix nanostructures boosted differential messenger RNA expression pattern and morphologic features on AVL compared to PVL, while promoting on both matrices the commitment to valvular and endothelial cell-like phenotypes. Based on their origin from peripheral blood, porcine CMC are hypothesized in vivo to exert a pivotal role to homeostatically replenish valve cells and contribute to hetero- or allograft colonization. Furthermore, due to their high responsivity to extracellular matrix nanostructure signaling, porcine CMC could be useful for a preliminary evaluation of heart valve prosthetic functionality. PMID:27789941

  11. Human blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells augment vasculogenesis and osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar; Michaeli-Geller, Gal; Bick, Tova; Lewinson, Dina; Machtei, Eli E

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) participate in angiogenesis and osteogenesis, therefore, have the potential to enhance extra-cortical bone formation. To enhance extra-cortical bone formation following local transplantation of human peripheral blood-derived EPC (hEPC) in a guided bone regeneration (GBR) nude rat calvaria model. hEPC were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Cells were cultured and characterized by flow cytometry for specific endothelial markers. Following exposure of nude rat calvaria, gold domes were filled with 10(6) hEPC mixed with βTCP (n = 6). Domes filled with βTCP served as control (n = 6). Rats were sacrificed after 3 months. New bone formation and blood vessel density were analysed by histology and histomorphometry. Transplanted hEPC were located in the regenerated tissue using immunohistology. Abundant vasculature was observed adjacent to the newly formed bone. According to histomorphometric analysis: blood vessel density was 7.5 folds higher in the hEPC compared with the control group. Similarly, gained extra-cortical bone height (2.46 ± 1.1 mm versus 0.843 ± 0.61 mm, p = 0.01) and bone area fraction (19.42 ± 7.48% versus 4.81 ± 3.93%, p = 0.001) were elevated following hEPC transplantation. Moreover, hEPC expressing human-specific CD31 were integrated into blood vessel walls adjacent to newly formed bone. In nude rat GBR calvaria model, transplantation of hEPC significantly enhanced vasculogenesis and osteogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Confounding effects of platelets on flow cytometric analysis and cell-sorting experiments using blood-derived cells.

    PubMed

    McFarland, David C; Zhang, Cindy; Thomas, Heath C; T L, Ratliff

    2006-02-01

    Flow cytometric analysis and cell-sorting of peripheral blood leukocytes is commonplace; however, platelet contamination is typically ignored during immunophenotypic analysis and sorting of blood-derived cells. Red blood cells, platelets, T & B lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were sorted from rat blood preparations. Presort enrichment was performed by differential centrifugation for all cell types. Additionally, leukocyte samples were prepared by ammonium chloride lysis of red blood cells. Unless proper precautions were taken, significant numbers of platelets were sorted along with (nonplatelet) cells of interest. The amount of platelet contamination varied greatly from experiment to experiment with the highest level of leukocyte-platelet association observed in the neutrophil/granulocyte population in samples prepared using ammonium chloride-based red blood cell-lysing solution. Addition of an immunophenotypic marker for platelet identification is a simple, yet prudent, measure to help evaluate the impact of platelets on immunophenotypic staining when performing flow cytometric analysis or sorting of blood-derived cells and should become a routine practice. Platelet presence in postsort fractions can be due to free platelets as well as target cell-associated platelets and both sources of contamination must be addressed. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Platelet-Rich Blood Derivatives for Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Leijten, Jeroen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Platelet rich blood derivatives have been widely used in different fields of medicine and stem cell based tissue engineering. They represent natural cocktails of autologous growth factor, which could provide an alternative for recombinant protein based approaches. Platelet rich blood derivatives, such as platelet rich plasma, have consistently shown to potentiate stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Here, we review the spectrum of platelet rich blood derivatives, discuss their current applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, reflect on their effect on stem cells, and highlight current translational challenges. PMID:27047733

  14. Blood-derived smooth muscle cells as a target for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhe; Shao, Hongwei; Tan, Yaohong; Eton, Darwin; Yu, Hong

    2008-02-01

    To examine the feasibility of using blood-derived smooth muscle cells (BD-SMCs) as a target for to deliver therapeutic proteins. Mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated from peripheral blood. The outgrowth colonies from MNC culture were differentiated into BD-SMCs in media containing platelet-derived growth factor BB. Phenotypic characterization of BD-SMCs was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation, gene transfer efficiency with a retroviral vector, apoptosis, and the biological activity of the transduced gene product from the BD-SMCs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo in comparison with vascular derived SMC (VSMCs). BD-SMCs stained positive for SMC markers. No significant difference was observed between BD-SMCs and VSMCs in cell proliferation, migration, adhesiveness, and gene transfer efficiency. After BD-SMCs were transduced with a retroviral vector carrying the secreted alkaline phosphatase gene (SEAP), 174 +/- 50 mug biologically active SEAP was produced per 10(6) cells over 24 hours. After injecting 5 x 10(6) cells expressing SEAP intravenously into rabbits, SEAP concentration increased significantly in the circulation from 0.14 +/- 0.04 mug/ml to 2.34 +/- 0.16 mug/ml 3 days after cell injection (P < .01, n = 3). Circulating levels of SEAP decreased to 1.76 mug /ml 1 week later and remained at this level up to 8 weeks, then declined to pre-cell injection level at 12 weeks. VSMC in vivo gene expression data were equivalent. BD-SMCs have similar characteristics to mature VSMCs and can be used as a novel target for gene transfer to deliver a therapeutic protein.

  15. Blood derived stem cells: an ameliorative therapy in veterinary ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Marfe, Gabriella; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Ranalli, Marco; Cozzoli, Eliana; Di Stefano, Carla; Malafoglia, Valentina; Polettini, Marco; Gambacurta, Alessandra

    2012-03-01

    Stem cell technology has evoked considerable excitement among people interested in the welfare of animals, as it has suggested the potential availability of new tools for several pathologies, including eye disease, which in many cases is considered incurable. One such example is ulcerative keratitis, which is very frequent in horses. Because some of these corneal ulcers can be very severe, progress rapidly and, therefore, can be a possible cause of vision loss, it is important to diagnose them at an early stage and administer an appropriate treatment, which can be medical, surgical, or a combination of both. The therapeutic strategy should eradicate the infection in order to reduce or stop destruction of the cornea. In addition, it should support the corneal structures and control the uveal reaction, and the pain associated with it, in order to minimize scarring. In this study, we address how stem cells derived from peripheral blood can be used also in ophthalmological pathologies. Our results demonstrate that this treatment protocol improved eye disease in four horse cases, including corneal ulcers and one case of retinal detachment. In all cases, we detected a decrease in the intense inflammatory reaction as well as the restoration of the epithelial surface of the central cornea. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clinical applications of blood-derived and marrow-derived stem cells for nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Burt, Richard K; Loh, Yvonne; Pearce, William; Beohar, Nirat; Barr, Walter G; Craig, Robert; Wen, Yanting; Rapp, Jonathan A; Kessler, John

    2008-02-27

    Stem cell therapy is rapidly developing and has generated excitement and promise as well as confusion and at times contradictory results in the lay and scientific literature. Many types of stem cells show great promise, but clinical application has lagged due to ethical concerns or difficulties in harvesting or safely and efficiently expanding sufficient quantities. In contrast, clinical indications for blood-derived (from peripheral or umbilical cord blood) and bone marrow-derived stem cells, which can be easily and safely harvested, are rapidly increasing. To summarize new, nonmalignant, nonhematologic clinical indications for use of blood- and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Search of multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index), US Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Drug Site, and National Institutes of Health Web site to identify studies published from January 1997 to December 2007 on use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in autoimmune, cardiac, or vascular diseases. The search was augmented by hand searching of reference lists in clinical trials, review articles, proceedings booklets, FDA reports, and contact with study authors and device and pharmaceutical companies. Of 926 reports identified, 323 were examined for feasibility and toxicity, including those with small numbers of patients, interim or substudy reports, and reports on multiple diseases, treatment of relapse, toxicity, mechanism of action, or stem cell mobilization. Another 69 were evaluated for outcomes. For autoimmune diseases, 26 reports representing 854 patients reported treatment-related mortality of less than 1% (2/220 patients) for nonmyeloablative, less than 2% (3/197) for dose-reduced myeloablative, and 13% (13/100) for intense myeloablative regimens, ie, those including total body irradiation or high-dose busulfan. While all trials performed during the inflammatory stage of autoimmune disease suggested that transplantation of HSCs may have a potent disease

  17. Full-length dysferlin expression driven by engineered human dystrophic blood derived CD133+ stem cells.

    PubMed

    Meregalli, Mirella; Navarro, Claire; Sitzia, Clementina; Farini, Andrea; Montani, Erica; Wein, Nicolas; Razini, Paola; Beley, Cyriaque; Cassinelli, Letizia; Parolini, Daniele; Belicchi, Marzia; Parazzoli, Dario; Garcia, Luis; Torrente, Yvan

    2013-12-01

    The protein dysferlin is abundantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles, where its main function is membrane repair. Mutations in the dysferlin gene are involved in two autosomal recessive muscular dystrophies: Miyoshi myopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. Development of effective therapies remains a great challenge. Strategies to repair the dysferlin gene by skipping mutated exons, using antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), may be suitable only for a subset of mutations, while cell and gene therapy can be extended to all mutations. AON-treated blood-derived CD133+ stem cells isolated from patients with Miyoshi myopathy led to partial dysferlin reconstitution in vitro but failed to express dysferlin after intramuscular transplantation into scid/blAJ dysferlin null mice. We thus extended these experiments producing the full-length dysferlin mediated by a lentiviral vector in blood-derived CD133+ stem cells isolated from the same patients. Transplantation of engineered blood-derived CD133+ stem cells into scid/blAJ mice resulted in sufficient dysferlin expression to correct functional deficits in skeletal muscle membrane repair. Our data suggest for the first time that lentivirus-mediated delivery of full-length dysferlin in stem cells isolated from Miyoshi myopathy patients could represent an alternative therapeutic approach for treatment of dysferlinopathies.

  18. The Possible Roles of Biological Bone Constructed with Peripheral Blood Derived EPCs and BMSCs in Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li; Zhao, Xian; He, Bo; Jiang, Jie; Xie, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Liu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the possible potential of partially deproteinized biologic bone (PDPBB) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in osteogenesis and angiogenesis. BMSCs and EPCs were isolated, identified, and cocultured in vitro, followed by seeding on the PDPBB. Expression of osteogenesis and vascularization markers was quantified by immunofluorescence (IF) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and quantitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also employed to further evaluate the morphologic alterations of cocultured cells in the biologic bone. Results demonstrated that the coculture system combined with BMSCs and EPCs had significant advantages of (i) upregulating the mRNA expression of VEGF, Osteonectin, Osteopontin, and Collagen Type I and (ii) increasing ALP and OC staining compared to the BMSCs or EPCs only group. Moreover, IHC staining for CD105, CD34, and ZO-1 increased significantly in the implanted PDPBB seeded with coculture system, compared to that of BMSCs or EPCs only, respectively. Summarily, the present data provided evidence that PDPBB seeded with cocultured system possessed favorable cytocompatibility, provided suitable circumstances for different cell growth, and had the potential to provide reconstruction for cases with bone defection by promoting osteogenesis and angiogenesis. PMID:27195296

  19. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Miyoung; Jeong, Sang Young; Ha, Jueun; Kim, Miyeon; Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Soon-Jae; Chang, Jong Wook; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Jeon, Hong Bae

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications.

  20. Development and bioevaluation of nanofibers with blood-derived growth factors for dermal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bertoncelj, Valentina; Pelipenko, Jan; Kristl, Julijana; Jeras, Matjaž; Cukjati, Marko; Kocbek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our work was to produce a modern nanomaterial with incorporated blood-derived growth factors, produced by electrospinning, applicable in treatment of chronic wounds. Platelet-rich plasma was chosen as a natural source of growth factors. Results showed that platelet-rich plasma stimulates keratinocyte and fibroblast cell growth in vitro. Its optimal concentration in growth medium was 2% (v/v) for both types of skin cells, while higher concentrations caused alterations in cell morphology, with reduced cell mobility and proliferation. In the next step hydrophilic nanofibers loaded with platelet-rich plasma were produced from chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide), using electrospinning. The morphology of nanofibers was stable in aqueous conditions for 72 h. It was shown that electrospinning does not adversely affect the biological activity of platelet-rich plasma. The effects of nanofibers with incorporated platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation, survival, morphology and mobility were examined. Nanofibers limited cell mobility, changed morphology and stimulated cell proliferation. Despite of the small amount of blood-derived growth factors introduced in cell culture via platelet-rich plasma-loaded nanofibers, such nanofibrillar support significantly induced cell proliferation, indicating synergistic effect of nanotopography and incorporated growth factors. The overall results confirm favorable in vitro properties of produced nanofibers, indicating their high potential as a nanomaterial suitable for delivery of platelet-rich plasma in wound healing applications.

  1. Autologous cell therapy for cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by using non-expanded adipose tissue-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kaoru; Ozaki, Takenori; Saka, Yousuke; Yamamoto, Tokunori; Gotoh, Momokazu; Ito, Yasuhiko; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cultured mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue are useful for regenerative cell therapy. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can be obtained readily without culturing and may be clinically applicable. We investigated the therapeutic effects of SVF and used it in the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors who had provided written informed consent. We harvested the SVF and determined the growth factor secretion and anti-apoptotic ability with conditioned medium. To investigate the effect of SVF on AKI, cisplatin was injected into rats and SVF was administrated into the subcupsula of the kidney. Both human and rat SVF cells secreted vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Human SVF-conditioned media had an anti-apoptotic effect, which was inhibited by anti-HGF antibody (Ab) but not by anti-VEGF Ab. In vivo, SVF significantly ameliorated renal function, attenuated tubular damage and increased the cortical blood flow speed. In the SVF-treated group, VEGF levels in the cortex and HGF levels in both the cortex and medulla, especially tubules in the medulla, were significantly higher. Immunostaining revealed that SVF cells expressing VEGF and HGF and remained in the subcapsule on day 14. The present study demonstrates that a subcapsular injection of non-expanded SVF cells ameliorates rat AKI, and that the mechanism probably involves secretion of renoprotective molecules. Administration of human SVF may be clinically applicable and useful as a novel autologous cell therapy against kidney diseases.

  2. Two-year experience with aerobic culturing of apheresis and whole blood-derived platelets.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven H; Kamel, Hany T; Harpool, Dennis R; Vanderpool, Sandra K; Custer, Brian; Wiltbank, Thomas B; Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Tomasulo, Peter A

    2006-10-01

    Throughout its system of regional centers, Blood Systems implemented culture based bacterial testing with a standardized protocol for both apheresis and whole blood-derived platelets (PLTs). After a 24-hour hold, 4 mL of PLT product was inoculated into an aerobic bottle (BacT/ALERT, bioMérieux). Cultures were incubated for 24 hours before routine product release to prevent distribution of infected products while minimizing consignee notification, product retrievals, and hospital PLT inventory problems. Initial-positives were further tested (and bacteria identified) by performing cultures from the original component and subcultures from the BacT/ALERT bottle. Results were categorized according to AABB recommended definitions with minor modifications. The rate of true-positive detections from culturing 122,971 apheresis PLTs was 0.017 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.011%-0.026%). All true-positive microorganisms were Gram-positive with a predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Bacillus species. Twenty of the 21 true-positive samples (95%) were detected by 24 hours but only 14 (68%) were detected by 18 hours. The false-positive rate due to contamination was 0.1 percent with the majority of isolates being skin or environmental organisms. Results did not differ significantly for whole blood-derived versus apheresis PLTs. These data corroborate the fact that the rate of detection of truly contaminated PLT apheresis products in the United States is approximately 1 in 5000 (0.02%); this is lower than the 0.03 to 0.05 percent rates that were generally quoted in the literature before the implementation of prospective bacterial culturing programs.

  3. Blood derived products in pediatrics: New laboratory tools for optimizing potency assignment and reducing side effects.

    PubMed

    Amiral, Jean; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2017-04-01

    Neonates and children can develop rare bleeding disorders due to congenital/acquired coagulation Factor deficiencies, or allo-immune/autoimmune complications, or can undergo surgeries at high haemorrhagic risk. They then need specialized transfusion of blood components/products, or purified blood extracted products or recombinant proteins. Blood-derived therapies conventionally used for management of affected infants with genetic/acquired deficiencies, bleeding problems (coagulation Factor reduced or missing) or thrombotic disorders (reduced or missing anticoagulant proteins) pose some additional risks. These remedial therapies can cause tolerance when used very early in life and, sometimes needed, repeatedly. The introduction of recombinant proteins has allowed manufacturers to produce large amounts of the proteins usually present at very low concentration in blood. This has also changed the risk pattern of plasma-extracted products, especially in terms of continual reduction of viral transmission. Many efforts have been made over these past decades to reduce the risks associated with the use of all these products in terms of viral and bacterial safety, as well as immune disorders but they are not the objective of this article. Other associated side effects are the presence of undesired activities in blood products, which can produce thrombotic events or adverse reactions. The progressive introduction of blood derived products has greatly improved the prognosis and quality of life of affected patients. This concerns whole blood, but also blood cell concentrates, mainly platelets and red blood cells, plasma, while the blood extracted products are increasingly replaced by recombinant proteins. All these therapeutic products, i.e. blood extracted drugs, improve health and quality of life for hemophiliac's A or B, or patients with auto/allo-immune thrombocytopenias or with rare bleeding disorders, and those with thrombotic events occurring in childhood, which are

  4. Umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells: new therapeutic weapons for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Roura, Santiago; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2014-12-20

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most frequent etiology of non-ischemic heart failure. In a majority of cases the causal mechanism is unknown, giving rise to the term 'idiopathic' dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Major pathological derangements include patchy interstitial fibrosis, degenerated cardiomyocytes, and dilatation of the cardiac chambers, but recent evidence suggests that disease progression may also have the signature of cardiac endothelial dysfunction. As we better understand the molecular basis of IDCM, novel therapeutic approaches, mainly gene transfer and cell-based therapies, are being explored. Cells with regenerative potential have been extensively tested in cardiac diseases of ischemic origin in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. However, whether cell therapy has any clinical value in IDCM patients is still being evaluated. This article is a concise summary of cell therapy studies for IDCM, with a focus on recent advances that highlight the vascular potential exhibited by umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs). We also provide an overview of cardiac vasculature as a key regulator of subjacent myocardial integrity and function, and discuss the potential mechanisms of UCBMSC amelioration of IDCM myocardium. Consideration of these issues shows that these cells are conceivably new therapeutic agents for this complex and elusive human disorder.

  5. Immediate adverse reactions to platelet transfusions: whole blood derived versus apheresis platelets.

    PubMed

    Salam, A; Hosain, G M; Hosain, M M; Narvios, A; Sazama, K; Lichtiger, B

    2013-01-01

    The transfusion of whole blood derived platelets (WBDPs) or apheresis platelets (APs) is standard support for cancer patients. However, disputes remain about which type of platelets are ideal in terms of efficacy, cost, and the risk of adverse reactions. This cross sectional study included 141 cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy or hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation and received platelet transfusions at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 2002 and 2003 were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 141 patients who did not differ significantly in terms of age or sex had a reaction to transfusions (WBDPs, n=123; APs, n=18), for a frequency of 0.66% in patients who received WBDPs and 0.45% in patients who received APs, but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.13). More WBDP-related reactions occurred in patients transfused with older platelets (>2 days old) than in patients transfused with fresh platelets, but the difference compared with AP-associated reactions was not statistically significant. However, the rate of reactions to WBDP may increase if WBDPs are stored for a prolonged time (>2 days). Until evidence becomes available that clearly refutes this; the more fresh platelets as possible may be used.

  6. Menstrual Blood-Derived Stem Cells: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of Functional Effects.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria Carolina Oliveira; Lippert, Trenton; Nguyen, Hung; Kaelber, Sussannah; Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that menstrual blood stands as a viable source of stem cells. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are morphologically and functionally similar to cells directly extracted from the endometrium, and present dual expression of mesenchymal and embryonic cell markers, thus becoming interesting tools for regenerative medicine. Functional reports show higher proliferative and self-renewal capacities than bone marrow-derived stem cells, as well as successful differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells, glial-like cells, endometrial stroma-like cells, among others. Moreover, menstrual blood stem cells may be used with increased efficiency in reprogramming techniques for induced Pluripotent Stem cell (iPS) generation. Experimental studies have shown successful treatment of stroke, colitis, limb ischemia, coronary disease, Duchenne's muscular atrophy and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes animal models with MenSCs. As we envision an off-the-shelf product for cell therapy, cryopreserved MenSCs appear as a feasible clinical product. Clinical applications, although still very limited, have great potential and ongoing studies should be disclosed in the near future.

  7. Nifedipine inhibits ox-LDL-induced lipid accumulation in human blood-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Sha Ma, A Zhi; Wang, Chan; Tang, Wei-Qing; Song, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-02-13

    Studies have shown that nifedipine, an anti-hypertensive drug, protects against atherosclerotic progression, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is critically implicated in macrophage lipid deposition seen in atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the effects of nifedipine on some ox-LDL-associated changes in human blood-derived macrophages. We isolated monocytes from normal human blood and differentiated them into macrophages. We then treated these human macrophages with ox-LDL and/or nifedipine, and examined lipid accumulation and expression levels of two scavenge receptors CD36 and SR-A as well as a protein kinase PKC-θ. Nifedipine treatment substantially reduced lipid accumulation and the expression of CD36, SR-A, and protein kinase C (PKC)-θ in human macrophages treated with ox-LDL. Silencing of PKC-θ using siRNA also reduced the expression of CD36 and SR-A in these cells. Our results thus suggest that nifedipine may inhibit atherosclerosis by reducing ox-LDL-induced lipid deposition through suppression of the CD36/SR-A-mediated uptake of ox-LDL by macrophages via a PKC-θ-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood-derived dermal langerin+ dendritic cells survey the skin in the steady state

    PubMed Central

    Ginhoux, Florent; Collin, Matthew P.; Bogunovic, Milena; Abel, Michal; Leboeuf, Marylene; Helft, Julie; Ochando, Jordi; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Malissen, Bernard; Grisotto, Marcos; Snoeck, Hans; Randolph, Gwendalyn; Merad, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Langerin is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes glycosylated patterns on pathogens. Langerin is used to identify human and mouse epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), as well as migratory LCs in the dermis and the skin draining lymph nodes (DLNs). Using a mouse model that allows conditional ablation of langerin+ cells in vivo, together with congenic bone marrow chimeras and parabiotic mice as tools to differentiate LC- and blood-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we have revisited the origin of langerin+ DCs in the skin DLNs. Our results show that in contrast to the current view, langerin+CD8− DCs in the skin DLNs do not derive exclusively from migratory LCs, but also include blood-borne langerin+ DCs that transit through the dermis before reaching the DLN. The recruitment of circulating langerin+ DCs to the skin is dependent on endothelial selectins and CCR2, whereas their recruitment to the skin DLNs requires CCR7 and is independent of CD62L. We also show that circulating langerin+ DCs patrol the dermis in the steady state and migrate to the skin DLNs charged with skin antigens. We propose that this is an important and previously unappreciated element of immunosurveillance that needs to be taken into account in the design of novel vaccine strategies. PMID:18086862

  9. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfu; Duan, Li; Liang, Yujie; Zhu, Weimin; Xiong, Jianyi; Wang, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2) and decreased type I collagen (COL1) protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9) mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  10. Chondrogenic differentiation of menstrual blood-derived stem cells on nanofibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Mobini, Sahba

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising technology to restore and repair cartilage lesions in the body. In recent years, significant advances have been made using stem cells as a cell source for clinical goals of cartilage tissue engineering. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) is a novel population of stem cells that demonstrate the potential and differentiate into a wide range of tissues including the chondrogenic lineage. Incorporation of cell culture with extracellular matrix (ECM) like substratum plays an important role in cartilage tissue regeneration by providing attachment sites as well as bioactive signals for cells to grow and differentiate into chondrogenic lineage. The electrospun nanofibers are a class of polymer-based biomaterials that have been extensively utilized in tissue engineering as ECM-like scaffold. This chapter discusses potential of electrospun nanofibers for cell-based cartilage tissue engineering and presents detailed protocols on immunophenotyping characterization and chondrogenic differentiation of MenSCs seeded in poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers. The isolated MenSCs are characterized using flow cytometry, seeded on the nanofibers, imaged using scanning electron microscopy, and subsequently differentiated into chondrogenic lineage in culture medium containing specific growth factors and cytokines. Immunofluorescence and alcian blue staining are used to evaluate the development of seeded MenSCs in PCL nanofibrous scaffold into chondrogenic lineage.

  11. Efficient Expansion of SALL4-Transduced Umbilical Cord Blood Derived CD133+Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mossahebi-Mohammadi, Majid; Atashi, Amir; Kaviani, Saeid; Soleimani, Masoud

    2017-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were characterized by self-renewal and multilineage potential. Umbilical cord blood-derived (UCB) as an alternative source of HSCs is widely used especially in children for stem cells transplant (SCT). The main limitation in using UCB for transplantation especially in adults is low cell dose. To overcome this limitation besides using double dose UCB, ex vivo expansion is the most important way to increase cell number for transplantation. HSCs are mainly isolated using CD133 or CD34. CD133, as the most primitive marker, shows important physiological role in maintenance and expansion of HSCs. SALL4 plays crucial role in the development and maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal ability of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as well as HSCs. Moreover, SALL4 act as a regulator of HSCs expansion, normal hematopoiesis, and hematological malignancies. In the present study, CD133+ cells positively selected and ex vivo expanded in SALL-4 and GFP-transduced group. CD133 expression assessed using flow cytometry at day 0, 7 and 10. Moreover, multilineage differentiation and proliferation potential of expanded cells in both groups evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) assay, and cells count assay. Karyotyping analysis was performed to assess any chromosomal instability after 7 days of expansion. Obtained results demonstrated that SALL-4 transduced cells showed significant increase in cell number compared to control group. Moreover, immunophenotyping results showed higher expression level of CD133 at day 7 and 10 following expansion in SALL-4 transduced (62 % and 42%) compared to control group (51% and 20.6%). Our results illustrated that SALL4 could act as a positive factor for the expansion of CD133+ derived UCB cells besides maintaining self-renewal and differentiation ability of expanded cell without any numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations .

  12. Polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration in SCA3 is not mitigated by non-expanded ataxin-3: conclusions from double-transgenic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hübener, Jeannette; Riess, Olaf

    2010-04-01

    A crucial question in polyQ-induced neurodegeneration is the influence of wild type protein on the formation of aggregates and toxicity. Recently it was shown that non-expanded ataxin-3 protein mitigated neurodegeneration in a Drosophila and mouse model of SCA3. We now explored the effects of overexpressing non-expanded ataxin-3 with 15Q in a SCA3 transgenic mouse model with 70 polyglutamine repeats. These double-transgenic mice (dt) developed neurological symptoms with premature death at the age of 6 months comparable to the single-transgenic (st) SCA3 disease model. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed similar localization and distribution of nuclear aggregates in dt- and st-mutant SCA3 mice. In a second dt-mutant mouse model, coexpression of ataxin-3 with 148Q attached to a nuclear export signal, which usually diminishes the phenotype, did even reinforce toxic effects of mutant expanded ataxin-3. We therefore conclude that overexpressing wild type ataxin-3 or mutant ataxin-3 with NES are not striking suppressors of polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration and have thus no potential for future gene therapeutic interventions in SCA3. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Concomitant lipopolysaccharide-induced transfer of blood-derived components including immunoglobulins into milk.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-02-01

    of blood l-lactate concentration. The concomitant changes of all investigated components suggest that they were blood derived. However, the increase in blood components in the milk is not necessarily supportive of the mammary immune system, and likely a side effect of reduced blood-milk barrier integrity.

  14. Impact of C-rel inhibition of cord blood-derived B-, T-, and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Shirin; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Alihemmati, Alireza; Samadi, Naser; Gholami, Sanaz; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2017-12-01

    The c-Rel transcription factor is a unique member of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB family that has a role in curtailing the proliferation, differentiation, cytokine production, and overall activity of B- and T-cells. In addition, c-Rel is a key regulator of apoptosis in that it influences the expression of anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL; conversely, inhibition of c-Rel increases cell apoptosis. To better understand the relationship between c-Rel expression and effects on B- and T-cell expansion, the current study evaluated c-Rel expression in cord blood mononuclear cells. This particular source was selected as cord blood is an important source of cells used for transplantation and immunotherapy, primarily in treating leukemias. As stem cell factor (SCF) and FLT3 are important agents for hematopoietic stem cell expansion, and cytokines like interleukin (IL)-2, -7, and -15 are essential for T- and B- (and also NK) cell development and proliferation, the current study evaluated c-Rel expression in cord blood mononuclear cells and CD34(+ )cells, as well as effects on B-, T-, and NK cells associated with alterations in c-Rel expression, using flow cytometry and PCR. The results showed c-Rel expression increased among cells cultured in the presence of SCF and FLT3 but was reduced when IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 were used all together. Further, inhibition of c-Rel expression by siRNA reduced cord blood-derived B-, T-, and NK cell differentiation and expansion. These results indicated that with cells isolated from cord blood, c-Rel has an important role in B-, T-, and NK cell differentiation and, further, that agents (select cytokines/growth factors) that could impact on its expression might not only affect immune cell profiles in a host but could potentially also limit apoptotic activities in (non-)immune cells in that host. In the context of cancer (immuno)therapy, in particular, when cord blood is used an important source in stem cell transplantation in

  15. Development and validation of risk index for cognitive decline using blood-derived markers

    PubMed Central

    Ayonayon, Hilsa; Harris, Tamara; Phillips, Caroline; Rosano, Caterina; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to develop and validate a risk index for prospective cognitive decline in older adults based on blood-derived markers. Methods: The index was based on 8 markers that have been previously associated with cognitive aging: APOE genotype, plasma β-amyloid 42/40 ratio, telomere length, cystatin C, glucose, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and albumin. The outcome was person-specific cognitive slopes (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) from 11 years of follow-up. A total of 1,445 older adults comprised the development sample. An index based on dichotomized markers was divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk categories; the risk categories were validated with the remaining sample (n = 739) using linear regression. Amyloid was measured on a subsample (n = 865) and was included only in a secondary index. Results: The risk categories showed significant differences from each other and were predictive of prospective cognitive decline in the validation sample, even after adjustment for age and baseline cognitive score: the low-risk group (24.8%) declined 0.32 points/y (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.46, −0.19), the medium-risk group (58.7%) declined 0.55 points/y (95% CI: −0.65, 0.45), and the high-risk group (16.6%) declined 0.69 points/y (95% CI: −0.85, −0.54). Using the secondary index, which included β-amyloid 42/40 (validation n = 279), the low-risk group (26.9%) declined 0.20 points/y (95% CI: −0.42, 0.01), the medium-risk group (61.3%) declined 0.55 points/y (95% CI: −0.72, −0.38), and the high-risk group (11.8%) declined 0.83 points/y (95% CI: −1.14, −0.51). Conclusions: A risk index based on 8 blood-based markers was modestly able to predict cognitive decline over an 11-year follow-up. Further validation in other cohorts is necessary. PMID:25609760

  16. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xue-man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery. PMID:27212930

  17. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xue-Man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-04-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10(6) human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  18. Functional Comparison of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell- and Blood-Derived GPIIbIIIa Deficient Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jessica; Sandrock-Lang, Kirstin; Gärtner, Florian; Jung, Christian Billy; Zieger, Barbara; Parrotta, Elvira; Kurnik, Karin; Sinnecker, Daniel; Wanner, Gerhard; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Massberg, Steffen; Moretti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a versatile tool to model genetic diseases and are a potential source for cell transfusion therapies. However, it remains elusive to which extent patient-specific hiPSC-derived cells functionally resemble their native counterparts. Here, we generated a hiPSC model of the primary platelet disease Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), characterized by dysfunction of the integrin receptor GPIIbIIIa, and compared side-by-side healthy and diseased hiPSC-derived platelets with peripheral blood platelets. Both GT-hiPSC-derived platelets and their peripheral blood equivalents showed absence of membrane expression of GPIIbIIIa, a reduction of PAC-1 binding, surface spreading and adherence to fibrinogen. We demonstrated that GT-hiPSC-derived platelets recapitulate molecular and functional aspects of the disease and show comparable behavior to their native counterparts encouraging the further use of hiPSC-based disease models as well as the transition towards a clinical application. PMID:25607928

  19. Expanded Human Blood-Derived γδT Cells Display Potent Antigen-Presentation Functions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Wajid A.; Curbishley, Stuart M.; Chen, Hung-Chang; Thomas, Andrew D.; Pircher, Hanspeter; Mavilio, Domenico; Steven, Neil M.; Eberl, Matthias; Moser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based immunotherapy strategies target tumors directly (via cytolytic effector cells) or aim at mobilizing endogenous anti-tumor immunity. The latter approach includes dendritic cells (DC) most frequently in the form of in vitro cultured peripheral blood monocytes-derived DC. Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists (“phosphoantigens”) and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1–3 days of in vitro culture. Availability of large numbers of γδT-APC would be advantageous for use as a novel cellular vaccine. We here report optimal γδT cell expansion (>107 cells/ml blood) when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and melanoma patients were stimulated with zoledronate and then cultured for 14 days in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15, yielding γδT cell cultures of variable purity (77 ± 21 and 56 ± 26%, respectively). They resembled effector memory αβT (TEM) cells and retained full functionality as assessed by in vitro tumor cell killing as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα) and cell proliferation in response to stimulation with phosphoantigens. Importantly, day 14 γδT cells expressed numerous APC-related cell surface markers and, in agreement, displayed potent in vitro APC functions. Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8+ αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. We conclude that day 14 γδT cell cultures provide a convenient source of autologous APC for use in immunotherapy of patients

  20. Bone Regeneration of Blood-derived Stem Cells within Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, R C; Park, Y K; Kim, S K; Cho, J; Heo, S J; Koak, J Y; Lee, S J; Park, J M; Lee, J H; Kim, J H

    2015-09-01

    Peripheral blood (PB) is known as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as is bone marrow (BM), and is acquired easily. However, it is difficult to have enough MSCs, and their osteogenic capacity with dental implantations is scarce. Therefore, we characterized peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) cultured on a bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and demonstrated the osteogenic capability in an experimental chamber implant surgery model in rabbits. We isolated PBMSCs from rabbits by culturing on a natural ECM-coated plate during primary culture. We characterized the PBMSCs using a fluorescence-activated cell scanner, cell proliferation assay, and multiple differentiation assay and compared them with BMMSCs. We also analyzed the osteogenic potential of PBMSCs mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) by transplanting them into immunocompromised mice. Then, the mixture was applied to the canals. After 3 and 6 wk, we analyzed new bone (NB) formation inside the chambers using histological and histomorphometric analyses. The PBMSCs had a similar rate of BrdU-positive cells to BMMSCs, positively expressing CD90 but negative for CD14. The PBMSCs also showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic ability in vitro and osteogenic ability in vivo. Histological and histomorphometric results illustrated that the PBMSC and BMMSC groups showed higher NB than the HA/TCP and defect groups in the upper and lower chambers at 6 wk and in the upper canal at 3 wk; however, there was no difference in NB among all groups in the lower canal at 3 wk. The PBMSCs have characteristics and bone regeneration ability similar to BMMSCs both in vitro and in vivo. ECM was effective for obtaining PBMSCs. Therefore, PBMSCs are a promising source for bone regeneration for clinical use.

  1. Sox2 transduction enhances cardiovascular repair capacity of blood-derived mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Masamichi; Iwasaki, Masayoshi; Rupp, Stefan; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Trauth, Janina; Schütz, Corina; Ohtani, Kisho; Goetz, Rebekka; Iekushi, Kazuma; Bushoven, Philipp; Momma, Stefan; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert; Henschler, Reinhard; Akintuerk, Hakan; Schranz, Dietmar; Urbich, Carmen; Galvez, Beatriz G; Cossu, Giulio; Zeiher, Andreas M; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2010-04-16

    Complementation of pluripotency genes may improve adult stem cell functions. Here we show that clonally expandable, telomerase expressing progenitor cells can be isolated from peripheral blood of children. The surface marker profile of the clonally expanded cells is distinct from hematopoietic or mesenchymal stromal cells, and resembles that of embryonic multipotent mesoangioblasts. Cell numbers and proliferative capacity correlated with donor age. Isolated circulating mesoangioblasts (cMABs) express the pluripotency markers Klf4, c-Myc, as well as low levels of Oct3/4, but lack Sox2. Therefore, we tested whether overexpression of Sox2 enhances pluripotency and facilitates differentiation of cMABs in cardiovascular lineages. Lentiviral transduction of Sox2 (Sox-MABs) enhanced the capacity of cMABs to differentiate into endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes in vitro. Furthermore, the number of smooth muscle actin positive cells was higher in Sox-MABs. In addition, pluripotency of Sox-MABs was shown by demonstrating the generation of endodermal and ectodermal progenies. To test whether Sox-MABs may exhibit improved therapeutic potential, we injected Sox-MABs into nude mice after acute myocardial infarction. Four weeks after cell therapy with Sox-MABs, cardiac function was significantly improved compared to mice treated with control cMABs. Furthermore, cell therapy with Sox-MABs resulted in increased number of differentiated cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells in vivo. The complementation of Sox2 in Oct3/4-, Klf4-, and c-Myc-expressing cMABs enhanced the differentiation into all 3 cardiovascular lineages and improved the functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  3. Ex-vivo expanded human blood-derived CD133+ cells promote repair of injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Naosuke; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Alev, Cantas; Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Kiyotaka; Masuda, Haruchika; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Ochi, Mitsuo; Asahara, Takayuki

    2013-05-15

    Human blood-derived CD133(+) cell populations, which are believed to represent a hematopoietic/endothelial progenitor fraction, have the ability to promote the repair of injured spinal cord in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which CD133(+) cell transplantation promotes spinal cord regeneration remain to be clarified. Another possible hurdle on the way to clinical applicability of these cells is their scarce representation in the overall population of mononuclear cells. We therefore analyzed and compared ex-vivo expanded human cord blood derived CD133(+) cells with freshly isolated CD133(+) cells as well as corresponding CD133(-) control mononuclear cells in respect to their ability to promote spinal cord repair using in vitro assays and cell transplantation into a mouse spinal cord injury model. In vitro, expanded cells as well as fresh CD133(+) cells formed endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) colonies, whereas CD133(-) cells formed no EPC colonies. In vivo, the administration of fresh CD133(+) and expanded cells enhanced angiogenesis, astrogliosis, axon growth and functional recovery after injury. In contrast, the administration of CD133(-) cells failed to promote axon growth and functional recovery, but moderately enhanced angiogenesis and astrogliosis. In addition, high-dose administration of expanded cells was highly effective in the induction of regenerative processes at the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells improve heat tolerance and hypothalamic damage in heat stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ling-Shu; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Lin, Ying-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.

  5. The roles of blood-derived macrophages and resident microglia in the neuroinflammatory response to implanted intracortical microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Sunil, Smrithi; Black, James; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Haung, Alex Y; Miller, Robert H; Selkirk, Stephen M; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    Resident microglia and blood-borne macrophages have both been implicated to play a dominant role in mediating the neuroinflammatory response affecting implanted intracortical microelectrodes. However, the distinction between each cell type has not been demonstrated due to a lack of discriminating cellular markers. Understanding the subtle differences of each cell population in mediating neuroinflammation can aid in determining the appropriate therapeutic approaches to improve microelectrode performance. Therefore, the goal of this study is to characterize the role of infiltrating blood-derived cells, specifically macrophages, in mediating neuroinflammation following intracortical microelectrode implantation. Interestingly, we found no correlation between microglia and neuron populations at the microelectrode-tissue interface. On the other hand, blood-borne macrophages consistently dominated the infiltrating cell population following microelectrode implantation. Most importantly, we found a correlation between increased populations of blood-derived cells (including the total macrophage population) and neuron loss at the microelectrode-tissue interface. Specifically, the total macrophage population was greatest at two and sixteen weeks post implantation, at the same time points when we observed the lowest densities of neuronal survival in closest proximity to the implant. Together, our results suggest a dominant role of infiltrating macrophages, and not resident microglia, in mediating neurodegeneration following microelectrode implantation.

  6. Ex vivo expanded human cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells induce lung growth and alveolarization in injured newborn lungs.

    PubMed

    Mao, Quanfu; Chu, Sharon; Ghanta, Sailaja; Padbury, James F; De Paepe, Monique E

    2013-03-23

    We investigated the capacity of expanded cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells to undergo respiratory epithelial differentiation ex vivo, and to engraft and attenuate alveolar disruption in injured newborn murine lungs in vivo. Respiratory epithelial differentiation was studied in CD34+ cells expanded in the presence of growth factors and cytokines ("basic" medium), in one group supplemented with dexamethasone ("DEX"). Expanded or freshly isolated CD34+ cells were inoculated intranasally in newborn mice with apoptosis-induced lung injury. Pulmonary engraftment, lung growth and alveolarization were studied at 8 weeks post-inoculation. SP-C mRNA expression was seen in 2/7 CD34+ cell isolates expanded in basic media and in 6/7 isolates expanded in DEX, associated with cytoplasmic SP-C immunoreactivity and ultrastructural features suggestive of type II cell-like differentiation. Administration of expanding CD34+ cells was associated with increased lung growth and, in animals treated with DEX-exposed cells, enhanced alveolar septation. Freshly isolated CD34+ cells had no effect of lung growth or remodeling. Lungs of animals treated with expanded CD34+ cells contained intraalveolar aggregates of replicating alu-FISH-positive mononuclear cells, whereas epithelial engraftment was extremely rare. Expanded cord blood CD34+ cells can induce lung growth and alveolarization in injured newborn lungs. These growth-promoting effects may be linked to paracrine or immunomodulatory effects of persistent cord blood-derived mononuclear cells, as expanded cells showed limited respiratory epithelial transdifferentiation.

  7. Peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Hanewinckel, R; Ikram, M A; Van Doorn, P A

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are diseases of the peripheral nervous system that can be divided into mononeuropathies, multifocal neuropathies, and polyneuropathies. Symptoms usually include numbness and paresthesia. These symptoms are often accompanied by weakness and can be painful. Polyneuropathies can be divided into axonal and demyelinating forms, which is important for diagnostic reasons. Most peripheral neuropathies develop over months or years, but some are rapidly progressive. Some patients only suffer from mild, unilateral, slowly progressive tingling in the fingers due to median nerve compression in the wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome), while other patients can be tetraplegic, with respiratory insufficiency within 1-2 days due to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome, with a prevalence of 5% and incidence of 1-2 per 1000 person-years, is the most common mononeuropathy. Population-based data for chronic polyneuropathy are relatively scarce. Prevalence is estimated at 1% and increases to 7% in persons over 65 years of age. Incidence is approximately 1 per 1000 person-years. Immune-mediated polyneuropathies like Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy are rare diseases, with an annual incidence of approximately 1-2 and 0.2-0.5 per 100 000 persons respectively. Most peripheral neuropathies are more prevalent in older adults and in men, except for carpal tunnel syndrome, which is more common in women. Diabetes is a common cause of peripheral neuropathy and is associated with both mono- and polyneuropathies. Among the group of chronic polyneuropathies, in about 20-25% no direct cause can be found. These are slowly progressive axonal polyneuropathies. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CNS invasion by CD14+/CD16+ peripheral blood-derived monocytes in HIV dementia: perivascular accumulation and reservoir of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Smith, T; Croul, S; Sverstiuk, A E; Capini, C; L'Heureux, D; Régulier, E G; Richardson, M W; Amini, S; Morgello, S; Khalili, K; Rappaport, J

    2001-12-01

    Increases in circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes have been associated with HIV dementia; trafficking of these cells into the CNS has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-induced neurological disorders. This model suggests that events outside the CNS leading to monocyte activation initiate the process leading to HIV dementia. To investigate the role of this activated monocyte subset in the pathogenesis of HIV dementia, we examined brain specimens from patients with HIV encephalopathy (HIVE), HIV without encephalopathy, and seronegative controls. An accumulation of perivascular macrophages was observed in HIVE. The majority of these cells identified in microglial nodules and in the perivascular infiltrate were CD14+/CD16+. P24 antigen colocalized with both CD14 and CD16 suggesting that the CD14+/CD16+ macrophage is a major reservoir of HIV-1 infection in CNS. Using CD45/LCA staining, the perivascular macrophage was distinguished from resident microglia. In addition to perivascular and nodular localizations, CD16 also stained ramified cells throughout the white matter. These cells were more ramified and abundant than cells positive for CD14 in white matter. Double staining for p24 and CD16 suggests that these cells were often infected with HIV-1. The prominent distribution of CD14+ cells in HIVE prompted our analysis of soluble CD14 levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Higher levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) were observed in patients with moderate-to-severe HIV dementia, suggesting the utility of sCD14 as a surrogate marker. CD14+/CD16+ monocytes may play a role in other neurological disorders and sCD14 may be useful for evaluating these conditions.

  9. Prevention of osteonecrosis by intravenous administration of human peripheral blood-derived CD34-positive cells in a rat osteonecrosis model.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yasunaga, Yuji; Yamasaki, Takuma; Hamaki, Takanari; Asahara, Takayuki; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    Aseptic idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a painful disorder of the hip that can lead to collapse of the femoral head and the need for total hip replacement following joint destruction. Treatment of this disease still remains a clinical challenge. Adult human circulating CD34(+) cells have been demonstrated to contribute to vasculogenesis and osteogenesis in immunodeficient rat non-union models in vivo. We hypothesized and proved that the transplantation of CD34(+) cells could have a role for improvement of osteonecrosis by promoting vasculogenesis and osteogenesis. Vascular deprivation-induced femoral head necrosis was developed in immunodeficient rats and we then administered human G-CSF mobilized CD34(+) cells intravenously. At 4 weeks after administration, the structure of the femoral head and neck were evaluated histologically and morphometrically with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and micro-CT imaging. Microangiography was carried out for macroscopic evaluation of neovascularization, and the contribution of human cells to vasculogenesis and osteogenesis was evaluated by immunofluorescent staining with human-specific antibodies. Our treatment resulted in an obvious improvement of osteonecrosis after CD34(+) cell administration and demonstrated the differentiation potential of CD34(+) cells into endothelial cells and osteoblasts. In conclusion, this new therapeutic approach using circulating cell fraction could be a promising cell-based therapy for early-stage osteonecrosis of the hip. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Peripheral blood-derived virus-specific memory stem T cells mature to functional effector memory subsets with self-renewal potency.

    PubMed

    Schmueck-Henneresse, Michael; Sharaf, Radwa; Vogt, Katrin; Weist, Benjamin J D; Landwehr-Kenzel, Sybille; Fuehrer, Henrike; Jurisch, Anke; Babel, Nina; Rooney, Cliona M; Reinke, Petra; Volk, Hans-Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Memory T cells expressing stem cell-like properties have been described recently. The capacity of self-renewal and differentiation into various memory/effector subsets make them attractive for adoptive T cell therapy to combat severe virus infections and tumors. The very few reports on human memory stem T cells (T(SCM)) are restricted to analyses on polyclonal T cells, but extensive data on Ag-specific T(SCM )are missing. This might be due to their very low frequency limiting their enrichment and characterization. In this article, we provide functional and phenotypic data on human viral-specific T(SCM), defined as CD8(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(+)CD127(+)CD95(+). Whereas <1% of total T cells express the T(SCM) phenotype, human CMV-specific T(SCM) can be detected at frequencies similar to those seen in other subsets, resulting in ∼ 1 /10,000 human CMV-specific T(SCM). A new virus-specific expansion protocol of sort-purified T(SCM) reveals both upregulation of various T cell subset markers and preservation of their stem cell phenotype in a significant proportion, indicating both self-renewal and differentiation potency of virus-specific T cells sharing their TCR repertoire. Furthermore, we describe a simplified culture protocol that allows fast expansion of virus-specific T(SCM) starting from a mixed naive T/T(SCM) pool of PBLs. Due to the clinical-grade compatibility, this might be the basis for novel cell therapeutic options in life-threatening courses of viral and tumor disease.

  11. [Peripheral pancytopenia].

    PubMed

    Bello-González, S A; Bergés-García, A

    1990-11-01

    Peripheral pancytopenia is a syndrome which allows for an early diagnosis, and although is may cover a large number of pathological entities, it can be clearly defined into three groups of illnesses which evolve with this syndromal manifestations. The first group includes non-neoplastic illnesses which include aplastic anemia, hemophagocytic syndrome associated to infection, immunological diseases and the deficiency of folates or vitamin B12. The second group includes neoplastic diseases as acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma with myelofibrosis, malignant histiocytosis and non-hematological neoplasms, like the neuroblastoma and the embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. The third group is formed by illnesses which have some similarity with neoplasms.

  12. Effects of donors' age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyang; Du, Xiaochun; Chen, Qian; Xiang, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of donor age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) by comparing MenSCs derived from donors with three different age ranges and after different passage times. Continuous passage, flat cloning, cell proliferation assays, flow cytometric phenotyping and whole human genome microarray were performed to systematically analyze the relationship between the self-renewal ability of MenSCs as well as their potential to maintain their stem cell characteristics and to resist aging. The results demonstrated that the immunophenotypes and in vitro cultural characteristics of MenSCs did not change significantly with the progression of aging. However, some important signal pathways including MAPK, the insulin signaling pathway, pathways involved in carcinogenesis such as PPAR and P53, and cytokines and their receptors, as well as other pathways associated with immune response and aging, changed to various extents under the conditions of aging after a long time in vitro. The enriched differentially-expressed genes were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, stress response, cell proliferation, development and apoptosis. The key differentially-expressed genes associated with age and passage number were identified for use as biomarkers of cell aging.

  13. Effects of donors’ age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyang; Du, Xiaochun; Chen, Qian; Xiang, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of donor age and passage number on the biological characteristics of menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) by comparing MenSCs derived from donors with three different age ranges and after different passage times. Continuous passage, flat cloning, cell proliferation assays, flow cytometric phenotyping and whole human genome microarray were performed to systematically analyze the relationship between the self-renewal ability of MenSCs as well as their potential to maintain their stem cell characteristics and to resist aging. The results demonstrated that the immunophenotypes and in vitro cultural characteristics of MenSCs did not change significantly with the progression of aging. However, some important signal pathways including MAPK, the insulin signaling pathway, pathways involved in carcinogenesis such as PPAR and P53, and cytokines and their receptors, as well as other pathways associated with immune response and aging, changed to various extents under the conditions of aging after a long time in vitro. The enriched differentially-expressed genes were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, stress response, cell proliferation, development and apoptosis. The key differentiallyexpressed genes associated with age and passage number were identified for use as biomarkers of cell aging. PMID:26823782

  14. [Risk Assessment of Single-Donor (Apheresis) Platelet Concentrates and Pooled Whole-Blood-Derived Platelet Concentrates].

    PubMed

    Hitzler, Walter; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Wartensleben, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    According to the risk estimates of the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich-Institute (PEI) an equivalence cannot be assumed to exist between the two different platelet preparations. Differences between single-donor (apheresis) platelet concentrates (ATK) and pooled whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates (PTK) result from donor populations, donation intervals, and preparation techniques. There are no prospective randomized studies with regard to the clinical efficacy, which would unambiguously demonstrate equivalence of the therapeutic efficacy of PTK (buffy coat method) in comparison to ATK. The German Association of Blood Transfusion Services (StKB) points out that, due to the non-equivalence of PTK and ATK, it is incumbent on the transfusion physician to select the platelet concentrate, make the appropriate disclosures, and assume treatment responsibility. Proper compensation for ATK and PTK must be ensured by the health insurance companies, whereby a special indication for the selection of either PTK or ATK is not given. Exceptions are patients with known HLA antibodies in which only selected platelet concentrates may be administered. Otherwise, no indication exists in the selection of the different platelet concentrates (Article is in German).

  15. Electrophysiological characterisation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by olfactory ensheathing cell-conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Yunsheng; Liu, Jingfang; Lu, Ming; Tao, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhenyan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Kui; Li, Chuntao; Liu, Zhixiong

    2013-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood-derived marrow stromal cells (UCB-MSCs) with high proliferation capacity and immunomodulatory properties are considered to be a good candidate for cell-based therapies. But until now, little work has been focused on the differentiation of UCB-MSCs. In this work, UCB-MSCs were demonstrated to be negative for CD34 and CD45 expression but positive for CD90 and CD105 expression. The gate values of UCB-MSCs for CD90 and CD105 were 99.3 and 98.6 %, respectively. Two weeks after treatment, the percentage of neuron-like cells differentiated from UCB-MSCs was increased to 84 ± 12 % in the experimental group [treated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs)-conditioned medium] and they were neuron-specific enolase positive; few neuron-like cells were found in the control group (without OECs-conditioned medium). Using whole-cell recording, sodium and potassium currents were recorded in UCB-MSCs after differentiation by OECs. Thus, human UCB-MSCs could be differentiated to neural cells by secreted secretion from OECs and exhibited electrophysiological properties similar to mature neurons after 2 weeks post-induction. These results imply that OECs can be used as a new strategy for stem cell differentiation and provide an alternative neurogenesis pathway for generating sufficient numbers of neural cells for cell therapy.

  16. Distribution of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in canines after intracerebroventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Eon; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Na Kyung; Lee, Jeongmin; Hyung, Brian; Myeong, Su Hyeon; Kim, Hyeong Seop; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lee, Jung-Il; Cho, Kyung Rae; Kim, Do Hyung; Choi, Soo Jin; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) administered via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in a canine model. Ten beagles (11-13 kg per beagle) each received an injection of 1 × 10(6) cells into the right lateral ventricle and were sacrificed 7 days after administration. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, hUCB-MSCs were observed in the brain parenchyma, especially along the lateral ventricular walls. Detected as far as 3.5 mm from the cortical surface, these cells migrated from the lateral ventricle toward the cortex. We also observed hUCB-MSCs in the hippocampus and the cervical spinal cord. According to real-time polymerase chain reaction results, most of the hUCB-MSCs were found distributed in the brain and the cervical spinal cord but not in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, and liver. ICV administered hUCB-MSCs also enhanced the endogenous neural stem cell population in the subventricular zone. These results highlighted the ICV delivery route as an optimal route to be performed in stem cell-based clinical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Human menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a cellular vehicle for malignant glioma gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Xiang, Bing-Yu; Ding, Ya-Hui; Chen, Lu; Zou, Hai; Mou, Xiao-Zhou; Xiang, Charlie

    2017-08-29

    Despite many advances in conventional treatment strategies, there is no effective treatment modality for malignant gliomas. Gene therapy may offer a promising option for gliomas and several gene therapy approaches have shown anti-tumor efficiency in previous studies. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapies, in which stem cells are genetically engineered to express therapeutic molecules, have shown tremendous potential because of their innate homing ability. In this study, human menstrual blood-derived MSCs (MenSC), a novel type of multipotential MSCs displays tropism for human malignant glioma when used as a gene delivery vehicle for therapeutics. Secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL) contains the receptor-binding domain of TRAIL, a death ligand that induces apoptosis in tumor cells. To overexpress stTRAIL, MenSCs were infected with efficient adenoviral serotype 35 vectors that had no influence on its broad multipotency and low immunophenotype. The modified MenSCs served as an excellent local drug delivery system for tumor site-specific targeted delivery and demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in an animal xenografts tumor model of U-87 MG cells. The MenSC-stTRAIL cells induced antitumor effects in vitro by significantly increasing apoptosis (P < 0.05). It also significantly reduced tumor burden in vivo (P < 0.05). The results showed that the proliferation of tumor cells was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The MenSC, as a cellular delivery vehicle has a wide potential therapeutic role, which includes the treatment of tumors.

  18. Evaluation of motor neuron differentiation potential of human umbilical cord blood- derived mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnam; Sanooghi, Davood; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Latifi, Nourahmad

    2017-04-01

    Many people suffer from spinal cord injuries annually. These deficits usually threaten the quality of life of patients. As a postpartum medically waste product, human Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) is a rich source of stem cells with self- renewal properties and neural differentiation capacity which made it useful in regenerative medicine. Since there is no report on potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into motor neurons, we set out to evaluate the differentiation properties of these cells into motor neuron-like cells through administration of Retinoic Acid(RA), Sonic Hedgehog(Shh) and BDNF using a three- step in vitro procedure. The results were evaluated using Real-time PCR, Flowcytometry and Immunocytochemistry for two weeks. Our data showed that the cells changed into bipolar morphology and could express markers related to motor neuron; including Hb-9, Pax-6, Islet-1, NF-H, ChAT at the level of mRNA and protein. We could also quantitatively evaluate the expression of Islet-1, ChAT and NF-H at 7 and 14days post- induction using flowcytometry. It is concluded that human UCB-MSCs is potent to express motor neuron- related markers in the presence of RA, Shh and BDNF through a three- step protocol; thus it could be a suitable cell candidate for regeneration of motor neurons in spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Serum for Culturing the Supportive Feeder Cells of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Ingrungruanglert, Praewphan; Numchaisrika, Pranee; Virutamasen, Pramuan; Phermthai, Tatsanee; Pruksananonda, Kamthorn

    2016-01-01

    Although human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can proliferate robustly on the feeder-free culture system, genetic instability of hPSCs has been reported in such environment. Alternatively, feeder cells enable hPSCs to maintain their pluripotency. The feeder cells are usually grown in a culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) prior to coculture with hPSCs. The use of FBS might limit the clinical application of hPSCs. Recently, human cord blood-derived serum (hUCS) showed a positive effect on culture of mesenchymal stem cells. It is interesting to test whether hUCS can be used for culture of feeder cells of hPSCs. This study was aimed to replace FBS with hUCS for culturing the human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) prior to feeder cell preparation. The results showed that HFFs cultured in hUCS-containing medium (HFF-hUCS) displayed fibroblastic features, high proliferation rates, short population doubling times, and normal karyotypes after prolonged culture. Inactivated HFF-hUCS expressed important genes, including Activin A, FGF2, and TGFβ1, which have been implicated in the maintenance of hPSC pluripotency. Moreover, hPSC lines maintained pluripotency, differentiation capacities, and karyotypic stability after being cocultured for extended period with inactivated HFF-hUCS. Therefore, the results demonstrated the benefit of hUCS for hPSCs culture system.

  20. A Novel Molecular and Functional Stemness Signature Assessing Human Cord Blood-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cell Immaturity

    PubMed Central

    Pascaud, Juliette; Driancourt, Catherine; Boyer-Di-Ponio, Julie; Uzan, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs), a distinct population of Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) progeny, display phenotypic and functional characteristics of endothelial cells while retaining features of stem/progenitor cells. Cord blood-derived ECFCs (CB-ECFCs) have a high clonogenic and proliferative potentials and they can acquire different endothelial phenotypes, this requiring some plasticity. These properties provide angiogenic and vascular repair capabilities to CB-ECFCs for ischemic cell therapies. However, the degree of immaturity retained by EPCs is still confused and poorly defined. Consequently, to better characterize CB-ECFC stemness, we quantified their clonogenic potential and demonstrated that they were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) more efficiently and rapidly than adult endothelial cells. Moreover, we analyzed the transcriptional profile of a broad gene panel known to be related to stem cells. We showed that, unlike mature endothelial cells, CB-ECFCs expressed genes involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell properties such as DNMT3B, GDF3 or SOX2. Thus, these results provide further evidence and tools to appreciate EPC-derived cell stemness. Moreover this novel stem cell transcriptional signature of ECFCs could help better characterizing and ranging EPCs according to their immaturity profile. PMID:27043207

  1. [Peripheral alexias].

    PubMed

    Jianu, Silviana Nina; Jianu, Dragoş Cătălin

    2004-01-01

    The brain lesions could lead to impairments of the comprehension and production of written language. This acquired inability is named alexia. It is a significant problem for neurologists and ophthalmologists. Our study presents a classification of the alexias, whose pathology was describe first by Dejerine (1891; 1892). There are two varieties of alexias: central alexias and peripheral alexias (especially agnozic alexia and attentional alexia). In agnozic alexia, the patient cannot read, but can write, understand and speak. It results from a type of cerebral disconnection in which the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere is disconnected from its bilateral visual input. The most commonly reported pathology is occlusion of the dominant (left) posterior cerebral artery, which leads to infarction of both the left occipital lobe (causing partial or complete right homonymous hemianpsia) and the splenium of the corpus callosum.

  2. The Potential of Menstrual Blood-Derived Stem Cells in Differentiation to Epidermal Lineage: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Hossein; Mehrabani, Davood; Fard, Maryam; Akhavan, Maryam; Zare, Sona; Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Manafi, Amir; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Shirazi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are a novel source of stem cells that can be easily isolated non-invasively from female volunteered donor without ethical consideration. These mesenchymal-like stem cells have high rate of proliferation and possess multi lineage differentiation potency. This study was undertaken to isolate the MenSCs and assess their potential in differentiation into epidermal lineage. METHODS About 5-10 ml of menstrual blood (MB) was collected using sterile Diva cups inserted into vagina during menstruation from volunteered healthy fertile women aged between 22-30 years. MB was transferred into Falcon tubes containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without Ca2+ or Mg2+ supplemented with 2.5 µg/ml fungizone, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 100 U/mL penicillin and 0.5 mM EDTA. Mononuclear cells were separated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and washed out in PBS. The cell pellet was suspended in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and cultured in tissue culture plates. The isolated cells were co-cultured with keratinocytes derived from the foreskin of healthy newborn male aged 2-10 months who was a candidate for circumcision for differentiation into epidermal lineage. RESULTS The isolated MenSCs were adhered to the plate and exhibited spindle-shaped morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of mesenchymal markers of CD10, CD29, CD73, and CD105 and lack of hematopoietic stem cells markers. An early success in derivation of epidermal lineage from MenSCs was visible. CONCLUSION The MenSCs are a real source to design differentiation to epidermal cells that can be used non-invasively in various dermatological lesions and diseases. PMID:27308237

  3. The Potential of Menstrual Blood-Derived Stem Cells in Differentiation to Epidermal Lineage: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Hossein; Mehrabani, Davood; Fard, Maryam; Akhavan, Maryam; Zare, Sona; Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Manafi, Amir; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Shirazi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are a novel source of stem cells that can be easily isolated non-invasively from female volunteered donor without ethical consideration. These mesenchymal-like stem cells have high rate of proliferation and possess multi lineage differentiation potency. This study was undertaken to isolate the MenSCs and assess their potential in differentiation into epidermal lineage. About 5-10 ml of menstrual blood (MB) was collected using sterile Diva cups inserted into vagina during menstruation from volunteered healthy fertile women aged between 22-30 years. MB was transferred into Falcon tubes containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) without Ca2(+) or Mg2(+) supplemented with 2.5 µg/ml fungizone, 100 µg/mL streptomycin, 100 U/mL penicillin and 0.5 mM EDTA. Mononuclear cells were separated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and washed out in PBS. The cell pellet was suspended in DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and cultured in tissue culture plates. The isolated cells were co-cultured with keratinocytes derived from the foreskin of healthy newborn male aged 2-10 months who was a candidate for circumcision for differentiation into epidermal lineage. The isolated MenSCs were adhered to the plate and exhibited spindle-shaped morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of mesenchymal markers of CD10, CD29, CD73, and CD105 and lack of hematopoietic stem cells markers. An early success in derivation of epidermal lineage from MenSCs was visible. The MenSCs are a real source to design differentiation to epidermal cells that can be used non-invasively in various dermatological lesions and diseases.

  4. [Influence of different gelatin concentration and lymphocyte isolation liquid on primary culture of umbilical cord blood derived adhesive cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Xi; Gao, Lei; Kong, Pei-Yan; Liu, Hong; Liang, Xue; Peng, Xian-Gui; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2008-12-01

    In order to study the influence of different gelatin concentrations, and lymphocyte isolation liquid on primary culture of umbilical cord blood-derived adhesive cells (hCBACs), the red blood cells of umbilical cord blood was separated by 3% and 6 % gelatin for detecting the effectiveness of sedimentation, then the adhesion rate at 48 hours, the day of initial expansion and the rate of culture success were detected for hCBACs cultured with CD34(+) cells after the mononuclear cells were separated by 6% gelatin followed by Ficoll and Percoll, and the morphological characteristics and growth status were observed by invert microscopy. Cytochemistry stain for nonspecific esterase stain (NSE), peroxidase (POX), periodic acid Schiff reaction (PAS) and alkali phosphatase (ALP) and immunocytochemistry labeling for CD31, CD45, CD68 and fibronectin (Fn) were detected. The results showed that 6 % gelatin was better than that 3% gelatin for red blood sedimentation. The Percoll was predominant over Ficoll in adhesion rate at 48 hours, the day of initial expansion, the time of initial formation of adhesive cell colony units, the time of maximal numbers of adhesive cell colony units, the the cell fusion time and ratio of culture success. 60% fibroblast-liked cells, 36% macrophage liked cells and 4% small-round cells were observed in cells isolated by both isolated methods. The cytochemistry stain for NSE, POX, PAS and ALP was similar in two groups, the difference was not statistically significant between these two groups. The immunocytochemistry labeling for CD31, CD45, CD68 and Fn was also similar in both groups and the difference was also not statistically significant between these two groups. It is concluded that the combination of 6% gelatin with Percoll is an ideal separation method for primary culture of hCBACs, which provides basic information for clinical application.

  5. Morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characterization of classically and alternatively activated canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Franziska; Lehmbecker, Annika; Raddatz, Barbara B; Kegler, Kristel; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Spitzbarth, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and inflammation, and their phenotype strongly depends on the micromilieu. Despite its increasing importance as a translational animal model for human diseases, there is a considerable gap of knowledge with respect to macrophage polarization in dogs. The present study comprehensively investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characteristics of unstimulated (M0), M1- (GM-CSF, LPS, IFNγ-stimulated) and M2- (M-CSF, IL-4-stimulated)-polarized canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct morphologies of polarized macrophages with formation of multinucleated cells in M2-macrophages, while immunofluorescence employing literature-based prototype-antibodies against CD16, CD32, iNOS, MHC class II (M1-markers), CD163, CD206, and arginase-1 (M2-markers) demonstrated that only CD206 was able to discriminate M2-macrophages from both other phenotypes, highlighting this molecule as a promising marker for canine M2-macrophages. Global microarray analysis revealed profound changes in the transcriptome of polarized canine macrophages. Functional analysis pointed out that M1-polarization was associated with biological processes such as "respiratory burst", whereas M2-polarization was associated with processes such as "mitosis". Literature-based marker gene selection revealed only minor overlaps in the gene sets of the dog compared to prototype markers of murine and human macrophages. Biomarker selection using supervised clustering suggested latexin (LXN) and membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 2 (MS4A2) to be the most powerful predicting biomarkers for canine M1- and M2-macrophages, respectively. Immunofluorescence for both markers demonstrated expression of both proteins by macrophages in vitro but failed to reveal differences between canine M1 and M2-macrophages. The present study provides a solid basis for future

  6. Inducible HGF-secreting Human Umbilical Cord Blood-derived MSCs Produced via TALEN-mediated Genome Editing Promoted Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Min; Yum, Soo-Young; Choi, Young-Jin; Son, YeonSung; Lee, DaBin; Kang, InSung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jang, Goo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote therapeutic angiogenesis to cure serious vascular disorders. However, their survival period and cytokine-secretory capacity are limited. Although hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can accelerate the rate of angiogenesis, recombinant HGF is limited because of its very short half-life (<3–5 minutes). Thus, continuous treatment with HGF is required to obtain an effective therapeutic response. To overcome these limitations, we produced genome-edited MSCs that secreted HGF upon drug-specific induction. The inducible HGF expression cassette was integrated into a safe harbor site in an MSC chromosome using the TALEN system, resulting in the production of TetOn-HGF/human umbilical cord blood-derived (hUCB)-MSCs. Functional assessment of the TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs showed that they had enhanced mobility upon the induction of HGF expression. Moreover, long-term exposure by doxycycline (Dox)-treated TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs enhanced the anti-apoptotic responses of genome-edited MSCs subjected to oxidative stress and improved the tube-formation ability. Furthermore, TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs encapsulated by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-alginate microgel induced to express HGF improved in vivo angiogenesis in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model. This study showed that the inducible HGF-expressing hUCB-MSCs are competent to continuously express and secrete HGF in a controlled manner. Thus, the MSCs that express HGF in an inducible manner are a useful therapeutic modality for the treatment of vascular diseases requiring angiogenesis. PMID:27434585

  7. Good manufacturing practice-compliant isolation and culture of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuc Van; Vu, Ngoc Bich; Pham, Vuong Minh; Truong, Nhung Hai; Pham, Truc Le-Buu; Dang, Loan Thi-Tung; Nguyen, Tam Thanh; Bui, Anh Nguyen-Tu; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2014-02-24

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for clinical applications. These cells exhibit a multilineage differentiation potential and strong capacity for immune modulation. Thus, MSCs are widely used in cell therapy, tissue engineering, and immunotherapy. Because of important advantages, umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) have attracted interest for some time. However, the applications of UCB-MSCs are limited by the small number of recoverable UCB-MSCs and fetal bovine serum (FBS)-dependent expansion methods. Hence, this study aimed to establish a xenogenic and allogeneic supplement-free expansion protocol. UCB was collected to prepare activated platelet-rich plasma (aPRP) and mononuclear cells (MNCs). aPRP was applied as a supplement in Iscove modified Dulbecco medium (IMDM) together with antibiotics. MNCs were cultured in complete IMDM with four concentrations of aPRP (2, 5, 7, or 10%) or 10% FBS as the control. The efficiency of the protocols was evaluated in terms of the number of adherent cells and their expansion, the percentage of successfully isolated cells in the primary culture, surface marker expression, and in vitro differentiation potential following expansion. The results showed that primary cultures with complete medium containing 10% aPRP exhibited the highest success, whereas expansion in complete medium containing 5% aPRP was suitable. UCB-MSCs isolated using this protocol maintained their immunophenotypes, multilineage differentiation potential, and did not form tumors when injected at a high dose into athymic nude mice. This technique provides a method to obtain UCB-MSCs compliant with good manufacturing practices for clinical application.

  8. Phase I study of cord blood-derived natural killer cells combined with autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nina; Li, Li; McCarty, Jessica; Kaur, Indreshpal; Yvon, Eric; Shaim, Hila; Muftuoglu, Muharrem; Liu, Enli; Orlowski, Robert Z; Cooper, Laurence; Lee, Dean; Parmar, Simrit; Cao, Kai; Sobieiski, Catherine; Saliba, Rima; Hosing, Chitra; Ahmed, Sairah; Nieto, Yago; Bashir, Qaiser; Patel, Krina; Bollard, Catherine; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Champlin, Richard; Rezvani, Katy; Shpall, Elizabeth J

    2017-03-14

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease with known immune dysregulation. Natural killer (NK) cells have shown preclinical activity in MM. We conducted a first-in-human study of umbilical cord blood-derived (CB) NK cells for MM patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT). Patients received lenalidomide (10 mg) on days -8 to -2, melphalan 200 mg/m(2) on day -7, CB-NK cells on day -5 and auto-HCT on day 0. Twelve patients were enrolled, three on each of four CB-NK cell dose levels: 5 × 10(6) , 1 × 10(7) , 5 × 10(7) and 1 × 10(8) CB-NK cells/kg. Ten patients had either high-risk chromosomal changes or a history of relapsed/progressed disease. There were no infusional toxicities and no graft-versus-host disease. One patient failed to engraft due to poor autologous graft quality and was rescued with a back-up autologous graft. Overall, 10 patients achieved at least a very good partial response as their best response, including eight with near complete response or better. With a median follow-up of 21 months, four patients have progressed or relapsed, two of whom have died. CB-NK cells were detected in vivo in six patients, with an activated phenotype (NKG2D(+) /NKp30(+) ). These data warrant further development of this novel cellular therapy.

  9. Inducible HGF-secreting Human Umbilical Cord Blood-derived MSCs Produced via TALEN-mediated Genome Editing Promoted Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Min; Yum, Soo-Young; Choi, Young-Jin; Son, YeonSung; Lee, DaBin; Kang, InSung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jang, Goo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote therapeutic angiogenesis to cure serious vascular disorders. However, their survival period and cytokine-secretory capacity are limited. Although hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can accelerate the rate of angiogenesis, recombinant HGF is limited because of its very short half-life (<3-5 minutes). Thus, continuous treatment with HGF is required to obtain an effective therapeutic response. To overcome these limitations, we produced genome-edited MSCs that secreted HGF upon drug-specific induction. The inducible HGF expression cassette was integrated into a safe harbor site in an MSC chromosome using the TALEN system, resulting in the production of TetOn-HGF/human umbilical cord blood-derived (hUCB)-MSCs. Functional assessment of the TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs showed that they had enhanced mobility upon the induction of HGF expression. Moreover, long-term exposure by doxycycline (Dox)-treated TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs enhanced the anti-apoptotic responses of genome-edited MSCs subjected to oxidative stress and improved the tube-formation ability. Furthermore, TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs encapsulated by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-alginate microgel induced to express HGF improved in vivo angiogenesis in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model. This study showed that the inducible HGF-expressing hUCB-MSCs are competent to continuously express and secrete HGF in a controlled manner. Thus, the MSCs that express HGF in an inducible manner are a useful therapeutic modality for the treatment of vascular diseases requiring angiogenesis.

  10. Engineering Robust and Functional Vascular Networks in Vivo with Human Adult and Cord Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the required proliferative and vasculogenic activity to create vascular networks in vivo. To test this...networks in vivo. To test this, EPCs isolated from human umbilical cord blood or from adult peripheral blood as described(Melero-Martin et al. 2007...hypothesized that abEPCs combined with bmMPCs at an optimized ratio would yield high density vascular networks. Therefore, we tested abEPCs + bmMPCs in

  11. Morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characterization of classically and alternatively activated canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Franziska; Lehmbecker, Annika; Raddatz, Barbara B.; Kegler, Kristel; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M.; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and inflammation, and their phenotype strongly depends on the micromilieu. Despite its increasing importance as a translational animal model for human diseases, there is a considerable gap of knowledge with respect to macrophage polarization in dogs. The present study comprehensively investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characteristics of unstimulated (M0), M1- (GM-CSF, LPS, IFNγ-stimulated) and M2- (M-CSF, IL-4-stimulated)-polarized canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct morphologies of polarized macrophages with formation of multinucleated cells in M2-macrophages, while immunofluorescence employing literature-based prototype-antibodies against CD16, CD32, iNOS, MHC class II (M1-markers), CD163, CD206, and arginase-1 (M2-markers) demonstrated that only CD206 was able to discriminate M2-macrophages from both other phenotypes, highlighting this molecule as a promising marker for canine M2-macrophages. Global microarray analysis revealed profound changes in the transcriptome of polarized canine macrophages. Functional analysis pointed out that M1-polarization was associated with biological processes such as “respiratory burst”, whereas M2-polarization was associated with processes such as “mitosis”. Literature-based marker gene selection revealed only minor overlaps in the gene sets of the dog compared to prototype markers of murine and human macrophages. Biomarker selection using supervised clustering suggested latexin (LXN) and membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 2 (MS4A2) to be the most powerful predicting biomarkers for canine M1- and M2-macrophages, respectively. Immunofluorescence for both markers demonstrated expression of both proteins by macrophages in vitro but failed to reveal differences between canine M1 and M2-macrophages. The present study provides a solid basis for

  12. Reevaluating and Refining Peripherality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Erik R.

    The idea that vowel nuclei in many northern European languages can be divided into peripheral and non-peripheral categories is discussed. Peripheral vowels are those located at the edge of the vowel envelope, and non-peripheral nuclei are those located on the inside. This assertion has not received as much scrutiny as it should. There are at least…

  13. The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omollo, Kenneth; Boily-Larouche, Geneviève; Lajoie, Julie; Kimani, Makobu; Cheruiyot, Julianna; Kimani, Joshua; Oyugi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Unprotected sexual intercourse exposes the female genital tract (FGT) to semen-derived antigens, which leads to a proinflammatory response. Studies have shown that this postcoital inflammatory response can lead to recruitment of activated T cells to the FGT, thereby increasing risk of HIV infection. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex work on activation and memory phenotypes of peripheral T cells among female sex workers (FSW) from Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Thirty FSW were recruited from the Pumwani Sex Workers Cohort, 10 in each of the following groups: HIV-exposed seronegative (at least 7 years in active sex work), HIV positive, and New Negative (HIV negative, less than 3 years in active sex work). Blood was obtained at three different phases (active sex work, abstinence from sex work–sex break, and following resumption of sex work). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stained for phenotypic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD161), memory phenotype markers (CD45RA and CCR7), activation markers (CD69, HLA-DR, and CD95), and the HIV coreceptor (CCR5). T-cell populations were compared between groups. Results: In HIV-positive women, CD8+CCR5+ T cells declined at the sex break period, while CD4+CD161+ T cells increased when returning to sex work. All groups showed no significant changes in systemic T-cell activation markers following the interruption of sex work, however, significant reductions in naive CD8+ T cells were noted. For each of the study points, HIV positives had higher effector memory and CD8+CD95+ T cells and lower naive CD8+ T cells than the HIV-uninfected groups. Conclusions: Interruption of sex work had subtle effects on systemic T-cell memory phenotypes. PMID:26879184

  14. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  15. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007394.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply ...

  16. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  17. Peripheral Color Demo.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2015-12-01

    A set of structured demonstrations of the vividness of peripheral color vision is provided by arrays of multicolored disks scaled with eccentricity. These demonstrations are designed to correct the widespread misconception that peripheral color vision is weak or nonexistent.

  18. Impact of Charged Particle Exposure on Homologous DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Blood-Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Rall, Melanie; Kraft, Daniela; Volcic, Meta; Cucu, Aljona; Nasonova, Elena; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Bönig, Halvard; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Fournier, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation generates DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) which, unless faithfully repaired, can generate chromosomal rearrangements in hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPC), potentially priming the cells towards a leukemic phenotype. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based reporter system, we recently identified differences in the removal of enzyme-mediated DSB in human HSPC versus mature peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), particularly regarding homologous DSB repair (HR). Assessment of chromosomal breaks via premature chromosome condensation or γH2AX foci indicated similar efficiency and kinetics of radiation-induced DSB formation and rejoining in PBL and HSPC. Prolonged persistence of chromosomal breaks was observed for higher LET charged particles which are known to induce more complex DNA damage compared to X-rays. Consistent with HR deficiency in HSPC observed in our previous study, we noticed here pronounced focal accumulation of 53BP1 after X-ray and carbon ion exposure (intermediate LET) in HSPC versus PBL. For higher LET, 53BP1 foci kinetics was similarly delayed in PBL and HSPC suggesting similar failure to repair complex DNA damage. Data obtained with plasmid reporter systems revealed a dose- and LET-dependent HR increase after X-ray, carbon ion and higher LET exposure, particularly in HR-proficient immortalized and primary lymphocytes, confirming preferential use of conservative HR in PBL for intermediate LET damage repair. HR measured adjacent to the leukemia-associated MLL breakpoint cluster sequence in reporter lines revealed dose dependency of potentially leukemogenic rearrangements underscoring the risk of leukemia-induction by radiation treatment.

  19. Impact of Charged Particle Exposure on Homologous DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in Human Blood-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Melanie; Kraft, Daniela; Volcic, Meta; Cucu, Aljona; Nasonova, Elena; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Bönig, Halvard; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Fournier, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation generates DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) which, unless faithfully repaired, can generate chromosomal rearrangements in hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPC), potentially priming the cells towards a leukemic phenotype. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-based reporter system, we recently identified differences in the removal of enzyme-mediated DSB in human HSPC versus mature peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), particularly regarding homologous DSB repair (HR). Assessment of chromosomal breaks via premature chromosome condensation or γH2AX foci indicated similar efficiency and kinetics of radiation-induced DSB formation and rejoining in PBL and HSPC. Prolonged persistence of chromosomal breaks was observed for higher LET charged particles which are known to induce more complex DNA damage compared to X-rays. Consistent with HR deficiency in HSPC observed in our previous study, we noticed here pronounced focal accumulation of 53BP1 after X-ray and carbon ion exposure (intermediate LET) in HSPC versus PBL. For higher LET, 53BP1 foci kinetics was similarly delayed in PBL and HSPC suggesting similar failure to repair complex DNA damage. Data obtained with plasmid reporter systems revealed a dose- and LET-dependent HR increase after X-ray, carbon ion and higher LET exposure, particularly in HR-proficient immortalized and primary lymphocytes, confirming preferential use of conservative HR in PBL for intermediate LET damage repair. HR measured adjacent to the leukemia-associated MLL breakpoint cluster sequence in reporter lines revealed dose dependency of potentially leukemogenic rearrangements underscoring the risk of leukemia-induction by radiation treatment. PMID:26618143

  20. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  1. Activation of p38 MAPK by feline infectious peritonitis virus regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Regan, Andrew D; Cohen, Rebecca D; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-02-05

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an invariably fatal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV) termed feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). The lethal pathology associated with FIP (granulomatous inflammation and T-cell lymphopenia) is thought to be mediated by aberrant modulation of the immune system due to infection of cells such as monocytes and macrophages. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occurs in cats with FIP, and has been suggested to play a significant role in the disease process. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. Here we show that infection of primary blood-derived feline mononuclear cells by FIPV WSU 79-1146 and FIPV-DF2 leads to rapid activation of the p38 MAPK pathway and that this activation regulates production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production was inhibited by the pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors SB 203580 and SC 409 in a dose-dependent manner. FIPV-induced p38 MAPK activation was observed in primary feline blood-derived mononuclear cells individually purified from multiple SPF cats, as was the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors.

  2. Postinfarction Functional Recovery Driven by a Three-Dimensional Engineered Fibrin Patch Composed of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roura, Santiago; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Bagó, Juli R.; Llucià-Valldeperas, Aida; Férnandez, Marco A.; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Perea-Gil, Isaac; Blanco, Jerónimo

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been dedicated to restoring myocardial cell slippage and limiting ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the ability of a three-dimensional (3D) engineered fibrin patch filled with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) to induce recovery of cardiac function after MI. The UCBMSCs were modified to coexpress luciferase and fluorescent protein reporters, mixed with fibrin, and applied as an adhesive, viable construct (fibrin-cell patch) over the infarcted myocardium in mice (MI-UCBMSC group). The patch adhered well to the heart. Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging demonstrated early proliferation and differentiation of UCBMSCs within the construct in the postinfarct mice in the MI-UCBMSC group. The implanted cells also participated in the formation of new, functional microvasculature that connected the fibrin-cell patch to both the subjacent myocardial tissue and the host circulatory system. As revealed by echocardiography, the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening at sacrifice were improved in MI-UCBMSC mice and were markedly reduced in mice treated with fibrin alone and untreated postinfarction controls. In conclusion, a 3D engineered fibrin patch composed of UCBMSCs attenuated infarct-derived cardiac dysfunction when transplanted locally over a myocardial wound. Significance Ischemic heart failure (HF) is the end stage of many cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction. The only definitive treatment for HF is cardiac transplant, which is hampered by limited number of heart donors and graft rejection. In recent times, cellular cardiomyoplasty has been expected to repair infarcted myocardium by implantation of different sources of stem or progenitor cells. However, low cell survival and myocardial implantation rates have motivated the emergence of novel approaches with the objective of generating graftable cell-based implants. Here, the potential

  3. Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Majumder, A; Chatterjee, S; Maji, D

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is common complication of diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients on the basis of loss of vibration sensation had been studied. Detailed clinical history of each patient including age, gender, duration of diabetes, foot ulcer and biothesiometry was recorded in 211 diabetic patients between 20 and 80 years of age. It was observed that all patients under 30 years age (n = 8) felt vibration below 15 volts (no risk zone); 77% (24 out of 31) of the patients in the age group of 30-39 years were in the no risk zone, and 23% (n = 7) had mild peripheral neuropathy. Sixty per cent of the patients between 40 and 50 years (n = 44) were in the no risk zone, while 32% (n = 24) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 5% (n = 4) had moderate neuropathy and 3% (n = 2) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Amongst patients above 50 years of age, 31% (n = 31) were in no risk zone, 34% (n = 34) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 22% (n = 20) had moderate peripheral neuropathy and 13% (n = 13) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for less than 5 years, 58% had no neuropathy, and only 3% had severe neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for 5 to 15 years, 50% had no neuropathy, 30% had mild, and 10% had severe peripheral neuropathy. When patients with diabetes for over 15 years were studied, only 6% had no neuropathy and 19% had severe peripheral neuropathy. The study re-establishes that the severity of peripheral neuropathy increases with age and vibration perception decreses progressively with increased duration of diabetes. Vibration perception threshold testing helps to identify the high risk subjects who require special counselling and education to protect their feet.

  4. Peripheral ameloblastic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Daley, T D

    2006-03-01

    Peripheral ameloblastic fibroma is an exceedingly rare lesion. Only three reports could be found, two of which appeared in the Japanese literature. Here, we report a case of peripheral ameloblastic fibroma occurring in a 5-year-old girl. The diagnosis was made after careful microscopic examination, to exclude other lesions. The lesion was excised and has not recurred 1 year after removal.

  5. Cord Blood-Derived Macrophage-Lineage Cells Rapidly Stimulate Osteoblastic Maturation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Glycoprotein-130 Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tania J.; Hodge, Jason M.; Singh, Preetinder P.; Eeles, Damien G.; Collier, Fiona M.; Holten, Ian; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    In bone, depletion of osteoclasts reduces bone formation in vivo, as does osteal macrophage depletion. How osteoclasts and macrophages promote the action of bone forming osteoblasts is, however, unclear. Since recruitment and differentiation of multi-potential stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) generates new active osteoblasts, we investigated whether human osteoclasts and macrophages (generated from cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitors) induce osteoblastic maturation in adipose tissue-derived MSC. When treated with an osteogenic stimulus (ascorbate, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate) these MSC form matrix-mineralising, alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblastic cells. Cord blood-derived progenitors were treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to form immature proliferating macrophages, or with M-CSF plus receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) to form osteoclasts; culture medium was conditioned for 3 days by these cells to study their production of osteoblastic factors. Both osteoclast- and macrophage-conditioned medium (CM) greatly enhanced MSC osteoblastic differentiation in both the presence and absence of osteogenic medium, evident by increased alkaline phosphatase levels within 4 days and increased mineralisation within 14 days. These CM effects were completely ablated by antibodies blocking gp130 or oncostatin M (OSM), and OSM was detectable in both CM. Recombinant OSM very potently stimulated osteoblastic maturation of these MSC and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) actions on MSC. To determine the influence of macrophage activation on this OSM-dependent activity, CM was collected from macrophage populations treated with M-CSF plus IL-4 (to induce alternative activation) or with GM-CSF, IFNγ and LPS to cause classical activation. CM from IL-4 treated macrophages stimulated osteoblastic maturation in MSC, while CM from classically-activated macrophages did not. Thus, macrophage-lineage cells, including

  6. Downregulation of Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM/CD146) Accelerates Cellular Senescence in Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ji Hye; Kim, Miyeon; Bae, Yun Kyung; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Jeon, Hong Bae

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating various diseases have increased in recent years. To ensure that treatment is effective, an adequate MSC dosage should be determined before these cells are used for therapeutic purposes. To obtain a sufficient number of cells for therapeutic applications, MSCs must be expanded in long-term cell culture, which inevitably triggers cellular senescence. In this study, we investigated the surface markers of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) associated with cellular senescence using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and 242 cell surface-marker antibodies. Among these surface proteins, we selected the melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146) for further study with the aim of validating observed expression differences and investigating the associated implications in hUCB-MSCs during cellular senescence. We observed that CD146 expression markedly decreased in hUCB-MSCs following prolonged in vitro expansion. Using preparative sorting, we found that hUCB-MSCs with high CD146 expression displayed high growth rates, multilineage differentiation, expression of stemness markers, and telomerase activity, as well as significantly lower expression of the senescence markers p16, p21, p53, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase, compared with that observed in hUCB-MSCs with low-level CD146 expression. In contrast, CD146 downregulation with small interfering RNAs enhanced the senescence phenotype. In addition, CD146 suppression in hUCB-MSCs caused downregulation of other cellular senescence regulators, including Bmi-1, Id1, and Twist1. Collectively, our results suggest that CD146 regulates cellular senescence; thus, it could be used as a therapeutic marker to identify senescent hUCB-MSCs. One of the fundamental requirements for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies is the expansion of MSCs during long-term culture because a sufficient number of functional cells is required

  7. Cartilage Repair Using Composites of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel in a Minipig Model

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chul-Won; Chung, Jun-Young; Park, Yong-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The cartilage regeneration potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) with a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel composite has shown remarkable results in rat and rabbit models. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the consistent regenerative potential in a pig model using three different cell lines. A full-thickness chondral injury was intentionally created in the trochlear groove of each knee in 6 minipigs. Three weeks later, an osteochondral defect, 5 mm wide by 10 mm deep, was created, followed by an 8-mm-wide and 5-mm-deep reaming. A mixture (1.5 ml) of hUCB-MSCs (0.5 × 107 cells per milliliter) and 4% HA hydrogel composite was then transplanted into the defect on the right knee. Each cell line was used in two minipigs. The osteochondral defect created in the same manner on the left knee was untreated to act as the control. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the pigs were sacrificed, and the degree of subsequent cartilage regeneration was evaluated by gross and histological analysis. The transplanted knee resulted in superior and more complete hyaline cartilage regeneration compared with the control knee. The cellular characteristics (e.g., cellular proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation capacity) of the hUCB-MSCs influenced the degree of cartilage regeneration potential. This evidence of consistent cartilage regeneration using composites of hUCB-MSCs and HA hydrogel in a large animal model could be a stepping stone to a human clinical trial in the future. Significance To date, several studies have investigated the chondrogenic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs); however, the preclinical studies are still limited in numbers with various results. In parallel, in the past several years, the cartilage regeneration potential of hUCB-MSCs with a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel composite have been investigated and remarkable results in rat and rabbit models have been

  8. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  9. [Peripheral ulcerative keratitis].

    PubMed

    Stamate, Alina-cristina; Avram, Corina Ioana; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative keratitis is frequently associated with collagen vascular diseases and presents a predilection for peripheral corneal localization, due to the distinct morphologic and immunologic features of the limbal conjunctiva, which provides access for the circulating immune complexes to the peripheral cornea via the capillary network. Deposition of immune complexes in the terminal ends of limbal vessels initiates an immune-mediated vasculitis process, with inflammatory cells and mediators involvement by alteration of the vascular permeability. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis generally correlates with exacerbations of the background autoimmune systemic disease. Associated sceritis, specially the necrotizing form, is usually observed in severe cases, which may evolve in corneal perforation and loss of vision. Although the first-line of treatment in acute phases is represented by systemic administration of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive and cytotoxic agents are necessary for the treatment of peripheral ulcerative keratitis associated with systemic diseases.

  10. Human Cord Blood-Derived CD133(+)/C-Kit(+)/Lin(-) Cells Have Bipotential Ability to Differentiate into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Carlos; Kwon, Ja-Young; Maeng, Yong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133(+)/C-kit(+)/Lin(-) mononuclear cells (CKL- cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation. We first found that CKL- cells cultured with conditioned medium of OECs or MSCs differentiated into OECs or MSCs and this differentiation was also induced by cell-to-cell contact. When we cultured single CKL- cells on OEC- or MSC-conditioned medium, the cells differentiated morphologically and genetically into OEC- or MSC-like cells, respectively. Moreover, we confirmed that OECs or MSCs differentiated from CKL- cells had the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Finally, using microarray analysis, we identified specific factors of OECs or MSCs that could potentially be involved in the differentiation fate of CKL- cells. Together, these results suggest that cord blood-derived CKL- cells possess at least bipotential differentiation capacity toward MSCs or OECs.

  11. Distribution of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse after a single intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Na Kyung; Lee, Jeongmin; Hwang, Jung Won; Choi, Soo Jin; Hwang, Hyeri; Hyung, Brian; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2016-03-02

    The aim of this study was to track the migration of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) administered through a single intravenous injection and to observe the consequential therapeutic effects in a transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Ten-month-old APP/PS1 mice received a total injection of 1×10 cells through the lateral tail vein and were killed 1, 4, and 7 days after administration. On the basis of immunohistochemical analysis, hUCB-MSCs were not detected in the brain at any of the time points. Instead, most of the injected mesenchymal stem cells were found to be distributed in the lung, heart, and liver. In terms of the molecular effects, statistically significant differences in the amyloid β protein, neprilysin, and SOX2 levels were not observed among the groups. On the basis of the results from this study, we suggest that single intravenously administered hUCB-MSCs are not delivered to the brain and also do not have a significant influence on Alzheimer's disease pathology.

  12. Human Cord Blood-Derived CD133+/C-Kit+/Lin− Cells Have Bipotential Ability to Differentiate into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Carlos; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133+/C-kit+/Lin− mononuclear cells (CKL− cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation. We first found that CKL− cells cultured with conditioned medium of OECs or MSCs differentiated into OECs or MSCs and this differentiation was also induced by cell-to-cell contact. When we cultured single CKL− cells on OEC- or MSC-conditioned medium, the cells differentiated morphologically and genetically into OEC- or MSC-like cells, respectively. Moreover, we confirmed that OECs or MSCs differentiated from CKL− cells had the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Finally, using microarray analysis, we identified specific factors of OECs or MSCs that could potentially be involved in the differentiation fate of CKL− cells. Together, these results suggest that cord blood-derived CKL− cells possess at least bipotential differentiation capacity toward MSCs or OECs. PMID:28074098

  13. Human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) give rise to dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Li, Heng; Bi, Jianfen; Chen, Yana; Jain, Sumit; Zhao, Yong

    2012-03-02

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results from the chronic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. A replacement for these neurons has the potential to provide a clinical cure and/or lasting treatment for symptoms of the disease. Human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs) display embryonic stem cell characteristics, including multi-potential differentiation. To explore their therapeutic potential in PD, we examined whether CB-SCs could be induced to differentiate into dopamine neurons in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Prior to treatment, CB-SCs expressed mRNA and protein for the key dopaminergic transcription factors Nurr1, Wnt1, and En1. Following treatment with 10 μM ATRA for 12 days, CB-SCs displayed elongated neuronal-like morphologies. Immunocytochemistry revealed that 48 ± 11% of ATRA-treated cells were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and 36 ± 9% of cells were positive for dopamine transporter (DAT). In contrast, control CB-SCs (culture medium only) expressed only background levels of TH and DAT. Finally, ATRA-treated CB-SCs challenged with potassium released increased levels of dopamine compared to control. These data demonstrate that ATRA induces differentiation of CB-SCs into dopaminergic neurons. This finding may lead to the development of an alternative approach to stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  14. The relative safety of pooled whole-blood-derived platelets prepared by the buffy-coat method versus single-donor (apheresis) platelets.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, Eleftherios C

    2010-01-01

    Conversion to a single-donor (apheresis) platelet inventory in Western Europe and other countries that provide similar health care to the US but rely on buffy-coat pooled whole-blood-derived platelets will confer the benefit of a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of all emerging transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In Europe, this benefit will include a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of acquiring variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) from platelet transfusion. In countries that use buffy coats from first-time donors to produce platelet pools, there will also be a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections. Conversion to a single-donor inventory collected from male donors (or female donors without a history of pregnancy or shown not to have white-blood-cell antibodies) should also reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury, although this prediction is based on theory and may not materialize or prove hard to document. Because conversion to a single-donor inventory can effect a > or = 2-fold reduction in the risk of all TTIs without incurring any risk, it is a more advantageous risk-reduction strategy for emerging TTIs compared with the introduction of pathogen-reduction systems for platelets. The latter cannot protect from vCJD and potentially also from some other emerging TTIs; moreover, they have recently been associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

  15. Inhibition by miR-410 facilitates direct retinal pigment epithelium differentiation of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soon Won; Kim, Jae-Jun; Seo, Min-Soo; Park, Sang-Bum; Shin, Tae-Hoon; Shin, Ji-Hee; Seo, Yoojin; Kim, Hyung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major component of the eye. This highly specialized cell type facilitates maintenance of the visual system. Because RPE loss induces an irreversible visual impairment, RPE generation techniques have recently been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach to RPE degeneration. The microRNA-based technique is a new strategy for producing RPE cells from adult stem cell sources. Previously, we identified that antisense microRNA-410 (anti-miR-410) induces RPE differentiation from amniotic epithelial stem cells. In this study, we investigated RPE differentiation from umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) via anti-miR-410 treatment. We identified miR-410 as a RPE-relevant microRNA in UCB-MSCs from among 21 putative human RPE-depleted microRNAs. Inhibition of miR-410 induces overexpression of immature and mature RPE-specific factors, including MITF, LRAT, RPE65, Bestrophin, and EMMPRIN. The RPE-induced cells were able to phagocytize microbeads. Results of our microRNA-based strategy demonstrated proof-of-principle for RPE differentiation in UCB-MSCs by using anti-miR-410 treatment without the use of additional factors or exogenous transduction. PMID:27297412

  16. Direct intracardiac injection of umbilical cord-derived stromal cells and umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial cells for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Capriglione, Luiz Guilherme A; Barchiki, Fabiane; Miyague, Lye; Jackowski, Danielle; Fracaro, Letícia; Schittini, Andressa V; Senegaglia, Alexandra C; Rebelatto, Carmen LK; Olandoski, Márcia; Correa, Alejandro; Brofman, Paulo RS

    2015-01-01

    The development of new therapeutic strategies is necessary to reduce the worldwide social and economic impact of cardiovascular disease, which produces high rates of morbidity and mortality. A therapeutic option that has emerged in the last decade is cell therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of transplanting human umbilical cord-derived stromal cells (UCSCs), human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial cells (UCBECs) or a combination of these two cell types for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy (IC) in a Wistar rat model. IC was induced by left coronary artery ligation, and baseline echocardiography was performed seven days later. Animals with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤40% were selected for the study. On the ninth day after IC was induced, the animals were randomized into the following experimental groups: UCSCs, UCBECs, UCSCs plus UCBECs, or vehicle (control). Thirty days after treatment, an echocardiographic analysis was performed, followed by euthanasia. The animals in all of the cell therapy groups, regardless of the cell type transplanted, had less collagen deposition in their heart tissue and demonstrated a significant improvement in myocardial function after IC. Furthermore, there was a trend of increasing numbers of blood vessels in the infarcted area. The median value of LVEF increased by 7.19% to 11.77%, whereas the control group decreased by 0.24%. These results suggest that UCSCs and UCBECs are promising cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty and can be an effective therapy for improving cardiac function following IC. PMID:25576340

  17. Modeling microbial ethanol production by E. coli under aerobic/anaerobic conditions: applicability to real postmortem cases and to postmortem blood derived microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2013-10-10

    The mathematical modeling of the microbial ethanol production under strict anaerobic experimental conditions for some bacterial species has been proposed by our research group as the first approximation to the quantification of the microbial ethanol production in cases where other alcohols were produced simultaneously with ethanol. The present study aims to: (i) study the microbial ethanol production by Escherichia coli under controlled aerobic/anaerobic conditions; (ii) model the correlation between the microbial produced ethanol and the other higher alcohols; and (iii) test their applicability in: (a) real postmortem cases that had positive BACs (>0.10 g/L) and co-detection of higher alcohols and 1-butanol during the original ethanol analysis and (b) postmortem blood derived microbial cultures under aerobic/anaerobic controlled experimental conditions. The statistical evaluation of the results revealed that the formulated models were presumably correlated to 1-propanol and 1-butanol which were recognized as the most significant descriptors of the modeling process. The significance of 1-propanol and 1-butanol as descriptors was so powerful that they could be used as the only independent variables to create a simple and satisfactory model. The current models showed a potential for application to estimate microbial ethanol - within an acceptable standard error - in various tested cases where ethanol and other alcohols have been produced from different microbes.

  18. Azelastine is more potent than olopatadine n inhibiting interleukin-6 and tryptase release from human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Huang, Man; Kandere, Kristiana; Boucher, William; Letourneau, Richard; Jeudy, Sheila; Fitzgerald, Kim; Spear, Kathleen; Athanasiou, Achilles; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2002-05-01

    Mast cells are involved in early- and late-phase reactions by releasing vasoactive molecules, proteases, and cytokines. Certain histamine-1 receptor antagonists and other antiallergic drugs seem to inhibit the release of mediators from rat and human mast cells. Azelastine and olopatadine are antiallergic agents present in the ophthalmic solutions azelastine hydrochloride (Optivar, Asta Medica/Muro Pharmaceuticals, Tewksbury, MA), and olopatadine hydrochloride (Patanol, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX), respectively. We investigated the effect of these drugs on interleukin-6 (IL-6), tryptase, and histamine release from cultured human mast cells (CHMCs). CHMCs were grown from human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells in the presence of stem cell factor and IL-6 for 14 to 16 weeks. Sensitized CHMCs were pretreated with various concentrations of azelastine or olopatadine for 5 minutes. CHMCs were then challenged with anti-immunoglobulin E, and the released mediators were quantitated. The greatest inhibition of mediator release was seen with 24 microM azelastine; this level of inhibition was matched with the use of 133 microM olopatadine. At this concentration, these drugs inhibited IL-6 release by 83% and 74%, tryptase release by 55% and 79%, and histamine release by 41% and 45%, respectively. Activated CHMCs were characterized by numerous filopodia that were inhibited by both drugs as shown by electron microscopy. These results indicate that azelastine and olopatadine can inhibit CHMCs activation and release of IL-6, tryptase, and histamine. On an equimolar basis, azelastine was a more potent inhibitor than olopatadine.

  19. Peripheral mononuclear cell rejuvenation for senescence surveillance in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Piacenza, Francesco; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have pointed out that microglia, astrocytes and cerebrovascular endothelial cells senescence might contribute to the onset or progression of sporadic AD. The accumulation of senescent dysfunctional microglia or senescence related changes of other cells within CNS could be causally implicated in AD and age-related dysfunction and their efficient removal could represent a pivotal mechanism to prevent or delay neurodegeneration. The question how senescent cells are cleared from CNS has been poorly investigated, even though it is reasonable to believe that resident microglia is involved in this task. However, accumulating evidence now support the idea that assistance by peripheral mononuclear phagocytes (MP) in AD could be essential to control local brain inflammation and remove Abeta depots. Based on the current knowledge it is reasonable to hypothesize that senescence surveillance might be among the tasks that blood derived MP are called to envelop in the CNS during particular conditions, especially in the case senescent microglia is not able to achieve this task properly. However, age-related dysfunctions of these players of innate immunity could lead to depict a series of events that synergically with microglia and other CNS cells senescence could lead to a rapid progression of the disease. Hence, the design of intervention aimed at targeting accumulating senescent cells by rejuvenation of peripheral MP function seems an attractive tool that perhaps would also help to clarify the processes involved in senescence surveillance in normal and AD brain.

  20. Peripheral nerve stimulation: definition.

    PubMed

    Abejón, David; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a tremendous evolution in the field of neurostimulation, both from the technological point of view and from development of the new and different indications. In some areas, such as peripheral nerve stimulation, there has been a boom in recent years due to the variations in the surgical technique and the improved results documented by in multiple published papers. All this makes imperative the need to classify and define the different types of stimulation that are used today. The confusion arises when attempting to describe peripheral nerve stimulation and subcutaneous stimulation. Peripheral nerve stimulation, in its pure definition, involves implanting a lead on a nerve, with the aim to produce paresthesia along the entire trajectory of the stimulated nerve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSC) inhibit the proliferation of K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukaemic cell line).

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Malini; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Tan, Boon Chong; Seow, Heng Fong

    2012-09-01

    hUCB-MSC (human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells) offer an attractive alternative to bone marrow-derived MSC for cell-based therapy by being less invasive a source of biological material. We have evaluated the effect of hUCB-MSC on the proliferation of K562 (an erythromyeloblastoid cell line) and the cytokine secretion pattern of hUCB-MSC. Co-culturing of hUCB-MSC and K562 resulted in inhibition of proliferation of K562 in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-proliferative effect was reduced in transwells, suggesting the importance of direct cell-to-cell contact. hUCB-MSC inhibited proliferation of K562, arresting them in the G0 /G1 phase. NO (nitric oxide) was not involved in the hUCB-MSC-mediated tumour suppression. The presence of IL-6 (interleukin 6) and IL-8 were obvious in the hUCB-MSC conditioned media, but no significant increase was found in 29 other cytokines. Th1 cytokines, IFNα (interferon α), Th2 cytokine IL-4 and Th17 cytokine, IL-17 were not secreted by hUCB-MSC. There was an increase in the number of hUCB-MSC expressing the latent membrane-bound form of TGFβ1 co-cultured with K562. The anti-proliferative effect of hUCB-MSC was due to arrest of the growth of K562 in the G0 /G1 phase. The mechanisms underlying increased IL-6 and IL-8 secretion and LAP (latency-associated peptide; TGFβ1) by hUCB-MSC remains unknown. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. High-resolution intravital imaging reveals that blood derived macrophages but not resident microglia facilitate secondary axonal dieback in traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Teresa A.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Myers, Jay; Hare, Elisabeth G.; You, Jingquang; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Huang, Alex Y.; Silver, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury, functional deficits increase as axons die back from the center of the lesion and the glial scar forms. Axonal die back occurs in two phases: an initial axon intrinsic stage that occurs over the first several hours and a secondary phase which takes place over the first few weeks after injury. Here, we examine the secondary phase, which is marked by infiltration of macrophages. Using powerful time lapse multi-photon imaging, we captured images of interactions between Cx3cr1+/GFP macrophages and microglia and Thy-1YFP axons in a mouse dorsal column crush spinal cord injury model. Over the first few weeks after injury, axonal retraction bulbs within the lesion are static except when axonal fragments are lost by a blebbing mechanism in response to physical contact followed by phagocytosis by mobile Cx3Cr1+/GFP cells. Utilizing a radiation chimera model to distinguish marrow-derived cells from radio-resistant CNS resident microglia, we determined that the vast majority of accumulated cells in the lesion are derived from the blood and only these are associated with axonal damage. Interestingly, CNS-resident Cx3Cr1+/GFP microglia did not increasingly accumulate nor participate in neuronal destruction in the lesion during this time period. Additionally, we found that the blood-derived cells consisted mainly of singly labeled Ccr2+/RFP macrophages, singly labeled Cx3Cr1+/GFP macrophages and a small population of double-labeled cells. Since all axon destructive events were seen in contact with a Cx3Cr1+/GFP cell, we infer that the CCR2 single positive subset is likely not robustly involved in axonal dieback. Finally, in our model, deletion of CCR2, a chemokine receptor, did not alter the position of axons after dieback. Understanding the in vivo cellular interactions involved in secondary axonal injury may lead to clinical treatment candidates involving modulation of destructive infiltrating blood monocytes. PMID:24468477

  3. Protein profiling and angiogenic effect of hypoxia-cultured human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Ae-Kyeong; Kim, Min-Hee; Kim, Do-Hyung; Go, Ha-Nl; Kang, Donglim; Chang, Jong Wook; Choi, Soon Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate protein profiles of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) cultured in normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions, and evaluate oxygenation effects on angiogenesis in an ischemic hindlimb mouse model using a modified ischemic scoring system. Hypoxic conditions did not change the expression of phenotypic markers and increased adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGF-β RII, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were upregulated in the conditioned medium of hypoxic hUCB-MSCs, which are commonly related to angiogenesis and proliferation of biological processes by Gene Ontology. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, significant enrichment of the phosphorylation of abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) (Phospho-Tyr204) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL) (Phospho-Thr47) as anti-apoptotic pathways was observed in hypoxic hUCB-MSCs. Furthermore, hypoxic conditions induced proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis of hUCB-MSCs in vitro. Based on the results of protein antibody array, we evaluated the angiogenic effects of injecting normoxic or hypoxic hUCB-MSCs (1×10(6)) into the ischemic hindlimb muscles of mice. Ischemic scores and capillary generation were significantly greater in the hypoxic hUCB-MSC injection group than in the normoxic hUCB-MSC group. Our findings demonstrate that culturing hUCB-MSCs in hypoxic conditions not only significantly enriches phosphorylation in the anti-apoptosis pathway and enhances the secretion of several angiogenic proteins from cells, but also alleviates ischemic injury of hindlimb of mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Burke Schinkel, Stephanie C; Carrasco-Medina, Lorna; Cooper, Curtis L; Crawley, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  5. Effect of preemptive treatment with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the development of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Ghee Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Huh, Wooseong; Jin, Hye Jin; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Oh, Ha Young; Kim, Yoon-Goo

    2014-11-15

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCB-MSCs) have been studied in several models of immune-mediated disease because of their unique immunomodulatory properties. We hypothesized that HUCB-MSCs could suppress the inflammatory response in postischemic kidneys and attenuate early renal injury. In 8- to 10-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice, bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) surgery was performed, and 1 × 10(6) HUCB-MSCs were injected intraperitoneally 24 h before surgery and during reperfusion. Renal functional and histological changes, HUCB-MSC trafficking, leukocyte infiltration, and cytokine expression were analyzed. Renal functional decline and tubular injury after IRI were attenuated by HUCB-MSC treatment. PKH-26-labeled HUCB-MSCs trafficked into the postischemic kidney. Although numbers of CD45-positive leukocytes in the postischemic kidney were comparable between groups, the expression of interferon-γ in the postischemic kidney was suppressed by HUCB-MSC treatment. The rapid decrease in intrarenal VEGF after IRI was markedly mitigated by HUCB-MSC treatment. In inflammatory conditions simulated in a cell culture experiment, VEGF secretion from HUCB-MSCs was substantially enhanced. VEGF inhibitor abolished the renoprotective effect of HUCB-MSCs after IRI. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the decreased infiltration of natural killer T cells and increased number of regulatory T cells in postischemic kidneys. In addition, these effects of HUCB-MSCs on kidney infiltrating mononuclear cells after IRI were attenuated by VEGF inhibitor. HUCB-MSCs attenuated renal injury in mice in the early injury phase after IRI, mainly by humoral effects and secretion of VEGF. Our results suggest a promising role for HUCB-MSCs in the treatment of renal IRI. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. The influence of conditions utilized to hold apheresis and whole blood-derived platelet samples before platelet enumeration with three hematology analyzers.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Shalini; Kline, Linda; Dabay, Michelle; Kurtz, James; Moroff, Gary

    2010-08-01

    The Advia 120 (Siemens Diagnostics) hematology analyzer is different from other hematology analyzers in that it requires platelets (PLTs) to be "effectively spherical" to be counted. Our study evaluated how PLT counts with this hematology analyzer and two other models were influenced by the holding of PLT product samples. Samples were prepared from apheresis PLT products (APs) collected in ACD-A and from whole blood-derived PLT concentrates (PCs) in CP2D or ACD-A. Samples were stored in K(2) and K(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) tubes at room temperature (RT) and in the cold. PLT counts were determined immediately, after 1 and 4 hours, and after an overnight hold, using Advia 120, XE-2100D, and Cell-Dyn 3700 hematology analyzers. A time-dependent increase in PLT counts was observed with AP samples held at RT using the Advia 120, but not with the other two hematology analyzers. AP samples held in the cold did not show a substantial time-dependent increase with any of the hematology analyzers. With the Advia 120, the PLT counts in the immediate samples were approximately 14% lower compared to those in cold or overnight-held RT samples. PC samples with all holding conditions and hematology analyzers did not show any substantial time-dependent increase in counts. With the Advia 120 hematology analyzer, the time-dependent increase in PLT counts with RT-held samples may be related to the need to have effectively sphered PLTs unlike that with the other two hematology analyzers. The absence of a holding effect with PC samples may indicate that only AP samples have population(s) that are slow to convert to spherical PLTs. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of autologous blood-derived products, shock-wave therapy and corticosteroids for treatment of plantar fasciitis: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Tu, Yu-Kang; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of autologous blood-derived products (ABPs), CSs and shock-wave (SW) therapy in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Electronic databases were searched for studies that compared ABPs, CSs and SW therapy for the treatment of plantar fasciitis, published up to June 2014. The primary and secondary outcomes were reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 3 and 6 months and odds ratio of treatment success, respectively. Groups were compared by traditional pair-wise meta-analysis and by network meta-analysis. Seven randomized controlled trials and three quasi-experimental studies that included 604 patients were enrolled. Pair-wise meta-analysis indicated a trend favouring ABPs over CSs regarding VAS reduction at 3 months; this benefit was significant in a subgroup analysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) vs CSs. There were no significant between-group differences in VAS reduction at 6 months and in treatment success. Network meta-analysis showed that ABPs had the highest probability of being the best treatment at 3 months, but ABPs were slightly inferior to SW for VAS reduction at 6 months. Although SW therapy had the highest likelihood of treatment success, the between-group differences in probabilities were less remarkable than those for pain reduction at 3 and 6 months. ABPs, followed by CSs, were best in providing relief from pain at 3 months. SW therapy and ABPs had similar probabilities of providing pain relief at 6 months, and were better than CSs at that time. Subgroup analysis indicated that an ABP regimen consisting of platelet-rich plasma improves treatment efficacy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-11-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit's activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Regeneration of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound-Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendon tear is one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection to regenerate a full-thickness subscapularis tendon tear in a rabbit model by evaluating the gross morphology and histology of the injected tendon and motion analysis of the rabbit’s activity. At 4 weeks after ultrasound-guided UCB-derived MSC injection, 7 of the 10 full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears were only partial-thickness tears, and 3 remained full-thickness tendon tears. The tendon tear size and walking capacity at 4 weeks after UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance were significantly improved compared with the same parameters immediately after tendon tear. UCB-derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB-derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tear and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In this study, ultrasound-guided injection of human UCB-derived MSCs contributed to regeneration of the full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear without surgical repair. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of local injection of MSCs into the rotator cuff tendon. Significance The results of this study suggest that ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair. PMID:26371340

  10. Both mosquito-derived xanthurenic acid and a host blood-derived factor regulate gametogenesis of Plasmodium in the midgut of the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Arai, M; Billker, O; Morris, H R; Panico, M; Delcroix, M; Dixon, D; Ley, S V; Sinden, R E

    2001-08-01

    Gametogenesis of Plasmodium in vitro can be induced by the combined stimulus of a 5 degrees C fall in temperature and the presence of xanthurenic acid (XA). In-vitro experiments showed that P. gallinaceum (EC(50)=80 nM) is much more sensitive to XA than P. berghei (9 microM), P. yoelii (8 microM), and P. falciparum (2 microM). However, in the mosquito vector, we do not know whether the temperature shift and XA are the only gametocyte-activating factors (GAF), nor do we know with certainty the true source(s) of XA in the mosquito blood meal. Previous studies indicate that XA is the only source of GAF in the mosquito. By defining, and then contrasting, the ability of an XA-deficient mutant of Aedes aegypti, with the wild-type mosquito to support exflagellation and ookinete formation in vivo, we determined the roles of parasite-, mosquito- and host blood-derived GAF in the regulation of gametogenesis of P. gallinaceum. Removal of both host and vector sources of GAF totally inhibited both exflagellation and ookinete production, whilst the lack of either single source resulted in only a partial reduction of exflagellation and ookinete formation in the mosquito gut. Both sources can be effectively replaced/substituted by synthetic XA. This suggests (1) both mosquito- and vertebrate-derived factors act as GAF in the mosquito gut in vivo; (2) the parasite itself is unable to produce any significant GAF activity. Studies are underway to determine whether vertebrate-derived GAF is XA. These data may form the basis of further studies of the development of new methods of interrupting malarial transmission.

  11. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit, But Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote, Glioblastoma Multiforme Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Keiko; Kimura, Kenichi; Nagano, Masumi; Takano, Shingo; To'a Salazar, Georgina; Yamashita, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess self-renewal and multipotential differentiation abilities, and they are thought to be one of the most reliable stem cell sources for a variety of cell therapies. Recently, cell therapy using MSCs has been studied as a novel therapeutic approach for cancers that show refractory progress and poor prognosis. MSCs from different tissues have different properties. However, the effect of different MSC properties on their application in anticancer therapies has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, to characterize the anticancer therapeutic application of MSCs from different sources, we established two different kinds of human MSCs: umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs) and adipose-tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs). We used these MSCs in a coculture assay with primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells to analyze how MSCs from different sources can inhibit GBM growth. We found that UCB-MSCs inhibited GBM growth and caused apoptosis, but AT-MSCs promoted GBM growth. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick-end labeling assay clearly demonstrated that UCB-MSCs promoted apoptosis of GBM via tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). TRAIL was expressed more highly by UCB-MSCs than by AT-MSCs. Higher mRNA expression levels of angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin 1, platelet-derived growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor) and stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) were observed in AT-MSCs, and highly vascularized tumors were developed when AT-MSCs and GBM were cotransplanted. Importantly, CXCL12 inhibited TRAIL activation of the apoptotic pathway in GBM, suggesting that AT-MSCs may support GBM development in vivo by at least two distinct mechanisms—promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis. The opposite effects of AT-MSCs and UCB-MSCs on GBM clearly demonstrate that differences must be considered when choosing a stem cell source

  12. Routine use of a rapid test to detect bacteria at the time of issue for nonleukoreduced, whole blood-derived platelets.

    PubMed

    Harm, Sarah K; Delaney, Meghan; Charapata, Michael; Aubuchon, James P; Triulzi, Darrell J; Yazer, Mark H

    2013-04-01

    The Pan Genera detection (PGD) test is used to screen platelet (PLT) products for bacterial contamination. We report the experience of using the PGD test on whole blood-derived PLTs (WBPs) at two large centralized transfusion services (CTS). Records of PGD test results were retrospectively reviewed. The PGD test was performed on individual WBP units or pools of WBPs ranging in size from 2 to 6 units at the time of issue. Bacterial culture was performed on PLT products with positive PGD tests, and at one CTS, the available cocomponents. A total of 70,561 WBP pools were screened with the PGD test. There were seven true-positive PGD tests and 242 false-positive tests (positive predictive value of PGD test, 2.81%). The overall contamination rate was 99 per 10(6) WBP pools (1:10,080; 95% confidence interval [CI], 40-204), and the false-positive rate was 3430 per 10(6) WBP pools (1:292; 95% CI, 3011-3890). All seven bacterial isolates were Gram positive. The median age of the individual WBP units in the seven contaminated pools was 5 days (range, 3-5 days) compared to 4 days (range, 1-5 days) in the false-positive pools (p=0.0012). The same bacteria isolated from a positive PLT pool also grew in one red blood cell cocomponent. After testing more than 70,000 WBP pools at two large CTSs, the rate of contaminated WBP pools detected by the PGD test was 99 per 10(6) pools (1:10,080). © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Targeted Genome Engineering to Control VEGF Expression in Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Potential Implications for the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Min; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Shen, Yi-Ming; Bonsra, Kwaku; Kang, Byung-Jae; Yum, Soo-Young; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, So-Yeong; Choi, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyongbum Henry; Jang, Goo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2017-03-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) exhibit potency for the regeneration of infarcted hearts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is capable of inducing angiogenesis and can boost stem cell-based therapeutic effects. However, high levels of VEGF can cause abnormal blood vessel growth and hemangiomas. Thus, a controllable system to induce therapeutic levels of VEGF is required for cell therapy. We generated an inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell (VEGF/hUCB-MSC) that controls the expression of VEGF and tested the therapeutic efficacy in rat myocardial infarction (MI) model to apply functional stem cells to MI. To introduce the inducible VEGF gene cassette into a safe harbor site of the hUCB-MSC chromosome, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases system was used. After confirming the integration of the cassette into the locus, VEGF secretion in physiological concentration from VEGF/hUCB-MSCs after doxycycline (Dox) induction was proved in conditioned media. VEGF secretion was detected in mice implanted with VEGF/hUCB-MSCs grown via a cell sheet system. Vessel formation was induced in mice transplanted with Matrigel containing VEGF/hUCB-MSCs treated with Dox. Moreover, seeding of the VEGF/hUCB-MSCs onto the cardiac patch significantly improved the left ventricle ejection fraction and fractional shortening in a rat MI model upon VEGF induction. Induced VEGF/hUCB-MSC patches significantly decreased the MI size and fibrosis and increased muscle thickness, suggesting improved survival of cardiomyocytes and protection from MI damage. These results suggest that our inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell system is an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of MI. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1040-1051.

  14. Inherited peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Saporta, Mario A; Shy, Michael E

    2013-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurologic or multisystem syndrome. Because of the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. This article reviews the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineates major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes, and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Saporta, Mario A.; Shy, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurological or multisystem syndrome. Due to the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. Here, we review the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineate major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. PMID:23642725

  16. Barriers of the peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, Sirkku; Alanne, Maria; Peltonen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    This review introduces the traditionally defined anatomic compartments of the peripheral nerves based on light and electron microscopic topography and then explores the cellular and the most recent molecular basis of the different barrier functions operative in peripheral nerves. We also elucidate where, and how, the homeostasis of the normal human peripheral nerve is controlled in situ and how claudin-containing tight junctions contribute to the barriers of peripheral nerve. Also, the human timeline of the development of the barriers of the peripheral nerve is depicted. Finally, potential future therapeutic modalities interfering with the barriers of the peripheral nerve are discussed. PMID:24665400

  17. [Peripheral facial nerve palsy].

    PubMed

    Nauta, J M; Timmenga, N M; Cats, H

    1993-04-01

    There are different etiological factors concerning the acute peripheral facial nerve palsy. In the majority of the cases, however, no etiological factor can be found. These cases are called idiopathic facial palsy or Bells palsy. Perhaps local anaesthetics could play a role as an etiological factor. By means of a case-report this form of facial nerve palsy will be discussed.

  18. Peripheral neuropathies 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Assal, J.P.; Liniger, C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present results and experience in sixteen specific disciplines related to the study of nerve physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Twenty-two different peripheral neuropathies are presented, and different models related to health care strategies are discussed. The authors report on Inflammatory and autoimmune neuropathies and Genetic neuropathies.

  19. Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

    1985-01-01

    There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

  20. Three-dimensional wet-electrospun poly(lactic acid)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes scaffold induces differentiation of human menstrual blood-derived stem cells into germ-like cells.

    PubMed

    Eyni, Hossein; Ghorbani, Sadegh; Shirazi, Reza; Salari Asl, Leila; P Beiranvand, Shahram; Soleimani, Masoud

    2017-09-01

    Infertility caused by the disruption or absence of germ cells is a major and largely incurable medical problem. Germ cells (i.e., sperm or egg) play a key role in the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information across generations. Generation of gametes derived in vitro from stem cells hold promising prospects which could potentially help infertile men and women. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells are a unique stem cell source. Evidence suggests that menstrual blood-derived stem cells exhibit a multi-lineage potential and have attracted extensive attention in regenerative medicine. To maintain the three-dimensional structure of natural extra cellular matrices in vitro, scaffolds can do this favor and mimic a microenvironment for cell proliferation and differentiation. According to previous studies, poly(lactic acid) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been introduced as novel and promising biomaterials for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Some cell types have been successfully grown on a matrix containing carbon nanotubes in tissue engineering but there is no report for this material to support stem cells differentiation into germ cells lineage. This study designed a 3D wet-electrospun poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic acid)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite scaffold to compare infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation potential of menstrual blood-derived stem cells toward germ cell lineage with 2D culture. Our primary data revealed that the fabricated scaffold has mechanical and biological suitable qualities for supporting and attachments of stem cells. The differentiated menstrual blood-derived stem cells tracking in scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy confirmed cell attachment, aggregation, and distribution on the porous scaffold. Based on the differentiation assay by RT-PCR analysis, stem cells and germ-like cells markers were expressed in 3D groups as well as 2D one. It seems that poly(lactic acid

  1. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease? Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is ... that affects blood flow to the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows ...

  2. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with ... developing atherosclerosis, the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  3. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; Peroneal artery - ...

  4. Response to Intravenous Allogeneic Equine Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Administered from Chilled or Frozen State in Serum and Protein-Free Media

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lynn B.; Co, Carmon; Koenig, Judith B.; Tse, Crystal; Lindsay, Emily; Koch, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are commonly transported, chilled or frozen, to veterinary clinics. These MSC must remain viable and minimally affected by culture, transport, or injection processes. The safety of two carrier solutions developed for optimal viability and excipient use were evaluated in ponies, with and without allogeneic cord blood-derived (CB) MSC. We hypothesized that neither the carrier solutions nor CB-MSC would elicit measurable changes in clinical, hematological, or biochemical parameters. In nine ponies (study 1), a bolus of HypoThermosol® FRS (HTS-FRS), CryoStor® CS10 (CS10), or saline was injected IV (n = 3/treatment). Study 2, following a 1-week washout period, 5 × 107 pooled allogeneic CB-MSCs were administered IV in HTS-FRS following 24 h simulated chilled transport. Study 3, following another 1-week washout period 5 × 107 pooled allogeneic CB-MSCs were administered IV in CS10 immediately after thawing. Nine ponies received CB-MSCs in study 2 and 3, and three ponies received the cell carrier media without cells. CB-MSCs were pooled in equal numbers from five unrelated donors. In all studies, ponies were monitored with physical examination, and blood collection for 7 days following injection. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte populations were also evaluated in each blood sample. In all three studies, physical exam, complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry, and coagulation panel did not deviate from established normal ranges. Proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes increased at 168 h postinjection in CB-MSC treatment groups regardless of the carrier solution. Decreases in CD4+/CD8+ double positive populations were observed at 24 and 72 h in CB-MSC-treated animals. There was no difference in viability between CB-MSCs suspended in HTS-FRS and CS10. HTS-FRS and CS10 used for low volume excipient injection of MSC suspensions were not associated with short-term adverse reactions. HTS-FRS and CS10 both adequately

  5. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the cultured rabbit intervertebral disc: a novel cell source for disc repair.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Greg; Markova, Dessislava; An, Howard S; Chee, Ana; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Markov, Vladimir; Saitta, Biagio; Shi, Peng; Gupta, Chander; Zhang, Yejia

    2013-05-01

    Back pain associated with symptomatic disc degeneration is a common clinical condition. Intervertebral disc (IVD) cell apoptosis and senescence increase with aging and degeneration. Repopulating the IVD with cells that could produce and maintain extracellular matrix would be an alternative therapy to surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) as a novel cell source for disc repair. In this study, we intended to confirm the potential for hUCB-MSCs to differentiate and display a chondrocyte-like phenotype after culturing in micromass and after injection into the rabbit IVD explant culture. We also wanted to confirm hUCB-MSC survival after transplantation into the IVD explant culture. This study consisted of micromass cultures and in vitro rabbit IVD explant cultures to assess hUCB-MSC survival and differentiation to display chondrocyte-like phenotype. First, hUCB-MSCs were cultured in micromass and stained with Alcian blue dye. Second, to confirm cell survival, hUCB-MSCs were labeled with an infrared dye and a fluorescent dye before injection into whole rabbit IVD explants (host). IVD explants were then cultured for 4 wks. Cell survival was confirmed by two independent techniques: an imaging system detecting the infrared dye at the organ level and fluorescence microscopy detecting fluorescent dye at the cellular level. Cell viability was assessed by staining the explant with CellTracker green, a membrane-permeant tracer specific for live cells. Human type II collagen gene expression (from the graft) was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. We have shown that hUCB-MSCs cultured in micromass are stained blue with Alcian blue dye, which suggests that proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix is produced. In the cultured rabbit IVD explants, hUCB-MSCs survived for at least 4 wks and expressed the human type II collagen gene, suggesting that the injected hUCB-MSCs are

  6. High-resolution intravital imaging reveals that blood-derived macrophages but not resident microglia facilitate secondary axonal dieback in traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, Teresa A; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Myers, Jay T; Hare, Elisabeth G; You, Jing Qiang; Ransohoff, Richard M; Huang, Alex Y; Silver, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury, functional deficits increase as axons die back from the center of the lesion and the glial scar forms. Axonal dieback occurs in two phases: an initial axon intrinsic stage that occurs over the first several hours and a secondary phase which takes place over the first few weeks after injury. Here, we examine the secondary phase, which is marked by infiltration of macrophages. Using powerful time-lapse multi-photon imaging, we captured images of interactions between Cx3cr1(+/GFP) macrophages and microglia and Thy-1(YFP) axons in a mouse dorsal column crush spinal cord injury model. Over the first few weeks after injury, axonal retraction bulbs within the lesion are static except when axonal fragments are lost by a blebbing mechanism in response to physical contact followed by phagocytosis by mobile Cx3Cr1(+/GFP) cells. Utilizing a radiation chimera model to distinguish marrow-derived cells from radio-resistant CNS-resident microglia, we determined that the vast majority of accumulated cells in the lesion are derived from the blood and only these are associated with axonal damage. Interestingly, CNS-resident Cx3Cr1(+/GFP) microglia did not increasingly accumulate nor participate in neuronal destruction in the lesion during this time period. Additionally, we found that the blood-derived cells consisted mainly of singly labeled Ccr2(+/RFP) macrophages, singly labeled Cx3Cr1(+/GFP) macrophages and a small population of double-labeled cells. Since all axon destructive events were seen in contact with a Cx3Cr1(+/GFP) cell, we infer that the CCR2 single positive subset is likely not robustly involved in axonal dieback. Finally, in our model, deletion of CCR2, a chemokine receptor, did not alter the position of axons after dieback. Understanding the in vivo cellular interactions involved in secondary axonal injury may lead to clinical treatment candidates involving modulation of destructive infiltrating blood monocytes. Copyright © 2014

  7. Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.

    PubMed

    2006-11-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.

  8. Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

  9. Inherited peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Shy, Michael E

    2011-04-01

    Mutations in genes expressed in Schwann cells and the axons they ensheathe cause the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, also known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). More than 40 different genes have been shown to cause inherited neuropathies; chromosomal localizations of many other distinct inherited neuropathies have been mapped, and new genetic causes for inherited neuropathies continue to be discovered. How to keep track of all of these disorders, when to pursue genetic testing, and what tests to order for specific patients are difficult challenges for any neurologist. This review addresses these issues and provides illustrative cases to help in dealing with them. CMT serves as a living system to identify molecules necessary for normal peripheral nervous system (PNS) function. Understanding how these various molecules interact will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in general as well as other neurodegenerative disorders involving the PNS.

  10. [Peripheral neuropathies: Diagnostic strategy].

    PubMed

    Magy, L

    2017-02-28

    Diagnosing a peripheral neuropathy is sometimes challenging, as the causes are diverse and the clinical pictures heterogeneous. Overall, diagnosing a patient with peripheral neuropathy will require some knowledge in almost every field of medicine. Therefore, it appears crucial to adopt a diagnostic strategy that is based on solid clinical and neurophysiological grounds. The present paper describes a three-step diagnostic strategy: (1) to delineate a clinico-pathologic entity from clinical and electrodiagnostic findings; (2) to propose a list of plausible causes based on step one, history and clinical context; (3) to use appropriate workup in order to determine the cause or mechanism of the neuropathy. The three steps of this diagnostic strategy necessitate a high level of expertise and interaction between physicians is highly desirable. Finally, an aggressive course and a severe impairment should lead to relentlessly look for a curable cause.

  11. Immunotherapy in Peripheral Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Léger, Jean-Marc; Guimarães-Costa, Raquel; Muntean, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been investigated in a small subset of peripheral neuropathies, including an acute one, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 3 chronic forms: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and neuropathy associated with IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein. Several experimental studies and clinical data are strongly suggestive of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Either cell-mediated mechanisms or antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin, or nodal antigens are considered to act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Immunomodulatory treatments used in these neuropathies aim to act at various steps of this pathogenic process. However, there are many phenotypic variants and, consequently, there is a significant difference in the response to immunotherapy between these neuropathies, as well as a need to improve our knowledge and long-term management of chronic forms.

  12. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010. Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review. We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 70 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents, bypass surgery, cilostazol, exercise, pentoxifylline, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), prostaglandins, smoking cessation, and statins. PMID:21477401

  13. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009. (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 59 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents; bypass surgery; cilostazol; exercise; pentoxifylline; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); prostaglandins; smoking cessation; and statins. PMID:19454099

  14. Peripherally induced oromandibular dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, C.; Lai, E.; Jankovic, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth, jaw, and tongue movements. Dystonia is usually idiopathic (primary), but in some cases it follows peripheral injury. Peripherally induced cervical and limb dystonia is well recognised, and the aim of this study was to characterise peripherally induced OMD.
METHODS—The following inclusion criteria were used for peripherally induced OMD: (1) the onset of the dystonia was within a few days or months (up to 1 year) after the injury; (2) the trauma was well documented by the patient's history or a review of their medical and dental records; and (3) the onset of dystonia was anatomically related to the site of injury (facial and oral).
RESULTS—Twenty seven patients were identified in the database with OMD, temporally and anatomically related to prior injury or surgery. No additional precipitant other than trauma could be detected. None of the patients had any litigation pending. The mean age at onset was 50.11 (SD 14.15) (range 23-74) years and there was a 2:1 female preponderance. Mean latency between the initial trauma and the onset of OMD was 65 days (range 1 day-1 year). Ten (37%) patients had some evidence of predisposing factors such as family history of movement disorders, prior exposure to neuroleptic drugs, and associated dystonia affecting other regions or essential tremor. When compared with 21 patients with primary OMD, there was no difference for age at onset, female preponderance, and phenomenology. The frequency of dystonic writer's cramp, spasmodic dysphonia, bruxism, essential tremor, and family history of movement disorder, however, was lower in the post-traumatic group (p<0.05). In both groups the response to botulinum toxin treatment was superior to medical therapy (p<0.005). Surgical intervention for temporomandibular disorders was more frequent in the post-traumatic group and was associated with

  15. Serotonin transporter gene promoter methylation in peripheral cells in healthy adults: Neural correlates and tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    Ismaylova, Elmira; Di Sante, Jessica; Szyf, Moshe; Nemoda, Zsofia; Yu, Wei-Jo; Pomares, Florence B; Turecki, Gustavo; Gobbi, Gabriella; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Early adversity can influence gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation. Peripheral tissues are essential in psychiatric epigenetics, as methylation generally cannot be assessed in the living human brain. Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show associations of peripheral serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) methylation with function and/or structure of frontal-limbic circuits and brain's resting-state. Commonly used samples are derived from blood, saliva or buccal cells. However, little is known regarding which peripheral tissue is most strongly associated with human brain processes. The aim of the current study was to compare the extent of the association between peripheral SLC6A4 promoter methylation and frontal-limbic function, structure and resting-state in healthy individuals across peripheral tissues. Forty healthy prospectively-followed adults underwent anatomical, resting-state and functional MRI. Saliva-, blood- and buccal-derived DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Blood-derived SLC6A4 methylation was positively associated with superior frontal gray matter (GM) volume and with right lateral parietal area (RLP)-frontal pole regional resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Saliva-derived SLC6A4 methylation was positively associated with superior frontal GM volume. Buccal-derived SLC6A4 methylation was positively associated with superior and inferior frontal and anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) GM volumes, and with RLP-ACC, frontal pole and medial prefrontal regional rsFC. Current results confirmed the relevance of peripheral methylation for frontal-limbic processes in humans. Buccal cells may be the most sensitive cell type when studying SLC6A4 promoter methylation and its associated risk for neural vulnerability and resilience for psychopathologies in which serotonin is implicated. These data should be further validated in clinical populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights

  16. Peripheral vision displays: The future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assenhein, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of research relating to peripheral vision displays used by aircraft pilots are outlined: fiber optics, display color, and holography. Various capacities and specifications of gas and solid state lasers are enumerated. These lasers are potential sources of green light for the peripheral vision displays. The relative radiance required for rod and cone vision at different wavelengths is presented graphically. Calculated and measured retinal sensitivities (foveal and peripheral) are given for wavelength produced by various lasers.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells derived from the peripheral blood of halfpipe- snowboarding athletes display specific functional properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Kan, J C; Wang, Y F; Guan, W J; Zhu, Z Q

    2016-12-19

    In this study, we compared the functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from halfpipe-snowboarding athletes who train under hyperoxic conditions with those derived from normal subjects who lived under normoxic conditions. Peripheral blood-derived EPCs were isolated from both halfpipe-snowboarding athletes and normal humans. Cellular growth dynamics, lipoprotein transport, and gene expression of cultured EPCs were compared between the two groups of cells. Results indicate that cytoactivity of EPCs from athletes was higher than that of EPCs from control subjects. This study suggests that function of EPCs from snowboarding athletes may be better than that of EPCs from normal humans, which demonstrates the benefits of training under hyperoxic conditions.

  18. Peripheral arylation of subporphyrazines.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Rodríguez-Morgade, M Salomé; Osuka, Atsuhiro; Torres, Tomás

    2013-07-29

    Peripherally hexaarylated subporphyrazines (SubPzs) have been prepared through a Pd-catalyzed, CuTC-mediated coupling of a hexaethylsulfanylated subporphyrazine with arylboronic acids. The introduced aryl substituents strongly influence the electronic properties of the subporphyrazine through effective conjugative interaction. Aryl rings endowed with π-electron-donating groups at the para positions produce a remarkable perturbation of the electron density of the SubPz macrocycle. This is reflected through significant redshifts of the SubPz CT and Q-bands, together with increase of the molar absorptivity of the former, with respect to those exhibited by the hexaphenyl-SubPz 2 a. Moreover, the trend in the first SubPz reduction potentials correlates with the Hammett constants (σp ) corresponding to the para substituents of the aryl. The domed, extended SubPz π-system self-assembles in the solid state to form a dimeric capsule that houses a solvent molecule.

  19. Use of peripheral blood for production of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos by handmade cloning.

    PubMed

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Nala, Narendra; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P

    2016-09-15

    Buffalo embryos were produced by handmade cloning using peripheral blood-derived lymphocytes as donor cells. Although the blastocyst rate was lower (P < 0.01) for lymphocyte- than control skin fibroblast-derived embryos (6.6 ± 0.84% vs. 31.15 ± 2.97%), the total cell number (152.6 ± 23.06 vs. 160.1 ± 13.25) and apoptotic index (6.54 ± 0.95 vs. 8.45 ± 1.32) were similar. The global level of H3K9ac was higher (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte- than that in skin-derived blastocysts; whereas in IVF blastocysts, the level was not significantly different from the two cloned groups. The level of H3K27me3 was similar among the three groups. The expression level of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1, and IGF-1R was higher (P < 0.01) in lymphocytes than that in skin fibroblasts. The expression level of CDX2 was higher (P < 0.05) than that of DNMT3a, IGF-1R, OCT4, and NANOG was lower (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte-derived than in IVF blastocysts; that of DNMT1 and HDAC1 was similar in the two groups. The expression level of all these genes, except that of NANOG, was lower (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte- than in skin fibroblast-derived blastocysts. It is concluded that, peripheral blood-derived lymphocytes can be used for producing handmade cloning embryos in bubaline buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral Refraction, Peripheral Eye Length, and Retinal Shape in Myopia.

    PubMed

    Verkicharla, Pavan K; Suheimat, Marwan; Schmid, Katrina L; Atchison, David A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate how peripheral refraction and peripheral eye length are related to retinal shape. Relative peripheral refraction (RPR) and relative peripheral eye length (RPEL) were determined in 36 young adults (M +0.75D to -5.25D) along horizontal and vertical visual field meridians out to ±35° and ±30°, respectively. Retinal shape was determined in terms of vertex radius of curvature Rv, asphericity Q, and equivalent radius of curvature REq using a partial coherence interferometry method involving peripheral eye lengths and model eye raytracing. Second-order polynomial fits were applied to RPR and RPEL as functions of visual field position. Linear regressions were determined for the fits' second order coefficients and for retinal shape estimates as functions of central spherical refraction. Linear regressions investigated relationships of RPR and RPEL with retinal shape estimates. Peripheral refraction, peripheral eye lengths, and retinal shapes were significantly affected by meridian and refraction. More positive (hyperopic) relative peripheral refraction, more negative RPELs, and steeper retinas were found along the horizontal than along the vertical meridian and in myopes than in emmetropes. RPR and RPEL, as represented by their second-order fit coefficients, correlated significantly with retinal shape represented by REq. Effects of meridian and refraction on RPR and RPEL patterns are consistent with effects on retinal shape. Patterns derived from one of these predict the others: more positive (hyperopic) RPR predicts more negative RPEL and steeper retinas, more negative RPEL predicts more positive relative peripheral refraction and steeper retinas, and steeper retinas derived from peripheral eye lengths predict more positive RPR.

  1. VCAM-1 expression on dystrophic muscle vessels has a critical role in the recruitment of human blood-derived CD133+ stem cells after intra-arterial transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gavina, Manuela; Belicchi, Marzia; Rossi, Barbara; Ottoboni, Linda; Colombo, Fabio; Meregalli, Mirella; Battistelli, Maurizio; Forzenigo, Laura; Biondetti, Piero; Pisati, Federica; Parolini, Daniele; Farini, Andrea; Issekutz, Andrew C; Bresolin, Nereo; Rustichelli, Franco; Constantin, Gabriela; Torrente, Yvan

    2006-10-15

    Recently our group demonstrated the myogenic capacity of human CD133(+) cells isolated from peripheral blood when delivered in vivo through the arterial circulation into the muscle of dystrophic scid/mdx mice. CD133(+) stem cells express the adhesion molecules CD44, LFA-1, PSGL-1, alpha4-integrins, L-selectin, and chemokine receptor CCR7. Moreover these cells adhere in vitro to VCAM-1 spontaneously and after stimulation with CCL19. Importantly, after muscle exercise, we found that the expression of VCAM-1 is strongly up-regulated in dystrophic muscle vessels, whereas the number of rolling and firmly adhered CD133(+) stem cells significantly increased. Moreover, human dystrophin expression was significantly increased when muscle exercise was performed 24 hours before the intra-arterial injection of human CD133(+) cells. Finally, treatment of exercised dystrophic mice with anti-VCAM-1 antibodies led to a dramatic blockade of CD133(+) stem cell migration into the dystrophic muscle. Our results show for the first time that the expression of VCAM-1 on dystrophic muscle vessels induced by exercise controls muscle homing of human CD133(+) stem cells, opening new perspectives for a potential therapy of muscular dystrophy based on the intra-arterial delivery of CD133(+) stem cells.

  2. Antibodies binding granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor produced by cord blood-derived B cell lines immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Revoltella, R P; Laricchia Robbio, L; Liberati, A M; Reato, G; Foa, R; Funaro, A; Vinante, F; Pizzolo, G

    2000-09-15

    We detected natural antibodies (auto-Abs) binding human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in umbilical cord blood (CB) (23 of 94 samples screened) and peripheral blood of women at the end of pregnancy (6 of 42 samples tested). To demonstrate that Abs detected in CB were produced by the fetus, CB mononuclear cells were infected with Epstein-Barr virus in vitro. Ten cell lines producing constitutively anti-recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) Abs were isolated and characterized. These cells displayed a male karyotype, an early activated B cell phenotype, coexpressed surface IgM and IgD, and secreted only IgM with prevailing lambda clonal restriction. Specific cell surface binding of biotinylated rhGM-CSF and high-level anti-rhGM-CSF IgM Ab production were typical features of early cell cultures. In late cell passages the frequency of more undifferentiated B cells increased. Serum Abs of either maternal or fetal origin or Abs produced in culture did not affect the granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating activity of rhGM-CSF from bone marrow progenitors in soft agar, suggesting that the Abs produced were nonneutralizing.

  3. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Xu, Jun-jun; Deng, Zhi-hong; Feng, Jie; Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs) were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs). Results showed these pbMNCs were fibroblast-like, had stromal morphology, were negative for CD34 and CD45, but positive for Vimentin and Collagen I, and had the multipotency to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. We named these induced peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ipbMSCs). Skin grafts in combination with ipbMSCs and collagen I were applied for wound healing, and results revealed ipbMSC exhibited similar potency and effectiveness in the promotion of wound healing to the bmMSCs. Hereafter, we speculate that the mixture of growth factors and chemokines secreted by bmMSCs may play an important roles in the induction of the proliferation and mesenchymal differentiation of mononuclear cells. Our results are clinically relevant because it provide a new method for the acquisition of MSCs which can be used as a candidate for the wound repair. PMID:21494428

  4. Peripheral Polyneuropathy and Mefloquine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Alexander C.; Sandroni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a woman who developed a peripheral polyneuropathy shortly after completing 4 weekly doses of mefloquine hydrochloride (250 mg) malaria prophylaxis. Although mefloquine-related central nervous system neuropathy is well described in the literature, peripheral polyneuropathy similar to this case has been documented only once before, to our knowledge. PMID:22144435

  5. CpG-C ISS-ODN activation of blood-derived B cells from healthy and chronic immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Teleshova, N; Kenney, J; Williams, V; Van Nest, G; Marshall, J; Lifson, J D; Sivin, I; Dufour, J; Bohm, R; Gettie, A; Pope, M

    2006-02-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine class C (CpG-C) immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotides (ISS-ODNs) activate human B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), properties that suggest potential use as a novel adjuvant to enhance vaccine efficacy. After demonstrating that the CpG-C ISS-ODN C274 activates macaque DCs, we examined in vitro activation of macaque B cells by C274 as a prelude to evaluation of this molecule as an adjuvant in the testing of candidate human immunodeficiency virus vaccines in the rhesus macaque-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model. C274 induced macaque CD20(+) B cells to proliferate more strongly than CD40 ligand or CpG-B ISS-ODN. C274 enhanced B cell survival; increased viability was most evident after 3-7 days of culture. Increased expression of CD40, CD80, and CD86 by B cells was apparent within 24 h of exposure to C274 and persisted for up to 1 week. C274-stimulated, B cell-enriched and peripheral blood mononuclear cell suspensions from naïve and immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys secreted several cytokines [e.g., interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-12, interferon-alpha] and chemokines [e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha/CCL3, IL-8/CXC chemokine ligand 8]. In comparison, exposure of macaque B cells to SIV had minimal impact on surface phenotype, despite inducing cytokine and chemokine production in cells from infected and uninfected animals. These observations emphasize the need to identify strategies to optimally boost immune function, as immunodeficiency viruses themselves only partially activate B cells and DCs. The ability of C274 to stimulate B cells and DCs in healthy and infected monkeys suggests its possible use as a broad-acting adjuvant to be applied in the rhesus macaque model for the development of preventative and therapeutic vaccines.

  6. Correction of aberrant NADPH oxidase activity in blood-derived mononuclear cells from type II diabetes mellitus patients by a naturally fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Ryan; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Gnyawali, Urmila; Lynch, Debbie; Gordillo, Gayle M; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame; Roy, Sashwati

    2012-08-01

    Supplementation of standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) to adult diabetic mice improves dermal wound healing outcomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients elicit a compromised respiratory burst activity resulting in increased risk of infections for the diabetic patients. The objectives of the current study were to determine the effect of FPP supplementation on human diabetic PBMC respiratory burst activity and to understand underlying mechanisms of such action of FPP. When stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the production of reactive oxygen species by T2DM PBMC was markedly compromised compared to that of the PBMC from non-DM donors. FPP treated ex vivo improved respiratory burst outcomes in T2DM PBMC. FPP treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2 was potently upregulated after FPP supplemention. The proximal human Rac2 gene promoter is G-C rich and contains consensus binding sites for Sp1 and AP-1. While FPP had no significant effect on the AP-1 DNA binding activity, the Sp1 DNA binding activity was significantly upregulated in PBMC after treatment of the cells with FPP. This work provided first evidence that compromised respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC may be corrected by a nutritional supplement. FPP can correct respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC via an Sp-1-dependant pathway. Studies testing the outcome of FPP supplementation in diabetic patients are warranted.

  7. Correction of Aberrant NADPH Oxidase Activity in Blood-Derived Mononuclear Cells from Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients by a Naturally Fermented Papaya Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Ryan; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Gnyawali, Urmila; Lynch, Debbie; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Supplementation of standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) to adult diabetic mice improves dermal wound healing outcomes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients elicit a compromised respiratory burst activity resulting in increased risk of infections for the diabetic patients. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to determine the effect of FPP supplementation on human diabetic PBMC respiratory burst activity and to understand underlying mechanisms of such action of FPP. Results: When stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the production of reactive oxygen species by T2DM PBMC was markedly compromised compared to that of the PBMC from non-DM donors. FPP treated ex vivo improved respiratory burst outcomes in T2DM PBMC. FPP treatment significantly increased phosphorylation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase. In addition, the protein and mRNA expression of Rac2 was potently upregulated after FPP supplemention. The proximal human Rac2 gene promoter is G–C rich and contains consensus binding sites for Sp1 and AP-1. While FPP had no significant effect on the AP-1 DNA binding activity, the Sp1 DNA binding activity was significantly upregulated in PBMC after treatment of the cells with FPP. Innovation: This work provided first evidence that compromised respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC may be corrected by a nutritional supplement. Conclusion: FPP can correct respiratory burst performance of T2DM PBMC via an Sp-1-dependant pathway. Studies testing the outcome of FPP supplementation in diabetic patients are warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 485–491. PMID:22369197

  8. A practical and efficient cellular substrate for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from adults: blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Geti, Imbisaat; Ormiston, Mark L; Rouhani, Foad; Toshner, Mark; Movassagh, Mehregan; Nichols, Jennifer; Mansfield, William; Southwood, Mark; Bradley, Allan; Rana, Amer Ahmed; Vallier, Ludovic; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2012-12-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to generate patient-specific tissues for disease modeling and regenerative medicine applications. However, before iPSC technology can progress to the translational phase, several obstacles must be overcome. These include uncertainty regarding the ideal somatic cell type for reprogramming, the low kinetics and efficiency of reprogramming, and karyotype discrepancies between iPSCs and their somatic precursors. Here we describe the use of late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (L-EPCs), which possess several favorable characteristics, as a cellular substrate for the generation of iPSCs. We have developed a protocol that allows the reliable isolation of L-EPCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations, including frozen samples. As a proof-of-principle for clinical applications we generated EPC-iPSCs from both healthy individuals and patients with heritable and idiopathic forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. L-EPCs grew clonally; were highly proliferative, passageable, and bankable; and displayed higher reprogramming kinetics and efficiencies compared with dermal fibroblasts. Unlike fibroblasts, the high efficiency of L-EPC reprogramming allowed for the reliable generation of iPSCs in a 96-well format, which is compatible with high-throughput platforms. Array comparative genome hybridization analysis of L-EPCs versus donor-matched circulating monocytes demonstrated that L-EPCs have normal karyotypes compared with their subject's reference genome. In addition, >80% of EPC-iPSC lines tested did not acquire any copy number variations during reprogramming compared with their parent L-EPC line. This work identifies L-EPCs as a practical and efficient cellular substrate for iPSC generation, with the potential to address many of the factors currently limiting the translation of this technology.

  9. Adult and umbilical cord blood-derived platelet-rich plasma for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and cryo-preservation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Matthew B; Blashki, Daniel; Buchanan, Rachel M; Yazdi, Iman K; Ferrari, Mauro; Simmons, Paul J; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2012-07-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from human adult peripheral blood and from human umbilical cord (uc) blood and the properties were compared in a series of in vitro bioassays. Quantification of growth factors in PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) fractions revealed increased levels of mitogenic growth factors PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, and FGF-2, the angiogenic agent VEGF and the chemokine RANTES in ucPRP compared to adult PRP (aPRP) and PPP. To compare the ability of the various PRP products to stimulate proliferation of human bone marrow (BM), rat BM and compact bone (CB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), cells were cultured in serum-free media for 4 and 7 days with varying concentrations of PRP, PPP, or combinations of recombinant mitogens. It was found that while all forms of PRP and PPP were more mitogenic than fetal bovine serum, ucPRP resulted in significantly higher proliferation by 7 days than adult PRP and PPP. We observed that addition of as little as 0.1% ucPRP caused greater proliferation of MSC effects than the most potent combination of recombinant growth factors tested, namely PDGF-AB + PDGF-BB + FGF-2, each at 10 ng/mL. Similarly, in chemotaxis assays, ucPRP showed greater potency than adult PRP, PPP from either source, or indeed than combinations of either recombinant growth factors (PDGF, FGF, and TGF-β1) or chemokines previously shown to stimulate chemotactic migration of MSC. Lastly, we successfully demonstrated that PRP and PPP represented a viable alternative to FBS containing media for the cryo-preservation of MSC from human and rat BM.

  10. Adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells transdifferentiate in vitro and integrate into the retina in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Guan, Liping; Huang, Bing; Li, Weihua; Su, Qiao; Yu, Minbin; Xu, Xiaoping; Luo, Ting; Lin, Shaochun; Sun, Xuerong; Chen, Mengfei; Chen, Xigu

    2011-06-01

    Adult peripheral blood-derived cells are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including nerve cells, liver-like cells and epithelial cells. However, their differentiation into retina-like cells is controversial. In the present study, transdifferentiation potential of human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells into retina-like cells and integration into the retina of mice were investigated. Freshly isolated adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells were divided into two groups: cells in group I were cultured in neural stem cell medium, and cells in group II were exposed to conditioned medium from rat retinal tissue culture. After 5 days, several distinct cell morphologies were observed, including standard mononuclear, neurons with one or two axons and elongated glial-like cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of neural stem cell, neuron and retina cell markers demonstrated that cells in both groups were nestin-, MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein)- and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive. Flow cytometry results suggested a significant increase in nestin-, MAP2- and CD16-positive cells in group I and nestin-, GFAP-, MAP2-, vimentin- and rhodopsin-positive cells in group II. To determine survival, migration and integration in vivo, cell suspensions (containing group I or group II cells) were injected into the vitreous or the peritoneum. Tissue specimens were obtained and immunostained 4 weeks after transplantation. We found that cells delivered by intravitreal injection integrated into the retina. Labelled cells were not detected in the retina of mice receiving differentiated cells by intraperitoneal injection, but cells (groups I and II) were detected in the liver and spleen. Our findings revealed that human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be induced to transdifferentiate into neural precursor cells and retinal progenitor cells in vitro, and the differentiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can migrate and integrate

  11. Mechanisms of peripheral fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T

    1990-08-01

    Fatigue can be defined as the failure to maintain an expected power output. This is often an antecedent to some sports-related injury. It is important for those involved in physical performance to be familiar with the variety of mechanisms which can lead to fatigue. All too often, a single factor is described as the cause of fatigue when actually fatigue may be a combination of factors that contribute to the sequence of events that results in decreased performance. It may be suggested that every step in the chain of events that leads to voluntary contraction of skeletal muscle could be a culprit in fatigue. Peripheral sites and processes include the motor neuron, neuromuscular junction, sarcolemmal membrane, excitation-contraction coupling, accumulation of metabolites, or depletion of fuels. Physical training is frequently designed to delay the onset of fatigue. The actual mechanism(s) add to the specificity concept, that is, a "specificity of fatigue". To the performer, the end result is the same, the inability to maintain his or her expected level of performance or power output.

  12. Peripheral Vision Varies from Person to Person

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164630.html Peripheral Vision Varies From Person to Person And 'bad spots' ... left side? A bad spot in your peripheral vision may be to blame. Peripheral vision is the ...

  13. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  14. Peripheral bone densitometry: Clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Eis, Sergio Ragi; Lewiecki, E Michael

    2006-08-01

    Technologies for the measurement of bone mineral density and other parameters of bone strength at peripheral skeletal sites have been studied since the 1960s. Single-energy Photon Absorptiometry (SPA), Radiographic Absorptiometry (RA), Radiogrametry (RG), Single-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (SXA), Peripheral Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (pDXA), and Quantitative Ultrasonometry (QUS) have been successively evaluated. These technologies and their clinical applications are discussed in this article. The available scientific evidence supports the clinical use of these technologies at peripheral skeletal for assessment of fracture risk. Peripheral measurements other than the 33% (one-third) radius by DXA cannot be used to diagnose osteoporosis according to current standards. Peripheral skeletal sites are not clinically useful for monitoring changes in BMD with natural evolution of the disease and its treatment. Peripheral BMD measurement can theoretically be used to screen patients for selection to central DXA testing, although device-specific cut-points should be developed before this is implemented. When central DXA testing is not available, peripheral BMD testing may be considered to identify individuals who might benefit from pharmacological intervention.

  15. Peripheral nerve surgery.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, I G

    1985-05-01

    In treating the three main surgical problems of peripheral nerves--nerve sheath tumors, entrapment neuropathies, and acute nerve injuries--the overriding consideration is the preservation and restoration of neurologic function. Because of this, certain other principles may need to be compromised. These include achieving a gross total excision of benign tumors, employing conservative therapy as long as a disease process is not clearly progressing, and delaying repair of a nerve transection until the skin wound has healed. Only three pathophysiologic processes need be considered: neurapraxia (focal segmental dymyelination), axonotmesis (wallerian degeneration caused by a lesion that does not disrupt fascicles of nerve fibers), and neurotmesis (wallerian degeneration caused by a lesion that interrupts fascicles). With nerve sheath tumors and entrapment neuropathies, the goal is minimize the extent to which neurapraxia progresses to axonotmesis. The compressive force is relieved without carrying out internal neurolysis, a procedure that is poorly tolerated, presumably because a degree of nerve ischemia exists with any long-standing compression. When the nerve has sustained blunt trauma (through acute compression, percussion, or traction), the result can be a total loss of function and an extensive neuroma-in-continuity (scarring within the nerve). However, the neural pathophysiology may amount to nothing more than axonotmesis. Although this lesion, in time, leads to full and spontaneous recovery, it must be differentiated from the neuroma-in-continuity that contains disrupted fascicles requiring surgery. Finally, with open nerve transection, the priority is to match the fascicles of the proximal stump with those of the distal stump, a goal that is best achieved if primary neurorrhaphy is carried out.

  16. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Visiting Your Doctor Evaluation + Tests Autonomic Testing Nerve/Skin/Muscle Biopsy Computerized Axial Tomography Scan (CAT) Electrodiagnostic Testing Lumbar Puncture Imaging Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) Peripheral Neuropathy ...

  17. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... registry health exam . Research on peripheral neuropathy and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... acute or subacute onset may be associated with herbicide exposure. Based on this evidence, VA presumed an ...

  18. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... sensation or freezing pain Sharp, jabbing, shooting, or electric-like pain Extreme sensitivity to touch Difficulty sleeping ... damaged. There are three types of peripheral nerves: motor, sensory and autonomic. Some neuropathies affect all three ...

  19. Peripheral neuropathy in mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Moroni, Isabella; Salsano, Ettore; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-10-01

    Why is peripheral neuropathy common but mild in many mitochondrial disorders, and why is it, in some cases, the predominant or only manifestation? Although this question remains largely unanswered, recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have begun to clarify the importance of mitochondrial functioning and distribution in the peripheral nerve. Mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics (ie, fusion and fission) frequently result in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype. Peripheral neuropathies with different phenotypic presentations occur in mitochondrial diseases associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA replication and maintenance, or associated with defects in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V. Our knowledge of mitochondrial disorders is rapidly growing as new nuclear genes are identified and new phenotypes described. Early diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, essential to provide appropriate genetic counselling, has become crucial in a few treatable conditions. Recognising and diagnosing an underlying mitochondrial defect in patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy is therefore of paramount importance.

  20. Mitochondrial dynamics and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Baloh, Robert H

    2008-02-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is perhaps the archetypal disease of axonal degeneration, characteristically involving degeneration of the longest axons in the body. Evidence from both inherited and acquired forms of peripheral neuropathy strongly supports that the primary pathology is in the axons themselves and points to disruption of axonal transport as an important disease mechanism. Recent studies in human genetics have further identified abnormalities in mitochondrial dynamics--the fusion, fission, and movement of mitochondria--as a player in the pathogenesis of inherited peripheral neuropathy. This review provides an update on the mechanisms of mitochondrial trafficking in axons and the emerging relationship between the disruption of mitochondrial dynamics and axonal degeneration. Evidence suggests mitochondria are a "critical cargo" whose transport is necessary for proper axonal and synaptic function. Importantly, understanding the regulation of mitochondrial movement and the consequences of decreased axonal mitochondrial function may define new paths for therapeutic agents in peripheral neuropathy and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Peripheral nerve injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Hainline, Brian W

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss peripheral nerve injuries in sport and to discuss such injuries within the context of their mechanisms of action. This review is based on the author's personal experience combined with analysis of pertinent articles and reviews. Peripheral nerve injuries are uncommon in sport, but represent a potentially serious cause of morbidity to the athlete. Although making a diagnosis of the involved peripheral nerve is not necessarily difficult for the practicing neurologist, it is critical to always place peripheral nerve injury in sport within the context of sports medicine. Nerve injuries do not occur in isolation, but rather are intertwined with the conditioning of the athlete, the biomechanics of the sport, and the use of protective equipment. In assessing peripheral nerve injuries in sport, it is not enough to simply make a diagnosis of the involved nerve; the physician must also assess whether the nerve became injured through a process of direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. Diagnosing sports-related peripheral nerve injuries within the context of their mechanism of action better allows for the possibility of functional rehabilitation.

  2. Gene expression analysis of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymphoblastoid cell lines from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Barb, Jennifer J.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Poching; Woodhouse, Kimberly A.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Munson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of reports of gene expression analysis from blood-derived RNA sources, there have been few systematic comparisons of various RNA sources in transcriptomic analysis or for biomarker discovery in the context of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As a pilot study of the Systems Approach to Biomarker Research (SABRe) in CVD Initiative, this investigation used Affymetrix Exon arrays to characterize gene expression of three blood-derived RNA sources: lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), whole blood using PAXgene tubes (PAX), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Their performance was compared in relation to identifying transcript associations with sex and CVD risk factors, such as age, high-density lipoprotein, and smoking status, and the differential blood cell count. We also identified a set of exons that vary substantially between participants, but consistently in each RNA source. Such exons are thus stable phenotypes of the participant and may potentially become useful fingerprinting biomarkers. In agreement with previous studies, we found that each of the RNA sources is distinct. Unlike PAX and PBMC, LCL gene expression showed little association with the differential blood count. LCL, however, was able to detect two genes related to smoking status. PAX and PBMC identified Y-chromosome probe sets similarly and slightly better than LCL. PMID:22045913

  3. Peripheral facial nerve palsy after therapeutic endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

  4. Adaptive optics for peripheral vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, R.; Lundström, L.; Unsbo, P.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding peripheral optical errors and their impact on vision is important for various applications, e.g. research on myopia development and optical correction of patients with central visual field loss. In this study, we investigated whether correction of higher order aberrations with adaptive optics (AO) improve resolution beyond what is achieved with best peripheral refractive correction. A laboratory AO system was constructed for correcting peripheral aberrations. The peripheral low contrast grating resolution acuity in the 20° nasal visual field of the right eye was evaluated for 12 subjects using three types of correction: refractive correction of sphere and cylinder, static closed loop AO correction and continuous closed loop AO correction. Running AO in continuous closed loop improved acuity compared to refractive correction for most subjects (maximum benefit 0.15 logMAR). The visual improvement from aberration correction was highly correlated with the subject's initial amount of higher order aberrations (p = 0.001, R 2 = 0.72). There was, however, no acuity improvement from static AO correction. In conclusion, correction of peripheral higher order aberrations can improve low contrast resolution, provided refractive errors are corrected and the system runs in continuous closed loop.

  5. Mitochondrial dynamics in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Sajic, Marija

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics describes the continuous change in the position, size, and shape of mitochondria within cells. The morphological and functional complexity of neurons, the remarkable length of their processes, and the rapid changes in metabolic requirements arising from their intrinsic excitability render these cells particularly dependent on effective mitochondrial function and positioning. The rules that govern these changes and their functional significance are not fully understood, yet the dysfunction of mitochondrial dynamics has been implicated as a pathogenetic factor in a number of diseases, including disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In recent years, a number of mutations of genes encoding proteins that play important roles in mitochondrial dynamics and function have been discovered in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary peripheral neuropathy. These findings have directly linked mitochondrial pathology to the pathology of peripheral nerve and have identified certain aspects of mitochondrial dynamics as potential early events in the pathogenesis of CMT. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction has now been implicated in the pathogenesis of noninherited neuropathies, including diabetic and inflammatory neuropathies. The role of mitochondria in peripheral nerve diseases has been mostly examined in vitro, and less so in animal models. This review examines available evidence for the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies, their relevance in human diseases, and future challenges for research in this field.

  6. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  7. PERIPHERAL MECHANISMS IN APPETITE REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral mechanisms in appetite regulation include the motor functions of the stomach, such as the rate of emptying and accommodation, which convey symptoms of satiation to the brain. The rich repertoire of peripherally released peptides and hormones provides feedback from the arrival of nutrients in different regions of the gut from where they are released to exert effects on satiation, or regulate metabolism through their incretin effects. Ultimately, these peripheral factors provide input to the highly organized hypothalamic circuitry and vagal complex of nuclei to determine cessation of energy intake during meal ingestion, and the return of appetite and hunger after fasting. Understanding these mechanisms is key to the physiological control of feeding and the derangements that occur in obesity and their restoration with treatment (as demonstrated by the effects of bariatric surgery). PMID:25241326

  8. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Peripheral Nerves.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zarina S; Pisapia, Jared M; Ma, Tracy S; Zager, Eric L; Heuer, Gregory G; Khoury, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of imaging modalities for evaluation of peripheral nerves. Of these, ultrasonography (US) is often underused. There are several advantages of this imaging modality, including its cost-effectiveness, time-efficient assessment of long segments of peripheral nerves, ability to perform dynamic maneuvers, lack of contraindications, portability, and noninvasiveness. It can provide diagnostic information that cannot be obtained by electrophysiologic or, in some cases, magnetic resonance imaging studies. Ideally, the neurosurgeon can use US as a diagnostic adjunct in the preoperative assessment of a patient with traumatic, neoplastic, infective, or compressive nerve injury. Perhaps its most unique use is in intraoperative surgical planning. In this article, a brief description of normal US nerve anatomy is presented followed by a description of the US appearance of peripheral nerve disease caused by trauma, tumor, infection, and entrapment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pleiotrophin and peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Jianghai, Chen; Juan, Liu; Hao, Kang

    2009-10-01

    The proto-oncogene pleiotrophin, discovered in 1989, was considered as a multifunctional growth factor, which played an important role in tumor occurrence, development, and central nervous system. The latest research showed that pleiotrophin signal pathway probably participated in neural repair after peripheral nerve injury, especially in the following critical points, such as the protection of spinal cord neuron, the promotion of the speed of neuron axon regeneration, the guidance of neuron axon regeneration, skeleton muscle reinnervation, and so on. It potentially plays a key role in the guidance of neural axon regeneration in peripheral nervous system and muscle reinnervation. With the deepening of related researches, pleiotrophin gene would become a controllable target for improving the repairing effect of peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction of the neuromuscular junction.

  10. Peripheral mechanisms in appetite regulation.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral mechanisms in appetite regulation include the motor functions of the stomach, such as the rate of emptying and accommodation, which convey symptoms of satiation to the brain. The rich repertoire of peripherally released peptides and hormones provides feedback from the arrival of nutrients in different regions of the gut from where they are released to exert effects on satiation, or regulate metabolism through their incretin effects. Ultimately, these peripheral factors provide input to the highly organized hypothalamic circuitry and vagal complex of nuclei to determine cessation of energy intake during meal ingestion, and the return of appetite and hunger after fasting. Understanding these mechanisms is key to the physiological control of feeding and the derangements that occur in obesity and their restoration with treatment (as shown by the effects of bariatric surgery). Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac Involvement in Peripheral Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; AlMahameed, Soufian

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the least recognized and understood complication of peripheral neuropathy. However, because of its potential adverse effects including sudden death, CAN is one of the most important forms of autonomic neuropathies. CAN presents with different clinical manifestations including postural hypotension, exercise intolerance, fluctuation of blood pressure and heart rate, arrhythmia, and increased risk of myocardial infarction. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of cardiac involvement in certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy, hereditary neuropathies, and amyloid neuropathy are examined in detail.

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma cells express the macrophage-associated antigen mannose receptor and develop in peripheral blood cultures of Kaposi's sarcoma patients.

    PubMed Central

    Uccini, S.; Sirianni, M. C.; Vincenzi, L.; Topino, S.; Stoppacciaro, A.; Lesnoni La Parola, I.; Capuano, M.; Masini, C.; Cerimele, D.; Cella, M.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Allavena, P.; Mantovani, A.; Baroni, C. D.; Ruco, L. P.

    1997-01-01

    The mannose receptor (MR) is a surface 175-kd C-type lectin expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells. MR is involved in removal of effete cells, phagocytosis of mannose-coated particles, pinocytosis, and antigen presentation. Expression of MR was investigated in 17 biopsies of Kaposi's sarcoma (3 AIDS KS, 13 classical KS, and 1 transplant-associated KS) using three anti-MR monoclonal antibodies (3.29, D547, and PAM1). Immunostaining for MR was detected in 94 +/- 7% KS cells with spindle morphology. In normal tissues, MR was expressed by sinus-lining cells of spleen and lymph nodes, but it was not detected in endothelial cells lining normal hematic and lymphatic vessels, hemangioma, hemangioendothelioma, and lymphangioma. Expression of MR in KS cells prompted us to investigate the possibility that they derive from a circulating precursor cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 patients with KS (10 classical, 1 transplanted, and 5 AIDS) were cultured in PHA-conditioned medium for 10 to 14 days. Confluent monolayers of adherent spindle cells were detected in 8 of 11 classical KS, in 5 of 5 AIDS KS patients, and in 0 of 34 control patients. Peripheral-blood-derived KS-like cells were characterized by co-expression of macrophage and endothelial antigens being positive for CD45 (60%), CD68 (98%), MR (70%), CD14 (25%), VE-cadherin (70%), and von Willebrand factor (10%). When the immunophenotype of peripheral-blood-derived adherent cells was compared with that of KS spindle cells of tissue biopsies, it was found that both cell types are VE-cadherin+/MR+/CD68+, that peripheral-blood-derived spindle cells are CD34- and are less frequently stained for CD31 and von Willebrand factor, and that lesional KS cells do not express the leukocyte markers CD45 and CD18. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that KS lesions derive from tissue accumulation and local proliferation of a special subset of macrophages with endothelial features the normal counterpart

  13. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral catheterization].

    PubMed

    Salleras-Duran, Laia; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral catheterization is a technique that can be difficult in some patients. Some studies have recently described the use of ultrasound to guide the venous catheterization. To describe the success rate, time required, complications of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization. and patients and professionals satisfaction The search was performed in databases (Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Cuiden Plus) for studies published about ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization performed on patients that provided results on the success of the technique, complications, time used, patient satisfaction and the type of professional who performed the technique. A total of 21 studies were included. Most of them get a higher success rate 80% in the catheterization ecoguide and time it is not higher than the traditional technique. The Technical complications analyzed were arterial puncture rates and lower nerve 10%. In all studies measuring and comparing patient satisfaction in the art ecoguide is greater. Various professional groups perform the technique. The use of ultrasound for peripheral pipes has a high success rate, complications are rare and the time used is similar to that of the traditional technique. The technique of inserting catheters through ultrasound may be learned by any professional group performing venipuncture. Finally, it gets underscores the high patient satisfaction with the use of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging of peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, Martin; Bendszus, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Clinical investigations of peripheral nerve lesions routinely involve nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Imaging studies are often used to exclude focal mass lesions or external compression and to visualize muscle atrophy. More recently, it has been recognized that magnetic resonance imaging can identify changes in peripheral nerves and secondary neurogenic alterations in skeletal muscle, which may significantly enhance its use in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disease. Acute axonal nerve lesions cause a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images at and distal to the lesion site, which correlates with Wallerian degeneration and nerve oedema. Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles provide an exciting new tool to detect the invasion of macrophages into the degenerating nerve distal to an axonal lesion. Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time and gadolinium enhancement of denervated muscle develop in parallel to the development of spontaneous activity on electromyography, and are probably the consequence of capillary enlargement and increased muscular blood volume. Magnetic resonance imaging supplements the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disease. An advantage over clinical neurophysiological investigations is that it is operator independent and painless. It can identify axonal damage and may thus help to identify a lesion site precisely, where fractionated nerve conduction studies are not applicable. Novel contrast media may potentially be used to detect pathophysiologically relevant mechanisms such as infiltration of the nerve by macrophages. Magnetic resonance imaging also has the advantage of providing a lasting detailed topographical picture of regional variations and avoids localization errors of muscles in electromyography.

  15. [Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Sports].

    PubMed

    Tettenborn, B; Mehnert, S; Reuter, I

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves. Depending on etiology, the treatment is primarily conservative and includes physiotherapy, modification of movements and sports equipment, shoe inserts, splinting, antiphlogistic drugs, sometimes local administration of glucocorticoids or, lately, the use of extracorporeal shock waves. Most often, cessation of the offending physical activity is necessary. Surgery is only indicated in the rare cases of direct traumatic nerve injury or when symptoms are refractory to conservative therapy. Prognosis mainly depends on the etiology and the available options of modifying measures.This article is based on the publications "Reuter I, Mehnert S. Engpasssyndrome peripherer Nerven bei Sportlern". Akt Neurol 2012;39:292-308 and Sportverl Sportschad 2013;27:130-146.

  16. MEGACARYOCYTES IN THE PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION

    PubMed Central

    Minot, George R.

    1922-01-01

    A megacaryocyte is seen commonly as an occasional cell in the peripheral blood of patients with myelogenous leucemia. Less commonly they appear in relatively large numbers. These giant cells also may occur in the blood under other conditions. Their presence is indicative of a bone marrow under intense strain. PMID:19868650

  17. Peripheral nerve injury during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, S E

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented where a peripheral nerve injury occurred due to the pressure of a restraint buckle causing a postoperative motor and sensory deficit. Because these are iatrogenic injuries it is useful to review the mechanism of injury and means of prevention.

  18. Peripheral nerve injury during anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Lieblich, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented where a peripheral nerve injury occurred due to the pressure of a restraint buckle causing a postoperative motor and sensory deficit. Because these are iatrogenic injuries it is useful to review the mechanism of injury and means of prevention. Images Figure 1 PMID:2096751

  19. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    MedlinePlus

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  20. Adult peripheral neuroepithelioma in Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Midroni, G; Dhanani, A N; Gray, T; Tucker, W S; Bilbao, J M

    1991-02-01

    A case of peripheral neuroepithelioma arising from the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave is presented. The discussion emphasizes the pathological criteria for the diagnosis of a peripheral neuroepithelioma and the current controversy about the classification of this and related tumors.

  1. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Robert; Dailey, Travis; Duncan, Kelsey; Abel, Naomi; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers that, predicated on related research, may increase the efficacy of the current approach. We then discuss the experimental and clinical investigations of both Schwann cells and nerve transfer that are underway. Lastly, we provide the necessary consideration that these two lines of therapeutic approaches should not be exclusive, but conversely, should be pursued as a combined modality given their mutual role in peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27983642

  2. Theory underlying the peripheral vision horizon device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Peripheral Vision Horizon Device (PVHD) theory states that the likelihood of pilot disorientation in flight is reduced by providing an artificial horizon that provides orientation information to peripheral vision. In considering the validity of the theory, three areas are explored: the use of an artificial horizon device over some other flight instrument; the use of peripheral vision over foveal vision; and the evidence that peripheral vision is well suited to the processing of orientation information.

  3. Irradiation enhances the tumor tropism and therapeutic potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-secreting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Muk; Oh, Ji Hyeon; Park, Soon A; Ryu, Chung Heon; Lim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Dal-Soo; Chang, Jong Wook; Oh, Wonil; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2010-12-01

    Irradiation is a standard therapy for gliomas and many other cancers. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the most promising candidates for cancer gene therapy. Here, we show that tumor irradiation enhances the tumor tropism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and the therapeutic effect of TRAIL delivered by UCB-MSCs. The sequential treatment with irradiation followed by TRAIL-secreting UCB-MSCs (MSC-TRAIL) synergistically enhanced apoptosis in either TRAIL-sensitive or TRAIL-resistant glioma cells by upregulating the death receptor 5 and by inducing caspase activation. Migration assays showed greater MSC migration toward irradiated glioma cells and the tumor site in glioma-bearing mice compared with unirradiated tumors. Irradiated glioma cells had increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), which leads to the upregulation of the IL-8 receptor on MSCs. This upregulation, which is involved in the migratory capacity of UCB-MSCs, was confirmed by siRNA inhibition and an antibody-neutralizing assay. In vivo survival experiments in orthotopic xenografted mice showed that MSC-based TRAIL gene delivery to irradiated tumors had greater therapeutic efficacy than a single treatment. These results suggest that clinically relevant tumor irradiation increases the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-TRAIL by increasing tropism of MSCs and TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which may be a more useful strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  4. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  5. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  6. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  7. PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILM - A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Adewoyin, AS; Nwogoh, B.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral blood film (PBF) is a laboratory work-up that involves cytology of peripheral blood cells smeared on a slide. As basic as it is, PBF is invaluable in the characterization of various clinical diseases. This article highlights the basic science and art behind the PBF. It expounds its laboratory applications, clinical indications and interpretations in the light of various clinical diseases. Despite advances in haematology automation and application of molecular techniques, the PBF has remained a very important diagnostic test to the haematologist. A good quality smear, thorough examination and proper interpretation in line with patient's clinical state should be ensured by the haemato-pathologist. Clinicians should be abreast with its clinical utility and proper application of the reports in the management of patients. PMID:25960697

  8. Essential Thrombocythaemia and Peripheral Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Preston, F. E.; Emmanuel, I. G.; Winfield, D. A.; Malia, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Six patients are described in whom gangrene of one or more toes occurred as the presenting feature of essential thrombocythaemia. Spontaneous platelet aggregation was observed in platelet-rich plasma from four patients and platelet aggregation after the addition of adenosine diphosphate and collagen was highly abnormal in samples from all six. All of the patients described dramatic relief of pain within six hours of ingestion of aspirin and this coincided with disappearance of the spontaneous platelet aggregation and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Treatment with phosphorus-32 corrected the platelet count and there were no further recurrences of peripheral vascular disease. Platelet function tests performed at the time all gave normal results. It is concluded that essential thrombocythaemia is an important and treatable cause of peripheral vascular disease. PMID:4472103

  9. PERIPHERAL RETINOSCHISIS IN INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y

    2017-01-11

    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  10. Ocular neuropathy in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Evliyaoglu, Ferhat; Karadag, Remzi; Burakgazi, Ahmet Z

    2012-11-01

    Ocular movements and coordination require complex and integrated functions of somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Neurological disorders affecting these nervous systems may cause ocular dysfunction involving extraocular muscles and pupils. In this article, the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management of ocular neuropathy related to certain peripheral neuropathies, including diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory neuropathies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, and hereditary neuropathies, are examined in detail. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Sarcoidosis of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Said, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are relatively rare but constitute a treatable cause of central and peripheral neurological manifestations. Regarding the peripheral nervous system, cranial nerves are predominantly affected, and peripheral facial nerve palsy, often bilateral, is the most common neurological manifestation of sarcoidosis. Multifocal peripheral neuropathy is a rare event in sarcoidosis. In some cases, however, peripheral neuropathy is the presenting manifestation and seemingly the only organ affected. Definite diagnosis of sarcoidosis rests ideally on histological demonstration of sarcoid granulomas in tissue biopsy specimens.

  13. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-07-15

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields ({>=}10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10{sup -10} scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged

  14. Apoptosis, DAP-Kinase1 Expression and the Influences of Cytokine Milieu and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Ex Vivo Expansion of Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Amirizadeh, Naser; Oodi, Arezoo; Mehrasa, Roya; Nikougoftar, Mahin

    2016-03-01

    Expansion of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells can potentially provide them in numbers sufficient for clinical applications in adult humans. In this study apoptosis rate of expanded cells, mRNA expression and promoter methylation status of DAPK1 were evaluated during cord blood hematopoietic stem cell (CB-HSC) ex vivo expansion using cytokines and a co-culture system with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Ex vivo cultures of CB-HSCs were performed in three culture conditions for 14 days: cytokines with MSCs feeder layer, cytokines without MSCs feeder layer and co-culture with MSCs feeder layer without cytokine. Total number of cells, CD34(+) cells and colony forming unit assay were performed during expansion. Flow cytometric analysis by propidium iodide was performed to detection of apoptosis rate in expanded cells. Methylation status of the DAPK1 gene promoter was analyzed using methylation specific PCR, and DAPK1 mRNA expression was evaluated by real time-PCR. Maximum CB-CD34(+) cells expansion was observed in day 10 of expansion. The highest apoptosis rate was observed in cytokine culture without feeder layer that showed significant difference with co-culture condition. The data showed that ex vivo expansion of CD34(+) cells in all three culture conditions after 10 days resulted in, significant increased expression of DAPK1, also a significant difference between co-culture without cytokine and two other cytokine culture was observed (p < 0.01). DAPK1gene promoter of expanded CD34(+) cells at days 5, 10 and 14 of culture remained in unmethylated form similar to fresh CD34(+) cells. Expression of DAPK1 in hematopoietic cells was increased during 10 days expansion of CD34(+) cells. Also no methylation of DAPK1 promoter was observed; otherwise it would be capable of initiating some leukemic cell progression or disruption in hematopoietic regeneration.

  15. Efficacy and safety of cord blood-derived dendritic cells plus cytokine-induced killer cells combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer: a randomized Phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Ying; Wang, Wei-hua; Xie, Jia-ping; Zhang, Ying-xin; Yang, Ya-pei; Zhou, Chang-hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cellular immunotherapy has been widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the clinical application of cord blood-derived dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells (CB-DC-CIK) for the treatment of gastric cancer has not been frequently reported. In this study, the efficacy and safety of CB-DC-CIK for the treatment of gastric cancer were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Methods The phenotypes, cytokines, and cytotoxicity of CB-DC-CIK were detected in vitro. Patients with advanced gastric cancer were divided into the following two groups: the experimental group (CB-DC-CIK combined with chemotherapy) and the control group (chemotherapy alone). The curative effects and immune function were compared between the two groups. Results First, the results showed that combination therapy significantly increased the overall disease-free survival rate (P=0.0448) compared with chemotherapy alone. The overall survival rate (P=0.0646), overall response rate (P=0.410), and disease control rate (P=0.396) were improved in the experimental group, but these changes did not reach statistical significance. Second, the percentage of T-cell subsets (CD4+, CD3−CD56+, and CD3+CD56+) and the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, which reflect immune function, were significantly increased (P<0.05) after immunotherapy. Finally, no serious side effects appeared in patients with gastric cancer after the application of cellular immunotherapy based on CB-DC-CIK. Conclusion CB-DC-CIK combined with chemotherapy is effective and safe for the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. PMID:27524915

  16. Coarse(PM(2.5-10)), fine(PM(2.5)), and ultrafine air pollution particles induce/increase immune costimulatory receptors on human blood-derived monocytes but not on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Soukup, Joleen

    2003-05-09

    Diesel particles have been shown to possess adjuvant activity and influence the development of allergic sensitization. Also, more heterogeneous mixtures of pollution particles have been shown to affect host defenses and development of immunity in animal models. In the present study it was determined whether freshly collected particulate matter (PM(10)) in the size ranges 2.5-10 micro m (PM(2.5-10), coarse), 0.1-2.5 micro m (PM(2.5), fine), and blood-derived monocytes (Mo). A Mo-AM coculture was exposed to 50 micro g/ml of particles and expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, and CD86 on each cell type was assessed by flow cytometry. Mo upregulated the expression of all four receptors in response to each of the particle fractions, while expression was unaffected in AM. The cells were also exposed to two model air pollution particles, diesel dust and volcanic ash, neither of which affected receptor expression. Furthermore, Mo and AM were separately exposed to the three PM size fractions and supernatants assessed for the T-helper (CD4(+)) lymphocyte chemoattractant interleukin-16 (IL-16). AM, but not Mo, produced IL-16, and this chemoattractant was released only in response to PM(2.5-10). These data suggest that a wide size range of pollution particles contain materials that may promote antigen presentation by Mo, while the capability to specifically recruit CD4(+) lymphocytes is contained in AM stimulated with the coarse PM fraction.

  17. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells, a new resource in the suppression of acute graft-versus-host disease in haploidentical stem cell transplantation in sublethally irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Xi; Gao, Lei; Kong, Pei-Yan; Peng, Xian-gui; Liang, Xue; Gao, Li; Gong, Yi; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2011-04-15

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells (hUCBDSCs), a novel population isolated from CD34(+) cells by our laboratory, exerted an immunosuppressive effect on xenogenic T cells. This study aimed to investigate whether hUCBDSCs play a critical role in the suppression of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). The hUCBDSCs were co-cultured with splenocytes (SPCs) of donor C57BL/6 mice. The aGVHD in the recipient (B6×BALB/c) F1 mice was induced by the infusion of bone marrow cells and SPCs from donor mice following sublethal irradiation. The shift in vivo for hUCBDSCs was detected. The proliferation and cell cycle of SPCs were tested by cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of CD49b natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 T cells was detected by flow cytometry in co-culture and post-transplantation. IL-4, and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA in the serum of co-culture and post-transplantation. The survival time, body weight, clinical score, and histopathological score were recorded for mice post-transplantation. The hUCBDSCs promoted the proliferation of SPCs and significantly increased the ratio of the S and G(2)/M phase (p < 0.05). The hUCBDSCs significantly increased the expression of CD49b NK cells and IL-4 protein and decreased the expression of CD3 T cells and IFN-γ protein both in vitro and in vivo. The survival time of mice with co-transplantation of hUCBDSCs was significantly prolonged, and decreased clinical and histopathological scores were also observed. The hUCBDSCs were continually detected in the target organs of GVHD. These results suggest that hUCBDSCs possess the capability of suppressing aGVHD, possibly via their influence on CD3 T cells, NK cells, and cytokines.

  18. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    PubMed

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  19. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Benjamin

    2005-12-30

    A 32-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of cutaneous nodules on his head and a diffuse, lichenified eruption. Histopathologic examination showed an atypical lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunophenotyping studies determined that the lymphocyte population to be CD4-positive, with partial loss of CD3 and CD7, and immunogenotyping studies showed a clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor. A positron-emission tomography scan showed increased uptake in cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes. A diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma was made, and the patient is undergoing chemotherapy.

  20. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters and Hemodialysis Outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGill, Rita L; Ruthazer, Robin; Meyer, Klemens B; Miskulin, Dana C; Weiner, Daniel E

    2016-08-08

    Use of peripherally inserted central catheters has expanded rapidly, but the consequences for patients who eventually require hemodialysis are undefined. Our national, population-based analysis included 33,918 adult Medicare beneficiaries from the US Renal Data System who initiated hemodialysis with central venous catheters as their sole vascular access in 2010 and 2011. We used linked Medicare claims to identify peripherally inserted central catheter exposures and evaluate the associations of peripherally inserted central catheter placement with transition to working arteriovenous fistulas or grafts and patient survival using a Cox model with time-dependent variables. Among 33,918 individuals initiating hemodialysis with a catheter as sole access, 12.6% had received at least one peripherally inserted central catheter. Median follow-up was 404 days (interquartile range, 103-680 days). Among 6487 peripherally inserted central catheters placed, 3435 (53%) were placed within the 2 years before hemodialysis initiation, and 3052 (47%) were placed afterward. Multiple peripherally inserted central catheters were placed in 30% of patients exposed to peripherally inserted central catheters. Recipients of peripherally inserted central catheters were more likely to be women and have comorbid diagnoses and less likely to have received predialysis nephrology care. After adjustment for clinical and demographic factors, peripherally inserted central catheters placed before or after hemodialysis initiation were independently associated with lower likelihoods of transition to any working fistula or graft (hazard ratio for prehemodialysis peripherally inserted central catheter, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.91; hazard ratio for posthemodialysis peripherally inserted central catheter, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.89). Peripherally inserted central catheter placement was common and associated with adverse vascular access outcomes. Recognition of potential long

  1. Optoacoustic angiography of peripheral vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey; Su, Richard; Zamora, Mario; Hernandez, Travis; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    We developed a new optoacoustic microangiography system (OmAS) intended for in-vivo vascular imaging of a human finger. The system employs an arc-shaped acoustic array that is rotated 360 degrees around the finger providing optoacoustic data necessary for tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional images of a finger. A near-infrared Q-switched laser is used to generate optoacoustic signals with increased contrast of blood vessels. The laser is coupled through two randomized fiberoptic bundles oriented in orthogonal optoacoustic mode. To demonstrate OmAS capabilities, we present a time-series of optoacoustic images of a human finger taken after the hypothermia stress test. The images show a detailed vascular anatomy of a finger down to the capillary level. A series of quick 30s scans allowed us to visualize the thermoregulatory response within the studied finger as it was manifested via vasomotor activity during the hypothermia recovery. We propose that the developed system can be used for diagnostics of various medical conditions that are manifested in change of the peripheral (finger) blood flow. Examples of the medical conditions that could be diagnosed and staged using the OmAS include the peripheral arterial disease (PAD), thrombosis, frostbite, and traumas.

  2. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  3. Iatrogenic lesions of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Löscher, W N; Wanschitz, J; Iglseder, S; Vass, A; Grinzinger, S; Pöschl, P; Grisold, W; Ninkovic, M; Antoniadis, G; Pedro, M T; König, R; Quasthoff, S; Oder, W; Finsterer, J

    2015-11-01

    Iatrogenic nerve lesions (INLs) are an integral part of peripheral neurology and require dedicated neurologists to manage them. INLs of peripheral nerves are most frequently caused by surgery, immobilization, injections, radiation, or drugs. Early recognition and diagnosis is important not to delay appropriate therapeutic measures and to improve the outcome. Treatment can be causative or symptomatic, conservative, or surgical. Rehabilitative measures play a key role in the conservative treatment, but the point at which an INL requires surgical intervention should not be missed or delayed. This is why INLs require close multiprofessional monitoring and continuous re-evaluation of the therapeutic effect. With increasing number of surgical interventions and increasing number of drugs applied, it is quite likely that the prevalence of INLs will further increase. To provide an optimal management, more studies about the frequency of the various INLs and studies evaluating therapies need to be conducted. Management of INLs can be particularly improved if those confronted with INLs get state-of-the-art education and advanced training about INLs. Management and outcome of INLs can be further improved if the multiprofessional interplay is optimized and adapted to the needs of the patient, the healthcare system, and those responsible for sustaining medical infrastructure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessment of Peripheral Lung Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jason H.T.; Suki, Béla

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the lung periphery are major determinants of overall lung function, and can change dramatically in disease. In this review we examine the various experimental techniques that have provided data pertaining to the mechanical properties of the lung periphery, together with the mathematical models that have been used to interpret these data. These models seek to make a clear distinction between the central and peripheral compartments of the lung by encapsulating functional differences between the conducing airways, the terminal airways and the parenchyma. Such a distinction becomes problematic in disease, however, because of the inevitable onset of regional variations in mechanical behavior throughout the lung. Accordingly, lung models are used both in the inverse sense as vehicles for extracting physiological insight from experimental data, and in the forward sense as virtual laboratories for the testing of specific hypothesis about mechanisms such as the effects of regional heterogeneities. Pathologies such as asthma, acute lung injury and emphysema can alter the mechanical properties of the lung periphery through the direct alteration of intrinsic tissue mechanics, the development of regional heterogeneities in mechanical function, and the complete derecruitment of airspaces due to airway closure and alveolar collapse. We are now beginning to decipher the relative contributions of these various factors to pathological alterations in peripheral lung mechanics, which may eventually lead to the development and assessment of novel therapies. PMID:18463006

  5. Assessment of peripheral lung mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason H T; Suki, Béla

    2008-11-30

    The mechanical properties of the lung periphery are major determinants of overall lung function, and can change dramatically in disease. In this review we examine the various experimental techniques that have provided data pertaining to the mechanical properties of the lung periphery, together with the mathematical models that have been used to interpret these data. These models seek to make a clear distinction between the central and peripheral compartments of the lung by encapsulating functional differences between the conducing airways, the terminal airways and the parenchyma. Such a distinction becomes problematic in disease, however, because of the inevitable onset of regional variations in mechanical behavior throughout the lung. Accordingly, lung models are used both in the inverse sense as vehicles for extracting physiological insight from experimental data, and in the forward sense as virtual laboratories for the testing of specific hypothesis about mechanisms such as the effects of regional heterogeneities. Pathologies such as asthma, acute lung injury and emphysema can alter the mechanical properties of the lung periphery through the direct alteration of intrinsic tissue mechanics, the development of regional heterogeneities in mechanical function, and the complete derecruitment of airspaces due to airway closure and alveolar collapse. We are now beginning to decipher the relative contributions of these various factors to pathological alterations in peripheral lung mechanics, which may eventually lead to the development and assessment of novel therapies.

  6. Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nair, Pradeep P.

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them. PMID:19893645

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Ali M; Awdeh, Haitham; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Andreisek, Gustav; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful MR imaging technique that can be used to probe the microstructural environment of highly anisotropic tissues such as peripheral nerves. DTI has been used predominantly in the central nervous system, and its application in the peripheral nervous system does pose some challenges related to imaging artifacts, the small caliber of peripheral nerves, and low water proton density. However advances in MRI hardware and software have made it possible to use the technique in the peripheral nervous system and to obtain functional data relating to the effect of pathologic processes on peripheral nerves. This article reviews the imaging principles behind DTI and examines the literature regarding its application in assessing peripheral nerves. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Increased yield of endothelial cells from peripheral blood for cell therapies and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Kang, Sa Do; Rodriguez, AnnMarie K; Haseltine, Justin M; Galinat, Lauren J; Jantzen, Alexandra E; Carlon, Tim A; Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio J; Mantilla, Jose G; Haley, N Rebecca; Noviani, Maria; Allen, Jason D; Stabler, Thomas V; Frederiksen, James W; Alzate, Oscar; Keil, Lukas G; Liu, Siyao; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Truskey, George A; Achneck, Hardean E

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral blood-derived endothelial cells (pBD-ECs) are an attractive tool for cell therapies and tissue engineering, but have been limited by their low isolation yield. We increase pBD-EC yield via administration of the chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist AMD3100, as well as via a diluted whole blood incubation (DWBI). Porcine pBD-ECs were isolated using AMD3100 and DWBI and tested for EC markers, acetylated LDL uptake, growth kinetics, metabolic activity, flow-mediated nitric oxide production and seeded onto titanium tubes implanted into vessels of pigs. DWBI increased the yield of porcine pBD-ECs 6.6-fold, and AMD3100 increased the yield 4.5-fold. AMD3100-mobilized ECs were phenotypically indistinguishable from nonmobilized ECs. In porcine implants, the cells expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase, reduced thrombin-antithrombin complex systemically and prevented thrombosis. Administration of AMD3100 and the DWBI method both increase pBD-EC yield.

  9. Detecting glycogen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells with periodic acid schiff staining.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei Shafiei, Mahdieh; Carvajal Gonczi, Catalina M; Rahman, Mohammed Samiur; East, Ashley; François, Jonathan; Darlington, Peter J

    2014-12-23

    Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining is an immunohistochemical technique used on muscle biopsies and as a diagnostic tool for blood samples. Polysaccharides such as glycogen, glycoproteins, and glycolipids stain bright magenta making it easy to enumerate positive and negative cells within the tissue. In muscle cells PAS staining is used to determine the glycogen content in different types of muscle cells, while in blood cell samples PAS staining has been explored as a diagnostic tool for a variety of conditions. Blood contains a proportion of white blood cells that belong to the immune system. The notion that cells of the immune system possess glycogen and use it as an energy source has not been widely explored. Here, we describe an adapted version of the PAS staining protocol that can be applied on peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells from human venous blood. Small cells with PAS-positive granules and larger cells with diffuse PAS staining were observed. Treatment of samples with amylase abrogates these patterns confirming the specificity of the stain. An alternate technique based on enzymatic digestion confirmed the presence and amount of glycogen in the samples. This protocol is useful for hematologists or immunologists studying polysaccharide content in blood-derived lymphocytes.

  10. Sourcing of an Alternative Pericyte-Like Cell Type from Peripheral Blood in Clinically Relevant Numbers for Therapeutic Angiogenic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Blocki, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Koch, Maria; Goralczyk, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Agarwal, Nikita; Lee, Michelle; Moonshi, Shehzahdi; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Peh, Priscilla; Schwarz, Herbert; Bhakoo, Kishore; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cells hold great potential for personalized cell therapy, reducing immunological and risk of infections. However, low cell counts at harvest with subsequently long expansion times with associated cell function loss currently impede the advancement of autologous cell therapy approaches. Here, we aimed to source clinically relevant numbers of proangiogenic cells from an easy accessible cell source, namely peripheral blood. Using macromolecular crowding (MMC) as a biotechnological platform, we derived a novel cell type from peripheral blood that is generated within 5 days in large numbers (10–40 million cells per 100 ml of blood). This blood-derived angiogenic cell (BDAC) type is of monocytic origin, but exhibits pericyte markers PDGFR-β and NG2 and demonstrates strong angiogenic activity, hitherto ascribed only to MSC-like pericytes. Our findings suggest that BDACs represent an alternative pericyte-like cell population of hematopoietic origin that is involved in promoting early stages of microvasculature formation. As a proof of principle of BDAC efficacy in an ischemic disease model, BDAC injection rescued affected tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model by accelerating and enhancing revascularization. Derived from a renewable tissue that is easy to collect, BDACs overcome current short-comings of autologous cell therapy, in particular for tissue repair strategies. PMID:25582709

  11. Sourcing of an alternative pericyte-like cell type from peripheral blood in clinically relevant numbers for therapeutic angiogenic applications.

    PubMed

    Blocki, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Koch, Maria; Goralczyk, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Agarwal, Nikita; Lee, Michelle; Moonshi, Shehzahdi; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Peh, Priscilla; Schwarz, Herbert; Bhakoo, Kishore; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Autologous cells hold great potential for personalized cell therapy, reducing immunological and risk of infections. However, low cell counts at harvest with subsequently long expansion times with associated cell function loss currently impede the advancement of autologous cell therapy approaches. Here, we aimed to source clinically relevant numbers of proangiogenic cells from an easy accessible cell source, namely peripheral blood. Using macromolecular crowding (MMC) as a biotechnological platform, we derived a novel cell type from peripheral blood that is generated within 5 days in large numbers (10-40 million cells per 100 ml of blood). This blood-derived angiogenic cell (BDAC) type is of monocytic origin, but exhibits pericyte markers PDGFR-β and NG2 and demonstrates strong angiogenic activity, hitherto ascribed only to MSC-like pericytes. Our findings suggest that BDACs represent an alternative pericyte-like cell population of hematopoietic origin that is involved in promoting early stages of microvasculature formation. As a proof of principle of BDAC efficacy in an ischemic disease model, BDAC injection rescued affected tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model by accelerating and enhancing revascularization. Derived from a renewable tissue that is easy to collect, BDACs overcome current short-comings of autologous cell therapy, in particular for tissue repair strategies.

  12. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    PubMed

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Drug Delivery to Peripheral Arteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Tzafriri, Rami; Patel, Sandeep M; Parikh, Sahil A

    2017-04-01

    Delivery of drugs onto arterial targets via endovascular devices commands several principles: dissolution, diffusion, convection, drug binding, barriers to absorption, and interaction between the drug, delivery vehicle, and accepting arterial wall. The understanding of drug delivery in the coronary vasculature is vast; there is ongoing work needed in the peripheral arteries. There are differences that account for some failures of application of coronary technology into the peripheral vascular space. Breakthroughs in peripheral vascular interventional techniques building on current technologies require investigators willing to acknowledge the similarities and differences between these different vascular territories, while developing technologies adapted for peripheral arteries.

  14. Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina

    2016-02-12

    Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome.Topcial medical therapy is usually the first-line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment. Peripheral laser iridotomy involves creating an opening in the iris tissue to allow drainage of fluid from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber and vice versa. Equalizing the pressure within the eye may help to alleviate the friction that leads to pigment dispersion and prevent visual field deterioration. However, the effectiveness of peripheral laser iridotomy in reducing the development or progression of pigmentary glaucoma is unknown. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of peripheral laser iridotomy compared with other interventions, including medication, trabeculoplasty, and trabeculectomy, or no treatment, for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and clinical trials websites such as (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 November 2015. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had compared peripheral laser iridotomy versus no treatment or other treatments for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. We used standard methodological procedures for systematic reviews. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed included trials for risk of bias. We did not perform a

  15. Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Topcial medical therapy is usually the first-line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment. Peripheral laser iridotomy involves creating an opening in the iris tissue to allow drainage of fluid from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber and vice versa. Equalizing the pressure within the eye may help to alleviate the friction that leads to pigment dispersion and prevent visual field deterioration. However, the effectiveness of peripheral laser iridotomy in reducing the development or progression of pigmentary glaucoma is unknown. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of peripheral laser iridotomy compared with other interventions, including medication, trabeculoplasty, and trabeculectomy, or no treatment, for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and clinical trials websites such as (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 November 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had compared peripheral laser iridotomy versus no treatment or other treatments for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures for systematic reviews. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility

  16. Magnetic targeting of human peripheral blood CD133+ cells for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Shingo; Kamei, Naosuke; Kamei, Goki; Shi, Ming; Adachi, Nobuo; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2013-08-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries often leave lasting functional damage or pain. Muscle injuries are routinely treated conservatively, but the most effective treatment to promote the repair of injured muscles has not yet been established. Our previous report demonstrated that human peripheral blood-derived CD133(+) cell transplantation to rat skeletal muscle injury models inhibited fibrosis and enhanced myogenesis after injury. However, the acquisition of a sufficient number of cells remains the limitation for clinical application, as the CD133(+) population is rare in human blood. In this study, we applied a magnetic cell targeting system to accumulate transplanted cells in the muscle injury site and to enhance the regenerative effects of CD133(+) cell transplantation, focusing on the fact that CD133(+) cells are labeled with a magnetic bead for isolation. For the magnetic cell targeting, the magnet field generator was set up to adjust the peak of the magnetic gradient to the injury site of the tibialis anterior muscle, and 1×10(4) human peripheral blood CD133(+) cells were locally injected into the injury site. This cell number is 10% of that used in the previous study. In another group, the same number of CD133(+) cells was injected without magnetic force. The CD133(+) cells transplanted with the magnetic force were more accumulated in the muscle injury site compared with the CD133(+) cells transplanted without the magnetic force. In addition, the transplantation of CD133(+) cells under the magnetic control inhibited fibrous scar formation and promoted angiogenesis and myogenesis, and also upregulated the mRNA expression of myogenic transcription factors, including Pax7, MyoD1 and Myogenin. However, the transplantation of CD133(+) cells without the magnetic force failed to demonstrate these effects. Thus, our magnetic cell targeting system enables transplantation of a limited number of CD133(+) cells to promote the repair of skeletal muscle injury.

  17. Neural differentiation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-expressing human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in culture via TrkB-mediated ERK and β-catenin phosphorylation and following transplantation into the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Yeon; Park, Sang In; Kim, Seong Muk; Jun, Jin Ae; Oh, Ji Hyeon; Ryu, Chung Hun; Jeong, Chang Hyun; Park, Sun Hwa; Park, Soon A; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Jeun, Sin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into neural cells makes them potential replacement therapeutic candidates in neurological diseases. Presently, overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is crucial in the regulation of neural progenitor cell differentiation and maturation during development, was sufficient to convert the mesodermal cell fate of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) into a neuronal fate in culture, in the absence of specialized induction chemicals. BDNF overexpressing hUCB-MSCs (MSCs-BDNF) yielded an increased number of neuron-like cells and, surprisingly, increased the expression of neuronal phenotype markers in a time-dependent manner compared with control hUCB-MSCs. In addition, MSCs-BDNF exhibited a decreased labeling for MSCs-related antigens such as CD44, CD73, and CD90, and decreased potential to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. Phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), which is a receptor of BDNF, was increased significantly in MSC-BDNF. BDNF overexpression also increased the phosphorylation of β-catenin and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Inhibition of TrkB availability by treatment with the TrkB-specific inhibitor K252a blocked the BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of β-catenin and ERKs, indicating the involvement of both the β-catenin and ERKs signals in the BDNF-stimulated and TrkB-mediated neural differentiation of hUCB-MSCs. Reduction of β-catenin availability using small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing inhibited ERKs phosphorylation. However, β-catenin activation was maintained. In addition, inhibition of β-catenin and ERKs expression levels abrogated the BDNF-stimulated upregulation of neuronal phenotype markers. Furthermore, MSC-BDNF survived and migrated more extensively when grafted into the lateral ventricles of neonatal mouse brain, and differentiated significantly into neurons in the olfactory bulb and

  18. Cooperation of Epac1/Rap1/Akt and PKA in prostaglandin E(2) -induced proliferation of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells: involvement of c-Myc and VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Woo; Yun, Seung Pil; Park, Jae Hong; Ryu, Jung Min; Lee, Jang Hern; Han, Ho Jae

    2012-12-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is well known to regulate cell functions through cAMP; however, the role of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac1) and protein kinase A (PKA) in modulating such functions is unknown in human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Epac1 and PKA during PGE(2)-induced hUCB-MSC proliferation and its related signaling pathways. PGE(2) increased cell proliferation, and E-type prostaglandin (EP) 2 receptor mRNA expression level and activated cAMP generation, which were blocked by EP2 receptor selective antagonist AH 6809. PGE(2) increased Epac1 expression, Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) activation level, and Akt phosphorylation, which were inhibited by AH 6809, adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536, and Epac1/Rap1-specific siRNA. Also, PGE(2) increased PKA activity, which was inhibited by AH 6809, SQ 22536, and PKA inhibitor PKI. HUCB-MSCs were incubated with the Epac agonist 8-pCPT-cAMP or the PKA agonist 6-phe-cAMP to examine whether Epac1/Rap1/Akt activation was independent of PKA activation. 8-pCPT-cAMP increased Akt phosphorylation but not PKA activity. 6-Phe-cAMP increased PKA activity, but not Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, an Akt inhibitor or PKA inhibitor (PKI) did not block the PGE(2) -induced increase in PKA activity or Akt phosphorylation, respectively. Moreover, PGE(2) increased glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of active-β-catenin, which were inhibited by Akt inhibitor or/and PKI. PGE(2) increased c-Myc and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression levels, which were blocked by β-catenin siRNA. In conclusion, PGE(2) stimulated hUCB-MSC proliferation through β-catenin-mediated c-Myc and VEGF expression via Epac/Rap1/Akt and PKA cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human cord blood-derived platelet lysate enhances the therapeutic activity of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from Crohn's disease patients in a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Forte, Dorian; Ciciarello, Marilena; Valerii, Maria Chiara; De Fazio, Luigia; Cavazza, Elena; Giordano, Rosaria; Parazzi, Valentina; Lazzari, Lorenza; Laureti, Silvio; Rizzello, Fernando; Cavo, Michele; Curti, Antonio; Lemoli, Roberto M; Spisni, Enzo; Catani, Lucia

    2015-09-09

    Due to their immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used for auto-immune disease treatment. Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis are two major inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), resulting from pathological immune responses to environmental or microbial antigens. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that MSC-based cellular therapy hold promising potential for IBD treatment. However, open issues include the selection of the proper cell dose, the source and the optimal route of administration of MSCs for more effective results. Platelet lysate has gained clinical interest due to its efficacy in accelerating wound healing. Thus, we propose to combine the administration of MSCs with a human umbilical cord blood-derived platelet lysate (hCBPL) as a novel strategy to improve MSC-based therapy for IBD resolution. Colitis was induced in 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice by daily oral administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) (1.5 % w/v in tap water) for 9 days. MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue of CD patients (adCD-MSCs), expanded in proliferation medium, resuspended in hCBPL or PBS and administrated via enema for three times (1 × 10(6) cells/mouse/time) every other day starting on day +7 from DSS induction. The colitis evolution was evaluated by daily monitoring of body weight, stool consistency and bleeding. Histopathological analysis was performed. Inflammatory cytokine plasma levels were determined. adCD-MSCs stained with lipophilic membrane dye Nile Red, were injected in DSS mice as described above. Colon section of mice sacrificed 24 hours after last cell administration, were analyzed by confocal microscopy. We found that adCD-MSCs could be easily isolated and expanded from CD patients. Upon injection, adCD-MSCs exerted a therapeutic effect on DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, hCBPL increased adCD-MSCs efficacy by significantly reducing colitis scores, extension of the colon inflamed area and plasma levels of

  20. Effect of Transplanting Various Concentrations of a Composite of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel on Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chul-Won; Kim, Jin-A; Rhim, Ji-Heon; Park, Yong-Geun; Chung, Jun Young; Lee, Han-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to have therapeutic potential for cartilage repair. However, the optimal concentration of MSCs for cartilage repair remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to explore the feasibility of cartilage repair by human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) and to determine the optimal concentrations of the MSCs in a rabbit model. Methods Osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of femur in 55 rabbits. Four experimental groups (11 rabbits/group) were treated by transplanting the composite of hUCB-MSCs and HA with various MSCs concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 x 107 cells/ml). One control group was left untreated. At 4, 8, and 16 weeks post-transplantation, the degree of cartilage repair was evaluated grossly and histologically. Findings Overall, transplanting hUCB-MSCs and HA hydrogel resulted in cartilage repair tissue with better quality than the control without transplantation (P = 0.015 in 0.1, P = 0.004 in 0.5, P = 0.004 in 1.0, P = 0.132 in 1.5 x 107 cells/ml). Interestingly, high cell concentration of hUCB-MSCs (1.5×107 cells/ml) was inferior to low cell concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 x 107 cells/ml) in cartilage repair (P = 0.394,P = 0.041, P = 0.699, respectively). The 0.5 x 107 cells/ml group showed the highest cartilage repair score at 4, 8 and 16 weeks post transplantation, and followed by 0.1x107 cells/ml group or 1.0 x 107 cell/ml group. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that transplantation of the composite of hUCB-MSCs and HA is beneficial for cartilage repair. In addition, this study shows that optimal MSC concentration needs to be determined for better cartilage repair. PMID:27824874

  1. Short-Lived Human Umbilical Cord-Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells Influence the Endogenous Secretome and Increase the Number of Endogenous Neural Progenitors in a Rat Model of Lacunar Stroke.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Anna; Drela, Katarzyna; Wojcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Janowski, Miroslaw; Zalewska, Teresa; Lukomska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of severe disability, and lacunar stroke is related to cognitive decline and hemiparesis. There is no effective treatment for the majority of patients with stroke. Thus, stem cell-based regenerative medicine has drawn a growing body of attention due to the capabilities for trophic factor expression and neurogenesis enhancement. Moreover, it was shown in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model that even short-lived stem cells can be therapeutic, and we have previously observed that phenomenon indirectly. Here, in a rat model of lacunar stroke, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive therapeutic effects of short-lived human umbilical cord-blood-derived neural stem cells (HUCB-NSCs) through the distinct measurement of exogenous human and endogenous rat trophic factors. We have also evaluated neurogenesis and metalloproteinase activity as cellular components of therapeutic activity. As expected, we observed an increased proliferation and migration of progenitors, as well as metalloproteinase activity up to 14 days post transplantation. These changes were most prominent at the 7-day time point when we observed 30 % increases in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in HUCB-NSC transplanted animals. The expression of human trophic factors was present until 7 days post transplantation, which correlated well with the survival of the human graft. For these 7 days, the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) in the analyzed trophic factors was from 300-fold for CNTF to 10,000-fold for IGF, much higher compared to constitutive expression in HUCB-NSCs in vitro. What is interesting is that there was no increase in the expression of rat trophic factors during the human graft survival, compared to that in non-transplanted animals. However, there was a prolongation of a period of increased trophic expression until 14 days post transplantation, while, in non-transplanted animals, there was a

  2. Treatment of Peripheral Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Schoelwer, Melissa; Eugster, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many etiologies of peripheral precocious puberty (PPP) with diverse manifestations resulting from exposure to androgens, estrogens, or both. The clinical presentation depends on the underlying process and may be acute or gradual. The primary goals of therapy are to halt pubertal development and restore sex steroids to prepubertal values. Attenuation of linear growth velocity and rate of skeletal maturation in order to maximize height potential are additional considerations for many patients. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP) represent rare causes of PPP that arise from activating mutations in GNAS1 and the LH receptor gene, respectively. Several different therapeutic approaches have been investigated for both conditions with variable success. Experience to date suggests that the ideal therapy for precocious puberty secondary to MAS in girls remains elusive. In contrast, while the number of treated patients remains small, several successful therapeutic options for FMPP are available. PMID:26680582

  3. Updates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, A. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 st century. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a broad spectrum of neuropathic complications, including acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. This review will focus on the most common form, distal symmetric diabetic polyneuropathy. There has been an evolution in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of diabetic polyneuropathy over the past decade. We highlight these new perspectives and provide updates from the past decade of research. PMID:27158461

  4. Updates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, A Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become one of the largest global health-care problems of the 21 (st) century. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the population prevalence of diabetes in the US is approaching 10% and is increasing by 5% each year. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a broad spectrum of neuropathic complications, including acute and chronic forms affecting each level of the peripheral nerve, from the root to the distal axon. This review will focus on the most common form, distal symmetric diabetic polyneuropathy. There has been an evolution in our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of diabetic polyneuropathy over the past decade. We highlight these new perspectives and provide updates from the past decade of research.

  5. Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypothalamic leptin levels on osteoblasts. Finally, to determine the effects of loss of peripheral leptin signaling on bone formation and energy metabolism, we used bone marrow (BM) from WT or db/db donor mice to reconstitute the hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments in lethally irradiated WT recipient mice. Decreases in bone growth, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter and bone formation rate were observed in ob/ob mice and greatly increased in ob/ob mice following subcutaneous administration of leptin. Similarly, hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast-lined bone perimeter in ob/ob mice. In spite of normal osteoclast-lined bone perimeter, db/db mice exhibited a mild but generalized osteopetrotic-like (calcified cartilage encased by bone) skeletal phenotype and greatly reduced serum markers of bone turnover. Tracking studies and histology revealed quantitative replacement of BM cells following BM transplantation. WT mice engrafted with db/db BM did not differ in energy homeostasis from untreated WT mice or WT mice engrafted with WT BM. Bone formation in WT mice engrafted with WT BM did not differ from WT mice, whereas bone formation in WT mice engrafted with db/db cells did not differ from the low rates observed in untreated db/db mice. In summary, our results indicate that leptin, acting primarily through peripheral pathways, increases osteoblast number and activity. PMID:22887758

  6. Peripheral Developing Odontoma or Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: A Rare Challenging Case

    PubMed Central

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic lesions are considered to be rare within the classification of odontogenic tumors. They share the same microscopic characteristics of their central counterparts. Here, we report an ulcerated mass of the maxillary gingiva that on histopathological examination was diagnosed as peripheral developing odontoma or peripheral ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The diagnosis of this tumor is challenging and may lead to unnecessary treatment. PMID:26981293

  7. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.)

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Peripheral Artery Disease (P.A.D.) What is P.A.D.? Arteries Clogged With Plaque Peripheral arterial disease (P. ... button on your keyboard.) Why Is P.A.D. Dangerous? Click for more information Blocked blood flow ...

  8. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  9. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A

    1989-04-01

    The peripheral odontogenic fibroma (WHO type) is a relatively rare, benign, unencapsulated, exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue. Odontogenic epithelium is found within the gingival mass, but usually appears to play a minor role when compared to the fibrous component. According to the present concept, cases reported in the literature under the terms "odontogenic gingival epithelial harmartoma" "hamartoma of the dental lamina" and "peripheral ameloblastic fibrodentinoma" are actually examples of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Review of the literature revealed only 30 acceptable cases that fit the present concept of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. Because of the paucity of reported cases, the histomorphological spectrum and the clinical features of this lesion have not yet been fully established. This article presents five new cases of peripheral odontogenic fibroma. The connective tissue ranged from markedly cellular to relatively acellular well collagenized. Islands and strands of epithelium were present in all five cases: in four they were scanty and in one abundant. A matrix of mineralized material was present in four cases. The peripheral odontogenic fibroma must be differentiated histologically from peripheral ossifying fibroma, which is a reactive lesion, and from the peripheral ameloblastoma and the calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour.

  10. Raman microspectroscopy for visualization of peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Koizumi, Noriaki; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery is essential for improving quality of life of patients. To preserve peripheral nerves, detection of ne peripheral nerves that cannot be identi ed by human eye or under white light imaging is necessary. In this study, we sought to provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerve tissues against adjacent tissues that employs spontaneous Raman microspectroscopy. A line-illumination confocal Raman microscope was used for the experiment. A laser operating at the wavelength of 532 nm was used as an excitation laser light. We obtained Raman spectra of peripheral nerve, brous connective tissue, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, and adipose tissue of Wistar rats, and extracted speci c spectral features of peripheral nerves and adjacent tissues. By applying multivariate image analysis, peripheral nerves were clearly detected against adjacent tissues without any preprocessing neither xation nor staining. These results suggest the potential of the Raman spectroscopic observation for noninvasive and label-free nerve detection, and we expect this method could be a key technique for nerve-sparing surgery.

  11. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness.

  12. How to insert a peripheral cannula.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sally Jane

    2016-11-16

    Rationale and key points This article aims to assist practitioners to undertake the safe and effective insertion of a peripheral cannula. It provides information on best practice related to peripheral cannulation with an open-ported safety cannula. The same principles for practice apply to non-ported open safety cannulae. » Peripheral cannulation enables venous access, the administration of intravenous medication, infusion therapy and total parenteral nutrition. It also enables blood samples to be obtained. » Peripheral cannulation is a common procedure that requires high standards of care and management to optimise patient outcomes. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: » How you think this article has changed your practice when performing peripheral cannulation. » How you could use this resource to assist with supporting colleagues.

  13. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis with Pyoderma Gangrenosum

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrián; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar, Antonio; Gallego, Miguel Ángel; Vergara, Claudia; Nistal, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is an unusual necrotizing noninfective and ulcerative skin disease whose cause is unknown. Ophthalmic involvement in pyoderma gangrenosum is an unusual event. Only a few cases have been reported, from which we can highlight scleral, corneal, and orbital cases. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis is a process which destroys the peripheral cornea. Its cause is still unknown although it is often associated with autoimmune conditions. Pyoderma gangrenosum should be included in the differential diagnosis of peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Early recognition of these manifestations can vary the prognosis by applying the appropriate treatment. We introduce a 70-year-old woman who suffered pyoderma gangrenosum associated with peripheral ulcerative keratitis in her left eye. The patient's skin lesions and peripheral keratitis responded successfully to systemic steroids and cyclosporine A. PMID:26527531

  14. Cryoplasty for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, James E; Andras, Alina; Stansby, Gerard

    2013-08-11

    Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is an endovascular technique for restoring blood flow through an artery that has become narrowed or blocked by atherosclerosis. Narrowing of the artery following angioplasty (restenosis) is the major cause of long-term failure. Cryoplasty offers a different approach to improving long-term angioplasty results. It combines the dilation force of balloon angioplasty with cooling of the vessel wall. This systematic review evaluated cryoplasty in peripheral arterial disease and provides focus for further research in the field. This is an update of a review first published in 2007. To assess the efficacy of, and complications associated with, cryoplasty for maintaining patency in the iliac, femoropopliteal and crural arteries in the short and medium term. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched October 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10). Trial databases were searched for ongoing or unpublished studies. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised controlled trials in which participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs, or lower limb bypass graft stenoses, were randomised to cryoplasty with or without another procedure versus a procedure without cryoplasty were considered. This included trials where all participants received angioplasty and the randomisation was for cryoplasty versus no cryoplasty and trials where cryoplasty was used as an adjunct to conventional treatment (for example stenting) against a control. Two review authors independently reviewed, assessed and selected trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Seven trials (six primary cryoplasty and one adjunctive cryoplasty trial) with a combined total of 478 patients were included in this review. The trials reported patency and restenosis either by participant, lesion or vessel location. Follow-up ranged from 30 days to

  15. Peripheral vasodilators and the management of peripheral vascular disease and Raynaud's syndrome in general practice.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J P; McGavock, H; Wilson-Davis, K

    1998-05-01

    There is no convincing evidence that peripheral vasodilators produce any significant improvement in exercise tolerance in patients with peripheral vascular disease, and these drugs may do more harm than good. In the treatment of severe Raynaud's syndrome, however, thymoxamine, prazosin or nifedipine is recommended. A descriptive study was carried out, firstly, to determine why these drugs are prescribed in general practice, and secondly, to describe the drug choices in the treatment of both Raynaud's syndrome and peripheral vascular disease in a representative sample of 22 practices in Northern Ireland. Of those patients prescribed peripheral vasodilators 69.6% were diagnosed as peripheral vascular disease, claudication or atherosclerosis. Over three-quarters of peripheral vasodilators prescribed were repeat prescriptions. Of those with Raynaud's syndrome only half were treated appropriately, and certainty of diagnosis did not guarantee appropriate treatment. Peripheral vasodilators accounted for the majority (51.5%) of items prescribed for peripheral vascular disease. A minority of patients with peripheral vascular disease (20.3%) were prescribed aspirin, and a smaller minority (4.4%) had undergone amputation. Peripheral vasodilators were prescribed unnecessarily and inappropriately. Measures to promote evidence-based treatment of both Raynaud's syndrome and peripheral vascular disease in general practice need to be taken. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Correlation of MLH1 and MGMT methylation levels between peripheral blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue DNA samples in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Yibaina; Zhang, Zuoming; Yao, Xiaoping; Ge, Jie; Zhao, Yashuang

    2013-11-01

    CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair gene mutator L homologue 1 (MLH1) and DNA repair gene O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes has been shown to occur in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissue. However, it is unclear whether the methylation levels in the blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue are correlated. The present study analyzed and compared the levels of MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissues obtained from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were examined using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. A total of 44 patients with CRC were selected based on the MLH1 and MGMT gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood. Corresponding colorectal tumor and normal tissues were obtained from each patient and the DNA methylation levels were determined. The correlation coefficients were evaluated using Spearman's rank test. Agreement was determined by generalized κ-statistics. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) for the methylation levels of the MGMT and MLH1 genes in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were 0.475 and 0.362, respectively (P=0.001 and 0.016, respectively). The agreement of the MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were graded as fair and poor (κ=0.299 and 0.126, respectively). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were moderately and weakly correlated between the patient-matched leukocytes and the normal colorectal tissue, respectively. Blood-derived DNA methylation measurements may not always represent the levels of normal colorectal tissue methylation.

  17. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Adam D; Ki, Dong Hyuk; He, Shuning; Look, A Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are tumors derived from Schwann cells or Schwann cell precursors. Although rare overall, the incidence of MPNST has increased with improved clinical management of patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome. Unfortunately, current treatment modalities for MPNST are limited, with no targeted therapies available and poor efficacy of conventional radiation and chemotherapeutic regimens. Many murine and zebrafish models of MPNST have been developed, which have helped to elucidate the genes and pathways that are dysregulated in MPNST tumorigenesis, including the p53, and the RB1, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, RAS-ERK and Wnt signaling pathways. Preclinical results have suggested that new therapies, including mTOR and ERK inhibitors, may synergize with conventional chemotherapy in human tumors. The discovery of new genome editing technologies, like CRISPR-cas9, and their successful application to the zebrafish model will enable rapid progress in the faithful modeling of MPNST molecular pathogenesis. The zebrafish model is especially suited for high throughput screening of new targeted therapeutics as well as drugs approved for other purposes, which may help to bring enhanced treatment modalities into human clinical trials for this devastating disease.

  18. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common in patients receiving anticancer treatment and can affect survivability and long-term quality of life of the patient following treatment. The symptoms of CIPN primarily include abnormal sensory discrimination of touch, vibration, thermal information, and pain. There is currently a paucity of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat CIPN. The lack of efficacious therapeutics is due, at least in part, to an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapies alter the sensitivity of sensory neurons. Although the clinical presentation of CIPN can be similar with the various classes of chemotherapeutic agents, there are subtle differences, suggesting that each class of drugs might induce neuropathy via different mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathy; however, most pharmacological agents generated from preclinical experiments have failed to alleviate the symptoms of CIPN in the clinic. Further research is necessary to identify the specific mechanisms by which each class of chemotherapeutics induces neuropathy.

  19. Peripheral arterial disease in women.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2009-12-20

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is chronic arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremities caused by atherosclerosis whose prevalence increases with age. Only one-half of women with PAD are symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women with PAD are at increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary artery disease. Modifiable risk factors that predispose women to PAD include active cigarette smoking, passive smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased plasma homocysteine levels and hypothyroidism. With regard to management, women who smoke should be encouraged to quit and referred to a smoking cessation program. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism require treatment. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and improve exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in women with PAD and hypercholesterolemia. Anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin or especially clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins should be given to all women with PAD. Beta blockers are recommended if coronary artery disease is present. Exercise rehabilitation programs and cilostazol increase exercise time until intermittent claudication develops. Chelation therapy should be avoided as it is ineffective. Indications for lower extremity percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or bypass surgery in women are (1) incapacitating claudication interfering with work or lifestyle; and (2) limb salvage in women with limb-threatening ischemia as manifested by rest pain, non-healing ulcers, and/or infection or gangrene. Future research includes investigation of mechanisms underlying why women have a higher risk of graft failure and major amputation.

  20. Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mavroudis, Panteleimon D.; Scheff, Jeremy D.; Calvano, Steve E.; Lowry, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in mammals is primarily driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), often called the central pacemaker, which converts the photic information of light and dark cycles into neuronal and hormonal signals in the periphery of the body. Cells of peripheral tissues respond to these centrally mediated cues by adjusting their molecular function to optimize organism performance. Numerous systemic cues orchestrate peripheral rhythmicity, such as feeding, body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and hormones. We propose a semimechanistic model for the entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol as a representative entrainer of peripheral cells. This model demonstrates the importance of entrainer's characteristics in terms of the synchronization and entrainment of peripheral clock genes, and predicts the loss of intercellular synchrony when cortisol moves out of its homeostatic amplitude and frequency range, as has been observed clinically in chronic stress and cancer. The model also predicts a dynamic regime of entrainment, when cortisol has a slightly decreased amplitude rhythm, where individual clock genes remain relatively synchronized among themselves but are phase shifted in relation to the entrainer. The model illustrates how the loss of communication between the SCN and peripheral tissues could result in desynchronization of peripheral clocks. PMID:22510707

  1. Effects of melatonin on peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Mehmet; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2011-05-01

    In the available literature, there are thousands of studies on peripheral nerve regeneration using many nerves of several animals at different ages with various types of lesions and different methods of evaluation at certain time of follow-up. Despite many experimental data and clinical observations, there is still no ideal treatment method enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration. In clinical practice, various types of surgical nerve repair techniques do not frequently result in complete recovery due to neuroma formation, lipid peroxidative damage, ischemia and other factors. Recently, a number of neuroscientists demonstrated that pineal neurohormone melatonin (MLT) has an effect on the morphologic features of the nerve tissue, suggesting its neuroprotective, free radical scavenging, antioxidative, and analgesic effects in degenerative diseases of peripheral nerves. At present, it is widely accepted that MLT has a useful effect on axon length and sprouting after traumatic events to peripheral nerves. Our studies using various experimental injury models clearly suggest positive effects of MLT on the number of axons, thickness of myelin sheath by inhibition of collagen accumulation and neuroma formation following traumatic events to peripheral nerves, myelination of developing peripheral nerve after intrauterine ethanol exposure. Nevertheless, further experimental and randomized controlled clinical studies are vital to identify the clinical use of MLT hormone. This is an overview of recent patents and current literature in terms of the effects of MLT on peripheral nerve regeneration based on a critical analysis of electrophysiological, biochemical and light and electron microscopic findings, in addition to functional observations.

  2. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxilla.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Ajmera, Neha; Singh, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a reactive gingival overgrowth occurring frequently in anterior maxilla. It is a slow-growing benign tumor which may lead to pathologic migration and other periodontal problems, so it should be excised as soon as possible. The recurrence rate of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is reported to be 8% to 20%, so a close postoperative follow-up is required. Herein, we are reporting a similar case of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxillary anterior region.

  3. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Ajmera, Neha; Singh, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a reactive gingival overgrowth occurring frequently in anterior maxilla. It is a slow-growing benign tumor which may lead to pathologic migration and other periodontal problems, so it should be excised as soon as possible. The recurrence rate of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is reported to be 8% to 20%, so a close postoperative follow-up is required. Herein, we are reporting a similar case of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxillary anterior region. PMID:21760674

  4. Peripheral line dead space: an unrecognised phenomenon?

    PubMed Central

    Geggie, Dave; Moore, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if peripheral intravenous cannula dead space is taken into account when setting up intravenous infusions (in particular nitrate infusions) in the emergency department. Method A postal survey of UK emergency departments. Results Of the 143 (58%) of UK departments who responded, only 15% reported priming the cannula before commencing the nitrate infusion. Conclusions Knowledge of peripheral intravenous cannula dead space in UK emergency departments is very poor and, as a result, there is probably significant widespread under treatment of patients in severe cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Departments should amend their treatment guidelines to take account of peripheral cannula dead space PMID:17652677

  5. A production peripheral vision display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinmiller, B.

    1984-01-01

    A small number of peripheral vision display systems in three significantly different configurations were evaluated in various aircraft and simulator situations. The use of these development systems enabled the gathering of much subjective and quantitative data regarding this concept of flight deck instrumentation. However, much was also learned about the limitations of this equipment which needs to be addressed prior to wide spread use. A program at Garrett Manufacturing Limited in which the peripheral vision display system is redesigned and transformed into a viable production avionics system is discussed. Modular design, interchangeable units, optical attenuators, and system fault detection are considered with respect to peripheral vision display systems.

  6. Systems and methods to control multiple peripherals with a single-peripheral application code

    DOEpatents

    Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-06-11

    Methods and apparatus are provided for enhancing the BIOS of a hardware peripheral device to manage multiple peripheral devices simultaneously without modifying the application software of the peripheral device. The apparatus comprises a logic control unit and a memory in communication with the logic control unit. The memory is partitioned into a plurality of ranges, each range comprising one or more blocks of memory, one range being associated with each instance of the peripheral application and one range being reserved for storage of a data pointer related to each peripheral application of the plurality. The logic control unit is configured to operate multiple instances of the control application by duplicating one instance of the peripheral application for each peripheral device of the plurality and partitioning a memory device into partitions comprising one or more blocks of memory, one partition being associated with each instance of the peripheral application. The method then reserves a range of memory addresses for storage of a data pointer related to each peripheral device of the plurality, and initializes each of the plurality of peripheral devices.

  7. Peripheral neuropathy in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Misiunas, A; Niepomniszcze, H; Ravera, B; Faraj, G; Faure, E

    1995-08-01

    Alterations in peripheral nerves are well documented in overt myxedema but not in subclinical hypothyroidism. We performed electrophysiologic studies to investigate such abnormalities in patients with normal serum total T4 and hyperresponsiveness of TSH to TRH, either with normal or high levels of basal circulating TSH. Subjects were divided in three groups: (i) Hypothyroidism Stage I (group () (n = 17, mean age = 39 +/- 34 years), T4 = 9 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dL, TSH = 4.3 +/- 0.4 microU/mL, sTSH post-TRH (peak value) = 37.6 +/- 1.6 microU/mL; (ii) Hypothyroidism Stage II (group II) (n = 10, mean age: 43 +/- 6 years), T4 = 7.7 +/- 0.8 microgram/dL, TSH = 20 +/- 5 microU/mL, TSH post-TRH > 50 microU/mL; (iii) Control Group (n = 20, mean age 41 +/- 5 years), healthy subjects. All patients and controls were women. TRH test consisted in the i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH (normal peak value up to 25 microU/mL, normal basal TSH < 5.5 microU/mL. None of the patients had carpal tunnel syndrome or any other neurological or metabolic disturbances. We studied the distal motor latencies, motor and sensory amplitudes, and nerve conduction velocities. The motor parameters were measured in the median and external sciatic popliteal (ESP) nerves, and the sensory parameters in the median and sural nerves. In most cases values were obtained from both right and left nerves. Motor parameters: no differences were found between all groups for conduction velocities (CV).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Linde, Klaus; Lao, Lixing; Yoo, Junghee; Wieland, Susan; van der Windt, Daniëlle AWM; Berman, Brian M; Bouter, Lex M

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral joint osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Few treatments are safe and effective. Objectives To assess the effects of acupuncture for treating peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, and EMBASE (both through December 2007), and scanned reference lists of articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing needle acupuncture with a sham, another active treatment, or a waiting list control group in people with osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, or hand. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We calculated standardized mean differences using the differences in improvements between groups. Main results Sixteen trials involving 3498 people were included. Twelve of the RCTs included only people with OA of the knee, 3 only OA of the hip, and 1 a mix of people with OA of the hip and/or knee. In comparison with a sham control, acupuncture showed statistically significant, short-term improvements in osteoarthritis pain (standardized mean difference -0.28, 95% confidence interval -0.45 to -0.11; 0.9 point greater improvement than sham on 20 point scale; absolute percent change 4.59%; relative percent change 10.32%; 9 trials; 1835 participants) and function (-0.28, -0.46 to -0.09; 2.7 point greater improvement on 68 point scale; absolute percent change 3.97%; relative percent change 8.63%); however, these pooled short-term benefits did not meet our predefined thresholds for clinical relevance (i.e. 1.3 points for pain; 3.57 points for function) and there was substantial statistical heterogeneity. Additionally, restriction to sham-controlled trials using shams judged most likely to adequately blind participants to treatment assignment (which were also the same shams judged most

  9. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Linde, Klaus; Lao, Lixing; Yoo, Junghee; Wieland, Susan; van der Windt, Daniëlle Awm; Berman, Brian M; Bouter, Lex M

    2010-01-20

    Peripheral joint osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Few treatments are safe and effective. To assess the effects of acupuncture for treating peripheral joint osteoarthritis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, and EMBASE (both through December 2007), and scanned reference lists of articles. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing needle acupuncture with a sham, another active treatment, or a waiting list control group in people with osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, or hand. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We calculated standardized mean differences using the differences in improvements between groups. Sixteen trials involving 3498 people were included. Twelve of the RCTs included only people with OA of the knee, 3 only OA of the hip, and 1 a mix of people with OA of the hip and/or knee. In comparison with a sham control, acupuncture showed statistically significant, short-term improvements in osteoarthritis pain (standardized mean difference -0.28, 95% confidence interval -0.45 to -0.11; 0.9 point greater improvement than sham on 20 point scale; absolute percent change 4.59%; relative percent change 10.32%; 9 trials; 1835 participants) and function (-0.28, -0.46 to -0.09; 2.7 point greater improvement on 68 point scale; absolute percent change 3.97%; relative percent change 8.63%); however, these pooled short-term benefits did not meet our predefined thresholds for clinical relevance (i.e. 1.3 points for pain; 3.57 points for function) and there was substantial statistical heterogeneity. Additionally, restriction to sham-controlled trials using shams judged most likely to adequately blind participants to treatment assignment (which were also the same shams judged most likely to have physiological activity), reduced heterogeneity and resulted in pooled short

  10. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Krayenbühl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions.

  11. Could Peripheral Arterial Disease Be Your Problem?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise and yoga classes and has returned to teaching. Fast Facts Peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.) occurs when a fatty material called plaque (pronounced plak) builds up on the inside walls of the arteries that carry blood from ...

  12. Advances in understanding the peripheral circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacob; Gumz, Michelle L

    2012-09-01

    In the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that the circadian clock system plays an important role in many physiological processes. The circadian clock can be divided into 2 parts: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which receives light cues, and the peripheral clocks that reside in various tissues throughout the body. The peripheral clocks play an integral and unique role in each of their respective tissues, driving the circadian expression of specific genes involved in a variety of physiological functions. The goal of this review is to provide an introduction to and overview of the peripheral clocks, including potential mechanisms, targets, and implications for disease states. The peripheral clocks include the cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems.

  13. An eclectic history of peripheral nerve surgery.

    PubMed

    Little, Kenneth M; Zomorodi, Ali R; Selznick, Lee A; Friedman, Allan H

    2004-04-01

    It is hard to decide where history stops and contemporary development of peripheral nerve surgery begins. This article provides an eclectic view of the history of peripheral nerve surgery. In trying to keep the story moving, the publications of many authors have been omitted. For this, we are sorry. We have also stopped short of reporting the contemporary history of molecular biology as applied to peripheral nerve regeneration. The future of peripheral nerve repairs lies in our understanding of the molecular cascades that stimulate axon growth and guide the axon to its proper destination. We hope that this review shows the reader that researchers who got us where we are traveled a road filled with erroneous dogma, bad advice,and misleading data. We believe that the lessons learned from those who brought us back to the right path are applicable to many disciplines.

  14. Peripheral visual changes and spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A; Spencer, M; Hockey, R

    1991-04-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the attentional effects of peripheral visual changes. In agreement with previous work, experiment 1 demonstrated facilitatory and inhibitory effects of a peripheral visual change on the latency of peripheral target detection. However, after a few minutes practice the facilitatory effect disappeared entirely. The inhibitory effect, though slightly reduced in later blocks, remained significant. Hence, the two effects are dissociable and not inter-dependent as argued by Maylor (1985). In experiments 2 and 3 the perceptual salience of the peripheral cue was manipulated. With a low energy, barely noticeable cue there was no reduction in either facilitation or inhibition as a function of practice. In contrast, the attentional effects of cues higher in energy tended to diminish with practice. Theoretical implications of these data are discussed.

  15. Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... the arteries to narrow or become blocked, which can reduce or block blood flow. P.A.D. ...

  16. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic despite the absence or asymmetry of femoral pulses. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital Subtraction Angiography In Peripheral Vascular Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieghorst, Michael F.; Crummy, Andrew B.; Lieberman, Robert P.; Turnipseed, William D.; Detmer, Donald E.; Berkoff, Herbert A.

    1981-11-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has considerable utility in the evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. It is useful in screening selected patients for vascular disease and its relative ease of performance and good patient tolerance make it ideal for serial examinations of post operative patients. When used in conjunction with intra arterial injections, the technique may show "run-off" vessels which were not demonstrated by standard angiography. This paper presents our experience using DSA to image peripheral vascular problems.

  18. Treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C

    2015-02-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Peripheral vision and child pedestrian accidents.

    PubMed

    David, S S; Chapman, A J; Foot, H C; Sheehy, N P

    1986-11-01

    In both adults and children, peripheral vision is poorer than foveal vision, but there is evidence that detection in peripheral vision is relatively poorer in children than it is in adults. That may contribute to the particularly high pedestrian accident rates of children. Two laboratory experiments investigated peripheral vision in men and women and in boys and girls aged 7, 9 and 11. Using an array of stationary lights, Expt 1 examined reactions to apparent movement (the phi phenomenon) in mid and extreme periphery; and, using film sequences of a moving car, Expt 2 included a comparison of foveal and peripheral fields. Overall there was little evidence to support the hypothesis that children have poorer peripheral vision than adults relative to their foveal vision. Nonetheless there were some experimental differences: in Expt 1, 7-year-olds made fewer detections, particularly in the extreme periphery; and, in both experiments, detections tended to be slower. The relatively complex car movements in Expt 2 were detected faster in foveal than peripheral vision. There were no sex differences. Children detected more movements on the left. In Expt 2 these detections were faster, and children made relatively more simulated road crossings when the car approached from the left (all adults 'crossed' in all trials).

  20. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system☆

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system, which dates back more than 100 years and reveals the evidence on the under estimated potential for generation of new neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system. PMID:25722694

  1. Clinical Profile of Peripheral Neuropathy in Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Sarker, U K; Uddin, M J; Chowdhury, R; Roy, N; Bhattacharjee, M; Roy, J

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to see the association of peripheral neuropathy in leprosy and to find out the clinical profile of peripheral neuropathy and disability status in leprosy. It was descriptive type of cross sectional study was conducted among the cases of leprosy attended in the out-patient departments of neurology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) and Mymensingh tuberculosis and leprosy hospital that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this study, during the study period of January 2010 to December 2011.In this study of 62 cases revealed that leprosy is more common in male (71%) people and 21% leprosy patient had contact with known case of leprosy. Leprosy causes peripheral neuropathy (61.3%). Duration of occurrence of peripheral neuropathy was prolonged (>6 month) in most of the patients (47.4%) and the disease progression was also slow (63.2%). Numbness was complained by 89.4% patients and 65.8% subjects complained of weakness of limbs. Deformities and ulcers were present in 26.3% and 50% of patients respectively. Ulnar nerve (43.6%), Lateral popliteal nerve (41.9%), Posterior tibial nerve (41.9%) and Great auricular nerve (17.7%) were the most commonly involved thickened peripheral nerves. The rate of visible physical impairment (WHO Grade 2 disability) among people affected by leprosy in feet was 27.4% and in hands was 16.1%. The position and vibration sense was found to normal all patients of peripheral neuropathy.

  2. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-05-15

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system, which dates back more than 100 years and reveals the evidence on the under estimated potential for generation of new neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system.

  3. Mini-review: Far peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Michael J

    2017-09-09

    The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105(0), but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain imaging correlates of peripheral nerve stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Ausaf A.; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Direct peripheral nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for a number of disorders including epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, cluster headache, and urological dysfunction. The efficacy of this stimulation is ultimately due to modulation of activity in the central nervous system. However, the exact brain regions involved in each disorder and how they are modulated by peripheral nerve stimulation is not fully understood. The use of functional neuroimaging such as SPECT, PET and fMRI in patients undergoing peripheral nerve stimulation can help us to understand these mechanisms. We review the literature for functional neuroimaging performed in patients implanted with peripheral nerve stimulators for the above-mentioned disorders. These studies suggest that brain activity in response to peripheral nerve stimulation is a complex interaction between the stimulation parameters, disease type and severity, chronicity of stimulation, as well as nonspecific effects. From this information we may be able to understand which brain structures are involved in the mechanism of peripheral nerve stimulation as well as define the neural substrates underlying these disorders. PMID:23230531

  5. Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats Exposed to Dichloroacetate

    PubMed Central

    Calcutt, Nigel A.; Lopez, Veronica L.; Bautista, Arjel D.; Mizisin, Leah M.; Torres, Brenda R.; Shroads, Albert L.; Mizisin, Andrew P.; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    The use of dichloroacetate (DCA) for treating patients with mitochondrial diseases is limited by the induction of peripheral neuropathy. The mechanisms of DCA-induced neuropathy are not known. Oral DCA treatment (50–500 mg/kg/day for up to 16 weeks) induced tactile allodynia in both juvenile and adult rats; concurrent thermal hypoalgesia developed at higher doses. Both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA developed nerve conduction slowing that was more pronounced in adult rats. No overt axonal or glial cell abnormalities were identified in peripheral nerves or spinal cord of any DCA-treated rats but morphometric analysis identified a reduction of mean axonal caliber of peripheral nerve myelinated fibers. DCA treatment also caused accumulation of oxidative stress markers in the nerves. These data indicate that behavioral, functional and structural indices of peripheral neuropathy may be induced in both juvenile and adult rats treated with DCA at doses similar to those in clinical use. DCA-induced peripheral neuropathy primarily afflicts axons and involves both metabolic and structural disorders. The DCA-treated rat may provide insight into the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy and facilitate development of adjuvant therapeutics to prevent this disorder that currently restricts the clinical use of DCA. PMID:19680144

  6. Tissue engineered constructs for peripheral nerve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P. J.; Wood, M. D.; Moore, A. M.; Mackinnon, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Tissue engineering has been defined as “an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ”. Traumatic peripheral nerve injury resulting in significant tissue loss at the zone of injury necessitates the need for a bridge or scaffold for regenerating axons from the proximal stump to reach the distal stump. Methods A review of the literature was used to provide information on the components necessary for the development of a tissue engineered peripheral nerve substitute. Then, a comprehensive review of the literature is presented composed of the studies devoted to this goal. Results Extensive research has been directed toward the development of a tissue engineered peripheral nerve substitute to act as a bridge for regenerating axons from the proximal nerve stump seeking the distal nerve. Ideally this nerve substitute would consist of a scaffold component that mimics the extracellular matrix of the peripheral nerve and a cellular component that serves to stimulate and support regenerating peripheral nerve axons. Conclusions The field of tissue engineering should consider its challenge to not only meet the autograft “gold standard” but also to understand what drives and inhibits nerve regeneration in order to surpass the results of an autograft. PMID:24385980

  7. A peripheral governor regulates muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Shahi, M Reza S

    2011-02-01

    Active skeletal muscles are capable of keeping the global [adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] reasonably constant during exercise, whether it is mild exercise, activating a few motor units, or all-out exercise using a substantial mass of muscle. This could only be accomplished if there were regulatory processes in place not only to replenish ATP as quickly as possible, but also to modulate the rate of ATP use when that rate threatens to exceed the rate of ATP replenishment, a situation that could lead to metabolic catastrophe. This paper proposes that there is a regulatory process or "peripheral governor" that can modulate activation of muscle to avoid metabolic catastrophe. A peripheral governor, working at the cellular level, should be able to reduce the cellular rate of ATP hydrolysis associated with muscle contraction by attenuating activation. This would necessarily cause something we call peripheral fatigue (i.e., reduced contractile response to a given stimulation). There is no doubt that peripheral fatigue occurs. It has been demonstrated in isolated muscles, in muscles in situ with no central nervous system input, and in intact human subjects performing voluntary exercise with small muscle groups or doing whole-body exercise. The regulation of muscle activation is achieved in at least 3 ways (decreasing membrane excitability, inhibiting Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors, and decreasing the availability of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum), making this a highly redundant control system. The peripheral governor attenuates cellular activation to reduce the metabolic demand, thereby preserving ATP and the integrity of the cell.

  8. Regular Exercise Training Increases the Number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Decreases Homocysteine Levels in Healthy Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Kyu; Moon, Ki Myung; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Ji Yong; Choi, Sung Hyun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Chu, Chong Woo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to play an important role in the repair of damaged blood vessels. We used an endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA) to determine whether EPC numbers could be increased in healthy individuals through regular exercise training. The number of functional EPCs obtained from human peripheral blood-derived AC133 stem cells was measured after a 28-day regular exercise training program. The number of total endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming units (EPC-CFU) was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p=0.02, n=5). In addition, we observed a significant decrease in homocysteine levels followed by an increase in the number of EPC-CFUs (p=0.04, n=5), indicating that the 28-day regular exercise training could increase the number of EPC colonies and decrease homocysteine levels. Moreover, an inverse correlation was observed between small-endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming units (small-EPC-CFUs) and plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men (r=-0.8125, p=0.047). We found that regular exercise training could increase the number of EPC-CFUs and decrease homocysteine levels, thus decreasing the cardiovascular disease risk in men. PMID:24757379

  9. The neurochemistry of peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Benga, Andreea; Zor, Fatih; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Marinescu, Bogdan; Gorantla, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can be most disabling, resulting in the loss of sensitivity, motor function and autonomic control in the involved anatomical segment. Although injured peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, sub-optimal recovery of function is seen even with the best reconstruction. Distal axonal degeneration is an unavoidable consequence of PNI. There are currently few strategies aimed to maintain the distal pathway and/or target fidelity during regeneration across the zone of injury. The current state of the art approaches have been focussed on the site of nerve injury and not on their distal muscular targets or representative proximal cell bodies or central cortical regions. This is a comprehensive literature review of the neurochemistry of peripheral nerve regeneration and a state of the art analysis of experimental compounds (inorganic and organic agents) with demonstrated neurotherapeutic efficacy in improving cell body and neuron survival, reducing scar formation and maximising overall nerve regeneration. PMID:28615804

  10. Tissue engineering of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Carriel, Víctor; Alaminos, Miguel; Garzón, Ingrid; Campos, Antonio; Cornelissen, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The structure and function of peripheral nerves can be affected by a range of conditions with severe consequences in these patients. Currently, there are several surgical techniques available to treat peripheral nerve defects. Direct repair is the preferred treatment for short nerve gaps, and nerve autografting is the gold standard in critical nerve defects. The autografting is not always available, and the use of allograft, decellularized allograft and nerve conduits are often used with variable success. During the recent years, several outcomes were achieved in peripheral nerve tissue engineering. Promising experimental results have been demonstrated with this novel generation of nerve conduits, mainly composed by biodegradables materials in combination with intraluminal fillers, growth factors and different cell sources.

  11. APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Monastiriotis, Christodoulos; Papanas, Nikolaos; Veletza, Stavroula; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-09-08

    Genetic factors may influence the natural course of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and explain some of its variability. The aim of this review was to examine the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Four relevant studies were identified. The two earlier works provided evidence that the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for this complication, while the two more recent studies were negative. Important differences in the methodology used and in the populations included are obvious, rendering difficult the comparison between studies. In conclusion, the association between APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is still unclear. Available evidence is rather limited and results have so far been contradictory. Future studies should employ more robust methodology, adjusting for potential confounders and for the prevalence of neuropathy in the general population with diabetes.

  12. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  13. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ∼19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ∼25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with

  14. Neuropathic Pain: Central vs. Peripheral Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Kathleen; Shepherd, Andrew; Mohapatra, Durga P; Haroutounian, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Our goal is to examine the processes-both central and peripheral-that underlie the development of peripherally-induced neuropathic pain (pNP) and to highlight recent evidence for mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. While many pNP conditions are initiated by damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), their persistence appears to rely on maladaptive processes within the central nervous system (CNS). The potential existence of an autonomous pain-generating mechanism in the CNS creates significant implications for the development of new neuropathic pain treatments; thus, work towards its resolution is crucial. Here, we seek to identify evidence for PNS and CNS independently generating neuropathic pain signals. Recent preclinical studies in pNP support and provide key details concerning the role of multiple mechanisms leading to fiber hyperexcitability and sustained electrical discharge to the CNS. In studies regarding central mechanisms, new preclinical evidence includes the mapping of novel inhibitory circuitry and identification of the molecular basis of microglia-neuron crosstalk. Recent clinical evidence demonstrates the essential role of peripheral mechanisms, mostly via studies that block the initially damaged peripheral circuitry. Clinical central mechanism studies use imaging to identify potentially self-sustaining infra-slow CNS oscillatory activity that may be unique to pNP patients. While new preclinical evidence supports and expands upon the key role of central mechanisms in neuropathic pain, clinical evidence for an autonomous central mechanism remains relatively limited. Recent findings from both preclinical and clinical studies recapitulate the critical contribution of peripheral input to maintenance of neuropathic pain. Further clinical investigations on the possibility of standalone central contributions to pNP may be assisted by a reconsideration of the agreed terms or criteria for diagnosing the presence of central sensitization in humans.

  15. Nerve Ultrasound in Peripheral Neuropathies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kerasnoudis, Antonios; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are one of the most common reasons for seeking neurological care in everyday practice. Electrophysiological studies remain fundamental for the diagnosis and etiological classification of peripheral nerve impairment. The recent technological development though of high resolution ultrasound has allowed the clinician to obtain detailed structural images of peripheral nerves. Nerve ultrasound mainly focuses on the evaluation of the cross sectional area, cross sectional area variability along the anatomical course, echogenity, vascularity and mobility of the peripheral nerves. An increase of the cross sectional area, hypervascularity, disturbed fascicular echostructure and reduced nerve mobility are some of the most common findings of entrapments neuropathies, such as the carpal or cubital tunnel syndrome. Both the cross-sectional area increase and the hypervascularity detected with the Doppler technique seem to correlate significantly with the clinical and electrophysiological severity of the later mononeuropathies. Significantly greater cross sectional area values of the clinically affected cervical nerve root are often detected in cases of cervical radiculopathy. In such cases, the ultrasound findings seem also to correlate significantly with disease duration. On the other hand, multifocal cross sectional area enlargement of cervical roots and/or peripheral nerves is often documented in cases of immune-mediated neuropathies. None of the later pathological ultrasound findings seem to correlate significantly with the electrophysiological parameters or the functional disability. The aim of this review is to provide a timely update on the role of neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the most common entrapment and immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. CD31+ Cells From Peripheral Blood Facilitate Bone Regeneration in Biologically Impaired Conditions Through Combined Effects on Immunomodulation and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sass, F Andrea; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Ellinghaus, Agnes; Filter, Sebastian; Rose, Alexander; Preininger, Bernd; Reinke, Simon; Geissler, Sven; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Duda, Georg N; Dienelt, Anke

    2017-05-01

    Controlled revascularization and inflammation are key elements regulating endogenous regeneration after (bone) tissue trauma. Peripheral blood-derived cell subsets, such as regulatory T-helper cells and circulating (endothelial) progenitor cells, respectively, can support endogenous tissue healing, whereas effector T cells that are associated with an aged immune system can hinder bone regeneration. CD31 is expressed by diverse leukocytes and is well recognized as a marker of circulating endothelial (precursor) cells; however, CD31 is absent from the surface of differentiated effector T cells. Thus, we hypothesized that by separating the inhibitory fractions from the supportive fractions of circulating cells within the peripheral blood (PB) using the CD31 marker, bone regeneration in biologically compromised conditions, such as those observed in aged patients, could be improved. In support of our hypothesis, we detected an inverse correlation between CD31+ cells and effector T cells in the hematomas of human fracture patients, dependent on the age of the patient. Furthermore, we demonstrated the regenerative capacity of human PB-CD31+ cells in vitro. These findings were translated to a clinically relevant rat model of impaired bone healing. The transplantation of rat PB-CD31+ cells advanced bone tissue restoration in vivo and was associated with an early anti-inflammatory response, the stimulation of (re)vascularization, and reduced fibrosis. Interestingly, the depletion or enrichment of the highly abundant CD31+/14+ monocytes from the mixed CD31+ cell population diminished tissue regeneration at different levels, suggesting combined effects within the PB-CD31+ subsets. In summary, an intraoperative enrichment of PB-CD31+ cells might be a novel option to facilitate endogenous regeneration under biologically impaired situations by supporting immunomodulation and vascularization. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone

  17. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter in peripheral blood DNA is associated with triple-negative and medullary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Satish; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Jakubowska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that methylation signatures in blood-derived DNA may correlate with cancer risk. In this study, we evaluated whether methylation of the promoter region of the BRCA1 gene detectable in DNA from peripheral blood cells is a risk factor for breast cancer, in particular for tumors with pathologic features characteristic for cancers with BRCA1 gene mutations. We conducted a case-control study of 66 breast cancer cases and 36 unaffected controls. Cases were triple-negative or of medullary histology, or both; 30 carried a constitutional BRCA1 mutation and 36 did not carry a mutation. Blood for DNA methylation analysis was taken within three months of diagnosis. Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene was measured in cases and controls using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). A sample with any detectable level of methylation was considered to be positive. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 15 of 66 cases and in 2 of 36 controls (OR 5.0, p = 0.03). Methylation was present in 15 of 36 women with breast cancer and without germline BRCA1 mutation, but in none of 30 women with breast cancer and a germline mutation (p < 0.01). The association between methylation and breast cancer was restricted to women with no constitutional BRCA1 mutation (OR 12.1, p = 0.0006). Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene detectable in peripheral blood DNA may be a marker of increased susceptibility to triple-negative or medullary breast cancer.

  18. Peripheral cholesterol, metabolic disorders and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Dotti, Carlos Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Strong correlations have been made between high levels of blood cholesterol and the risk to suffer Alzheimer's disease (AD). The question arises on how a peripheral event contributes to a disease that so severely affects the integrity and function of the Central Nervous System. Hypercholesterolemia has been also associated to peripheral metabolic disorders like diabetes, obesity or atherosclerosis that, in turn, predispose to AD. Here we review data, which point to alterations in blood cholesterol levels as a link between these metabolic disorders and AD. We describe and discuss common, cholesterol-related, molecular mechanisms and strategies to fight these conditions that, altogether, constitute a major cause of death in our societies.

  19. Diagnostic ultrasonography for peripheral vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas; Nolting, Laura; Barr, Caleb; Hunt, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Over the past decade, emergency and critical care physicians have been empowered with the ability to use bedside ultrasonography to assist in the evaluation and management of a variety of emergent conditions. Today a single health care provider at the bedside with Duplex ultrasound technology can evaluate peripheral vascular calamities that once required significant time and a variety of health care personnel for the diagnosis. This article highlights peripheral thromboembolic disease, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, and arterial occlusion in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Antibodies to Glycans in Peripheral Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Sandro; Chiricozzi, Elena; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Mauri, Laura; Prinetti, Alessandro; Toffano, Gino; Aureli, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    In peripheral neuropathies, such as sensorimotor neuropathies, motor neuron diseases, or the Guillain-Barré syndrome, serum antibodies recognizing saccharide units, portion of oligosaccharides, or oligosaccharide chains, have been found. These antibodies are called anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) or anti-ganglioside antibodies. However, the information on the aglycone carrying the hydrophilic oligosaccharide remains elusive. The absolute and unique association of GSL to the onset, development and symptomatology of the peripheral neuropathies could be misleading. Here, we report some thoughts on the matter.

  1. Peripheral blood gene expression patterns discriminate among chronic inflammatory diseases and healthy controls and identify novel targets.

    PubMed

    Mesko, Bertalan; Poliska, Szilard; Szegedi, Andrea; Szekanecz, Zoltan; Palatka, Karoly; Papp, Maria; Nagy, Laszlo

    2010-05-05

    Chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) afflict millions of people worldwide, but their pathogenesis is still not well understood. It is also not well known if distinct changes in gene expression characterize these diseases and if these patterns can discriminate between diseased and control patients and/or stratify the disease. The main focus of our work was the identification of novel markers that overlap among the 3 diseases or discriminate them from each other. Diseased (n = 13, n = 15 and n = 12 in IBD, psoriasis and RA respectively) and healthy patients (n = 18) were recruited based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria; peripheral blood samples were collected by clinicians (30 ml) in Venous Blood Vacuum Collection Tubes containing EDTA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent. Gene expression data was obtained using TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) containing 96 genes that were selected by an algorithm and the statistical analyses were performed in Prism by using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (P-values < 0.05). Here we show that using a panel of 96 disease associated genes and measuring mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells; we could identify disease-specific gene panels that separate each disease from healthy controls. In addition, a panel of five genes such as ADM, AQP9, CXCL2, IL10 and NAMPT discriminates between all samples from patients with chronic inflammation and healthy controls. We also found genes that stratify the diseases and separate different subtypes or different states of prognosis in each condition. These findings and the identification of five universal markers of chronic inflammation suggest that these diseases have a common background in pathomechanism, but still can be separated by peripheral blood

  2. Immune response in peripheral axons delays disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice.

    PubMed

    Nardo, Giovanni; Trolese, Maria Chiara; de Vito, Giuseppe; Cecchi, Roberta; Riva, Nilo; Dina, Giorgia; Heath, Paul R; Quattrini, Angelo; Shaw, Pamela J; Piazza, Vincenzo; Bendotti, Caterina

    2016-10-07

    Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system has a beneficial role in the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) although the mechanism remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that motor neurons (MNs) of C57SOD1(G93A) mice with slow disease progression activate molecules classically involved in the cross-talk with the immune system. This happens a lot less in 129SvSOD1(G93A) mice which, while expressing the same amount of transgene, had faster disease progression and earlier axonal damage. The present study investigated whether and how the immune response is involved in the preservation of motor axons in the mouse model of familial ALS with a more benign disease course. First, the extent of axonal damage, Schwann cell proliferation, and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) denervation were compared between the two ALS mouse models at the disease onset. Then, we compared the expression levels of different immune molecules, the morphology of myelin sheaths, and the presence of blood-derived immune cell infiltrates in the sciatic nerve of the two SOD1G93A mouse strains using immunohistochemical, immunoblot, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and rotating-polarization Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering techniques. Muscle denervation, axonal dysregulation, and myelin disruption together with reduced Schwann cell proliferation are prominent in 129SvSOD1(G93A) compared to C57SOD1(G93A) mice at the disease onset, and this correlates with a faster disease progression in the first strain. On the contrary, a striking increase of immune molecules such as CCL2, MHCI, and C3 was seen in sciatic nerves of slow progressor C57SOD1(G93A) mice and this was accompanied by heavy infiltration of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and macrophages. These phenomena were not detectable in the peripheral nervous system of fast-progressing mice. These data show for the first time that damaged MNs in SOD1-related ALS actively recruit immune cells in the peripheral nervous system to

  3. Radiation-induced malignant and atypical peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.

  4. Epidemiology of Peripheral Neuropathy: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Sweety; Pandit, Alak; Ganguly, Goutam; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common disorder and presents as diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians and neurologists. In epidemiological studies from India from various regions the overall prevalence of PN varied from 5 to 2400 per 10,000 population in various community studies. India is composed of a multiethnic, multicultural population who are exposed to different adverse environmental factors such as arsenic and lead. Use of different chemotherapeutic agents with propensity to affect peripheral nerves, increasing methods of diagnosis of connective tissue disorders and use of immunomodulating drugs, growing aging population is expected to change the spectrum and burden of peripheral neuropathy in the community. The other important aspect of peripheral neuropathies is in terms of the geographical and occupational distribution especially of toxic neuropathies like arsenic which is common in eastern belt; lead, mercury and organo-phosphorous compounds where occupational exposures are major sources. Inflammatory neuropathies either due to vasculitis or G B Syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyradiculopathies are another major group of neuropathies which is increasing due to increase longevity of Indian subjects and immunological impairment, also adds to morbidity of the patients and are potentially treatable. Leprous neuropathy is common in India and although its frequency is significantly decreasing because of national control program yet pure neuritic form still remains a cause of concern and similar is the case with another infective cause like diptheric neurpathy. Thus this article is an attempt to cover major categories and also highlight the areas where further studies are needed. PMID:28904445

  5. Unusual forms of peripheral arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Lazar, D; Slobodan, L; Maja, E; Marija, H; Stana, R; Vesna, C; Miljko, R

    1994-06-01

    Two cases of unusual forms of peripheral arterial embolization are presented. One had a septic embolization with necrosis of the popliteal artery due to subacute bacterial endocarditis and the other had a malignant embolization of the abdominal aorta bifurcation due to lung tumor. Both underwent successful surgical treatment.

  6. Painful peripheral neuropathy and sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-06-02

    Peripheral neuropathy can lead to neuropathic pain in a subset of patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder, reflected by a reduced quality of life. Therapeutic strategies are limited and often disappointing, as in most cases targeted treatment is not available. Elucidating pathogenetic factors for pain might provide a target for optimal treatment. Voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7-NaV1.9 are expressed in the small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axons. By a targeted gene approach, missense gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.7-NaV1.9 have been demonstrated in painful peripheral neuropathy. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations produce a spectrum of pro-excitatory changes in channel biophysics, with the shared outcome at the cellular level of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability. Reduced neurite outgrowth may be another consequence of sodium channel mutations, and possible therapeutic strategies include blockade of sodium channels or block of reverse operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of painful peripheral neuropathy offers new targets that may provide a basis for more effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dense peripheral corneal clouding in Scheie syndrome.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Whitley, C B; Holland, E J; Purple, R L; Krivit, W

    1994-05-01

    A 28-year-old woman with Scheie syndrome (MPS I-S) presented with the unusual feature of extremely dense peripheral corneal clouding, allowing maintenance of good central visual acuity. Characteristic systemic features, an abnormal electroretinogram result, and absent alpha-L-iduronidase activity confirmed the diagnosis despite the unusual corneal pattern of clouding.

  8. Breast peripheral area correction in digital mammograms.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Meritxell; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Ganau, Sergi; Tortajada, Lidia; Sentís, Melcior; Freixenet, Jordi; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2014-07-01

    Digital mammograms may present an overexposed area in the peripheral part of the breast, which is visually shown as a darker area with lower contrast. This has a direct impact on image quality and affects image visualisation and assessment. This paper presents an automatic method to enhance the overexposed peripheral breast area providing a more homogeneous and improved view of the whole mammogram. The method automatically restores the overexposed area by equalising the image using information from the intensity of non-overexposed neighbour pixels. The correction is based on a multiplicative model and on the computation of the distance map from the breast boundary. A total of 334 digital mammograms were used for evaluation. Mammograms before and after enhancement were evaluated by an expert using visual comparison. In 90.42% of the cases, the enhancement obtained improved visualisation compared to the original image in terms of contrast and detail. Moreover, results show that lesions found in the peripheral area after enhancement presented a more homogeneous intensity distribution. Hence, peripheral enhancement is shown to improve visualisation and will play a role in further development of CAD systems in mammography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripherally inserted central catheters. Intravenous Nurses Society.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Intravenous Nurses Society (INS) recognizes the need for uniform terminology for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) to encourage standardization for indications, care, and maintenance strategies for these devices. It also recognizes the need for recommendations regarding the choice, use, management, and discontinuation of PICCs to promote positive patient outcomes and enhance patient comfort, safety, and satisfaction.

  10. Unusually large-sized peripheral ossifying fibroma.

    PubMed

    John, Reena Rachel; Kandasamy, Saravanan; Achuthan, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous growths in the gingiva with the histopathological presence of calcifications are a common occurrence in the oral cavity. These lesions can be neoplastic in nature with either odontogenic or non odontogenic origin or they can be reactive lesions. This is a case report of an unusual presentation of peripheral ossifying fibroma , unusual because of its abnormally large size with review of literature.

  11. Ischaemic stroke and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Attiya Sabeen; Akhtar, Syed Wasim; Jamal, Qaiser; Sultana, Nuzhat; Siddiqui, Muhammad Asadullah; Hassan, Ziaul

    2017-08-01

    To determine the frequency of atherosclerosis by ankle brachial index in patients with an ischaemic stroke and to assess the association of carotid artery stenosis and ankle brachial index in ischaemic stroke. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi, from July 2011 to May 2014, and comprised patients with ischaemic stroke. The patients were classified according to the Asian stroke criteria for classification of brain infarction. Primary outcome measures included carotid artery stenosis and ankle brachial index. The other independent variables were age, gender, body mass index and waist circumference. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. A total of 327 patients were enrolled. The overall mean age was 57.6±12.8 years. Besides, 168(51.3%) participants were males. Peripheral artery disease was found in 60(18.3%) patients. Mild carotid artery stenosis was found in 182(55.6%) patients, moderate in 140(42.8%), severe in 3(0.9%) and complete occlusion in 2(0.6%) patients. In patients having mild carotid artery stenosis, 32(17.5%) had peripheral artery disease, whereas in patients with moderate carotid artery stenosis, 25(17.8%) had peripheral artery disease. Abnormally low ankle brachial index suggesting subclinical peripheral artery disease was 18%.

  12. Peripheral nerve palsy by torsional nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Waltraud Kleist-Welch; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2011-04-01

    Peripheral nerve palsy caused by torsional nerve injury is rare. Only a few patients have been reported in the literature. The etiology of this type of nerve lesion is poorly understood. To report on 5 patients presenting with peripheral nerve palsy caused by a torsional nerve injury. Five patients presented with 6 upper peripheral nerve palsy involving the axillary nerve (n = 2), musculocutaneous nerve (n = 2), radial nerve (n = 1), and suprascapular nerve (n = 1). There was no history of trauma in 3 patients, but in the other 2 patients, nerve palsy occurred after a traumatic event. Because of a lack of spontaneous recovery, surgical exploration was performed. Torsion of the whole nerve (n = 5) or only 1 fascicle (n = 1) was found. Epifascicular epineurectomy and detorsion, as well as resection of the torsion site with subsequent primary nerve suture, were performed in 3 lesions. Good to excellent recovery of motor function was achieved in all 5 patients. In the last patient who presented with 2 nerve torsions, the follow-up period after the last surgery is too short to allow evaluation. Although not a frequent event, torsional nerve injury should be taken into consideration when dealing with peripheral nerve injuries. Surgical exploration with detorsion or suture results in good recovery.

  13. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  14. Peripheral Participation and the Kwakiutl Potlatch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    1996-01-01

    A 25-year association with the Kwakiutl led to an invitation in 1987 to a Kwakiutl memorial potlatch in British Columbia (Canada). Jean Lave's concept of peripheral participation is used as a framework for examining how humans find their "way in" to such cultural events. (Author/MMU)

  15. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  16. Drugs for the treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, Paola; Cavaletti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are frequent in association with systemic diseases as well as isolated disorders. Recent advances in the therapy of specific neuropathies led to the approval of new drugs/treatments. This review selected those peripheral neuropathies where the most recent approvals were provided and revised the potential future developments in diabetic and toxic-induced neuropathies, although they do not have a currently available causal therapy in view of their epidemiological and social relevance. Data have been extracted from the most important published trials and from clinical experience. In addition, data from the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency indications on the treatment of the selected peripheral neuropathies and from recently updated international guidelines have also been included. The website of the U.S. National Institutes of Health www.clinicaltrials.gov registry has been used as the reference database for phase III clinical trials not yet published or ongoing. This review gives a general overview of the most recent advances in the treatment of amyloid, inflammatory, and paraproteinemic peripheral neuropathies. Moreover, it briefly describes the unmet medical need in disabling and frequent conditions, such as diabetic and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, highlighting the most promising therapeutic approaches to their treatment.

  17. Legitimate Peripheral Participation and Home Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, L.

    2010-01-01

    After a description of home education, Lave and Wenger's (1991) theory of legitimate peripheral participation (LPP) is applied to the situation of home educators who join a neighbourhood home education group, a community of practice. Then, it is argued that the theory of LPP, with suitable modification, can also apply to and illuminate the…

  18. Peripheral circadian oscillators and their rhythmic regulation.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Tosini, Gianluca

    2003-05-01

    Most of the organisms living on earth show 24 hour (circadian) rhythms that are endogenously controlled by biological clocks. In mammals, these rhythms are generated by the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. However, recent studies have demonstrated that circadian oscillators can be found in many organs and tissues, and it appears that the circadian oscillators in the periphery are not self-sustained, since, in vitro, the oscillation disappears after a few cycles. Although analysis of the clockwork mechanism indicates that the molecular composition of the clock in the SCN and in the peripheral tissues is very similar, the mechanism responsible for the damping of the circadian oscillation in the periphery is unknown. Recent studies have also indicated that the mammalian circadian system is hierarchically organized in that the SCN (i.e., the master circadian pacemaker) controls the peripheral oscillators in order to coordinate the physiological events in an entire body. The mechanisms by which the SCN controls peripheral oscillators are just starting to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings on functioning of these extra-SCN oscillators and the mechanisms the SCN controls peripheral oscillators.

  19. Peripheral Mechanisms of Pain and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Christoph; Clark, J. David; Oh, Uhtaek; Vasko, Michael R.; Wilcox, George L.; Overland, Aaron C.; Vanderah, Todd W.; Spencer, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes recent findings on peripheral mechanisms underlying the generation and inhibition of pain. The focus is on events occurring in peripheral injured tissues that lead to the sensitization and excitation of primary afferent neurons, and on the modulation of such mechanisms. Primary afferent neurons are of particular interest from a therapeutic perspective because they are the initial generator of noxious impulses traveling towards relay stations in the spinal cord and the brain. Thus, if one finds ways to inhibit the sensitization and/or excitation of peripheral sensory neurons, subsequent central events such as wind-up, sensitization and plasticity may be prevented. Most importantly, if agents are found that selectively modulate primary afferent function and do not cross the blood-brain-barrier, centrally mediated untoward side effects of conventional analgesics (e.g. opioids, anticonvulsants) may be avoided. This article begins with the peripheral actions of opioids, turns to a discussion of the effects of adrenergic co-adjuvants, and then moves on to a discussion of pro-inflammatory mechanisms focusing on TRP channels and nerve growth factor, their signaling pathways and arising therapeutic perspectives. PMID:19150465

  20. Peripheral Neuromodulation to Treat Postamputation Pain.

    PubMed

    Soin, Amol; Fang, Zi-Ping; Velasco, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Some of the more common peripherally mediated pain disorders are postamputation stump pain and phantom pain. These disabling conditions have proven difficult to treat. Here we aim to illustrate an option to treat postamputation pain using peripheral neurostimulation techniques. Traditional peripheral neuromodulation techniques use standard stimulation parameters and work by stimulation of nerve tissues which are then felt by the patient as a tingling sensation or paresthesia. Recently introduced high-frequency (10 kHz) electrical nerve block [HFAC (high-frequency alternating current) block] via a surgically implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrode results in true conduction block which actually blocks action potentials emanating from the painful neuroma and thus suppresses pain without tingling or paresthesia felt by the patient. In a recently completed 10-patient pilot study, the average pain level decreased from a score of 5.7 to 1.4 (out of 10) after HFAC block therapy with 85% of all testing sessions yielding a >50% pain reduction; a very significant reduction in the use of opioid and other analgesics was also noted, with all tested patients either stopping or decreasing their analgesic intake significantly. Patients achieved meaningful and significant pain reduction throughout the study, and patients who had phantom pain (in addition to stump pain) that responded to local anesthetic injections also responded favorably with HFAC block, presumably because in these particular patients, the phantom symptoms were peripherally generated. Each of the tested patients reported that HFAC block provided the most significant amount of pain reduction they had ever experienced when compared to other pain modalities tried since their amputations. The high-frequency electric nerve block technique is currently investigational pending FDA clearance. The next step for this modality is a pivotal trial, with the goal of having this therapy available to the mass market upon FDA

  1. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  2. Cotransplantation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34⁺ cells in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Ma, Qunxing; Ning, Meng; Zhao, Yue; Hou, Yuelong

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of hypoxic preconditioning on the immunomodulatory properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) and the effect of cotransplantation of hUC-MSCs and human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived CD34(+) cells in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction. hUC-MSCs with or without hypoxic preconditioning by cobalt chloride were plated in a 24-well plate, and then cocultured with hUCB-CD34(+) cells and PBMCs for 96 h at 37 °C in a 5% CO₂ incubator. For the negative control, hUC-MSCs were omitted. The groups were divided as follows: A1 = HP-MSCs + hUCB-CD34(+) cells + PBMC, A2 = hUC-MSCs + hUCB-CD34(+) cells + PBMC, Negative Control = hUCB-CD34(+) cells + PBMC. Culture supernatants of each group were collected, and the IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured by ELISA. A rabbit model of MI was established using a modified Fujita method. The animals were then randomized into three groups and received intramyocardial injections of 0.4 ml of PBS alone (n = 8, PBS group), hUC-MSCs in PBS (n = 8, hUC-MSCs group), or hUC-MSCs + CD34(+) cells in PBS (n = 8, Cotrans group), at four points in the infarct border zone. Echocardiography was performed at baseline, 4 weeks after MI induction, and 4 weeks after cell transplantation, respectively. Stem cell differentiation and neovascularization in the infracted area were characterized for the presence of cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) and CD31 by immunohistochemical staining, and the extent of myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome. IFN-γ was 27.00 ± 1.11, 14.20 ± 0.81, and 7.22 ± 0.14 pg/ml, and IL-10 was 31.68 ± 3.08, 61.42 ± 1.08, and 85.85 ± 1.80 pg/ml for the Control, A1 and A2 groups, respectively, which indicated that hUCB-CD34(+) cells induced immune reaction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, whereas both hUC-MSCs and HP-MSCs showed an immunosuppressive effect, which, however, was attenuated

  3. Peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma or peripheral developing complex odontoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Grønbaek, Anni B; Poulsen, Sven

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Peripheral (extraosseous) odontogenic tumors are rare. CASE REPORT. This report describes a case which illustrates the clinical and histopathological features of a lesion in an 8-year-old, healthy Caucasian girl that on purely morphological grounds would seem to be an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, but may represent a case of a peripheral developing complex odontoma. CONCLUSION. Conservative surgical enucleation of the lesion was followed by unbcomplicated healing and no recurrence was seen.

  4. Peripheral genetic structure of Helicoverpa zea indicates asymmetrical panmixia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal climatic shifts create peripheral habitats that alternate between habitable and uninhabitable for migratory species. Such dynamic peripheral habitats are potential sites where migratory species could evolve high genetic diversity resulting from convergence of immigrants from multiple region...

  5. Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000577.htm Peripheral artery disease of the legs - self-care To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the blood ...

  6. Generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for adoptive T-cell transfer.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Silvia; Delbue, Serena; Signorini, Lucia; Setola, Elisabetta; Bagliani, Anna; Della Valle, Alberto; Galli, Andrea; Ferrante, Pasquale; Bregni, Marco

    2015-07-01

    This study designs a strategy for an adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) protocol based on the ex-vivo selection of autologous peripheral blood-derived CD8-enriched T-cells, stimulated with dendritic cells (DCs) that had been pulsed with apoptotic tumor cells to generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with anti-tumor activity. Seventy-eight colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were enrolled in this study. Tumor tissues and peripheral blood (PB) were obtained at surgery. Tissues were mechanically dissociated and cultured to obtain a primary tumor cell line from each patient. DCs were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using magnetic positive selection of CD14+ monocytes. Anti-tumor CTLs were elicited in co-/micro-cultures using DCs as antigen-presenting cells, autologous apoptotic tumor cells as a source of antigens, and CD8+ T lymphocytes as effectors. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion was assessed by ELISpot assays to evaluate the activation of the CTLs against the autologous tumor cells. Primary tumor cell lines were obtained from 20 of 78 patients (25.6%). DCs were generated from 26 patients, and of them, corresponding tumor cell lines were derived from six patients. ELISpot results showed that significant IFN-γ secretion was detected after different numbers of stimulations for two patients, whereas weak secretion was observed for three patients. Despite difficulties due to contamination of several primary tumor cell lines with gut intestinal flora, the results suggest that the generation of tumor-specific CTLs is feasible from patients with CRC, and could be useful for supporting an ACT approach in CRC.

  7. Peripheral doses in CyberKnife radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Paula L.; Chuang, Cynthia F.; Smith, Vernon; Larson, David A.

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to measure the dose outside the treatment field for conformal CyberKnife treatments, to compare the results to those obtained for similar treatments delivered with gamma knife or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and to investigate the sources of peripheral dose in CyberKnife radiosurgery. CyberKnife treatment plans were developed for two hypothetical lesions in an anthropomorphic phantom, one in the thorax and another in the brain, and measurements were made with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 capsules) placed within the phantom at various depths and distances from the irradiated volume. For the brain lesion, gamma knife and 6-MV IMRT treatment plans were also developed, and peripheral doses were measured at the same locations as for the CyberKnife plan. The relative contribution to the CyberKnife peripheral dose from inferior- or superior-oblique beams entering or exiting through the body, internally scattered radiation, and leakage radiation was assessed through additional experiments using the single-isocenter option of the CyberKnife treatment-planning program with different size collimators. CyberKnife peripheral doses (in cGy) ranged from 0.16 to 0.041 % ({+-}0.003%) of the delivered number of monitor units (MU) at distances between 18 and 71 cm from the field edge. These values are two to five times larger than those measured for the comparable gamma knife brain treatment, and up to a factor of four times larger those measured in the IMRT experiment. Our results indicate that the CyberKnife peripheral dose is due largely to leakage radiation, however at distances less than 40 cm from the field edge, entrance, or exit dose from inferior- or superior-oblique beams can also contribute significantly. For distances larger than 40 cm from the field edge, the CyberKnife peripheral dose is directly related to the number of MU delivered, since leakage radiation is the dominant component.

  8. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be determined...

  9. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be determined...

  10. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be determined...

  11. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be determined...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.14 - Peripheral vision test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peripheral vision test. 1203.14 Section 1203... SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.14 Peripheral vision test. Position the helmet on... the helmet to set the comfort or fit padding. (Note: Peripheral vision clearance may be determined...

  13. Peripheral modulation of smell: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Lucero, Mary T

    2013-01-01

    Despite studies dating back 30 or more years showing modulation of odorant responses at the level of the olfactory epithelium, most descriptions of the olfactory system infer that odorant signals make their way from detection by cilia on olfactory sensory neurons to the olfactory bulb unaltered. Recent identification of multiple subtypes of microvillar cells and identification of neuropeptide and neurotransmitter expression in the olfactory mucosa add to the growing body of literature for peripheral modulation in the sense of smell. Complex mechanisms including perireceptor events, modulation of sniff rates, and changes in the properties of sensory neurons match the sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to the external odorant environment, internal nutritional status, reproductive status, and levels of arousal or stress. By furthering our understanding of the players mediating peripheral olfaction, we may open the door to novel approaches for modulating the sense of smell in both health and disease.

  14. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  15. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    PubMed

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  16. Bioabsorbable stenting in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Galyfos, George; Geropapas, Georgios; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Kerasidis, Stavros; Stamatatos, Ioannis; Kastrisios, Georgios; Giannakakis, Sotirios; Papacharalampous, Gerasimos; Maltezos, Chrisostomos

    2015-12-01

    Arterial stenting has been broadly utilized for the management of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The evolution of stent materials has led to the introduction of newer bioabsorbable scaffolds that have been extensively evaluated in the treatment of coronary artery disease. However, the utilization of bioabsorbable stents in the lower extremities remains challenging and has not been evaluated in the same degree. There are not many trials focusing on major outcomes of treatment with bioabsorbable stents or comparing them with other therapeutic choices such as surgery or angioplasty only. The aim of this review is to report current status on bioabsorbable stenting in peripheral artery disease treatment as well as to present the results of all major relevant trials. Moreover, future expectations and challenges with this type of stents are discussed as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Paraneoplastic disorders of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are rare but can affect any part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) including motor neurons, sensory ganglia, nerve roots, plexuses, cranial and peripheral nerves, and neuromuscular junctions. The type of cancer, lymphoma or solid tumour, is a determinant factor of the underlying mechanism. With solid tumour, antibodies directed to intracellular (anti-Hu or anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies) or surface antigens (anti-VGCC,or LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies) have been identified while with lymphoma, the neuropathy is usually linked to a monoclonal gammopathy. This review discusses the different etiologies and mechanisms of paraneoplastic disorders of the PNS in patients emphasising their evaluation, diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Cole, B Eliot

    2007-09-01

    The occurrence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is linked to poor glycemic control over time. While most people never develop diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP) as a consequence of DPN, enough of them do that we must have effective options for the management of this disabling condition. Two years ago there were no formally approved medications for the treatment of DPNP, and now there are two medications with Food and Drug Administration approval for DPNP. One of these medications, duloxetine has been established to significantly improve pain and to address depression by its reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin. This article examines the epidemiology of DPNP, its underlying pathogenesis, necessary evaluation methods, and treatment options available with a focus on the role of duloxetine.

  19. Binocular summation and peripheral visual response time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, K.; Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Six males were administered a peripheral visual response time test to the onset of brief small stimuli imaged in 10-deg arc separation intervals across the dark adapted horizontal retinal meridian under both binocular and monocular viewing conditions. This was done in an attempt to verify the existence of peripheral binocular summation using a response time measure. The results indicated that from 50-deg arc right to 50-deg arc left of the line of sight binocular summation is a reasonable explanation for the significantly faster binocular data. The stimulus position by viewing eye interaction was also significant. A discussion of these and other analyses is presented along with a review of related literature.

  20. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Junginger, J; Röthlisberger, A; Lehmbecker, A; Stein, V M; Ludwig, D C; Baumgärtner, W; Seehusen, F

    2013-11-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd dog was presented with paraparesis quickly progressing to paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mass beneath the thoracolumbar vertebral column infiltrating the spinal canal and resulting in severe extradural compression of the spinal cord. Microscopically, this comprised a cell-rich unencapsulated tumour supported by fine bands of a fibrovascular stroma and occasionally forming primitive rosettes. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumour cells to express synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had low to moderate numbers of intracytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour was diagnosed. This is a rare embryonal tumour of neural origin that may have arisen from adrenal medulla, autonomic ganglia or peripheral nerves.

  1. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  2. Acupuncture, connective tissue, and peripheral sensory modulation.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Helene M

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable controversy surrounds the legitimacy of acupuncture as a treatment, a growing literature on the physiological effects of acupuncture needling in animals and humans is providing new insights into basic cellular mechanisms including connective tissue mechanotransduction and purinergic signaling. This review summarizes these findings and proposes a model combining connective tissue plasticity and peripheral sensory modulation in response to the sustained stretching of tissue that results from acupuncture needle manipulation.

  3. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene associated with peripartum cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jaryal, Ajay; Raina, Sujeet; Thakur, Surender; Sontakke, Tushar

    2013-01-01

    Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a rare clinical entity. It was first described in late 19th century and since then has been reported with array of medical conditions mainly those complicated with shock, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Here in, we describe a parturient with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and SPG. Clinicians should be aware of this entity as early recognition can help in reducing morbidity and mortality. PMID:23984243

  4. Peripheral neuropathy: the importance of rare subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C.; Price, Ray S.; Chen, Kevin S.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent condition that usually warrants a thorough history and examination, but limited diagnostic evaluation. Rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, however, often require more extensive diagnostic testing and different treatments. Objective To describe rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, including the appropriate diagnostic evaluation and available treatments. Evidence Review References were identified from PubMed searches with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials. Articles were also identified through the use of the author's own files. Search terms included common rare neuropathy localizations and their causes, as well as epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Findings Diffuse, non-length dependent neuropathies, multiple mononeuropathies, polyradiculopathies, plexopathies, and radiculoplexus neuropathies are rare peripheral neuropathy localizations that often require extensive diagnostic testing. Atypical neuropathy features, such as acute/subacute onset, asymmetry, and/or motor predominant signs, are frequently present. The most common diffuse, non-length dependent neuropathies are Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Effective disease modifying therapies exist for many diffuse, non-length dependent neuropathies including GBS, CIDP, MMN, and some paraprotein-associated demyelinating neuropathies. Vasculitic neuropathy (multiple mononeuropathy) also has efficacious treatment options, but definitive evidence of a treatment effect for IgM anti-MAG neuropathy and diabetic amyoptrophy (radiculoplexus neuropathy) is lacking. Conclusions and Relevance Recognition of rare localizations of periperhal neuropathy is essential given the implications for diagnostic testing and treatment. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important early step in the

  5. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    SciTech Connect

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  6. Cell Therapy of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Zankhana; Losordo, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    The age-adjusted prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the US population was estimated to approach 12% in 1985, and as the population ages, the overall population having peripheral arterial disease is predicted to rise. The clinical consequences of occlusive peripheral arterial disease include intermittent claudication, that is, pain with walking, and critical limb ischemia (CLI), which includes pain at rest and loss of tissue integrity in the distal limbs, which may ultimately lead to amputation of a portion of the lower extremity. The risk factors for CLI are similar to those linked to coronary artery disease and include advanced age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The worldwide incidence of CLI was estimated to be 500 to 1000 cases per million people per year in 1991. The prognosis is poor for CLI subjects with advanced limb disease. One study of >400 such subjects in the United Kingdom found that 25% required amputation and 20% (including some subjects who had required amputation) died within 1 year. In the United States, ≈280 lower-limb amputations for ischemic disease are performed per million people each year. The first objective in treating CLI is to increase blood circulation to the affected limb. Theoretically, increased blood flow could be achieved by increasing the number of vessels that supply the ischemic tissue with blood. The use of pharmacological agents to induce new blood vessel growth for the treatment or prevention of pathological clinical conditions has been called therapeutic angiogenesis. Since the identification of the endothelial progenitor cell in 1997 by Asahara and Isner, the field of cell-based therapies for peripheral arterial disease has been in a state of continuous evolution. Here, we review the current state of that field. PMID:23620237

  7. Unusually large-sized peripheral ossifying fibroma

    PubMed Central

    John, Reena Rachel; Kandasamy, Saravanan; Achuthan, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous growths in the gingiva with the histopathological presence of calcifications are a common occurrence in the oral cavity. These lesions can be neoplastic in nature with either odontogenic or non odontogenic origin or they can be reactive lesions. This is a case report of an unusual presentation of peripheral ossifying fibroma , unusual because of its abnormally large size with review of literature. PMID:28299276

  8. [Diagnostic imaging of peripheral renal vascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Hélénon, O; Correas, J M; Eiss, D; Khairoune, A; Merran, S

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral vascular disorders of the kidney involve the intrarenal branches of the renal vascular tree. It include occlusive (infarction and cortical necrosis) and non-occlusive vascular lesions (acquired arteriovenous fistulas, arteriovenous malformation, false aneurysms and microaneurysms). Initial diagnosis relies on color Doppler US and CT angiography. Angiography plays a therapeutic role. MR imaging provides useful diagnostic information on perfusion disorders especially in patients with renal insufficiency.

  9. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5±2.6years) emmetropes (n=17; group SE: +0.19±0.32D) and myopes (n=25; group SE: -3.74±1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p<0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Peripheral paralysis of facial nerve in children].

    PubMed

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.

  11. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Kate T.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial agents. PMID:25360209

  12. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was <30% and the intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  13. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kristen L.; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J.; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5 ± 2.6 years) emmetropes (n = 17; group SE: +0.19 ± 0.32D) and myopes (n = 25; group SE: −3.74 ± 1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p < 0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. PMID:27264028

  14. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  15. Pathophysiology of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Starobova, Hana; Vetter, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches. PMID:28620280

  16. Sensory Coding in Oscillatory Peripheral Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiman, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Rhythmical activity have been observed in several types of peripheral sensory receptors, e.g. in senses of hearing, balance and electroreception. We use two examples of spontaneously oscillating peripheral sensory receptors: bullfrog saccular hair cells and electroreceptors of paddlefish, to discuss how oscillations emerge, how these sensors may utilize oscillations to optimize their sensitivity and information processing. In the hair cell system oscillations occur on two very different levels: first, the mechano-sensory hair bundle itself can undergo spontaneous mechanical oscillations and second, self-sustained voltage oscillations across the membrane of the hair cell have been documented. Modelling show that interaction of these two compartment results in enhanced sensitivity to periodic mechanical stimuli. The second example, a single peripheral electroreceptor, is a complex system comprised of several thousands of sensory epithelial cells innervated by a few primary sensory neurons. It embeds two distinct oscillators: one residing in a population of epithelial cells, synaptically coupled to another oscillator residing in a branched myelinated afferent axon. We show how neuronal oscillations emerge in a complex network of excitable nodes. We further demonstrate that epithelial oscillations results in extended serial correlations of neruonal discharges enhancing coding of external stimuli.

  17. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  18. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  19. [Neurosurgical position causes peripheral nerve injuries?

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Enríquez, Pedro; Pérez-Neri, Iván; Manrique-Carmona, Luisa

    2016-12-16

    Positioning during neurosurgical procedures is a challenge for surgical teams even if precautions are taken, the mechanisms underlying peripheral nerve injury (elongation, compression or ischaemia) are latent and it is important to know the frequency of occurrence in our environment. To analyze the frequency of peripheral nerve injury secondary to surgical positioning. Prospective study including 163 patients scheduled for neurosurgical procedures. Four groups: supine, lateral, ventral and park bench were analyzed by neurological exploration in order to detect injury and relate with risk factors already described. In this study 112 patients were included, two patients who were under park bench position experienced paresthesias in ulnar region of less than 24 hours' duration; statistically significant correlation with body weight greater than 85kg. The incidence of peripheral nerve injury is low, understanding the mechanisms that may originate it helps towards prevention and early detection of complications. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Kawasaki Disease and Peripheral Gangrene in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Iran; Ziaee, Vahid; Sadrosadat, Taravat; Moardinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Sayadpour-Zanjani, Keyhan

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in childhood, may significantly improve the prognosis. Diagnosing infantile Kawasaki (younger than a year) is difficult because of obscure symptoms; at the same time they are at the higher risk of coronary abnormalities. We report three infants with prolonged (more than 5 days) fever and peripheral gangrene without any other clinical manifestations of Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki was diagnosed due to dilation of coronary artery and other aortic branches, thrombocytosis, and rising of ESR and CRP. All patients were treated with high dose aspirin, IVIG and pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. Additionally, cytotoxic drugs or infliximab were used for two of them because of severe aneurysms in the aortic branches. All 3 patients received aspirin with anti-platelet aggregation dose and 2 patients heparin as an anti-coagulant agent for longtime. After adequate treatment, peripheral gangrene, arterial dilations and aneurysms improved, but during 12 months follow-up coronary aneurysms did not improve completely. Peripheral gangrene must be regarded as an important sign of infantile Kawasaki disease early treatment of which can prevent severe permanent coronary involvements and sequels.

  2. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Yazc, Haşmet; Yiğit, Barş; Doğan, Sedat; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Behzatoğlu, Kemal

    2013-05-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a member of malignant small round cell tumors. These tumors especially originate from the central and autonomous nervous system. However, these tumors may be originated from peripheral tissues and are called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. A 14-year-old girl attended to the Ear Nose Throat Clinic with the complaint of progressive painless swelling mass for 2 months on the right side of the face. Neck magnetic resonance imaging showed 3.5 × 2.5 × 2-cm isointense mass on T1 and hyperintense on T2 sequences. There was no pathological lymphadenopathy on computed tomographic scan. As a result of mandibular cortical invasion seen on computed tomographic scan, radical surgical excision was decided as surgical treatment. Total parotidectomy with preserving facial nerve and partial mandibulectomy with a 2-cm margin of safety were done, and reconstruction plaque applied to the mandible. Two lymph nodes were seen at the submandibular region. For this reason, prophylactic supraomohyoid neck dissection had also been performed. Pathological assessment proved the diagnosis of PNET, and chemoradiotherapy was planned for the patient.To our knowledge, this is the second reported case in literature. In this present case, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor in the masseter muscle and its diagnosis and treatment process were reported with literature review.

  3. [Management of peripheral injuries of the finger].

    PubMed

    Wichelhaus, A

    2015-02-01

    The treatment of acute peripheral finger injuries is part of the daily routine of surgeons in emergency departments. This article presents the most common forms of peripheral finger injuries and the specific diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. The injuries include incision and tear injuries, injuries to the nailbed, distal extensor tendon injuries, severed flexor tendons of the distal joint, bite injuries, high-pressure injection injuries and amputation injuries of the distal phalanx of fingers. For the latter, the form, level and height of the amputation are decisive for therapy. Soft tissue defects on the extensor and flexor side of the finger are also common for emergency surgeons. The basic principles of the initial management of peripheral soft tissue injuries of the hand involve the reconstruction of tendons and nerves and soft tissue coverage. Pathogenic organisms are detectable in more than 80 % of bite wounds so that prophylaxis and therapy of infections are of special importance. An adjuvant antibiotic therapy is necessary for infections as well as for high-pressure injection injuries. It is also important for the treating physician to recognize when a hand surgeon must be involved.

  4. [Use of peripheral catheters: too much to learn].

    PubMed

    Capdevila, Josep A

    2013-03-01

    Frequently incident complications due to the use of peripheral catheters are considered not relevant. However, recently multiple observational studies have demonstrated its role causing nosocomial bacteraemia. Guidelines about prevention of catheter-related infection are focused in central lines instead of peripheral ones. This approach causes an important lack of knowledge about the best manner to manipulate peripheral lines. Risk factors related to the development of a peripheral phlebitis, its clinical relevance and doubts related to prevention are presented and discussed in this article. The main objective is to alert about the importance of peripheral catheters in the prevention of nosocomial infection.

  5. [New treatment for peripheral nerve defects: nerve elongation].

    PubMed

    Kou, Y H; Jiang, B G

    2016-10-18

    Peripheral nerve defects are still a major challenge in clinical practice, and the most commonly used method of treatment for peripheral nerve defects is nerve transplantation, which has certain limitations and shortcomings, so new repair methods and techniques are needed. The peripheral nerve is elongated in limb lengthening surgery without injury, from which we got inspirations and proposed a new method to repair peripheral nerve defects: peripheral nerve elongation. The peripheral nerve could beelongated by a certain percent, but the physiological change and the maximum elongation range were still unknown. This study discussed the endurance, the physiological and pathological change of peripheral nerve elongation in detail, and got a lot of useful data. First, we developed peripheral nerve extender which could match the slow and even extension of peripheral nerve. Then, our animal experiment result confirmed that the peripheral nerve had better endurance for chronic elongation than that of acute elongation and cleared the extensibility of peripheral nerve and the range of repair for peripheral nerve defects. Our result also revealed the histological basis and changed the rule for pathological physiology of peripheral nerve elongation: the most important structure foundation of peripheral nerve elongation was Fontana band, which was the coiling of nerve fibers under the epineurium, so peripheral nerve could be stretched for 8.5%-10.0% without injury because of the Fontana band. We confirmed that peripheral nerve extending technology could have the same repair effect as traditional nerve transplantation through animal experiments. Finally, we compared the clinical outcomes between nerve elongation and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows, and the post-operative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the

  6. Antithrombotic Therapy in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Bellmunt, Sergi; McGorrian, Catherine; Anand, Sonia S.; Guzman, Randolph; Criqui, Michael H.; Akl, Elie A.; Olav Vandvik, Per; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Guyatt, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This guideline focuses on antithrombotic drug therapies for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as for the relief of lower-extremity symptoms and critical ischemia in persons with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: The most important of our 20 recommendations are as follows. In patients aged ≥ 50 years with asymptomatic PAD or asymptomatic carotid stenosis, we suggest aspirin (75-100 mg/d) over no therapy (Grade 2B) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. For secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with symptomatic PAD (including patients before and after peripheral arterial bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty), we recommend long-term aspirin (75-100 mg/d) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d) (Grade 1A). We recommend against the use of warfarin plus aspirin in patients with symptomatic PAD (Grade 1B). For patients undergoing peripheral artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting, we suggest single rather than dual antiplatelet therapy (Grade 2C). For patients with refractory claudication despite exercise therapy and smoking cessation, we suggest addition of cilostazol (100 mg bid) to aspirin (75-100 mg/d) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d) (Grade 2C). In patients with critical limb ischemia and rest pain unable to undergo revascularization, we suggest the use of prostanoids (Grade 2C). In patients with acute limb ischemia due to acute thrombosis or embolism, we recommend surgery over peripheral arterial thrombolysis (Grade 1B). Conclusions: Recommendations continue to favor single antiplatelet therapy for primary and secondary prevention of

  7. Peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain

    PubMed Central

    Morotti, Matteo; Vincent, Katy; Brawn, Jennifer; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain remains the cardinal symptom of endometriosis. However, to date, the underlying mechanisms are still only poorly understood. Increasing evidence points towards a close interaction between peripheral nerves, the peritoneal environment and the central nervous system in pain generation and processing. Recently, studies demonstrating nerve fibres and neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in endometriotic lesions and their vicinity have led to increased interest in peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain. This review focuses on the origin and function of these nerves and factors as well as possible peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to the generation and modulation of pain in women with endometriosis. METHODS We conducted a systematic search using several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) of publications from January 1977 to October 2013 to evaluate the possible roles of the peripheral nervous system in endometriosis pathophysiology and how it can contribute to endometriosis-associated pain. RESULTS Endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis had pronounced neuroangiogenic properties with increased expression of new nerve fibres, a shift in the distribution of sensory and autonomic fibres in some locations, and up-regulation of several neurotrophins. In women suffering from deep infiltrating endometriosis and bowel endometriosis, in which the anatomical distribution of lesions is generally more closely related to pelvic pain symptoms, endometriotic lesions and surrounding tissues present higher nerve fibre densities compared to peritoneal lesions and endometriomas. More data are needed to fully confirm a direct correlation between fibre density in these locations and the amount of perceived pain. A better correlation between the presence of nerve fibres and pain symptoms seems to exist for eutopic endometrium. However, this appears not to be exclusive to endometriosis. No correlation between

  8. Peripheral nerve injury modulates neurotrophin signaling in the peripheral and central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Richner, Mette; Ulrichsen, Maj; Elmegaard, Siri Lander; Dieu, Ruthe; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Vaegter, Christian Bjerggaard

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral nerve injury disrupts the normal functions of sensory and motor neurons by damaging the integrity of axons and Schwann cells. In contrast to the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system possesses a considerable capacity for regrowth, but regeneration is far from complete and functional recovery rarely returns to pre-injury levels. During development, the peripheral nervous system strongly depends upon trophic stimulation for neuronal differentiation, growth and maturation. The perhaps most important group of trophic substances in this context is the neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4/5), which signal in a complex spatial and timely manner via the two structurally unrelated p75(NTR) and tropomyosin receptor kinase (TrkA, Trk-B and Trk-C) receptors. Damage to the adult peripheral nerves induces cellular mechanisms resembling those active during development, resulting in a rapid and robust increase in the synthesis of neurotrophins in neurons and Schwann cells, guiding and supporting regeneration. Furthermore, the injury induces neurotrophin-mediated changes in the dorsal root ganglia and in the spinal cord, which affect the modulation of afferent sensory signaling and eventually may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. The focus of this review is on the expression patterns of neurotrophins and their receptors in neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system and the spinal cord. Furthermore, injury-induced changes of expression patterns and the functional consequences in relation to axonal growth and remyelination as well as to neuropathic pain development will be reviewed.

  9. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical peripherality: development of a peripherality index for rural health services

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Gillian M; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam; Godden, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background The configuration of rural health services is influenced by geography. Rural health practitioners provide a broader range of services to smaller populations scattered over wider areas or more difficult terrain than their urban counterparts. This has implications for training and quality assurance of outcomes. This exploratory study describes the development of a "clinical peripherality" indicator that has potential application to remote and rural general practice communities for planning and research purposes. Methods Profiles of general practice communities in Scotland were created from a variety of public data sources. Four candidate variables were chosen that described demographic and geographic characteristics of each practice: population density, number of patients on the practice list, travel time to nearest specialist led hospital and travel time to Health Board administrative headquarters. A clinical peripherality index, based on these variables, was derived using factor analysis. Relationships between the clinical peripherality index and services offered by the practices and the staff profile of the practices were explored in a series of univariate analyses. Results Factor analysis on the four candidate variables yielded a robust one-factor solution explaining 75% variance with factor loadings ranging from 0.83 to 0.89. Rural and remote areas had higher median values and a greater scatter of clinical peripherality indices among their practices than an urban comparison area. The range of services offered and the profile of staffing of practices was associated with the peripherality index. Conclusion Clinical peripherality is determined by the nature of the practice and its location relative to secondary care and administrative and educational facilities. It has features of both gravity model-based and travel time/accessibility indicators and has the potential to be applied to training of staff for rural and remote locations and to other aspects

  11. Interventions for fatigue in peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    White, Claire M; van Doorn, Pieter A; Garssen, Marcel P J; Stockley, Rachel C

    2014-12-18

    Persistent feelings of fatigue (or subjective fatigue), which may be experienced in the absence of physiological factors, affect many people with peripheral neuropathy. A variety of interventions for subjective fatigue are available, but little is known about their efficacy or the likelihood of any adverse effects for people with peripheral neuropathy. To assess the effects of drugs and physical, psychological or behavioural interventions for fatigue in adults or children with peripheral neuropathy. On 5 November 2013, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, LILACS and AMED. We also searched reference lists of all studies identified for inclusion and relevant reviews, and contacted the authors of included studies and known experts in the field to identify additional published or unpublished data. We also searched trials registries for ongoing studies. We considered for inclusion randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing any form of intervention for fatigue management in adults with peripheral neuropathy with placebo, no intervention or an alternative form of intervention for fatigue. Interventions considered included drugs, pacing and grading of physical activity, general or specific exercise, compensatory strategies such as orthotics, relaxation, counselling, cognitive and educational strategies. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted study data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on adverse events from the included trials. The review includes three trials, which were all at low risk of bias, involving 530 people with peripheral neuropathy. The effects of amantadine from one randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial comparing amantadine with placebo for the treatment of fatigue in 80 people with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) were uncertain for the proportion of people achieving

  12. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  13. Optical and neural anisotropy in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Zheleznyak, Len; Barbot, Antoine; Ghosh, Atanu; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Optical blur in the peripheral retina is known to be highly anisotropic due to nonrotationally symmetric wavefront aberrations such as astigmatism and coma. At the neural level, the visual system exhibits anisotropies in orientation sensitivity across the visual field. In the fovea, the visual system shows higher sensitivity for cardinal over diagonal orientations, which is referred to as the oblique effect. However, in the peripheral retina, the neural visual system becomes more sensitive to radially-oriented signals, a phenomenon known as the meridional effect. Here, we examined the relative contributions of optics and neural processing to the meridional effect in 10 participants at 0°, 10°, and 20° in the temporal retina. Optical anisotropy was quantified by measuring the eye's habitual wavefront aberrations. Alternatively, neural anisotropy was evaluated by measuring contrast sensitivity (at 2 and 4 cyc/deg) while correcting the eye's aberrations with an adaptive optics vision simulator, thus bypassing any optical factors. As eccentricity increased, optical and neural anisotropy increased in magnitude. The average ratio of horizontal to vertical optical MTF (at 2 and 4 cyc/deg) at 0°, 10°, and 20° was 0.96 ± 0.14, 1.41 ± 0.54 and 2.15 ± 1.38, respectively. Similarly, the average ratio of horizontal to vertical contrast sensitivity with full optical correction at 0°, 10°, and 20° was 0.99 ± 0.15, 1.28 ± 0.28 and 1.75 ± 0.80, respectively. These results indicate that the neural system's orientation sensitivity coincides with habitual blur orientation. These findings support the neural origin of the meridional effect and raise important questions regarding the role of peripheral anisotropic optical quality in developing the meridional effect and emmetropization. PMID:26928220

  14. Peripheral Stent Placement in Hemodialysis Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kariya, Shuji Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Komemushi, Atsushi; Shomura, Yuzo; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Kawanaka, Toshiaki; Sawada, Satoshi

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of peripheral stent placement after failed balloon angioplasty in patients with grafts who are on hemodialysis. We examined 30 Wallstents that were placed in 26 patients because balloon angioplasty failed or early restenosis (<3 months) occurred within 3 months. We retrospectively reviewed 267 consecutive balloon angioplasties performed in 71 patients with graft access between August 2000 and March 2007. Stent placements accounted for 30 (11.2%) of the 267 balloon angioplasties. The clinical success rate of stent placement was 93.3% (28 of 30 stent placements). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary patency rates were 73.3%, 39.3%, and 17.7%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year secondary patency rates were 90.2%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Primary patency was significantly prolonged by stent placement after early restenosis compared with previous balloon angioplasty alone (P = 0.0059). Primary patency after stent placement was significantly lower than after successful balloon angioplasty without indications for stent placement (P = 0.0279). Secondary patency rates did not significantly differ between stent placement and balloon angioplasty alone. The mean number of reinterventions required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement was significantly larger than that after balloon angioplasty alone (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0419). We concluded that peripheral stent placement for graft access is effective for salvaging vascular access after failed balloon angioplasty and for prolonging patency in early restenosis after balloon angioplasty. However, reinterventions are required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement. Furthermore, peripheral stent placement for graft access cannot achieve the same primary patency as balloon angioplasty alone.

  15. In vitro models for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Geuna, S; Raimondo, S; Fregnan, F; Haastert-Talini, K; Grothe, C

    2016-02-01

    The study of peripheral nerve repair and regeneration is particularly relevant in the light of the high clinical incidence of nerve lesions. However, the clinical outcome after nerve lesions is often far from satisfactory and the functional recovery is almost never complete. Therefore, a number of therapeutic approaches are being investigated, ranging from local delivery of trophic factors and other molecules to bioactive biomaterials and complex nerve prostheses. Translation of the new therapeutic approaches to the patient always requires a final pre-clinical step using in vivo animal models. The need to limit as much as possible animal use in biomedical research, however, makes the preliminary use of in vitro models mandatory from an ethical point of view. In this article, the different types of in vitro models available today for the study of peripheral nerve regeneration have been ranked by adopting a three-step stair model based on their increasing ethical impact: (i) cell line-based models, which raise no ethical concern; (ii) primary cell-based models, which have low ethical impact as animal use, although necessary, is limited; and (iii) organotypic ex vivo-based models, which raise moderate ethical concerns as the use of laboratory animals is required although with much lower impact on animal wellbeing in comparison to in vivo models of peripheral nerve regeneration. This article aims to help researchers in selecting the best experimental approach for their scientific goals driven by the 'Three Rs' (3Rs) rules (Replacement, Reduction or Refinement of animal use in research) for scientific research.

  16. [Peripheral neuropathies and antiretroviral drugs. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Thiam, A; Diagne, M; Ndiaye, Ng; Ngom Gueye, N F; Diakhate, N D; Sow, P S; Ndiaye, I P

    2005-01-01

    In order to appreciate the antiretroviral drugs impact in the HIV positive patients with peripheral neuropathy, a clinical, electrophysiological and neurpathological study of nerve biopsies was performed. A group of 8 HIV seropositive patients with peripheral neuropathy was compared with an other group of 10 HIV seropositive patients treated with multiple antiretroviral drugs. Electrophysiological examination with motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) mesure of the median and the sciatic popliteal nerve was followed by nerve biopsy. Nerve fragments carried out the neuropathological technics for morphological examination. Eighteen seropositive HIV patients (16 HIV-1 and 2 HIV-2) were included in this study. Six patients among them had motor and sensitive neuropathy of the four limbs and 2 patients had sensitive neuropathy associated with pyramidal signs. In fine, 1 patient had sensitive neuropathy with distal amyotrophy of the four limbs. Slow MNCV was observed in all the patients and more severe in the lower limbs. Nerve were unexciting in the lower limbs in 2 patients. Nerve biopsy showed severe axonal loss in all the patients treated but one. They associated axonal lesion in 5 cases and myelinated lesions in 2 cases. Two patients non treated had normal nerve biopsy. Axonal loss was mild in 2 cases and very severe in one case associated with non inflammatory demyelinated lesions. we observed more severe and more frequent nerve lesions in treated patients than in no treated patients, as at the clinical, electrophysiological and neuropathological examination. Antiretroviral drugs cause more frequently pain motor and sensitive neuropathies at usual posologies. The occurence of recrudescence of pain peripheral neuropathy under antiretroviral treatment allows to reconsider drugs posologies.

  17. Anticeramide antibody and butyrylcholinesterase in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Sykam, Aparna; Gutlapalli, V R; Tenali, Sandeep P; Meena, A K; Chandran, Priscilla; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya M

    2017-08-01

    Ceramide is a glycosphingolipid, a component of nerve and non neuronal cell membrane and plays a role in maintaining the integrity of neuronal tissue. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a multifunctional enzyme, its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases has been well established. Anticeramide antibody (Ab-Cer) and enzyme BChE have been implicated in peripheral neuropathies. The present study investigates whether there is an association between Ab-Cer and BChE activities and peripheral neuropathies. Patients included: human immunodeficiency virus associated peripheral neuropathy (HIV-PN, n=39), paucibacillary leprosy (PB-L, n=36), multibacillary leprosy (MB-L, n=52), diabetic neuropathy (DN, n=22), demyelinating sensory motor polyneuropathy (DSMN, n=13) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, n=10). Plasma Ab-Cer was measured by indirect enzyme linked immune assay (ELISA) and BChE activity in plasma was measured by colorimetric method. Ab-Cer levels were significantly elevated in MB-L and DN as compared to healthy subjects (HS). BChE levels were significantly higher in MB-L and DN as well as in HIV and HIV-PN. There is no significant difference in either Ab-Cer or BChE levels in DSMN and CIDP. Elevated plasma Ab-Cer and BChE levels may be considered significant in the pathogenesis of neuropathies. The variation in concurrent involvement of both the molecules in the neuropathies of the study, suggest their unique involvement in neurodegenerative pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Dietz, F R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Becker, G; Daniels, K; Solursh, M

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulation of growth, we developed an in vitro assay to assess the effect of fractions of peripheral nerve on myoblast and chondroblast growth and differentiation in a mammalian (rat) system. Whole rat sciatic nerve extract was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and by affinity chromatography. Concavalin A chromatography resolved whole nerve extract into a glycoprotein and a non-glycoprotein fraction. Serial ammonium sulfate precipitation yielded three pellet fractions designated as 35%, 70%, and 100% pellets; corresponding to ammonium sulfate concentrations of 0 to 35%, 35 to 70%, and 70 to 100% saturation, respectively. Dialyzed solutions of these pellets as well as the fractions from Concavalin A chromatography were assayed for biological activity in micromass cultures of rat limb bud mesenchyme, which allowed assessment of both myoblast and chondroblast stimulation. Stimulation of protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation (as measured by MF20 staining) occurred with both 70% and 100% ammonium sulfate fractions. Stimulation of chondroblasts (as measured by the number of alcian blue staining nodules) occurred with the 35% and 100% fractions. The glycoprotein fraction from the affinity chromatography stimulated protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation and inhibited chondroblast development. Stimulation of chondroblasts was seen with the non-glycoprotein fraction. No effect on protein synthesis, myoblast proliferation or chondroblast proliferation was found in

  19. Peripheral nerve extract effects on mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, F. R.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Becker, G.; Daniels, K.; Solursh, M.

    1996-01-01

    Several common congenital limb disorders are characterized by normal tissue differentiation but abnormal somatic growth. These include: idiopathic clubfoot, idiopathic leg length discrepancy, hemi-atrophy and hemi-hypertrophy. Both clinical and research studies have suggested that peripheral nerves may be important in regulating somatic growth of limb tissues. To investigate the hypothesis that peripheral nerves convey trophic substances to mesenchymal tissues that are involved in the regulation of growth, we developed an in vitro assay to assess the effect of fractions of peripheral nerve on myoblast and chondroblast growth and differentiation in a mammalian (rat) system. Whole rat sciatic nerve extract was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and by affinity chromatography. Concavalin A chromatography resolved whole nerve extract into a glycoprotein and a non-glycoprotein fraction. Serial ammonium sulfate precipitation yielded three pellet fractions designated as 35%, 70%, and 100% pellets; corresponding to ammonium sulfate concentrations of 0 to 35%, 35 to 70%, and 70 to 100% saturation, respectively. Dialyzed solutions of these pellets as well as the fractions from Concavalin A chromatography were assayed for biological activity in micromass cultures of rat limb bud mesenchyme, which allowed assessment of both myoblast and chondroblast stimulation. Stimulation of protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation (as measured by MF20 staining) occurred with both 70% and 100% ammonium sulfate fractions. Stimulation of chondroblasts (as measured by the number of alcian blue staining nodules) occurred with the 35% and 100% fractions. The glycoprotein fraction from the affinity chromatography stimulated protein synthesis and myoblast proliferation and inhibited chondroblast development. Stimulation of chondroblasts was seen with the non-glycoprotein fraction. No effect on protein synthesis, myoblast proliferation or chondroblast proliferation was found in

  20. Lateral pupil alignment tolerance in peripheral refractometry.

    PubMed

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur; Holden, Brien A

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the tolerance to lateral pupil misalignment in peripheral refraction compared with central refraction. A Shin-Nippon NVision-K5001 open-view auto-refractor was used to measure central and peripheral refraction (30° temporal and 30° nasal visual field) of the right eyes of 10 emmetropic and 10 myopic participants. At each of the three fixation angles, five readings were recorded for each of the following alignment positions relative to pupil center: centrally aligned, 1 and 2 mm temporally aligned, and 1 and 2 mm nasally aligned. For central fixation, increasing dealignment from pupil center produced a quadratic decrease (r ≥ 0.98, p < 0.04) in the refractive power vectors M and J180 which, when interpolated, reached clinical significance (i.e., ≥ 0.25 diopter for M and ≥ 0.125 diopter for J180 and J45) for an alignment error of 0.79 mm or greater. M and J180 as measured in the 30° temporal and 30° nasal visual field led to a significant linear correlation (r ≥ 0.94, p < 0.02) as pupil dealignment gradually changed from temporal to nasal. As determined from regression analysis, a pupil alignment error of 0.20 mm or greater would introduce errors in M and J180 that are clinically significant. Tolerance to lateral pupil alignment error decreases strongly in the periphery compared with the greater tolerance in central refraction. Thus, precise alignment of the entrance pupil with the instrument axis is critical for accurate and reliable peripheral refraction.

  1. [Our experience with peripheral arterial embolectomy].

    PubMed

    Caminiti, R; Arrigo, G; Broccio, G

    1975-04-30

    34 cases of acute peripheral ischaemia examined in recent years at the University of Messina General Surgery Clinic are presented. 16 were subjected to embolectomy according to Fogarty. The remaining 18 received protracted medical therapy. Some successes were obtained. In other cases, gangrene necessitated amputation of the affected limb. Satisfactory results were observed in 70% of the operated series. Success was more marked when only a short interval was left between the embolic episode, with progressively poorer results as the penalty for delay. The long-term results of embolectomy are related to the nature of the underlying disease and the treatment given after surgery.

  2. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress.

    PubMed

    Dar, D E; Weizman, A; Karp, L; Grinshpoon, A; Bidder, M; Kotler, M; Tyano, S; Bleich, A; Gavish, M

    1991-01-01

    [3H]PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced (26%; P less than 0.05) density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  3. Peripheral Vision Horizon Display (PVHD). Corrected Copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A Canadian invention, the peripheral vision horizon display (PVHD), shows promise in alleviating vertigo or disorientation in pilots flying under instrument conditions and easing the piloting task when flying in weather or other conditions requiring close attention to aircraft attitude instruments. A diversity of research and applied work was being done to investigate and validate the benefits of the PVHD during the years immediately preceding this conference. Organizers of the conference were able to assemble a group of outstanding presenters representing academic, industrial, and military. The theoretical foundation and applied use of the PVHD are discussed, and results from operational tests are presented.

  4. Recurrent peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Treville; Shetty, Subraj; Shetty, Arvind; Pereira, Svylvy

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma (PCOF) is a rare osteogenic neoplasm that ordinarily presents as an epulis-like growth. It frequently occurs in maxillary anterior region in teenagers and young adults. We report a case of PCOF in a 42-year-old male, which was previously surgically excised and recurred after a period of 2 years. PCOF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of reactive hyperplastic lesions originating from gingiva. Hence, early diagnosis with proper surgical excision and aggressive curettage of the adjacent tissues is essential for prevention of recurrence.

  5. Peripheral neuropathy in acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (Herxheimer).

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, H C

    1975-01-01

    Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans is a dermatological condition that takes a chronically progressive course and finally leads to a widespread atrophy of the skin. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system is frequently observed, predominantly a sensory polyneuropathy. General reactions, the effect of penicillin treatment, the histological findings, and reports concerning a communicable agent transmittable from human to human as well in tissue cultures point to an infectious disease. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans follows a peculiar geographical distribution forming clusters of high prevalence in certain regions. Transmission by ticks is suggested. Images PMID:168318

  6. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, D.E.; Bidder, M.; Gavish, M. ); Weizman, A.; Karp, L.; Tyano, S. ); Grinshpoon, A.; Bleich, A.

    1991-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  7. Percutaneous Therapies for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Shishehbor, Mehdi H; Jaff, Michael R

    2016-12-13

    Percutaneous therapies for peripheral artery disease continue to evolve with new techniques and devices. Although guidelines-recommended therapies have impacted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, endovascular interventions have been shown to reduce limb pain, improve quality of life, and prolong walking distance for those with claudication and to reduce amputation rates among those with critical limb ischemia. Novel devices such as drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons have improved patency for moderate-length lesions, whereas others allow treatment of heavily calcified and tortuous segments. New adjunctive devices to cross lesions and reduce or modify associated plaque have also been developed, although level 1 data regarding their efficacy are sparse. There has also been a better mechanistic understanding of lower extremity endovascular treatment using tools such as intravascular ultrasound. This information has highlighted the need for better stent size selection for the femoropopliteal arterial segments and larger balloon diameters for the tibial arteries. Moreover, a wound perfusion approach with direct in-line flow, the so-called angiosome approach, and reconstruction of the pedal loop have been advocated for improved wound healing. Technical advances such as the tibiopedal access and reentry methods have allowed crossing of lesions that were considered no option for the endovascular approach in the past. Collectively, there has been increased awareness, interest, and commitment by various specialty societies and organizations to advance the treatment of peripheral artery disease and critical limb ischemia. This is also evident by the recent coalition of 7 professional societies and organizations that represented >150 000 allied health professionals and millions of patients with peripheral artery disease at the 2015 Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Analysis Committee meeting. The percutaneous

  8. Peripheral circadian clocks--a conserved phenotype?

    PubMed

    Weigl, Yuval; Harbour, Valerie L; Robinson, Barry; Dufresne, Line; Amir, Shimon

    2013-05-01

    The circadian system of mammals regulates the timing of occurrence of behavioral and physiological events, thereby optimizing adaptation to their surroundings. This system is composed of a single master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and a population of peripheral clocks. The SCN integrates time information from exogenous sources and, in turn, synchronizes the downstream peripheral clocks. It is assumed that under normal conditions, the circadian phenotype of different peripheral clocks would be conserved with respect to its period and robustness. To study this idea, we measured the daily wheel-running activity (WRA; a marker of the SCN output) in 84 male inbred LEW/Crl rats housed under a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle. In addition, we assessed the mRNA expression of two clock genes, rPer2 and rBmal1, and one clock-controlled gene, rDbp, in four tissues that have the access to time cues other than those emanating from the SCN: olfactory bulbs (OBs), liver, tail skin, and white blood cells (WBCs). In contrast with the assumption stated above, we found that circadian clocks in peripheral tissues differ in the temporal pattern of the expression of circadian clock genes, in the robustness of the rhythms, and possibly in the number of functional ~24-h-clock cells. Based on the tissue diversity in the robustness of the clock output, the hepatic clock is likely to house the highest number of functional ~24-h-clock cells, and the OBs, the fewest number. Thus, the phenotype of the circadian clock in the periphery is tissue specific and may depend not only on the SCN but also on the sensitivity of the tissue to non-SCN-derived time cues. In the OBs and liver, the circadian clock phenotypes seem to be dominantly shaped by the SCN output. However, in the tail skin and WBC, other time cues participate in the phenotype design. Finally, our study suggests that the basic phenotype of the circadian clock is constructed at the transcript level of the core clock

  9. Adult onset tics after peripheral injury.

    PubMed

    Erer, Sevda; Jankovic, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case with adult onset motor tics after peripheral trauma. A 43-year-old man suffered a left shoulder dislocation during a motorcycle accident 21 years ago. Within 2 weeks after the injury, he noticed the gradual onset of involuntary jerking movements of his left shoulder, which was markedly exacerbated after second left shoulder injury 2 years later. The involuntary movements are phenomenologically identical to tics typically associated with Tourette syndrome (TS), but without the involvement of any other body part and without phonic tics or the typical TS co-morbidities, such as attention deficit or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  10. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Madeline L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress. PMID:25506605

  11. Axonal transport disruption in peripheral nerve disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases and neuropathies have been proposed to be caused by a disruption of axonal transport. However, the mechanisms whereby impaired transport causes disease remain unclear. Proposed mechanisms include impairment in delivery of organelles such as mitochondria, defective retrograde neurotrophic signaling, and disruption of the synaptic vesicle cycle within the synaptic terminal. Simple model organisms such as the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, allow live imaging of axonal transport to be combined with high-throughput genetic screens and are providing insights into the pathophysiology of peripheral nerve diseases. PMID:23279432

  12. Mitochondrial dynamics and inherited peripheral nerve diseases.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Saveri, Paola; Sagnelli, Anna; Piscosquito, Giuseppe

    2015-06-02

    Peripheral nerves have peculiar energetic requirements because of considerable length of axons and therefore correct mitochondria functioning and distribution along nerves is fundamental. Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the continuous change in size, shape, and position of mitochondria within cells. Abnormalities of mitochondrial dynamics produced by mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion (mitofusin-2, MFN2), fission (ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein-1, GDAP1), and mitochondrial axonal transport usually present with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) phenotype. MFN2 mutations cause CMT type 2A by altering mitochondrial fusion and trafficking along the axonal microtubule system. CMT2A is an axonal autosomal dominant CMT type which in most cases is characterized by early onset and rather severe course. GDAP1 mutations also alter fission, fusion and transport of mitochondria and are associated either with recessive demyelinating (CMT4A) and axonal CMT (AR-CMT2K) and, less commonly, with dominant, milder, axonal CMT (CMT2K). OPA1 (Optic Atrophy-1) is involved in fusion of mitochondrial inner membrane, and its heterozygous mutations lead to early-onset and progressive dominant optic atrophy which may be complicated by other neurological symptoms including peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in several proteins fundamental for the axonal transport or forming the axonal cytoskeleton result in peripheral neuropathy, i.e., CMT, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), as well as in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Indeed, mitochondrial transport involves directly or indirectly components of the kinesin superfamily (KIF5A, KIF1A, KIF1B), responsible of anterograde transport, and of the dynein complex and related proteins (DYNC1H1, dynactin, dynamin-2), implicated in retrograde flow. Microtubules, neurofilaments, and chaperones such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have a fundamental

  13. Diagnostic utility of peripheral endobronchial ultrasound with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy in peripheral lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Chee, Alex; Stather, David R; Maceachern, Paul; Martel, Simon; Delage, Antoine; Simon, Mathieu; Dumoulin, Elaine; Tremblay, Alain

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of peripheral endobronchial ultrasound (pEBUS) followed by as-needed electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) for sampling peripheral lung nodules. The study was a single-arm, prospective cohort study of patients with peripheral lung nodules. Peripheral lung lesion localization was initially performed using a pEBUS probe with guide sheath. If localization failed with pEBUS alone, ENB was used to help identify the lesion. Transbronchial biopsy, bronchial brush, transbronchial needle aspiration and bronchial washings were performed. Sixty patients were enrolled with average lesion size of 27 mm and mean pleural distance of 20 mm. Lesions were found with pEBUS alone in 75% of cases. The addition of ENB improved lesion localization to 93%. However, diagnostic yield for pEBUS alone and pEBUS with ENB were 43% and 50%, respectively. Factors predicting need for ENB use included smaller lesion size and absence of an air bronchus sign on computed tomography. ENB improves localization of lung lesions after unsuccessful pEBUS but is often not sufficient to ensure confirmation of a specific diagnosis. Technical improvements in sampling methods could improve the diagnostic yield. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Peripheral ulcerative keratitis: Our challenging experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Bandar; Asghar, Salman; Al-Taweel, Hassan Mohammad; Jalaluddin, Imran

    2013-01-01

    A 52 year old male presented with peripheral ulcerative keratitis in the right eye. Patient’s history included retinitis pigmentosa, pseudophakia (right eye), cataract (left eye), bilateral partial deafness, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 1 diabetes mellitus, depression, hyperparathyroidism, hypertriglycemia and renal failure. The patient was on weekly hemodialysis. The peripheral corneal ulceration remained stable until he developed sudden and rapid thinning after eight months of regular follow up and management. Laboratory investigations including immunological studies were negative and we had to rely on treatment based on clinical signs, including the visual acuity, size, depth and staining of the ulcer and perilimbal, episcleral, scleral, corneal and anterior chamber reactions. The patient was treated with medical and conservative approaches and the eye was protected with a plastic shield to avoid injury. Despite our efforts, the patient perforated his eye due to a trivial trauma during sleep. He was managed successfully with cyanoacrylate glue and a bandage contact lens. The anterior chamber reformed after the perforation was sealed and the patient is on a regular follow up with a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25278804

  15. Circadian clocks are resounding in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Zvonic, Sanjin; Conrad, Steven A; Scott, L Keith; Mynatt, Randall L; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2006-03-01

    Circadian rhythms are prevalent in most organisms. Even the smallest disturbances in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues can result in functional asynchrony, at the organism level, and may to contribute to a wide range of physiologic disorders. It has been reported that as many as 5%-10% of transcribed genes in peripheral tissues follow a circadian expression pattern. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian gene expression on a large dataset representing three different peripheral tissues. The data have been produced in a large-scale microarray experiment covering replicate daily cycles in murine white and brown adipose tissues as well as in liver. We have applied three alternative algorithmic approaches to identify circadian oscillation in time series expression profiles. Analyses of our own data indicate that the expression of at least 7% to 21% of active genes in mouse liver, and in white and brown adipose tissues follow a daily oscillatory pattern. Indeed, analysis of data from other laboratories suggests that the percentage of genes with an oscillatory pattern may approach 50% in the liver. For the rest of the genes, oscillation appears to be obscured by stochastic noise. Our phase classification and computer simulation studies based on multiple datasets indicate no detectable boundary between oscillating and non-oscillating fractions of genes. We conclude that greater attention should be given to the potential influence of circadian mechanisms on any biological pathway related to metabolism and obesity.

  16. Circadian Clocks Are Resounding in Peripheral Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Zvonic, Sanjin; Conrad, Steven A; Scott, L. Keith; Mynatt, Randall L; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2006-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prevalent in most organisms. Even the smallest disturbances in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues can result in functional asynchrony, at the organism level, and may to contribute to a wide range of physiologic disorders. It has been reported that as many as 5%–10% of transcribed genes in peripheral tissues follow a circadian expression pattern. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian gene expression on a large dataset representing three different peripheral tissues. The data have been produced in a large-scale microarray experiment covering replicate daily cycles in murine white and brown adipose tissues as well as in liver. We have applied three alternative algorithmic approaches to identify circadian oscillation in time series expression profiles. Analyses of our own data indicate that the expression of at least 7% to 21% of active genes in mouse liver, and in white and brown adipose tissues follow a daily oscillatory pattern. Indeed, analysis of data from other laboratories suggests that the percentage of genes with an oscillatory pattern may approach 50% in the liver. For the rest of the genes, oscillation appears to be obscured by stochastic noise. Our phase classification and computer simulation studies based on multiple datasets indicate no detectable boundary between oscillating and non-oscillating fractions of genes. We conclude that greater attention should be given to the potential influence of circadian mechanisms on any biological pathway related to metabolism and obesity. PMID:16532060

  17. Hypothalamic NUCKS regulates peripheral glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Beiying; Shi, Xiaohe; Zhou, Qiling; Chen, Hui Shan; Lim, Joy; Han, Weiping; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate (NUCKS) is highly expressed in the brain and peripheral metabolic organs, and regulates transcription of a number of genes involved in insulin signalling. Whole-body depletion of NUCKS (NKO) in mice leads to obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, a tissue-specific contribution of NUCKS to the observed phenotypes remains unknown. Considering the pivotal roles of insulin signalling in the brain, especially in the hypothalamus, we examined the functions of hypothalamic NUCKS in the regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Insulin signalling in the hypothalamus was impaired in the NKO mice when insulin was delivered through intracerebroventricular injection. To validate the hypothalamic specificity, we crossed transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the Nkx2.1 promoter with floxed NUCKS mice to generate mice with hypothalamus-specific deletion of NUCKS (HNKO). We fed the HNKO and littermate control mice with a normal chow diet (NCD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), and assessed glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and metabolic parameters. HNKO mice showed mild glucose intolerance under an NCD, but exacerbated obesity and insulin resistance phenotypes under an HFD. In addition, NUCKS regulated levels of insulin receptor in the brain. Unlike HNKO mice, mice with immune-cell-specific deletion of NUCKS (VNKO) did not develop obesity or insulin-resistant phenotypes under an HFD. These studies indicate that hypothalamic NUCKS plays an essential role in regulating glucose homoeostasis and insulin signalling in vivo. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. Mechanisms of peripheral T-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lechler, R; Marelli-Berg, F M

    1997-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the control of self-reactivity involves peripheral mechanisms that supplement thymic negative selection. It is now generally accepted that T-cell activation depends upon both T-cell receptor engagement and the delivery of B7-mediated costimulation by specialized antigen presenting cells (APC). In contrast, failure to deliver B7-mediated costimulation can result in the induction of antigen-specific non-responsiveness. In physiological terms, costimulation-deficient antigen presentation is the prerogative of those cells that do not express B7 molecules, even during inflammatory conditions, such as tissue parenchymal cells. The consequences of such costimulation-deficient antigen presentation are illustrated by the allospecific tolerance that is observed in animal models of transplantation following the depletion of bone marrow-derived APC from an allograft. In this paper the possible role of antigen presentation by tissue parenchymal cells in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance is discussed, with particular attention to the important contribution that the liver may make to these events.

  19. Peripheral laser angioplasty with sapphire tip.

    PubMed

    Fourrier, J L; Van Franchen, B; Henri, M; Lefebvre, J M; Brunetaud, J M; Bertrand, M E

    1991-01-01

    To improve the result of peripheral laser recanalization (less perforation with wider tunnels of vaporization), we used the technique of sapphire laser angioplasty. A Nd:YAG laser with continuous emission was connected to a catheter with a 600 mum fiber and a sapphire probe to its extremity (1.8-3 mm in diameter). Treatment was performed on 127 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of peripheral arteries (iliac, femoral, or popliteal arteries). Recanalization was obtained in 102 cases (80%) and was further embellished by balloon dilatation. The rate of success decreased proportionally with the length of occlusions (93% for 3 cm, 33% for 15 cm and more). Most failures were due to wall perforation or wall entry of the probe; passage of the sapphire tip was rarely blocked by the occlusion. At follow-up, 26.4% of arteries were reoccluded after 2 months. laser angioplasty with a sapphire tip can totally recanalize occluded arteries with low rate of failure and complications.

  20. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2001-12-01

    Bruxism is a controversial phenomenon. Both its definition and the diagnostic procedure contribute to the fact that the literature about the aetiology of this disorder is difficult to interpret. There is, however, consensus about the multifactorial nature of the aetiology. Besides peripheral (morphological) factors, central (pathophysiological and psychological) factors can be distinguished. In the past, morphological factors, like occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region, have been considered the main causative factors for bruxism. Nowadays, these factors play only a small role, if any. Recent focus is more on the pathophysiological factors. For example, bruxism has been suggested to be part of a sleep arousal response. In addition, bruxism appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. More specifically, disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been linked to bruxism. Further, factors like smoking, alcohol, drugs, diseases and trauma may be involved in the bruxism aetiology. Psychological factors like stress and personality are frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism as well. However, research to these factors comes to equivocal results and needs further attention. Taken all evidence together, bruxism appears to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.

  1. Treating Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: An Update.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Matthew J; Gibbs, Lawrence M; Lindsay, Tammy J

    2016-08-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses proximally from the feet and hands. Clinicians should carefully consider the patient's goals and functional status and potential adverse effects of medication when choosing a treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Pregabalin and duloxetine are the only medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating this disorder. Based on current practice guidelines, these medications, with gabapentin and amitriptyline, should be considered for the initial treatment. Second-line therapy includes opioid-like medications (tramadol and tapentadol), venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, and topical agents (lidocaine patches and capsaicin cream). Isosorbide dinitrate spray and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation may provide relief in some patients and can be considered at any point during therapy. Opioids and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are optional third-line medications. Acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, primrose oil, and electromagnetic field application lack high-quality evidence to support their use.

  2. Peripheral vascular dysfunction in migraine: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have indicated an increased risk of vascular disease among migraineurs. Alterations in endothelial and arterial function, which predispose to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, have been suggested as an important link between migraine and vascular disease. However, the available evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to review and summarize the published evidence about the peripheral vascular dysfunction of migraineurs. We systematically searched in BIOSIS, the Cochrane database, Embase, Google scholar, ISI Web of Science, and Medline to identify articles, published up to April 2013, evaluating the endothelial and arterial function of migraineurs. Several lines of evidence for vascular dysfunction were reported in migraineurs. Findings regarding endothelial function are particularly controversial since studies variously indicated the presence of endothelial dysfunction in migraineurs, the absence of any difference in endothelial function between migraineurs and non-migraineurs, and even an enhanced endothelial function in migraineurs. Reports on arterial function are more consistent and suggest that functional properties of large arteries are altered in migraineurs. Peripheral vascular function, particularly arterial function, is a promising non-invasive indicator of the vascular health of subjects with migraine. However, further targeted research is needed to understand whether altered arterial function explains the increased risk of vascular disease among patients with migraine. PMID:24083826

  3. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell’s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell’s palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell’s palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell’s palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell’s palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae. PMID:18368417

  4. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2008-07-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell's palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell's palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell's palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell's palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell's palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae.

  5. Sensory correlates of pain in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ng Wing Tin, Sophie; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Goujon, Colette; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Créange, Alain; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2014-05-01

    To characterize sensory threshold alterations in peripheral neuropathies and the relationship between these alterations and the presence of pain. Seventy-four patients with length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy were enrolled, including 38 patients with painful neuropathy (complaining of chronic, spontaneous neuropathic pain in the feet) and 36 patients with painless neuropathy. They were compared to 28 age-matched normal controls. A standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol was performed in all individuals to assess large and small fiber function at the foot. Large fibers were assessed by measuring mechanical (pressure and vibration) detection thresholds and small fibers by measuring pain and thermal detection thresholds. Between patients with neuropathy and controls, significant differences were found for mechanical and thermal detection thresholds but not for pain thresholds. Patients with painful neuropathy and those with painless neuropathy did not differ regarding mechanical or thermal thresholds, but only by a higher incidence of thermal or dynamic mechanical allodynia in case of painful neuropathy. Pain intensity correlated with the alteration of thermal detection and mechanical pain thresholds. Quantitative sensory testing can support the diagnosis of sensory neuropathy when considering detection threshold measurement. Thermal threshold deterioration was not associated with the occurrence of pain but with its intensity. There is a complex relationship between the loss or functional deficit of large and especially small sensory nerve fibers and the development of pain in peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    PubMed

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  7. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ricardo; Castano, Ananda; Abelairas, Jose; Peralta, Jesus; Garcia-Cabezas, Miguel A; Sanchez-Orgaz, Margarita; Arbizu, Alvaro; Vallejo-Garcia, Jose

    2011-07-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours (pPNETs) are a group of soft-tissue tumours of neuroepithelial origin that arise outside the central and sympathetic nervous system. Orbital location is infrequent, and to the best of the authors' knowledge only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. With this article, the authors report the demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnostic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options of primary orbital peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour, based on their patients and on the cases reported in the literature to date. A differential diagnosis should be made with other small round cell tumours; immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques are essential for this purpose. Although bone invasion and extraorbital extension are possible, systemic metastases are uncommon in the cases of orbital pPNETs. Surgery has been the initial treatment in most cases; chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy is considered the best additional treatment. The orbital pPNET could be less aggressive than other forms of pPNETs, since most of the patients reported were alive after the follow-up period (at least 6 months).

  8. Detrimental impact of hyperlipidemia on the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song; Cao, Xu; He, Rongzhen; Xiong, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, epidemiological studies on the etiology of peripheral neuropathies have revealed that hyperlipidemia is a novel risk factor. Plasma lipid levels were confirmed to be associated with the incidence of many peripheral neuropathies including axonal distal polyneuropathy, vision and hearing loss, motor nerve system lesions and sympathetic nerve system dysfunction. Moreover, different lipid components such as cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoprotein are involved in the pathogenesis of these neuropathies. This review aimed to discuss the effect of hyperlipidemia on the peripheral nervous system and its association with peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, a detailed discussion focusing on the explicit mechanisms related to hyperlipidemia-induced peripheral neuropathies is presented here. These mechanisms, including intracellular oxidative stress, inflammatory lesions, ischemia and dysregulation of local lipid metabolism, share pathways and interact mutually. In addition, we examined current information on clinical trials to prevent and treat peripheral neuropathies caused by hyperlipidemia, with a predictive discussion regarding the orientation of future investigations. PMID:25774180

  9. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  10. Ex Vivo Generated Natural Killer Cells Acquire Typical Natural Killer Receptors and Display a Cytotoxic Gene Expression Profile Similar to Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Dorit; Spanholtz, Jan; Osl, Markus; Tordoir, Marleen; Lipnik, Karoline; Bilban, Martin; Schlechta, Bernhard; Dolstra, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Ex vivo differentiation systems of natural killer (NK) cells from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells are of potential importance for adjuvant immunotherapy of cancer. Here, we analyzed ex vivo differentiation of NK cells from cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells by gene expression profiling, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional analysis. Additionally, we compared the identified characteristics to peripheral blood (PB) CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells. The data show sequential expression of CD56 and the CD94 and NKG2 receptor chains during ex vivo NK cell development, resulting finally in the expression of a range of genes with partial characteristics of CD56bright and CD56dim NK cells from PB. Expression of characteristic NK cell receptors and cytotoxic genes was mainly found within the predominant ex vivo generated population of NKG2A+ NK cells, indicating the importance of NKG2A expression during NK cell differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, despite distinct phenotypic characteristics, the detailed analysis of cytolytic genes expressed within the ex vivo differentiated NK cells revealed a pattern close to CD56dim NK cells. In line with this finding, ex vivo generated NK cells displayed potent cytotoxicity. This supports that the ex vivo differentiation system faithfully reproduces major steps of the differentiation of NK cells from their progenitors, constitutes an excellent model to study NK cell differentiation, and is valuable to generate large-scale NK cells appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:22571679

  11. Ex vivo generated natural killer cells acquire typical natural killer receptors and display a cytotoxic gene expression profile similar to peripheral blood natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Dorit; Spanholtz, Jan; Osl, Markus; Tordoir, Marleen; Lipnik, Karoline; Bilban, Martin; Schlechta, Bernhard; Dolstra, Harry; Hofer, Erhard

    2012-11-01

    Ex vivo differentiation systems of natural killer (NK) cells from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells are of potential importance for adjuvant immunotherapy of cancer. Here, we analyzed ex vivo differentiation of NK cells from cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells by gene expression profiling, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional analysis. Additionally, we compared the identified characteristics to peripheral blood (PB) CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells. The data show sequential expression of CD56 and the CD94 and NKG2 receptor chains during ex vivo NK cell development, resulting finally in the expression of a range of genes with partial characteristics of CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells from PB. Expression of characteristic NK cell receptors and cytotoxic genes was mainly found within the predominant ex vivo generated population of NKG2A+ NK cells, indicating the importance of NKG2A expression during NK cell differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, despite distinct phenotypic characteristics, the detailed analysis of cytolytic genes expressed within the ex vivo differentiated NK cells revealed a pattern close to CD56(dim) NK cells. In line with this finding, ex vivo generated NK cells displayed potent cytotoxicity. This supports that the ex vivo differentiation system faithfully reproduces major steps of the differentiation of NK cells from their progenitors, constitutes an excellent model to study NK cell differentiation, and is valuable to generate large-scale NK cells appropriate for immunotherapy.

  12. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Scott R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. Design AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Methods Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Results Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/µl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusion Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for

  13. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Scott R; Ellis, Ronald J; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J; McArthur, Justin C; Simpson, David M; Clifford, David B

    2011-04-24

    To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/μl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for peripheral neuropathy/SPN.

  14. Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.

  15. Fatal Peripheral Candidal Suppurative Thrombophlebitis in a Postoperative Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk-Kyung; Nam, So-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of fatal fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis, caused by Candida albicans, which was disseminated to the blood, lungs, eyes, and spine. Clinical suspicion and aggressive management are important in managing fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis. Early clinical suspicion is important in managing fungal peripheral suppurative thrombophlebitis, and radical excision of the affected veins, recognition of metastatic foci, and use of systemic antifungal agents are essential to avoid septic shock and death. PMID:19119456

  16. Locating the cortical bottleneck for slow reading in peripheral vision

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Deyue; Jiang, Yi; Legge, Gordon E.; He, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Yu, Legge, Park, Gage, and Chung (2010) suggested that the neural bottleneck for slow peripheral reading is located in nonretinotopic areas. We investigated the potential rate-limiting neural site for peripheral reading using fMRI, and contrasted peripheral reading with recognition of peripherally presented line drawings of common objects. We measured the BOLD responses to both text (three-letter words/nonwords) and line-drawing objects presented either in foveal or peripheral vision (10° lower right visual field) at three presentation rates (2, 4, and 8/second). The statistically significant interaction effect of visual field × presentation rate on the BOLD response for text but not for line drawings provides evidence for distinctive processing of peripheral text. This pattern of results was obtained in all five regions of interest (ROIs). At the early retinotopic cortical areas, the BOLD signal slightly increased with increasing presentation rate for foveal text, and remained fairly constant for peripheral text. In the Occipital Word-Responsive Area (OWRA), Visual Word Form Area (VWFA), and object sensitive areas (LO and PHA), the BOLD responses to text decreased with increasing presentation rate for peripheral but not foveal presentation. In contrast, there was no rate-dependent reduction in BOLD response for line-drawing objects in all the ROIs for either foveal or peripheral presentation. Only peripherally presented text showed a distinctive rate-dependence pattern. Although it is possible that the differentiation starts to emerge at the early retinotopic cortical representation, the neural bottleneck for slower reading of peripherally presented text may be a special property of peripheral text processing in object category selective cortex. PMID:26237299

  17. Zika virus directly infects peripheral neurons and induces cell death.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yohan; Zhang, Feiran; Wang, Yaqing; Lee, Emily M; Choi, In Young; Lim, Hotae; Mirakhori, Fahimeh; Li, Ronghua; Huang, Luoxiu; Xu, Tianlei; Wu, Hao; Li, Cui; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Wen, Zhexing; Wu, Qing-Feng; Tang, Hengli; Xu, Zhiheng; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Lee, Gabsang

    2017-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is associated with neurological disorders of both the CNS and peripheral nervous systems (PNS), yet few studies have directly examined PNS infection. Here we show that intraperitoneally or intraventricularly injected ZIKV in the mouse can infect and impact peripheral neurons in vivo. Moreover, ZIKV productively infects stem-cell-derived human neural crest cells and peripheral neurons in vitro, leading to increased cell death, transcriptional dysregulation and cell-type-specific molecular pathology.

  18. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Nerve Compression Syndromes in Burns.

    PubMed

    Strong, Amy L; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cederna, Paul S; Levi, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes lead to substantial morbidity following burn injury. Patients present with pain, paresthesias, or weakness along a specific nerve distribution or experience generalized peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms manifest at various times from within one week of hospitalization to many months after wound closure. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by vascular occlusion of vasa nervorum, inflammation, neurotoxin production leading to apoptosis, and direct destruction of nerves from the burn injury. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, current treatments, and future directions for potential interventions for peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes related to burn injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral neuropathy: an underreported neurologic manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    García-Cabo, Carmen; Morís, Germán

    2015-09-01

    One of the most frequent neurologic complications reported in inflammatory bowel disease population is peripheral neuropathy; however, clinical aspects of peripheral nerve damage are not well characterized. The aim of the review is to present the existing literature on peripheral neuropathy in inflammatory bowel disease patients. A literature search identified the publications reporting on epidemiology, clinical features, underlying mechanisms and management of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients with peripheral nerve involvement. The pathogenesis of peripheral nervous system damage in inflammatory bowel disease has yet to be elucidated, although it seems to be related to immune mechanisms; therefore, treatment with immunotherapy is recommended. In addition, peripheral neuropathy may appear as iatrogenic-related disorders associated with several drugs used in controlling inflammatory bowel disease activity; finally, peripheral neuropathy may also be caused by micronutrient deficiencies secondary to malabsorption-related disorders. Although peripheral nervous nerve damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of the peripheral neuropathy clinical manifestations in order to recognize it and provide early treatment, which is crucial for preventing major neurologic morbidity. Heightened awareness is necessary for the successful management of these patients. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Central and Peripheral Precuing of Forced-Choice Discrimination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ATTENTION , *CUEING, *REFLEXES, *VISUAL PERCEPTION, DISCRIMINATION, PEAK VALUES, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), PERIPHERAL VISION, POSITION(LOCATION), REACTION... TIME , SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, SYMBOLS, TARGET DETECTION, VISUAL TARGETS, VISUAL SIGNALS.

  2. Neuroactive steroids and the peripheral nervous system: An update.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Pesaresi, Marzia; Cermenati, Gaia; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Tetel, Marc J; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2015-11-01

    In the present review we summarize observations to date supporting the concept that neuroactive steroids are synthesized in the peripheral nervous system, regulate the physiology of peripheral nerves and exert notable neuroprotective actions. Indeed, neuroactive steroids have been recently proposed as therapies for different types of peripheral neuropathy, like for instance those occurring during aging, chemotherapy, physical injury and diabetes. Moreover, pharmacological tools able to increase the synthesis of neuroactive steroids might represent new interesting therapeutic strategy to be applied in case of peripheral neuropathy.

  3. Peripheral nervous system manifestations in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Cojocaru, Manole; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina

    2014-09-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement is peripheral neuropathy, with symptoms of numbness, sensory paresthesias, weakness, or gait imbalance. The neuropathy may be multifocal and asymmetric or, less frequently, distal and symmetric.

  4. Animal models of peripheral neuropathy due to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa B; Jortner, Bernard S; Sills, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy--namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves.

  5. Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Environmental Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Deepa B.; Jortner, Bernard S.; Sills, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the progress in our understanding of pathogeneses and the identification of etiologies of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic neuropathy remains common. Typically, attention to peripheral neuropathies resulting from exposure to environmental agents is limited relative to more commonly diagnosed causes of peripheral neuropathy (diabetes and chemotherapeutic agents). Given that there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and that at least 1000 chemicals are known to have neurotoxic potential, very few chemicals have been established to affect the peripheral nervous system (mainly after occupational exposures). A wide spectrum of exposures, including pesticides, metals, solvents, nutritional sources, and pharmaceutical agents, has been related, both historically and recently, to environmental toxicant-induced peripheral neuropathy. A review of the literature shows that the toxicity and pathogeneses of chemicals adversely affecting the peripheral nervous system have been studied using animal models. This article includes an overview of five prototypical environmental agents known to cause peripheral neuropathy—namely, organophosphates, carbon disulfide, pyridoxine (Vitamin B6), acrylamide, and hexacarbons (mainly n-hexane, 2,5-hexanedione, methyl n-butyl ketone). Also included is a brief introduction to the structural components of the peripheral nervous system and pointers on common methodologies for histopathologic evaluation of the peripheral nerves. PMID:24615445

  6. Peripheral morphine analgesia in dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Likar, R; Sittl, R; Gragger, K; Pipam, W; Blatnig, H; Breschan, C; Schalk, H V; Stein, C; Schäfer, M

    1998-05-01

    The recent identification of opioid receptors on peripheral nerve endings of primary afferent neurons and the expression of their mRNA in dorsal root ganglia support earlier experimental data about peripheral analgesic effects of locally applied opioids. These effects are most prominent under localized inflammatory conditions. The clinical use of such peripheral analgesic effects of opioids was soon investigated in numerous controlled clinical trials. The majority of these have tested the local, intraarticular administration of morphine in knee surgery and have demonstrated potent and long-lasting postoperative analgesia. As the direct application of morphine into the pain-generating site of injury and inflammation appears most promising, we examined direct morphine infiltration of the surgical site in a unique clinical model of inflammatory tooth pain. Forty-four patients undergoing dental surgery entered into this prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Before surgery they received, together with a standard local anesthetic solution (articaine plus epinephrine) a submucous injection of either 1 mg of morphine (group A) or saline (group B). Postoperative pain intensity was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and numeric rating scale (NRS) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after surgery. In addition, patients recorded the occurrence of side effects and the supplemental consumption of diclofenac tablets. Results of 27 patients were analyzed (group A: n=14, group B: n=13). Pain scores which were moderate to severe preoperatively were reduced to a similar extent in both groups up to 8 h postoperatively. Thereafter, pain scores in group A were significantly lower than those in group B for up to 24 h, demonstrating the analgesic efficacy of additional morphine. The time to first analgesic intake and the total amount of supplemental diclofenac were less in group A than in group B. No serious side effects were reported. Our results show that 1 mg of

  7. Peptide regulators of peripheral taste function

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Cedrick D.; Geraedts, Maartje C.P.; Munger, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral sensory organ of the gustatory system, the taste bud, contains a heterogeneous collection of sensory cells. These taste cells can differ in the stimuli to which they respond and the receptors and other signaling molecules they employ to transduce and encode gustatory stimuli. This molecular diversity extends to the expression of a varied repertoire of bioactive peptides that appear to play important functional roles in signaling taste information between the taste cells and afferent sensory nerves and/or in processing sensory signals within the taste bud itself. Here, we review studies that examine the expression of bioactive peptides in the taste bud and the impact of those peptides on taste functions. Many of these peptides produced in taste buds are known to affect appetite, satiety or metabolism through their actions in the brain, pancreas and other organs, suggesting a functional link between the gustatory system and the neural and endocrine systems that regulate feeding and nutrient utilization. PMID:23348523

  8. Purification of basophils from peripheral human blood.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Franco H; Gibbs, Bernhard F

    2014-01-01

    The purification of basophils from peripheral blood has represented a formidable challenge for researchers since they were discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1879. From the first published attempts in the late 1960s, it took half a century to develop robust protocols able to provide sufficient numbers of pure, functionally unimpaired basophils. The existing protocols for basophil purification exploit those properties of basophils which distinguish them from other cell types such as their localization in blood, density, and the presence or absence of surface markers. Purification techniques have been used in various combinations and variations to achieve a common goal in mind: to obtain a pure population of human basophils in sufficient numbers for downstream studies. The arduous way leading up to the modern protocols is summarized in this historical retrospective. A fast protocol for purification of basophils to near homogeneity is also described.

  9. Chapter 2: Development of the peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Suleyman; Odaci, Ersan; Unal, Bunyami; Sahin, Bunyamin; Fornaro, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Normal function of the peripheral nerve (PN) is based on morphological integrity and relationship between axons, Schwann cells, and connective sheaths, which depends on the correct development of all these components. Most of the relevant studies in this field were carried out using animal models, since reports on the development of the human PNs from the time of prenatal formation to postnatal development are limited as it is quite difficult to find many nerves in fetuses. In this review paper, we will address the main developmental stages of axons, Schwann cells, and connective tissue sheaths in PNs. Knowledge on the development of PNs and their main components is important for the study of nerve repair and regeneration. This knowledge can be helpful for designing innovative treatment strategies since, like with other organs, the development and regeneration processes share many biological features.

  10. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of penis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, J; Madan, R; Singh, L; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K; Roy, S

    2015-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare variety of soft tissue sarcoma that originates from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. They have historically been difficult tumours to diagnose and treat. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a goal to achieve negative margins. Despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of patients with MPNST remains poor. MPNST arising from penis is a very rare entity; thus, it presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of penile MPNST in a 38-year-old man in the absence of neurofibromatosis treated with surgery followed by post-operative radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and adriamycin.

  11. Engineered neural tissue for peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Melanie; Bunting, Stephen C J; Davies, Heather A; Loughlin, Alison J; Golding, Jonathan P; Phillips, James B

    2013-10-01

    A new combination of tissue engineering techniques provides a simple and effective method for building aligned cellular biomaterials. Self-alignment of Schwann cells within a tethered type-1 collagen matrix, followed by removal of interstitial fluid produces a stable tissue-like biomaterial that recreates the aligned cellular and extracellular matrix architecture associated with nerve grafts. Sheets of this engineered neural tissue supported and directed neuronal growth in a co-culture model, and initial in vivo tests showed that a device containing rods of rolled-up sheets could support neuronal growth during rat sciatic nerve repair (5 mm gap). Further testing of this device for repair of a critical-sized 15 mm gap showed that, at 8 weeks, engineered neural tissue had supported robust neuronal regeneration across the gap. This is, therefore, a useful new approach for generating anisotropic engineered tissues, and it can be used with Schwann cells to fabricate artificial neural tissue for peripheral nerve repair.

  12. Infantile Sandhoff's disease with peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anuj; Kohli, Ashok; Sachan, Deepak

    2010-06-01

    Sandhoff's disease is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism that results from a deficiency of lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A and B. The resultant accumulation of GM2 gangliosides within both grey matter and the myelin sheath of white matter results in essential, severe neurodegeneration. We describe a 14-month-old boy with seizures and severe neurodegeneration. His diagnosis was confirmed by neuroimaging and enzyme assay. In addition to the classic features of Sandhoff's disease, the child's clinical features were suggestive of neuropathy as supported by nerve conduction studies indicating that the bilateral median, ulnar, and common peroneal nerves were affected. Peripheral nervous system involvement is not consistently observed in infantile Sandhoff's disease, prompting us to report this case. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  14. Clinical experience with peripheral excimer laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visona, Adriana; Cecchetti, Walter; Liessi, Guido; Miserocchi, Luigi; Bonanome, Andrea; Lusiani, Luigi; Mayellaro, Valeria; Pagnan, Antonio

    1993-06-01

    We used an excimer laser system (xenon-chloride at the wavelength of 308 nm) to treat totally occluded peripheral vessels in 71 patients. Energy was delivered through a multifiber catheter, which combines 12 (7F) or 18 (9F) fibers (260 (mu) diameter each), concentrically arranged. Balloon dilatation was associated to complete the procedure in 84% of the cases. The immediate success rate was 97%. The cumulative patency rate was 49% at one year. The major problems with this system were that the stiff multifiber tips caused dissections, and spasm; dead space/active space ratio of the catheter was unfavorable, allowing mechanical `dottering;' the maximum lumen obtained was considered inadequate. After this three year period, the goal of our clinical laser program is to develop a stand alone laser technique by employing a multifiber catheter which combines 130 - 150 fibers 100 (mu) diameter each, and features a quartz coated distal tip.

  15. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in three cats

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Takuma; SUNAHARA, Hiroshi; SUGIMOTO, Keisuke; ITO, Tetsuro; KANAI, Eiichi; FUJII, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Case 1 involved a 4-month-old intact male Somali cat in which peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS) was recognized after a cardiac murmur remained following patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Case 2, which involved a 1-year-old neutered male Norwegian Forest cat, and Case 3, which involved a 6-month-old intact female American Curl cat, were referred, because of cardiac murmurs. Grades III to IV/VI systolic heart murmurs were auscultated at the left heart base in all 3 cats. All cases showed bilateral pulmonary artery stenosis, although there were no associated clinical signs. In Cases 1 and 2, the pressure gradient through the stenosis decreased after treatment with atenolol. PMID:25650057

  16. Mucopolysaccharides in Peripheral Leucocytes of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riesco, Andres; Leyton, Cecilia

    1971-01-01

    The presence of mucopolysaccharides (MPS) in leucocytes of peripheral blood of 19 cancer patients, 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 14 normal controls, was studied histochemically. MPS was revealed in different proportions in polynuclears and mononuclears. According to the staining technics, the MPS appear to be mainly carboxylated and contain hyaluronic acid and chondroitinsulphate groups. The quantitative analysis revealed that MPS appeared only in around 3% of leucocytes of normal controls, while in the cancer patients 56% of polynuclear and 90% of mononuclears contained it. In the tuberculous patients, 90% of polynuclears and 86% of the mononuclears revealed MPS. The differences between the prevalence of leucocytes containing MPS in controls and in cancer or tuberculous patients are highly significant. The possibility that the difference in MPS content of leucocytes is related with low inmunological activity is postulated. PMID:4256006

  17. [Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell collection].

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Ines; Mazić, Sanja; Cepulić, Branka Golubić

    2009-01-01

    Summary. Peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBSC) have numerous advatages in comparison with traditionally used bone marrow. PBSC collection by leukapheresis procedure is simpler and better tolerated than bone marrow harvest. PBCS are mobilized by myelosupressive chemotherapy or/and hematopoietic growth factors. Leukapheresis product contains PBSC along with lineage commited progenitors and precursors which contribute to faster hematopoietic recovery. In "poor mobilizers" options are large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) procedure or second generation of mobilising agents (pegfilgrastim, CXCR4 receptor antagonists). Total blood volume is processed 2-3 times in standard procedure compared to more than 3 times in LVL. LVL yields significantly higher numbers of CD34+ cells. Adverse effects of leukapheresis are electrolyte disbalance (hypocalcemia) caused by citrat administration and risk of bleeding due to trobocytopenia and heparin administration. PBSC collection and product quality control are regulated by national and international standards and recommendations.

  18. Peripheral nerve blocks for hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Guay, Joanne; Parker, Martyn J; Griffiths, Richard; Kopp, Sandra

    2017-05-11

    Various nerve blocks with local anaesthetic agents have been used to reduce pain after hip fracture and subsequent surgery. This review was published originally in 1999 and was updated in 2001, 2002, 2009 and 2017. This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerves blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia or as a supplement to general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. We undertook the update to look for new studies and to update the methods to reflect Cochrane standards. For the updated review, we searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1966 to August week 1 2016), Embase (Ovid SP, 1988 to 2016 August week 1) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO, 1982 to August week 1 2016), as well as trial registers and reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving use of nerve blocks as part of the care provided for adults aged 16 years and older with hip fracture. Two review authors independently assessed new trials for inclusion, determined trial quality using the Cochrane tool and extracted data. When appropriate, we pooled results of outcome measures. We rated the quality of evidence according to the GRADE Working Group approach. We included 31 trials (1760 participants; 897 randomized to peripheral nerve blocks and 863 to no regional blockade). Results of eight trials with 373 participants show that peripheral nerve blocks reduced pain on movement within 30 minutes of block placement (standardized mean difference (SMD) -1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.14 to -0.67; equivalent to -3.4 on a scale from 0 to 10; I(2) = 90%; high quality of evidence). Effect size was proportionate to the concentration of local anaesthetic used (P < 0.00001). Based on seven trials with 676 participants, we did not find a difference in the risk of acute confusional state (risk ratio (RR

  19. Surgical treatment of peripheral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Bahcivan, Muzaffer; Keceligil, H Tahsin; Kolbakir, Fersat; Gol, M Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral arterial aneurysms (PAA) may rupture, cause emboli and ischemia, and local symptoms due to compression. A total of 109 patients who underwent surgery for PAA were analyzed retrospectively, including clinical presentation, surgical procedures used, and postoperative follow-up data obtained 10 days after discharge. True aneurysm was present in 59 (54.1%) patients and pseudoaneurysm in 50 (45.9%). The femoral artery was the most common location. The surgical procedures used were as follows: graft interposition in 31 patients, bypass with synthetic or autologous grafts in 33 patients, aneurysm ligation in 5 patients, primary repair in 41 patients, and patch angioplasty reconstruction in 7 patients. One patient died as a result of massive hemorrhage. In four patients, amputation had to be performed. It is possible to prevent amputation and other complications, including mortality, during the surgical treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic PAA.

  20. Peripheral nerve morphogenesis induced by scaffold micropatterning

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Danish; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Madaghiele, Marta; Brambilla, Paola; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Taveggia, Carla; Riva, Nilo; Trimarco, Amelia; Lopez, Ignazio D.; Comi, Giancarlo; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Sannino, Alessandro; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Several bioengineering approaches have been proposed for peripheral nervous system repair, with limited results and still open questions about the underlying molecular mechanisms. We assessed the biological processes that occur after the implantation of collagen scaffold with a peculiar porous microstructure of the wall in a rat sciatic nerve transection model compared to commercial collagen conduits and nerve crush injury using functional, histological and genome wide analyses. We demonstrated that within 60 days, our conduit had been completely substituted by a normal nerve. Gene expression analysis documented a precise sequential regulation of known genes involved in angiogenesis, Schwann cells/axons interactions and myelination, together with a selective modulation of key biological pathways for nerve morphogenesis induced by porous matrices. These data suggest that the scaffold’s microstructure profoundly influences cell behaviors and creates an instructive micro-environment to enhance nerve morphogenesis that can be exploited to improve recovery and understand the molecular differences between repair and regeneration. PMID:24559639

  1. A Conservative Approach to a Peripheral Ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Marialuisa; Mazzoleni, Sergio; Berengo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral Ameloblastoma (PA) is the rarest variant of ameloblastoma. It differs from the other subtypes of ameloblastoma in its localization: it arises in the soft tissues of the oral cavity coating the tooth bearing bones. Generally, it manifests nonaggressive behavior and it can be treated with complete removal by local conservative excision. In this study we report a case of PA of the maxilla in a 78-year-old female patient and we describe the four different histopathological patterns revealed by histological examination. After local excision and diagnosis, we planned a long term follow-up: in one year no recurrence had been reported. The choice of treatment is illustrated in Discussion. PMID:27840747

  2. General Approach to Peripheral Nerve Disorders.

    PubMed

    Russell, James A

    2017-10-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for the evaluation of patients with suspected polyneuropathy to enhance the clinician's ability to localize and confirm peripheral nervous system pathology and, when possible, identify an etiologic diagnosis through use of rational clinical and judicious testing strategies. Although these strategies are largely time-honored, recent insights pertaining to the pathophysiology of certain immune-mediated neuropathies and to evolving genetic testing strategies may modify the way that select causes of neuropathy are conceptualized, evaluated, and managed. The strategies suggested in this article are intended to facilitate accurate bedside diagnosis in patients with suspected polyneuropathy and allow efficient and judicious use of supplementary testing and application of rational treatment when indicated.

  3. Stent evolution for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Lejay, A; Thaveau, F; Girsowicz, E; Georg, Y; Heim, F; Durand, B; Chakfé, N

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular treatment and stent implantation for peripheral arterial disease have been proposed for over 20 years. However, the first experiments with stainless stents were relatively disappointing. The first improvement consisted in the introduction of nitinol self-expanding stents. This technology allowed an initial improvement of clinical performances, but the first generation of nitinol stents demonstrated a relatively high rate of fractures. Better knowledge of arterial biomechanics and advances in technology allowed to propose a second generation of nitinol stents with improved flexibility, which decreased the rates of fracture. In-stent restenosis related to neointimal hyperplasia has also led to the development of new concepts to improve patency rates after stenting: drug-eluting stents (coated-stents), biodegradable stents, and covered stents. These technologies will help to treat more complex lesions in the future, but we are still waiting for results of ongoing studies.

  4. Docking system of androgynous and peripheral type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syromyatnikov, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    Soviet and American space engineers have proceeded with creating compatible means for closing and docking spacecraft. It was decided to make a new advanced docking system of a peripheral and androgynous type. Because of a more complex design of the new-type docking mechanism, a number of technical problems arose. To a great extent, the solution of these problems depends on a chosen concept of the docking mechanism. The report deals with the docking system concept accepted by the Soviet engineers as the basis for further development. The description and structural arrangement of the docking system as a whole, its basic assemblies, and a kinematic scheme of the docking mechanism using a system of differentials are given. It should be noted that the experience that was gained from the development of previous docking systems was used to create a new type of docking system. The main problems to be solved in the course of designing and developing the advanced system are noted.

  5. Bortezomib-induced peripheral neurotoxicity: an update.

    PubMed

    Argyriou, Andreas A; Cavaletti, Guido; Bruna, Jordi; Kyritsis, Athanasios P; Kalofonos, Haralabos P

    2014-09-01

    This review paper provides a critical exploration of updates concerning the spectrum of characteristics and treatment options of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN). Emphasis is given on pathogenesis issues. Although the mechanism underlying BIPN still remains elusive, it is increasingly acknowledged that the inhibition of proteasome activity in dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves, the mitochondrial-mediated disruption of Ca⁺⁺ intracellular homeostasis and the disregulation in nuclear factor κB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor play a significant pathogenic role. Assessment of BIPN is based on comprehensive grading scales, using a combination of "subjective" and "objective" parameters, which turn out to be ambiguously interpreted, thus leading to both under- and misreporting of its true incidence and severity. BIPN is clinically defined as a typical example of a dose-dependent, distally attenuated painful, sensory neuronopathy. Patients pre-treated with neurotoxic regimens and those with pre-existing neuropathy are more likely to develop severe neurotoxicity. To date, there is no effective pharmacological treatment to prevent BIPN, and therefore, interventions remain merely symptomatic to focus on the alleviation of neuropathic pain. Hence, strict adherence to the dose reduction and schedule change algorithm is recommended in order to prevent treatment-emergent BIPN and allow the continuation of treatment. Further studies in animal models and humans, including experimental, clinical, neurophysiological and pharmacogenetic approaches, are needed to allow the identification of the true spectrum of BIPN pathogenesis and characteristics. It is expected that such comprehensive approaches would be the starting point for the development of early preventive and therapeutic interventions against BIPN.

  6. Diabetes, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Lower Extremity Function

    PubMed Central

    Chiles, Nancy S.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diabetes among older adults causes many complications, including decreased lower extremity function and physical disability. Diabetes can cause peripheral nerve dysfunction, which might be one pathway through which diabetes leads to decreased physical function. The study aims were to determine: (1) whether diabetes and impaired fasting glucose are associated with objective measures of physical function in older adults, (2) which peripheral nerve function (PNF) tests are associated with diabetes, and (3) whether PNF mediates the diabetes-physical function relationship. Research Design and Methods This study included 983 participants, age 65 and older from the InCHIANTI Study. Diabetes was diagnosed by clinical guidelines. Physical performance was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), scored from 0-12 (higher values, better physical function) and usual walking speed (m/s). PNF was assessed via standard surface electroneurographic study of right peroneal nerve conduction velocity, vibration and touch sensitivity. Clinical cut-points of PNF tests were used to create a neuropathy score from 0-5 (higher values, greater neuropathy). Multiple linear regression models were used to test associations. Results and Conclusion 12.8% (n=126) of participants had diabetes. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and other confounders, diabetic participants had decreased SPPB (β= −0.99; p< 0.01), decreased walking speed (β= −0.1m/s; p< 0.01), decreased nerve conduction velocity (β= −1.7m/s; p< 0.01), and increased neuropathy (β= 0.25; p< 0.01) compared to non-diabetic participants. Adjusting for nerve conduction velocity and neuropathy score decreased the effect of diabetes on SPPB by 20%, suggesting partial mediation through decreased PNF. PMID:24120281

  7. Peripheral blood monocyte responses in periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, S J

    2012-08-01

    Periodontitis results from the interaction of bacteria on the tooth surfaces and the host immune response. Although periodontal pathogens are essential for the initiation and progression of the disease, the tissue damage in periodontitis is primarily mediated by the host immune response. Differences in the susceptibility to the disease and in the clinal outcome of the therapy seem to be less dependent on genetics but more on lifestyle factors, like smoking, overweight, stress and nutrition. It has been shown that these lifestyle factors may modulate the immune response and therefore influence the initiation and progression of the disease. To study the host immune response, whole blood cell cultures (WBCC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been widely used and they specifically reflect the behaviour of monocytes. It has been shown that peripheral blood monocytes in LPS-stimulated WBCC from non-smoking periodontitis patients display a T-helper 2 (Th2)-promoting phenotype in comparison with controls. After periodontal therapy, this phenotype reversed and was comparable with controls. However, in smoking but treated patients, the Th2-promoting phenotype of monocytes still remained. Therefore, the aberrant phenotype of monocytes in the peripheral blood from periodontitis patients is likely to be a systemic response to exogenous and endogenous danger molecules released or induced by the periodontal infection or by smoking. It can be concluded that periodontal therapy in non-smoking periodontitis patients has beneficial health effects and that smoking cessation should be an integral part of the therapy as well for general health reasons as for the clinical outcome.

  8. Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Darlene S.; Popko, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

  9. Fluctuations in central and peripheral temperatures induced by intravenous nicotine: central and peripheral contributions

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jeremy; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine (NIC) is a highly addictive substance that interacts with different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. While the direct action of NIC on central neurons appears to be essential for its reinforcing properties, the role of peripheral actions of this drug remains a matter of controversy. In this study, we examined changes in locomotor activity and temperature fluctuations in the brain (nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area), temporal muscle, and skin induced by intravenous (iv) NIC at low human-relevant doses (10 and 30 μg/kg) in freely moving rats. These effects were compared to those induced by social interaction, an arousing procedure that induces behavioral activation and temperature responses via pure neural mechanism procedure, and iv injections of a peripherally acting NIC analogue, NIC pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM) used at equimolar doses. We found that NIC at 30 μg/kg induces a modest locomotor activation, rapid and strong decrease in skin temperature, and weak increases in brain and muscle temperature. While these effects were qualitatively similar to those induced by social interaction, they were much weaker and showed a tendency to increase with repeated drug administrations. In contrast, NIC-PM did not affect locomotion and induced much weaker than NIC increases in brain and muscle temperatures and decreases in skin temperature; these effects showed a tendency to be weaker with repeated drug administrations. Our data indicate that NIC's actions in the brain are essential to induce locomotor activation and brain and body hyperthermic responses. However, rapid peripheral action of NIC on sensory afferents could be an important factor in triggering its central effects, contributing to neural and physiological activation following repeated drug use. PMID:21295014

  10. Hyperacute peripheral neuropathy is a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tominaga, Toshiji; Kimura, Masamichi; Maeda, Tsunehiro; Shirai, Yasutsugu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    Chronic peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse response to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens, but there are no established risk factors pertaining to it. We investigated the efficacy of hyperacute peripheral neuropathy (HAPN) as a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy (PPN). Forty-seven cases of stage III colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin after curative surgery between January 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. HAPN was defined as acute peripheral neuropathy (APN) occurring on day 1 (≤24 h after oxaliplatin infusion) of the first cycle. PPN was defined as neuropathy lasting >1 year after oxaliplatin discontinuation. The average total dose of oxaliplatin was 625.8 mg/m(2), and the average relative dose intensity was 66.7%. Twenty-two of the 47 patients (46.8%) had PPN and 13 (27.7%) had HAPN. Male sex, treatment for neuropathy, HAPN, and APN were significantly more frequent in patients with PPN (p = 0.013, 0.02, <0.001, and 0.023, respectively). There was no significant difference in the total oxaliplatin dose between patients with and without PPN (p = 0.061). Multivariate analyses revealed total dose of oxaliplatin and HAPN as independent predictors of PPN [p = 0.015; odds ratio (OR) = 1.005, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.009 and p = 0.001; OR = 75.307, 5.3-1070.123, respectively]. The total dose of oxaliplatin was relatively lower in patients with HAPN than that in those without HAPN in the PPN-positive group (not significant, p = 0.068). HAPN was found to be a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced PPN.

  11. Relationships among metabolic homeostasis, diet, and peripheral afferent neuron biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is well-established that food intake behavior and energy balance are regulated by cross-talk between peripheral organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS), for instance through the actions of peripherally-derived leptin on hindbrain and hypothalamic loci. Diet- or obesity-associated dist...

  12. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-12-01

    The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy.

  13. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Maintaining Mitochondrial Health in Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. Method: The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Results: Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Conclusions: In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26818748

  14. Peripheral fat necrosis after penetrating pancreatic trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Adams, D B

    1993-11-01

    Peripheral fat necrosis (PFN), a rare complication of pancreatitis, has been reported previously in association with blunt pancreatic trauma. A patient who developed peripheral fat necrosis after penetrating pancreatic trauma and needed bilateral above-the-knee amputations to treat complications of lower extremity fat necrosis is reported.

  15. HINTS for differentiating peripheral from central causes of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Jaynstein, Dayna

    2016-10-01

    Dizziness and vertigo are common and difficult complaints encountered by providers. The differential diagnosis is large and varies from benign to life-threatening disorders. The true challenge becomes differentiating benign peripheral vertigo from central vertigo. The HINTS examination can help differentiate peripheral from central causes of dizziness and vertigo.

  16. The Perceived Size and Shape of Objects in Peripheral Vision

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Joseph; Burleigh, Alistair; Ruta, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how we perceive the size and shape of objects in far peripheral vision. Observations made during an artistic study of visual space suggest that objects appear smaller and compressed in the periphery compared with central vision. To test this, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, we asked participants to draw how a set of peripheral discs appeared when viewed peripherally without time or eye movement constraints. In Experiment 2, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure when a briefly presented peripheral stimulus appeared bigger or smaller compared with a central fixated one. In Experiment 3, we measured how accurate participants were in discriminating shapes presented briefly in the periphery. In Experiment 1, the peripheral discs were reported as appearing significantly smaller than the central disc, and as having an elliptical or polygonal contour. In Experiment 2, participants judged the size of peripheral discs as being significantly smaller when compared with the central disc across most of the peripheral field, and in Experiment 3, participants were quite accurate in reporting the shape of the peripheral object, except in the far periphery. Our results show that objects in the visual periphery are perceived as diminished in size when presented for long and brief exposures, suggesting diminution is an intrinsic feature of the structure of the visual space. Shape distortions, however, are reported only with longer exposures. PMID:27698981

  17. Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity In Postmenopausal Women with Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Singh, Paras Nath; Hossain, Mohd Mobarak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The post-menopausal phase is characterized by a decline in the serum oestrogen and progesterone levels. This phase is also associated with higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy. Aim To explore the relationship between the peripheral motor nerve status and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels through assessment of Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) in post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College during 2011-2013. The study included 30 post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy (age: 51.4±7.9) and 30 post-menopausal women without peripheral neuropathy (control) (age: 52.5±4.9). They were compared for MNCV in median, ulnar and common peroneal nerves and serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone estimated through enzyme immunoassays. To study the relationship between hormone levels and MNCV, a stepwise linear regression analysis was done. Results The post-menopausal women with peripheral neuropathy had significantly lower MNCV and serum oestrogen and progesterone levels as compared to control subjects. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed oestrogen with main effect on MNCV. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that while the post-menopausal age group is at a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy, it is the decline in the serum estrogen levels which is critical in the development of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:28208850

  18. The Interaction between Central and Peripheral Processes in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; McKeeff, Thomas J.; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Afonso, Olivia; Kandel, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Written production studies investigating central processing have ignored research on the peripheral components of movement execution, and vice versa. This study attempts to integrate both approaches and provide evidence that central and peripheral processes interact during word production. French participants wrote regular words (e.g. FORME),…

  19. The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in an outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Mimi, O; Teng, C L; Chia, Y C

    2003-10-01

    This study was undertaken to clinically estimate the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy amongst patients attending an outpatient clinic and to evaluate their risk factors for developing peripheral neuropathy. It was a cross-sectional study of 134 diabetes mellitus patients who attended the Primary Care Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The patients were interviewed for their demographic data, past and present medical/surgical history, social history, personal habits and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Foot examination and clinical neurological tests were conducted and the presence of peripheral neuropathy was assessed. The main outcome measures were the Neuropathy Symptom Score and the Neuropathy Disability Score. The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be 50.7%. Peripheral neuropathy was related to the age of the patient and the duration of diabetes but did not seem to be significantly related to diabetic control. To conclude, there was a high prevalence of peripheral neuropathy amongst the diabetics in this study. These patients developed peripheral neuropathy at a younger age and shorter duration of diabetes compared to a similar study that was done in the UK.

  20. Peripheral insensate neuropathy--a tall problem for US adults?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yiling J; Gregg, Edward W; Kahn, Henry S; Williams, Desmond E; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2006-11-01

    The relation between height and lower extremity peripheral insensate neuropathy among persons with and without diabetes was examined by use of the 1999-2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with 5,229 subjects aged 40 or more years. A monofilament was used to determine whether any of three areas on each foot were insensate. Peripheral insensate neuropathy was defined as the presence of one or more insensate areas. Its prevalence was nearly twice as high among persons with diabetes (21.2%) as among those without diabetes (11.5%; p < 0.001). Men (16.2%) had 1.7 times the prevalence of peripheral insensate neuropathy as did women (9.4%), but the difference was not significant after adjustment for height. Greater height was associated with increased peripheral insensate neuropathy prevalence among persons with and without diabetes (p < 0.001). This association was characterized by a sharp increase in prevalence among persons who were taller than 175.5 cm. Peripheral insensate neuropathy risk was significantly higher among those taller than 175.5 cm (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.5, 3.5). The authors conclude that body height is an important correlate of peripheral insensate neuropathy. This association largely accounts for the difference in peripheral insensate neuropathy prevalence between men and women. Height may help health-care providers to identify persons at high risk of peripheral insensate neuropathy.

  1. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Maintaining Mitochondrial Health in Peripheral Neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases.

  2. Targeted photocoagulation of peripheral ischemia to treat rebound edema.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael A; Tan, Colin S; Surapaneni, Krishna R; Sadda, Srinivas R

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral retinal ischemia not detectable by conventional fluorescein angiography has been proposed to be a driving force for rebound edema in retinal vein occlusions. In this report, we examine the treatment of peripheral retinal ischemia with targeted retinal photocoagulation (TRP) to manage a patient's rebound edema. To assess the extent of peripheral nonperfusion, an Optos 200Tx device was used. To target the treatment to peripheral ischemia areas, a Navilas Panretinal Laser was used. A 64-year-old male with a central retinal vein occlusion and a visual acuity 20/300, and central macular thickness 318 μm presented with rubeosis. Angiography revealed extensive peripheral nonperfusion. Despite TRP to areas of irreversible ischemia, after 2 months, he continued show rubeosis and rebound edema. Additional TRP laser was repeatedly added more posteriorly to areas of reversible nonperfusion, resulting in eventual resolution of rubeosis and edema. In this study, we demonstrate the use of widefield imaging with targeted photo-coagulation of peripheral ischemia to treat rebound edema, while preserving most peripheral vision. In order to treat rebound edema, extensive TRP, across reversible and nonreversible areas of ischemia, had to be performed - not just in areas of nonreversible peripheral ischemia. These areas need to be mapped during episodes of rebound edema, when ischemia is at its maximum. In this way, by doing the most TRP possible, the cycle of rebound edema can be broken.

  3. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  6. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  7. 21 CFR 868.2775 - Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a device used to apply an electrical current to a patient to test the level of pharmacological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrical peripheral nerve stimulator. 868.2775... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2775 Electrical peripheral...

  8. Cavernous hemangioma. Why is peripheral filling at scintigraphy so rare

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Weatherby, E. III

    1987-10-01

    Peripheral filling at dynamic CT occurs frequently with cavernous hemangiomas, yet this phenomenon is a rare finding on Tc-99m RBC imaging. A case of peripheral filling of a cavernous hemangioma with scintigraphy is reported and the rationale for its infrequent occurrence is discussed.

  9. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  10. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  11. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  12. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  13. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  14. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  15. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  16. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  17. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  18. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  19. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF ALCOHOL-RELATED PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    MELLION, MICHELLE L.; NGUYEN, VANANH; TONG, MING; GILCHRIST, JAMES; DE LA MONTE, SUZANNE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this work was to determine the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on peripheral nerves in a nutritionally balanced rat model of alcoholism. Methods Three different strains of adult male rats were pair-fed for 8 weeks with isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed. Peripheral nerve and muscle were examined histologically with morphometrics. Results Ethanol exposure significantly slowed velocity in tibial and fibular nerves, but not in the plantar nerve in all 3 strains. Studies of the sciatic nerve revealed decreased fiber diameters and increased regenerative sprouts in peripheral nerves. There was muscle denervation of ethanol-exposed rats in all 3 strains. Conclusions Chronic ethanol exposure caused a polyneuropathy characterized by axonal degeneration despite adequate nutrition. These results suggest that ethanol exposure has direct neurotoxic effects on peripheral nerves. This model may be useful in understanding the underlying mechanism(s) of alcohol-related peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23761140

  20. Effect of firefighter masks on monocular and binocular peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Samo, Daniel G; Bahk, Jane K; Gerkin, Richard D

    2003-04-01

    Peripheral vision can impact essential job functions of firefighters and other workers who use Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and other full face masks. It is important for physicians to know how these masks alter peripheral vision. Also, one must understand the effect of monocular vision on peripheral vision. Using the Goldman Perimeter Machine we measured peripheral vision in the monocular and binocular state, with and without two different types of masks. The results show that monocularity causes an average loss of 23 degrees in the nasal meridian. The use of the masks did not affect this difference. Also, the masks caused an average loss of 28 degrees of peripheral vision in the inferior meridian. How these losses affect the ability of the users of the masks to perform their essential job functions still needs to be researched.

  1. Peripheral Neuropathy Due to Vitamin Deficiency, Toxins, and Medications

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review: Peripheral neuropathies secondary to vitamin deficiencies, medications, or toxins are frequently considered but can be difficult to definitively diagnose. Accurate diagnosis is important since these conditions are often treatable and preventable. This article reviews the key features of different types of neuropathies caused by these etiologies and provides a comprehensive list of specific agents that must be kept in mind. Recent Findings: While most agents that cause peripheral neuropathy have been known for years, newly developed medications that cause peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Summary: Peripheral nerves are susceptible to damage by a wide array of toxins, medications, and vitamin deficiencies. It is important to consider these etiologies when approaching patients with a variety of neuropathic presentations; additionally, etiologic clues may be provided by other systemic symptoms. While length-dependent sensorimotor axonal peripheral neuropathy is the most common presentation, several examples present in a subacute severe fashion, mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:25299283

  2. Visual performance with lenses correcting peripheral refractive errors.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Mathur, Ankit; Varnas, Saulius R

    2013-11-01

    To design and manufacture lenses to correct peripheral refraction along the horizontal meridian and to determine whether these resulted in noticeable improvements in visual performance. Subjective refraction of a low myope was determined on the basis of best peripheral detection acuity along the horizontal visual field out to ±30° for both horizontal and vertical gratings. Subjective refraction was compared to objective refractions using a COAS-HD aberrometer. Special lenses were made to correct peripheral refraction, based on designs optimized with and without smoothing across a 3-mm diameter square aperture. Grating detection was retested with these lenses. Contrast thresholds of 1.25-min arc spots were determined across the field for the conditions of best correction, on-axis correction, and the special lenses. The participant had high relative peripheral hyperopia, particularly in the temporal visual field (maximum, 2.9 D). There were differences >0.5 D between subjective and objective refractions at a few field angles. On-axis correction reduced peripheral detection acuity and increased peripheral contrast threshold in the peripheral visual field, relative to the best correction, by up to 0.4 and 0.5 log units, respectively. The special lenses restored most of the peripheral vision, although not all at angles to ±10°, and with the lens optimized with aperture smoothing possibly giving better vision than the lens optimized without aperture smoothing at some angles. It is possible to design and manufacture lenses to give near-optimum peripheral visual performance to at least ±30° along one visual field meridian. The benefit of such lenses is likely to be manifest only if a subject has a considerable relative peripheral refraction, for example, of the order of 2 D.

  3. Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Visual Field Concordance in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Jamie L.; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.; West, Sheila K.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the extent to which central visual field (VF) loss reflects peripheral VF loss in patients with varying degrees of glaucoma severity. Methods A total of 232 patients with glaucoma or suspect glaucoma completed static central VF testing using the 24-2 pattern and peripheral VF testing using the suprathreshold 30-60 pattern. Points from 24-2 tests were reclassified as normal/abnormal based on pattern deviation values. Results Strong positive correlations (r ≥ 0.7) were observed between the proportion of abnormal central and peripheral points for the full VF, superior hemifield, and inferior hemifield, although the percentage of total central and peripheral abnormal points differed by ≥10% in 45% of eyes. In eyes with an average of 10%–40% abnormal points in the central and peripheral VFs, 12.0% more abnormal peripheral points were noted compared with the percentage of abnormal central points (P < 0.001; SD, 16.7%; range, 61% more to 37% less). In eyes with an average of 60%–90% abnormal points in the central and peripheral VFs, 16.4% fewer abnormal peripheral points were noted compared with the percentage of abnormal central points (P = 0.04; SD, 20.9%; range, 19% more to 49% less). Conclusions Central 24-2 testing generally reflects the extent of damage to the more peripheral VF in glaucoma, although significant disagreement exists for individual eyes. Further work is needed to determine whether integration of peripheral test points can improve detection of true VF loss in early glaucoma or be useful in monitoring progressive glaucomatous damage to areas of preserved VF in advanced glaucoma. PMID:27214688

  4. Can manipulation of orthokeratology lens parameters modify peripheral refraction?

    PubMed

    Kang, Pauline; Gifford, Paul; Swarbrick, Helen

    2013-11-01

    To investigate changes in peripheral refraction, corneal topography, and aberrations induced by changes in orthokeratology (OK) lens parameters in myopes. Subjects were fitted with standard OK lenses that were worn overnight for 2 weeks. Peripheral refraction, corneal topography, and corneal surface aberrations were measured at baseline and after 14 nights of OK lens wear. Subsequent to a 2-week washout period, subjects were refitted with another set of lenses where one eye was randomly assigned to wear an OK lens with a smaller optic zone diameter (OZD) and the other eye with a steeper peripheral tangent. Measurements were taken again at a second baseline and after 14 days of overnight wear of the second OK lens set. Standard OK lenses with a 6-mm OZD and 1/4 peripheral tangent caused significant changes in both peripheral refraction and corneal topography. Significant hyperopic shift occurred in the central visual field (VF) while a myopic shift was found at 35 degrees in the nasal VF. OK induced significant reductions in corneal power at all positions along the horizontal corneal chord except at 2.4 mm nasal where there was no significant change and at 2.8 mm nasal where there was an increase in corneal refractive power. A positive shift in spherical aberration was induced for all investigated lens designs except for the 1/2 tangent design when calculated over a 4-mm pupil. Reducing OZD and steepening the peripheral tangent did not cause significant changes in peripheral refraction or corneal topography profiles across the horizontal meridian. OK lenses caused significant changes in peripheral refraction, corneal topography, and corneal surface aberrations. Modifying OZD and peripheral tangent made no significant difference to the peripheral refraction or corneal topography profile. Attempting to customize refraction and topography changes through manipulation of OK lens parameters appears to be a difficult task.

  5. Using Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein in Patients With Difficult Peripheral Access.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Michael; Abdelghani, Ramsy; Mohamad, Maha; Limsuwat, Chok; Kheir, Fayez

    2015-10-08

    Vascular access is necessary in patients admitted to the intensive care unit and the medical ward. Currently, there are multiple modalities to achieve adequate vascular access, each with their own difficulties and drawbacks. Often, in patients with certain comorbidities, it is difficult to obtain a peripheral intravenous (IV) line, which can lead to multiple failed attempts in achieving access. We describe the feasibility of inserting an ultrasound (US)-guided peripheral IV catheter into the internal jugular vein (IJ) in such populations. This was a prospective observational case series in patients with difficult or failed peripheral IV access. All patients underwent sterile insertion of a peripheral IV catheter (2.5″, 18 gauge) into the IJ under US guidance. Catheter placement was confirmed by ultrasonography. Nineteen consecutive patients were included in this series. A total of 20 US-guided peripheral IJ catheters were placed. The mean patient age was 57. Sixty percent of patients were male and the mean body mass index was 26 (14.1-51.5). The mean time taken to place the peripheral IJ catheter was 5.3 minutes. Eighty-five percent of catheters placed were mostly placed in the right IJ. There were no complications on follow-up. US-guided placement of peripheral IV catheters in the IJ is feasible to achieve short-term IV access in a select patient population who failed traditional peripheral IV placement. Furthermore, larger trials are needed to confirm safety and long-term complications of this method.

  6. Effects of a traditional herbal medicine on peripheral blood flow in women experiencing peripheral coldness: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Shinji; Eguchi, Eri; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Hagihara, Keisuke; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-04-02

    In Japan, a traditional herbal medicine, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), is often used for the treatment of peripheral coldness, which is a common complaint among Japanese women. However, the effects of this herbal medicine have yet to be examined in a randomized controlled trial. In the current study, the effect of TJ-38 on the peripheral blood flow in women experiencing peripheral coldness was investigated using a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Fifty-eight women aged 23 to 79 years with peripheral coldness were randomly divided into the intervention or control group. They were examined using cold bathing tests, physical examinations, and questionnaires in January 2010 for the baseline and in March 2010 for the follow-up, and January 2011 and March 2011, respectively. At the baseline, there were no differences in clinical characteristics between the two groups. In the intervention group, peripheral coldness improved after the intervention term; however, it persisted in the control group. Mean values of percentage recovery of the peripheral blood flow after cold bathing tests were 17.2% and -28.2% for the intervention and control groups, respectively (p = 0.007), and the proportions for percentage recovery of >50% were 32% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.0007). Mean values of percent recovery of skin temperature did not differ between the two groups. The present clinical trial supports that a traditional herbal medicine relieves peripheral coldness in women probably through the improvement of peripheral blood flow.

  7. Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Pastromas, Georgios Spiliopoulos, Stavros Katsanos, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Athanasios Kitrou, Panagiotis Karnabatidis, Dimitrios Siablis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical significance of platelet responsiveness in patients receiving clopidogrel after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients receiving antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 75 mg after infrainguinal angioplasty or stenting and who presented to our department during routine follow-up. Clopidogrel responsiveness was tested using the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay. Patients with residual platelet reactivity units (PRU) {>=} 235 were considered as nonresponders (NR group NR), whereas patients with PRU < 235 were considered as normal (responders [group R]). Primary end points were incidence of resistance to clopidogrel and target limb reintervention (TLR)-free survival, whereas secondary end points included limb salvage rates and the identification of any independent predictors influencing clinical outcomes. Results: In total, 113 consecutive patients (mean age 69 {+-} 8 years) with 139 limbs were enrolled. After clopidogrel responsiveness analysis, 61 patients (53.9 %) with 73 limbs (52.5 %) were assigned to group R and 52 patients (46.1 %) with 66 limbs (47.5 %) to group NR. Mean follow-up interval was 27.7 {+-} 22.9 months (range 3-95). Diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia, and renal disease were associated with clopidogrel resistance (Fisher's exact test; p < 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, TLR-free survival was significantly superior in group R compared with group NR (20.7 vs. 1.9 %, respectively, at 7-year follow-up; p = 0.001), whereas resistance to clopidogrel was identified as the only independent predictor of decreased TLR-free survival (hazard rate 0.536, 95 % confidence interval 0.31-0.90; p = 0.01). Cumulative TLR rate was significantly increased in group NR compared with group R (71.2 % [52 of 73] vs. 31.8 % [21 of 66], respectively; p < 0.001). Limb salvage was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance was related with

  8. Radial artery access for peripheral endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avnee J; Jones, Lauren E; Kollmeyer, Kenneth R; Feldtman, Robert W; Ferrara, Craig A; Moe, Michelle N; Chen, Julia F; Richmond, Jasmine L; Ahn, Sam S

    2017-09-01

    The radial artery is often used for coronary angiography, with a demonstrated decrease in local complications and an increase in postoperative mobility of the patient. Data on radial artery access for peripheral endovascular procedures, however, are limited. We describe our experience with radial artery access for diagnostic and endovascular interventions. Between February 2012 and March 2015, there were 95 endovascular procedures performed using radial artery access in 80 unique patients. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Perioperative, postoperative, and 30-day follow-up data were evaluated retrospectively for major and minor complications. Major adverse events included any immediate hospitalization admission, stroke, hand amputation, bleeding requiring transfusion, hematoma requiring surgery, and death. Minor complications included superficial bleeding and hematoma. The patients (52.6% male, 47.4% female) had a mean age of 72.1 ± 9.4 years. Radial artery access was used for diagnostic purposes in 15.8% of all procedures and for therapeutic intervention, including angioplasty and stenting, in 84.2%. The radial artery was the only access point in 80% of patients and was accessed in conjunction with other sites in 20%. Percutaneous access was achieved in 100% of patients with a 100% technical success rate. Hemostasis after catheterization was achieved by manual compression (22.1%) and TR band (Terumo Medical, Tokyo, Japan; 77.9%). Major adverse events occurred in three cases (3.2%) and were unrelated to radial artery access. Radial artery access site-related complications occurred in three cases (3.2%), all of which were minor hematomas that required no treatment. The risk of radial artery complication was not associated with procedure type, vessels treated, or use of heparin. The incidence of stroke, hand ischemia, and upper extremity limb or finger loss was 0%. Radial artery access for peripheral endovascular procedures appears to be safe and

  9. The spatial range of peripheral collinear facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Maniglia, Marcello; Pavan, Andrea; Aedo-Jury, Felipe; Trotter, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Contrast detection thresholds for a central Gabor patch (target) can be modulated by the presence of co-oriented and collinear high contrast Gabors flankers. In foveal vision collinear facilitation can be observed for target-to-flankers relative distances beyond two times the wavelength (λ) of the Gabor’s carrier, while for shorter relative distances (<2λ) there is suppression. These modulatory influences seem to disappear after 12λ. In this study, we measured contrast detection thresholds for different spatial frequencies (1, 4 and 6 cpd) and target-to-flankers relative distances ranging from 6 to 16λ, but with collinear configurations presented in near periphery at 4° of eccentricity. Results showed that in near periphery collinear facilitation extends beyond 12λ for the higher spatial frequencies tested (4 and 6 cpd), while it decays already at 10λ for the lowest spatial frequency used (i.e., 1 cpd). In addition, we found that increasing the spatial frequency the peak of collinear facilitation shifts towards larger target-to-flankers relative distances (expressed as multiples of the stimulus wavelength), an effect never reported neither for near peripheral nor for central vision. The results suggest that the peak and the spatial extent of collinear facilitation in near periphery depend on the spatial frequency of the stimuli used. PMID:26502834

  10. Regional anesthesia in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ten Hoope, Werner; Looije, Marjolein; Lirk, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize recent relevant literature regarding regional anesthesia in the diabetic neuropathic patient and formulate recommendations for clinical practice. Diabetic neuropathic nerves, but not nerves of diabetic patients per se, exhibit complex functional changes. As a result, they seem more sensitive to local anesthetics, and are more difficult to stimulate. When catheters are used postoperatively, diabetes is an independent risk factor for infection. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying diabetic polyneuropathy are complex. Several pathways are thought to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy, triggered most importantly by chronic hyperglycemia. The latter induces inflammation and oxidative stress, causing microvascular changes, local ischemia and decreased axonal conduction velocity. Regional anesthesia is different in patients with diabetic neuropathy in several regards. First, the electric stimulation threshold of the nerve is markedly increased whereby the risk for needle trauma in stimulator-guided nerve blocks is theoretically elevated. Second, the diabetic nerve is more sensitive to local anesthetics, which results in longer block duration. Third, local anesthetics have been conjectured to be more toxic in diabetic neuropathy but the evidence is equivocal and should not be a cause to deny regional anesthesia to patients with a valid indication. Lastly, when peripheral nerve catheters are used, diabetes is an independent predisposing factor for infection.

  11. Uncompacted myelin lamellae in peripheral nerve biopsy.

    PubMed

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Bouillot, Sandrine; Favereaux, Alexandre; Lagueny, Alain; Ferrer, Xavier; Brechenmacher, Christiane; Petry, Klaus G

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the authors have studied 49 peripheral nerve biopsies presenting uncompacted myelin lamellae (UML). Based on the ultrastructural pattern of UML they propose a 3-category classification. The first category includes cases displaying regular UML, which was observed in 43 cases; it was more frequent in 9 cases with polyneuropathy organomegaly endocrinopathy m-protein skin changes (POEMS) syndrome as well as in 1 case of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B with a novel point mutation in the P0 gene. The second category consists of cases showing irregular UML, observed in 4 cases with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) activity. This group included 1 benign case and 3 B-cell malignant lymphomas. The third category is complex UML, which was present in 2 unrelated patients with an Arg 98 His missense mutation in the P0 protein gene. Irregular and complex UML are respectively related to MAG and P0, which play a crucial role in myelin lamellae compaction and adhesion.

  12. Peripheral vestibular pathology in Mondini dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Fatıma Kübra; Monsanto, Rafael DaCosta; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, our objective was to histopathologically analyze the peripheral vestibular system in patients with Mondini dysplasia. Comparative human temporal bone study. We assessed the sensory epithelium of the human vestibular system with a focus on the number of type I and type II hair cells, as well as the total number of hair cells. We compared those numbers in our Mondini dysplasia group versus our control group. The loss of type I and type II hair cells in the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as in the saccular and utricular macula, was significantly higher in our Mondini dysplasia group than in our control group. The total number of hair cells significantly decreased in the cristae of the superior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, as well as in the saccular and utricular macula, in our Mondini dysplasia group. Loss of vestibular hair cells can lead to vestibular dysfunction in patients with Mondini dysplasia. NA Laryngoscope, 127:206-209, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Extracellular matrix components in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Injured axons of the peripheral nerve are able to regenerate and, eventually, reinnervate target organs. However, functional recovery is usually poor after severe nerve injuries. The switch of Schwann cells to a proliferative state, secretion of trophic factors, and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (such as collagen, laminin, or fibronectin) in the distal stump are key elements to create a permissive environment for axons to grow. In this review, we focus attention on the ECM components and their tropic role in axonal regeneration. These components can also be used as molecular cues to guide the axons through artificial nerve guides in attempts to better mimic the natural environment found in a degenerating nerve. Most used scaffolds tested are based on natural molecules that form the ECM, but use of synthetic polymers and functionalization of hydrogels are bringing new options. Progress in tissue engineering will eventually lead to the design of composite artificial nerve grafts that may replace the use of autologous nerve grafts to sustain regeneration over long gaps.

  14. [Bilateral wrist drop - central or peripheral lesion?].

    PubMed

    Dafotakis, M; Schiefer, J; Wiesmann, M; Mühlenbruch, G

    2011-05-01

    The wrist drop, also called carpoptosis or drop hand, is a common clinical presentation in case of peripheral damage to the radial nerve. But what about the picture of a bilateral finger/wrist drop?! We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient who was admitted to the hospital for myocardial infarction. Subsequently she developed a right dominant bilateral wrist drop. Further neurological examination revealed a positive Wartenberg sign pointing towards a central motoric dysfunction. The following native cerebral CT scan demonstrated bilateral hypodense lesions in both hand knobs in the precentral gyri. Subsequent MRI confirmed acute cerebral infarction in these two but also several other, clinically silent, locations. Further diagnostic work-up revealed a hypokinetic cardiac apex suggesting cardiac embolism to be the cause for cerebral thrombembolism and the clinically leading symptom of right-dominant bilateral finger/wrist drop. Besides the case presentation also the differential diagnosis and clinical test for diagnostic work-up of wrist drops are presented and discussed.

  15. Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization failure.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, Fatih; Kaynar, Leylagül

    2015-08-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important and often life saving treatment for many hematological malignancies and selected solid tumors. To rescue hematopoiesis after high-dose chemotherapy in autologous HSCT depends on maintaining sufficient stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells expressing CD34 in the BM are mobilized into the circulation with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor ± chemotherapy prior to autologous HSCT. One of the most important factors for success of autologous HSCT is hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) count. Minimum threshold for the engraftment of hematopoietic cells is accepted as 2 × 10(6) CD34 + cells/kg especially for platelet engraftment. Below this level it is defined as stem cell mobilization failure. There are several factors affecting stem cell mobilization: prior chemotherapy (such as fludarabine, melphalan, lenalidomide) and radiotherapy, age, type of disease, bone marrow cellularity. We tried to summarize the reasons of peripheral stem cell mobilization failure.

  16. Human peripheral blood eosinophils induce angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Puxeddu, Ilaria; Alian, Akram; Piliponsky, Adrian Martin; Ribatti, Domenico; Panet, Amos; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2005-03-01

    Eosinophils play a crucial role in allergic reactions and asthma. They are also involved in responses against parasites, in autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and in fibroses. There is increasing evidence that angiogenesis plays an important role in these processes. Since eosinophils are known to produce angiogenic mediators, we have hypothesized a direct contribution of these cells to angiogenesis. The effect of human peripheral blood eosinophil sonicates on rat aortic endothelial cell proliferation (in vitro), rat aorta sprouting (ex vivo) and angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (in vivo) have been investigated. To determine whether eosinophil-derived vascular endothelial growth factor influences the eosinophil pro-angiogenic activity, eosinophil sonicates were incubated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies and then added to the chorioallantoic membrane. Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor density on the endothelial cells were also evaluated. Eosinophils were found to enhance endothelial cell proliferation and to induce a strong angiogenic response both in the aorta rings and in the chorioallantoic membrane assays. Pre-incubation of eosinophil sonicates with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies partially reduced the angiogenic response of these cells in the chorioallantoic membrane. Eosinophils also increased vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA production on endothelial cells. Eosinophils are able to induce angiogenesis and this effect is partially mediated by their pre-formed vascular endothelial growth factor. This strongly suggests an important role of eosinophils in angiogenesis-associated diseases such as asthma.

  17. Peripheral biomarkers of endometriosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    May, K.E.; Conduit-Hulbert, S.A.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; Kennedy, S.H.; Becker, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometriosis is estimated to affect 1 in 10 women during the reproductive years. There is often delay in making the diagnosis, mainly due to the non-specific nature of the associated symptoms and the need to verify the disease surgically. A biomarker that is simple to measure could help clinicians to diagnose (or at least exclude) endometriosis; it might also allow the effects of treatment to be monitored. If effective, such a marker or panel of markers could prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or recognize treatment failure at an early stage. METHODS We used QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria to perform a systematic review of the literature over the last 25 years to assess critically the clinical value of all proposed biomarkers for endometriosis in serum, plasma and urine. RESULTS We identified over 100 putative biomarkers in publications that met the selection criteria. We were unable to identify a single biomarker or panel of biomarkers that have unequivocally been shown to be clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS Peripheral biomarkers show promise as diagnostic aids, but further research is necessary before they can be recommended in routine clinical care. Panels of markers may allow increased sensitivity and specificity of any diagnostic test. PMID:20462942

  18. Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Jonathon D.

    This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

  19. Peripheral Artery Disease and Aortic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Criqui, Michael H.; Aboyans, Victor; Allison, Matthew A.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Forbang, Nketi; McDermott, Mary M.; Wassel, Christina L.; Wong, Nathan D.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed published MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) study articles concerning peripheral arterial disease, subclavian stenosis (SS), aortic artery calcium (AAC), and thoracic artery calcium (TAC). Important findings include, compared to non-Hispanic whites, lower ankle-brachial index (ABI) and more SS in African Americans, and higher ABI and less SS in Hispanic and Chinese Americans. Abnormal ABI and brachial pressure differences were associated with other subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) measures. Both very high and low ABI independently predicted increased CVD events. Looking at aortic measures, TAC and AAC were significantly associated with other subclinical CVD measures. Comparisons of AAC with coronary artery calcium (CAC) showed that both were less common in ethnic minority groups. However, although CAC was much more common in men than in women in multivariable analysis, this was not true of AAC. Also, when AAC and CAC were adjusted for each other in multivariable analysis, there was a stronger association for AAC than for CAC with CVD and total mortality. PMID:27741978

  20. Peripheral Immune Signatures in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Goldeck, David; Witkowski, Jacek M; Fülop, Tamas; Pawelec, Graham

    2016-01-01

    According to the current paradigm, the main cause of AD is the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregates resulting from the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein into peptides of different length, with the 42 amino acid long Aβ42 being the most toxic form. Aβ can aggregate and form plaques in the brain. It further promotes the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein which forms characteristic neurofibrillary tangles and thereby loses its important role in axonal transport and contributes to neurodegeneration. Therefore, treatments have targeted Aβ, but clinical trials of immunotherapies caused severe side effects and showed that Aβ clearance alone did not result in any cognitive improvement. This leads to the question: what else promotes AD pathology? Here, we review data on systemic inflammation and the possible roles that the immune system might play in AD. Microglia and astrocytes are activated and secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Via a disturbed blood-brain barrier, peripheral immune cells are activated and recruited towards inflamed brain lesions and amyloid plaques, but due to the chronic nature of the amyloid burden and their reduced function, these cells are not able to control inflammation and the associated detrimental immune responses. In addition, age-related inflammation and chronic infection with herpes viruses might contribute to the systemic inflammation and exacerbate attempts to restore the balance of inflammation.