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Sample records for non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis

  1. Bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... same kinds of movements every day or putting stress on joints increases your risk. Symptoms of bursitis include pain and swelling. Your doctor will diagnose bursitis with a physical exam and tests such as x-rays and MRIs. ...

  2. Bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... occur with bursitis. Heat: Putting heat (warm, not hot) on the area may reduce pain and stiffness. ...

  3. Bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... worse. Prevention When possible, avoid activities that include repetitive movements of any body parts. Images Bursa of the elbow Bursa of the knee Bursitis of the shoulder References Silverstein JA, Moeller JL, Hutchinson MR. Common ...

  4. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis ... confusion) Top of Page Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis File Formats Help: ...

  5. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-05-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides. PMID:22361845

  6. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-01-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides. PMID:22361845

  7. Retrocalcaneal bursitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa at the back of the heel bone. A bursa is a ... bursa to become irritated and inflamed. Symptoms of bursitis include pain in the heel, especially with walking, ...

  8. Elbow (Olecranon) Bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    .org Elbow (Olecranon) Bursitis Page ( 1 ) Bursae are thin, slippery sacs located throughout the body that act as cushions between bones and so ... more fluid will accumulate in the bursa and bursitis will develop. Cause Elbow bursitis can occur for ...

  9. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  10. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes. PMID:24559568

  11. Bursitis and Tendinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tendons, or skin. Bursae are found throughout the body. Bursitis occurs when a bursa becomes inflamed (redness and increased fluid in the bursa). A tendon is a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects muscles to ...

  12. Non-infectious Pulmonary Diseases and HIV.

    PubMed

    Triplette, M; Crothers, K; Attia, E F

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary complications remain among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with HIV despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and improvement in its efficacy and availability. The prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary diseases is rising in this population, reflecting both an increase in smoking and the independent risk associated with HIV. The unique mechanisms of pulmonary disease in these patients remain poorly understood, and direct effects of HIV, genetic predisposition, inflammatory pathways, and co-infections have all been implicated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension are the most prevalent non-infectious pulmonary diseases in persons with HIV, and the risk of each of these diseases is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) persons than in the general population. This review discusses the latest advances in the literature on these important complications of HIV infection. PMID:27121734

  13. [Non-infectious systemic diseases and uveitis].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Valle, D; Méndez, R; Arriola, P; Cuiña, R; Ariño, M

    2008-01-01

    Uveitis can be defined as any inflammation affecting the uveal tract, although in clinical practice this term includes any intraocular inflammatory event. The etiology of this inflammation can be related to an endogenous mechanism in the clinical course of a systemic disease (sarcoidosis, Behçet's disease, multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, etc.), or an isolated ocular entity. Sometimes, ocular inflammation is the initial manifestation of an undiagnosed systemic disease. On the other hand, ocular involvement could be the main cause of morbidity of the disease, and early diagnosis and treatment is an important issue in order to avoid irreversible ocular damage. In this article, the authors review some relevant clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic topics related to the most common non-infectious systemic diseases associated with uveitis. PMID:19169298

  14. Non-infectious complications of transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, P L; Snyder, E L

    2001-06-01

    Blood transfusion is considered safe when the infused blood is tested using state of the art viral assays developed over the past several decades. Only rarely are known viruses like HIV and hepatitis C transmitted by transfusion when blood donors are screened using these sensitive laboratory tests. However, there are a variety of transfusion risks which still remain that cannot be entirely eliminated, many of which are non-infectious in nature. Predominantly immune-mediated complications include the rapid intravascular or slow extravascular destruction (hemolysis) of transfused red cells or extravascular removal of platelets by pre-formed antibodies carried by the transfusion recipient. Alternatively, red cells can be damaged when exposed to excessive heat or incompatible intravenous fluids before or during the transfusion. Common complications of blood transfusion that at least partly involve the immune system include febrile non-hemolytic and allergic reactions. While these are usually not life-threatening, they can hamper efforts to transfuse a patient. Other complications include circulatory overload, hypothermia and metabolic disturbances. Profound hypotensive episodes have been described in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors who receive platelet transfusions through bedside leukoreduction filters. These curious reactions appear to involve dysmetabolism of the vasoactive substance bradykinin. Products contaminated by bacteria during blood collection and transfused can cause life-threatening septic reactions. A long-term complication of blood transfusion therapy unique to chronically transfused patients is iron overload. Less common - but serious - reactions more specific to blood transfusion include transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease and transfusion-associated acute lung injury. Many of these complications of transfusion therapy can be prevented by adhering to well-established practice guidelines. In addition, individuals

  15. Involvement of B cells in non-infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justine R; Stempel, Andrew J; Bharadwaj, Arpita; Appukuttan, Binoy

    2016-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis—or intraocular inflammatory disease—causes substantial visual morbidity and reduced quality of life amongst affected individuals. To date, research of pathogenic mechanisms has largely been focused on processes involving T lymphocyte and/or myeloid leukocyte populations. Involvement of B lymphocytes has received relatively little attention. In contrast, B-cell pathobiology is a major field within general immunological research, and large clinical trials have showed that treatments targeting B cells are highly effective for multiple systemic inflammatory diseases. B cells, including the terminally differentiated plasma cell that produces antibody, are found in the human eye in different forms of non-infectious uveitis; in some cases, these cells outnumber other leukocyte subsets. Recent case reports and small case series suggest that B-cell blockade may be therapeutic for patients with non-infectious uveitis. As well as secretion of antibody, B cells may promote intraocular inflammation by presentation of antigen to T cells, production of multiple inflammatory cytokines and support of T-cell survival. B cells may also perform various immunomodulatory activities within the eye. This translational review summarizes the evidence for B-cell involvement in non-infectious uveitis, and considers the potential contributions of B cells to the development and control of the disease. Manipulations of B cells and/or their products are promising new approaches to the treatment of non-infectious uveitis. PMID:26962453

  16. Reducing Non-Infectious Risks of Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.; Gropper, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary As screening for transfusion-associated infections has improved, non-infectious complications of transfusion now cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. For example, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion-reactions are the first, second, and third leading causes of death from transfusion respectively. These complications and others are reviewed here and several controversial methods for prevention of non-infectious complications of transfusion are discussed; universal leukoreduction of red cell units, use of male-only plasma, and restriction of red cell storage age. PMID:21792054

  17. Olecranon bursitis: a systematic overview

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Bruce A; Bolt, Alexander M; Hay, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Background Olecranon bursitis is a common condition where the bursal cavity, superficial to the olecranon, becomes inflamed. This can occur either with or without infection and has been given pseudonyms relating to the repeated minor trauma from external pressure that often predisposes. As a result of the multiple aetiologies, olecranon bursitis can present to any medical specialty with reasonable frequency and, although many therapies are described, a single, evidence-based and standardized treatment pathway is not well described. Methods We summarize the key points within the literature and subsequently propose an evidence-based treatment pathway. Results Relevant evidence is presented from appropriate publications to add rational to existing decision-making processes, together with personal experience and suggested operative bursectomy techniques from an established upper limb surgeon. The common and significant aetiologies are summarized and, in particular, red flag symptoms are highlighted by way of warning to the unsuspecting investigator. Conclusions The conclusion is provided in diagrammatic form, providing a suggested treatment pathway from history and examination through to operative intervention.

  18. Purification of infectious and non-infectious chlamydial particles using iodixanol for density gradient preparation.

    PubMed

    Beder, Thomas; Scheven, Mareike Thea; Praetzsch, Dominique; Westermann, Martin; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria with two distinct morphological stages, the infectious elementary bodies (EBs) and non-infectious reticulate bodies (RBs). Here we describe a rapid and straightforward protocol for the purification of EBs and RBs involving special density gradients. It has been successfully applied to three chlamydial species. PMID:27378442

  19. Morphological and quantitative comparison between infectious and non-infectious forms of influenza virus.

    PubMed

    WERNER, G H; SCHLESINGER, R W

    1954-08-01

    Electron microscopic study has revealed the morphological entity responsible for the rise in viral hemagglutinin observed in brains of mice after intracerebral inoculation of non-neurotropic strains of influenza virus. This rise in hemagglutinin, although dependent on inoculation of fully infectious virus, is not associated with an increase in infectious titer. The hemagglutinating principle is functionally similar to the "incomplete" influenza virus which can be obtained from chick embryos by serial egg-to-egg transfer of undiluted, infected allantoic fluid according to the method of von Magnus. A method has been described which facilitates selective adsorption of viral particles recovered from organ extracts on saponine-lysed ghosts of fowl erythrocytes. This procedure has been utilized in studying the morphology of non-infectious, hemagglutinating virus from chorio-allantoic membranes or mouse brains and in comparing these two forms with each other and with ordinary, infectious (standard) influenza virus. Standard virus isolated from allantoic fluids or membranes of infected eggs was found to contain uniform particles of predominantly spherical shape with smooth surface and even density, resembling those described by others. The appearance of such particles was not affected by the procedure of extraction and concentration used. In contrast, non-infectious, hemagglutinating virus obtained either from allantoic sacs ("undiluted passages") or from mouse brain was pleomorphic and seemed to consist of disintegrating particles. The majority appeared flattened and bag-like and had a rough, granular surface and reduced, uneven density. 37 per cent of the non-infectious particles isolated from mouse brain infected with the non-neurotropic strain WS had diameters in excess of 170 mmicro, as compared with only 2 per cent of the particles of the parent strain itself. Regardless of whether or not the contrast in appearance of standard and of non-infectious particles was due

  20. Non-infectious myositis of the lateral pterygoid muscle: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Kang, J-H; Huh, K-H; Kho, H-S

    2015-02-01

    Non-infectious myositis is a condition characterized by chronic localized myalgia originating from central nervous system effects. It is also known as centrally mediated myalgia associated with neurogenic inflammation. When this condition occurs in the lateral pterygoid muscle, clinical evaluation is difficult due to its inaccessible anatomic location. In order to diagnose this rare condition, careful clinical examination and advanced imaging are necessary. The authors report herein four cases of non-infectious myositis of the lateral pterygoid muscle diagnosed by magnetic resonance or enhanced computed tomography imaging. The patients reported prolonged parafunctional habits and chronic jaw pain. In each case, clinical signs suggested the diagnosis of anterior disc displacement without reduction, but the progressive history of internal derangement did not fit this diagnosis. Limited lateral excursion was observed, and patients reported pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area without tenderness to palpation of the TMJ. Advanced imaging, including axial views, provided valuable information for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25457825

  1. Treatment of trochanteric bursitis: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Jovasevic, Ljubisa; Konicanin, Admira; Bajin, Zoran; Ilic, Katarina Parezanovic; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Dolicanin, Zana

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Trochanteric bursitis is a disease for which there are no effective standardized therapy protocols. Very often pain persists in spite of applying all therapeutic treatments. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment of trochanteric bursitis with a local injection of bicomponent corticosteroid and 2% lidocaine would improve patients’ conditions and relieve pain symptoms in the trochanteric area. [Subjects and Methods] A retrospective observational study was conducted of 2,217 patients in a 6 year follow-up period at the Special Hospital “Agens”, Mataruska Banja, Serbia. [Results] Of 2,217 examined patients, 58 (2.6%) patients were found to suffer from trochanteritis associated with low back pain, and 157 (7%) were found to suffer from trochanteric pains without low back pains. Local corticosteroid therapy followed by physical therapy was effective in 77 (49%) of these patients, and only corticosteroid injection in 61 (39%) patients. A single injection was given to 47 (29.9%) of the patients. Two injections were given to 9 (5.7%) patients, and from 3 to 5 injections were given repeatedly every 4–6 weeks to 7 (4.5%) patients. [Conclusion] For most patients, local injections of corticosteroids with lidocaine alone or followed by physical therapy gave satisfactory results. PMID:27512268

  2. Treatment of trochanteric bursitis: our experience.

    PubMed

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Jovasevic, Ljubisa; Konicanin, Admira; Bajin, Zoran; Ilic, Katarina Parezanovic; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Dolicanin, Zana

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Trochanteric bursitis is a disease for which there are no effective standardized therapy protocols. Very often pain persists in spite of applying all therapeutic treatments. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment of trochanteric bursitis with a local injection of bicomponent corticosteroid and 2% lidocaine would improve patients' conditions and relieve pain symptoms in the trochanteric area. [Subjects and Methods] A retrospective observational study was conducted of 2,217 patients in a 6 year follow-up period at the Special Hospital "Agens", Mataruska Banja, Serbia. [Results] Of 2,217 examined patients, 58 (2.6%) patients were found to suffer from trochanteritis associated with low back pain, and 157 (7%) were found to suffer from trochanteric pains without low back pains. Local corticosteroid therapy followed by physical therapy was effective in 77 (49%) of these patients, and only corticosteroid injection in 61 (39%) patients. A single injection was given to 47 (29.9%) of the patients. Two injections were given to 9 (5.7%) patients, and from 3 to 5 injections were given repeatedly every 4-6 weeks to 7 (4.5%) patients. [Conclusion] For most patients, local injections of corticosteroids with lidocaine alone or followed by physical therapy gave satisfactory results. PMID:27512268

  3. [Heart failure due to non-infectious causes in developing countries: etiologic approach and therapeutic principles].

    PubMed

    Paule, P; Braem, L; Mioulet, D; Gil, J M; Theron, A; Héno, P; Fourcade, L

    2007-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major worldwide health problem with a growing impact in developing countries. Heart failure is the clinical manifestation of many advanced cardiac disorders. It can have numerous etiologies and the incidence of non-infectious causes is increasing with socio-economic development, thus illustrating the global nature of this epidemiologic transition. Several of the numerous non-infectious causes of heart failure involve cardiac diseases specific to tropical areas including dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Other widespread disorders are becoming more common as a result of the epidemiologic transition. Cardiovascular risk factors are changing particularly with regard to the incidence of coronary artery disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and hypertension-related complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of non-infectious causes of heart failure in terms of frequency, onset, and therapeutic requirements. Symptomatic treatment of heart failure is same as in developing countries but is often delayed due to shortcomings in the care system. PMID:18300519

  4. Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Tendonitis or Bursitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-08-05

    Rotator Cuff Tendonitis; Bicipital Tendonitis; Subdeltoid Bursitis of the Shoulder; Subacromial Bursitis of the Shoulder; Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow; Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow; DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis of the Wrist

  5. A Degenerative Retinal Process in HIV-Associated Non-Infectious Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, William R.; Sprague, L. James; Gomez, Maria Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; El-Emam, Sharif; Mojana, Francesca; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Bosten, Jenny; Ayyagari, Radha; Hardiman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    HIV retinopathy is the most common non-infectious complication in the eyes of HIV-positive individuals. Oncotic lesions in the retinal nerve fiber layer, referred to as cotton wool spots (CWS), and intraretinal (IR) hemorrhages are frequently observed but are not unique to this pathology. HIV-positive patients have impaired color vision and contrast sensitivity, which worsens with age. Evidence of inner–retinal lesions and damage have been documented ophthalmoscopically, however their long term structural effect has not been investigated. It has been hypothesized that they may be partially responsible for loss of visual function and visual field. In this study we utilized clinical data, retinal imaging and transcriptomics approaches to comprehensively interrogate non-infectious HIV retinopathy. The methods employed encompassed clinical examinations, fundus photography, indirect ophthalmoscopy, Farmsworth-Munsell 100 hue discrimination testing and Illumina BeadChip analyses. Here we show that changes in the outer retina, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to vision changes in non-infectious HIV retinopathy. We find that in HIV-positive retinae there is an induction of rhodopsin and other transcripts (including PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRX, NRL) involved in visual transduction, as well as structural components of the rod photoreceptors (ABCA4 and ROM1). This is consistent with an increased rate of renewal of rod outer segments induced via increased phagocytosis by HIV-infected RPE previously reported in culture. Cone-specific transcripts (OPN1SW, OPN1LW, PDE6C, PDE6H and GRK7) are uniformly downregulated in HIV positive retina, likely due to a partial loss of cone photoreceptors. Active cotton wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhages (IRH) may not affect photoreceptors directly and the interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV

  6. Clinical Management of Scapulothoracic Bursitis and the Snapping Scapula

    PubMed Central

    Conduah, Augustine H.; Baker, Champ L.; Baker, Champ L.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Symptomatic scapulothoracic bursitis and crepitus are disorders of the scapulothoracic articulation that are often poorly understood. They can be a source of persistent pain and dysfunction in the active overhead throwing athlete. It is important to distinguish between scapulothoracic bursitis and scapulothoracic crepitus. Scapulothoracic bursitis refers to inflammation of the bursae secondary to trauma or overuse owing to sports activities or work. Scapulothoracic crepitus is defined by a grinding, popping, or thumping sound or sensation secondary to abnormal scapulothoracic motion. Evidence Acquisition: This article presents the causes, diagnosis, and management of these shoulder conditions in a manner that is relevant to clinicians, athletic trainers, and physical therapists, and it reviews relevant studies to determine the consensus on nonoperative treatment, as well as open and arthroscopic surgical treatment. Results: The causes of scapulothoracic bursitis and crepitus include direct or indirect trauma, overuse syndromes, glenohumeral joint dysfunction, osseous abnormalities, muscle atrophy or fibrosis, and idiopathic causes. Scapulothoracic bursitis and crepitus remain primarily clinical diagnoses; however, imaging studies or local injections may also be helpful. The initial treatment of scapulothoracic bursitis and scapulothoracic crepitus should be nonoperative. Surgical treatment options include partial scapulectomy or resection of the superomedial angle of the scapula, open bursal resection, and arthroscopic bursectomy. Despite the lack of agreement among orthopaedic surgeons concerning which procedure is best for treating symptomatic scapulothoracic bursitis and crepitus, most reports have demonstrated good to excellent outcomes in a significantly high percentage of patients. Conclusion: Clearly, the best initial approach to these conditions is a nonoperative treatment plan that combines scapular strengthening, postural reeducation, and core

  7. Role of surfactant protein A in non-infectious lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hisatsugu; Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a large multimeric protein found in the airways and alveoli of the lungs. SP-A is a member of the collectin family of proteins, characterized by NH2-terminal collagen-like regions and COOH-terminal lectin domains. Although other surfactant proteins such as SP-B function to reduce surface tension in the lungs, SP-A as well as SP-D regulates the pulmonary immune response. To date, a number of studies have shown the immunoregulatory function of SP-A, mainly in the field of infectious diseases. By binding to a wide variety of pathogens, SP-A opsonizes and enhances pathogen uptake by phagocytes. In addition to the effect on pathogens, recent studies have shown that SP-A also modulates lung immune system in the area of non-infectious lung diseases. In this review, the potential role of SP-A in the multiple aspects of pulmonary host defense will be discussed, focusing mainly on non-infectious lung diseases such as acute and chronic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. J. Med. Invest. 61: 1-6, February, 2014. PMID:24705741

  8. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  9. Non/infectious corporealities: tensions in the biomedical era of 'HIV normalisation'.

    PubMed

    Persson, Asha

    2013-09-01

    In the contemporary HIV epidemic, antiretroviral treatments are increasingly considered so effective at viral suppression that they render people with HIV sexually non-infectious. With its radical implications for global HIV prevention, this emerging paradigm is invested with the potential to turn the epidemic around and to 'normalise' one of the most feared infectious diseases in history, thus echoing wider trends of 'biomedicalisation'. What remains unexamined is whether this paradigm shift will bring about a parallel shift in the embodied experiences of being HIV-positive. This article explores the nascent trajectory from infectious to non-infectious corporeality against the backdrop of the discursive history of HIV, with particular focus on the landmark Swiss Consensus Statement, and in the context of research with heterosexuals with HIV in Australia. In-depth interviews revealed that HIV corporeality was not a stable, homogenised experience across participants and time, nor did it simply follow medical discourses. Instead, HIV corporeality emerged as a contingent set of tensions between conflicting discourses of infectiousness that were negotiated and made sense of within situated and embodied life histories. These findings pose challenges to the imperative of HIV normalisation and the related tendency in HIV prevention to universalise the notion of 'infectiousness'. PMID:23278343

  10. Serum immunoreactive trypsin concentrations in infectious and non-infectious illnesses and in juvenile diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, D R; Moffatt, A; Marks, V

    1979-01-01

    Serum immunoreactive trypsin (SIT) concentrations were measured in 244 patients with infectious illnesses and in 281 children with diabetes of recent onset. Results were compared with reference ranges established in 107 patients with non-infectious, non-diabetic illnesses, in whom SIT concentrations were found to increase with advancing age. Reduced or undetectable concentrations of SIT were associated with diabetes in children and with a few cases of severe childhood infection. Increased SIT concentrations were associated with virologically confirmed cases of infection with mumps and Coxsackie B virus infection, and with clinical diagnoses of mumps, PUO, and meningitis in children, and with Bornholm disease, cardiac infection, and respiratory infection in adults. It is suggested that silent invasion of the exocrine pancreas with elevation of the SIT concentration may accompany infection by Coxsackie B, mumps, and, possibly, other viruses. PMID:512051

  11. Diagnosis and management of non-infectious immune-mediated scleritis: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Oray, Merih; Meese, Halea; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Scleritis is an inflammatory process of the sclera and adjacent tissues with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and co-morbidities. Careful clinical history taking, detailed ocular examination, and appropriate investigation for likelihood of an underlying systemic disease are essential for diagnosis. Treatment can be quite challenging in some cases. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation in refractory patients. In such cases new therapeutic agents, which have a more targeted and sustained effect on the immune response, so-called biologic response modifiers, are being used. This review focuses on both diagnosis and therapeutic options including traditional and emerging therapies of non-infectious scleritis. PMID:27055583

  12. Intravesical electromotive drug administration for the treatment of non-infectious chronic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Riedl, C R; Knoll, M; Plas, E; Stephen, R L; Pflüger, H

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen patients with non-infectious chronic cystitis (NICC) (9 with interstitial cystitis, 6 patients with radiation cystitis, 1 with chemocystitis and 1 with lupoid cystitis) were treated with electromotive administration of intravesical lidocaine and dexamethasone followed by hydrodistension of the bladder. Complete resolution of symptoms for an average of 7.5 months was observed in 11 patients (65%), partial improvement in 4 (23.5%). In this series no complications occurred. Electromotive drug administration (EMDA) and cystodistension were well tolerated by all patients. The treatment was performed on an outpatient basis, thus reducing therapeutic costs. The results presented demonstrate that the combination of EMDA and bladder hydrodistension is an effective first-line treatment for NICC patients. PMID:9449584

  13. Bursectomy, Curettage, and Chemotherapy in Tuberculous Trochanteric Bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Carro-Fernández, José A.; Santos-Sánchez, José A.; Casas Ramos, Paula; Díez-Romero, Luis J.; Izquierdo-García, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    We presented three patients with trochanteric tuberculosis and described the clinical and imaging findings of the infection. Histology revealed a necrotizing granulomatous bursitis and microbiology confirmed tuberculosis. All cases were successfully treated with bursectomy and curettage of the trochanteric lesion and antituberculous chemotherapy including isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol. PMID:26929807

  14. Phomopsis bougainvilleicola prepatellar bursitis in a renal transplant recipient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-patellar bursitis is typically a monomicrobial bacterial infection. Rarely is a fungal cause identified. We describe a 61 year-old man who had received a renal transplant 21 months prior to presentation whose synovial fluid and surgical specimens grew Phomopsis bougainvilleicola, a pycnidial coe...

  15. Case report: Infrapatellar bursitis caused by Prototheca wickerhamii

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bossche, Dorien; de Haan, Roel; Van der Werff ten Bosch, Jutte; Van Hecke, Wim; Symoens, Françoise; Van den Borre, Ina; Allard, Sabine; De Bel, Annelies

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old immunocompetent man presented with an infrapatellar bursitis caused by Prototheca wickerhamii. Because of clinical and microbiological relapse two weeks after bursectomy, six weekly injections of 5 mg of conventional amphotericin B were chosen for intrabursal treatment. Four months after completion of the treatment, the patient remains cured. PMID:24371726

  16. Bursectomy, Curettage, and Chemotherapy in Tuberculous Trochanteric Bursitis.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Pascua, Luis R; Carro-Fernández, José A; Santos-Sánchez, José A; Casas Ramos, Paula; Díez-Romero, Luis J; Izquierdo-García, Francisco M

    2016-03-01

    We presented three patients with trochanteric tuberculosis and described the clinical and imaging findings of the infection. Histology revealed a necrotizing granulomatous bursitis and microbiology confirmed tuberculosis. All cases were successfully treated with bursectomy and curettage of the trochanteric lesion and antituberculous chemotherapy including isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol. PMID:26929807

  17. Differentiating sepsis from non-infectious systemic inflammation based on microvesicle-bacteria aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, I. K.; Bertazzo, S.; O'Callaghan, D. J. P.; Schlegel, A. A.; Kallepitis, C.; Antcliffe, D. B.; Gordon, A. C.; Stevens, M. M.

    2015-08-01

    Sepsis is a severe medical condition and a leading cause of hospital mortality. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment has a significant, positive impact on patient outcome. However, sepsis is not always easy to diagnose, especially in critically ill patients. Here, we present a conceptionally new approach for the rapid diagnostic differentiation of sepsis from non-septic intensive care unit patients. Using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we measure infection-specific changes in the activity of nano-sized cell-derived microvesicles to bind bacteria. We report on the use of a point-of-care-compatible microfluidic chip to measure microvesicle-bacteria aggregation and demonstrate rapid (<=1.5 hour) and reliable diagnostic differentiation of bacterial infection from non-infectious inflammation in a double-blind pilot study. Our study demonstrates the potential of microvesicle activities for sepsis diagnosis and introduces microvesicle-bacteria aggregation as a potentially useful parameter for making early clinical management decisions.Sepsis is a severe medical condition and a leading cause of hospital mortality. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment has a significant, positive impact on patient outcome. However, sepsis is not always easy to diagnose, especially in critically ill patients. Here, we present a conceptionally new approach for the rapid diagnostic differentiation of sepsis from non-septic intensive care unit patients. Using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we measure infection-specific changes in the activity of nano-sized cell-derived microvesicles to bind bacteria. We report on the use of a point-of-care-compatible microfluidic chip to measure microvesicle-bacteria aggregation and demonstrate rapid (<=1.5 hour) and reliable diagnostic differentiation of bacterial infection from non-infectious inflammation in a double-blind pilot study. Our study demonstrates the potential of microvesicle activities for sepsis diagnosis and

  18. Novel Intraocular Therapy in Non-infectious Uveitis of the Posterior Segment of the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, Michael; Sallam, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the new clinically relevant data regarding the intraocular treatment of non-infectious uveitis. Triamcinolone acetonide is the most commonly used intravitreal corticosteroid for treatment of uveitis and uveitic macular oedema. The drug is available at low cost but it is associated with a high risk of raised intraocular pressure (IOP) and cataract and is not licensed for intraocular use. Dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®) appears to have a better safety profile, and a slightly long-lasting effect than triamcinolone acetonide. Fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert®) implant allows the release of corticosteroids at a constant rate over a 3-year period, but it requires surgical placement and its use is associated with a very high risk of cataracts and raised intraocular pressure. Iluvien® is another fluocinolone acetonide implant that could represent a more convenient treatment option for such cases in the future as it can be inserted into the vitreous cavity through 25-gauge injector system in an outpatient setting. To circumvent the risks associated with corticosteroids use, non-corticosteroids related therapeutics including intravitreal methotrexate; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments and intravitreal sirolimus have been recently developed. PMID:24822232

  19. Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Culton, Donna A; Jeong, Joseph S; Trupiano, Nicole; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Diaz, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. FS patients and healthy individuals from endemic regions show an autoreactive IgM response that starts in early childhood and becomes restricted to IgG4 autoantibodies in FS patients. In searching for triggering environmental antigens, we have found that IgG4 and IgE autoantibodies from FS patients cross-react with a salivary antigen from sand flies. The presence of these cross-reactive antibodies and antibody genetic analysis confirming that these antibodies evolve from the same naïve B cells provides compelling evidence that this non-infectious environmental antigen could be the initial target of the autoantibody response in FS. Consequently, FS serves as an ideal model to study the impact of environmental antigens in the development of autoimmune disease. PMID:27396816

  20. Antecubital Fossa Solitary Osteochondroma with Associated Bicipitoradial Bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Colin; Bibiano, Luigi; Grech, Stephan; Magazinovic, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Antecubital fossa lesions are uncommon conditions that present to the orthopaedic clinic. Furthermore, the radius bone is an uncommonly reported location for an osteochondroma, especially when presenting with a concurrent reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. Osteochondromas are a type of developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasm. They constitute up to 15% of all bone tumours and up to 50% of benign bone tumours. They may occur as solitary or multiple lesions. Multiple lesions are usually associated with a syndrome known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). Malignant transformation is known to occur but is rare. Bicipitoradial bursitis is a condition which can occur as primary or secondary (reactive) pathology. In our case, the radius bone osteochondroma caused reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. The differential diagnosis of such antecubital fossa masses is vast but may be narrowed down through a targeted history, stepwise radiological investigations, and histological confirmation. Our aim is to ensure that orthopaedic clinicians keep a wide differential in mind when dealing with antecubital fossa mass lesions. PMID:26413363

  1. Association of the C2-CFB locus with non-infectious uveitis, specifically predisposed to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Fan, Jiao-jie; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yan; Teng, Yan; Liu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Complement component 2 (C2) and factor B (CFB) are regulators of complement system and involved in the alternative pathway, which have been identified to be associated with multiple immune-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association of these genes with non-infectious intermediate and posterior uveitis. A total of 260 Chinese non-infectious uveitis patients were recruited, including 97 patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), 70 patients with intermediate uveitis (IU) and 93 patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Two hundred and ninety-three normal control subjects were also recruited. Five SNPs across the C2/CFB region were selected and genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Association analysis was adjusted for gender and stratified by different subtypes. The CFB SNP rs1048709 was significantly associated with non-infectious uveitis [P corr = 0.01, OR 1.49 (allele model) and P corr = 0.04, OR 1.58 (dominant model), respectively], and similar association was also detected between rs1048709 and female uveitis patients (P corr = 0.01, OR 1.70 and P corr = 0.049, OR 184, respectively). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that CFB-rs1048709 was specifically associated with VKH, where significantly higher frequencies of A allele and AA homozygosity were observed in VKH patients compared with controls (P corr = 0.025 and P corr = 0.035, respectively), whereas none of these five SNPs was associated with IU or BD. In addition, a haplotype block across CFB (GTG) was significantly predisposed to uveitis with protective effect (OR 0.66, P corr = 0.048). Our results revealed a significant association of CFB with non-infectious uveitis, particularly predisposed to VKH disease. Genetic differences for uveitis could be gender-specific. PMID:26671509

  2. Non Infectious Complications Related to Blood Transfusion: An 11 year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Philip, J; Pawar, A; Chatterjee, T; Mallhi, R S; Biswas, A K; Dimri, U

    2016-09-01

    In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i.e. those presenting anytime after 24 h. Transfusion reactions can further be classified as immune and non immune or infectious and non infectious based on the pathophysiology. In this retrospective study which was undertaken with an aim to determine the type and frequency of non infectious complications due to transfusion of blood and blood products recorded the incidence of febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 51.40 %, allergic reactions 40.14 %, non immune hemolytic reactions 4.22 %, hypothermia 2.81 %, anaphylaxis 0.70 % and iron overload 0.70 %. FNHTR which was found to be the most common complication in this study can certainly be minimized, if not completely eliminated by adopting a policy of universal leucodepletion, the implementation of which solely depends on the financial and infrastructure resources available. This study also reiterates the importance of hemovigilance as a tool to improve the safety of blood transfusion. PMID:27429521

  3. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Keri, Ruth A.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest to date. There is no cure or treatment for this deadly disease; therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostics to accurately detect Ebola. Current RT-PCR assays lack sensitive and reliable positive controls. To address this critical need, we devised a bio-inspired positive control for use in RT-PCR diagnostics: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays. Here, we report the bioengineering and validation of this probe.

  4. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Keri, Ruth A.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest to date. There is no cure or treatment for this deadly disease; therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostics to accurately detect Ebola. Current RT-PCR assays lack sensitive and reliable positive controls. To address this critical need, we devised a bio-inspired positive control for use in RT-PCR diagnostics: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays. Here, we report the bioengineering and validation of this probe. PMID:27030058

  5. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays.

    PubMed

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M; Stewart, Phoebe L; Keri, Ruth A; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest to date. There is no cure or treatment for this deadly disease; therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostics to accurately detect Ebola. Current RT-PCR assays lack sensitive and reliable positive controls. To address this critical need, we devised a bio-inspired positive control for use in RT-PCR diagnostics: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays. Here, we report the bioengineering and validation of this probe. PMID:27030058

  6. Subcalcaneal Bursitis With Plantar Fasciitis Treated by Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    We report the successful arthroscopic treatment of a case of subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on arthroscopic excision of a subcalcaneal bursa. Right heel pain developed in a 50-year-old woman, without any obvious cause. She reported that the heel pain occurred immediately after waking and that the heel ached when she walked. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extra-articular, homogeneous, high-intensity lesion in the fat pad adjacent to the calcaneal tubercle on T2-weighted sagittal and coronal images and thickening of the plantar fascia on T2-weighted sagittal images. A diagnosis of a recalcitrant subcalcaneal bursitis with plantar fasciitis was made, and surgery was performed. The arthroscope was placed between the calcaneus and the plantar fascia. With the surgeon viewing from the lateral portal and working from the medial portal, the dorsal surface of the degenerative plantar fascia was debrided and the medial half of the plantar fascia was released, followed by debridement of the subcalcaneal bursal cavity through the incised plantar fascia. Full weight bearing and gait were allowed immediately after the operation. At the latest follow-up, the patient had achieved complete resolution of heel pain without a recurrence of the mass, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23875139

  7. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Eduardo R.; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes. PMID:25436887

  8. An Unusual Association: Iliopsoas Bursitis Related to Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Di Carlo, Marco; Draghessi, Antonella; Carotti, Marina; Salaffi, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis came to our observation developing a swelling in the groin region after a recent left colectomy for adenocarcinoma. The imaging techniques revealed the presence of an iliopsoas bursitis in connection with the hip. The synovial fluid analysis detected the presence of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals and allowed the final and unusual diagnosis of iliopsoas bursitis related to acute CPP crystal hip arthritis. PMID:26550514

  9. Acute BVDV-2 infection in beef calves delays humoral responses to a non-infectious antigen challenge

    PubMed Central

    McCorkell, Robert; Horsman, Shawn R.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Muench, Greg; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Waeckerlin, Regula; Eschbaumer, Michael; Dardari, Rkia; Chaiyakul, Mark; Gajda, Pawel; Czub, Markus; van der Meer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive effects of an intranasal challenge with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 2a (strain 1373) were assessed through acquired and innate immune system responses to ovalbumin (OVA). Concurrent BVDV infection was hypothesized to delay and reduce the humoral response to ovalbumin (administered on days 3 and 15 post-inoculation). Infected animals followed the expected clinical course. BVDV titers, and anti-BVDV antibodies confirmed the course of infection and were not affected by the administration of OVA. Both the T-helper (CD4+) and B-cell (CD20+) compartments were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in infected animals, while the gamma-delta T-cell population (Workshop cluster 1+, WC1+) decreased slightly in numbers. Infection with BVDV delayed the increase in OVA IgG by approximately 3 d from day 12 through day 21 post-inoculation. Between days 25 and 37 post-inoculation following BVDV infection the IgM concentration in the BVDV− group decreased while the OVA IgM titer still was rising in the BVDV+ animals. Thus, active BVDV infection delays IgM and IgG responses to a novel, non-infectious antigen. PMID:26483584

  10. Synthesis of immunogenic, but non-infectious, poliovirus particles in insect cells by a baculovirus expression vector.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, T; Ferguson, M; Minor, P D; Cooper, J; Sullivan, M; Almond, J W; Bishop, D H

    1989-06-01

    A baculovirus expression vector (AcLeon) derived from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) was prepared containing the complete 6.6 kb coding region of the P3/Leon/37 strain of poliovirus type 3 placed under the control of the AcNPV polyhedrin promoter. The recombinant virus was used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. As demonstrated by use of the appropriate antibodies, infected insect cells made poliovirus proteins that included the structural proteins VP0, VP1 and VP3. Poliovirus particles were recovered from extracts of the infected cells and demonstrated to be free from detectable levels of RNA and to be non-infectious in tissue culture. After particle purification by CsCl gradient centrifugation and immunization of outbred mice, antibodies to the structural proteins, including neutralizing antibodies, were obtained. Other recombinant baculoviruses, containing the majority of the capsid coding region of P3/Leon/37 (e.g. AcCAP21, nucleotide residues 742 to 3318), made an unprocessed precursor to the poliovirus structural proteins. These data suggested that processing of the poliovirus gene product by the AcLeon construct was catalysed by the poliovirus-encoded proteases. The results demonstrated that antigenic and immunogenic poliovirus proteins and empty particles can be made in insect cells by recombinant baculoviruses. PMID:2543785

  11. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-06-20

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc{sup 109KO}). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc{sup 109KO} results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc{sup 109KO}-transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID{sub 50} showed that vAc{sup 109KO} produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc{sup 109KO} BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  12. MRI appearance of retrocalcaneal bursitis and rheumatoid nodule in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hakan; Sildiroglu, Huseyin; Pekkafali, Zekai; Kizilkaya, Esref; Cermik, Hakan

    2006-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder of unknown etiology characterized by symmetric, erosive synovitis and sometimes multisystem involvement. Rheumatoid nodules have been reported in as many as 20-30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis; however, they are not commonly seen in the feet. We present magnetic resonance (MR) findings of a rarely seen case of rheumatoid bursitis in the retrocalcaneal bursa associated with a subcutaneous rheumatoid nodule inferior to the calcaneus which histologically confirmed the rheumatoid arthritis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that rheumatoid bursitis in the retrocalcaneal bursa associated with the rheumatoid nodule in the foot was revealed by MR imaging. PMID:16222409

  13. Proteomic Changes of Alveolar Lining Fluid in Illnesses Associated with Exposure to Inhaled Non-Infectious Microbial Particles

    PubMed Central

    Teirilä, Laura; Karvala, Kirsi; Ahonen, Niina; Riska, Henrik; Pietinalho, Anne; Tuominen, Päivi; Piirilä, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperresponsiveness to inhaled non-infectious microbial particles (NIMPs) has been associated with illnesses in the airways. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is considered to be the prototype for these NIMPs-related diseases; however, there is no consensus on the definitions or diagnostic criteria for HP and the spectrum of related illnesses. Methods and Findings In order to identify the possible diagnostic markers for illnesses associated with NIMPs in alveolar lining fluid, we performed a proteomic analysis using a two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with exposure to NIMPs in the context of damp building-related illness (DBRI) or conditions on the borderline to acute HP, designated here as agricultural type of microbial exposure (AME). Samples from patients with HP and sarcoidosis (SARC) were included for reference. Results were compared to results of healthy subjects (CTR). Western blot was used for validation of potential marker proteins from BAL fluid and plasma. Protein expression patterns suggest a close similarity between AME and HP, while DBRI was similar to CTR. However, in DBRI the levels of the inflammation associated molecules galectin-3 and alpha-1-antitrypsin were increased. A novel finding emerging from this study was the increases of semenogelin levels in BAL fluid from patients with AME, HP and SARC. Histone 4 levels were increased in AME, HP and SARC. Elevated plasma levels of histone 2B were detected in HP and SARC, suggesting it to be a potential blood indicator for inflammatory diseases of the lungs. Conclusions In this study, the proteomic changes in bronchoalveolar lavage of DBRI patients were distinct from other NIMP exposure associated lung diseases, while changes in AME overlapped those observed for HP patient samples. Some of the proteins identified in this study, semenogelin and histone 4, could function as diagnostic markers for differential diagnosis between

  14. Ultrasound-Guided 50% Ethyl Alcohol Injection for Patients With Malleolar and Olecranon Bursitis: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Seong; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effect of ultrasound-guided ethyl alcohol injection on malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. Methods Twenty-four patients received ultrasound-guided 50% diluted ethyl alcohol injection at the site of synovial proliferative bursitis after aspiration of the free fluid. Results Swelling and symptoms significantly decreased in 13 of the 24 patients without any complications. Eleven patients had partial improvement in swelling and symptoms. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided alcohol injection could be an alternative therapeutic option before surgery in patients with chronic intractable malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. PMID:27152282

  15. Pes Anserine Bursitis in Symptomatic Osteoarthritis Patients: A Mesotherapy Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, Alexandra; Dodaj, Ira; Scarcello, Laura; Bellomo, Rosa Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pes anserine bursitis strongly affects quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis. Treatment includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), physiotherapy, and injections of corticosteroid, with highly variable responses; recovery can take 10 days to 36 months. Mesotherapy is a minimally invasive technique consisting of subcutaneous injections of bioactive substances. The goal is to modulate the pharmacokinetics of the injected substance and prolong the effects at a local level. Objective: To evaluate the effects of mesotherapy with diclofenac for anserine bursitis associated with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with anserine bursitis associated with grade II Kellgren-Lawrence knee osteoarthritis, assessed by clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, were evaluated and treated. They were randomly divided into two groups (A, mesotherapy; B, control). Group A completed nine sessions of mesotherapy with sodium diclofenac (25 mg/1 mL; Akis®, IBSA, Lugano, Switzerland), 1 mL for each session, three times per week. Group B received 21 oral administrations of sodium diclofenac (50 mg; Voltaren®, Novartis, Parsippany, NJ), once a day for 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain intensity assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), along with ability to perform activities of daily living, ability to participate in sports, level of pain, symptoms, and quality of life, as assessed by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. These measures were performed before and after the treatment period and at 30 and 90 days' follow up. Results: In both groups pain level decreased significantly after the treatment period. Ultrasonography showed a reduction of the hypoechoic area related to anserine bursitis only in group A. Conclusion: Administration of conventional NSAIDs (diclofenac) by mesotherapy is effective in managing anserine bursitis in knee osteoarthritis in the short term and

  16. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Hilburn, Carla F; Rios, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 10(3)/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  17. Bilateral Olecranon Bursitis – A Rare Clinical presentation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jignesh; Girishkumar; Mruthyunjaya; Rupakumar, C. S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) is the most common form of crystal arthropathy second only to gout. Common clinical presentation is an acute monoarticular arthritis commonly occurring in knee joints. We presented a case of bilateral olecranon bursitis in a calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease. Case Report: A 42-year-old female patient is presented with golf ball sized painless swellings in the posterior aspect of her elbows. Elbow joints were clinically normal except for restriction of terminal flexion. X-ray showed mild erosion at the tip of olecranon. Excision biopsy of the swelling showed positive birefringent calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals on the inner wall of the specimen on polarized light microscopy. Conclusion: Bilateral olecranon bursitis may be part of the extraarticular manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease with good prognosis following in toto bursa excision. PMID:27298934

  18. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Grissel

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 103/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  19. OSTEOCHONDROMA OF THE PROXIMAL HUMERUS WITH FRICTIONAL BURSITIS AND SECONDARY SYNOVIAL OSTEOCHONDROMATOSIS.

    PubMed

    De Groote, J; Geerts, B; Mermuys, K; Verstraete, K

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of multiple hereditary exostosis in a 33-year old patient with clinical symptoms of pain and impression of a growing mass of the left shoulder alerting potential risk of malignant transformation of an osteochondroma. Imaging studies illustrated perilesional bursitis surrounding an osteochondroma of the proximal humerus. Malignant transformation was excluded with MRI. Fragments of the osteochondroma were dislocated in the inflammatory synovial bursa illustrating a case of secondary synovial osteochondromatosis. PMID:26223067

  20. Use of X-rays to treat shoulder tendonitis/bursitis: a historical assessment.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Dhawan, Gaurav; Kapoor, Rachna

    2014-08-01

    This article assesses the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation for the treatment of shoulder tendonitis/bursitis in the USA over the period of its use (human 1936-1961; veterinary 1954-1974). Results from ~3,500 human cases were reported in the clinical case studies over 30 articles, and indicated a high treatment efficacy (>90 %) for patients. Radiotherapy was effective with a single treatment. The duration of treatment effectiveness was prolonged, usually lasting until the duration of the follow-up period (i.e., 1-5 years). Therapeutic effectiveness was reduced for conditions characterized as chronic. Similar findings were reported with race horses in the veterinary literature. These historical findings are consistent with clinical studies over the past several decades in Germany, which have used more rigorous study designs and a broader range of clinical evaluation parameters. Radiotherapy treatment was widely used in the mid twentieth century in the USA, but was abandoned following the discovery of anti-inflammatory drugs and the fear of radiation-induced cancer. That X-ray treatment could be an effective means of treating shoulder tendonitis/bursitis, as a treatment option, and is essentially unknown by the current medical community. This paper is the first comprehensive synthesis of the historical use of X-rays to treat shoulder tendonitis/bursitis and its efficacy in the USA. PMID:24954447

  1. Changes of four common non-infectious liver diseases for the hospitalized patients in Beijing 302 hospital from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Chang, Binxia; Li, Baosen; Huang, Ang; Sun, Ying; Teng, Guangju; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Li, Jin; Zou, Zhengsheng

    2016-08-01

    The implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program in China has led to a significant decline in the prevalence and incidence of liver diseases secondary to hepatitis B virus over the past two decades. With recent changes in the economy and increases in average incomes in China during the same period, there has been a rapid rise in per capita alcohol consumption and an epidemic of obesity. We hypothesized that the burden of liver diseases in China has shifted from infectious to non-infectious etiologies. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 20,378 patients who were hospitalized in Beijing 302 hospital between 2002 and 2013. We found that the total admission rate secondary to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD), autoimmune liver disease (AILD), and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was 10.7%. ALD was the leading cause of inpatient hospitalization (3.9% of total admissions). The rate of inpatient admission for ALD, AILD, and DILI increased by 170%, 111%, and 107%, respectively during the study period. Chinese herbal medicine was the primary cause of DILI in our subjects. The burden of non-infectious liver diseases has increased over the last decade among hospitalized patients in a large tertiary hospital in China. The increase in the rate of admission for ALD and DILI from Chinese herbal medicine suggests that strategies to reduce harmful use of alcohol and increase awareness and education on the use of herbal medicine are needed. PMID:27519542

  2. Non-infectious granulomatous diseases of the skin and their associated systemic diseases: an evidence-based update to important clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Elena Balestreire; Izikson, Leonid; English, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    Non-infectious granulomatous diseases of the skin are a broad group of distinct reactive inflammatory conditions that share important similarities. As a group, they are relatively difficult to diagnose and distinguish both clinically as well as histologically. Many of these disorders have significant associations with systemic diseases that impact the patient's overall prognosis. In this update, we offer a discussion of emerging concepts and controversies in this field, as presented through evidence-based answers to seven important clinical questions regarding palisading and epithelioid granulomata. These questions offer an opportunity to review ten non-infectious granulomatous conditions that have implications for systemic disease: granuloma annulare, annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, necrobiosis lipoidica, methotrexate-induced accelerated rheumatoid nodulosis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, interstitial granulomatous drug reaction, palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis, sarcoidosis, and metastatic Crohn disease. Recent clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory studies have shed some light on these diseases, the association of these conditions with systemic disorders, and their overall prognoses. PMID:20184390

  3. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and associated risk factors for bursitis in weaner, grower and finisher pigs from 93 commercial farms in England.

    PubMed

    Gillman, C E; Kilbride, A L; Ossent, P; Green, L E

    2008-03-17

    A cross-sectional study of 93 farms in England was carried out to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for bursitis. A total of 6250 pigs aged 6-22 weeks were examined for presence and severity of bursitis. Details of pen construction, pen quality and farm management were recorded including floor type, presence of bedding, condition of the floor and floor materials. The prevalence of bursitis was 41.2% and increased with each week of age (OR 1.1). Two-level logistic regression models were developed with the outcome as the proportion of pigs affected with bursitis in a pen. Pigs kept on soil floors with straw bedding were used as the reference level. In comparison with these soil floors, bursitis increased on concrete floors where the bedding was deep throughout (OR 4.6), deep in part (OR 3.7), and sparse throughout (OR 9.0), part slatted floors (OR 8.0), and fully slatted floors (OR 18.8). Slip or skid marks in the dunging area (OR 1.5), pigs observed slipping during the examination of the pen (OR 1.3) and wet floors (OR 3.6) were also associated with an increased risk of bursitis. The results indicate that bursitis is a common condition of growing pigs and that the associated risk factors for bursitis were a lack of bedding in the lying area, presence of voids and pen conditions which increased the likelihood of injury. PMID:17942176

  4. [Production and evaluation of immunologic characteristics of mzNLA-3, a non-infectious HIV-1 clone with a large deletion in the pol sequence].

    PubMed

    Aghasadeghi, M R; Zabihollahi, R; Sadat, S M; Salehi, M; Ashtiani, S H; Namazi, R; Kashanizadeh, N; Azadmanesh, K

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation ofintegrase and reverse transcriptase can revoke the replication of HIV virions, and non-infectious HIV particles are desirable virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates. Here, we produced inactive in replication HIV-1 particles fit for vaccine and virological purposes by introducing a mutation into the pol sequence. Proviral DNA (pNLA-3) was cut at two points in the pol region using the Bal I restriction enzyme and then religated. HEK 293T cells were transfected with the resultant plasmid (pmzNL4-3) to produce mutated virions. To confirm a production of VLPs and evaluate their biological activity the p24 load and syncytium formation (MT2 cells) were analyzed. The assay indicated that mzNL4-3 virions were assembled and contained functional envelope glycoproteins (ENV). In addition, mzNL4-3 virions were not able to infect MT2 and HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, the immunogenicity of VLPs was investigated in a mouse model. According to the data on vaccinated mice, the titer of ENV-specific antibodies rose rapidly after a boosting injection. Moreover, lymphoid cells extracted from these mice proliferated after exposure to the antigen. The mzNL4-3 virus particles possessed immunogenic antigens of HIV and can effectively trigger humoral and CD4 immune responses. Non-infectious mzNL4-3 virions may also be used in biomedical experiments to improve the biological safety conditions. Moreover, the mzNL4-3 seems to be a promising candidate for further HIV-1 vaccine investigations. PMID:23808159

  5. Acute Calcific Bursitis After Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Barbotage of Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo-Sung; Lee, Seung Hak; Cho, Yung; Chung, Sun Gun

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous barbotage is an effective treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, providing rapid and substantial pain relief. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with aggravated pain early after ultrasound-guided barbotage of a large calcific deposit in the supraspinatus tendon. Subsequent examination revealed a thick calcification spreading along the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa space, suggesting acute calcific bursitis complicated by barbotage. Additional barbotage alleviated her pain completely. Therefore, a high index of suspicion for acute calcific bursitis is required in patients with unresolved or aggravated pain after barbotage. Repeated barbotage could be effective for this condition. PMID:26902864

  6. Interaction network and mass spectrometry data of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri surface proteins from differential proteomic analysis of infectious and non-infectious cells.

    PubMed

    Carnielli, Carolina Moretto; Artier, Juliana; Franco de Oliveira, Julio Cezar; Novo-Mansur, Maria Teresa Marques

    2016-09-01

    Here we provide the mass-spectrometry and in silico interaction network dataset of proteins identified on our research article on surface proteomic analysis from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XAC) cells grown in vivo (infectious) and in vitro (non-infectious, control) by 2D-DIGE approach. Fluorescence labeling of proteins were performed on intact cells followed by cellular lysis and labeled spots from 2D gel differing in abundance between the two conditions (ANOVA, p-value<0.05) were analyzed by a nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry Q-Tof Ultima API mass spectrometer (MicroMass/Waters) (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This article contains raw data of proteins detected in the 79 spots analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS approach and also an enrichment analysis on the resulting protein-protein interaction network performed with the Integrated Interactome System (IIS) platform and Cytoscape software. The data are supplementary to our original research article, "Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri surface proteome by 2D-DIGE: ferric enterobactin receptor and other outer membrane proteins potentially involved in citric host interaction" (Carnielli et al., 2016) [1], and raw data are available via Peptide Atlas (ftp://PASS00850:ZJ7425v@ftp.peptideatlas.org/). PMID:27595129

  7. Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The role of popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis in knee joint homeostasis is uncertain. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional associations between popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, knee symptoms and structural abnormalities in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 900 randomly-selected subjects (mean age 63 years, 48% female) were studied. Knee pain, stiffness and dysfunction were assessed by self-administered Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Radiographic knee osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN) were recorded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to assess popliteal cysts, subgastrocnemius bursitis, cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Results Popliteal cysts were present in 11.7% and subgastrocnemius bursitis in 12.7% of subjects. Subgastrocnemius bursitis was more common in those with popliteal cyst (36.2% versus 9.7%, P <0.01). In multivariable analyses, popliteal cysts were significantly associated with increased osteophytes in both medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments while subgastrocnemius bursitis was associated with increased osteophytes and JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Both were significantly associated with cartilage defects in all compartments, and with BMLs in the medial tibiofemoral compartment. Furthermore, both popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis were significantly associated with increased weight-bearing knee pain but these associations became non-significant after adjustment for cartilage defects and BMLs. Conclusions Popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis are associated with increased symptoms as well as radiographic and MRI-detected joint structural abnormalities. Longitudinal data will help resolve if they are a consequence or a cause of knee joint abnormalities. PMID:24581327

  8. Bone erosion and subacromial bursitis caused by diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Salmon, J H; Geoffroy, M; Eschard, J P; Ohl, X

    2015-11-17

    Revaxis(®) is a vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis (dT-IPV). This vaccine should not be administered by the intradermal or intravenous route. Poor injection techniques and related consequences are rare. We report a case of bursitis associated with reactive glenohumeral effusion complicated by bone erosion occurring after injection of the dT-IPV vaccine. A 26 year old patient was admitted for painful left shoulder causing functional impairment. Control magnetic resonance imaging showed bone oedema on the upper outer part of the humeral head, with a slight cortical irregularity, indicating that the vaccine was injected in contact with the bone at this location, causing erosion. Outcome was favourable after intra-articular corticosteroids. Reports of articular or periarticular injury after vaccination are extremely rare, in view of the substantial number of vaccines administered every year. The potential complications of vaccination are well known to general practitioners but under-reported in the literature. PMID:26458794

  9. [Bursitis iliopectinea--a rare differential diagnosis of painful inguinal swelling].

    PubMed

    Gresser, J; Bitz, K; Binswanger, R; Hegglin, J

    1992-08-01

    The syndrome of iliopectineal bursitis is an important differential diagnosis of a painful swelling in the inguinal region. Symptoms are local swelling and pain, radiation of pain along the femoral nerve, troubles of arterial or venous circulation and even dysuria or dysmenorrhoea in case the bursa penetrates into the pelvis. The diagnosis is established by conventional radiology (signs of osteoarthritis as one of the pathogenetic reasons), ultrasound (liquid mass lateral to the femoral vessels), punction (clear fluid, eventually synovial cells), contrast injection (dimension of the bursa and communication to the hip joint) and computed tomography (dimension, relation to hip and vessels). The treatment is the excision of the bursa, if conservative therapy is not successful. The excision requires tedious, cautious dissection because of the important structures adjacent and a possible communication to the hip joint must be eradicated. PMID:1428931

  10. Protothecal bursitis after simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, I; Nieto-Ríos, J F; Ocampo-Kohn, C; Aristizábal-Alzate, A; Zuluaga-Valencia, G; Muñoz Maya, O; Pérez, J C

    2016-04-01

    Solid organ transplantation is an accepted therapy for end-stage diseases of the kidneys, liver, heart, and lungs. Unfortunately, transplantation is associated with infectious complications. Here, we present a case report of Prototheca wickerhamii olecranon bursitis and review all of the cases in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients published in the literature to date. In our patient, the infection resolved with surgical therapy and limited antifungal therapy, and no symptoms have recurred over 24 months of follow-up. A review of the literature suggests that 50% of SOT recipients with Prototheca infection present with disseminated infection, and the overall mortality is 75%. More studies are required to determine the optimal management of protothecosis in this population. PMID:26779785

  11. Suture slippage in knotless suture anchors resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

    PubMed

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Keefe, Daniel T; Chang, Eric Y

    2016-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge and knotless suture anchors is a relatively new, but increasingly used technique. The suture bridge technique creates an anatomically similar and more secure rotator cuff repair compared with conventional arthroscopic techniques and the use of knotless anchors eliminates the challenges associated with knot tying during arthroscopic surgery. However, previous in vitro biomechanical tests have shown that the hold of the suture in a knotless suture anchor is far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone. Up until now slippage has been a theoretical concern. We present a prospectively diagnosed case of in vivo suture loosening after rotator cuff repair using a knotless bridge technique resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. PMID:26739301

  12. Genomic Methylation Inhibits Expression of Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein in Transgenic Mice: A Non-Infectious Mouse Model to Study Silencing of HBV Surface Antigen Genes

    PubMed Central

    Graumann, Franziska; Churin, Yuri; Tschuschner, Annette; Reifenberg, Kurt; Glebe, Dieter; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Hepatitis B virus genome persists in the nucleus of virus infected hepatocytes where it serves as template for viral mRNA synthesis. Epigenetic modifications, including methylation of the CpG islands contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression. The present study investigates the effects of spontaneous age dependent loss of hepatitis B surface protein- (HBs) expression due to HBV-genome specific methylation as well as its proximate positive effects in HBs transgenic mice. Methods Liver and serum of HBs transgenic mice aged 5–33 weeks were analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, serum analysis, PCR, and qRT-PCR. Results From the third month of age hepatic loss of HBs was observed in 20% of transgenic mice. The size of HBs-free area and the relative number of animals with these effects increased with age and struck about 55% of animals aged 33 weeks. Loss of HBs-expression was strongly correlated with amelioration of serum parameters ALT and AST. In addition lower HBs-expression went on with decreased ER-stress. The loss of surface protein expression started on transcriptional level and appeared to be regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The amount of the HBs-expression correlated negatively with methylation of HBV DNA in the mouse genome. Conclusions Our data suggest that methylation of specific CpG sites controls gene expression even in HBs-transgenic mice with truncated HBV genome. More important, the loss of HBs expression and intracellular aggregation ameliorated cell stress and liver integrity. Thus, targeted modulation of HBs expression may offer new therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, HBs-transgenic mice depict a non-infectious mouse model to study one possible mechanism of HBs gene silencing by hypermethylation. PMID:26717563

  13. Development of a non-infectious encapsidated positive control RNA for molecular assays to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Madi, Mikidache; Mioulet, Valerie; King, Donald P; Lomonossoff, George P; Montague, Nicholas P

    2015-08-01

    Positive controls are an important component of the quality-control of molecular tests used for diagnosis of livestock diseases. For high consequence agents such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the positive controls required to monitor template extraction, reverse transcription and amplification steps usually consist of material derived from infectious viruses. Therefore, their production is dependent upon the use of high containment facilities and their deployment carries the risks associated with inactivation of "live" FMDV. This paper describes the development of a novel non-infectious positive control that encodes FMDV RNA sequences that are encapsidated within Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles. This surrogate RNA has been engineered to contain sequences from the 5'UTR and 3D regions of FMDV targeted by many molecular assays (conventional RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP). These sequences were inserted into a movement-deficient version of CPMV RNA-2 which is rescued from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculota) by inoculation with RNA-1. In order to evaluate the performance of these encapsidated RNAs, nucleic acid prepared from a 10-fold dilution series was tested using a range of molecular assays. Results generated by using the molecular assays confirmed RNA-dependent amplification and the suitability of these particles for use in a range of diagnostic tests. Moreover, these CPMV particles were highly stable for periods of up to 46 days at room temperature and 37 °C. Recombinant CPMV can be used to produce high yields of encapsidated RNAs that can be used as positive and negative controls and standards in molecular assays. This approach provides a surrogate that can be potentially used outside of containment laboratories as an alternative to inactivated infectious virus for molecular diagnostic testing. PMID:25864934

  14. The effect of gender and genetic polymorphisms on matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and tissue inhibitor (TIMP) plasma levels in different infectious and non-infectious conditions.

    PubMed

    Collazos, J; Asensi, V; Martin, G; Montes, A H; Suárez-Zarracina, T; Valle-Garay, E

    2015-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are increased in different infections due to their role in controlling immune responses and are regulated by tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Different MMP promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) induce changes in MMP genes, mRNA and protein expression. Gender might also modify MMP plasma levels. In order to determine the weight of these variables on MMP secretion we studied MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, -13 and TIMP-1, -2, -4 plasma levels in 90 patients with severe bacterial sepsis, 102 with anti-retroviral (ARV)-treated HIV monoinfection, 111 with ARV-treated HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection and 86 non-infected controls (45 stroke and 41 trauma patients). MMP-1(-1607 1G/2G), MMP-3(-1612 5A/6A), MMP-8(-799C/T), MMP-9(-1562 C/T) and MMP-13(-77A/G) SNPs were genotyped. MMP-3 plasma levels were significantly higher in men than in women in each diagnostic group, and MMP-3 SNP allele 6A carriers also had higher levels than allele 5A carriers, an effect that was magnified by sepsis. Independent predictors of higher MMP-3 levels were male gender (P = 0.0001), MMP-3(-1612 5A/6A) SNP (P = 0.001), higher levels of TIMP-4 (P = 0.004) and MMP-8 (P = 0.006) and lower levels of MMP-1 (P = 0.03) by multivariate analysis. No strong associations with gender or SNPs were observed for other MMPs or TIMPs. In conclusion, male gender and MMP-3(-1612 5A/6A) 6A allele carriage increased MMP-3 plasma levels significantly, especially in patients with severe bacterial sepsis. This confounding gender effect needs to be addressed when evaluating MMP-3 plasma levels in any infectious or non-infectious condition. PMID:26206176

  15. A Rare Case of Femoral Neuropathy Associated with Ilio-Psoas Bursitis After 10 Years of Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek; Shon, Won Yong; Lakhotia, Devendra; Kim, Jong Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of femoral nerve palsy caused due to non-infective large iliopsoas bursitis after 10 years of cementless ceramic-on-metal THA. Bursectomy and exploration of femoral nerve were done to relieve the compressive symptoms of femoral nerve. Patient neurological symptoms were recovered within six months. Iliopsoas bursitis after THA can lead to anterior hip pain, lump in inguinal area or abdomen, limb swelling due to venous compression or more rarely neurovascular compressive symptoms depending on size and extension. Treating physician should be aware of this rare condition after THA in the absence of any radiographic findings so that prompt diagnosis and treatment can be carried out. PMID:26312109

  16. Trochanteric bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... walking Joint stiffness Swelling and warmth of the hip joint Catching and clicking sensation You may notice the ... physical therapy if you have trouble moving the joint. Other treatments ... If you have surgery, your hip will function just fine without the inflamed bursa. ...

  17. Mycobacterium avium complex olecranon bursitis resolves without antimicrobials or surgical intervention: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Working, Selene; Tyser, Andrew; Levy, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nontuberculous mycobacteria are an uncommon cause of septic olecranon bursitis, though cases have increasingly been described in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Guidelines recommend a combination of surgical resection and antimicrobials for treatment. This case is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis that resolved without medical or surgical intervention. Case presentation A 67-year-old female developed a painless, fluctuant swelling of the olecranon bursa following blunt trauma to the elbow. Due to persistent bursal swelling, she underwent three separate therapeutic bursal aspirations, two involving intrabursal steroid injection. After the third aspiration, the bursa became erythematous and severely swollen, and bursal fluid grew Mycobacterium avium complex. Triple-drug antimycobacterial therapy was initiated, but discontinued abruptly due to a rash. Surgery was not performed. The patient was observed off antimicrobials, and gradually clinically improved with a compressive dressing. By 14 months after initial presentation, clinical exam revealed complete resolution of the previously erythematous bursal mass. Discussion This is the first reported case of nontuberculous mycobacterial olecranon bursitis managed successfully without surgery or antimicrobials. Musculoskeletal nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are challenging given the lack of clinical data about optimal duration and choice of antimicrobials or the role of surgery. Additionally, the potential toxicity and drug interactions of antimycobacterials are not insignificant and warrant close monitoring if treatment is pursued. Conclusion This case raises an important clinical question of whether close observation off antimicrobials is appropriate in select cases of immunocompetent patients with localized atypical mycobacterial disease of soft tissue and skeletal structures. PMID:26793457

  18. The Effect of Different Dosing Schedules of Intravitreal Sirolimus, a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Non-Infectious Uveitis (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Do, Diana V.; Sepah, Yasir J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if two different doses of intravitreal sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, can decrease inflammation and is safe in eyes with non-infectious posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis: Protocol-2 (SAVE-2) Study. Methods: SAVE-2 is a prospective randomized, phase II, open-label interventional clinical trial conducted at 4 clinical centers in the United States. Eligible subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Group 1 received 440µg of intravitreal sirolimus in study eyes on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150; group 2 received 880µg of intravitreal sirolimus on days 0, 60, and 120. Fellow eyes were also eligible to receive sirolimus (of opposite dose to that of study eye). Primary endpoint of the study was at month 6 (M6). Results: 24 subjects have been randomized in SAVE-2 and are included in the analysis. Vitreous haze decreased by ≥2 steps in 63.6% and 50% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively at M6 (p=0.695). Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity for subjects was +3.66 and −2.91 ETDRS letters in group 1 and 2, respectively. Among subjects with macular edema at baseline (n=13), the mean change in foveal thickness was −89.42µm in group 1 and +81.5µm in group 2 at M6. Conclusions: Both low and high doses of intravitreal sirolimus were found to decrease vitreous haze in eyes with non-infectious uveitis. Low dose (440µg) sirolimus administered monthly may be more efficacious in reducing uveitic macular edema than high dose (880µg) administered every 2 months.

  19. Raynaud's phenomenon and bilateral olecranon bursitis co-existing in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D treated with pegylated interferon.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shafique Rehman; Umer, Tahira Perveen

    2016-06-01

    Pegylated interferon remains the first line treatment for patients with hepatitis D virus and more than one year therapy may be necessary. Interferon a has the most extensive clinical application and is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D virus as well as HCV infections. The attachment of polyethylene glycol to interferon increases its half-life. Treatment with peg interferon is associated with many troublesome and occasionally with serious or even life-threatening side effects. In this case report, we have described a patient with chronic hepatitis B and D, who developed Raynaud's phenomenon, ischaemic digital necrosis and bilateral olecranon bursitis during Pegylated interferon therapy. The patient underwent a very extensive workup in order to determine the underlying cause of his digital ischaemia and olecranon bursitis, which was finally determined to be secondary to the use of Pegylated interferon. PMID:27339587

  20. Evaluation of a Porcine Gastric Mucin and RNase A Assay for the Discrimination of Infectious and Non-infectious GI.1 and GII.4 Norovirus Following Thermal, Ethanol, or Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatments.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Olamide T; Webb, Cathy C; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major source of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Since human NoVs cannot be cultured in vitro, methods that discriminate infectious from non-infectious NoVs are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate binding of NoV genotypes GI.1 and GII.4 to histo-blood group antigens expressed in porcine gastric mucin (PGM) as a surrogate for detecting infectious virus following thermal (99 °C/5 min), 70% ethanol or 0.5% levulinic acid (LV) plus 0.01 or 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer treatments and to determine the limit of detection of GI.1 and GII.4 binding to PGM. Treated and control virus samples were applied to 96-well plates coated with 1 µg/ml PGM followed by RNase A (5 ng/µl) treatment for degradation of exposed RNA. Average log genome copies per ml (gc/ml) reductions and relative differences (RD) in quantification cycle (Cq) values after thermal treatment were 1.77/5.62 and 1.71/7.25 (RNase A) and 1.73/5.50 and 1.56/6.58 (no RNase A) for GI.1 and GII.4, respectively. Treatment of NoVs with 70% EtOH resulted in 0.05/0.16 (GI.1) and 3.54/10.19 (GII.4) log reductions in gc/ml and average RD in Cq value, respectively. LV (0.5%) combined with 0.1 % SDS provided a greater decrease of GI.1 and GII.4 NoVs with 8.97 and 8.13 average RD in Cq values obtained, respectively than 0.5% LV/0.01 % SDS. Virus recovery after PGM binding was variable with GII.4 > GI.1. PGM binding is a promising surrogate for identifying infectious and non-infectious NoVs after capsid destruction, however, results vary depending on virus strain and inactivation method. PMID:26514820

  1. [A non-infectious pyodermatitis: Pyoderma gangrenosum].

    PubMed

    Lambert, J; Jonlet, F; Vanhooteghem, O; Richert, B; de la Brassinne, M

    2001-02-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the recurring development of necrotizing and painful ulcers. The skin lesions appear spontaneously or after minor traumatic injuries. Sites of predilection include the lower limbs and the trunk but any part of the body may be affected. PG is not an infectious disease; although the etiology is not completely understood, an immune disturbance is certainly involved. An underlying systemic disorder is associated in up to 50% of the cases, specially inflammatory bowel diseases, arthritis, paraproteinemias and hematologic malignancies. Chronic venous or arterial ulcers as well as bacterial gangrene are the most frequent false diagnoses. A right diagnosis, based upon the distinctive clinical features and a compatible histology, is essential to avoid surgical procedure that often tends to exacerbed the process. Because of its persistent and recurrent nature, systemic long-term therapy based upon corticosteroids associated with sulfones or immunosuppressive agents is required. PMID:11294044

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of physical therapy and corticosteroid injection in the treatment of pes anserine tendino-bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Sarifakioglu, Banu; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Yalbuzdag, Seniz Akcay; Ustaömer, Kubra; Bayramoğlu, Meral

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were twofold. The first was to compare the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with or without pes anserine tendino-bursitis (PATB). The second is to compare the efficacy of two treatment methods (physical therapy and corticosteroid injection) for patients with PATB. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patient with KOA and PATB (Group 1) and 57 patients with KOA but without PATB (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. The patients’ visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores and three-meter timed-up and go scores were measured. The PATB group was randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Physical therapy (PT) modalities were applied to the first group (Group A), and the second group (Group B) received corticosteroid injections to the pes anserine area. Eight weeks later, patients’ parameters were measured again. [Results] Initial WOMAC scores and timed up-and-go times were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. Both treatments resulted in significant improvements in all measured parameters, but no significant difference was detected between Group A and B. [Conclusion] Patients with PATB tend to have more severe pain, more altered functionality, and greater disability than those with KOA but without PATB. Both corticosteroid injection and PT are effective methods of treatment for PATB. Injection therapy can be considered an effective, inexpensive and fast therapeutic method. PMID:27512249

  3. Surgical Correction of Posttraumatic Scapulothoracic Bursitis, Rhomboid Major Muscle Injury, Ipsilateral Glenohumeral Instability, and Headaches Resulting from Circus Acrobatic Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Langston, Tanner D.; Phippen, Colton M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old transgender (male-to-female) patient that had a partial tear of the rhomboid major tendon, scapulothoracic bursitis, and glenohumeral instability on the same side. These conditions resulted from traumatic events during circus acrobatic maneuvers. Additional aspects of this case that make it unique include (1) the main traumatic event occurred during a flagpole exercise, where the patient's trunk was suspended horizontally while a vertical pole was grasped with both hands, (2) headaches were associated with the periscapular injury and they improved after scapulothoracic bursectomy and rhomboid tendon repair, (3) surgical correction was done during the same operation with an open anterior capsular-labral reconstruction, open scapulothoracic bursectomy without bone resection, and rhomboid tendon repair, (4) a postoperative complication of tearing of the serratus anterior and rhomboid muscle attachments with recurrent scapulothoracic pain occurred from patient noncompliance, and (5) the postoperative complication was surgically corrected and ultimately resulted in an excellent outcome at the one-year final follow-up. PMID:26273484

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of physical therapy and corticosteroid injection in the treatment of pes anserine tendino-bursitis.

    PubMed

    Sarifakioglu, Banu; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Yalbuzdag, Seniz Akcay; Ustaömer, Kubra; Bayramoğlu, Meral

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were twofold. The first was to compare the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with or without pes anserine tendino-bursitis (PATB). The second is to compare the efficacy of two treatment methods (physical therapy and corticosteroid injection) for patients with PATB. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patient with KOA and PATB (Group 1) and 57 patients with KOA but without PATB (Group 2) were enrolled in the study. The patients' visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores and three-meter timed-up and go scores were measured. The PATB group was randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Physical therapy (PT) modalities were applied to the first group (Group A), and the second group (Group B) received corticosteroid injections to the pes anserine area. Eight weeks later, patients' parameters were measured again. [Results] Initial WOMAC scores and timed up-and-go times were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2. Both treatments resulted in significant improvements in all measured parameters, but no significant difference was detected between Group A and B. [Conclusion] Patients with PATB tend to have more severe pain, more altered functionality, and greater disability than those with KOA but without PATB. Both corticosteroid injection and PT are effective methods of treatment for PATB. Injection therapy can be considered an effective, inexpensive and fast therapeutic method. PMID:27512249

  5. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and associated risk factors for capped hock and the associations with bursitis in weaner, grower and finisher pigs from 93 commercial farms in England.

    PubMed

    KilBride, A L; Gillman, C E; Ossent, P; Green, L E

    2008-03-17

    The prevalence of capped hock in 5601 post-weaning pigs from 93 pig farms in England was 17.2%. The prevalence increased with age. Once adjusted for age, the lowest prevalence of capped hock was observed in pigs kept on soil floors (usually covered with deep straw bedding). There was no significant increase in the risk of capped hock in pigs kept on solid concrete floors with deep straw bedding. However, pigs kept on solid concrete with some, or the entire pen, sparsely bedded and pigs kept on partially or fully slatted floors had an approximately threefold increased risk of capped hock. This did not vary significantly between these four floor types. This was in contrast to the associated risks for bursitis in the same pigs, where as the floor went from highly resilient (straw and solid floors) to hard and perforated (fully slatted) the risk of bursitis increased in a similar way to a dose response. No other variables that were measured were associated with a change in risk for capped hock, while observation of pigs slipping or slip marks and wet, dirty and worn pens were also associated risks for bursitis. These results indicate that capped hock and bursitis are both affected by exposure to floors, but in different ways. The prevalence of capped hock was associated only with floor hardness, with deep straw protecting the pigs, while bursitis was associated with both changes in bedding depth (hardness), floor material (soil versus concrete) and floor construction (solid versus slatted floors) and in factors associated with locomotion (slipping and slip marks). These results indicate that the aetiology of capped hock and bursitis might differ. PMID:17905453

  6. Bursitis of the heel

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD, Thompson SR eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ... by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, ...

  7. Tendinitis and Bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... American College of Rheumatology Committee on Communications and Marketing. This information is provided for general education only. ... Lists Supporters About Us Leadership Careers at ACR Social Media Newsroom Annual Reports & Financial Statements Policies & Guidelines ...

  8. Bursitis (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Licensed Materials from any location via the Internet. b. STANDALONE WORKSTATION: A standalone subscription permits multiple ... computer. A Standalone Workstation license does not include Internet access to the Licensed Materials. c. INSTITUTIONAL SUBSCRIPTION: ...

  9. Bursitis of the Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... following: Repeated overuse or stress of the hip Rheumatoid arthritis Gout Pseudogout Injury of the hip Infection with bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus (or a staph infection) Diabetes Spine problems, such as scoliosis Uneven leg lengths ...

  10. The Morel-Lavallée Lesion as a Rare Differential Diagnosis for Recalcitrant Bursitis of the Knee: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vanhegan, Ivor S.; Dala-Ali, B.; Verhelst, L.; Mallucci, P.; Haddad, Fares S.

    2012-01-01

    A 72 year-old-male was referred to our institution with recalcitrant prepatellar bursitis. The injury was sustained after striking his right knee against a post whilst horse riding 9 months ago. Previous treatments included repeated aspiration and excision of the bursa with elastic compression bandaging. A diagnosis of a Morel-Lavallée internal degloving injury was made, and the lesion was satisfactorily managed by an internal quilting procedure to eliminate the potential dead space. A review of the literature reveals 29 published reports of Morel-Lavallée lesions with sufficient information for inclusion. These came from 14 separate countries with a total of 204 lesions in 195 patients. The most common anatomical location was the greater trochanter/hip (36%), followed by the thigh (24%) and the pelvis (19%). Most were managed surgically with evacuation of the haematoma and necrotic tissue followed by debridement, which was often repeated (36%). Conservative treatment with percutaneous aspiration and compression bandaging was the next most common treatment (23%). The knee was the fourth most common region affected (16%), and only 3 other lesions in the literature have been managed with a quilting procedure. PMID:23320230

  11. Growing significance of myeloperoxidase in non-infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Aline; Leininger-Muller, Brigitte; Kutter, Dolphe; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis, Sophie

    2002-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a glycoprotein released by activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils, which takes part in the defense of the organism through production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent oxidant. Since the discovery of MPO deficiency, initially regarded as rare and restricted to patients suffering from severe infections, MPO has attracted clinical attention. The development of new technologies allowing screening for this defect has permitted new advances in the comprehension of underlying mechanisms. Apart from its implications for host defense, the expression of MPO restricted to myeloid precursors makes MPO mRNA a good marker of acute myeloid leukemia. In addition, during the last few years, involvement of MPO has been described in numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, lung cancer, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Both strong oxidative activity and MPO genetic polymorphism have been involved. This review summarizes the broad range of diseases involving MPO and points out the possible use of this protein as a new clinical marker and a future therapeutic target. PMID:11916266

  12. What Are Bursitis and Tendinitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... long-term cases. When ice is needed, an ice pack can be held on the affected area for 15 to 20 minutes every 4 to 6 hours for 3 to 5 days. A health care provider may suggest longer use of ice and a stretching program. Your health care provider ...

  13. What Are Bursitis and Tendinitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens to young people who play sports like basketball. The overuse of the muscles and force of ... jumping sports. Athletes who play football, tennis, and basketball can all be affected by Achilles tendinitis. An ...

  14. Active Hemovigilance Significantly Improves Reporting of Acute Non-infectious Adverse Reactions to Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2016-09-01

    One of the key purposes of a hemovigilance program is to improve reporting of transfusion related adverse events and subsequent data-driven improvement in blood transfusion (BT) practices. We conducted a study over 3 years to assess the impact of healthcare worker training and an active feedback programme on reporting of adverse reactions to BTs. All hospitalized patients who required a BT were included in the study. Healthcare workers involved in BT to patients were sensitized and trained in adverse reaction reporting by conducting training sessions and meetings. All the transfused patients were 'actively' monitored for any acute adverse reaction by using a uniquely coded blood issue form. A total of 18,914 blood components transfused to 5785 different patients resulted in 61 adverse reaction episodes. This incidence of 0.32 % in our study was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.005) than that reported from the same region in the past. Red blood cell units were the most frequently transfused component and thus most commonly involved in an adverse reaction (42.6 %), however apheresis platelets had the highest chance of reaction per unit transfused (0.66 %). There was no mortality associated with the BT during the study period. An active surveillance program significantly improves reporting and management of adverse reactions to BTs. PMID:27429527

  15. Depletion of the ozone layer: consequences for non-infectious human diseases.

    PubMed

    Bentham, G

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion threatens to increase exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation which is known to be a factor in a number of diseases. There is little doubt that cumulative exposure to UV radiation is important in the aetiology of non-melanoma skin cancers. Evidence is also strong for a link with cutaneous malignant melanoma, although here it appears to be intermittent intense exposure that is most damaging. More controversial is the view that exposure to solar radiation is a significant factor in ocular damage, particularly in the formation of cataracts. Earlier studies pointing to such an effect have been criticized and alternative aetiological hypotheses have been proposed. However, other studies do show an effect of UV exposure on cortical cataract. Concern is also growing that UV may be capable of activating viruses and have immunological effects that might exacerbate infectious disease. Very worrying is the possibility that UV exposure can activate the human immunodeficiency virus which might accelerate the onset AIDS. Any such health effects that have been observed in human populations are the result of exposure to existing, naturally occurring levels of UV radiation. There is, therefore, great concern about the possible exacerbation of these impacts as a result of increased exposure to UV radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. However, any assessment of the nature and scale of such impacts on human health has to deal with several major problems and these are the focus of this paper. There are uncertainties about recent trends in stratospheric ozone and problems in the prediction of future changes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8488070

  16. The Future Is Now: Biologics for Non-Infectious Pediatric Anterior Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Melissa A; Rabinovich, C Egla

    2015-08-01

    Anterior uveitis (AU), inflammation of the iris, choroid or ciliary body, can cause significant eye morbidity, including visual loss. In the pediatric age group, the most common underlying diagnosis for AU is juvenile idiopathic associated uveitis and idiopathic AU, which are the focus of this paper. AU is often resistant to medications such as topical corticosteroids and methotrexate. In the past 15 years, biologic agents (biologics) have transformed treatment. In this review, we discuss those in widespread use and those with more theoretical applications for anterior uveitis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (anti-TNFα) have been available the longest and are used widely to treat pediatric uveitis. The effects of anti-TNFα in children are described mostly in small retrospective case series. Together, the literature suggests that the majority of children treated with anti-TNFα achieve decreased uveitis activity and reduced corticosteroid burden. However, many will have disease flares even on treatment. Only a few small studies directly compare outcomes between alternate anti-TNFα (infliximab and adalimumab). The use of different uveitis grading systems, inclusion criteria, and outcome measures makes cross-study comparisons difficult. Whether the achievement and maintenance of inactive disease occurs more frequently with certain anti-TNFα remains controversial. Newer biologics that modulate the immune system differently (e.g., interfere with Th17 activation through IL-17a and IL-6 blockade, limit T lymphocyte costimulation, and deplete B lymphocytes), have shown promise for uveitis. Studies of these agents are small and include mostly adults. Additional biologics are also being explored to treat uveitis. With their advent, we are hopeful that outcomes will ultimately be improved for children with AU. With many biologics available, much work remains to identify the optimal inflammatory pathway to target in AU. PMID:25893479

  17. Nanomedicines for chronic non-infectious arthritis: The clinician’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy L.

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent chronic health conditions. However, despite recent advances in medical therapeutics, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop and test new drugs for RA and OA that selectively target inflamed joints thereby mitigating damage to healthy tissues. Conceivably, biocompatible, biodegradable, disease-modifying antirheumatic nanomedicines (DMARNs) could represent a promising therapeutic approach for RA and OA. To this end, the unique physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers coupled with pathophysiological characteristics of inflamed joints amplify bioavailability and bioactivity of DMARNs and promote their selective targeting to inflamed joints. This, in turn, minimizes the amount of drug required to control articular inflammation and circumvents collateral damage to healthy tissues. Thus, nanomedicine could provide selective control both in space and time of the inflammatory process in affected joints. However, bringing safe and efficacious DMARNs for RA and OA to the marketplace is challenging because regulatory agencies have no official definition of nanotechnology, and rules and definitions for nanomedicines are still being developed. Although existing toxicology tests may be adequate for most DMARNs, as new toxicity risks and adverse health effects derived from novel nanomaterials with intended use in humans are identified, additional toxicology tests would be required. Hence, we propose that detailed pre-clinical in vivo safety assessment of promising DMARNs leads for RA and OA, including risks to the general population, must be conducted before clinical trials begin. PMID:22640912

  18. Immunohistochemical Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus with Non-Infectious, Recombinant Viral Protein Antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes re-emerging disease outbreaks and abortion storms in mature cattle, sheep, and goats, and can cause 100% mortality in young animals. The spread of this exotic, insect transmitted virus is of particular concern because of its widely recognized potential for being...

  19. Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naive and Saliva-Immunized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choumet, Valerie; Attout, Tarik; Chartier, Loïc; Khun, Huot; Sautereau, Jean; Robbe-Vincent, Annie; Brey, Paul; Huerre, Michel; Bain, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected) and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. Methods Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. Results The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%). A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. Conclusion This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen transmission. PMID:23272060

  20. NON-INFECTIOUS INFLAMMATORY AND NEOPLASTIC DISORDERS OF THE MALE GENITALIA

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William B.; Nickel, Walter R.; Winer, Louis H.

    1964-01-01

    The cutaneous manifestations of the male external genitalia are difficult to diagnose. They may be associated with systemic disease (Reiter's disease, psoriatic arthritis, angiokeratoma corporis diffusum). In dealing with a lesion of this area that does not heal, adequate biopsy is advisable to rule out malignant disease (Bowen's disease, melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, Paget's disease, erythroplasia). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:14131400

  1. Posterior heel pain (retrocalcaneal bursitis, insertional and noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy).

    PubMed

    Aronow, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    The majority of patients with Achilles tendinopathy respond to nonoperative treatment. In patients with refractory symptoms, surgery can be considered. If paratenonitis is present, the paratenon is partially excised, and adhesions are released. Areas of symptomatic tendinosis are excised with repair of the residual defect in the Achilles tendon. An alternative for patients with tendinosis who are at increased risk for wound problems or who do not want a large open incision is percutaneous or endoscopic tenotomy. A symptomatic Haglund's deformity or inflamed retrocalcaneal bursa is excised. Augmentation of the Achilles tendon may be considered if debridement threatens the structural integrity of the tendon, in older patients, and in revision surgery. PMID:15555841

  2. Mycobacterium bovis hip bursitis in a lung transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Dan, J M; Crespo, M; Silveira, F P; Kaplan, R; Aslam, S

    2016-02-01

    We present a report of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium bovis infection in a lung transplant recipient. M. bovis is acquired predominantly by zoonotic transmission, particularly from consumption of unpasteurized foods. We discuss epidemiologic exposure, especially as relates to the Mexico-US border, clinical characteristics, resistance profile, and treatment. PMID:26671334

  3. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF DEEP GLUTEAL PAIN IN A FEMALE RUNNER WITH PELVIC INVOLVEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.; Garcia, Ashley; Rothschild, Carey E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gluteal injuries, proximal hamstring injuries, and pelvic floor disorders have been reported in the literature among runners. Some suggest that hip, pelvis, and/or groin injuries occur in 3.3% to 11.5% of long distance runners. The purpose of this case report is to describe the differential diagnosis and treatment approach for a patient presenting with combined hip and pelvic pain. Case description: A 45-year-old female distance runner was referred to physical therapy for proximal hamstring pain that had been present for several months. This pain limited her ability to tolerate sitting and caused her to cease running. Examination of the patient's lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower extremity led to the initial differential diagnosis of hamstring syndrome and ischiogluteal bursitis. The patient's primary symptoms improved during the initial four visits, which focused on education, pain management, trunk stabilization and gluteus maximus strengthening, however pelvic pain persisted. Further examination led to a secondary diagnosis of pelvic floor hypertonic disorder. Interventions to address the pelvic floor led to resolution of symptoms and return to running. Outcomes: Pain level on the Visual Analog Scale decreased from 7/10 to 1/10 over the course of treatment. The patient was able to return to full sport activity and improved sitting tolerance to greater then two hours without significant discomfort. Discussion: This case suggests the interdependence of lumbopelvic and lower extremity kinematics in complaints of hamstring, posterior thigh and pelvic floor disorders. This case highlights the importance of a thorough examination as well as the need to consider a regional interdependence of the pelvic floor and lower quarter when treating individuals with proximal hamstring pain. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24175132

  4. A universal next generation sequencing protocol to generate non-infectious barcoded cDNA libraries from high containment RNA viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several biosafety level (BSL)-3/4 pathogens are high consequence, single-stranded RNA viruses and their genomes, when introduced into permissive cells, are infectious. Moreover many of these viruses are Select Agents (SAs), and their genomes are also considered SAs. For this reason cDNAs and/or th...

  5. Exploiting viral cell-targeting abilities in a single polypeptide, non-infectious, recombinant vehicle for integrin-mediated DNA delivery and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Arís, A; Feliu, J X; Knight, A; Coutelle, C; Villaverde, A

    2000-06-20

    A recombinant, multifunctional protein has been designed for optimized, cell-targeted DNA delivery and gene expression in mammalian cells. This hybrid construct comprises a viral peptide ligand for integrin alpha(V)beta(3) binding, a DNA-condensing poly-L-lysine domain, and a complete, functional beta-galactosidase protein that serves simultaneously as purification tag and DNA-shielding agent. This recombinant protein is stable; it has been produced successfully in Escherichia coli and can be purified in a single step by affinity chromatography. At optimal molar ratios, mixtures of this vector and a luciferase-reporter plasmid form stable complexes that transfect cultured cells. After exposure to these cell-targeted complexes, steady levels of gene expression are observed for more than 3 days after transfection, representing between 20 and 40% of those achieved with untargeted, lipid-based DNA-condensing agents. The principle to include viral motifs for cell infection in single polypeptide recombinant proteins represents a promising approach towards the design of non-viral modular DNA transfer vectors that conserve the cell-target- ing specificity of native viruses and that do not need further processing after bioproduction in a recombinant host. PMID:10799995

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INFECTIOUS AND NON-INFECTIOUS SUB-POPULATIONS OF ENCEPHALITIZOON INTESTINALIS SPORES PURIFIED FROM IN VITRO CELL CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Encephalitizoon intestinalis spores were propagated in rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells and were purified using density gradient (Percoll [registered trademark]) centrifugation. Purified spores were enumeraged and aliquotted using flow cytometry with cell sorting for use...

  7. Neisseria mucosa bursitis. A rare cause of gas in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Linquist, P R; Linquist, J A

    1988-06-01

    A 24-year-old woman with shoulder pain had an expanding gas-containing radiolucency adjacent to the glenoid. She had been treated with prednisone intermittently for asthma. After unsuccessful attempts at percutaneous drainage, open exploration was performed with resection of a bursa containing gelatinous material and gas bubbles. The culture grew Neisseria mucosa, an organism that infrequently causes infections and is often categorized as nonpathogenic. This case illustrates that soft tissue gas accumulation is not always ominous but may be due to fastidious low virulence organisms. Appropriate surgical drainage and persistent microorganism cultures are required for definitive diagnosis and therapy. PMID:3370877

  8. Blood serum transferrin concentration in cattle in various physiological states, in veal calves fed different amounts of iron, and in cattle affected by infectious and non-infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Moser, M; Pfister, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Rehage, J; Blum, J W

    1994-08-01

    Transferrin (Tf) concentrations were determined in cattle in various physiological states, in energy-deficient (ketotic) cows, in situations of several acute and chronic infections, after endotoxin administration and in animals with bovine leucocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD). Tf concentrations varied between 1.5 and 8.5 g/l and in healthy animals were in the range of 2.0 and 6.6 g/l. Tf concentrations in adult animals were smaller than in young animals and increased in veal calves with iron deficiency above 8 g/l, resulting in a negative correlation between Hb and Tf. In veal calves total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and Tf concentration were rather closely correlated (r = 0.63). Chronic infectious diseases (such as paratuberculosis) were characterized by relatively low Tf levels (below 2 g/l), while during acute infections, after endotoxin-administration and during ketosis Tf concentrations were not changed. PMID:7863732

  9. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  10. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: gout (especially ...

  11. Knee pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or softening of the patella cartilage as ... knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in the ligaments, osteoarthritis of the ...

  12. Shoulder Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of many common problems. They include sprains, strains, dislocations, separations, tendinitis, bursitis, torn rotator cuffs, frozen shoulder, fractures and arthritis. Usually shoulder problems are treated ...

  13. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subjects. For DM patients, disease duration, glycemic control, and DM long-term complications were also examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders. The mean (SD) age for DM patients and non-diabetic controls were 53.3 (12.9) and 50.0 (13.1) years; 64.0 and 64.7 % of DM patients and controls were females, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of bursitis/tendonitis was higher in DM patients than among non-diabetics (59.0 % vs. 29.4 %, p<0.01). In multivariate analyses, DM patients had 2.47 (95 % CI 1.05, 5.84) the odds of having bursitis/tendonitis as compared to non-diabetics. Specifically, DM patients had a higher frequency of flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, and anserine bursitis than non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05). Among DM patients, multivariate analyses showed that those with bursitis/tendonitis were more likely to be female [OR (95 % CI) 4.55 (1.42, 14.55)] and have peripheral vascular disease [OR (95 % CI) 8.48 (1.71, 41.93)]. In conclusion, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were common in this population of Hispanics with DM. Among DM patients, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were more frequent in women and those with long-term complications such as peripheral vascular disease. PMID:24522480

  14. Sprains

    MedlinePlus

    ... JJ. Bursitis, tendinitis, and other periarticular disorders and sports medicine. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  15. Integrating Targeted MedlinePlus Health Prescriptions Into Clinic Practice Workflow

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Allergic Rhinitis; Asthma; Back Pain; Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy; Bursitis; Depression; Anxiety; Diabetes Mellitus; Esophageal Reflux; HIV Infections; Hyperlipidemia; Hypertension; Insomnia; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Obesity; Osteoporosis (Senile); Shoulder Pain; Sinusitis; Symptomatic Menopause; Urinary Incontinence; Urinary Tract Infection; Vaginitis

  16. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  17. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  18. Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bursitis and Tendinitis, Q&A Fibromyalgia, Q&A Gout, Q&A Juvenile Arthritis, Q&A Childhood Arthritis ( ... Many people also experience fatigue and sleep disturbances. Gout. A type of arthritis resulting from deposits of ...

  19. Shoulder Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... weak? Yes You may have a TORN ROTATOR CUFF or SHOULDER INSTABILITY. See your doctor. No *7. ... redness? Yes You may have BURSITIS or ROTATOR CUFF SYNDROME. Use an anti-inflammatory medicine, such as ...

  20. Elbow pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

  1. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

  2. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  3. Protect Your Tendons: Preventing the Pain of Tendinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Tendinitis You’ve probably heard of such sports injuries as tennis elbow or jumper’s knee. These are ... sports equipment. Q&A About Bursitis and Tendinitis Sports Injuries Knee Problems Tendinitis: NIH Health Information CONTACT US ...

  4. ARTHROSCOPY OF THE SCAPULOTHORACIC JOINT: CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Cohen, Moisés; Faloppa, Flávio

    2015-01-01

    Scapulothoracic arthroscopy is a procedure presenting restricted indications, for resecting free bodies, benign tumors, bursitis, and snaping scapula. The authors report four cases of scapulothoracic joint arthroscopy; in the first case, only a benign tumor (osteochondroma) could be visualized; in the second case, arthroscopic resection of an osteochondroma was found; in the third case, arthroscopic bursectomy due to scapulothoracic bursitis, and; in the fourth case, bursectomy and partial superomedial arthroscopic scapulectomy due to snaping scapula. PMID:27022519

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection of the subacromial bursa: an unusual complication following subacromial corticosteroid injection (a report of two cases)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sian A; Gurunaidu, Subramaniam; Pritchard, Mark G

    2014-01-01

    Subacromial corticosteroid injections are frequently used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in shoulder pain. Subacromial septic bursitis is a recognized but rare complication. There have been no reports of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections of the subacromial bursa after subacromial injections in the literature. We describe case reports of two patients who presented with subacromial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus septic bursitis following subacromial corticosteroid injections in the community and highlight the diagnostic and management challenges of this condition.

  6. The Role of Gender in Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ian YL; Popp, Nicholas A; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Uveitides can be due to non-infectious and infectious etiologies. It has been observed that there is a gender difference with a greater preponderance of non-infectious uveitis in women than in men. This review will describe both non-infectious and infectious uveitides and describes some of the current autoimmune mechanisms thought to be underlying the gender difference. It will specifically look at non-infectious uveitides with systemic involvement including juvenile idiopathic arthritis, spondyloarthopathies, sarcoidosis, Behçet’s disease, and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease and at uveitides without systemic involvement including sympathetic ophthalmia, birdshot chorioretinitis, and the white dot syndromes. Infectious uveitides like acute retinal necrosis, progressive outer retinal necrosis, and cytomegalovirus mediated uveitis will be mentioned. Different uveitides with female- or male- predominance are presented and discussed. PMID:26035764

  7. Rheumatoid and other diseases of the cervical interspinous bursae, and changes in the spinous processes.

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, E G

    1982-01-01

    Bursal spaces between the cervical interspinous processes were found at necropsy in 14 out of 27 "normal' adult necks, especially when the spines were close together. In this random series they were the seat of crystallopathic disease in 2 instances out of 14 cases. In spines from 9 cases of adult-onset rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid bursitis was seen in 2 and banal bursitis in 2. In juvenile-onset chronic arthritis inflammatory bursal changes of rheumatoid nature were found in 2 out of 5 cases, and are compared with the "normal'. A third case showed crystallopathic destruction. In one instance of adult RA very severe changes were seen, with destruction of the spinous processes, and this was associated with hypermobile segments dependent on discal destruction starting in the oncovertebral joints. An association is described between discal lesions, spinous erosion, enthesopathy, and interspinous bursitis. Images PMID:7114919

  8. Accuracy of musculoskeletal imaging for the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Sarah Louise; Koduri, Gouri; Hill, Catherine L; Wakefield, Richard J; Hutchings, Andrew; Loy, Clement; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the evidence for accuracy of imaging for diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Searches included MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed. Evaluations of diagnostic accuracy of imaging tests for PMR were eligible, excluding reports with <10 PMR cases. Two authors independently extracted study data and three authors assessed methodological quality using modified QUADAS-2 criteria. Results 26 studies of 2370 patients were evaluated: 10 ultrasound scanning studies; 6 MRI studies; 1 USS and MRI study; 7 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) studies; 1 plain radiography and 1 technetium scintigraphy study. In four ultrasound studies, subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis had sensitivity 80% (95% CI 55% to 93%) and specificity 68% (95% CI 60% to 75%), whereas bilateral subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis had sensitivity 66% (95% CI 43% to 87%) and specificity 89% (95% CI 66% to 97%). Sensitivity for ultrasound detection of trochanteric bursitis ranged from 21% to 100%. In four ultrasound studies reporting both subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis and glenohumeral synovitis, detection of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis was more accurate than that of glenohumeral synovitis (p=0.004). MRI and PET/CT revealed additional areas of inflammation in the spine and pelvis, including focal areas between the vertebrae and anterior to the hip joint, but the number of controls with inflammatory disease was inadequate for precise specificity estimates. Conclusions Subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis appears to be the most helpful ultrasound feature for PMR diagnosis, but interpretation is limited by study heterogeneity and methodological issues, including variability in blinding and potential bias due to case–control study designs. Recent MRI and PET/CT case–control studies, with blinded readers, yielded promising data requiring validation within a diagnostic cohort study. PMID:26535139

  9. A Proposed Staging Classification for Minimally Invasive Management of Haglund's Syndrome with Percutaneous and Endoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Syed, Turab Arshad; Perera, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Haglund's syndrome encompasses several different pathologies, including Haglund's deformity, insertional Achilles tendonopathy, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and superficial bursitis. Traditionally treated with open surgery, there is increasing interest in a more minimally invasive approach to this difficult region to reduce complications and improve the rate and ease of recovery. We review the evidence available for 2 of these techniques: the endoscopic calcaneoplasty and percutaneous Zadek's calcaneal osteotomy (also known as Keck and Kelly's osteotomy). The senior author's classification for management of the condition is presented as well as describing his operative technique for these procedures. PMID:27524710

  10. The management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Reid, Diane

    2016-03-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a common cause of lateral hip pain. Most cases respond to conservative treatments with a few refractory cases requiring surgical intervention. For many years, this condition was believed to be caused by trochanteric bursitis, with treatments targeting the bursitis. More recently gluteal tendinopathy/tears have been proposed as potential causes. Treatments are consequently developing to target these proposed pathologies. At present there is no defined treatment protocol for GTPS. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to evaluate the current evidence for the effectiveness of GTPS interventions, both conservative and surgical. PMID:26955229

  11. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Redmond, John M; Chen, Austin W; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    Patients who have lateral hip pain historically have been diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Although this strategy is effective for most patients, a substantial number of patients continue to have pain and functional limitations. Over the past decade, our understanding of disorders occurring in the peritrochanteric space has increased dramatically. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses trochanteric bursitis, external coxa saltans (ie, snapping hip), and abductor tendinopathy. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, examination findings, and imaging characteristics aids the clinician in treating these patients. Open and endoscopic treatment options are available for use when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. PMID:26990713

  12. 30 CFR 50.20-6 - Criteria-MSHA Form 7000-1, Section C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Examples: Noise-induced hearing loss; synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bursitis; Raynaud's phenomena; and... incapacitates an employee from following any gainful occupation or which results in the loss, or the complete loss of use, of any of the following in one accident injury or illness: (A) Both eyes; (B) One eye...

  13. 30 CFR 50.20-6 - Criteria-MSHA Form 7000-1, Section C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Examples: Noise-induced hearing loss; synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bursitis; Raynaud's phenomena; and... incapacitates an employee from following any gainful occupation or which results in the loss, or the complete loss of use, of any of the following in one accident injury or illness: (A) Both eyes; (B) One eye...

  14. 30 CFR 50.20-6 - Criteria-MSHA Form 7000-1, Section C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Examples: Noise-induced hearing loss; synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bursitis; Raynaud's phenomena; and... incapacitates an employee from following any gainful occupation or which results in the loss, or the complete loss of use, of any of the following in one accident injury or illness: (A) Both eyes; (B) One eye...

  15. Achilles Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  16. Reviewing bronchial asthma and its pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bardana, E J; Andrasch, R H

    1983-08-01

    Aspirin idiosyncrasy must be watched for, particularly in the elderly, where nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used for osteoarthritis, bursitis, and related musculoskeletal disorders. An electrocardiogram is advised to exclude or define underlying cardiac disease in elderly asthmatics. They may suffer cardiopulmonary reverses that invariably are perceived as acute asthma by the patient. PMID:6873636

  17. Mycobacterium marinum Infection After Exposure to Coal Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Huaman, Moises A.; Ribes, Julie A.; Lohr, Kristine M.; Evans, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum infection has been historically associated with exposure to aquariums, swimming pools, fish, or other marine fauna. We present a case of M marinum left wrist tenosynovitis and elbow bursitis associated with a puncture injury and exposure to coal mine water in Illinois. PMID:26835478

  18. Mycobacterium marinum Infection After Exposure to Coal Mine Water.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Moises A; Ribes, Julie A; Lohr, Kristine M; Evans, Martin E

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum infection has been historically associated with exposure to aquariums, swimming pools, fish, or other marine fauna. We present a case of M marinum left wrist tenosynovitis and elbow bursitis associated with a puncture injury and exposure to coal mine water in Illinois. PMID:26835478

  19. Lower Extremity Overuse Conditions Affecting Figure Skaters During Daily Training

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The

  20. Surgical Outcomes for Resection of the Dorsal Exostosis of the Metatarsocuneiform Joints.

    PubMed

    Bawa, Vaishnavi; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John P

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective case series testing the efficacy of surgical resection of the dorsal exostosis deformity of the metatarsocuneiform joints was performed. Surgery was performed in 26 consecutive patients (28 feet), in whom previous conservative therapy had failed. All 26 patients had bursitis at the level of the dorsal exostosis deformity. The patients were separated into 2 groups: group 1, those with bursitis and neuritis before surgery (n = 13; 46.4%), and group 2, those with bursitis without neuritis (n = 15; 53.5%). Both groups were evaluated using an 11-point visual analog scale administered preoperatively and ≤1 year postoperatively. The mean pain rating in the patients with neuritis and bursitis before surgery (7.31 ± 2.8) and in those with bursitis without neuritis (6.67 ± 3.4) had both decreased to 0 at 6 months and 1 year after surgery. After surgery, 7 patients (25.2%) experienced neuritis. Of these 7 patients, 4 (57.1%) had continuation of neuritis that was present before surgery and 3 (42.9%) had an onset of neuropraxia that was secondary to the surgery itself. This might have resulted from retraction of the nerves during spur removal. Eventually, all the cases of neuritis resolved. One patient (3.6%) experienced regrowth of their dorsal exostosis deformity, 1 (3.6%) developed an abscess at the surgical site, and 1 (3.6%) developed pain elsewhere at the Lisfranc joint. All patients were subsequently treated at our institution and were pain free and had returned to full activity within 1 year. These results suggest that resection of the dorsal exostosis deformity of the metatarsocuneiform joints is an effective surgical procedure for patients with this deformity. PMID:26872522

  1. Scleritis and Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Thorne, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    Scleritis and peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) can present as isolated conditions or as part of a systemic inflammatory or infectious disorder. Both are serious ocular conditions that can result in vision loss and therefore require early diagnosis and treatment. Nearly two-thirds of patients with non-infectious scleritis require systemic glucocorticoid therapy, and one fourth need a glucocorticoid-sparing agent, as well. Essentially all patients with non-infectious PUK require systemic glucocorticoids. Detailed clinical history, thorough physical examination, and thoughtful laboratory evaluations are all important in the exclusion of underlying disorders and extraocular involvement. PMID:18037120

  2. Psoralen Inactivation of Viruses: A Process for the Safe Manipulation of Viral Antigen and Nucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Katherine; Wronka-Edwards, Loni; Leggett-Embrey, Melissa; Walker, Eric; Sun, Peifang; Ondov, Brian; Wyman, Travis H.; Rosovitz, MJ; Bohn, Sherry S.; Burans, James; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    High consequence human pathogenic viruses must be handled at biosafety level 2, 3 or 4 and must be rendered non-infectious before they can be utilized for molecular or immunological applications at lower biosafety levels. Here we evaluate psoralen-inactivated Arena-, Bunya-, Corona-, Filo-, Flavi- and Orthomyxoviruses for their suitability as antigen in immunological processes and as template for reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. The method of virus inactivation using a psoralen molecule appears to have broad applicability to RNA viruses and to leave both the particle and RNA of the treated virus intact, while rendering the virus non-infectious. PMID:26569291

  3. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  4. [Cardinal symptoms of polydipsia/polyuria in birds].

    PubMed

    Korbel, R

    1990-02-01

    The relatively nonspecific symptom complex of polydipsia/polyuria can be based on a large number of causes either infectious or non-infectious in nature. These causes are listed and described in more detail. In addition, diagnostic methods and possible forms of therapy are discussed. PMID:2183389

  5. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  6. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. PMID:25577549

  7. Sensitization Sessions as the Foundation for Training Transformation Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, Sacha; Boulanger, Maude; Roy, Virginie; Rivard, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide rise in obesity makes this the first non-infectious epidemic in human history. The rapid increase is, in fact, influenced more by environment than biology. In an effort to halt the trend, Quebec has launched a major awareness-raising campaign that focuses on healthy environments and targets stakeholders in schools, municipalities,…

  8. Plant Disease Control by the Use of Chemicals. MP-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, William D.; Bridgmon, George H.

    This document has been prepared as a reference manual providing information regarding plant diseases. The text concerns itself with the identification and development of infectious and non-infectious diseases and associated control measures. An appendix includes a glossary of plant pathological terms and a bibliography. (CS)

  9. Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-10-01

    We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

  10. An extraction method for discrimination between infectious and inactive norovirus using RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are known to bind to human histo-blood group antigens, as well as to chemically-similar porcine gastric mucins. The binding ability of NoV to porcine mucin was assessed as a novel means of distinguishing non-infectious viral particles from potentially infectious viral parti...

  11. Mining Internet search and social media for epidemiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many pervasive and multifactorial disorders of modern non-communicable and non-infectious diseases (i.e. obesity, asthma, migraine, autism) need to be better understood and explored. The cost of these disorders to the healthcare system and the general public’s quality of life are...

  12. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... The hepatitis B vaccination is a non-infectious, vaccine prepared from recombinant yeast cultures, rather than human blood or plasma. There is no risk of contamination from other bloodborne pathogens nor is there any ... from the vaccine. The vaccine must be administered according to the ...

  13. Cholangiocarcinoma: new insights into disease pathogenesis and biology.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Chiara; Patel, Tushar

    2010-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas are rare malignant tumors whose incidence is increasing worldwide. Risk factors for this malignancy include both infectious and non-infectious diseases characterized by chronic inflammation of the bile duct epithelia. Diagnosis of these cancers remains difficult because of the lack of sensitive diagnostic tests. The prognosis is poor probably because of the lack of effective treatments for unresectable cancer. PMID:20937455

  14. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  15. Problem-Solving Skills among Precollege Students in Clinical Immunology and Microbiology: Classifying Strategies with a Rubric and Artificial Neural Network Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanowith-Klein, Susan; Stave, Mel; Stevens, Ron; Casillas, Adrian M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates methods for classifying problem solving strategies of high school students who studied infectious and non-infectious diseases by using a software system that can generate a picture of students' strategies in solving problems. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  16. Cardio metabolic and immunological impacts of extra virgin olive oil consumption in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Both aging and obesity are related to dysregulated immune function which may be responsible for increased risk of infection and also chronic non-infectious diseases. Dietary lipids have been shown to impact immune and inflammatory responses and cardio-metabolic risk factors. No informati...

  17. 38 CFR 4.115b - Ratings of the genitourinary system-diagnoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... predominant symptoms as renal dysfunction, hypertension or heart disease. If rated under the cardiovascular... all etiologies, infectious and non-infectious: Rate as voiding dysfunction. 7515Bladder, calculus in... removal of one testis as the result of a service-incurred injury or disease, other than an undescended...

  18. Femoral nerve palsy caused by a huge iliopectineal synovitis extending to the iliac fossa in a rheumatoid arthritis case.

    PubMed

    Tatsumura, Masaki; Mishima, Hajime; Shiina, Itsuo; Hara, Yuki; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ishii, Tomoo; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Ishii, Wataru; Sumida, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We report on a 54-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who had severe femoral nerve palsy affected by a distended synovium in the hip joint. Surgical exploration demonstrated a perforation of the iliopectineal bursa connecting with the hip joint. The patient fully recovered from femoral nerve palsy after surgery. It was considered that synovitis of the hip joint had developed following huge iliopectineal bursitis. PMID:18180875

  19. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  20. The ''hot'' patella

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, M.S.; Alazraki, N.P.; Feiglin, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Increased patellar uptake on bone scans is seen quite commonly but the possible or probable etiologies of this finding have not been previously well described. A review of 100 consecutive bone scans showed that the incidence of bilateral ''hot'' patellae is 15%. Identified etiologies include osteoarthritic degenerative disease (35%), fracture, possible metastatic disease, bursitis, Paget's disease, and osteomyelitis. The value of careful history, physical examination, and radiographs is stressed.

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Flege, Christian; Kopp, Rüdger; Böcker, Arne; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot; Simon, Tim-Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections may progress rapidly and take a fatal ending unless not treated in time. A 44-year old male patient without any pre-existing conditions got hospitalized with a bursitis ofthe right olecranon and unspecific general symptoms. Within a short period of time he became critically ill due this seemingly harmless infection. We describe our approach leading to the right diagnoses and the treatment of this unexpected progress. PMID:27022695

  2. Alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Bassily, Emmanuel; O'Dell, M Cody; Homan, Brad; Wasyliw, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    A 50-year-old woman with a chronic polyarthropathy was seen by her orthopedist for long-standing back and shoulder and worsening hip pain. A lateral labral tear and chronic trochanteric bursitis were diagnosed on hip magnetic resonance imaging, which was otherwise unremarkable. Hip arthroscopy was performed revealing an unusual bluish-tinged femoral head articular surface. Computed tomography scans of the spine were also obtained. PMID:27158826

  3. MedlinePlus Health Prescriptions: Developing a Pragmatic Approach for Clinic Use

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Acne Vulgaris; Allergic Rhinitis; Anxiety; Asthma; Back Pain; Prostatic Hyperplasia; Bursitis; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Cough; Coronary Artery Disease; Depression; Diabetes Mellitus; Diarrhea; Gastroesophageal Reflux; Fibromyalgia; Headache; HIV Infections; Hypothyroidism; Hyperlipidemia; Hypertension; Influenza; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Knee Pain; Migraine Disorders; Obesity; Obstructive Sleep Apnea; Osteoarthritis; Senile Osteoporosis; Colonoscopy; Mammography; Shoulder Pain; Sinusitis; Smoking Cessation; Tobacco Use Cessation; Menopause; Urinary Incontinence; Urinary Tract Infection; Vaccination; Vaginitis; Vertigo

  4. Markers for sepsis diagnosis in the forensic setting: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Palmiere, Cristian; Augsburger, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Reliable diagnoses of sepsis remain challenging in forensic pathology routine despite improved methods of sample collection and extensive biochemical and immunohistochemical investigations. Macroscopic findings may be elusive and have an infectious or non-infectious origin. Blood culture results can be difficult to interpret due to postmortem contamination or bacterial translocation. Lastly, peripheral and cardiac blood may be unavailable during autopsy. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 can be measured in biological fluids collected during autopsy and may be used as in clinical practice for diagnostic purposes. However, concentrations of these parameters may be increased due to etiologies other than bacterial infections, indicating that a combination of biomarkers could more effectively discriminate non-infectious from infectious inflammations. In this article, we propose a review of the literature pertaining to the diagnostic performance of classical and novel biomarkers of inflammation and bacterial infection in the forensic setting. PMID:24778096

  5. Targeting interleukin-6 for noninfectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Phoebe

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of many immune-mediated disorders including several types of non-infectious uveitis. These uveitic conditions include Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, uveitis associated with Behçet disease, and sarcoidosis. This review summarizes the role of IL-6 in immunity, highlighting its effect on Th17, Th1, and plasmablast differentiation. It reviews the downstream mediators activated in the process of IL-6 binding to its receptor complex. This review also summarizes the biologics targeting either IL-6 or the IL-6 receptor, including tocilizumab, sarilumab, sirukumab, olokizumab, clazakizumab, and siltuximab. The target, dosage, potential side effects, and potential uses of these biologics are summarized in this article based on the existing literature. In summary, anti-IL-6 therapy for non-infectious uveitis shows promise in terms of efficacy and side effect profile. PMID:26392750

  6. Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) and Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD).

    PubMed

    Uzzan, Mathieu; Ko, Huaibin M; Mehandru, Saurabh; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are two of the well-characterized primary immune deficiencies with distinct pathologic defects. While CVID is predominantly a disorder of the adaptive immune system, in CGD, innate immunity is impaired. In both syndromes, the clinical manifestations include an increased susceptibility to infections and a number of non-infectious, inflammatory conditions including systemic autoimmunity, as well as organ-specific pathology. Among the organ-associated disorders, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are one of the most intractable. As such, non-infectious inflammatory disorders of the GI tract are clinically challenging as they have protean manifestations, often resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or celiac disease, are notoriously difficult to treat, and hence are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessing the pathogenesis and defining appropriate therapeutic approaches for GI disease in patients with CVID and CGD is imperative. PMID:26951230

  7. Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) and Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    PubMed Central

    Uzzan, Mathieu; Ko, Huaibin M.; Mehandru, Saurabh; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) and Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) are two of the well-characterized primary immune defects with distinct pathologic defects. While CVID is predominantly a disorder of the adaptive immune system, in CGD, innate immunity is impaired. In both syndromes, the clinical manifestations include an increased susceptibility to infections and a number of non-infectious, inflammatory conditions including systemic autoimmunity, as well as organ-specific pathology. Among the organ-associated disorders, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are one of the most intractable. As such, non-infectious inflammatory disorders of the GI tract are clinically challenging as they have protean manifestations, often resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or celiac disease, are notoriously difficult to treat, and hence are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessing the pathogenesis, and defining appropriate therapeutic approaches for GI disease in patients with CVID and CGD is imperative. PMID:26951230

  8. Progress in the understanding and utilization of biologic response modifiers in the treatment of uveitis.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Arash; Meese, Halea; Sahawneh, Haitham; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Uveitis is the third most common cause of blindness in developed countries. Considering the systemic and local complications of long-term corticosteroid therapy and the intolerance due to side effects and ineffectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, use of biologic response modifiers is a reasonable alternative in the treatment of non-infectious uveitis and persistent uveitic macular edema. The majority of the evidence presented here comes from open uncontrolled analyses. Based on these studies, tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, especially infliximab and adalimumab, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of non-infectious uveitis in numerous studies. More research is necessary, particularly multi-center randomized clinical trials, to address the choice of biologic response modifier agent and the length of treatment as we employ biologic response modifiers in different types of uveitis and persistent uveitic macular edema. PMID:26972783

  9. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  10. Evaluation and differential diagnosis of marked, persistent eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rojelio; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    High grade eosinophilia in patients can be a diagnostic dilemma, as the etiologies are extensive and varied. Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) are a group of heterogeneous disorders, many of which remain ill-defined. By definition, HES must be distinguished from other disorders with persistently elevated eosinophilia with a defined cause. Although marked eosinophilia worldwide is most commonly caused by helminth (worm) infections, non-infectious causes must be sought including drug reactions, malignancies, and immunologic, inflammatory and allergic diseases. PMID:22449625

  11. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. PMID:25441463

  12. [Pyoderma gangrenosum associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Beber, André Avelino Costa; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Shons, Karen Regina Rosso; Neumaier, Walter; da Silva, João Carlos Nunes; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis, which is associated with non-infectious systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. It is more common in adults and may present with four distinct clinical forms, all leading to ulceration of the skin affected. Its diagnosis is clinical and demands exclusion of other causes. Treatment should be performed with local care and systemic therapy. PMID:25627229

  13. Subcutaneous emphysema of the hand caused by the suction drain -- a case report.

    PubMed

    Saray, A; Tellioglu, A T; Cimen, K; Karaeminogullari, G

    2004-08-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema of the hand can be related to non-infectious causes and most commonly high-pressure injection injuries. Surgical emphysema of the hand is rare. We report a case of surgical emphysema of the dorsum of the hand following the excision of a dorsal wrist ganglion when the inserted suction drain did not work properly, accompanied by the inadvertent compression of the patient's body. Conservative management was adequate; oedema and emphysema subsided in several days. PMID:15368154

  14. [Pyoderma gangrenosum after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fracture: A differential diagnosis to necrotizing fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; Merkel, P; Hungerer, S; Friederichs, J; Müller, N; Militz, M; Bühren, V

    2015-12-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare non-infectious neutrophilic dermatitis, whereas necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection of the fascia and adjacent skin. As in the case described here after intramedullary nailing, the clinical appearance of both diseases can be similar. Because of the completely different therapeutic approach and a worse outcome in the case of false diagnosis, pyoderma gangrenosum should always be taken into consideration before treating necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:25672810

  15. Commonly prescribed β-lactam antibiotics induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress in culture at physiologically relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Jennifer; Lajoie, Dawn; Hall, Jennifer; Whittimore, Judy; Schoborg, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response) when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other β-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (RB) (called aberrant bodies or AB) characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V, and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations. PMID:24783061

  16. Headache and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    La Mantia, L; Erbetta, A

    2004-10-01

    The subcommittee of the International Headache Society for headache classification (ICHD-II) has recently recognised that secondary headaches may occur in patients affected by inflammatory diseases (ID) of the central nervous system (CNS), classifying them among the headaches attributed to non-vascular intracranial disorders. The aim of the study was to verify the association between headache and inflammatory non-infectious diseases of the CNS, by a review of the literature data on the topic, integrated by personal cases and data. Secondary headaches may occur in four main disorders: neurosarcoidosis (sec 7.3.1), aseptic (non-infectious) meningitis (7.3.2), other non-infectious ID (7.3.3) and lymphocytic hypophysitis (7.3.4). Headache and/or primary headaches are frequently reported in patients with neurosarcoidosis (30%), Behcet's syndrome (BS) (55%) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (45-58%). Recent data show a high incidence of headache also in multiple sclerosis (MS) (58%) (not mentioned in ICHD-II). The association between headache and inflammatory dysimmune diseases of the CNS, in particular BS and MS, might suggest a pathogenetic relationship. PMID:15549526

  17. Frequency of sacroiliitis among patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Owlia, Mohammad Bagher; Danesh-Ardakani, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sacroiliitis is one of the important symptoms in patients attending infectious diseases and rheumatology clinics. Some patients with sacroiliitis are asymptomatic, and some have unspecific symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sacroiliitis causes among patients attending Shahid Sadoughi’s infectious disease and rheumatology clinics. Methods In this study, we evaluated patients attending Shahid Sadoughi rheumatology and infectious diseases clinic in 2014. Patients who had positive findings in favor of sacroiliitis were evaluated by history, physical exam, laboratory tests, and imaging. The patients were divided into infectious, inflammatory non-infectious, and degenerative causes. The data were analyzed by IBM SPSS version 20 using the independent samples t-test, ANOVA, the chi-squared test, and the Fisher’s exact test. Results We studied 136 patients. Among them 64 (47.1%) were male, and 72 (52.9%) were female. The mean age of the participants was 34.28 ± 10.36 years. Among the patients, 12 (8.8%) had infectious causes, 120 (88.2%) had inflammatory non-infectious causes, and four (2.9%) had degenerative causes. Conclusion Based on our results, inflammatory non-infectious causes are at the top of the list of sacroiliitis causes, but we should always consider infectious causes, including brucellosis. PMID:27123217

  18. Intraocular Implants for the Treatment of Autoimmune Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is the third leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Currently, the most widely used treatment of non-infectious uveitis is corticosteroids. Posterior uveitis and macular edema can be treated with intraocular injection of corticosteroids, however, this is problematic in chronic cases because of the need for repeat injections. Another option is systemic immunosuppressive therapies that have their own undesirable side effects. These systemic therapies result in a widespread suppression of the entire immune system, leaving the patient susceptible to infection. Therefore, an effective localized treatment option is preferred. With the recent advances in bioengineering, biodegradable polymers that allow for a slow sustained-release of a medication. These advances have culminated in drug delivery implants that are food and drug administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis. In this review, we discuss the types of ocular implants available and some of the polymers used, implants used for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis, and bioengineered alternatives that are on the horizon. PMID:26264035

  19. Propidium monoazide reverse transcriptase PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus.

    PubMed

    Karim, Mohammad R; Fout, G Shay; Johnson, Clifford H; White, Karen M; Parshionikar, Sandhya U

    2015-07-01

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the public health significance of positive findings are limited. In this study, PMA RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays were evaluated for selective detection of infectious poliovirus, murine norovirus (MNV-1), and Norwalk virus. Viruses were inactivated using heat, chlorine, and ultraviolet light (UV). Infectious and non-infectious viruses were treated with PMA before RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and heat and chlorine inactivated poliovirus. PMA RT-PCR was able to differentiate selectively between infectious and noninfectious murine norovirus only when inactivated by chlorine. However, PMA RT-PCR could not differentiate infectious Norwalk virus from virus particles rendered non-infectious by any treatment. PMA RT-PCR assay was not able to differentiate between infectious and UV inactivated viruses suggesting that viral capsid damage may be necessary for PMA to enter and bind to the viral genome. PMA RT-PCR on naked MNV-1 and Norwalk virus RNA suggest that PMA RT-PCR can be used to detect intact, potentially infectious MNV-1 and Norwalk viruses and can be used to exclude the detection of free viral RNA by PCR assay. PMID:25796356

  20. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences. PMID:26987739

  1. Is entheses ultrasound reliable? A reading Latin American exercise.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Ríos, L; Navarro-Compan, V; Aliste, M; Linares, M Alva; Areny, R; Audisio, M; Bertoli, A M; Cazenave, T; Cerón, C; Díaz, M E; Gutiérrez, M; Hernández, C; Navarta, D A; Pineda, C; Py, G E; Reginato, A M; Rosa, J; Saaibi, D L; Sedano, O; Solano, C; Castillo-Gallego, C; Falçao, S; De Miguel, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate inter-reader entheses ultrasound (US) reliability and the influence of the type of image or degree of sonographer experience on US reliability in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Eighteen Latin American ultrasonographers with different experience took part in an US reading exercise evaluating 60 entheseal images (50 % static images and 50 % videos) from healthy controls and SpA patients. The following sonographic lesions were assessed: structure, thickness, bone proliferation/tendon calcification, erosions, bursitis, and Doppler signal. Another group of three experts with significant experience in entheses US read all images too. Inter-reader reliability among participants and experts was calculated by the Cohen's kappa coefficient. Thresholds for kappa values were <0.2 poor, 0.21-0.4 fair, 0.41-0.6 moderate, 0.61-0.8 good, and 0.81-1 excellent. Furthermore, the results for the expert group were stratified based on the type of image. Kappa correlation coefficients among participants, showed variability depending on the type of lesion, being fair for structure and thickness, moderate for calcifications, erosions, and bursitis, and excellent for Doppler signal. Inter-reader reliability among experts was higher, being moderate for structure and thickness, good for calcifications and bursitis, and excellent for erosions and Doppler. Inter-reader reliability for assessing calcification and structure using static images was significantly higher than for videos. Overall inter-reader reliability for assessing entheses by US in SpA is moderate to excellent for most of the lesions. However, special training seems fundamental to achieve better inter-reader reliability. Moreover, the type of image influenced these results, where evaluation of entheses by videos was more difficult than by static images. PMID:26198586

  2. The lumbar interspinous bursae and Baastrup's syndrome. An autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Bywaters, E G; Evans, S

    1982-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, distribution, pathology and pathogenesis of lumbar interspinous bursitis (described as a clinical syndrome by Baastrup in 1933). It is based on an anatomic study of 152 lumbar spines derived from routine and random postmortem material, together with selected specimens from autopsies on patients with various rheumatic diseases. From a statistical study of 50 randomly chosen spines, bursae are found when the interspinous distance is small compared with the total height of the lumbar spine ('bursal index'): nearly all bursal spaces show some sign of inflammation and a few show severe bony erosion. Crystal deposits therein are also described. PMID:7178764

  3. Snapping scapula syndrome: current concepts review in conservative and surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Cerciello, Simone; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Summary The snapping scapula, also called “washboard syndrome” is a controversial condition attributed to bony and soft tissue abnormalities. The syndrome was understimated for long time and often associated only with specific osseous abnormalities. The nodal point in the overview of the syndrome is that crepitus associated with symptomatic bursitis may be physiologic and is not uncommon a clinical presentation without any form of crepitus or craquement. In the current rewiew we analyzed the current concepts in the conservative and surgical management of snapping scapula syndrome, preceded by a description of scapular anatomy, pathophysiology of scapulothoracic articulation and clinical features of snapping scapula. PMID:23888290

  4. Clinical anatomy of the ankle and foot.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Canoso, Juan J; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Vargas, Angélica; Kalish, Robert A

    This paper emphasizes the anatomical substrate of several foot conditions that are seldom discussed in this context. These include the insertional and non-insertional Achilles tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, inferior and posterior heel spurs, foot compartment syndromes, intermetatarsal bursitis and Morton's neuroma. It is a rather superficial anatomical review of an organ that remains largely neglected by rheumatologists. It is our hope that the cases discussed and the cross examination by instructors and participants will stimulate study of the foot and the attention it deserves. PMID:23228530

  5. Imaging of soft tissue lesions of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W; Peterson, Jeffrey J; Kransdorf, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions of the foot can be narrowed with imaging. The cystic nature of ganglia, synovial cysts, and bursitis can be confirmed with MR imaging or sonography. Location and signal characteristics of noncystic lesions can suggest Morton's neuroma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and plantar fibromatosis. Synovial-based lesions of the foot and ankle can be differentiated based on presence or absence of mineralization, lesion density, signal intensity, and enhancement pattern. Knowledge of the incidence of specific neoplasms of the foot and ankle based on patient age aids in providing a limited differential diagnosis. PMID:19038615

  6. Radiology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Wallace, Roxanne; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Hip and groin pain are a common complaint among athletes of all ages, and may result from an acute injury or from chronic, repetitive trauma. Hip injuries can be intraarticular, extraarticular, or both. Labral abnormalities may occur in asymptomatic patients as well as in those with incapacitating symptoms and signs. Athletic hip injury leading to disabling intraarticular hip pain most commonly involves labral tear. The extraarticular causes are usually the result of overuse activity, leading to inflammation, tendonitis, or bursitis. In clinical practice, the term athletic pubalgia is used to describe exertional pubic or groin pain. PMID:21419955

  7. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  8. Glucocorticoids for Management of Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Eric L; Buttgereit, Frank; Dejaco, Christian; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) is based on typical clinical, histologic, and laboratory features. Ultrasonographic imaging in PMR with assessment especially of subdeltoid bursitis can aid in diagnosis and in following response to treatment. In GCA, diagnosis and disease activity are supported with ultrasonographic, MRI, or [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET evaluation of large vessels. Glucocorticoids are the primary therapy for PMR and GCA. Methotrexate may be used in patients at high risk for glucocorticoid adverse effects and patients with frequent relapse or needing protracted therapy. Other therapeutic approaches including interleukin 6 antagonists are under evaluation. PMID:26611552

  9. [Calcium pyrophosphate deposits--a chameleon].

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Ch

    2002-10-01

    Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate (CPPD) crystals deposit in articular fibro- or hyaline cartilage (chondrocalcinosis), joint capsules, synovium, periarticular ligaments and tendons resulting in an age dependent prevalence. These calcifications may be asymptomatic or may manifest as acute pseudogout arthritis, pseudorheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, tenosynovitis, tendinitis, polymyalgic syndrome or chronic pyrophosphate arthropathy. The diagnosis is based on the presence of intracellular CPPD crystals in synovial fluid detected by polarizing microscopy, the characteristic radiological changes and the typical clinical presentations. The therapy is symptom oriented or disease specific in case of an underlying metabolic disease such as hemochromatosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypophosphatasia, hypomagnesemia or hypothyroidism. PMID:12428437

  10. Heel pain due to psoriatic arthritis in a 50 year old recreational male athlete: case report

    PubMed Central

    Yedon, Dominique Forand; Howitt, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Heel pain is a common presentation in a sports injury practice, with a list of common differentials including achilles tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis. However, seronegative arthritis can also cause enthesopathies that produce heel pain and should be considered in a differential diagnosis list. In this case, a 50 year old recreationally active male presented with non-traumatic insidious heel pain and without history of any skin conditions or any other symptoms of seronegative spondyloarthritis. Clinical suspicion led to laboratory testing and radiographs/bone scan which yielded the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:22131565

  11. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  12. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm.

  13. Rice Body Formation Within a Peri-Articular Shoulder Mass.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; Caram, Anthony; Flores, Miguel; Scherer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Most commonly associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, rice bodies represent an uncommon, nonspecific, often intra-articular inflammatory process. Presumably, rice bodies represent the sequelae of microvascular infarcts of the joint synovium. However, rice bodies have been seen in pleural fluid, in the setting of bursitis, and within the tendon sheath. The etiology and prognostic significance of rice bodies are not clear. MRI is the diagnostic imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of rice body formation. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who presented to her primary care physician with a palpable mass around her right shoulder which was presumed to be a lipoma. An initial ultrasound showed a fluid filled structure with internal debris. Subsequent MRI evaluation was confirmatory for subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis with rice body formation. The salient point of this report is to highlight the importance of patient-specific differential diagnosis. While lipomas are a very common benign soft tissue tumor, patients with RA often have disease-specific sequelae that should be included in the diagnostic deliberation. Thus, when ordering diagnostic testing for patients with a palpable mass and rheumatoid arthritis, MRI--possibly preceded by conventional radiography--is the most appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:27625904

  14. A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study of the effect of a customized wheelchair cushion on clinical variables, satisfaction, and functionality among patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Aranguren, Rodrigo; Gayol-Mérida, Diana; Quinzaños-Fresnedo, Jimena; Pérez-Zavala, Ramiro; Galíndez-Novoa, Carmen

    2015-02-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Rehabilitation National Institute) (INR) developed a prototype wheelchair cushion (INR cushion) designed to adjust to the anthropometry of the user's ischiogluteal area and prevent pressure ulcer formation while maintaining or promoting functionality. A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study was conducted from February 2010 to February 2011 to evaluate the effect of using the INR cushion on clinical variables, functionality, and user satisfaction. Sixteen patients were recruited (9 male, 7 female, average age 31.8 [range 22-47] years, average body mass index 25 [range 22-34], average time in a wheelchair 10.1 [range 3-26] years) who met the study protocol inclusion criteria of being pressure ulcer-free for at least 6 months and capable of propulsion and transfer without assistance, chronic spinal cord injury (>2 years), and without chronic-degenerative diseases or cognitive problems. Each participant received the cushion for a 2-month evaluation. Eight clinical variables were assessed: trunk control, posture, spasticity, transfer capacity, comfort, skin reaction, propulsion capacity, and pressure release capacity. The clinical assessment was performed using validated scales and instruments: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Functional Independence Measure™ (FIM), Norton Scale, and assessment of skin reaction. Interface pressures were measured using force sensing array, and participants completed a structured interview to assess user expectation, perceived functionality, perceived quality, and likelihood of recommending the device. Two patients withdrew due to appointment conflicts; of the remaining 14, significant differences between the user's experience with other products and the INR were found with regard to pressure redistribution (P = 0.012); all participants but 1 graded the INR as good in all interview categories. No participants developed a pressure ulcer during the study. The customized cushion was

  15. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, Derrick E.; Matthias, Michael A.; Adhikarla, Haritha; Adler, Ben; Amorim-Santos, Luciane; Berg, Douglas E.; Bulach, Dieter; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Chang, Yung-Fu; Galloway, Renee L.; Haake, David A.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Ko, Albert I.; Levett, Paul N.; Matsunaga, James; Mechaly, Ariel E.; Monk, Jonathan M.; Nascimento, Ana L. T.; Nelson, Karen E.; Palsson, Bernhard; Peacock, Sharon J.; Picardeau, Mathieu; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Thaipandungpanit, Janjira; Wunder, Elsio A.; Yang, X. Frank; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1) the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2) genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12) autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3) CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade’s refractoriness to gene targeting; 4) finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5) novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM) (PF07598 paralogs) proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6) discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7) and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic

  16. Evidence of Experimental Vertical Transmission of Emerging Novel ECSA Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ankita; Dash, Paban Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Gopalan, Natarajan; Rao, Putcha Venkata Lakshmana; Parida, Man Mohan; Reiter, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has emerged as one of the most important arboviruses of public health significance in the past decade. The virus is mainly maintained through human-mosquito-human cycle. Other routes of transmission and the mechanism of maintenance of the virus in nature are not clearly known. Vertical transmission may be a mechanism of sustaining the virus during inter-epidemic periods. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine whether Aedes aegypti, a principal vector, is capable of vertically transmitting CHIKV or not. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Ae. aegypti were orally infected with a novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in the 2nd gonotrophic cycle. On day 10 post infection, a non-infectious blood meal was provided to obtain another cycle of eggs. Larvae and adults developed from the eggs obtained following both infectious and non-infectious blood meal were tested for the presence of CHIKV specific RNA through real time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the larvae and adults developed from eggs derived from the infectious blood meal (2nd gonotrophic cycle) were negative for CHIKV RNA. However, the larvae and adults developed after subsequent non-infectious blood meal (3rd gonotrophic cycle) were positive with minimum filial infection rates of 28.2 (1∶35.5) and 20.2 (1∶49.5) respectively. Conclusion/Significance This study is the first to confirm experimental vertical transmission of emerging novel ECSA genotype of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti from India, indicating the possibilities of occurrence of this phenomenon in nature. This evidence may have important consequence for survival of CHIKV during adverse climatic conditions and inter-epidemic periods. PMID:25080107

  17. Immunogenicity of targeted lentivectors

    PubMed Central

    Goyvaerts, Cleo; Kurt, De Groeve; Lint, Sandra Van; Heirman, Carlo; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; De Baetselier, Patrick; Raes, Geert; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2014-01-01

    To increase the safety and possibly efficacy of HIV-1 derived lentivectors (LVs) as an anti-cancer vaccine, we recently developed the Nanobody (Nb) display technology to target LVs to antigen presenting cells (APCs). In this study, we extend these data with exclusive targeting of LVs to conventional dendritic cells (DCs), which are believed to be the main cross-presenting APCs for the induction of a TH1-conducted antitumor immune response. The immunogenicity of these DC-subtype targeted LVs was compared to that of broad tropism, general APC-targeted and non-infectious LVs. Intranodal immunization with ovalbumin encoding LVs induced proliferation of antigen specific CD4+ T cells, irrespective of the LVs' targeting ability. However, the cytokine secretion profile of the restimulated CD4+ T cells demonstrated that general APC targeting induced a similar TH1-profile as the broad tropism LVs while transduction of conventional DCs alone induced a similar and less potent TH1 profile as the non-infectious LVs. This observation contradicts the hypothesis that conventional DCs are the most important APCs and suggests that the activation of other APCs is also meaningful. Despite these differences, all targeted LVs were able to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes, be it to a lesser extent than broad tropism LVs. Furthermore this induction was shown to be dependent on type I interferon for the targeted and non-infectious LVs, but not for broad tropism LVs. Finally we demonstrated that the APC-targeted LVs were as potent in therapy as broad tropism LVs and as such deliver on their promise as safer and efficacious LV-based vaccines. PMID:24519916

  18. TNF-α antagonists beyond approved indications: stories of success and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Karampetsou, M P; Liossis, S-N C; Sfikakis, P P

    2010-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a key molecule of the inflammatory response and data derived from studies in experimental animal models and humans suggest that TNF-α may be implicated in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune and non-infectious inflammatory conditions. Over the past decade pharmaceutical agents directed against TNF-α (infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept) have been widely and successfully employed for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease, whereas two novel anti-TNF-α agents, golimumab and certolimumab pegol, recently entered the market for the treatment of RA, AS, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. Encouraged by the positive results obtained from the use of TNF-α antagonists in terms of efficacy and safety and due to the increasingly accumulating evidence regarding the implication of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders, anti-TNF-α agents have been considered for the management of diseases other than the ones they were initially approved for. Although in the case of multiple sclerosis and chronic heart failure the outcome from the administration of TNF-α blockers had been less than favourable, in other cases of non-infectious inflammatory conditions the response to TNF-α inhibition had been fairly beneficial. More specifically, according to well-documented clinical trials, anti-TNF-α agents exhibited favourable results in Behçet's disease, non-infectious ocular inflammation, pyoderma gangrenosum and hidradenitis suppurativa. In this review we discuss the successful outcomes as well as the prospects for the future from the off-label use of TNF-α antagonists. PMID:20802008

  19. What Makes a Bacterial Species Pathogenic?:Comparative Genomic Analysis of the Genus Leptospira.

    PubMed

    Fouts, Derrick E; Matthias, Michael A; Adhikarla, Haritha; Adler, Ben; Amorim-Santos, Luciane; Berg, Douglas E; Bulach, Dieter; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Chang, Yung-Fu; Galloway, Renee L; Haake, David A; Haft, Daniel H; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Ko, Albert I; Levett, Paul N; Matsunaga, James; Mechaly, Ariel E; Monk, Jonathan M; Nascimento, Ana L T; Nelson, Karen E; Palsson, Bernhard; Peacock, Sharon J; Picardeau, Mathieu; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Thaipandungpanit, Janjira; Wunder, Elsio A; Yang, X Frank; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. While whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic Leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious Leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. Infectious Leptospira, comprised of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira, evolutionarily diverged from non-infectious, saprophytic Leptospira, as demonstrated by the following computational biology analyses: 1) the definitive taxonomy and evolutionary relatedness among all known Leptospira species; 2) genomically-predicted metabolic reconstructions that indicate novel adaptation of infectious Leptospira to mammals, including sialic acid biosynthesis, pathogen-specific porphyrin metabolism and the first-time demonstration of cobalamin (B12) autotrophy as a bacterial virulence factor; 3) CRISPR/Cas systems demonstrated only to be present in pathogenic Leptospira, suggesting a potential mechanism for this clade's refractoriness to gene targeting; 4) finding Leptospira pathogen-specific specialized protein secretion systems; 5) novel virulence-related genes/gene families such as the Virulence Modifying (VM) (PF07598 paralogs) proteins and pathogen-specific adhesins; 6) discovery of novel, pathogen-specific protein modification and secretion mechanisms including unique lipoprotein signal peptide motifs, Sec-independent twin arginine protein secretion motifs, and the absence of certain canonical signal recognition particle proteins from all Leptospira; and 7) and demonstration of infectious Leptospira-specific signal-responsive gene expression, motility and chemotaxis systems. By identifying large scale changes in infectious (pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic

  20. Effect of mild heat stress and mild infection pressure on immune responses to an E. coli infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Norup, L R; Jensen, K H; Jørgensen, E; Sørensen, P; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2008-02-01

    Outdoor or organic farming demands robust chickens that are able to combat common infections before they spread to the flock. Priming the immune system of the chickens early in life with micro-organisms that they will encounter later in life prepares chickens to a life in environments where they are subjected to a more natural level of infection pressure. Also, exposure to non-infectious stressful situations may prepare the immune system to combat infectious challenges. The present study investigated whether the immune system could be primed by applying small doses of infective material to the chicken flock or by exposure to short-term non-infectious stimulation, and whether the effect of those stimuli would depend on the genetic material chosen. The effect of the stimulations was examined on selected immunological variables in two chicken strains, using small amounts of manure and litter from other chickens or short-term heat stress, respectively. After 6 weeks of treatment, all chickens were subjected to an Escherichia coli infection and followed for another 3 weeks. Measures of body weight gain, chicken mannan-binding lectin (cMBL), percentage of CD4+ and MHCII+ lymphocytes, mean fluorescence intensity (m.f.i.) of CD4 on CD4+ cells and MHCII on MHCII+ cells and antibody titres to E. coli were taken. In conclusion, the chickens redistribute lymphocyte populations in peripheral blood in response to potentially infectious agents as well as to stressful non-infectious treatments. Responses to stress situations were dependent on the frequencies of stress exposures and on the chicken breed. This may reflect the superiority of one breed over another in adapting to treatments or in discriminating whether a treatment is harmless or dangerous. However, the differences did not influence the disease resistance to infection with a mixture of E. coli O2, O11 and O78 in the present study. PMID:22445020

  1. Testing fungistatic properties of soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzhu, Hu; Nesterenko, Elena; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, Vladimir; Gurevich, Yu.; Kozlov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Serge; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu; Enzhu, Hu

    There are two ways of getting vegetable food in BLSS: in hydroponic culture and on soil substrates. In any case there is a chance that the plants will be affected by plant pathogenic microorganisms. The subject of the research was a soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). We estimated the fungistatic properties of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris and Alternaria plant pathogenic fungi. Experiments were made with the samples of SLS, natural soil and sand (as control). We tested 2 samples of SLS produced by way of bioconversion of wheat and rice straw. We measured the disease severity of wheat seedlings and the incidence of common root rot in natural (non-infectious) background and man-made (infectious) conditions. The severity of disease on the SLS was considerably smaller both in non-infectious and infectious background conditions (8 and 12%) than on the natural soil (18 and 32%) and sand. It was the soil-like substrate that had the minimal value among the variants being compared (20% in non-infectious and 40% in infectious background conditions). This index in respect of the soil was 55 and 78%, correspondingly, and in respect of the sand - 60%, regardless of the background. It was found that SLS significantly suppressed conidia germination of Bipolaris soroikiniana (p<0.001). In the presence of SLS germination of conidia decreased to 9.9 - 12.2% of the control value. No significant differences were found between SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw.

  2. Fumaric acid esters in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are substances of interest in dermatology. FAE exert various activities on cutaneous cells and cytokine networks. So far only a mixture of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and three salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) have gained approval for the oral treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis in Germany. DMF seems to be the major active component. There is evidence that FAE are not only effective and safe in psoriasis but granulomatous non-infectious diseases like granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica and sarcoidosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest some activity in malignant melanoma as well. PMID:23130241

  3. Tracheobronchitis in a Patient With Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Vincent; Govind, Anusha G.; Arastu, Sanaa

    2016-01-01

    We report a 63-year-old woman who presented with 1 month of non-productive cough and non-bloody diarrhea. She was on maintenance therapy for a 15-year history of Crohn's disease. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of both her diarrhea and respiratory symptoms. Our patient is unique in that she presented with tracheobronchitis during an acute flare of her Crohn's without obvious lung pathology on chest imaging. Tracheobronchitis is a rare manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease that should be considered in Crohn's disease patients presenting with persistent non-infectious cough. PMID:27144198

  4. Particle Tracking of Fluorescent Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Zofia; Mueller, Joachim; Berk, Serkan

    2010-10-01

    In this research, the diffusion coefficients of the fluorescent microspheres and the relation of those coefficients to particle radius were investigated. An additional focus was to see how well the measured radius of the microspheres compared to the radius as reported by the manufacturer and to measure the distribution of radii in a sample. This study further developed the critical process of ensuring particle movement within the sample volume and made preliminary sample measurements.The methods developed for tracking microspheres will later be used to determine the radii of virus like particles (VLPs), which are a non-infectious model system of the HIV virus. Results from our measurements will be reported.

  5. Bell's palsy following primary tooth extraction. A case report.

    PubMed

    Owsley, David; Goldsmith, Jay P

    2012-04-01

    Bell's palsy is characterized by acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Unilateral paralysis of CN 7 is reported in 20 to 30 people out of 100,000 in the general population. It affects individuals of all ages. Most cases are idiopathic, while a few are identified as resulting from infectious or non-infectious causes. The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Bell's palsy has been considered since the 1970s. Few cases have been reported after tooth extraction. PMID:22803274

  6. Atypical presentation of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to CASP10 mutation.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Serena Ilaria; Mazza, Cinzia; Moratto, Daniele; Ramenghi, Ugo; Caorsi, Roberta; Gattorno, Marco; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Herein we describe the case of a 8-years-old boy with diagnosis of atypical autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), carrying heterozygous mutation of CASP10 gene (I406L). He presented with multiple non-invasive infections of the skin, that were associated to chronic non-malignant non-infectious lymphadenopathy, failure to thrive, weakness, arthralgia, relapsing oral aftosis, and expansion of TCRαβ(+) CD4(-)/CD8(-) T cells. This observation suggests that cutaneous infections can be observed in ALPS patients carrying CASP10 mutations. PMID:27378136

  7. Influence of laser radiation on some integrative indications of sympathetic-adrenal system activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronchenkova, G. F.; Chesnokova, N. P.

    2002-07-01

    One of the goals of this experimental research is elucidation of the influence of laser radiation on the functional state of the sympathetic-adrenal system of a microorganism, which to a large extent defines the intensity of an inflammatory reaction development, and in particular regeneration and repair process in the zone of post traumatic influence of infectious and non-infectious pathogen factors. We have also studied the alteration of adrenaline and noradrenaline content in the wound itself in the dynamics of regeneration.

  8. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  9. Testicular infarction and rupture: an uncommon complication of epididymo-orchitis

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Daniel; Penkoff, Peter; Stanowski, Matthew; Beattie, Kieran; Wang, Audrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Epididymo-orchitis is a common diagnosis in men presenting with unilateral testicular pain. It can be of an infectious or non-infectious aetiology. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations do not reliably differentiate testicular infarction secondary to epididymo-orchitis from uncomplicated epididymo-orchitis. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and under-treatment can lead to poor outcome, such as infarction and loss of the affected testis. We present an uncommon case of epididymo-orchitis resulting in testicular infarction and rupture despite normal initial investigations. PMID:27165751

  10. Ultrasound-Targeted Retroviral Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Sarah L.; Rahim, Ahad A.; Bush, Nigel L.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Porter, Colin D.

    2007-05-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of focused ultrasound to target retroviral gene delivery. Key to our experiments was the use of non-infectious virus particles lacking the envelope protein required for receptor-mediated entry. The novelty of our approach is that spatial control at a distance is exerted upon viral delivery by subsequent exposure to ultrasound, leading to stable gene delivery. The technology is ideally suited to controlling gene delivery in vivo following systemic vector administration. Our data provide a solution to the critical issue of obtaining tissue specificity with retroviral vectors and impart stability of expression to ultrasound-mediated gene delivery.

  11. Gender Disparities in Ocular Inflammatory Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Hatice Nida; Davis, Janet; Ucar, Didar; Fox, Austin; Chan, Chi Chao; Goldstein, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular inflammatory disorders disproportionately affect women, and the majority of affected women are of childbearing age. The role of sex or reproductive hormones has been proposed in many other inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, and findings from non-ocular autoimmune diseases suggest a complex interaction between sex hormones, genetic factors and the immune system. However, despite the age and sex bias, factors that influence this disparity are complicated and unclear. This review aims to evaluate the gender disparities in prevalence, incidence and severity of the most common infectious and non-infectious ocular inflammatory disorders. PMID:24987987

  12. Algorithmic approach in the diagnosis of uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Rathinam, S R; Babu, Manohar

    2013-01-01

    Uveitis is caused by disorders of diverse etiologies including wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious causes. Often clinical signs are less specific and shared by different diseases. On several occasions, uveitis represents diseases that are developing elsewhere in the body and ocular signs may be the first evidence of such systemic diseases. Uveitis specialists need to have a thorough knowledge of all entities and their work up has to be systematic and complete including systemic and ocular examinations. Creating an algorithmic approach on critical steps to be taken would help the ophthalmologist in arriving at the etiological diagnosis. PMID:23803476

  13. Is Minocycline an Antiviral Agent? A Review of Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Nagarakanti, Sandhya; Bishburg, Eliahu

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline is a second-generation semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has well-known anti-bacterial effects. The drug possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects. The drug is widely used in bacterial infections and non-infectious conditions such as acne, dermatitis, periodontitis and neurodegenerative conditions. Minocycline was shown to have antiviral activity in vitro and also against different viruses in some animal models. Some studies have been done on human patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We have review the available data regarding minocycline activity as an antiviral agent. PMID:26177421

  14. Osteomyelitis Pubis: A Rare and Elusive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yax, Justin; Cheng, David

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis pubis is an infectious inflammation of the symphysis pubis and accounts for 2% of hematogenous osteomyelitis. This differs from osteitis pubis, a non-infectious inflammation of the pubic symphysis, generally caused by shear forces in young athletes. Both conditions present with similar symptoms and are usually differentiated on the basis of biopsy and/or culture. A case of osteomyelitis pubis is presented with a discussion of symphisis pubis anatomy, clinical and laboratory presentation, etiology and risk factors, and optimal imaging studies. PMID:25493141

  15. Osteomyelitis pubis: a rare and elusive diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yax, Justin; Cheng, David

    2014-11-01

    Osteomyelitis pubis is an infectious inflammation of the symphysis pubis and accounts for 2% of hematogenous osteomyelitis. This differs from osteitis pubis, a non-infectious inflammation of the pubic symphysis, generally caused by shear forces in young athletes. Both conditions present with similar symptoms and are usually differentiated on the basis of biopsy and/or culture. A case of osteomyelitis pubis is presented with a discussion of symphisis pubis anatomy, clinical and laboratory presentation, etiology and risk factors, and optimal imaging studies. PMID:25493141

  16. Osteomyelitis or Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy? Differentiating these disorders in diabetic patients with a foot problem.

    PubMed

    Ertugrul, Bulent M; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Savk, Oner

    2013-01-01

    Both osteomyelitis and Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CN) are potentially limb-threatening complications of diabetic neuropathy, but they require quite different treatments. Almost all bone infections in the diabetic foot originate from an infected foot ulcer while diabetic osteoarthropathy is a non-infectious process in which peripheral neuropathy plays the critical role. Differentiating between diabetic foot osteomyelitis and CN requires careful evaluation of the patient, including the medical history, physical examination, selected laboratory findings, and imaging studies. Based on available studies, we review the approaches to the diagnostic differentiation of osteomyelitis from CN of the foot in diabetic patients. PMID:24205433

  17. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  18. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    PubMed

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors. PMID:16620942

  19. [Palmoplantar pustulosis].

    PubMed

    Berbis, P

    1991-10-15

    Pustulosis palmoplantaris (PPP) is a rare (0.01 to 0.05%), non-infectious acute or chronic skin disease which preferentially affects women in the 4th to the 6th decade of their life. The principal differential diagnosis is with infected dyshidrosis and with mycoses. Nosologically, PPP has a controversial relationship with psoriasis when it is isolated. Epidemiological and genetic data have shown that PPP and psoriasis are two nosologically close but distinct dermatoses. PPP may be associated with aseptic pustular osteoarthritis of the anterior chest wall (Sonozaki's syndrome). Modern treatment of PPP rests on photochemotherapy (PUVA), aromatic retinoids or, better, a combination of both (Reti-PUVA). PMID:1784916

  20. [The theory of functional systems in medicine: methodological aspects].

    PubMed

    Khrutskiĭ, K S

    2009-01-01

    P.K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems (TFS) is a unique scientific development extending an original field of biomedical research initiated in this country by I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, and A.A. Ukhtomsky. Unique methodology of TFS is based on the integrated approach to the study of human vital activity including psychic and somatic processes. The main results of the studies in the framework of TFS methodology and prospects for its further development are reviewed with special reference to the key mechanisms of eitiopathogenesis of chronic non-infectious diseases. PMID:19799208

  1. Osteomyelitis or Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy? Differentiating these disorders in diabetic patients with a foot problem

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Bulent M.; Lipsky, Benjamin A.; Savk, Oner

    2013-01-01

    Both osteomyelitis and Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CN) are potentially limb-threatening complications of diabetic neuropathy, but they require quite different treatments. Almost all bone infections in the diabetic foot originate from an infected foot ulcer while diabetic osteoarthropathy is a non-infectious process in which peripheral neuropathy plays the critical role. Differentiating between diabetic foot osteomyelitis and CN requires careful evaluation of the patient, including the medical history, physical examination, selected laboratory findings, and imaging studies. Based on available studies, we review the approaches to the diagnostic differentiation of osteomyelitis from CN of the foot in diabetic patients. PMID:24205433

  2. Noninfectious Meningitis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Series of 4 Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Young-Jun; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Young Seo; Kim, Hyun Young

    2016-01-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of 4 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with noninfectious meningitis by lupus itself. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated diffuse or localized high-signal intensity in subarachnoid spaces on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) or postcontrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery. Cerebrospinal fluid study revealed no abnormalities other than increased level of proteins. Our report is the first description of magnetic resonance findings in context of leptomeningeal involvement in non-infectious meningitis of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:26938698

  3. Severe Adverse Events Related to Tattooing: An Retrospective Analysis of 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of tattoos has been increased markedly during the last 20 years. Aims: To analyze the patient files for severe adverse medical reactions related to tattooing. Settings: Academic Teaching Hospital in South-East Germany. Materials and Methods: Retrospective investigation from March 2001 to May 2012. Results: The incidence of severe adverse medical reactions has been estimated as 0.02%. Infectious and non-infectious severe reactions have been observed. The consequences were medical drug therapies and surgery. Conclusions: Tattooing may be associated with severe adverse medical reactions with significant morbidity. Regulations, education and at least hygienic controls are tools to increase consumer safety. PMID:23248361

  4. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    PubMed

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA. PMID:27478731

  5. Infliximab-induced skin manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Eligius Hellström, Alec; Färkkilä, Martti; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2016-05-01

    Objective The use of infliximab in rheumatoid and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been associated with a variety of adverse skin reactions, including paradoxical psoriatic lesions. The prevalence and possible predictors for these lesions were under observation in our cross-sectional prospective study. Material and methods Nurses screened the skin of 118 adult patients with IBD during infliximab infusions between 4 September 2013 and 30 September 2014 based on the structured questionnaire. Data on skin manifestations, concomitant medications, extraintestinal manifestations and inflammatory markers were collected for analysis. Results Non-infectious skin manifestations were observed in 27 (22.9%) patients during the study period, of which eight (29.6%) were new-onset, eight (29.6%) were exacerbations of existing lesions and 11 (40.7%) were baseline lesions that did not worsen during the study. Scaling eczema was the most commonly described skin manifestation (n = 8; 29.6%), followed by exacerbated atopic eczema (n = 5; 18.5%) and plausible infliximab-induced psoriasiform lesions (n = 5; 18.5%). The strongest associating factor for skin manifestations was Crohn's disease, in nearly 80% of afflicted patients. Conclusions Anti-TNF-α therapy is frequently associated with newly onset skin reactions, most commonly in patients with Crohn's disease. Non-infectious skin manifestations can be treated topically and do not require cessation of anti-TNF-α therapy. PMID:26728295

  6. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  7. Neutrophil-specific deletion of the CARD9 gene expression regulator suppresses autoantibody-induced inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Németh, Tamás; Futosi, Krisztina; Sitaru, Cassian; Ruland, Jürgen; Mócsai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are terminally differentiated cells with limited transcriptional activity. The biological function of their gene expression changes is poorly understood. CARD9 regulates transcription during antifungal immunity but its role in sterile inflammation is unclear. Here we show that neutrophil CARD9 mediates pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine but not lipid mediator release during non-infectious inflammation. Genetic deficiency of CARD9 suppresses autoantibody-induced arthritis and dermatitis in mice. Neutrophil-specific deletion of CARD9 is sufficient to induce that phenotype. Card9(-/-) neutrophils show defective immune complex-induced gene expression changes and pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine release but normal LTB4 production and other short-term responses. In vivo deletion of CARD9 reduces tissue levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines but not LTB4. The CARD9-mediated signalling pathway involves Src-family kinases, Syk, PLCγ2, Bcl10/Malt1 and NFκB. Collectively, CARD9-mediated gene expression changes within neutrophils play important roles during non-infectious inflammation in vivo and CARD9 acts as a divergence point between chemokine/cytokine and lipid mediator release. PMID:27032818

  8. Activity of bleach, ethanol and two commercial disinfectants against spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Carly N; Dicristina, Jennifer A; Lindsay, David S

    2006-03-31

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a small protist parasite in the phylum Microspora. Hosts are infected by ingestion or inhalation of spores passed in the urine or feces. Infection with E. cuniculi is usually asymptomatic, except in young or immunocompromised hosts. This study examined the effects of various disinfectants on in vitro infectivity of E. cuniculi spores. Spores of E. cuniculi were exposed to several dilutions of commercial bleach, 70% ethanol and dilutions of commercial disinfectants HiTor and Roccal for 10 min and then loaded onto human fibroblast cells (Hs68 cells). Ten minutes of exposure to these disinfectants was lethal to E. cuniculi spores. Additional exposure time studies were done using dilutions of bleach at 0.1, 1 and 10%, and 70% ethanol. Exposure of E. cuniculi spores to 1 or 10% bleach for 30s rendered them non-infectious for Hs68 cells. Growth of E. cuniculi was observed in Hs68 cells inoculated with spores treated with 0.1% bleach for 30s or 1, 3 and 5 min, but not with spores treated for 7 min or longer. Exposure of E. cuniculi spores to 70% ethanol for 30s rendered them non-infectious for Hs68 cells. Spores of E. cuniculi are more sensitive to disinfectants than are coccidial oocysts and other parasite cysts. The relatively short contact time needed to kill spores indicates that disinfection of animal housing may be a viable means to reduce exposure of animals to E. cuniculi spores. PMID:16368193

  9. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005).

    PubMed

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-03-26

    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands. PMID:23548359

  10. Neutrophil-specific deletion of the CARD9 gene expression regulator suppresses autoantibody-induced inflammation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Németh, Tamás; Futosi, Krisztina; Sitaru, Cassian; Ruland, Jürgen; Mócsai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are terminally differentiated cells with limited transcriptional activity. The biological function of their gene expression changes is poorly understood. CARD9 regulates transcription during antifungal immunity but its role in sterile inflammation is unclear. Here we show that neutrophil CARD9 mediates pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine but not lipid mediator release during non-infectious inflammation. Genetic deficiency of CARD9 suppresses autoantibody-induced arthritis and dermatitis in mice. Neutrophil-specific deletion of CARD9 is sufficient to induce that phenotype. Card9−/− neutrophils show defective immune complex-induced gene expression changes and pro-inflammatory chemokine/cytokine release but normal LTB4 production and other short-term responses. In vivo deletion of CARD9 reduces tissue levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines but not LTB4. The CARD9-mediated signalling pathway involves Src-family kinases, Syk, PLCγ2, Bcl10/Malt1 and NFκB. Collectively, CARD9-mediated gene expression changes within neutrophils play important roles during non-infectious inflammation in vivo and CARD9 acts as a divergence point between chemokine/cytokine and lipid mediator release. PMID:27032818

  11. Sarcoid reaction: a rare occurrence associated to colon adenocarcinoma (case report and literature review)

    PubMed Central

    Aceñero, M. Jesús Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous reactions are related to infectious and non infectious diseases, but more rarely, granulomas may occur in association to malignancies. The presence of sarcoid-like granulomas in lymph nodes draining malignant tumors is an uncommon but well known occurrence. However, their presence in the stroma of malignant tumors is much rarer. We have only found two previous cases reported in the Japanese and English literature. In this study we report a well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon associated to a stromal granulomatous sarcoid-like reaction. Lymph nodes were not involved. The patient had a clinical history of tuberculosis treated 15 years ago, but there was no clinical, histomorphological, immunohistochemical or molecular evidence of disease at the moment of these findings. We have reviewed the literature to find the keys and the diagnostic challenges posed by granulomatous sarcoid-like reaction occurring in lymph nodes draining malignant neoplasms, peritumoral stroma and in other organs far from the primary tumor. The diagnosis of granulomatous sarcoid-like reactions associated to malignancies can be challenging and it can only be made after ruling out specific infectious and non infectious causes of granulomatous inflammation. The mechanisms involved in granuloma formation, their relationship with demographic and histopathological features, their possible association with autoimmune disorders, their cytokine profile and, more importantly, their prognostic significance in each type of tumor are still unclear and require studies with larger number of patients. PMID:27512605

  12. An observational study of comorbidity and healthcare utilisation among HIV-positive patients aged 50 years and over.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshani; Moore, Thomas; Cooper, Vanessa; McArdle, Conor; Perry, Nicky; Cheek, Elizabeth; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fisher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number of HIV-positive people aged ≥50 years is rising each year. We measured the prevalence of non-infectious illnesses and their risk factors and described healthcare use in this UK population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an outpatient HIV specialist clinic in south east England. Patients age ≥50 years were invited to complete questionnaires measuring demographics, non-infectious illnesses, medication use, lifestyle and healthcare utilisation. The response rate was 67%. Of 299 participants, 84% reported ≥1 comorbid condition and 61% reported ≥2 (multimorbidity). Most commonly reported were high cholesterol, sexual dysfunction, hypertension and depression. In multivariate analyses, age, number of years HIV-positive and duration of antiretroviral therapy remained significant predictors of comorbidity when controlling for lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking and use of recreational drugs and alcohol). Use of non-HIV healthcare services was associated with increasing comorbidity, a longer duration of HIV and recreational drug use. The majority of HIV-patients aged ≥50 years reported multiple comorbidities and this was associated with polypharmacy and increased use of non-HIV services. Further research examining the quality, safety and patient experience of healthcare is needed to inform development of services to optimally meet the needs of older HIV-positive patients. PMID:26068965

  13. MORBIDITY PATTERNS AMONG KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, AL HASSA, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Choudary, Abdulrashid C.; Al-Sultan, Ali I.; Tawfik, Tarek T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the prevalent morbidity problems among students at King Faisal University. To identify the nature of referred cases and assess the efficiency of the referral system. Subjects and Methods: This was a retrospective, records-based descriptive study, involving the examination of the health records of students at King Faisal University, who attended the Medical Center for Primary Health Care services in a five-year period. A pre-tested compilation sheet was used for data collection. Results: Out of 2472 consultations, about 58 % of the diagnosed morbidity conditions were of infectious nature, mostly affecting the respiratory (62%), dental (14%), gastrointestinal (7%), and skin infections (5 %), with more prevalence among males. The non-infectious morbidity conditions were recorded more among females and included muscle and joints problems (16 %), allergic conditions (15 %), gastrointestinal (8 %), and trauma (5 %). Some of the encountered morbidity demonstrated seasonal variation. Case referrals were about 6 %, more in the non-infectious conditions, with a deficient feedback system. Conclusion: Quality improvement of the medical records and the establishment of a proper referral system are necessary. Health education on preventable morbid conditions should be organized and implemented. PMID:23012142

  14. A Unique Report: Development of Super Anti-Human IgG Monoclone with Optical Density Over Than 3

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Ezzatifar, Fatemeh; Majidi, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies and related conjugates are key reagents used in biomedical researches as well as, in treatment, purification and diagnosis of infectious and non- infectious diseases. Methods: Balb/c mice were immunized with purified human IgG. Spleen cells of the most immune mouse were fused with SP2/0 in the presence of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). Supernatant of hybridoma cells was screened for detection of antibody by ELISA. Then, the sample was assessed for cross-reactivity with IgM & IgA by ELISA and confirmed by immunoblotting. The subclasses of the selected mAbs were determined. The best clone was injected intraperitoneally to some pristane-injected mice. Anti-IgG mAb was purified from the animals' ascitic fluid by Ion exchange chromatography and then, mAb was conjugated with HRP. Results: In the present study, over than 50 clones were obtained that 1 clone had optical density over than 3. We named this clone as supermonoclone which was selected for limiting dilution. The result of the immunoblotting, showed sharp band in IgG position and did not show any band in IgM&IgA position. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the conjugated monoclonal antibody could have application in diagnosis of infectious diseases like Toxoplasmosis, Rubella and IgG class of other infectious and non- infectious diseases. PMID:24312857

  15. Heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum Infection: Using Skin Parasite Burdens to Identify Highly Infectious Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo; Garcez, Lourdes M.; Quinnell, Rupert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between heterogeneities in host infection and infectiousness (transmission to arthropod vectors) can provide important insights for disease management. Here, we quantify heterogeneities in Leishmania infantum parasite numbers in reservoir and non-reservoir host populations, and relate this to their infectiousness during natural infection. Tissue parasite number was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of host transmission potential. Methods Parasite numbers were measured by qPCR in bone marrow and ear skin biopsies of 82 dogs and 34 crab-eating foxes collected during a longitudinal study in Amazon Brazil, for which previous data was available on infectiousness (by xenodiagnosis) and severity of infection. Results Parasite numbers were highly aggregated both between samples and between individuals. In dogs, total parasite abundance and relative numbers in ear skin compared to bone marrow increased with the duration and severity of infection. Infectiousness to the sandfly vector was associated with high parasite numbers; parasite number in skin was the best predictor of being infectious. Crab-eating foxes, which typically present asymptomatic infection and are non-infectious, had parasite numbers comparable to those of non-infectious dogs. Conclusions Skin parasite number provides an indirect marker of infectiousness, and could allow targeted control particularly of highly infectious dogs. PMID:24416460

  16. Prions and Protein Assemblies that Convey Biological Information in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Sanders, David W; Kaufman, Sarah K; Holmes, Brandon B; Diamond, Marc I

    2016-02-01

    Prions derived from the prion protein (PrP) were first characterized as infectious agents that transmit pathology between individuals. However, the majority of cases of neurodegeneration caused by PrP prions occur sporadically. Proteins that self-assemble as cross-beta sheet amyloids are a defining pathological feature of infectious prion disorders and all major age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, multiple non-infectious proteins exhibit properties of template-driven self-assembly that are strikingly similar to PrP. Evidence suggests that like PrP, many proteins form aggregates that propagate between cells and convert cognate monomer into ordered assemblies. We now recognize that numerous proteins assemble into macromolecular complexes as part of normal physiology, some of which are self-amplifying. This review highlights similarities among infectious and non-infectious neurodegenerative diseases associated with prions, emphasizing the normal and pathogenic roles of higher-order protein assemblies. We propose that studies of the structural and cellular biology of pathological versus physiological aggregates will be mutually informative. PMID:26844828

  17. Inactivation and purification of cowpea mosaic virus-like particles displaying peptide antigens from Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Jamie P.; Dang, Nghiep; Rasochova, Lada

    2007-01-01

    Chimeric cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles displaying foreign peptide antigens on the particle surface are suitable for development of peptide-based vaccines. However, commonly used PEG precipitation-based purification methods are not sufficient for production of high quality vaccine candidates because they do not allow for separation of chimeric particles from cleaved contaminating species. Moreover, the purified particles remain infectious to plants. To advance the CPMV technology further, it is necessary to develop efficient and scalable purification strategies and preferably eliminate the infectivity of chimeric viruses. CPMV was engineered to display a 25 amino acid peptide derived from the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen on the surface loop of the large coat protein subunit. The engineered virus was propagated in cowpea plants and assembled into chimeric virus particles displaying 60 copies of the peptide on the surface. An effective inactivation method was developed to produce non-infectious chimeric CPMV virus-like particles (VLPs). Uncleaved VLPs were separated from the contaminating cleaved forms by anion exchange chromatography. The yield of purified chimeric VLPs was 0.3 g·kg−1 of leaf tissue. The results demonstrate the ability to generate multi-gram quantities of non-infectious, chimeric CPMV VLPs in plants for use in the development of peptide-based vaccines. PMID:17227681

  18. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W

    2015-09-01

    Many herbal products are now used as remedies to treat various infectious and non-infectious conditions. Even though the use of herbs and natural products is much more evident in the Eastern world, their use in Western cultures is continuously increasing. Although the immunomodulatory effects of some herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of many herbs and various spices is relatively scarce. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, and its major active ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ). This review article focuses on analyzing in vitro and in vivo experimental findings that were reported with regard to the ability of N. sativa and TQ to modulate inflammation, cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses, and Th1/Th2 paradigm. The reported capability of N. sativa to augment the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells is also emphasized. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of N. sativa and TQ are highlighted. Moreover, the signal transduction pathways implicated in the immunoregulatory functions of N. sativa and TQ are underscored. Experimental evidence suggests that N. sativa extracts and TQ can potentially be employed in the development of effective therapeutic agents towards the regulation of immune reactions implicated in various infectious and non-infectious conditions including different types of allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:26117430

  19. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) Mitigates Anterior Uveitis and Confers Protection Against Ocular HSV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Rong; Hayashi, Kozaburo; Lee, Yun Sang; Mahdi, Rashid M.; Shen, De Fen; Chan, Chi-Chao; Egwuagu, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Immunological responses to pathogens are stringently regulated in the eye to prevent excessive inflammation that damage ocular tissues and compromise vision. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) regulate intensity/duration of inflammatory responses. We have used SOCS1-deficient mice and retina-specific SOCS1 transgenic rats to investigate roles of SOCS1 in ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection and non-infectious uveitis. We also genetically engineered cell-penetrating SOCS proteins (membrane-translocating sequence (MTS)-SOCS1, MTS-SOCS3) and examined whether they can be used to inhibit inflammatory cytokines. Overexpression of SOCS1 in transgenic rat eyes attenuated ocular HSV-1 infection while SOCS1-deficient mice developed severe non-infectious anterior uveitis, suggesting that SOCS1 may contribute to mechanism of ocular immune privilege by regulating trafficking of inflammatory cells into ocular tissues. Furthermore, MTS-SOCS1 inhibited IFN-γ-induced signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation by macrophages while MTS-SOCS3 suppressed expansion of pathogenic Th17 cells that mediate uveitis, indicating that MTS-SOCS proteins maybe used to treat ocular inflammatory diseases of infectious or autoimmune etiology. PMID:24993154

  20. Progress towards structural understanding of infectious sheep PrP-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Henrik; Brener, Oleksandr; Andreoletti, Olivier; Piechatzek, Timo; Willbold, Dieter; Legname, Giuseppe; Heise, Henrike

    2014-01-01

    The still elusive structural difference of non-infectious and infectious amyloid of the mammalian prion protein (PrP) is a major pending milestone in understanding protein-mediated infectivity in neurodegenerative diseases. Preparations of PrP-amyloid proven to be infectious have never been investigated with a high-resolution technique. All available models to date have been based on low-resolution data. Here, we establish protocols for the preparation of infectious samples of full-length recombinant (rec) PrP-amyloid in NMR-sufficient amounts by spontaneous fibrillation and seeded fibril growth from brain extract. We link biological and structural data of infectious recPrP-amyloid, derived from bioassays, atomic force microscopy, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our data indicate a semi-mobile N‑terminus, some residues with secondary chemical shifts typical of α‑helical secondary structure in the middle part between ∼115 to ∼155, and a distinct β‑sheet core C‑terminal of residue ∼155. These findings are not in agreement with all current models for PrP-amyloid. We also provide evidence that samples seeded from brain extract may not differ in the overall arrangement of secondary structure elements, but rather in the flexibility of protein segments outside the β-core region. Taken together, our protocols provide an essential basis for the high-resolution characterization of non-infectious and infectious PrP-amyloid in the near future. PMID:25482596

  1. AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

  2. A Systematic Review of Methodology: Time Series Regression Analysis for Environmental Factors and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Chisato; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Time series analysis is suitable for investigations of relatively direct and short-term effects of exposures on outcomes. In environmental epidemiology studies, this method has been one of the standard approaches to assess impacts of environmental factors on acute non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular deaths), with conventionally generalized linear or additive models (GLM and GAM). However, the same analysis practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite of the substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that may result in analytical challenges. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, systematic review was conducted to elucidate important issues in assessing the associations between environmental factors and infectious diseases using time series analysis with GLM and GAM. Published studies on the associations between weather factors and malaria, cholera, dengue, and influenza were targeted. Findings: Our review raised issues regarding the estimation of susceptible population and exposure lag times, the adequacy of seasonal adjustments, the presence of strong autocorrelations, and the lack of a smaller observation time unit of outcomes (i.e. daily data). These concerns may be attributable to features specific to infectious diseases, such as transmission among individuals and complicated causal mechanisms. Conclusion: The consequence of not taking adequate measures to address these issues is distortion of the appropriate risk quantifications of exposures factors. Future studies should pay careful attention to details and examine alternative models or methods that improve studies using time series regression analysis for environmental determinants of infectious diseases. PMID:25859149

  3. AGGREGATED, WILD-TYPE PRION PROTEIN CAUSES NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AND SYNAPTIC ABNORMALITIES

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa, Roberto; Piccardo, Pedro; Biasini, Emiliano; Ghetti, Bernardino; Harris, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The neurotoxic forms of the prion protein (PrP) that cause neurodegeneration in prion diseases remain to be conclusively identified. Considerable evidence points to the importance of non-infectious oligomers of PrP in the pathogenic process. In this study, we describe lines of Tg(WT) transgenic mice that over-express wild-type PrP by either ∼5-fold or ∼10-fold (depending on whether the transgene array is, respectively, hemizygous or homozygous). Homozygous but not hemizygous Tg(WT) mice develop a spontaneous neurodegenerative illness characterized clinically by tremor and paresis. Both kinds of mice accumulate large numbers of punctate PrP deposits in the molecular layer of the cerebellum as well as in several other brain regions, and they display abnormally enlarged synaptic terminals accompanied by a dramatic proliferation of membranous structures. The over-expressed PrP in Tg(WT) mice assembles into an insoluble form that is mildly protease-resistant and is recognizable by aggregation-specific antibodies, but that is not infectious in transmission experiments. Taken together, our results demonstrate that non-infectious aggregates of wild-type PrP are neurotoxic, particularly to synapses, and they suggest common pathogenic mechanisms shared by prion diseases and non-transmissible neurodegenerative disorders associated with protein misfolding. PMID:19052217

  4. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. PMID:25462351

  5. On the Dark Side of Therapies with Immunoglobulin Concentrates: The Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Späth, Peter J.; Granata, Guido; La Marra, Fabiola; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Quinti, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Therapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. The success of IgG concentrates on a clinical level is documented by the slowly increasing number of registered indication and the more rapid increase of the off-label uses, a topic dealt with in another contribution to this special issue of Frontiers in Immunology. A part of the success is the adverse event (AE) profile of IgG concentrates which is, even at life-long need for therapy, excellent. Transmission of pathogens in the last decade could be entirely controlled through the antecedent introduction by authorities of a regulatory network and installing quality standards by the plasma fractionation industry. The cornerstone of the regulatory network is current good manufacturing practice. Non-infectious AEs occur rarely and mainly are mild to moderate. However, in recent times, the increase in frequency of hemolytic and thrombotic AEs raised worrying questions on the possible background for these AEs. Below, we review elements of non-infectious AEs, and particularly focus on hemolysis and thrombosis. We discuss how the introduction of plasma fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography and polishing by immunoaffinity chromatographic steps might alter repertoire of specificities and influence AE profiles and efficacy of IgG concentrates. PMID:25699039

  6. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  7. Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, Gerard; Emerson, Vanessa; Holtkotte, Denise; Pfeiffer, Tanya; Pisch, Thorsten; Bosch, Valerie . E-mail: v.bosch@dkfz.de

    2007-05-10

    Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767{sup stop}, which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752{sup N750K}) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752{sup N750K} exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses.

  8. Fibromyalgia syndrome. New associations.

    PubMed

    Waylonis, G W; Heck, W

    1992-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a number of conditions, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, spastic colon and mitral valve prolapse, associated with fibromyalgia. The present report describes additional symptoms and medical conditions that appear to be associated with the syndrome based on a survey of 554 individuals with fibromyalgia compared with a group of 169 controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia self report a greater incidence of bursitis, chondromalacia, constipation, diarrhea, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vertigo, sinus and thyroid problems. Symptomatic complaints found statistically more prevalent in fibromyalgia patients included concentration problems, sensory symptoms, swollen glands and tinnitus. Other associations occurring with significant increased frequency were chronic cough, coccygeal and pelvic pain, tachycardia and weakness. Our previous report on inheritance patterns in fibromyalgia was reaffirmed with 12% reporting symptomatic children and 25% reporting symptomatic parents. Of the respondents, 70% noted that their symptoms were aggravated by noise, lights, stress, posture and weather. PMID:1466872

  9. Surgical Treatment of Synovial Osteochondromatosis of the Hip Using a Modified-Hardinge Approach with a Z-Shaped Capsular Incision

    PubMed Central

    Fukunishi, Shigeo; Nishio, Shoji; Fujihara, Yuki; Fukui, Tomokazu; Okahisa, Shohei; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip is a rare condition, and the surgical treatment approach for this condition requires complete removal of loose bodies combined with synovectomy. While these, procedures are generally accepted as the optimal treatment method, this is still controversial topic. Recent studies have reported that open surgical procedures remain acceptable for synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. These procedures include the dislocation of the femoral head, and complications such as femoral head necrosis and bursitis or great trochanter non-union due to trochanteric osteotomy have been reported. The present study reports a modified technique for surgical dislocation through a Z-shaped capsular incision without trochanteric flip osteotomy for the treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. PMID:26793291

  10. The diagnosis and management of Morton's neuroma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sameer; Mannan, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common condition mainly affecting middle aged women, and there are many proposed etiological theories involving chronic repetitive trauma, ischemia, entrapment, and intermetatarsal bursitis. Incorrect terminology suggests that the underlying pathological process is a nerve tumor, although histological examination reveals the presence of inflammatory tissue-that is, perineural fibrosis. The common digital nerve and its branches in the third planter webspace are most commonly affected. Diagnosis is usually made through history taking and clinical examination but may be aided by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Current nonoperative treatment strategies include shoe-wear modifications, custom made orthoses, and injections of local anesthetic agents, sclerosing agents, and steroids. Operative management options primarily involve either nerve decompression or neurectomy. We have reviewed the published literature to evaluate the outcomes of the available diagnostic modalities and treatment options and present an algorithm for clinical practice. PMID:23811947

  11. Postoperative MR imaging of the foot and ankle: tendon repair, ligament repair, and Morton's neuroma resection.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Marco; Saupe, Nadja; Espinosa, Norman

    2010-09-01

    This review article describes the postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) findings relating to surgery after tendon repair, ligament repair, and Morton's neuroma resection. The normal postoperative tendon is commonly thickened, showing signal changes that are most pronounced 3 to 6 months after surgery. Two years after tendon suture, the signal intensity should be low on T2-weighted images. The focus of the postoperative MR imaging after ankle repair is to detect the normal condition after the various surgical procedures (e.g., Broström, Watson-Jones, Evans, or Chrisman-Snook). The repaired ligament has to be visible, low signal intense on T2-weighted MR images, and the shape should be homogeneous. A high rate (26%) of so-called Morton's neuroma recurrences is seen in asymptomatic individuals after Morton's neuroma resection. Postoperatively, intermetatarsal bursitis MR abnormalities are more commonly encountered in symptomatic intermetatarsal spaces than in asymptomatic intermetatarsal spaces. PMID:20539960

  12. Gluteal Tendinopathy: Integrating Pathomechanics and Clinical Features in Its Management.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Alison; Fearon, Angela

    2015-11-01

    Synopsis Gluteal tendinopathy is now believed to be the primary local source of lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, previously referred to as trochanteric bursitis. This condition is prevalent, particularly among postmenopausal women, and has a considerable negative influence on quality of life. Improved prognosis and outcomes in the future for those with gluteal tendinopathy will be underpinned by advances in diagnostic testing, a clearer understanding of risk factors and comorbidities, and evidence-based management programs. High-quality studies that meet these requirements are still lacking. This clinical commentary provides direction to assist the clinician with assessment and management of the patient with gluteal tendinopathy, based on currently limited available evidence on this condition and the wider tendon literature and on the combined clinical experience of the authors. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):910-922. Epub 17 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5829. PMID:26381486

  13. Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Zoë J; Voss, Tyler T; Hatch, Jacquelynn; Frimodig, Adam

    2015-10-15

    Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, bursitis, or neuropathy include only small numbers of patients and have inconsistent long-term follow-up. Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis result in short-term improvements in pain and range of motion. For subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief and improvement in function. In medial and lateral epicondylitis, corticosteroid injections offer only short-term improvement of symptoms and have a high rate of symptom recurrence. Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome may help patients avoid or delay surgery. Trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis may be treated effectively with corticosteroid injections. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis may have short-term symptom relief with corticosteroid injections. PMID:26554409

  14. Subacromial impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Masood; Qadir, Irfan; Azam, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) represents a spectrum of pathology ranging from subacromial bursitis to rotator cuff tendinopathy and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The relationship between subacromial impingement and rotator cuff disease in the etiology of rotator cuff injury is a matter of debate. However, the etiology is multi-factorial, and it has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms. Management includes physical therapy, injections, and, for some patients, surgery. No high-quality randomized controlled trials are available so far to provide possible evidence for differences in outcome of different treatment strategies. There remains a need for high-quality clinical research on the diagnosis and treatment of SAIS. PMID:22802986

  15. MR imaging of the pelvis: a guide to incidental musculoskeletal findings for abdominal radiologists.

    PubMed

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Girish, Gandikota; Kaza, Ravi K; Jacobson, Jon; Fessell, David; Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David

    2014-08-01

    Occasionally patients who undergo magnetic resonance imaging for presumed pelvic disease demonstrate unexpected musculoskeletal imaging findings in the imaged field. Such incidental findings can be challenging to the abdominal radiologist, who may not be familiar with their appearance or know the appropriate diagnostic considerations. Findings can include both normal and abnormal bone marrow, osseous abnormalities such as Paget's disease, avascular necrosis, osteomyelitis, stress and insufficiency fractures, and athletic pubalgia, benign neoplasms such as enchondroma and bone island, malignant processes such as metastasis and chondrosarcoma, soft tissue processes such as abscess, nerve-related tumors, and chordoma, joint- and bursal-related processes such as sacroiliitis, iliopsoas bursitis, greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and labral tears, and iatrogenic processes such as bone graft or bone biopsy. Though not all-encompassing, this essay will help abdominal radiologists to identify and describe this variety of pelvic musculoskeletal conditions, understand key radiologic findings, and synthesize a differential diagnosis when appropriate. PMID:24682526

  16. Caring for Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Kiningham, Robert; Monseau, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Wrestling is a popular high school and college sport with an injury and illness rate second only to football. It is important that the physician providing medical care for wrestlers be familiar with the unique characteristics of wrestling and the associated common injuries and medical problems. Common orthopedic injuries include shoulder, elbow, and finger dislocation; prepatellar bursitis; knee medial collateral ligament sprains; and cervical strains. Skin infections are the most common cause of missed mat time for wrestlers. Physicians need to be able to identify and treat these infections, and know the rules regarding return to wrestling once an infection has been identified. Other conditions that are common include auricular hematomas, epistaxis, and brow lacerations. Physicians also need to be familiar with the medical issues involved with rapid weight loss and weight cycling, and understand the high school and college weight certification rules. PMID:26359843

  17. Osteomyelitis Infection of Mycobacterium marinum: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hao H.; Fadul, Nada; Ashraf, Muhammad S.; Siraj, Dawd S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) is a ubiquitous waterborne organism that grows optimally at temperatures around 30°C. It is a nontuberculous Mycobacterium found in nonchlorinated water with worldwide prevalence. It is the most common atypical Mycobacterium that causes opportunistic infection in humans. M. marinum can cause superficial infections and localized invasive infections in humans, with the hands being the sites most frequently affected. It can cause skin lesions, which are either single, papulonodular lesions, confined to an extremity, or may resemble cutaneous sporotrichosis. This infection can also cause deeper infections including tenosynovitis, bursitis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. Disseminated infections and visceral involvements have been reported in immunocompromised patients. We here report a case of severe deep soft tissue infection with necrotizing fasciitis and osteomyelitis of the left upper extremity (LUE) caused by M. marinum in an immunocompromised patient. PMID:25664190

  18. Surgical Treatment of Synovial Osteochondromatosis of the Hip Using a Modified-Hardinge Approach with a Z-Shaped Capsular Incision.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yu; Fukunishi, Shigeo; Nishio, Shoji; Fujihara, Yuki; Fukui, Tomokazu; Okahisa, Shohei; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-12-28

    Synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip is a rare condition, and the surgical treatment approach for this condition requires complete removal of loose bodies combined with synovectomy. While these, procedures are generally accepted as the optimal treatment method, this is still controversial topic. Recent studies have reported that open surgical procedures remain acceptable for synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. These procedures include the dislocation of the femoral head, and complications such as femoral head necrosis and bursitis or great trochanter non-union due to trochanteric osteotomy have been reported. The present study reports a modified technique for surgical dislocation through a Z-shaped capsular incision without trochanteric flip osteotomy for the treatment of synovial osteochondromatosis of the hip. PMID:26793291

  19. Spinal antinflammatory action of Diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Sandri, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal antinflammatory drug (NSAID) that finds indication in the treatment of debilitating pathologies characterized by chronic pain sustained by inflammation, such as in rheumatic disease (rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis) or periarthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, myositis and sciatica. Its properties differentiate it from other NSAIDs. In fact, diclofenac's increased effect on spinal nociception and chronic neuro-inflammatory pain may be referred to: 1) its synergistic effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR- γ) activation and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition (COX-2 inhibition); 2) its capacity of suppressing neuronal hyperexcitability through the blockage of neuronal K+ channels in a concentration-dependant manner; and 3) its facility to cross the blood-brain barrier. PMID:27014880

  20. Endoscopic Resection of the Bicipitoradial Bursa.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit; Pan, Xiao Hua

    2016-03-01

    The bicipitoradial bursa lies at the insertion of the biceps tendon on the radial tuberosity. It is an unusual site for chronic bursitis. It can be treated conservatively with aspiration and steroid injection. Surgical excision of the bursa is indicated in case of infection cause, failed conservative treatment with recurrence of the enlarged bursa and pain after aspiration, the presence of nerve compression with neurological impairment, mechanical limitation to flexion and extension of the elbow or biceps tendon degeneration, and/or functional impairment. Open resection through the anterior approach requires extensive dissection to expose the radial tuberosity and the radial neck, which increases the risk of neurovascular injury. Endoscopic resection is possible through distal biceps tendoscopy and endoscopy around the radial neck. It is technically demanding and should be reserved to the experienced elbow arthroscopist. PMID:26752772

  1. Carpal boss in chronic wrist pain and its association with partial osseous coalition and osteoarthritis - A case report with focus on MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The carpal boss is a bony prominence at the dorsal aspect of the 2nd and/or 3rd carpometacarpal joint, which has been linked to various etiologies, including trauma, os styloideum, osteophyte formation, and partial osseous coalition. It may result in symptoms through secondary degeneration, ganglion formation, bursitis, or extensor tendon abnormalities by altered biomechanics of wrist motion. We present a case of symptomatic carpal boss with the finding of a partial osseous coalition at the 2nd carpometacarpal (metacarpal–trapezoid) joint and highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of carpal boss impingement and secondary osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature describing the imaging findings of partial osseous coalition and degenerative osteoarthritis in relation to carpal boss. PMID:26288522

  2. Presumed prepatellar fibrosis in collegiate wrestlers: imaging findings and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Northam, Meredith C; Gaskin, Cree M

    2015-02-01

    Knee pain and injury are common complaints of athletes presenting to the orthopedic clinic. Wrestlers are no exception, and may present more commonly with anterior knee pain because of the nature of their sport. Morel-Lavallée lesions and prepatellar bursitis have been described in the prepatellar region of wrestlers. We report a distinctly different prepatellar finding on MRI, focally prominent and discrete fibrosis in three collegiate wrestlers. This characteristic appearance and clinical setting have already been repeated in our clinical practice; thus, other MRI readers are also likely to encounter this finding, which in our experience can be considered a "don't touch" lesion of no clinical significance. PMID:24997159

  3. Human Protothecosis

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  4. 'Hip' pain.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Josef; Gursche, Angelika

    2003-02-01

    'Hip' pain is usually located in the groin, upper thigh or buttock and is a common complaint. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, avascular femoral head necrosis and apophyseal avulsion are the most common diagnoses in childhood and adolescents. Strains and fractures are common in sport-active adults. Osteoarthritis occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Trauma may result in femoral head fracture or typical muscle and tendon sprains and bursitis. Septic or inflammatory arthritis can occur at every age. Septic arthritis, fractures and acute epiphyseal slipping are real emergency cases. Congenital dysplasia of the hip joint may lead to labral tears and early osteoarthritis. The most important hip problems in children, adolescents, adult and older people are discussed; these problems originate from intra-articular disorders and the surrounding extra-articular soft tissues. Medical history, clinical examination and additional tests, including imaging, will be demonstrated. Principles of treatment are given for specific disorders. PMID:12659822

  5. High-resolution ultrasound of rotator cuff and biceps reflection pulley in non-elite junior tennis players: anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis is believed to be potentially harmful for the shoulder, therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomy of the rotator cuff and the coraco-humeral ligament (CHL) in a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players with high-resolution ultrasound (US). Methods From August 2009 to September 2010 n = 90 a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players (mean age ± standard deviation: 15 ± 3) and a control group of age- and sex- matched subjects were included. Shoulder assessment with a customized standardized protocol was performed. Body mass index, dominant arm, years of practice, weekly hours of training, racket weight, grip (Eastern, Western and semi-Western), kind of strings were recorded. Results Abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 14/90 (15%) players. Two players had supraspinatus tendinosis, two had subacromial impingement and ten had subacromial bursitis. CHL thickness resulted comparable in the dominant and non-dominant arms (11.3 ± 4.4 mm vs. 13 ± 4.2, p > 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that no association was present among CHL thickness and the variables evaluated. In the control group, abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 6/60 (10%) subjects (sub-acromial bursitis). No statistically significant differences between players and control group were found (p = 0.71). Conclusion In a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players only minor shoulder abnormalities were found. PMID:25034864

  6. Comparison between ultrasound and plain X-ray in evaluating the cause of shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Salek, K M; Mannan, M; Chowdhury, A Z; Haque, M A; Kaiser, M S; Nabi, S; Ferdousee, R A; Paul, B K; Ahmed, S M; Khan, M; Begum, M

    2011-01-01

    Painful shoulder is a common painful condition among patients. Apart from acute traumatic lesions such as fractures, dislocations, contusions, sprains and ruptured tendons, 85 to 90% of painful shoulders are due to adhesive capsulitis, acute or chronic calcific tendinitis, bursitis, bicipital tendinitis and lesions of the musculotendinous cuff. Arthritis is the cause of less than 5% of painful shoulders. For evaluating conditions of shoulder joint, X-ray has been regarded as only method of choice for long time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an alternative procedure but the cost limits its utilization especially in Bangladesh. Ultrasonography is an effective imaging modality in the evaluation of both rotator and non-rotator cuff disorders. Because of low cost and availability, it can be an alternative procedure for the diagnosis of painful shoulder. The present study was conducted to assess ultrasonography as a useful modality in evaluating cases of shoulder pain and to compare the findings with X-ray findings. Thirty two patients with shoulder pain were evaluated by X-ray and Ultrasonography (USG). Clinical diagnosis was done for correlation. To identify the cause of shoulder pain, 100% patients were found normal in plain X-ray. On Ultrasonography (USG) 12.5% patients had displaced long head of biceps, 21.9% had biceps tendinitis, and 3.1% had bursitis. In the assessment of shoulder pathology, USG had a sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 88.2%, Positive predictive value (PPV) of 84.6%, Negative predictive value (NPV) of 78.9% and an accuracy of 81.3%. USG is a useful modality for evaluation the shoulder joint in case of painful shoulder even plain X-ray is non conclusive. PMID:21240157

  7. Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy

    PubMed Central

    Balint, P; Kane, D; Wilson, H; McInnes, I; Sturrock, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare ultrasonography (US) with clinical examination in the detection of entheseal abnormality of the lower limb in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Methods: 35 patients with SpA (ankylosing spondylitis 27; psoriatic arthritis 7; reactive arthritis 1) underwent independent clinical and ultrasonographic examination of both lower limbs at five entheseal sites—superior pole and inferior pole of patella, tibial tuberosity, Achilles tendon, and plantar aponeurosis. US was performed using an ATL (Advanced Technology Laboratories, Bothell, Washington, USA) high definition imaging 3000 machine with linear 7–4 MHz and compact linear 10–5 MHz probes to detect bursitis, structure thickness, bony erosion, and enthesophyte (bony spur). An enthesitis score was formulated from these US findings giving a possible maximum total score of 36. Results: On clinical examination 75/348 (22%) entheseal sites were abnormal and on US examination 195/348 (56%) sites were abnormal. In 19 entheseal sites with bursitis on US, only five were detected by clinical examination. Compared with US, clinical examination had a low sensitivity (22.6%) and moderate specificity (79.7%) for the detection of enthesitis of the lower limbs. There was no significant correlation between the US score of enthesitis and acute phase parameters such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C reactive protein (CRP). The intraobserver κ value for analysis of all sites was 0.9. Conclusions: Most entheseal abnormality in SpA is not detected at clinical examination. US is better than clinical examination in the detection of entheseal abnormality of the lower limbs in SpA. A quantitative US score of lower limb enthesitis is proposed but further studies are required to validate it in SpA. PMID:12228161

  8. Shoulder Disease Patterns of the Wheelchair Athletes of Table-Tennis and Archery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the shoulder disease patterns for the table-tennis (TT) and archery (AR) wheelchair athletes via ultrasonographic evaluations. Methods A total of 35 wheelchair athletes were enrolled, made up of groups of TT (n=19) and AR (n=16) athletes. They were all paraplegic patients and were investigated for their wheelchair usage duration, careers as sports players, weekly training times, the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) scores and ultrasonographic evaluation. Shoulders were divided into playing arm of TT, non-playing arm of TT, bow-arm of AR, and draw arm of AR athletes. Shoulder diseases were classified into five entities of subscapularis tendinopathy, supraspinatus tendinopathy, infraspinatus tendinopathy, biceps long head tendinopathy, and subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis. The pattern of shoulder diseases were compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney and the chi-square tests Results WSUPI did not significantly correlate with age, wheelchair usage duration, career as players or weekly training times for all the wheelchair athletes. For the non-playing arm of TT athletes, there was a high percentage of subscapularis (45.5%) and supraspinatus (40.9%) tendinopathy. The percentage of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis showed a tendency to be present in the playing arm of TT athletes (20.0%) compared with their non-playing arm (4.5%), even though this was not statistically significant. Biceps long head tendinopathy was the most common disease of the shoulder in the draw arm of AR athletes, and the difference was significant when compared to the non-playing arm of TT athletes (p<0.05). Conclusion There was a high percentage of subscapularis and supraspinatus tendinopathy cases for the non-playing arm of TT wheelchair athletes, and a high percentage of biceps long head tendinopathy for the draw arm for the AR wheelchair athletes. Consideration of the biomechanical properties of each sport may be needed to tailor specific

  9. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sheila

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with many different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient's lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis, this process is considerably accelerated to approximately four days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be provoking factors. Disease management will be dependent on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient's lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis. PMID:18414290

  10. [Involvement of the common shrew, Sorex araneus (Insectivora, Soricidae), in circulation of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in south-western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalova, V N; Morozova, O V; Dobrotvorskiĭ, A K; Panov, V V; Matveeva, V A; Popova, R V; Korobova, S A

    2001-01-01

    We presented the data on the abundance of immature instars of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Schuize on the common shrews Sorex araneus L. in natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis in the south of Western Siberia. Basing on the results of virological and serological studies we demonstrated a low effectiveness of this host species as a donor of disease agent strains, which are predominant in the territory under study, for ticks feeding on shrews. The analysis of samples taken from the young shrews in winter and spring using reverse RNA transcription with polymerase chain reaction and ELISA revealed occurRence of subvirion components of the tick-borne encephalitis (RNA and capsid protein E) ether in brain, liver or spleen in 90 percent of shrews (n = 42). Neither hemagglutination antigen nor infectious virus have been detected. We discussed a possible epizootic role of the maintenance of non-infectious tick-borne encephalitis virus in overwintering animals. PMID:11871252

  11. Diagnosis of bovine fetal Neospora infection with an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

    PubMed

    Barr, B C; Anderson, M L; Sverlow, K W; Conrad, P A

    1995-12-01

    Fetal fluids from 138 spontaneously aborted bovine fetuses were examined for the presence of antibodies against Neospora antigens by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The fetuses were divided into group 1, consisting of 74 fetuses with confirmed or presumptive fetal neosporosis, and group 2, consisting of 64 fetuses with either no aetiological diagnosis, presumptive diagnoses of non-Neospora infections or non-infectious diseases, or fetuses with confirmed diagnoses of other fetal diseases. Thirty-seven of the 74 fetuses in group 1 had detectable titres of antibody to Neospora; approximately 21 per cent of the fetuses between three and five months gestation, 56 per cent of these between six and seven months gestation, and 93 per cent of these between eight and nine months gestation, had detectable titres of antibody. Only one of the 64 fetuses in group 2 had a detectable titre of antibody to Neospora. PMID:8746850

  12. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Knut

    PubMed Central

    Prüss, H.; Leubner, J.; Wenke, N. K.; Czirják, G. Á.; Szentiks, C. A.; Greenwood, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Knut the polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden drowned in 2011 following seizures and was diagnosed as having suffered encephalitis of unknown etiology after exhaustive pathogen screening. Using the diagnostic criteria applied to human patients, we demonstrate that Knut’s encephalitis is almost identical to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a severe autoimmune disease representing the most common non-infectious encephalitis in humans. High concentrations of antibodies specific against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in Knut’s cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination demonstrated very similar patterns of plasma cell infiltration and minimal neuronal loss in affected brain areas. We conclude that Knut suffered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis making his the first reported non-human case of this treatable disease. The results suggest that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be a disease of broad relevance to mammals that until now has remained undiagnosed. PMID:26313569

  13. [Transmission electron microscopy image of wear particles of joint endoprostheses and ultrastructural cell changes].

    PubMed

    Bos, I; Johannisson, R

    2003-01-01

    Wear particles from joint endoprostheses vary considerably in size, and may be detectable in tissue only by electron microscopy. Wear debris plays a central role in the non-infectious late loosening of prostheses, and it has been estimated that the submicron particles induce increased liberation of mediators of osteolysis by activated macrophages. From the types of prostheses currently in use, bone cement and polyethylene particles greatly predominate over metallic and ceramic particles. Since it had formerly not been possible to reliably identify wear particles in the transmission electron microscopy, and descriptions of them in the literature varied considerably, we analysed ultrathin sections obtained from periprosthetic tissue containing wear particles previously identified by laser microprobe mass analysis. Using this method, it proved possible to classify almost all the wear particles detected in the electron microscope, to determine their size range and to represent the cellular alterations caused by them. PMID:12655845

  14. A retrospective study of non-suppurative encephalitis in beef cattle from western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sergio; Clark, Edward G.; Wobeser, Gary A.; Janzen, Eugene D.; Philibert, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Non-suppurative encephalitis occurs sporadically in beef cattle in western Canada, leading to loss of animals. This retrospective study investigated the presence of viral, bacterial, and protozoal antigens or DNA in 37 western Canadian feedlot cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis for which a cause had not been identified. Cases were selected based on the age of the animal (> 7 months), and clinical history of recumbency and depression. The identification of rabies in 1 case stresses the importance of including this viral disease in the list of differential diagnoses. Because there was variation in the severity, distribution, and type of lesions, it is possible that there may be more than 1 cause, but failure to identify an infectious agent might also suggest that non-infectious agents could play a role. PMID:24293671

  15. Rifaximin: An Antibiotic with Important Biologic Effects.

    PubMed

    DuPont, H L

    2015-01-01

    Rifaximin is a poorly absorbed rifamycin drug with unique pharmacokinetic properties: bile solubility making it highly active against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial flora in the bile-rich small bowel and low water solubility making it active only against highly susceptible bacteria, primarily anaerobes, in the aqueous colon. The drug has anti-inflammatory gut mucosal stabilization properties that are important to its sustained effects in non-infectious diseases. Rifaximin is used chronically or recurrently for hepatic encephalopathy and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Monitoring of long-term use of rifaximin for development of resistance and then determining whether developed resistance is associated with reduced efficacy are needed. Studies of changes of intestinal flora during therapy and the health implications of these changes are also needed. PMID:26202192

  16. Somatic cells count in cow's bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Jan; Jaśkowski, Jedrzej M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was therefore to present factors affecting somatic cell counts in bovine bulk milk as a result of intramammary infections as well as non-infectious factors. The paper presents also the impact of on-farm management practices on the level of bulk milk somatic cell counts and presents quality indicators in bulk tank milk. At the farm level bulk milk bacterial infection takes place through three main sources: bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis microorganisms within the udder. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml identifies bacteriological negative quarters of the udder. The counts of mammary pathogens in bulk tank milk are relatively low, on average not exceeding 1,000 cfu/ml. Environmental pathogens predominate in bulk tank milk samples with somatic cells count <300 × 10(3) ml. PMID:22230979

  17. Tropical Skin Infections Among Israeli Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Michal; Benenson, Shmuel; Baum, Sharon; Schwartz, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Infectious skin disorders are common dermatologic illnesses in travelers. Knowledge of post-travel–related infectious skin disorders will allow for effective pre- and post-travel counseling. All cases of returning travelers seen in our center seeking care for infectious skin diseases were included in this study. For a comparison, data on returned travelers with non-infectious skin diseases and healthy travelers who had pre-travel consultations in our institution were also analyzed. Altogether, skin-related diagnosis was reported in 540 ill travelers, and among them, 286 (53%) had infectious skin diseases. Tropical skin infection was diagnosed in 64% of the infectious cases. Travelers returning from Latin America were significantly more ill with tropical skin infections than those traveling to Asia and Africa, The most common diagnoses were cutaneous leishmaniasis, myiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. In conclusion, tropical skin infections are common among Israeli travelers, especially among those who visited Latin America. PMID:22049040

  18. Neutrophil roles in left ventricular remodeling following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs; neutrophils) serve as key effector cells in the innate immune system and provide the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. In addition to producing inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and undergoing a respiratory burst that stimulates the release of reactive oxygen species, PMNs also degranulate to release components that kill pathogens. Recently, neutrophil extracellular traps have been shown to be an alternative way to trap microorganisms and contain infection. PMN-derived granule components are also involved in multiple non-infectious inflammatory processes, including the response to myocardial infarction (MI). In this review, we will discuss the biological characteristics, recruitment, activation, and removal of PMNs, as well as the roles of PMN-derived granule proteins in inflammation and innate immunity, focusing on the MI setting when applicable. We also discuss future perspectives that will direct research in PMN biology. PMID:23731794

  19. Immune Mechanisms in Inflammatory and Degenerative Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Victor L.; Caspi, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that pathology of age-associated degenerative eye diseases such as adult macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, have strong immunological underpinnings. Attempts have been made to extrapolate to age-related degenerative disease insights from inflammatory processes associated with non-infectious uveitis, but these have not yet been sufficiently informative. Here we review recent findings on the immune processes underlying uveitis and those that have been shown to contribute to AMD, discussing in this context parallels and differences between overt inflammation and para-inflammation in the eye. We propose that mechanisms associated with ocular immune privilege, in combination with paucity of age-related antigen(s) within the target tissue, dampen what could otherwise be overt inflammation and result in the para-inflammation that characterizes age-associated neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25981967

  20. A unique case of phaeohyphomycosis subretinal abscess in a patient with arthropathy and lung pathology

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Bryan J.; Partridge, David; Sheard, Richard M; Rennie, Ian G; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old former gold miner with rheumatoid arthritis, treated with steroids and methotrexate, presented to eye casualty with a painful right eye. Examination revealed an anterior uveitis and despite an initial response to topical steroids, the intraocular inflammation worsened with anterior and posterior uveitis development. Re-examination showed a white mass in the peripheral nasal retina initially suspected of being active Toxoplasmosis infection and anti-toxoplasmosis treatment commenced. After improvement and tapering of this treatment, the intraocular inflammation reoccurred. Cytopathological examination of a pars plana vitrectomy obtained vitreous sample that showed a non-diagnostic non-infectious chronic vitritis. The vitreoretinal surgeons elected to do a direct biopsy of the white subretinal mass in the peripheral nasal area. This revealed, quite unexpectedly, an abscess containing pigmented phaeohyphomycosis fungi. This case report documents the multidisciplinary approach that assisted in clinching a final diagnosis and the role of sub-retinal biopsy in this unprecedented scenario. PMID:24413827

  1. Inflammatory breast disease: The radiologist's role.

    PubMed

    Lepori, D

    2015-10-01

    Mastitis is the inflammation of breast tissue. From a pathophysiological point of view, mastitis reflects a variety of underlying etiologies. It can be due to non-infectious inflammation, infection (generally of bacterial origin) but can also be caused by inflammation resulting from malignant tumor growth. Mastitis always manifests clinically by three cardinal signs of inflammation, which are redness, heat and pain. Breast specialists examining women with mastitis should proceed as follows: first, it is important to distinguish between cancer-related and non-cancer-related breast inflammation, since their clinical presentation can be misleading. Cancer-related mastitis reflecting the presence of aggressive cancer is less commonly observed than other forms of mastitis but its diagnosis, which can sometimes be difficult, needs to be made, or excluded, without delay. Once cancer-related mastitis has been excluded, the causes of inflammation should be elucidated to enable rapid treatment and patient recovery. PMID:26372222

  2. The gut microbiome shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Round, June L.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2013-01-01

    Immunologic dysregulation is the cause of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms, both symbiotic and pathogenic. Here we discuss findings which indicate that developmental aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced by intestinal bacterial colonization. We also highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host–symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function. Finally, we present recent evidence to support an emerging concept whereby disturbances in the bacterial microbiota result in immunological dysregulation that may underlie disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Perhaps the mammalian immune system which appears designed to control microbes is, in fact, controlled by the microbes themselves. PMID:19343057

  3. Serostatus Disclosure, Stigma Resistance, and Identity Management Among HIV-Positive Gay Men in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patrick J; Hevey, David; O'Dea, Siobhán; Ní Rathaille, Neans; Mulcahy, Fiona

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we examined how non-infectiousness due to antiretroviral therapy has affected HIV-positive gay men's experience of serostatus disclosure to casual sex partners. Interviews were conducted with 15 seropositive gay men living in Ireland. Using grounded theory, three constructions of non-disclosure were proposed-as self-protection, as a morally permissible act, and as a rejection of the HIV-positive identity. Each construction entailed an aspect related to the sexual exclusion of those living with HIV, and an aspect related to their social exclusion. The extent to which the lives of those interviewed were affected by stigma was starkly revealed, as was the extent to which they stigmatized others living with HIV and rejected the HIV-positive identity. The research highlights the failure to socially normalize HIV and that interventions are needed to reduce the distress associated with seropositivity. PMID:26386024

  4. A Bad Case of Good's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tachdjian, Raffi; Keller, Janet J; Pfeffer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Good's syndrome is a relatively rare immunodeficiency condition that presents in the fourth or fifth decade of life and is defined by hypogammaglobulinemia in the setting of a thymoma. The humoral defect may be severe enough to cause an absence in B cells, with a consequent recurrence of sinopulmonary disease, chronic non-infectious diarrhea and opportunistic infections. The prognosis in patients with Good's syndrome appears to be worse than in those with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and common variable immune deficiency (CVID). There have only been three cases of Good's syndrome associated with mycobacterium, and only one case with a cavitary lesion in the lungs. We present here a unique case of Good's syndrome with a non-mycobacterial cavitary lesion. PMID:25287948

  5. [AM and its application in plant disease prevention of Chinese medicinal herbs cultivation].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjuan; Yang, Guang; Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanpin; Wang, Min

    2011-02-01

    To study the beneficial effect of AMF from the utilization achievement in the agroforestry research, we discuss the application of AM in medicinal plant disease prevention and control. This paper summarized the type of medicinal plant disease, the influence of plant disease and the commonly used prevention method in production. As for the adverse consequences caused by plant's non-infectious and infectious diseases, AM has some improvement function. Something will affect the function of AM in the prevention of medicinal plant disease, for example, the relationship between AMF and the plants, the quantity, the time and the environmental factors about AMF inoculation and so on. In order to achieve the useful effect of AM in the prevention of medicinal plant disease, we should choose the suitable condition during production in practice to carry on the vaccination. PMID:21585020

  6. Characterization of virus-like particles by atomic force microscopy in ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oropesa, Reinier; Ramos, Jorge R.; Falcón, Viviana; Felipe, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are attractive candidates for vaccine design since they resemble native viroids in size and morphology, but they are non-infectious due to the absence of a viral genome. The visualization of surface morphologies and structures can be used to deepen the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for the visualization of soft biological samples in a nanoscale resolution. In this work we have investigated the morphology of recombinant surface antigens of hepatitis B (rHBsAg) VLPs from Cuban vaccine against hepatitis B. The rHBsAg VLPs sizes estimated by AFM between 15 and 30 nm are similar to those reported on previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

  7. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-07-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

  8. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas’ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

  9. An atypical form of cervicofacial actinomycosis treated with short but intensive antibiotic regimen

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kaushal Mahendra; Karagir, Amol; Kanitkar, Sampada; Koppikar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Human actinomycosis is a rare soft tissue infection caused by Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria Actinomyces israelii, a commensal of the oral cavity. The major clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forms. The cervicofacial region is most commonly affected. Actinomycosis is sometimes difficult to diagnose and it should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. We report a patient who came with tooth pain and extra-oral swelling which later on presented as multiple draining sinuses. Our initial suspicion was dento-alveolar abscess or osteomyelitis. However, a culture of the discharge and subsequent biopsy revealed actinomycetes, confirming cervicofacial actinomycosis, but presenting itself not as the typical ‘lumpy jaw’. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with a short but intensive antibiotic course. PMID:23580677

  10. Autoimmunity in primary T-cell immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Ghanavatinejad, Alireza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Yazdani, Reza; Rezaei, Nima; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-09-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are a genetically heterogeneous group of more than 270 disorders that affect distinct components of both humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. Primary T cell immunodeficiencies affect subjects at the early age of life. In most cases, T-cell PIDs become apparent as combined T- and B-cell deficiencies. Patients with T-cell PID are prone to life-threatening infections. On the other hand, non-infectious complications such as lymphoproliferative diseases, cancers and autoimmunity seem to be associated with the primary T-cell immunodeficiencies. Autoimmune disorders of all kinds (organ specific or systemic ones) could be subjected to this class of PIDs; however, the most frequent autoimmune disorders are immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms of autoimmunity and review the literature reported on autoimmune disorder in each type of primary T-cell immunodeficiencies. PMID:27063703

  11. Cross-Generational Reproductive Fitness Enforced by Microchimeric Maternal Cells.

    PubMed

    Kinder, Jeremy M; Jiang, Tony T; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Strong, Beverly S; Shaaban, Aimen F; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-07-30

    Exposure to maternal tissue during in utero development imprints tolerance to immunologically foreign non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA) that persists into adulthood. The biological advantage of this tolerance, conserved across mammalian species, remains unclear. Here, we show maternal cells that establish microchimerism in female offspring during development promote systemic accumulation of immune suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) with NIMA specificity. NIMA-specific Tregs expand during pregnancies sired by males expressing alloantigens with overlapping NIMA specificity, thereby averting fetal wastage triggered by prenatal infection and non-infectious disruptions of fetal tolerance. Therefore, exposure to NIMA selectively enhances reproductive success in second-generation females carrying embryos with overlapping paternally inherited antigens. These findings demonstrate that genetic fitness, canonically thought to be restricted to Mendelian inheritance, is enhanced in female placental mammals through vertically transferred maternal cells that promote conservation of NIMA and enforce cross-generational reproductive benefits. PMID:26213383

  12. Emerging Role of Antioxidants in the Protection of Uveitis Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Kalariya, Nilesh M; Ramana, Kota V

    2011-01-01

    Current understanding of the role of oxidative stress in ocular inflammatory diseases indicates that antioxidant therapy may be important to optimize the treatment. Recently investigated antioxidant therapies for ocular inflammatory diseases include various vitamins, plant products and reactive oxygen species scavengers. Oxidative stress plays a causative role in both non-infectious and infectious uveitis complications, and novel strategies to diminish tissue damage and dysfunction with antioxidant therapy may ameliorate visual complications. Preclinical studies with experimental animals and cell culture demonstrate significance of anti-inflammatory effects of a number of promising antioxidant agents. Many of these antioxidants are under clinical trial for various inflammatory diseases other than uveitis such as cardiovascular, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. Well planned interventional clinical studies of the ocular inflammation will be necessary to sufficiently investigate the potential medical benefits of antioxidant therapies for uveitis. This review summarizes the recent investigation of novel antioxidant agents for ocular inflammation, with selected studies focused on uveitis. PMID:21182473

  13. Autophagy in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Blomgren, Klas; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism that ensures the lysosomal degradation of old, supernumerary or ectopic cytoplasmic entities. Most eukaryotic cells, including neurons, rely on proficient autophagic responses for the maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. Accordingly, autophagy mediates neuroprotective effects following some forms of acute brain damage, including methamphetamine intoxication, spinal cord injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In some other circumstances, however, the autophagic machinery precipitates a peculiar form of cell death (known as autosis) that contributes to the aetiology of other types of acute brain damage, such as neonatal asphyxia. Here, we dissect the context-specific impact of autophagy on non-infectious acute brain injury, emphasizing the possible therapeutic application of pharmacological activators and inhibitors of this catabolic process for neuroprotection. PMID:27256553

  14. The emerging role of autophagy in peroxisome dynamics and lipid metabolism of phyllosphere microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Oku, Masahide; Takano, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic microorganisms resident in the phyllosphere (above-ground, plant-surface environments) undergo dynamic changes in nutrient conditions and adapt their metabolic pathways during proliferation or in the course of infection of host plants. Some of these metabolic switches are accomplished by regulation of organelle abundance. Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a major role in reducing the organelle quantity, thereby contributing to the metabolic switch required for survival or virulence of the microorganisms in the phyllosphere. In this mini review the metabolic pathways in several phytopathogenic fungi and the non-infectious asporogenous yeast Candida boidinii, which involve lipid droplets and peroxisomes, are summarized. The physiological functions of Atg (Autophagy-related) proteins in these organisms are discussed in relation to the dynamics of these two important organelles. PMID:24653730

  15. What we are watching—five top global infectious disease threats, 2012: a perspective from CDC’s Global Disease Detection Operations Center

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Kira A.; Ijaz, Kashef; Dowell, Scott F.; Chow, Catherine C.; Chitale, Rohit A.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Mintz, Eric; Pallansch, Mark A.; Wassilak, Steven; McCray, Eugene; Arthur, Ray R.

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks of international public health importance continue to occur regularly; detecting and tracking significant new public health threats in countries that cannot or might not report such events to the global health community is a challenge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Global Disease Detection (GDD) Operations Center, established in early 2007, monitors infectious and non-infectious public health events to identify new or unexplained global public health threats and better position CDC to respond, if public health assistance is requested or required. At any one time, the GDD Operations Center actively monitors approximately 30–40 such public health threats; here we provide our perspective on five of the top global infectious disease threats that we were watching in 2012: (1) avian influenza A (H5N1), (2) cholera, (3) wild poliovirus, (4) enterovirus-71, and (5) extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:23827387

  16. Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Michelle S; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253 cells/mm(3). A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p < 0.05) with CD4 T cell count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi's sarcoma in our study, a case of verrucous carcinoma of penis was noted. PMID:25015936

  17. Immune Mechanism: A ‘Double-Edged Sword’

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Mustaffa

    2013-01-01

    Immunology has now developed into an independent discipline in medicine which covers not only germ infection which is related to immunity solely but also covers a lot of non-infectious diseases such as autoimmune disease, allergies, and others. Therefore, “The Immune Mechanism: “A Double-Edged Sword” means that the immune mechanism (consisted of antibody mediated mechanism and T cell mediated mechanism), just like one edge playing the role of giving benefit (immunity) as it destroys the agent of infection, and another one can be detrimental as it will cause tissue/cell damages and then give rise to immune diseases (immunopathology). Now, the prevalence of these immune diseases is on the rise and has become a new challenge to our country towards developed country in 2020. Therefore, we have to make ample preparation (laboratory facilities/services, main power, and research) from now on in order to face the problems and challenges. PMID:23966827

  18. Approach to Chronic Lymphocytic Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Nadkarni, Nilesh

    2015-09-01

    Chronic meningitis is a common clinical problem. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy is important in improving the overall outcome and to prevent long-lasting sequels. As many etiological agents lead to the development of chronic lymphocytic meningitis, it is important to develop a systematic approach to the diagnosis; taking clues from history, examination and laboratory tests, to make an accurate diagnosis and institute appropriate therapy. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach towards the commonly encountered situation of chronic lymphocytic meningitis. Chronic meningitis is defined as meningeal inflammation that persists for more than 4 weeks. Chronic meningitis accounts for less than 10% of all the cases of meningitis.1 Causes of chronic lymphocytic meningitis are mainly divided into infectious and non-infectious listed in Table 1.2 Due to advancement in investigations, diseases causing chronic meningitis may be diagnosed earlier than 4 weeks and hence the definition should be considered as a rough guideline. PMID:27608867

  19. An audit into the efficacy of single use bacterial/viral filters for the prevention of equipment contamination during lung function assessment.

    PubMed

    Unstead, M; Stearn, M D; Cramer, D; Chadwick, M V; Wilson, R

    2006-05-01

    Lung function testing has been suggested to provide a potential risk regarding cross-infection between patients. About 155 patients (86 infectious, 69 non-infectious) used a single use bacterial/viral filter when performing routine lung function tests. Swabs from the patient side of the filter (Proximal) and the equipment side (Distal), and two sections of the filter itself were cultured. About 33/155 samples showed bacterial growth on the Proximal compared with 2/155 on the Distal side (P<0.01). Growth was obtained from the filter in 125/155 (80.6%) of cases. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 cases) and Staphylococcus aureus (5 cases) were isolated. Appropriate infection control measures should be used when performing lung function tests. PMID:16242312

  20. Hazards of ionising radiation: 100 years of observations on man.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.

    1995-01-01

    In November 1895, when Conrad Röntgen serendipitously discovered X-rays, epidemiology was effectively limited to the study of infectious disease. What little epidemiological work was done in other fields was done as part of clinical medicine or under the heading of geographical pathology. The risks from exposure to X-rays and subsequently from other types of ionising radiation were consequently discovered by qualitative association or animal experiment. They did not begin to be quantified in humans until half a century later, when epidemiology emerged as a scientific discipline capable of quantifying risks of non-infectious disease and the scientific world was alerted to the need for assessing the effects of the radiation to which large populations might be exposed by the use of nuclear energy in peace and war. PMID:8519643

  1. Allergic Conjunctival Granuloma Presenting the Splendore-Hoeppli Phenomenon; Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shahriari, Mansoor; Hosseini, Sayed Bagher; Aliakbar-Navahi, Roshanak; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Abrishami, Yalda

    2015-01-01

    To report two cases of bilateral conjunctival granuloma with histopathological features of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and review of the literature. Two female patients, one with a history of pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration and another with a history of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, presented with bilateral cream to yellow colored nodules in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. Histopathologic examination revealed characteristic features of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon manifesting as zones of amorphous eosinophilic material surrounded by aggregations of epithelioid histiocytes, giant cells, eosinophils and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. No evidence of infectious organisms was found. Our report adds to non-infectious cases of conjunctival Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Previous history of allergic disorders may have contributed to the occurrence of this entity. PMID:27051494

  2. Allergic Conjunctival Granuloma Presenting the Splendore-Hoeppli Phenomenon; Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mansoor; Hosseini, Sayed Bagher; Aliakbar-Navahi, Roshanak; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Abrishami, Yalda

    2015-01-01

    To report two cases of bilateral conjunctival granuloma with histopathological features of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and review of the literature. Two female patients, one with a history of pulmonary eosinophilic infiltration and another with a history of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, presented with bilateral cream to yellow colored nodules in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. Histopathologic examination revealed characteristic features of the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon manifesting as zones of amorphous eosinophilic material surrounded by aggregations of epithelioid histiocytes, giant cells, eosinophils and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. No evidence of infectious organisms was found. Our report adds to non-infectious cases of conjunctival Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. Previous history of allergic disorders may have contributed to the occurrence of this entity. PMID:27051494

  3. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  4. [Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of quercetin and its glycosides].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shu-xia; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de; Chen, Kun-song

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin and its glycosides are important flavonols in traditional herbal drugs and plant-derived food, and they have diverse hiological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. Numerous studies have demonstrated that quercetin and its glycosides were effective in the prevention and treatment of non-infectious chronic disease such as diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. They can regulate glucose and lipid metaholism through different mechanisms. They can decrease blood glucose via protecting pancreatic/p cells or/and improving insulin sensitivity. Also, they have lipid-lowering effects, which may be the result of regulation of lipid catabolism or/and anabolism. Their distributions, as well as the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects are reviewed in this paper. In addition, further bioactivities as well as their dose-activity relationship, structure-activity relationship, bioavailability, and future clinical application of quercetin and its glycosides are discussed and proposed. PMID:27141664

  5. Identification of immunodominant proteins of the microalgae Prototheca by proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Irrgang, A.; Weise, C.; Murugaiyan, J.; Roesler, U.

    2014-01-01

    Prototheca zopfii associated with bovine mastitis and human protothecosis exists as two genotypes, of which genotype 1 is considered as non-infectious and genotype 2 as infectious. The mechanism of infection has not yet been described. The present study was aimed to identify genotype 2-specific immunodominant proteins. Prototheca proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Subsequent western blotting with rabbit hyperimmune serum revealed 28 protein spots. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 15 proteins including malate dehydrogenase, elongation factor 1-alpha, heat shock protein 70, and 14-3-3 protein, which were previously described as immunogenic proteins of other eukaryotic pathogens. PMID:25755891

  6. Building national public health capacity for managing chemical events: A case study of the development of health protection services in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen; Coleman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (2005) require that countries develop plans for chemical threats. In 2012, the World Health Assembly reported that most countries had not yet achieved ‘adequate capacity'. We review the evolution of chemical hazards services in the United Kingdom, the result of 15 years of grass-roots pressure and an accumulating weight of chemical incidents that eventually convinced the UK Department of Health of the need for a new national public health function, culminating, in 2003, in the creation of the Chemical Hazards Division of the new Health Protection Agency. Ten years later, public health services are again being radically reorganized with the creation of Public Health England, potentially destabilizing health protection arrangements and creating confusion among roles in managing chemical emergencies. Incorporating health protection into a broader public health organization, however, offers a new opportunity to broaden the scope of health protection services to embrace prevention of non-infectious environmental diseases. PMID:23447032

  7. Use of Centrifugal Filter Devices to Concentrate Dengue Virus in Mosquito per os Infection Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jérôme; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva. PMID:26372347

  8. Hepatitis with special reference to dogs. A review on the pathogenesis and infectious etiologies, including unpublished results of recent own studies.

    PubMed

    Boomkens, S Y; Penning, L C; Egberink, H F; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Rothuizen, J

    2004-09-01

    The causes of hepatitis in dogs are mostly unknown. Known causes of canine hepatitis are infectious (CAV-1), toxic (e.g. aflatoxin), and metabolic (copper accumulation). In order to understand the unknown causes, research in this field is necessary. Despite the marked progress in the knowledge on viral causes for human hepatitis, the involvement of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of hepatitis in the dog is still largely unknown. It is, like in human hepatitis, very likely that more than one causative infectious agent may cause hepatitis in the dog. This review presents the various forms of hepatitis in the dog, the known infectious and non-infectious causes of canine hepatitis, the infectious causes of hepatitis in man and other animals, and finally our recent infection and molecular studies to investigate possible infectious causes of canine hepatitis. PMID:15559391

  9. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  10. Stromal fibroblast activation and their potential association with uterine fibroids (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, LI-HUA; CAI, FENG-FENG; GE, ISABELL; BISKUP, EWELINA; CHENG, ZHONG-PING

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common type of benign, gynecologic neoplasm and are the primary indication for performance of a hysterectomy, accounting for >200,000 hysterectomies annually in the USA. At present, females are younger and exhibit larger leiomyomas at the time of diagnosis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumor microenvironments have emerged as an important target for cancer therapy. Repeated stimulation by infectious or non-infectious agents in the uterine tissues, including inflammation, mechanical forces or hypoxia, stimulate the resident fibroblasts to undergo specific activation and, thus, are significant in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, complex signaling pathways regulate the mechanisms of fibroblastic activation. The current review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of fibroblastic activation and the potential association with uterine leiomyoma pathogenesis, enabling an integrated pathogenic analysis for review of the therapeutic options. PMID:25013460

  11. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Knut.

    PubMed

    Prüss, H; Leubner, J; Wenke, N K; Czirják, G Á; Szentiks, C A; Greenwood, A D

    2015-01-01

    Knut the polar bear of the Berlin Zoological Garden drowned in 2011 following seizures and was diagnosed as having suffered encephalitis of unknown etiology after exhaustive pathogen screening. Using the diagnostic criteria applied to human patients, we demonstrate that Knut's encephalitis is almost identical to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a severe autoimmune disease representing the most common non-infectious encephalitis in humans. High concentrations of antibodies specific against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in Knut's cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination demonstrated very similar patterns of plasma cell infiltration and minimal neuronal loss in affected brain areas. We conclude that Knut suffered anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis making his the first reported non-human case of this treatable disease. The results suggest that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be a disease of broad relevance to mammals that until now has remained undiagnosed. PMID:26313569

  12. Travel risk assessment, advice and vaccinations in immunocompromised travellers (HIV, solid organ transplant and haematopoeitic stem cell transplant recipients): A review.

    PubMed

    Aung, A K; Trubiano, J A; Spelman, D W

    2015-01-01

    International travellers with immunocompromising conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, solid organ transplantation (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at a significant risk of travel-related illnesses from both communicable and non-communicable diseases, depending on the intensity of underlying immune dysfunction, travel destinations and activities. In addition, the choice of travel vaccinations, timing and protective antibody responses are also highly dependent on the underlying conditions and thus pose significant challenges to the health-care providers who are involved in pre-travel risk assessment. This review article provides a framework of understanding and approach to aforementioned groups of immunocompromised travellers regarding pre-travel risk assessment and management; in particular travel vaccinations, infectious and non-infectious disease risks and provision of condition-specific advice; to reduce travel-related mortality and morbidity. PMID:25593039

  13. Separation of endogenous viral elements from infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Owens, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Non-infectious Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV)-related sequences in the shrimp genome cause false positive results with current PCR protocols. Here, we examined and mapped PstDV insertion profile in the genome of Australian Penaeus monodon. A DNA sequence which is likely to represent infectious PstDV was also identified and used as a target sequence for recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based approach, developed for specifically detecting PstDV. The RPA protocol at 37 °C for 30 min showed no cross-reaction with other shrimp viruses, and was 10 times more sensitive than the 309F/R PCR protocol currently recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for PstDV diagnosis. These features, together with the simplicity of the protocol, requiring only a heating block for the reaction, offer opportunities for rapid and efficient detection of PstDV. PMID:25171809

  14. Turning off the tap: stopping tuberculosis transmission through active case-finding and prompt effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Amanullah, Farhana; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Nardell, Edward A; Seddon, James A; Vasilyeva, Irina; Zhao, Yanlin; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2015-12-01

    To halt the global tuberculosis epidemic, transmission must be stopped to prevent new infections and new cases. Identification of individuals with tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment to rapidly render them non-infectious is crucial to this task. However, in settings of high tuberculosis burden, active case-finding is often not implemented, resulting in long delays in diagnosis and treatment. A range of strategies to find cases and ensure prompt and correct treatment have been shown to be effective in high tuberculosis-burden settings. The population-level effect of targeted active case-finding on reducing tuberculosis incidence has been shown by studies and projected by mathematical modelling. The inclusion of targeted active case-finding in a comprehensive epidemic-control strategy for tuberculosis should contribute substantially to a decrease in tuberculosis incidence. PMID:26515675

  15. HIV-1 Integrase Binds the Viral RNA Genome and Is Essential during Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Townsend, Dana; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Slaughter, Alison; Larue, Ross C; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Bakouche, Nordine; Fuchs, James R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-08-25

    While an essential role of HIV-1 integrase (IN) for integration of viral cDNA into human chromosome is established, studies with IN mutants and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) have suggested that IN can also influence viral particle maturation. However, it has remained enigmatic as to how IN contributes to virion morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IN directly binds the viral RNA genome in virions. These interactions have specificity, as IN exhibits distinct preference for select viral RNA structural elements. We show that IN substitutions that selectively impair its binding to viral RNA result in eccentric, non-infectious virions without affecting nucleocapsid-RNA interactions. Likewise, ALLINIs impair IN binding to viral RNA in virions of wild-type, but not escape mutant, virus. These results reveal an unexpected biological role of IN binding to the viral RNA genome during virion morphogenesis and elucidate the mode of action of ALLINIs. PMID:27565348

  16. Intra-articular and Peri-articular Tumours and Tumour Mimics- What a Clinician and Onco-imaging Radiologist Should Know

    PubMed Central

    DHANDA, Sunita; QUEK, Swee Tian; BATHLA, Girish; JAGMOHAN, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Definitive determination of the cause of articular swelling may be difficult based on just the clinical symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory tests. Joint disorders fall under the realms of rheumatology and general orthopaedics; however, patients with joint conditions manifesting primarily as intra-articular and peri-articular soft tissue swelling may at times be referred to an orthopaedic oncology department with suspicion of a tumour. In such a situation, an onco-radiologist needs to think beyond the usual neoplastic lesions and consider the diagnoses of various non-neoplastic arthritic conditions that may be clinically masquerading as masses. Differential diagnoses of articular lesions include infectious and non-infectious synovial proliferative processes, degenerative lesions, deposition diseases, vascular malformations, benign and malignant neoplasms and additional miscellaneous conditions. Many of these diseases have specific imaging findings. Knowledge of these radiological characteristics in an appropriate clinical context will allow for a more confident diagnosis. PMID:24876802

  17. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis of the spine : Children and adolescent].

    PubMed

    von der Höh, N H; Völker, A; Jeszenszky, D; Heyde, C-E

    2016-06-01

    Chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) in childhood and adolescence is a non-infectious autoinflammatory disease of the bone with partial involvement of adjacent joints and soft tissue. The etiology is unknown. The disease can occur singular or recurrent. Individual bones can be affected and multiple lesions can occur. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) shows the whole picture of CNO. Accompanying but temporally independent of the bouts of osteomyelitis, some patients show manifestations in the skin, eyes, lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. The article gives an overview of the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options for CRMO involvement of the spine based on the current literature and our own cases. PMID:27221306

  18. Adverse events related to blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

  19. A 12-year-old African American girl with subacute bilateral ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Bar, Amir; Urbine, Jacqueline; Bahora, Yasmine; Berkenstock, Meghan; Vodzak, Jennifer; Guruprasad, Hamalatha; Sinha, Manisha; Abed, Thair; Legido, Agustín

    2014-06-01

    A twelve-year-old African-American female presented with two week history of progressively worsening headache and fatigue, and vision difficulties for the past week. The physical examination was normal. The neurological evaluation was normal, except for cranial nerves (CN) testing, which showed bilateral restriction of adduction (CN III) and up gaze (CN IV) motions, vertical nystagmus, and left side facial paresis of central origin (CN VII). The bilateral exotropia and ophthalmoplegia are characteristics of WEBINO (Wall-Eyed Bilateral Intranuclear Ophthalmoplegia) syndrome, associated to a brain stem structural lesion. The following causes were evaluated and ruled out: tumor, infection, ischemic stroke, non-infectious inflammation. Pediatric Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes were then considered. Neuromyelitis Optica was ruled out in the absence of neuritis and normal spinal cord MRI. The differential diagnosis between Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis, causing an isolated brain stem syndrome, is discussed. PMID:25149958

  20. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; et al

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improvemore » public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review

  1. Medical Waste Co-Firing Comes of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Berntson, K.; Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-18

    In early 1992 DONLEE Technologies, Inc., in cooperation with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program, completed pilot testing of simulated non-infectious waste combustion, co-fired with coal, at its test facility in York, Pennsylvania. The goal of this testing was to demonstrate the ability of fluidized bed combustion to completely destruct medical waste with minimized dioxin emissions. The test facility is a full scale circulating fluidized bed unit with a maximum heat input capability of ten million BTU per hour. The tests showed that the circulating fluidized bed system is ideally suited to meet the medical/infectious waste destruction needs of the health care industry. The dioxin emission levels proved to be significantly lower than those from presently operating MWIS. Based on the successful test results, a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Power Systems, DONLEE Technologies, and the Veterans Administration was reached to design, construct, and test a demonstration unit at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Plant design and construction was started in 1993, with DONLEE Technologies functioning as both the technology supplier and the plant EPC contractor. After some delay the construction of the demonstration unit finally reached completion in the spring of 1996. The unit is currently undergoing initial shakedown and testing to verify the base operating parameters. The unit will first be fired with coal only, followed by the introduction of non-infectious waste and finally total waste, including the ``red bag`` material. The program calls for an extended testing period of up to one year. While the unit is being operated as part of the stream supply system at the VA Hospital, the hospital`s waste is destroyed via combustion in the Fluidized Bed Unit.

  2. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  3. sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, effect of smoking and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, M; Bucova, M; E, Tibenska; Demian, J; Majer, I; Novosadova, H; Tedlova, E; Durmanova, V; Paulovicova, E

    2013-01-01

    Soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1; Triggering receptor expressed on myelocytes) is a new inflammatory marker indicating the intensity of myeloid cells activation and the presence of infection caused by extracellular bacteria and mould.The aim of our work was to detect and compare the levels of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS) and other ILD of non-infectious origin. The sTREM-1 levels were assessed by ELISA in 46 patients suffering from ILD, out of them 22 with PS. The levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients were higher than in control group of ILD patients of non-infectious origin, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Since all PS patients except one were non-smokers we compared non-smokers PS with non-smokers ILD patients and found four times higher levels of BALF sTREM-1 in PS patients (P = 0.001). We also recorded the effect of smoking, ILD smokers had higher sTREM-1 levels than non-smokers (P = 0.0019). Higher concentrations of sTREM-1 were detected in BALF of patients with lymphadenopathy and with elevated inflammatory markers in BALF. Our results show that BALF sTREM-1 could be a good inflammatory marker and could help in diagnosis and PS monitoring. Detection of sTREM-1 in BALF indirectly points to myeloid cells activation in the lungs and helps to complete the information about the number of myeloid cells commonly determined in BALF with additional information concerning the intensity of their activation. This is the first study that analyses BALF sTREM-1 levels in patients with PS (Tab. 8, Ref. 28). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:24329508

  4. Impact of Heat and Cold on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Vadu HDSS—A Rural Setting in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Ingole, Vijendra; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Schumann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases are affected by changes in weather. There have been limited studies, however, which have examined the relationship between heat and cold and cause-specific mortality in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we aimed to estimate the effects of heat and cold days on total and cause-specific mortality in the Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western India. We used a quasi-Poisson regression model allowing for over-dispersion to examine the association of total and cause-specific mortality with extreme high (98th percentile, >39 °C) and low temperature (2nd percentile, <25 °C) over the period January 2003 to December 2012. Delays of 0 and 0–4 days were considered and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Heat was significantly associated with daily deaths by non-infectious diseases (RR = 1.57; CI: 1.18–2.10). There was an increase in the risk of total mortality in the age group 12–59 years on lag 0 day (RR = 1.43; CI: 1.02–1.99). A high increase in total mortality was observed among men at lag 0 day (RR = 1.38; CI: 1.05–1.83). We did not find any short-term association between total and cause-specific mortality and cold days. Deaths from neither infectious nor external causes were associated with heat or cold. Our results showed a strong and rather immediate relationship between high temperatures and non-infectious disease mortality in a rural population located in western India, during 2003–2012. This study may be used to develop targeted interventions such as Heat Early Warning Systems in the area to reduce mortality from extreme temperatures. PMID:26633452

  5. Nausea and Vomiting as the Reasons for Encounter in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Thomas; Klauss, Steffi; Herrmann, Kristin; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to explore the consultation prevalence, differential diagnoses, and management of patients presenting with nausea or vomiting to their family doctors. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from randomly selected patients during the SESAM 2 study (October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000). We contacted 2510 doctors; 270 (10.8%) of them participated in the study. Data were collected from randomly selected patients previously known to the general practitioner. Unpublished but publicly available data from the Dutch Transition Project were also analysed. Results One hundred and sixty-nine of the total 8874 patients consulted their general practitioner for nausea/vomiting; 97 (57.4%) were female and 72 (42.6%) were male. Most patients suffering from nausea or vomiting in general practice were aged between 15 and 64 years. Nearly all patients were given a physical examination. Most diagnoses were made without further investigation, additional diagnostic procedures were found to be necessary in only 7 patients. Drugs were prescribed as the most frequent form of medical treatment, in 76.3% of cases. Non-infectious gastroenteritis or colitis was the most frequent diagnosis. Nausea or vomiting was associated with diarrhoea, fever, and abdominal pain. Headache, general weakness, and epigastric pain were also statistically significantly associated with nausea or vomiting. Conclusions Many disorders cause nausea or vomiting. Although most of the patients were diagnosed with non-infectious gastroenteritis or colitis, the general practitioner also has to bear in mind that nausea and vomiting may be alarm symptoms. Medication was prescribed in most of the cases and there were only a few referrals to a specialist or hospital. Life-threatening disorders (appendicitis, bowel obstruction/ileus) were found in a few cases presenting with nausea or vomiting. Keywords Nausea; Vomiting; General practice; Primary care PMID:22043268

  6. Using Social Media for Actionable Disease Surveillance and Outbreak Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n = 15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 4), Medication and Vaccines (n = 3), and Other (n = 5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n = 10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n = 9), and Other (n = 10). Conclusions The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting

  7. The effect of perioperative probiotics treatment for colorectal cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongqi; Hong, Leiming; Feng, Junlan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Shi, Chenzhang; Wu, Wen; Gao, Renyuan; Wei, Qing; Qin, Huanlong; Ma, Yanlei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to mainly evaluate the anti-infective effects of perioperative probiotic treatment in patients receiving confined colorectal cancer (CRC) respective surgery. From November 2011 to September 2012, a total of 60 patients diagnosed with CRC were randomly assigned to receive probiotic (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) treatment. The operative and post-operative clinical results including intestinal cleanliness, days to first - flatus, defecation, fluid diet, solid diet, duration of pyrexia, average heart rate, length of intraperitoneal drainage, length of antibiotic therapy, blood index changes, rate of infectious and non-infectious complications, postoperative hospital stay, and mortality were investigated. The patient demographics were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the probiotic treated and the placebo groups. The days to first flatus (3.63 versus 3.27, p = 0.0274) and the days to first defecation (4.53 versus 3.87, p = 0.0268) were significantly improved in the probiotic treated patients. The incidence of diarrhea was significantly lower (p = 0.0352) in probiotics group (26.67%, 8/30) compared to the placebo group (53.33%, 16/30). There were no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in other infectious and non-infectious complication rates including wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, anastomotic leakage, and abdominal distension. In conclusion, for those patients undergoing confined CRC resection, perioperative probiotic administration significantly influenced the recovery of bowel function, and such improvement may be of important clinical significance in reducing the short-term infectious complications such as bacteremia. PMID:26824990

  8. Using social media for actionable disease surveillance and outbreak management. A systematic literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Reynolds, Tera L.; Cameron, Mark A.; Conway, Mike; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Pavlin, Julie A.; Shigematsu, Mika; Streichert, Laura C.; Suda, Katie J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana

    2015-10-05

    Here, research studies show that social media may be valuable tools in the disease surveillance toolkit used for improving public health professionals’ ability to detect disease outbreaks faster than traditional methods and to enhance outbreak response. A social media work group, consisting of surveillance practitioners, academic researchers, and other subject matter experts convened by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, conducted a systematic primary literature review using the PRISMA framework to identify research, published through February 2013, answering either of the following questions: 1) Can social media be integrated into disease surveillance practice and outbreak management to support and improve public health? 2) Can social media be used to effectively target populations, specifically vulnerable populations, to test an intervention and interact with a community to improve health outcomes? Examples of social media included are Facebook, MySpace, microblogs (e.g., Twitter), blogs, and discussion forums. For Question 1, 33 manuscripts were identified, starting in 2009 with topics on Influenza-like Illnesses (n=15), Infectious Diseases (n = 6), Non-infectious Diseases (n=4), Medication and Vaccines (n=3), and Other (n=5). For Question 2, 32 manuscripts were identified, the first in 2000 with topics on Health Risk Behaviors (n=10), Infectious Diseases (n = 3), Non-infectious Diseases (n=9), and Other (n=10). The literature on the use of social media to support public health practice has identified many gaps and biases in current knowledge. Despite the potential for success identified in exploratory studies, there are limited studies on interventions and little use of social media in practice. However, information gleaned from the articles demonstrates the effectiveness of social media in supporting and improving public health and in identifying target populations for intervention. A primary recommendation resulting from the review is to

  9. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S; White, H Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled "epilepsy." Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  10. Impact of Heat and Cold on Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Vadu HDSS--A Rural Setting in Western India.

    PubMed

    Ingole, Vijendra; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Schumann, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Many diseases are affected by changes in weather. There have been limited studies, however, which have examined the relationship between heat and cold and cause-specific mortality in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we aimed to estimate the effects of heat and cold days on total and cause-specific mortality in the Vadu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western India. We used a quasi-Poisson regression model allowing for over-dispersion to examine the association of total and cause-specific mortality with extreme high (98th percentile, >39 °C) and low temperature (2nd percentile, <25 °C) over the period January 2003 to December 2012. Delays of 0 and 0-4 days were considered and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Heat was significantly associated with daily deaths by non-infectious diseases (RR = 1.57; CI: 1.18-2.10). There was an increase in the risk of total mortality in the age group 12-59 years on lag 0 day (RR = 1.43; CI: 1.02-1.99). A high increase in total mortality was observed among men at lag 0 day (RR = 1.38; CI: 1.05-1.83). We did not find any short-term association between total and cause-specific mortality and cold days. Deaths from neither infectious nor external causes were associated with heat or cold. Our results showed a strong and rather immediate relationship between high temperatures and non-infectious disease mortality in a rural population located in western India, during 2003-2012. This study may be used to develop targeted interventions such as Heat Early Warning Systems in the area to reduce mortality from extreme temperatures. PMID:26633452

  11. Nutrition Screening Tools and the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes among Chinese Hospitalized Gastrointestinal Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Wei; Bruening, Kay Stearns; Raj, Sudha; Larsen, David A

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are widely used screening tools but have not been compared in a Chinese population. We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which included 332 hospitalized gastrointestinal disease patients, collected by the Gastrointestinal department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2008. Results of NRS-2002 and SGA screening tools, complications, length of stay (LOS), cost, and death were measured. The agreement between the tools was assessed via Kappa (κ) statistics. The performance of NRS-2002 and SGA in predicting LOS and cost was assessed via linear regression. The complications and death prediction of tools was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. NRS-2002 and SGA identified nutrition risk at 59.0% and 45.2% respectively. Moderate agreement (κ >0.50) between the two tools was found among all age groups except individuals aged ≤ 20, which only slight agreement was found (κ = 0.087). NRS-2002 (R square 0.130) and SGA (R square 0.140) did not perform differently in LOS prediction. The cost prediction of NRS-2002 (R square 0.198) and SGA (R square 0.190) were not significantly different. There was no difference between NRS-2002 (infectious complications: area under ROC (AUROC) = 0.615, death: AUROC = 0.810) and SGA (infectious complications: AUROC = 0.600, death: AUROC = 0.846) in predicting infectious complication and death, but NRS-2002 (0.738) seemed to perform better than SGA (0.552) in predicting non-infectious complications. The risk of malnutrition among patients was high. NRS-2002 and SGA have similar capacity to predict LOS, cost, infectious complications and death, but NRS-2002 performed better in predicting non-infectious complications. PMID:27490480

  12. Inactivated and subunit vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: Current status and future direction.

    PubMed

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-06-17

    Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS. PMID:25980425

  13. Deciphering the Contribution of Biofilm to the Pathogenesis of Peritoneal Dialysis Infections: Characterization and Microbial Behaviour on Dialysis Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Joana; Machado, Diana; Gomes, Ana Marta; Machado, Idalina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Carvalho, Maria João; Cabrita, António

    2016-01-01

    Infections are major complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) with a multifactorial etiology that comprises patient, microbial and dialytic factors. This study aimed at investigating the contribution of microbial biofilms on PD catheters to recalcitrant infections and their interplay with PD related-factors. A prospective observational study was performed on 47 patients attending Centro Hospitalar of Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho to whom the catheter was removed due to infectious (n = 16) and non-infectious causes (n = 31). Microbial density on the catheter was assessed by culture methods and the isolated microorganisms identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight intact cell mass spectrometry. The effect of conventional and three biocompatible PD solutions on 16 Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains planktonic growth and biofilm formation was evaluated. Cultures were positive in 87.5% of the catheters removed due infectious and 90.3% removed due to non-infectious causes. However, microbial yields were higher on the cuffs of catheters removed due to infection vs. non-infection. Staphylococci (CNS and Staphylococcus aureus) and P. aeruginosa were the predominant species: 32% and 20% in the infection and 43.3% and 22.7% in the non-infection group, respectively. In general, PD solutions had a detrimental effect on planktonic CNS and P. aeruginosa strains growth. All strains formed biofilms in the presence of PD solutions. The solutions had a more detrimental effect on P. aeruginosa than CNS strains. No major differences were observed between conventional and biocompatible solutions, although in icodextrin solution biofilm biomass was lower than in bicarbonate/lactate solution. Overall, we show that microbial biofilm is universal in PD catheters with the subclinical menace of Staphylococci and P. aeruginosa. Cuffs colonization may significantly contribute to infection. PD solutions differentially

  14. Nutrition Screening Tools and the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes among Chinese Hospitalized Gastrointestinal Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Wei; Bruening, Kay Stearns; Raj, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are widely used screening tools but have not been compared in a Chinese population. We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which included 332 hospitalized gastrointestinal disease patients, collected by the Gastrointestinal department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2008. Results of NRS-2002 and SGA screening tools, complications, length of stay (LOS), cost, and death were measured. The agreement between the tools was assessed via Kappa (κ) statistics. The performance of NRS-2002 and SGA in predicting LOS and cost was assessed via linear regression. The complications and death prediction of tools was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. NRS-2002 and SGA identified nutrition risk at 59.0% and 45.2% respectively. Moderate agreement (κ >0.50) between the two tools was found among all age groups except individuals aged ≤ 20, which only slight agreement was found (κ = 0.087). NRS-2002 (R square 0.130) and SGA (R square 0.140) did not perform differently in LOS prediction. The cost prediction of NRS-2002 (R square 0.198) and SGA (R square 0.190) were not significantly different. There was no difference between NRS-2002 (infectious complications: area under ROC (AUROC) = 0.615, death: AUROC = 0.810) and SGA (infectious complications: AUROC = 0.600, death: AUROC = 0.846) in predicting infectious complication and death, but NRS-2002 (0.738) seemed to perform better than SGA (0.552) in predicting non-infectious complications. The risk of malnutrition among patients was high. NRS-2002 and SGA have similar capacity to predict LOS, cost, infectious complications and death, but NRS-2002 performed better in predicting non-infectious complications. PMID:27490480

  15. A Review and Framework for Categorizing Current Research and Development in Health Related Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nøhr, C.; Sørensen, E. M.; Gudes, O.; Geraghty, E. M.; Shaw, N. T.; Bivona-Tellez, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The application of GIS in health science has increased over the last decade and new innovative application areas have emerged. This study reviews the literature and builds a framework to provide a conceptual overview of the domain, and to promote strategic planning for further research of GIS in health. Method The framework is based on literature from the library databases Scopus and Web of Science. The articles were identified based on keywords and initially selected for further study based on titles and abstracts. A grounded theory-inspired method was applied to categorize the selected articles in main focus areas. Subsequent frequency analysis was performed on the identified articles in areas of infectious and non-infectious diseases and continent of origin. Results A total of 865 articles were included. Four conceptual domains within GIS in health sciences comprise the framework: spatial analysis of disease, spatial analysis of health service planning, public health, health technologies and tools. Frequency analysis by disease status and location show that malaria and schistosomiasis are the most commonly analyzed infectious diseases where cancer and asthma are the most frequently analyzed non-infectious diseases. Across categories, articles from North America predominate, and in the category of spatial analysis of diseases an equal number of studies concern Asia. Conclusion Spatial analysis of diseases and health service planning are well-established research areas. The development of future technologies and new application areas for GIS and data-gathering technologies such as GPS, smartphones, remote sensing etc. will be nudging the research in GIS and health. PMID:25123730

  16. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions among Inmates in the Texas Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Baillargeon, Jacques G.; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Pulvino, John S.; Paar, David P.; Kelley, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Given the rapid growth and aging of the US prison population in recent years, the disease profile and health care needs of inmates portend to have far-reaching public health implications. Although numerous studies have examined infectious disease prevalence and treatment in incarcerated populations, little is known about the prevalence of non-infectious chronic medical conditions in US prison populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected non-infectious chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system. The study population consisted of the total census of inmates who were incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for any duration from September 1, 2006 through August 31, 2007 (N = 234,031). Information on medical diagnoses was obtained from a system-wide electronic medical record system. Overall crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were as follows: hypertension, 18.8%; asthma, 5.4%; diabetes, 4.2%; ischemic heart disease, 1.7%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 0.96%; and cerebrovascular disease, 0.23%. Nearly one quarter (24.5%) of the study population had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for asthma, crude prevalence estimates of the selected conditions increased monotonically with age. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) of inmates who were ≥55 years of age had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for diabetes, crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were lower among Hispanic inmates than among non-Hispanic White inmates and African American inmates. Although age-standardized prevalence estimates for the selected conditions did not appear to exceed age-standardized estimates from the US general population, a large number of inmates were affected by one or more of these conditions. As the prison population continues to grow and to age, the burden of these conditions on correctional and community health care systems can be expected to

  17. Does group size have an impact on welfare indicators in fattening pigs?

    PubMed

    Meyer-Hamme, S E K; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2016-01-01

    Production systems for fattening pigs have been characterized over the last 2 decades by rising farm sizes coupled with increasing group sizes. These developments resulted in a serious public discussion regarding animal welfare and health in these intensive production systems. Even though large farm and group sizes came under severe criticism, it is still unknown whether these factors indeed negatively affect animal welfare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of group size (30 pigs/pen) on various animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality(®) protocol for growing pigs under conventional fattening conditions. A total of 60 conventional pig fattening farms with different group sizes in Germany were included. Moderate bursitis (35%) was found as the most prevalent indicator of welfare-related problems, while its prevalence increased with age during the fattening period. However, differences between group sizes were not detected (P>0.05). The prevalence of moderately soiled bodies increased from 9.7% at the start to 14.2% at the end of the fattening period, whereas large pens showed a higher prevalence (15.8%) than small pens (10.4%; P<0.05). With increasing group size, the incidence of moderate wounds with 8.5% and 11.3% in small- and medium-sized pens, respectively, was lower (P<0.05) than in large-sized ones (16.3%). Contrary to bursitis and dirtiness, its prevalence decreased during the fattening period. Moderate manure was less often found in pigs fed by a dry feeder than in those fed by a liquid feeding system (P<0.05). The human-animal relationship was improved in large in comparison to small groups. On the contrary, negative social behaviour was found more often in large groups. Exploration of enrichment material decreased with increasing live weight. Given that all animals were tail-docked, tail biting was observed at a very low rate of 1.9%. In conclusion, the results indicate that BW and feeding system are determining factors for

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Dorn, U; Landauer, F; Hofstaedter, T

    2016-06-01

    Gluteal tendinopathy as well as partial and full-thickness tears of gluteal tendons (gluteus minimus and/or medius tendon) were underestimated as a cause of chronic pain in the past, and treatment was most commonly based on the diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. Tendinous pathologies can either stay asymptomatic or cause pain and muscular dysfunction, not necessarily being associated with osteoarthritis of the hip 1. As the terminus "rotator cuff tear of the hip" was published in 1997 2, its aetiopathogenesis was reconsidered, resulting in improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless the adoption of those findings into clinical daily routine took time 3. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as histopathologic examination questioned the relevance of acute bursitis being the only cause of greater trochanteric pain 4, 5, 6, while emphasizing degenerative tendinopathy causing those symptoms 6, 7, 8. The terminus "greater trochanteric pain syndrome" (GTPS) should hereby also include further pathologies, e.g. calcific tendinitis 1, 5. GTPS affects about 10-25 % of the adult population 5. Ultrasound and MRI are reliable, non-invasive methods for detecting tendinous and bursal pathologies 7, 8, 9; in 88 % of all patients with trochanteric pain, MRI gives pathological findings 10. Nevertheless, in 50 % of suspicious pertrochanteric pathologies, patients are free of symptoms 1, 10. In patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, the incidence of intraoperative macroscopically identified gluteal tendon tears reaches up to 22 % 2, 11, 12, 13. Tendinous tears cause pain and constrained muscular function. Sole traumatic tears are rare, most commonly they are based on pre-existing defects. Tendinosis and partial tears are primarily treated conservatively. Hereby, therapeutic options are similar to those for rotator cuff pathologies of the shoulder. Topical infiltration of corticosteroids and physical therapy offer good

  19. Acupuncture and rehabilitation of the painful shoulder: study protocol of an ongoing multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN28687220

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Jorge; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Mendez, Camila; Galante, Antonia Herrera; Madrazo, Fernando; Medina, Ivan; Ortega, Caridad; Olmo, Victoria; Fernandez, Francisco Perez; Hernandez, Luz; Seminario, Jose Maria; Brioso, Mauricio; Luna, Francisco; Gordo, Isabel; Godoy, Ana Maria; Jimenez, Carmen; Ruiz, Manuel Anselmo; Montes, Joaquin; Hidalgo, Alonso; Gonzalez-Quevedo, Rosa; Bosch, Pablo; Vazquez, Antonio; Lozano, Juan Vicente

    2005-01-01

    Background Although the painful shoulder is one of the most common dysfunctions of the locomotor apparatus, and is frequently treated both at primary healthcare centres and by specialists, little evidence has been reported to support or refute the effectiveness of the treatments most commonly applied. According to the bibliography reviewed, physiotherapy, which is the most common action taken to alleviate this problem, has not yet been proven to be effective, because of the small size of sample groups and the lack of methodological rigor in the papers published on the subject. No reviews have been made to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating this complaint, but in recent years controlled randomised studies have been made and these demonstrate an increasing use of acupuncture to treat pathologies of the soft tissues of the shoulder. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy applied jointly with acupuncture, compared with physiotherapy applied with a TENS-placebo, in the treatment of painful shoulder caused by subacromial syndrome (rotator cuff tendinitis and subacromial bursitis). Methods/design Randomised controlled multicentre study with blind evaluation by an independent observer and blind, independent analysis. A study will be made of 465 patients referred to the rehabilitation services at participating healthcare centres, belonging to the regional public health systems of Andalusia and Murcia, these patients presenting symptoms of painful shoulder and a diagnosis of subacromial syndrome (rotator cuff tendinitis and subacromial bursitis). The patients will be randomised into two groups: 1) experimental (acupuncture + physiotherapy); 2) control (TENS-placebo + physiotherapy); the administration of rescue medication will also be allowed. The treatment period will have a duration of three weeks. The main result variable will be the change produced on Constant's Shoulder Function Assessment (SFA) Scale; as secondary

  20. Triceps tendon rupture: the knowledge acquired from the anatomy to the surgical repair.

    PubMed

    Celli, A

    2015-09-01

    Triceps injuries are relatively uncommon in most traumatic events, and the distal triceps tendon ruptures are rare. Recently, the knowledge of this tendon lesion has increased, and it seems to be related to more precise diagnostic and clinical assessments. The most common mechanism of injury remains a forceful eccentric contraction of the muscle, while several other risk factors have been studied as chronic renal failure, endocrine disorders, metabolic bone diseases as well as steroid use. Olecranon bursitis and local corticosteroid injections may also play a role. The commonest site of rupture is at the tendon's insertion into the olecranon and rarely at the myotendinous junction or intramuscularly. The surgical intervention is recommended in acute complete ruptures, and non-operative treatment is reserved for patients with major comorbidities, as well as for partial ruptures with little functional disability and in low demanding patients. Various techniques and approaches as the direct repair to bone, the tendon augmentation, the anconeus rotation flap and the Achilles tendon allograft have been proposed for the management of these challenging injuries. The goal of surgical management should be an anatomical repair of the injured tendon by selection of a procedure with a low complication rate and one that allows early mobilization. This manuscript focuses the triceps tendon ruptures starting from the anatomy to the diagnosis and entity of the triceps tendon injuries, as well as the indications and guidelines for the management. PMID:25957546

  1. [Felbinac gel for treatment of localized extra-articular rheumatic diseases--a multicenter, placebo controlled, randomized study].

    PubMed

    Bolten, W

    1991-01-01

    281 patients with extra-articular rheumatic disorders (enthesiopathy, bursitis, tendinosis, fibrositis) and moderate or severe localized pain during rest or movement in shoulder, neck, elbow or knee were randomized into groups and treated for 14 days in a double blind study with either 1 g Felbinac Gel 3% (biphenyl acetic acid) three times daily (N = 142) or with the gel formulation only (N = 139). In 50% of the patients treated with Felbinac Gel compared to 29% of the placebo treated patients (p = 0.001), the investigator assessed the global therapeutic success to be good or very good. The magnitude of complaints judged on the basis of a visual analogous scale by patients and doctor showed a significant improvement in pain reduction during rest or activity after 14 days of treatment in the Felbinac group. The rheumatic complaints diminished equally according to patient judgement in both treatment groups and the concomitant use of paracetamol was low in both groups. No significant side-effects or changes in laboratory parameters were observed during therapy. Felbinac Gel therefore is suitable for a low-risk topical therapy of soft tissue rheumatic disorders. PMID:1872042

  2. [Rare causes and differential diagnoses of Achilles tendinitis].

    PubMed

    Lohrer, H

    1991-12-01

    Especially in sports disciplines involving high uniform stress by running, such as all running competitions in athletics, the condition known as achillodynia is a much-dreaded lesion. We evaluated an own series of 74 consecutive patients who reported pain at the achilles tendon, with regard to etiological aspects. It was a remarkable fact that besides the well-known classical reasons (degenerative changes in the center of the achilles tendon with spindle-shaped distension, aseptic irritated condition of the paratenon, bursitis subachillea mostly associated with Haglund's exostosis) numerous other syndromes may seem to be achilles tendon pain to individual athletes. To arrive at on-target therapy directed etiologically at the root cause of the disease, it will be necessary to differentiate them from one another: insertion tendopathies of the achilles tendon; metabolic diseases; arthritis and chondropathic disease of the ankle joint; hallux rigidus --rotation anomalies; tibia vara; os trigonum impingement syndrome --tendovaginitis of the flexor tendon at the retinaculum flexorum; stress fractures (calcaneus, fibula, tibia) Diagnosis is assisted, besides a detailed and exact clinical examination and an inspection of the sports shoes worn by the patient, by a biomechanical analysis of the running behaviour, an x-ray of the ankle joint, sonographic examination and clarification with the help of laboratory examinations, i.e. clinical pathology. PMID:1796345

  3. Musculoskeletal interventional radiology: ultrasound and CT.

    PubMed

    Martel Villagrán, J; Bueno Horcajadas, Á; Agrela Rojas, E

    2016-05-01

    We aim to describe imaging-guided (ultrasound and CT) interventional techniques in the musculoskeletal system that can be performed by general radiologists, whether in hospitals, primary care clinics, private offices, or other settings. The first requirement for doing these procedures is adequate knowledge of the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system. The second requirement is to inform the patient thoroughly about the technique, the risks involved, and the alternatives available in order to obtain written informed consent. The third requirement is to ensure that the procedure is performed in accordance with the principles of asepsis in relation to the puncture zone and to all the material employed throughout the procedure. The main procedures that can be done under ultrasound guidance are the following: fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), core needle biopsy (CNB), diagnostic and/or therapeutic arthrocentesis, drainage of juxta-articular fluid collections, drainage of abscesses, drainage of hematomas, treatment of Baker's cyst, treatment of ganglia, treatment of bursitis, infiltrations and treatment of plantar fasciitis, plantar fibrosis, epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathy, and Morton's neuroma, puncture and lavage of calcifications in calcifying tendinopathy. We also review the following CT-guided procedures: diagnosis of spondylodiscitis, FNAC of metastases, arthrography, drainages. Finally, we also mention more complex procedures that can only be done in appropriate settings: bone biopsies, treatment of facet joint pain, radiofrequency treatment. PMID:27134018

  4. Patellofemoral pain syndrome in Iranian female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Parisa; Forogh, Bijan; Moeineddin, Reza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Nejati, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190), volleyball (103), running (42), fencing (45) and rock climbing (38). The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 %) soccer players, 21/103(20.38 %) volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 %) runners, 6/45(13.33 %) fencers and 10/38 (26.31%) rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners. PMID:21681705

  5. [Infection-induced reactive arthritis : etiopathogenesis, clinical spectrum, therapy].

    PubMed

    Brzank, M; Wollenhaupt, J

    2013-12-01

    Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory joint disease induced by a preceding, sometimes asymptomatic bacterial infection outside the joints. With an estimated prevalence of 40/100,000 inhabitants, the disease primarily affects adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The clinical presentation is typically characterized by monoarthritis to oligoarthritis of the lower extremities with possible accompanying enthesitis, bursitis, tenosynovitis, sacroiliitis, dactylitis and rare extra-articular manifestations. Because of the similar clinical symptoms and an association with HLA-B27, reactive arthritis is attributed to the spondyloarthropathies. Typical triggering pathogens are Chlamydia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella and Campylobacter. In about 20% of the cases the usually self-limiting disease becomes chronic. The pathogenesis is not yet understood in detail but it is currently assumed that the intracellular persistence of the pathogen causes an immune reaction resulting in arthritis. Common international diagnostic criteria do not yet exist; therefore the diagnosis is made largely on the basis of clinical findings, medical history and the direct and/or indirect pathogen detection. Several therapeutic options are used to treat reactive arthritis. Ongoing extra-articular infections, with the exception of enteritis should be treated with antibiotics. Besides symptom-orientated treatment of acute arthritis, in prolonged and chronic reactive arthritis an immunomodulatory therapy with steroids, sulfasalazine or methotrexate is used. The role of long-term antibiotic therapy for eradication of persistent intra-articular pathogens in chronic cases is the subject of current research. PMID:24337200

  6. Sonography of Sports Injuries of the Hip

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Aaron R. L.; Seidenberg, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports-related injuries of the hip are a common complaint of both competitive and recreational athletes of all ages. The anatomic and biomechanical complexity of the hip region often cause diagnostic uncertainty for the clinicians evaluating these injuries. Therefore, obtaining additional diagnostic information is often crucial for providing injured athletes with a prompt and accurate diagnosis so they can return to activity as soon as possible. Musculoskeletal ultrasound is becoming increasingly important in evaluating and treating sports-related injuries of the hip. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in May of 2013 for English-language articles pertaining to sonography of sports injuries of the hip using the following keywords in various combinations: musculoskeletal, ultrasound, hip, hip sonography, and sports. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Musculoskeletal ultrasound is currently being used for both diagnosis and treatment in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions affecting the hip, including tendinosis, tendon/muscle strains, ligamentous sprains, enthesopathies, growth plate injuries, fractures, bursitis, effusions, synovitis, labral tears, and snapping hip. Therapeutically, it is used to guide injections, aspirations, and biopsies. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal ultrasound use is expanding and will likely continue to do so as more clinicians realize its capabilities. Characteristics, including accessibility, portability, noninvasiveness, dynamic examination, power Doppler examination, and low cost highlight the potential of ultrasound. PMID:25364486

  7. Imaging of traumatic injury and impingement of anterior knee fat.

    PubMed

    Lapègue, F; Sans, N; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Brucher, N; Cambon, Z; Chiavassa, H; Larbi, A; Faruch, M

    2016-01-01

    Fat is not just used by the body as bulk tissue. In addition to its role in storing energy and regulating hormone action, fat is used in some parts of the body for its mechanical properties. The anatomy of anterior knee fat is more complex than it appears at first sight and is capable of withstanding considerable compressive and shear stress. Specific lesions occur when such mechanical stress exceeds the physiological limits and are yet little known. Superficial fat can be the site of either acute injury by closed degloving called the Morel-Lavallée lesion or chronic injury, when subject to repeat excessive shear forces, due to more complex and less well-defined disruptions that result in pseudo-bursitis. There are three main anterior, intracapsular and extrasynovial fat pads in the knee joint, which are the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) or Hoffa's fat pad, the quadriceps fat pad and the prefemoral fat pad. The IFP plays an important role as a mechanical shock absorber and guides the patella tendon and even the patella itself during flexion-extension movements. In response to repeated excessive stress, an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the IFP is first observed, followed by a fibrotic reaction with metaplastic transformation into fibrous, cartilaginous or bone tissue. More rarely, the two other deep fat pads (quadriceps and prefemoral) can, if subject to repeated stress, undergo similar restructuring inflammatory reactions with metaplasia resulting in tissue hardening, anterior pain and partial loss of function. PMID:27118690

  8. Painful os Acromiale: Conservative Management in a Young Swimmer Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Frizziero, Antonio; Benedetti, Maria G.; Creta, Domenico; Moio, Antonio; Galletti, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    An os acromiale (OA) arises from a fusion failure of the anterior acromial apophysis. This case report presents the successful management of a painful OA associated to rotator cuff impingement in a competitive swimmer, based on ultrasonographic diagnosis and conservative management. Rest from sport activity, oral anti-inflammatory drugs and previous attempt of treatment of shoulder pain were ineffective. After two months of conservative treatment consisting of avoidance of swimming, local anti-inflammatory, physical therapy with ice, strengthening exercises with elastic bands to strengthen the scapular stabilizing muscles, rotator cuff and lowering humeral head muscles, the patient was pain free and all specific clinical tests for impingement syndrome (Neer, Hawkins, Whipple and Yocum tests) were negative. Digital compression of the OA site was not painful, and the Jobe and Palm-up tests were negative. The athlete returned to swim continuing the rehabilitation exercises, and the successful results were maintained at one year follow up. An unstable and symptomatic OA can be easily diagnosed with ultrasound exam. Rehabilitation for rotator cuff tendinopathies or/and bursitis can be a valid alternative to surgery. Key pointsAn os acromiale (OA) arises from a fusion failure of the anterior acromial apophysis.A correct diagnosis of OA associated to rotator cuff impingement can be performed by ultrasonographic exam.A conservative management of rotator cuff impingement syndrome, associated to OA, can be planned in athletic patients as a valid alternative to surgery. PMID:24149210

  9. Heel pain: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agyekum, Edward Kwame; Ma, Kaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Heel pain is a very common foot disease. Varieties of names such as plantar fasciitis, jogger's heel, tennis heal, policeman's heel are used to describe it. Mechanical factors are the most common etiology of heel pain. Common causes of hell pain includes: Plantar Fasciitis, Heel Spur, Sever's Disease, Heel bump, Achilles Tendinopathy, Heel neuritis, Heel bursitis. The diagnosis is mostly based on clinical examination. Normally, the location of the pain and the absence of associated symptoms indicating a systemic disease strongly suggest the diagnosis. Several therapies exist including rest, physical therapy, stretching, and change in footwear, arch supports, orthotics, night splints, anti-inflammatory agents, and surgery. Almost all patients respond to conservative nonsurgical therapy. Surgery is the last treatment option if all other treatments had failed. Rest, ice, massage, the use of correct exercise and complying with a doctor's advice all play important part in helping to recover from this hell pain condition, but getting good quality, suitable shoes with the appropriate amount of support for the whole foot is the most important. PMID:26643244

  10. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kertzman, Paulo; Lenza, Mario; Pedrinelli, André; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed. PMID:26229889

  11. US guided corticosteroid injection into the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa: Technique and approach

    PubMed Central

    Molini, L.; Mariacher, S.; Bianchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Local injection of cortisone derivatives, sometimes combined with local anesthetics, is frequently administered in rheumatology as the treatment of choice in para-articular diseases or as an adjuvant to systemic therapy in the treatment of arthritis. One of the most frequent local corticosteroid injections administered in daily clinical practice by rheumatologists, orthopedic surgeons, physiatrists, sports medicine doctors and general practitioners is injection into the subacromialsubdeltoid bursa in the treatment of bursitis and anterior superior impingement syndrome of the shoulder. Before local corticosteroid injection is administered, it is important to identify possible contraindications and to examine the documentation provided by the patient. Absolute contraindications or those related to the procedure should be evaluated by the prescribing physician but also the physician performing the corticosteroid injection should evaluate possible contraindications to make sure that corticosteroid injection is feasible. The present paper describes the ultrasound (US) guided local corticosteroid injection procedure with particular attention to the equipment required, the position of the patient and the examiner as well as the approach. The main advantage of US guidance during corticosteroid injection is the possibility to identify vascular structures, nerves and tendons situated in the needle path in order to avoid these structures and be sure to inject the drug into the appropriate location. When all rules are complied with and the corticosteroid injection is carried out by an experienced physician, it is virtually painless and is performed in just a few minutes. PMID:23396761

  12. [Morton's disease].

    PubMed

    Isomoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2014-12-01

    Morton's disease refers to neuralgia at the web space of the toes with a pseudo-neuroma. It commonly occurs in the third web space of the foot in middle-aged and older women. The pseudo-neuroma is thought to be a secondary change after entrapment or repeated microtrauma. Patients complain of forefoot pain while walking. Typically, symptoms are caused by tight high-heeled shoes. The physical examination includes palpation of the web spaces and Mulder's test. Weight bearing foot radiographs are used to evaluate the deformity of the foot, especially at metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. MRI is useful for differential diagnosis of pseudo-neuroma, MTP joint arthritis, and interdigital bursitis. Conservative treatments are shoe modification, use of orthotic insoles, and injection of corticosteroids and local anesthesia. The injections are useful not only for the treatment but also for diagnosis of Morton's disease. If the local injection is not temporally effective, surgical treatment is not indicated. If the conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is indicated. The most common surgery is excision of the pseudo-neuroma. The surgery is usually performed using a dorsal approach. PMID:25475032

  13. Interobserver reliability of rheumatologists performing musculoskeletal ultrasonography: results from a EULAR "Train the trainers" course

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, A; Schmidt, W; Hermann, K; Bruyn, G; D'Agostino, M; Grassi, W; Iagnocco, A; Koski, J; Machold, K; Naredo, E; Sattler, H; Swen, N; Szkudlarek, M; Wakefield, R; Ziswiler, H; Pasewaldt, D; Werner, C; Backhaus, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interobserver reliability among 14 experts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) and to determine the overall agreement about the US results compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which served as the imaging "gold standard". Methods: The clinically dominant joint regions (shoulder, knee, ankle/toe, wrist/finger) of four patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases were ultrasonographically examined by 14 experts. US results were compared with MRI. Overall agreements, sensitivities, specificities, and interobserver reliabilities were assessed. Results: Taking an agreement in US examination of 10 out of 14 experts into account, the overall κ for all examined joints was 0.76. Calculations for each joint region showed high κ values for the knee (1), moderate values for the shoulder (0.76) and hand/finger (0.59), and low agreement for ankle/toe joints (0.28). κ Values for bone lesions, bursitis, and tendon tears were high (κ = 1). Relatively good agreement for most US findings, compared with MRI, was found for the shoulder (overall agreement 81%, sensitivity 76%, specificity 89%) and knee joint (overall agreement 88%, sensitivity 91%, specificity 88%). Sensitivities were lower for wrist/finger (overall agreement 73%, sensitivity 66%, specificity 88%) and ankle/toe joints (overall agreement 82%, sensitivity 61%, specificity 92%). Conclusion: Interobserver reliabilities, sensitivities, and specificities in comparison with MRI were moderate to good. Further standardisation of US scanning techniques and definitions of different pathological US lesions are necessary to increase the interobserver agreement in musculoskeletal US. PMID:15640263

  14. Small diameter acetabulum and femoral head in total hip arthroplasty for developmental dysplasia of the hip, with no femoral osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Verettas, Dionysios-Alexandros; Chloropoulou, Pelagia; Xarchas, Konstantinos; Drosos, Georgios; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of 66 total hip arthroplasties in 62 patients of mean age 46 years (24-74 years), with developmental dysplasia of the hip. In all cases the centre of rotation of the new hip was positioned at the site of the true acetabulum. In all patients cementless press fit acetabular components of small diameter (42-44 mm) were used, articulating exclusively with a 22.25 mm modular metal femoral head, without the use of bone grafts or shortening osteotomies of the femur. Despite the use of small diameter femoral heads the rate of dislocation was 3%. After an average follow-up period of 9 years (4-18 years), no revisions were required for infection, loosening or wear or implant migration. Osteolytic lesions were seen in the periacetabular region in 3 patients who were symptom free. A total of 2 revisions were required for instability and 2 patients had the wires of their trochanteric osteotomy removed because of bursitis. Leg length inequality was improved in 55% of the patients and one postoperative transient sciatic nerve lesion settled within 4 months. We believe that in patients with painful dysplastic hips, the use of small diameter implants with the centre of rotation at the true acetabulum, can give very satisfactory results, without any supplementary procedures. PMID:25907394

  15. Use of an orthotic device in the treatment of posterior heel pain.

    PubMed

    Wooten, B; Uhl, T L; Chandler, J

    1990-01-01

    Research Funded by the Lexington Clinic Foundation for Research and Education. Posterior heel pain (PHP) presents a difficult clinical challenge. The causes of PHP include Haglund syndrome (pump bump deformity), Achilles tendinitis, and Sever's disease (retrocalcaneal bursitis, traction apophysitis). The purposes of this study were to 1) describe a new orthotic device used in the treatment of PHP and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of this device. The orthotic device consisted of a neoprene sleeve holding 1/4 inch PPT foam rubber horseshoe (Sports Supports, Inc., Dallas, TX). The horseshoe was placed directly over the injury to protect and relieve pressure or was inverted and used as a counterforce brace to reduce the tensile stress to the Achilles tendon. Eight patients (6 children, 2 adults) were evaluated at the time of application and after 1 month of use. Three criteria were considered: 1) subjective pain scale, 2) active goniometric measurements, and 3) toe raise test. The statistical analysis indicated a significant improvement in pain during activity from initial to follow-up and in pain after activity from initial to follow-up. All patients demonstrated improved strength and flexibility. It was concluded that this device may be an effective adjunct to the treatment of PHP. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;11(9):410-413. PMID:18787273

  16. Snapping scapular syndrome secondary to rib intramedullary fixation device

    PubMed Central

    Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E.; Rossi, Luciano A.; Bongiovanni, Santiago L.; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gaston; Ranalletta, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Background Scapulo-thoracic joint disorders, including bursitis and crepitus, are commonly misdiagnosed problems and can be a source of persistent pain and dysfunction Presentation of the case This article describes an unusual case of a snapping scapula syndrome secondary to a migration through the lateral cortex of a rib splint intramedullary fixation device into the scapulothoracic joint. Discussion Recently, the operative fixation of multiple ribs fractures with intramedullary fixation devices has become popular. Despite the good outcomes with new rib splint designs, concern remains about the potential complications related to potential loss of fracture reduction with migration of the wire resulting in pain or additional injury to the surrounding tissues. Conclusion Surgeons should pay attention to any protrusion of intramedullary rib implants, especially in the evaluation of routine X-rays following surgical treatment. We should be aware of the possibility of this rare cause of snapping scapula syndrome to avoid delayed diagnosis and consider removing the implant will resolve the pain. PMID:26629853

  17. Macroscopic Anomalies and Pathological Findings in and Around the Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonsurgical treatments for chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) results in unpredictable success rates. Surgical treatment may be chosen as reports show mostly encouraging but variable success rates depending on the pathology. The distribution of surgically confirmed pathologies in AT is largely unknown. Purpose: To ascertain the distributions of macroscopically observed anomalies in participants undergoing surgical treatment for chronic AT. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The main macroscopic pathologies of 1661 chronic Achilles tendon overuse injuries, which were diagnosed and surgically treated by a single surgeon, were reviewed. The surgeries were performed on professional and recreational athletes during the years 1976-1980, 1986-1990, 1996-2000, and 2006-2010. Surgical diagnoses, along with age- and sport-specific characteristics, were collected retrospectively from patient records. Results: The relative proportion of tendinosis increased during the study period from 4.2% to 21%, and paratenonitis decreased from 50% to 26%. Retrocalcaneal pathologies were the most common surgically confirmed lesions at 30%, while the mean age at surgery increased by 11 years over the entire study period. Conclusion: Surgically confirmed pathologies in and around the Achilles tendon showed coherent changes, chronic paratenonitis, and retrocalcaneal problems as the most prevalent findings. The classification of midportion and insertional tendinopathy and retrocalcaneal bursitis in AT should strictly be used as a clinical diagnosis. During surgical evaluations, the diagnosis is further clarified as more specific pathologies may be identified. PMID:26535293

  18. Phaeohyphomycosis infection in the knee☆

    PubMed Central

    Sadigursky, David; Nogueira e Ferreira, Luisa; Moreno de Oliveira Corrêa, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by cutaneous fungi and rarely affects large joints. This is a case report on phaeohyphomycosis in the left knee of an elderly individual without immunosuppression. It was accompanied by pain and swelling the anterior knee. The case was first suspected to be suprapatellar bursitis, and was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without remission of symptoms. Surgical treatment was performed, with resection of the suprapatellar bursa and anterior region of the quadriceps tendon. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination and culturing. The pathological examination showed phaeohyphomycosis. The treatment instituted consisted of itraconazole, 200 mg/day for six weeks, and complete remission of symptoms was achieved. The physical examination remained normal after one year of follow-up. This is the first published case of phaeohyphomycosis infection in the suprapatellar region of the knee. Although almost all the cases reported have been associated with immunosuppressed patients, this was an exception. It is important to suspect phaeohyphomycosis in cases of knee infection, in the area of the suprapatellar bursa, when the symptoms do not resolve after clinical treatment. PMID:27069894

  19. Pain and ketoprofen: what is its role in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Sarzi-Puttini, P; Atzeni, F; Lanata, L; Bagnasco, M; Colombo, M; Fischer, F; D'Imporzano, M

    2010-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a drug belonging to the family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The present review examines the main available clinical evidence of ketoprofen in the treatment of acute and chronic pain, of both rheumatic and traumatic origin, as well as postoperative pain. Ketoprofen has shown to be an excellent choice of drug for the treatment of chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or gout, demonstrating a high level of efficacy with good tolerability also in elderly patients. Even in the treatment of acute forms of pain such as bursitis, tendinitis and back pain, ketoprofen compares favourably to other NSAIDs (e.g., ibuprofen and diclofenac) in terms of efficacy. Ketoprofen has been shown to be effective also for the treatment of post-operative pain, particularly in the orthopaedic field, with an efficacy similar to opioids in some studies. In this setting, some evidence indicates that ketoprofen exhibits additional important benefits, showing to be effective in the prophylaxis of heterotopic calcification following hip or pelvic major intervention, without affecting the bone healing process. Moreover, the use of ketoprofen in elastomeric pump in combination with opioids or other NSAIDs has proven to be effective and safe. In conclusion, available data confirm that ketoprofen is effective and well tolerated, through different administration routes, for the treatment of various forms of rheumatic, traumatic and post-surgical pain, and may therefore be considered as a valid therapeutic option for these patients. PMID:21052564

  20. Health conditions of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a quantitative and qualitative study on the living conditions and health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The goal was to produce strategic information to support the action of public officials who work in prisons. The results show that prisoners are young (average age: 30 years), poor, mostly black and brown (70.5%), have little education (only 1.5% of them have a higher education), and have been in prison for less than four years. Among the problems that indirectly affect their health, we emphasize: overcrowding (1.39 prisoners per one vacancy), idleness (only 4.4% of them work), lack of perspective, violence and relationships of conflict. The most common physical health problems include: musculoskeletal problems, such as pain in the neck, back, and spine (76.7%), joint dislocation (28.2%), bursitis (22.9%), sciatica (22, 1%), arthritis (15.9%), bone fracture (15.3%), problems with bone and cartilage (12.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (15.7%); respiratory problems, such as sinusitis (55.6%), allergic rhinitis (47%), chronic bronchitis (15.6%), tuberculosis (4.7%) and others (11.9%); and skin diseases. Despite legal requirements that include prison health care among the Universal Health System's (SUS) obligations, services are scarce and inefficient and a major cause of inmate dissatisfaction. PMID:27383337

  1. Epidemiologic study on carcinoma of the breast following irradiation for benign conditions in infancy and childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Oviedo, M.A.; Chmiel, J.S.; Curb, J.D.; Kautz, J.A.; Haenszel, W.; Scanlon, E.F.

    1983-07-01

    To investigate the relationship of irradiation during infancy and childhood to the subsequent development of carcinoma of the breast, 996 eligible patients were studied at Evanston Hospital, Evanston, Illinois, and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago. This was a case-control study, with those in the control group being selected from concurrent hospital admissions for nonmalignant surgical conditions. A second group consisting of those with benign biopsy results was also studied. The Mantel-Haenszel method of analysis, controlling for age and race, was used to estimate the approximate relative risk of carcinoma of the breast in the irradiated group compared with that for the nonirradiated group. The type of radiation history included radiotherapy for mastitis or enlarged thymus (nine patients), irradiation of the head and neck (69 patients), diagnostic fluoroscopies (ten patients) and miscellaneous irradiation (52 patients) for bursitis, eczema or keloid. Based upon the data obtained from the results of this study and its analysis, we conclude that there is little evidence of increased risk of carcinoma of the breast after irradiation about the head, neck and chest areas for benign conditions in the population being studied herein. Such a risk, if indeed it exists at all for this population, is estimated to be about 10 per cent.

  2. Differential diagnosis of pain around the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Tibor, Lisa M; Sekiya, Jon K

    2008-12-01

    The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad and includes intra-articular pathology, extra-articular pathology, and mimickers, including the joints of the pelvic ring. With the current advancements in hip arthroscopy, more patients are being evaluated for hip pain. In recent years, our understanding of the functional anatomy around the hip has improved. In addition, because of advancements in magnetic resonance imaging, the diagnosis of soft tissue causes of hip pain has improved. All of these advances have broadened the differential diagnosis of pain around the hip joint and improved the treatment of these problems. In this review, we discuss the causes of intra-articular hip pain that can be addressed arthroscopically: labral tears, loose bodies, femoroacetabular impingement, capsular laxity, tears of the ligamentum teres, and chondral damage. Extra-articular diagnoses that can be managed arthroscopically are also discussed, including: iliopsoas tendonitis, "internal" snapping hip, "external" snapping hip, iliotibial band and greater trochanteric bursitis, and gluteal tendon injury. Finally, we discuss extra-articular causes of hip pain that are often managed nonoperatively or in an open fashion: femoral neck stress fracture, adductor strain, piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint pain, athletic pubalgia, "sports hernia," "Gilmore's groin," and osteitis pubis. PMID:19038713

  3. Imaging of hip and groin injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Overdeck, Kimberlee Horton; Palmer, William Ewing

    2004-03-01

    Proper function of the hip joint is imperative for athletes who participate in sporting activities that rely on utilization of the lower extremity; these primarily include kicking, running, and jumping activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are not frequent sources of disability in athletes; however, they may present a significant diagnostic dilemma, both from a clinical and radiological standpoint. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in undesired complications, such as premature degenerative disease, as well as time lost from athletic activities. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the hip, particularly following the intra-articular administration of gadolinium, has proven to be extremely valuable in the diagnosis of radiographically occult osseous abnormalities as well as soft-tissue injuries, such as pubalgia, musculotendinous abnormalities, and bursitis. This article will review several pathological conditions of the hip and groin in both recreational and professional athletes, with an emphasis on MR imaging as the modality of choice in the diagnosis of these injuries. PMID:15085477

  4. Pelvic MRI findings of juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet Halit; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kanberoglu, Kaya

    2010-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common clinical subgroup of sero-negative spondyloarthropathies. Radiographic and clinical signs of bilateral inflammatory involvement of sacroiliac joints are the gold standard for the diagnosis of juvenile AS. Although radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis is included in the definition, it is not mandatory for the diagnosis of juvenile AS. The aim of this study is to describe pelvic enthesitis-osteitis MRI findings accompanying sacroiliitis in a group of juvenile AS. Eleven patients suffering from low back pain underwent MRI of the pelvis and were enrolled in this retrospective study. The mean duration of symptoms was 12 months. The mean age of the 11 cases in our study was 12.18 years (range, 6-19). There were eight boys and three girls. Anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were obtained in all patients. Sacroiliac joint involvement was detected in all of the cases by pelvic MRI. Pathologic signal changes were detected in the pubic symphisis (osteitis pubis) in ten cases, trochanteric bursitis in six cases, coxofemoral joint in five cases, crista iliaca in three cases, and ischion pubis in three cases. There was increased T2 signal intensity in eight of the 11 cases (72.7%) relevant with soft tissue edema/inflammation. This high correlation between sacroiliitis and enthesitis suggests that enthesitis could be an important finding in juvenile AS. PMID:20549278

  5. Sports hip injuries: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bryan T; Maak, Travis G; Larson, Christopher M; Bedi, Asheesh; Zaltz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the understanding, assessment, and management of hip pain and injuries in the athlete have improved. Traditionally, the evaluation of hip pain and injuries was limited to obvious disorders, such as hip arthritis and fractures, or disorders that were previously considered to be simply soft-tissue strains and contusions, such as groin pulls, hip pointers, and bursitis. Two parallel tracks of progress have improved understanding of the complexities of hip joint athletic injuries and the biomechanical basis of early hip disease. In the field of sports medicine, improved diagnostic skills now allow better interpretation of debilitating intra-articular hip disorders and their effects on core performance. In the field of hip preservation, there has been an evolution in understanding the effects of biomechanical mismatches between the femoral head and the acetabulum on the development of early hip damage, injury, and arthritis. The integration of these two parallel fields has accelerated the understanding of the importance of hip biomechanics and early hip injury in human performance and function. PMID:23395055

  6. Different distributions of operative diagnoses for Achilles tendon overuse injuries in Italian and Finnish athletes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (p<0.001) more insertional calcific tendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038

  7. Phaeohyphomycosis infection in the knee.

    PubMed

    Sadigursky, David; Nogueira E Ferreira, Luisa; Moreno de Oliveira Corrêa, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by cutaneous fungi and rarely affects large joints. This is a case report on phaeohyphomycosis in the left knee of an elderly individual without immunosuppression. It was accompanied by pain and swelling the anterior knee. The case was first suspected to be suprapatellar bursitis, and was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without remission of symptoms. Surgical treatment was performed, with resection of the suprapatellar bursa and anterior region of the quadriceps tendon. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination and culturing. The pathological examination showed phaeohyphomycosis. The treatment instituted consisted of itraconazole, 200 mg/day for six weeks, and complete remission of symptoms was achieved. The physical examination remained normal after one year of follow-up. This is the first published case of phaeohyphomycosis infection in the suprapatellar region of the knee. Although almost all the cases reported have been associated with immunosuppressed patients, this was an exception. It is important to suspect phaeohyphomycosis in cases of knee infection, in the area of the suprapatellar bursa, when the symptoms do not resolve after clinical treatment. PMID:27069894

  8. Role of FDG PET/CT in Baastrup's disease.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a benign condition, which presents as chronic low back pain. It is also known as "kissing spine syndrome" and refers to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes producing inflammation and back pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed, resulting in incorrect treatment and persistence of symptoms. Diagnosis of Baastrup's disease is verified with clinical examination and imaging studies. Conventionally, clinicians resort to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine rather than X-ray or computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of back pain. MRI can additionally identify flattening, sclerosis, enlargement, cystic lesions, and bone edema at the articulating surfaces of the two affected spinous processes. Studies have reported that (18)Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) can detect a bursitis or an inflammation as a form of stress reaction despite a negative MRI and (99m)Tc Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan. PET/CT is usually not a recommended investigation for this condition. However, this case report highlights the benefit of FDG-PET/CT in identifying the site of inflammatory pathology. It is also known to identify the exact site of inflammation where steroid or local anesthetic injection can be administered to alleviate pain, especially in patients with multilevel vertebral involvement. PMID:27385901

  9. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    PubMed

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:20052957

  10. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:18953975

  11. Role of FDG PET/CT in Baastrup's disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a benign condition, which presents as chronic low back pain. It is also known as “kissing spine syndrome” and refers to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes producing inflammation and back pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed, resulting in incorrect treatment and persistence of symptoms. Diagnosis of Baastrup's disease is verified with clinical examination and imaging studies. Conventionally, clinicians resort to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine rather than X-ray or computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of back pain. MRI can additionally identify flattening, sclerosis, enlargement, cystic lesions, and bone edema at the articulating surfaces of the two affected spinous processes. Studies have reported that 18Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) can detect a bursitis or an inflammation as a form of stress reaction despite a negative MRI and 99mTc Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan. PET/CT is usually not a recommended investigation for this condition. However, this case report highlights the benefit of FDG-PET/CT in identifying the site of inflammatory pathology. It is also known to identify the exact site of inflammation where steroid or local anesthetic injection can be administered to alleviate pain, especially in patients with multilevel vertebral involvement. PMID:27385901

  12. Polymyalgia Rheumatica Revealing a Lymphoma: A Two-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Frank; Guillot, Xavier; Chouk, Mickaël; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is one of the most common inflammatory rheumatism types in elderly population. The link between cancer and PMR is a matter of debate. Methods. We report two cases of PMR leading to the diagnosis of lymphoma and the growing interest of PET-TDM in this indication. Results. A 84-year-old man known for idiopathic neutropenia presented an inflammatory arthromyalgia of the limb girdle since one month. Blood exams highlighted the presence of a monoclonal B cell clone. Bone marrow concluded to a B cell lymphoma of the marginal zone. He was successfully treated with 0.3 mg/kg/d of prednisone, and response was sustained after 6 months. A 73-year-old man known for prostatic neoplasia in remission for 5 years presented arthromyalgia of the limb girdle since one month. PET-CT revealed bursitis of the hips and the shoulders, no prostatic cancer recurrence, and a metabolically active iliac lymphadenopathy whose pathologic exam concluded to a low grade follicular lymphoma. He was successfully treated with 0.3 mg/kg/d of prednisone. Conclusion. These observations may imply that lymphoma is sometimes already present when PMR is diagnosed and PET-CT is a useful tool in the initial assessment of PMR to avoid missing neoplasia. PMID:27597921

  13. Lateral Hip Pain in an Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937

  14. Evaluation of elbow pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Kane, Shawn F; Lynch, James H; Taylor, Jonathan C

    2014-04-15

    The elbow is a complex joint designed to withstand a wide range of dynamic exertional forces. The location and quality of elbow pain can generally localize the injury to one of the four anatomic regions: anterior, medial, lateral, or posterior. The history should include questions about the onset of pain, what the patient was doing when the pain started, and the type and frequency of athletic and occupational activities. Lateral and medial epicondylitis are two of the more common diagnoses and often occur as a result of occupational activities. Patients have pain and tenderness over the affected tendinous insertion that are accentuated with specific movements. If lateral and medial epicondylitis treatments are unsuccessful, ulnar neuropathy and radial tunnel syndrome should be considered. Ulnar collateral ligament injuries occur in athletes participating in sports that involve overhead throwing. Biceps tendinopathy is a relatively common source of pain in the anterior elbow; history often includes repeated elbow flexion with forearm supination and pronation. Olecranon bursitis is a common cause of posterior elbow pain and swelling. It can be septic or aseptic, and is diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and bursal fluid analysis if necessary. Plain radiography is the initial choice for the evaluation of acute injuries and is best for showing bony injuries, soft tissue swelling, and joint effusions. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred imaging modality for chronic elbow pain. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography allows for an inexpensive dynamic evaluation of commonly injured structures. PMID:24784124

  15. [Personal experience with strain-induced diseases--neurologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kovarík, J; Salandová, J; Kuzelová, M; Ehler, E

    1989-09-01

    The author summarizes his experience with diseases of the locomotor system of the extremities caused by long-term, excessive unilateral overload (item 29 of the Czechoslovak "List of occupational diseases") assembled during the period 1976 to 1987. In the department for occupational diseases of the District Institute of National Health Pardubice 349 subjects were examined where the disease was suspected, in 93 workers the occupational affection was notified. From a total of 2,294 notified occupational during the above period disease due to overload accounted for 4.1%. The cause of the affection was most frequently bursitis (32x), epicondylitis (25x) and carpal tunnel syndromes (24x), other affections being less frequent. The author analyzed the results with regard to sex, age, period of exposure, occupation. Special attention was devoted to glass workers who accounted for 51.6% of all affected subjects. The author discusses possible neurological affections, i. e. damage of the peripheral nerves. In the assessment of disease caused by overload the authors emphasized the importance of close cooperation of specialists for occupational diseases, neurologists, orthopaedists, physiologists and specialists in hygiene of work. PMID:2598283

  16. MR patterns of rotator cuff and labral lesions: comparison between low-field and high-field images.

    PubMed

    Shih, T T; Chen, W G; Su, C T; Huang, K M; Ericson, F; Chiu, L C

    1993-02-01

    Eighteen people (10 men, 8 women) were examined on a 0.3-T (low-field) imager with T1-weighted axial and coronal images and either axial or coronal T2-weighted images. Thirty-two people (22 men, 10 women) were examined on a 1.5-T (high-field) imager with axial T1-weighted images and coronal, sagittal dual-echo images. Rotator cuff lesions were diagnosed by the following findings: abnormal signal in the tendon, irregularity or discontinuity at the musculo-tendinous junction, or muscle abnormality. Glenoid labrum tears were considered if one or more of the following criteria were present: labral deformity of unusual size, focal defect, amputation or displacement with fluid, or capsular stripping. Comparison between the high-field and low-field MR images in the evaluation of rotator cuff lesions suggests that the high-field imager is better than the low-field imager in the differentiation of tendinitis from tears, in the confirmation of bursitis and in detection of subscapularis lesions. A higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), less time consumption, and more section planes (especially, sagittal sections) appear to be the main reasons for this. As far as labral lesions are concerned, the performances of the high-field imagers and low-field imagers were almost equal. The artifact of greater chemical shift with a high-field imager would more or less, we assume, degrade the better CNR achievable in the diagnosis of labral lesions. PMID:8101743

  17. Uncommon causes of anterior knee pain: a case report of infrapatellar contracture syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ellen, M I; Jackson, H B; DiBiase, S J

    1999-01-01

    The uncommon causes of anterior knee pain should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of a painful knee when treatment of common origins become ineffective. A case is presented in which the revised diagnosis of infrapatellar contracture syndrome was made after noting delayed progress in the rehabilitation of an active female patient with a presumed anterior horn medial meniscus tear and a contracted patellar tendon. The patient improved after the treatment program was augmented with closed manipulation under arthroscopy and infrapatellar injection of both corticosteroids and a local anesthetic. Infrapatellar contraction syndrome and other uncommon sources of anterior knee pain, including arthrofibrosis, Hoffa's syndrome, tibial collateral ligament bursitis, saphenous nerve palsy, isolated ganglions of the anterior cruciate ligament, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and knee tumors, are subsequently discussed. Delayed functional advancement in a rehabilitation program requires full reassessment of the patient's diagnosis and treatment plan. Alternative diagnoses of knee pain are not always of common origins. Ample knowledge of uncommon causes of anterior knee pain is necessary to form a full differential diagnosis in patients with challenging presentations. PMID:10418845

  18. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature☆

    PubMed Central

    Kertzman, Paulo; Lenza, Mario; Pedrinelli, André; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed. PMID:26229889

  19. Pulmonary infiltrates in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic approach using non-invasive and bronchoscopic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Rano, A; Agusti, C; Jimenez, P; Angrill, J; Benito, N; Danes, C; Gonzalez, J; Rovira, M; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A; Torres, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent life threatening complication in immunocompromised patients, requiring early diagnosis and specific treatment. In the present study non-invasive and bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques were applied in patients with different non-HIV immunocompromised conditions to determine the aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates and to evaluate the impact of these methods on therapeutic decisions and outcome in this population.
METHODS—The non-invasive diagnostic methods included serological tests, blood antigen detection, and blood, nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), sputum and tracheobronchial aspirate (TBAS) cultures. Bronchoscopic techniques included fibrobronchial aspirate (FBAS), protected specimen brush (PSB), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Two hundred consecutive episodes of pulmonary infiltrates were prospectively evaluated during a 30 month period in 52 solid organ transplant recipients, 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 68 patients with haematological malignancies, and 27 patients requiring chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs.
RESULTS—An aetiological diagnosis was obtained in 162 (81%) of the 200 patients. The aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates was infectious in 125 (77%) and non-infectious in 37 (23%); 38 (19%) remained undiagnosed. The main infectious aetiologies were bacterial (48/125, 24%), fungal (33/125, 17%), and viral (20/125, 10%), and the most frequent pathogens were Aspergillus fumigatus (n=29), Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12). Among the non-infectious aetiologies, pulmonary oedema (16/37, 43%) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (10/37, 27%) were the most common causes. Non-invasive techniques led to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in 41% of the cases in which they were used; specifically, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 30/191 (16%); sputum cultures 27/88 (31%); NPW 9/50 (18

  20. The burden of co-existing dermatological disorders and their tendency of being overlooked among patients admitted to muhimbili national hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skin diseases are underestimated and overlooked by most clinicians despite being common in clinical practice. Many patients are hospitalized with co-existing dermatological conditions which may not be detected and managed by the attending physicians. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of co-existing and overlooked dermatological disorders among patients admitted to medical wards of Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam. Study design and settings A hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited from the medical wards. Detailed interview to obtain clinico-demographic characteristics was followed by a complete physical examination. Dermatological diagnoses were made mainly clinically. Appropriate confirmatory laboratory investigations were performed where necessary. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0. A p-value of < 0.5 was statistically significant. Results Three hundred and ninety patients admitted to medical wards were enrolled into the study of whom, 221(56.7%) were females. The mean age was 36.7 ± 17.9 (range 7-84 years). Overall, 232/390 patients (59.5%) had co-existing dermatological disorders with 49% (191/390) having one, 9% (36/390) two and 5 patients (1%) three. A wide range of co-existing skin diseases was encountered, the most diverse being non-infectious conditions which together accounted for 36.4% (142/390) while infectious dermatoses accounted for 31.5% (123/390). The leading infectious skin diseases were superficial fungal infections accounting for 18%. Pruritic papular eruption of HIV/AIDS (PPE) and seborrheic eczema were the most common non-infectious conditions, each accounting for 4.3%. Of the 232/390 patients with dermatological disorders, 191/232 (82.3%) and 154/232 (66.3%) had been overlooked by their referring and admitting

  1. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100 μL/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: β2-microglobulin (β2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum β2M to as low as 13 ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay

  2. Discrimination of infectious hepatitis A virus and rotavirus by combining dyes and surfactants with RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human enteric viruses are major agents of foodborne diseases. Because of the absence of a reliable cell culture method for most of the enteric viruses involved in outbreaks, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR is now widely used for the detection of RNA viruses in food samples. However this approach detects viral nucleic acids of both infectious and non infectious viruses, which limits the impact of conclusions with regard to public health concern. The aim of the study was to develop a method to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious particles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and two strains of rotavirus (RV) following thermal inactivation by using intercalating dyes combined with RT-qPCR. Results Once the binding of propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) was shown to be effective on the viral ssRNA of HAV and dsRNA of two strains of RV (SA11 and Wa), their use in conjunction with three surfactants (IGEPAL CA-630, Tween 20, Triton X-100) prior to RT-qPCR assays was evaluated to quantify the infectious particles remaining following heat treatment. The most promising conditions were EMA (20 μM) and IGEPAL CA-630 (0.5%) for HAV, EMA (20 μM) for RV (WA) and PMA (50 μM) for RV (SA11). The effectiveness of the pre-treatment RT-qPCR developed for each virus was evaluated with three RT-qPCR assays (A, B, C) during thermal inactivation kinetics (at 37°C, 68 C, 72°C, 80°C) through comparison with data obtained by RT-qPCR and by infectious titration in cell culture. At 37°C, the quantity of virus (RV, HAV) remained constant regardless of the method used. The genomic titers following heat treatment at 68°C to 80°C became similar to the infectious titers only when a pre-treatment RT-qPCR was used. Moreover, the most effective decrease was obtained by RT-qPCR assay A or B for HAV and RT-qPCR assay B or C for RV. Conclusions We concluded that effectiveness of the pre-treatment RT-qPCR is influenced by the viral target and by the choice

  3. Proton pump inhibitors protect mice from acute systemic inflammation and induce long-term cross-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Balza, E; Piccioli, P; Carta, S; Lavieri, R; Gattorno, M; Semino, C; Castellani, P; Rubartelli, A

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of sepsis is increasing, representing a tremendous burden for health-care systems. Death in acute sepsis is attributed to hyperinflammatory responses, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We report here that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which block gastric acid secretion, selectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated human monocytes in vitro, in the absence of toxic effects. Remarkably, the oversecretion of IL-1β that represents a hallmark of monocytes from patients affected by cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome is also blocked. Based on these propaedeutic experiments, we tested the effects of high doses of PPIs in vivo in the mouse model of endotoxic shock. Our data show that a single administration of PPI protected mice from death (60% survival versus 5% of untreated mice) and decreased TNF-α and IL-1β systemic production. PPIs were efficacious even when administered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. PPI-treated mice that survived developed a long-term cross-tolerance, becoming resistant to LPS- and zymosan-induced sepsis. In vitro, their macrophages displayed impaired TNF-α and IL-1β to different TLR ligands. PPIs also prevented sodium thioglycollate-induced peritoneal inflammation, indicating their efficacy also in a non-infectious setting independent of TLR stimulation. Lack of toxicity and therapeutic effectiveness make PPIs promising new drugs against sepsis and other severe inflammatory conditions. PMID:27441656

  4. 'The world has changed': pharmaceutical citizenship and the reimagining of serodiscordant sexuality among couples with mixed HIV status in Australia.

    PubMed

    Persson, Asha

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I revisit the question of whether HIV can ever be reimagined and re-embodied as a potentially non-infectious condition, drawing on a current qualitative study of couples with mixed HIV status (serodiscordance) in Australia. Recent clinical trials have consolidated a shift in scientific understandings of HIV infectiousness by showing that antiretroviral treatment effectively prevents the sexual transmission of HIV. Contrary to common critiques, I explore how the increasing biomedicalisation of public health and the allied discourse of 'normalisation' can in fact de-marginalise stigmatised relationships and sexualities. Invoking Ecks's concept of 'pharmaceutical citizenship', I consider whether the emerging global strategy of HIV 'treatment-as-prevention' (TasP) can open up new trajectories that release serodiscordant sexuality from its historical moorings in discourses of risk and stigma, and whether these processes might re-inscribe serodiscordant sexuality as 'normal' and safe, potentially shifting the emphasis in HIV prevention discourses away from sexual practice toward treatment uptake and adherence. PMID:26360799

  5. Influenza virus pyrogenicity: central role of structural orientation of virion components and involvement of viral lipid and glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pickering, J M; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1992-06-01

    Ultraviolet light-inactivated, non-infectious influenza virus is pyrogenic; virion components are probably responsible for this pyrogenicity. To try to identify the pyrogenic component, influenza virions were disrupted with either bromelain or sodium deoxycholate (DOC). Treatment of infectious virions with bromelain, under conditions that removed the surface glycoproteins (spikes), destroyed their pyrogenicity. The supernatant, containing non-aggregated and modified glycoproteins, was also non-pyrogenic. Disruption of virions with DOC considerably reduced pyrogenicity; however, some was retained by the sub-viral cores. Viral nucleoprotein and matrix protein, purified from the supernatant, were non-pyrogenic. Aggregated stellate clusters of surface glycoproteins separated on sucrose gradients were pyrogenic in half of numerous tests performed with different batches of material. Treatment of virus with ether resulted in complete loss of pyrogenicity. Liposomes made from extracted viral lipid were non-pyrogenic. In contrast, virosomes made from the viral lipid and the aggregated stellate clusters of surface glycoproteins were pyrogenic. Hence, optimum pyrogenicity depends upon the integrity of the virus particle, but haemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase appear essential, and lipid may be involved. PMID:1607857

  6. Photoimmunological properties of borage in bovine neutrophil in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Firouzeh; Mehrzad, Jalil; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Taghavi Razavizadeh, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    Borage (Echium amoenum fisch) is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants, and has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many (non)infectious diseases in Iran. Study on photoredox and photoimmunology of borage is little. Natural immunomodulatory plants with minimal adverse/toxic effects could help boost animal health and, ultimately, public health. To determine the effect of borage on the functions of key circulating innate immune cells, effects of borage extract (BE) on bovine neutrophils (PMN) photoredox and phagocytosis events were evaluated using an in vitro model system. Blood PMN isolated from healthy high yielding dairy cows (n = 8/treatment) were pre-incubated with BE and the impact on phagocytosis-dependent-and-independent cellular chemiluminescence (CL), phagocytosis, killing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), fluorescence-based PMN H2O2 production and necrosis were assessed. Relative to control (no BE) PMN, treatment with BE significantly increased phagocytosis-dependent-and-independent PMN CL (>10-15% increase). While BE also led to increased PMN H2O2 production, necrosis was also surprisingly higher in these cells. Phagocytosis and killing of both E. coli and S. aureus by PMN treated with BE was substantially higher than that by control PMN. The increased photoimmunobiological events especially intracellular CL, intracellular H2O2 formation, and phagocytic capacity of BE-treated PMN support the potential immunotherapeutic implications of borage and its components for particularly immunocompromised animals and humans. PMID:26334939

  7. Viral Communities Associated with Human Pericardial Fluids in Idiopathic Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Fancello, Laura; Monteil, Sonia; Popgeorgiev, Nikolay; Rivet, Romain; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Pericarditis is a common human disease defined by inflammation of the pericardium. Currently, 40% to 85% of pericarditis cases have no identified etiology. Most of these cases are thought to be caused by an infection of undetected, unsuspected or unknown viruses. In this work, we used a culture- and sequence-independent approach to investigate the viral DNA communities present in human pericardial fluids. Seven viral metagenomes were generated from the pericardial fluid of patients affected by pericarditis of unknown etiology and one metagenome was generated from the pericardial fluid of a sudden infant death case. As a positive control we generated one metagenome from the pericardial fluid of a patient affected by pericarditis caused by herpesvirus type 3. Furthermore, we used as negative controls a total of 6 pericardial fluids from 6 different individuals affected by pericarditis of non-infectious origin: 5 of them were sequenced as a unique pool and the remaining one was sequenced separately. The results showed a significant presence of torque teno viruses especially in one patient, while herpesviruses and papillomaviruses were present in the positive control. Co-infections by different genotypes of the same viral type (torque teno viruses) or different viruses (herpesviruses and papillomaviruses) were observed. Sequences related to bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus, Enterobacteria, Streptococcus, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas were also detected in three patients. This study detected torque teno viruses and papillomaviruses, for the first time, in human pericardial fluids. PMID:24690743

  8. Corneal collagen cross-linking: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Brart, David P S

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to review the published literature on corneal collagen cross-linking. The emphasis was on the seminal publications, systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials. Where such an evidence did not exist, selective large series cohort studies, case controlled studies and case series with follow-up preferably greater than 12 months were included. Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking appears to be the first treatment modality to halt the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectatic disorders with improvement in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters documented by most investigators. Its precise mechanism of action at a molecular level is as yet not fully determined. Follow-up is limited to 4-6 years at present but suggests continued stability and improvement in corneal shape with time. Most published data are with epithelium-off techniques. Epithelium-on studies suggest some efficacy but less than with the epithelium-off procedures and long-term data are not currently available. The use of Riboflavin/UVA CXL for the management of infectious and non-infectious keratitis appears very promising. Its use in the management of bullous keratopathy is equivocal. Investigation of other methodologies for CXL are under investigation. PMID:25000866

  9. Innate immunity and the pathogenicity of inhaled microbial particles.

    PubMed

    Wolff, C Henrik J

    2011-01-01

    Non-infectious inhaled microbial particles can cause illness by triggering an inappropriate immunological response. From the pathogenic point of view these illnesses can be seen to be related to on one hand autoimmune diseases and on the other infectious diseases.In this review three such illnesses are discussed in some detail. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is the best known of these illnesses and it has also been widely studied in animal models and clinically. In contrast to HP Pulmonary mycotoxicosis (PM) is not considered to involve immunological memory, it is an acute self-limiting condition is caused by an immediate "toxic" effect. Damp building related illness (DBRI) is a controversial and from a diagnostic point poorly defined entity that is however causing, or attributed to cause, much more morbidity than the two other diseases.In the recent decade there has been a shift in the focus of immunology from the lymphocyte centered, adaptive immunity towards innate immunity. The archetypal cell in innate immunity is the macrophage although many other cell types participate. Innate immunity relies on a limited number of germline coded receptors for the recognition of pathogens and signs of cellular damage. The focus on innate immunity has opened new paths for the understanding of many chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of some recent studies, that include aspects concerning innate immunity, on our understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases associated with exposure to inhaled microbial matter. PMID:21448336

  10. A novel endogenous betaretrovirus group characterized from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jens; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Heeger, Felix; Avila-Arcos, María; Stenglein, Mark D; Chen, Wei; Sun, Wei; Mazzoni, Camila J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-08-15

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) yielded sequences with highest similarity to the human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-K(HML-2). Further analysis of the polar bear draft genome identified an endogenous betaretrovirus group comprising 26 proviral copies and 231 solo LTRs. Molecular dating indicates the group originated before the divergence of bears from a common ancestor but is not present in all carnivores. Closely related sequences were identified in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and characterized from its genome. We have designated the polar bear and giant panda sequences U. maritimus endogenous retrovirus (UmaERV) and A. melanoleuca endogenous retrovirus (AmeERV), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the bear virus group is nested within the HERV-K supergroup among bovine and bat endogenous retroviruses suggesting a complex evolutionary history within the HERV-K group. All individual remnants of proviral sequences contain numerous frameshifts and stop codons and thus, the virus is likely non-infectious. PMID:23725819

  11. Four-tiered {pi} interaction at the dimeric interface of HIV-1 integrase critical for DNA integration and viral infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q.; Hombrouck, Anneleen; Dayam, Raveendra; Debyser, Zeger; Neamati, Nouri

    2008-08-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme for viral infection. Here, we report an extensive {pi} electron orbital interaction between four amino acids, W132, M178, F181 and F185, located at the dimeric interface of IN that is critical for the strand transfer activity alone. Catalysis of nine different mutant IN proteins at these positions were evaluated. Whereas the 3'-processing activity is predominantly strong, the strand transfer activity of each enzyme was completely dependent on an intact {pi} electron orbital interaction at the dimeric interface. Four representative IN mutants were constructed in the context of the infectious NL4.3 HIV-1 viral clone. Whereas viruses with an intact {pi} electron orbital interaction at the IN dimeric interface replicated comparable to wild type, viruses containing an abolished {pi} interaction were non-infectious. Q-PCR analysis of viral DNA forms during viral replication revealed pleiotropic effects of most mutations. We hypothesize that the {pi} interaction is a critical contact point for the assembly of functional IN multimeric complexes, and that IN multimerization is required for a functional pre-integration complex. The rational design of small molecule inhibitors targeting the disruption of this {pi}-{pi} interaction should lead to powerful anti-retroviral drugs.

  12. Healthcare utilization and lost productivity due to infectious gastroenteritis, results from a national cross-sectional survey Australia 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ford, L; Hall, G; Dobbins, T; Kirk, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the healthcare usage and loss of productivity due to gastroenteritis in Australia using the National Gastroenteritis Survey II. In 2008-2009, 7578 participants across Australia were surveyed about infectious gastroenteritis by telephone interview. A gastroenteritis case was defined as a person experiencing ⩾ 3 loose stools and/or ⩾ 2 vomits in a 24-h period, excluding cases with a non-infectious cause for their symptoms, such as pregnancy or consumption of alcohol. Lost productivity was considered any lost time from full- or part-time paid work due to having gastroenteritis or caring for someone with the illness. Interference with other daily activities was also examined along with predictors of healthcare-seeking practices using multivariable regression. Results were weighted to obtain nationally representative estimates using Stata v. 13·1. Of the 341 cases, 52 visited a doctor due to gastroenteritis, 126 reported taking at least one medication for their symptoms and 79 cases reported missing ⩾ 1 days' paid work due to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis results in a total of 13·1 million (95% confidence interval 6·7-19·5) days of missed paid work each year in Australia. The indirect costs of gastroenteritis are significant, particularly from lost productivity. PMID:26095130

  13. Virus Assembly and Maturation: Auto-regulation Through Allosteric Molecular Switches

    PubMed Central

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Movahed, Navid; Brian, Bothner; Matsui, Tsutomu; Wang, Qiu; Doerschuk, Peter; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We generalize the concept of allostery from the traditional non active-site control of enzymes to virus maturation. Virtually all animal viruses transition from a procapsid, non infectious state, to a mature infectious state. The procapsid contains an encoded chemical program that is executed following an environmental cue. We developed an exceptionally accessible virus system for the study of the activators of maturation and the down stream consequences that result in particle stability and infectivity. Nudaurelia Capensis Omegavirus (NωV) is a T=4 icosahedral virus that undergoes a dramatic maturation in which the 490Å spherical procapsid condenses to a 400Å icosahedral shaped capsid with associated specific auto-proteolysis and stabilization. Employing X-ray crystallography, time resolved electron cryo-microscopy and hydrogen/deuterium exchange as well as biochemistry it was possible to define the mechanisms of allosteric communication among the 4 quasi-equivalent subunits in the icosahedral asymmetric unit. These gene products undergo proteolysis at different rates, dependent on quaternary structure environment, while particle stability is conferred globally following only a few local subunit transitions. We show that there is a close similarity between the concepts of tensegrity, associated with geodesic domes and mechanical engineering, and allostery, associated with biochemical control mechanisms. PMID:23485419

  14. Dapsone induced acute photosensitivity dermatitis; a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    De, Dipankar; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjit

    2007-12-01

    Dapsone is one of the main constituents of anti-leprosy treatment and has been in use for various dermatological and non-dermatological indications since the 1940s. Dapsone-induced photosensitivity is a rare complication. Only 11 cases seem to have been reported in the literature. We report a case of dapsone-induced photosensitivity in an Indian patient with leprosy, and briefly review the literature. Dapsone (diaminodiphenyl sulphone or DDS) is the most commonly used anti-leprosy drug since the 1940s. Apart from leprosy, it is used for various other infectious and non- infectious dermatoses as well as for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV infected patients. It is one of the main constituents of multidrug therapy (MDT) in leprosy by virtue of its anti-mycobacterial properties. It acts by interference with folate metabolism. Because of its inhibitory effect in neutrophil chemotaxis and neutrophilic oxygen burst, it acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Documented cutaneous adverse effects of dapsone include generalised maculopapular rash, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, pustular and acneiform skin eruptions. Photosensitivity dermatitis is a very rare side-effect of dapsone and to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases have been reported in the literature to date. PMID:18309716

  15. Host–Bacterial Symbiosis in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Janet; Lee, S. Melanie; Shen, Yue; Khosravi, Arya; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2011-01-01

    All animals live in symbiosis. Shaped by eons of co-evolution, host-bacterial associations have developed into prosperous relationships creating mechanisms for mutual benefits to both microbe and host. No better example exists in biology than the astounding numbers of bacteria harbored by the lower gastrointestinal tract of mammals. The mammalian gut represents a complex ecosystem consisting of an extraordinary number of resident commensal bacteria existing in homeostasis with the host’s immune system. Most impressive about this relationship may be the concept that the host not only tolerates, but has evolved to require colonization by beneficial microorganisms, known as commensals, for various aspects of immune development and function. The microbiota provides critical signals that promote maturation of immune cells and tissues, leading to protection from infections by pathogens. Gut bacteria also appear to contribute to non-infectious immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmunity. How the microbiota influences host immune responses is an active area of research with important implications for human health. This review synthesizes emerging findings and concepts that describe the mutualism between the microbiota and mammals, specifically emphasizing the role of gut bacteria in shaping an immune response that mediates the balance between health and disease. Unlocking how beneficial bacteria affect the development of the immune system may lead to novel and natural therapies based on harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of the microbiota. PMID:21034976

  16. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE. PMID:25970001

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Inhibits Autophagy through Transcription Factor EB Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Grant R; Rawat, Pratima; Bruckman, Rachel S; Spector, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    HIV Nef acts as an anti-autophagic maturation factor through interaction with beclin-1 (BECN1). We report that exposure of macrophages to infectious or non-infectious purified HIV induces toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) and BECN1 dependent dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB and that this correlates with an increase in autophagy markers. RNA interference for ATG13, TFEB, TLR8, or BECN1 inhibits this HIV-induced autophagy. However, once HIV establishes a productive infection, TFEB phosphorylation and cytoplasmic sequestration are increased resulting in decreased autophagy markers. Moreover, by 7 d post-infection, autophagy levels are similar to mock infected controls. Conversely, although Nef deleted HIV similarly induces TFEB dephosphorylation and nuclear localization, and increases autophagy, these levels remain elevated during continued productive infection. Thus, the interaction between HIV and TLR8 serves as a signal for autophagy induction that is dependent upon the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of TFEB. During permissive infection, Nef binds BECN1 resulting in mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) activation, TFEB phosphorylation and cytosolic sequestration, and the inhibition of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a virus modulating TFEB localization and helps to explain how HIV modulates autophagy to promote its own replication and cell survival. PMID:26115100

  18. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  19. [Foal diseases and foal loss].

    PubMed

    Thein, P; Essich, G

    1993-06-01

    An investigation was carried out upon occurrence and course of infectious and non infectious diseases as well as the mortality in foals born and raised at the State Stud Marbach/Lauter between 1982 and 1991. The foals have been investigated from birth to weaning, they consisted of 177 Thoroughbred Arabians and 285 German Warmblood foals (total 462 foals). The diseases were divided into pre-, peri- and postnatal according to their known or assumed cause and onset. There was a preponderance of prenatal diseases (11.25%) whereas the perinatal rate was 1.30% and the postnatal rate of diseases was 8.66%. The rate of infectious diseases increased from the pre- to the postnatal period of life. A comparison between the two breeds showed that 9% of the Arabian foals suffered from infectious diseases whereas only 4.9% of the Warmblood foals were similarly affected. This is probably linked to the lower level of colostral immunoglobulins in the Arab herd, as previously shown by us. The measurement of mare colostral and foal serum IgG as well as the paramunisation of neonatal and weaned foals are important factors in the prevention of infectious diseases. PMID:8346526

  20. Highly efficient strategy for the heterologous expression and purification of soluble Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid protein and in vitro pH-dependent assembly of virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Valle, Armando; García-Salcedo, Yardena M; Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining pure and soluble viral capsid proteins (CPs) has been a major challenge in the fields of science and technology in recent decades. In many cases, the CPs can self-assemble in the absence of a viral genome, resulting in non-infectious, empty virus-like particles (VLPs) which can be safely handled. The use of VLPs has found great potential in biotechnology and health purposes. In addition, VLPs are a good model system to study protein-protein interactions at the molecular level. In this work, an optimized strategy for the heterologous expression of the Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) CP based in Escherichia coli is described. The method is efficient, inexpensive and it consistently produces higher yields and greater purity levels than those reported so far. Additionally, one of the main advantages of this method is the prevention of the formation of inclusion bodies, thus allowing to directly obtain high amounts of the CP in a soluble and functionally active state with the capacity to readily form VLPs in vitro. The CCMV CP self-assembly pH dependence was also investigated, providing guidelines to easily modulate the process. PMID:26342905

  1. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes

    PubMed Central

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  2. Bacterial protease triggered release of biocides from microspheres with an oily core.

    PubMed

    Craig, Marina; Amiri, Mona; Holmberg, Krister

    2015-03-01

    This study deals with controlled release of drugs to a Staphylococcus aureus infected site from microspheres with an oily core and a polymeric shell. The intended use of the microspheres is for chronic wounds and the microspheres may be administered in the form of a wash liquid or incorporated in a gel. Chronic wounds often carry infection, and the use of microspheres with drug release triggered by the bacterial infection is therefore of interest. A lipophilic drug or a model of the drug was dissolved in an oil and the oil phase was dispersed into an o/w emulsion. A nanofilm shell was then assembled around the oil droplets with the layer-by-layer technique using the two biodegradable polypeptides anionic poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA) and cationic poly-L-lysine (PLL). Since S. aureus exudes proteases such as glutamyl endopeptidase (V8) during colonization and infection, its substrate specificity was key when assembling the nanofilm. Since V8 is known to be substrate specific to the Glu-X bond, PLGA was chosen as the terminating layer of the nanofilm. Crosslinking the nanofilm after assembly lead to increased stability of the microspheres. It was shown that in a non-infectious environment, i.e. when a human wound enzyme, HNE (human neutrophile elastase), was present, the microspheres remained intact. The staphylococcal protease V8, on the other hand, readily catalyzed degradation of the microspheres, thus releasing the drug when triggered by the infectious environment. PMID:25679492

  3. The future of immunisation policy, implementation, and financing.

    PubMed

    Levine, Orin S; Bloom, David E; Cherian, Thomas; de Quadros, Ciro; Sow, Samba; Wecker, John; Duclos, Philippe; Greenwood, Brian

    2011-07-30

    Vaccines have already saved many lives and they have the potential to save many more as increasingly elaborate technologies deliver new and effective vaccines against both infectious diseases--for which there are currently no effective licensed vaccines--such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV and non-infectious diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. However, these new vaccines are likely to be more complex and expensive than those that have been used so effectively in the past, and they could have a multifaceted effect on the disease that they are designed to prevent, as has already been seen with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Deciding which new vaccines a country should invest in requires not only sound advice from international organisations such as WHO but also a well informed national immunisation advisory committee with access to appropriate data for local disease burden. Introduction of vaccines might need modification of immunisation schedules and delivery procedures. Novel methods are needed to finance the increasing number of new vaccines that have the potential to save lives in countries that are too poor to afford them. Here, we discuss some options. PMID:21664676

  4. A global perspective on the influence of environmental exposures on the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Tshala-Katumbay, Desire; Mwanza, Jean-Claude; Rohlman, Diane S; Maestre, Gladys; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2015-11-19

    Economic transitions in the era of globalization warrant a fresh look at the neurological risks associated with environmental change. These are driven by industrial expansion, transfer and mobility of goods, climate change and population growth. In these contexts, risk of infectious and non-infectious diseases are shared across geographical boundaries. In low- and middle-income countries, the risk of environmentally mediated brain disease is augmented several fold by lack of infrastructure, poor health and safety regulations, and limited measures for environmental protection. Neurological disorders may occur as a result of direct exposure to chemical and/or non-chemical stressors, including but not limited to, ultrafine particulate matters. Individual susceptibilities to exposure-related diseases are modified by genetic, epigenetic and metagenomic factors. The existence of several uniquely exposed populations, including those in the areas surrounding the Niger Delta or north western Amazon oil operations; those working in poorly regulated environments, such as artisanal mining industries; or those, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, relying on cassava as a staple food, offers invaluable opportunities to advance the current understanding of brain responses to environmental challenges. Increased awareness of the brain disorders that are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries and investments in capacity for further environmental health-related research are positive steps towards improving human health. PMID:26580326

  5. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. PMID:26188030

  6. Noncommunicable Diseases: Current Status of Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun Min

    2013-01-01

    A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Currently, NCDs are the leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. The four main types of NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, result in more than 30 million deaths annually. To reduce the burden of NCDs on global health, current public health actions stress the importance of preventing, detecting, and correcting modifiable risk factors; controlling major modifiable risk factors has been shown to effectively reduce NCD mortality. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs. Accordingly, the present report set out to review the prevalence and trends of these modifiable risk factors in the Korean population. Over the past few decades, we observed significant risk factor modifications of improved blood pressure control and decreased smoking rate. However, hypertension and cigarette smoking remained the most contributable factors of NCDs in the Korean population. Moreover, other major modifiable risk factors show no improvement or even worsened. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on individuals and society. PMID:23946874

  7. Expression and Purification of Virus-like Particles for Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Arevalo, Maria T; Wong, Terianne M; Ross, Ted M

    2016-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) and subviral particles (SVPs) are an alternative approach to viral vaccine design that offers the advantages of increased biosafety and stability over use of live pathogens. Non-infectious and self-assembling, VLPs are used to present structural proteins as immunogens, bypassing the need for live pathogens or recombinant viral vectors for antigen delivery. In this article, we demonstrate the different stages of VLP design and development for future applications in preclinical animal testing. The procedure includes the following stages: selection of antigen, expression of antigen in cell line of choice, purification of VLPs/SVPs, and quantification for antigen dosing. We demonstrate use of both mammalian and insect cell lines for expression of our antigens and demonstrate how methodologies differ in yield. The methodology presented may apply to a variety of pathogens and can be achieved by substituting the antigens with immunogenic structural proteins of the user's microorganism of interest. VLPs and SVPs assist with antigen characterization and selection of the best vaccine candidates. PMID:27286040

  8. Immature Dengue Virus Is Infectious in Human Immature Dendritic Cells via Interaction with the Receptor Molecule DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Torres Pedraza, Silvia; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van de Pol, Denise P. I.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue Virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. Important target cells during DENV infection are macrophages, monocytes, and immature dendritic cells (imDCs). DENV-infected cells are known to secrete a large number of partially immature and fully immature particles alongside mature virions. Fully immature DENV particles are considered non-infectious, but antibodies have been shown to rescue their infectious properties. This suggests that immature DENV particles only contribute to the viral load observed in patients with a heterologous DENV re-infection. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, we re-evaluated the infectious properties of fully immature particles in absence and presence of anti-DENV human serum. We show that immature DENV is infectious in cells expressing DC-SIGN. Furthermore, we demonstrate that immature dendritic cells, in contrast to macrophage-like cells, do not support antibody-dependent enhancement of immature DENV. Conclusions/Significance Our data shows that immature DENV can infect imDCs through interaction with DC-SIGN, suggesting that immature and partially immature DENV particles may contribute to dengue pathogenesis during primary infection. Furthermore, since antibodies do not further stimulate DENV infectivity on imDCs we propose that macrophages/monocytes rather than imDCs contribute to the increased viral load observed during severe heterotypic DENV re-infections. PMID:24886790

  9. Matrices for combined delivery of proteins and synthetic molecules.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Kelly A; Lampley, Michael W; Boyer, Cyrille; Harth, Eva

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing advancement of synergistic, multimodal approaches to influence the treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases, we witness the development of enabling techniques merging necessary complexity with leaner designs and effectiveness. Systems- and polypharmacology ask for multi-potent drug combinations with many targets to engage with the biological system. These demand drug delivery designs for one single drug, dual drug release systems and multiple release matrices in which the macromolecular structure allows for higher solubilization, protection and sequential or combined release profiles. As a result, nano- and micromaterials have been evolved from mono- to dual drug carriers but are also an essential part to establish multimodality in polymeric matrices. Surface dynamics of particles creating interfaces between polymer chains and hydrogels inspired the development not only of biomedical adhesives but also of injectable hydrogels in which the nanoscale material is both, adhesive and delivery tool. These complex delivery systems are segmented into two delivery subunits, a polymer matrix and nanocarrier, to allow for an even higher tolerance of the incorporated drugs without adding further synthetic demands to the nanocarrier alone. The opportunities in these quite novel approaches for the delivery of small and biological therapeutics are remarkable and selected examples for applications in cancer and bone treatments are discussed. PMID:26656604

  10. An observational study of mortality on bison farms in Saskatchewan with special emphasis on malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-01-01

    In December 2011, the Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) Task Force in Saskatchewan recommended that research be conducted on the relationship between the proximity of bison and sheep under typical commercial production settings and bison deaths due to MCF. The objective of this study was to evaluate all causes of death in bison herds and compare the incidence of MCF in herds at varying distances of exposure from sheep operations. Necropsies were completed on 76 of 133 bison reported to have died during the 18-month study period. A total of 7 MCF deaths was reported from 2 large herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations. Although there was a greater risk of MCF deaths in bison herds within 1.0 km of sheep operations than in herds more than 1.0 km away, the overall incidence of MCF deaths within the study period was very low. Most deaths were attributed to non-infectious causes, including copper deficiency. PMID:26740696

  11. The Structural Architecture of an Infectious Mammalian Prion Using Electron Cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fernández, Ester; Vos, Matthijn R; Afanasyev, Pavel; Cebey, Lino; Sevillano, Alejandro M; Vidal, Enric; Rosa, Isaac; Renault, Ludovic; Ramos, Adriana; Peters, Peter J; Fernández, José Jesús; van Heel, Marin; Young, Howard S; Requena, Jesús R; Wille, Holger

    2016-09-01

    The structure of the infectious prion protein (PrPSc), which is responsible for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, has escaped all attempts at elucidation due to its insolubility and propensity to aggregate. PrPSc replicates by converting the non-infectious, cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded, infectious conformer through an unknown mechanism. PrPSc and its N-terminally truncated variant, PrP 27-30, aggregate into amorphous aggregates, 2D crystals, and amyloid fibrils. The structure of these infectious conformers is essential to understanding prion replication and the development of structure-based therapeutic interventions. Here we used the repetitive organization inherent to GPI-anchorless PrP 27-30 amyloid fibrils to analyze their structure via electron cryomicroscopy. Fourier-transform analyses of averaged fibril segments indicate a repeating unit of 19.1 Å. 3D reconstructions of these fibrils revealed two distinct protofilaments, and, together with a molecular volume of 18,990 Å3, predicted the height of each PrP 27-30 molecule as ~17.7 Å. Together, the data indicate a four-rung β-solenoid structure as a key feature for the architecture of infectious mammalian prions. Furthermore, they allow to formulate a molecular mechanism for the replication of prions. Knowledge of the prion structure will provide important insights into the self-propagation mechanisms of protein misfolding. PMID:27606840

  12. A novel endogenous betaretrovirus group characterized from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jens; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Heeger, Felix; Ávila-Arcos, Maria; Stenglein, Mark D.; Chen, Wei; Sun, Wei; Mazzoni, Camila; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) yielded sequences with highest similarity to the human endogenous retrovirus group HERV-K(HML-2). Further analysis of the polar bear draft genome identified an endogenous betaretrovirus group comprising 26 proviral copies and 231 solo LTRs. Molecular dating indicates the group originated before the divergence of bears from a common ancestor but is not present in all carnivores. Closely related sequences were identified in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and characterized from its genome. We have designated the polar bear and giant panda sequences Ursus maritimus endogenous retrovirus (UmaERV) and Ailuropoda melanoleuca endogenous retrovirus (AmeERV), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the bear virus group is nested within the HERV-K supergroup among bovine and bat endogenous retroviruses suggesting a complex evolutionary history within the HERV-K group. All individual remnants of proviral sequences contain numerous frameshifts and stop codons and thus, the virus is likely non-infectious. PMID:23725819

  13. Utility of immune response-derived biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    ten Oever, Jaap; Netea, Mihai G; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between inflammatory disorders is difficult, but important for a rational use of antimicrobial agents. Biomarkers reflecting the host immune response may offer an attractive strategy to predict the etiology of an inflammatory process and can thus be of help in decision making. We performed a review of the literature to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory biomarkers in adult patients admitted to the hospital with suspected systemic acute infections. Elevated procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations indicate a bacterial infection in febrile patients with an auto-immune disease, rather than a disease flare. CD64 expression on neutrophils can discriminate between non-infectious systemic inflammation and sepsis, and limited evidence suggests the same for decoy receptor 3. PCT is useful for both diagnosing bacterial infection complicating influenza and guiding antibiotic treatment in lower respiratory tract infections in general. In undifferentiated illnesses, increased CD35 expression on neutrophils distinguishes bacterial from viral infections. Compared to bacterial infections, invasive fungal infections are characterized by low concentrations of PCT. No biomarker predicting a specific infecting agent could be identified. PMID:26429736

  14. Emerging Concepts about NAIP/NLRC4 Inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Lage, Silvia Lucena; Longo, Carla; Branco, Laura Migliari; da Costa, Thaís Boccia; Buzzo, Carina de Lima; Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)/NOD-like receptor (NLR) containing a caspase activating and recruitment domain (CARD) 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome complexes are activated in response to proteins from virulent bacteria that reach the cell cytosol. Specific NAIP proteins bind to the agonists and then physically associate with NLRC4 to form an inflammasome complex able to recruit and activate pro-caspase-1. NAIP5 and NAIP6 sense flagellin, component of flagella from motile bacteria, whereas NAIP1 and NAIP2 detect needle and rod components from bacterial type III secretion systems, respectively. Active caspase-1 mediates the maturation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and is responsible for the induction of pyroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell death. In addition to these well-known effector mechanisms, novel roles have been described for NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes, such as phagosomal maturation, activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, regulation of autophagy, secretion of inflammatory mediators, antibody production, activation of T cells, among others. These effector mechanisms mediated by NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes have been extensively studied in the context of resistance of infections and the potential of their agonists has been exploited in therapeutic strategies to non-infectious pathologies, such as tumor protection. Thus, this review will discuss current knowledge about the activation of NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes and their effector mechanisms. PMID:25071770

  15. Corneal collagen cross-linking: A review

    PubMed Central

    O’Brart, David P.S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to review the published literature on corneal collagen cross-linking. The emphasis was on the seminal publications, systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials. Where such an evidence did not exist, selective large series cohort studies, case controlled studies and case series with follow-up preferably greater than 12 months were included. Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking appears to be the first treatment modality to halt the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectatic disorders with improvement in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters documented by most investigators. Its precise mechanism of action at a molecular level is as yet not fully determined. Follow-up is limited to 4–6 years at present but suggests continued stability and improvement in corneal shape with time. Most published data are with epithelium-off techniques. Epithelium-on studies suggest some efficacy but less than with the epithelium-off procedures and long-term data are not currently available. The use of Riboflavin/UVA CXL for the management of infectious and non-infectious keratitis appears very promising. Its use in the management of bullous keratopathy is equivocal. Investigation of other methodologies for CXL are under investigation. PMID:25000866

  16. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: A published work-based comprehensive analysis of therapeutic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takashi; Katoh, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a non-infectious inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that principally affects the hair follicles. There are three variants of EPF: (i) classic EPF; (ii) immunosuppression-associated EPF, which is subdivided into HIV-associated (IS/HIV) and non-HIV-associated (IS/non-HIV); and (iii) infancy-associated EPF. Oral indomethacin is efficacious, especially for classic EPF. No comprehensive information on the efficacies of other medical management regimens is currently available. In this study, we surveyed regimens for EPF that were described in articles published between 1965 and 2013. In total, there were 1171 regimens; 874, 137, 45 and 115 of which were applied to classic, IS/HIV, IS/non-HIV and infancy-associated EPF, respectively. Classic EPF was preferentially treated with oral indomethacin with efficacy of 84% whereas topical steroids were preferred for IS/HIV, IS/non-HIV and infancy-associated EPF with efficacy of 47%, 73% and 82%, respectively. Other regimens such as oral Sairei-to (a Chinese-Japanese herbal medicine), diaminodiphenyl sulfone, cyclosporin and topical tacrolimus were effective for indomethacin-resistant cases. Although the preclusion of direct comparison among cases was one limitation, this study provides a dataset that is applicable to the construction of therapeutic algorithms for EPF. PMID:26875627

  17. An Improved One-Stage Operation of Cranioplasty and Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in Patient with Hydrocephalus and Large Cranial Defect

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Taek; Lee, Sang Pyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The risk of complications is high for patients with a large cranial defect and hydrocephalus, undergoing cranioplasty and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation. The purpose of this study is to examine retrospectively such cases with complications and contrive an operative technique to reduce complications. Methods Nineteen patients underwent cranioplasty and VP shunt operation due to large cranial defects and hydrocephalus. These patients were divided into two groups: Group A with 10 patients who underwent staged-operations, and Group B with 9 patients who underwent one-stage operation. Their complications in each group were retrospectively reviewed. Another five patients underwent a one-stage operation with temporary occlusion of the distal shunt catheter to improve on the technique and were categorized as Group C. Complications in these groups were compared and analyzed. Results The results of the data analysis revealed that complications related to anesthesia (40%) and those related to antibiotic prophylaxis (30%) were high in Group A, while non-infectious delayed complications (45%) and perioperative complications such as intracranial hematoma (33%) were high in Group B. However, for patients in Group C, it showed less complication with the operative technique devised by these authors, as opposed to two previous procedures. Conclusion In patients with hydrocephalus and a large cranial defect, complications arising from existing one-stage operation or staged-operations can be reduced by implementing the technique of "one-stage operation with temporary occlusion of the distal shunt catheter." PMID:27169072

  18. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Ni, Yanyan; Meng, Xiangjin; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS. PMID:25874763

  19. Simulations of Oligomeric Intermediates in Prion Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobley, D.

    2003-10-01

    We extend our previous stochastic cellular automata based model for areal aggregation of prion proteins on neuronal surfaces. The new anisotropic model allow us to simulate both strong beta-sheet and weaker attachment bonds between proteins. Constraining binding directions allows us to generate aggregate structures with the hexagonal lattice symmetry found in recently observed in vitro experiments. We argue that these constraints on rules may correspond to underlying steric constraints on the aggregation process. We find that monomer dominated growth of the areal aggregate is too slow to account for some observed doubling time-to-incubation time ratios inferred from data, and so consider aggregation dominated by relatively stable but non-infectious oligomeric intermediates. We compare a kinetic theory analysis of oligomeric aggregation to spatially explicit simulations of the process. We find that with suitable rules for misfolding of oligomers, possibly due to water exclusion by the surrounding aggregate, the resulting oligomeric aggregation model maps onto our previous monomer aggregation model. Therefore it can produce some of the same attractive features for the description of prion incubation time data. We propose experiments to test the oligomeric aggregation model.

  20. ADAR1 Suppresses the Activation of Cytosolic RNA-Sensing Signaling Pathways to Protect the Liver from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Liyong; Zhang, Junbin; Zhang, Jinxiang; Wang, Qingde; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive inflammation resulting from activation of the innate immune system significantly contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Inflammatory reactions in both IRI and infections share the same signaling pathways evoked by danger/pathogen associated molecular pattern molecules. The cytosolic retinoid-inducible gene I(RIG-I)-like RNA receptor (RLR) RNA sensing pathway mediates type I IFN production during viral infection and the sensing of viral RNA is regulated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1). Using a model of liver IRI, we provide evidence that ADAR1 also regulates cytosolic RNA-sensing pathways in the setting of ischemic stress. Suppression of ADAR1 significantly enhanced inflammation and liver damage following IRI, which was accompanied by significant increases in type I IFN through cytosolic RNA-sensing pathways. In addition, knocking ADAR1 down in hepatocytes exaggerates inflammatory signaling to dsRNA or endotoxin and results in over production of type I IFN, which could be abolished by the interruption of RIG-I. Therefore, we identified a novel ADAR1-dependent protective contribution through which hepatocytes guard against aberrant cytosolic RLR-RNA-sensing pathway mediated inflammatory reaction in response to acute liver IR. ADAR1 protects against over activation of viral RNA-sensing pathways in non-infectious tissue stress. PMID:26832817

  1. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  2. Asthma prevalence and risk factors in early childhood at Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Branco, P T B S; Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Ferraz, C; Vaz, L G; Sousa, S I V

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the commonest and most important chronic non-infectious disease in childhood and it has become more prevalent in recent years. There is a shortage of studies in relation to early childhood and so, as part of the INAIRCHILD project, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, namely demographic, environmental, psychosocial and clinical factors for infants and preschoolers living in Northern Portugal. Data concerning asthma prevalence were collected through questionnaires based on those from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC-derived), the questionnaires were distributed to 1042 children attending the 17 nurseries involved in the INAIRCHILD project (10 in urban and suburban context, and 7 in rural context). The response rate was 48%. Prevalence of asthma based on symptomatology and odds ratio was calculated. Around 52% of the studied children presented at least one of the respiratory symptoms investigated (wheeze, dyspnea and cough) in the absence of upper respiratory infections. The prevalence of asthma was 10.7%, comparable to the figures for Portuguese schoolchildren (6-7 years old) reported by the national Directorate-General of Health, thus showing that an early diagnosis might be possible and helpful for the mitigation of childhood asthma. Environmental context (urban, suburban or rural), gender and family asthma history showed clear associations with asthma prevalence, namely non-rural location, male gender, and having an asthmatic parent were found to be risk factors. PMID:26747645

  3. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of some medicinal plants from Cholistan desert Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Khurshid; Ahmed, Saeed; Anjum, Shazia; Akram, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali; Wariss, Hafiz Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-03-01

    Traditional herbal healers "Hakims" use various plants of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan for treating a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases. However, there has never been a scientific validation of these plant-based therapeutics. We compared the antipyretic effect of Echinops echinatus, Alhagi maurorum, Fagonia cretica, Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Panicum turgidum in animal model. These plants were used to reduce E.coli lysate induced pyrexia in rabbits. There were five groups of rabbits having five rabbits in each group. Among these five groups, three received various doses of experimental treatment, paracetamol was given to fourth group known as positive control. The fifth group of animals served as negative control and received no treatment. Ethanol extracts of Fagonia cretica (500 mg/kg), Panicum turgidum (500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg), Alhagi maurorum (500 and 750 mg/kg), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (250 mg/kg) and Echinops echinatus (750 mg/kg) showed significant antipyretic effects when compared with controls and experimental counterparts. These results revealed that ethanol extracts of the plants evaluated in this study have dose dependent antipyretic activity. Further detailed screening of these plant species is recommended. PMID:27087078

  4. Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Eye Conditions (Ophtalmology): Safety Profile.

    PubMed

    Neri, Piergiorgio; Arapi, Ilir; Nicolai, Michele; Pirani, Vittorio; Saitta, Andrea; Luchetti, Michele M; Giovannini, Alfonso; Mariotti, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis can be a potentially sight threatening disease. Very recently, therapeutic strategies have turned towards a new methodology, which includes biologic agents. The introduction of biologic drugs has started a Copernican revolution in ophthalmology: biologic therapies represent a revolutionary option for those patients who present non-responder, sight threatening uveitis. The availability of these therapies has improved the uveitis outcome. The present review shows the most relevant medical literature on biologic agents in ophthalmology, such as tumor necrosis factor blockers, anti-interleukins and other related biologics. Several papers reported the efficacy of biologic agents in a large number of refractory uveitides, which suggest a promising role of biologic drugs for selected cases. On the other hand, the medical literature does not have consistent numbers yet, which hopefully will validate the promising preliminary results. Biologic agents are not only promising drugs for the treatment of nonresponder uveitis, but also they show an apparently favourable safety profile, although several topics remain unsolved: it is still not clear when commencing the treatment, which agent to choose, and the length of biologic therapy. Moreover, the high costs and the still not clear safety profile have very often limited their use only for severe, non-responder uveitis in highly specialized uveitis centres. PMID:26463249

  5. Emerging haemostatic agents and patient blood management.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi A; Kor, Daryl J

    2013-03-01

    The transfusion of allogeneic blood products has been considered as a life-saving procedure for patients suffering from major traumatic injury and those who are undergoing major surgery. The safety of blood products has improved in terms of infectious complications over the last three decades due to advanced donor screening procedures and tests. Nevertheless, non-infectious complications including a blood-type mismatch, volume overload and immunologic and non-immunologic reactions to blood products can adversely affect clinical outcomes. It is thus important to implement a patient-specific strategy in diagnosing bleeding cause(s) and optimising haemostatic therapy. This strategy is an integral part of patient blood management applicable to many perioperative patients. Recent advances in the haemostatic management and transfusion include better understanding of the pathomechanisms of coagulopathy, availability of point-of-care coagulation monitoring and introductions of pathogen-inactivated plasma and factor concentrates as well as recombinant coagulation factors. Understanding the indications and limitations of conventional haemostatic therapy, and potential indications and complications relating to emerging haemostatic agents, is important for perioperative physicians. In this article, we discuss current issues related to allogeneic plasma products and emerging biological haemostatic agents and techniques. Further, we review the mechanisms of action and available preclinical or clinical data for each therapeutic agent. PMID:23590923

  6. Noncommunicable diseases: current status of major modifiable risk factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Chang; Oh, Sun Min

    2013-07-01

    A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Currently, NCDs are the leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. The four main types of NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, result in more than 30 million deaths annually. To reduce the burden of NCDs on global health, current public health actions stress the importance of preventing, detecting, and correcting modifiable risk factors; controlling major modifiable risk factors has been shown to effectively reduce NCD mortality. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs. Accordingly, the present report set out to review the prevalence and trends of these modifiable risk factors in the Korean population. Over the past few decades, we observed significant risk factor modifications of improved blood pressure control and decreased smoking rate. However, hypertension and cigarette smoking remained the most contributable factors of NCDs in the Korean population. Moreover, other major modifiable risk factors show no improvement or even worsened. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on individuals and society. PMID:23946874

  7. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  8. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families. PMID:27405928

  9. Distinct nucleic acid interaction properties of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein precursor NCp15 explain reduced viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Naiyer, Nada; Mitra, Mithun; Li, Jialin; Williams, Mark C.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Gorelick, Robert J.; Wu, Zhengrong; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2014-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation, three different forms of nucleocapsid (NC) protein—NCp15 (p9 + p6), NCp9 (p7 + SP2) and NCp7—appear successively. A mutant virus expressing NCp15 shows greatly reduced infectivity. Mature NCp7 is a chaperone protein that facilitates remodeling of nucleic acids (NAs) during reverse transcription. To understand the strict requirement for NCp15 processing, we compared the chaperone function of the three forms of NC. NCp15 anneals tRNA to the primer-binding site at a similar rate as NCp7, whereas NCp9 is the most efficient annealing protein. Assays to measure NA destabilization show a similar trend. Dynamic light scattering studies reveal that NCp15 forms much smaller aggregates relative to those formed by NCp7 and NCp9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that the acidic p6 domain of HIV-1 NCp15 folds back and interacts with the basic zinc fingers. Neutralizing the acidic residues in p6 improves the annealing and aggregation activity of NCp15 to the level of NCp9 and increases the protein–NA aggregate size. Slower NCp15 dissociation kinetics is observed by single-molecule DNA stretching, consistent with the formation of electrostatic inter-protein contacts, which likely contribute to the distinct aggregate morphology, irregular HIV-1 core formation and non-infectious virus. PMID:24813443

  10. Chemokine genetic polymorphism in human health and disease.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Tabish

    2016-08-01

    Chemokine receptor-ligand interaction regulates transmigration of lymphocytes and monocytes from circulation to the inflammatory sites. CC chemokine receptors, chemokine receptor 2(CCR2) and 5 (CCR5) are important in recruitment of immune cells as well as non-immune cells under pathological condition. CCR2, CCR5 and their ligands (CCL2 and CCL5) are major contributor to the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and cancer. Currently studies are being done to explore genetic variations in chemokine genes and their involvement in diseases that could make clear disease severity and deaths. Conflicting results of studies in different populations and diseases promoted to investigate chemokines genetic polymorphisms in miscellaneous diseases. This study is aimed to evaluate the influence of chemokines genetic polymorphisms in pathogenesis and outcome of prevalent non infectious diseases. Present study demonstrates the likely role played by genetic variations in drug response and evolution. Moreover this study highlights chemokine as therapeutic target and diagnostic biomarker in pathological condition. PMID:27262929

  11. A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mucci, María J; Cuestas, María L; Cervetto, María M; Landaburu, María F; Mujica, María T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. We enrolled 210 pregnant women, aged 10-42 years old. Of them, 38.1% were symptomatic. Symptoms were most prevalent in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy coincident with a major prevalence of microorganisms. In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non-infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non-albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively. PMID:26931504

  12. Determination of tolerable fatty acids and cholera toxin concentrations using human intestinal epithelial cells and BALB/c mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Farshad; Tychowski, Joanna; Lorentzen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The positive role of fatty acids in the prevention and alleviation of non-human and human diseases have been and continue to be extensively documented. These roles include influences on infectious and non-infectious diseases including prevention of inflammation as well as mucosal immunity to infectious diseases. Cholera is an acute intestinal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It occurs in developing nations and if left untreated, can result in death. While vaccines for cholera exist, they are not always effective and other preventative methods are needed. We set out to determine tolerable concentrations of three fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and cholera toxin using mouse BALB/C macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. We solubilized the above fatty acids and used cell proliferation assays to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of the fatty acids that are not detrimental to human intestinal epithelial cell viability. We solubilized cholera toxin and used it in an assay to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of cholera toxin that do not statistically decrease cell viability in BALB/C macrophages. We found the optimum fatty acid concentrations to be between 1-5 ng/μl, and that for cholera toxin to be < 30 ng per treatment. This data may aid future studies that aim to find a protective mucosal role for fatty acids in prevention or alleviation of cholera infections. PMID:23748896

  13. Diagnosis of myocardial involvement in patients with systemic myopathies with 15-(p-(I-123)iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, J.; Briele, B.; Smekal, A.V.; Hotze, A.L.; Biersack, H.J.; Koehler, U.; Zierz, St. ); Knapp, F.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Involvement of the myocardium in non-infectious myopathies presents in most cases as systolic dysfunction or a disturbed cardiac rhythm. We are interested in exploring how often cardiac involvement can be evaluated with various diagnostic techniques in patients with proven myopathy. We investigated 41 patients with myopathies of various etiology, including mitochondrial and congenital myopathies, Curshmann-Steinert disease, muscular dystrophy, and others. Myopathy was proven by muscular biopsy usually from the bicep. Fatty acid imaging was performed with 15-(p-(I-123)iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IP-PA) and sequential SPECT-scintigraphy with a 180 deg. rotation starting at the 45 deg. RAO position. 190 MBq were injected at the maximal stage of a submaximal exercise. Filtered backprojection and reorientation of the slices were achieved by standard techniques. The quantitative comparison of the oblique slices (bulls-eye technique) of the SPECT-studies revealed turnover-rates as a qualitative measure of {beta}-oxidation. Serum levels of lactate (L), pyruvate (P), glucose (G) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at rest and stress. Ventricular function was investigated by radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) at rest and under stress with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. In addition, ECG, 24 hour-ECG, and echocardiography were also performed with standard techniques.

  14. Diagnosis of myocardial involvement in patients with systemic myopathies with 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Kropp, J.; Briele, B.; Smekal, A.V.; Hotze, A.L.; Biersack, H.J.; Koehler, U.; Zierz, St.; Knapp, F.F.

    1992-03-01

    Involvement of the myocardium in non-infectious myopathies presents in most cases as systolic dysfunction or a disturbed cardiac rhythm. We are interested in exploring how often cardiac involvement can be evaluated with various diagnostic techniques in patients with proven myopathy. We investigated 41 patients with myopathies of various etiology, including mitochondrial and congenital myopathies, Curshmann-Steinert disease, muscular dystrophy, and others. Myopathy was proven by muscular biopsy usually from the bicep. Fatty acid imaging was performed with 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IP-PA) and sequential SPECT-scintigraphy with a 180 deg. rotation starting at the 45 deg. RAO position. 190 MBq were injected at the maximal stage of a submaximal exercise. Filtered backprojection and reorientation of the slices were achieved by standard techniques. The quantitative comparison of the oblique slices (bulls-eye technique) of the SPECT-studies revealed turnover-rates as a qualitative measure of {beta}-oxidation. Serum levels of lactate (L), pyruvate (P), glucose (G) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at rest and stress. Ventricular function was investigated by radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA) at rest and under stress with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. In addition, ECG, 24 hour-ECG, and echocardiography were also performed with standard techniques.

  15. Rituximab efficiently depletes B cells in lung tumors and normal lung tissue

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Battaglini, Albane; Hammarström, Clara; Stankovic, Branislava; Aamodt, Henrik; Stjärne, Johan; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Helland, Åslaug; Øynebråten, Inger; Corthay, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 B-cell-specific antigen and is widely used as therapy for B-cell lymphoma. Since rituximab depletes both malignant and normal B cells, it is increasingly being used to treat various conditions in which normal B cells have a pathogenic role, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. It is well-established that rituximab efficiently eliminates B cells in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen. In contrast, the effect of rituximab in non-lymphoid tissues remains poorly documented and is debated. Here, we report a rheumatoid arthritis patient who was treated with rituximab before receiving thoracic surgery for non-small cell lung cancer. Using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, we show that rituximab efficiently depleted CD20-positive B cells in a primary lung tumor, in lung-associated lymph nodes, and in normal lung tissue. We conclude that rituximab may be very efficient at depleting normal B cells in the lungs. This property of rituximab may potentially be exploited for the treatment of conditions in which pathogenic B cells reside in the lungs. On the other hand, the clearance of lung B cells may provide an explanation for the rare cases of severe non-infectious pulmonary toxicity of rituximab. PMID:27081474

  16. Psychiatric comorbidities in opioid-dependent patients undergoing a replacement therapy programme in Spain: The PROTEUS study.

    PubMed

    Roncero, Carlos; Barral, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Pérez-Pazos, Jesús; Martinez-Luna, Nieves; Casas, Miguel; Torrens, Marta; Grau-López, Lara

    2016-09-30

    Opioid-dependent patients show a high rate of psychiatric comorbidities. The prevalence and characteristics of patients with dual diagnosis have not been well established in Spanish opioid agonist treatment (OAT) programmes. Thus, 621 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in OAT programmes were assessed, using the EuropASI questionnaire, for psychiatric comorbidities, which were detected in 67% of patients (anxiety 53%, mood disorders 48%, sleep disorders 41%, substance-related disorders 36%). In addition, compared with patients without a dual diagnosis, patients with dual pathology were significantly older, used benzodiazepines and cannabis in significantly greater percentages, and showed significantly more frequent infectious and non-infectious comorbidities, worse overall working status, a lower proportion of drivers and higher levels of severity regarding medical, employment, alcohol, legal, family and psychological issues. Therefore, the data showed a very high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in opioid-dependent patients receiving OAT in Spain and several problems frequently associated with patients with dual diagnosis. Physicians treating opioid-dependent patients should be aware of these facts to correctly identify and manage patients with a dual diagnosis. PMID:27416536

  17. Is hepatitis B-virucidal validation of biocides possible with the use of surrogates?

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered to be a major public health problem worldwide, and a significant number of reports on nosocomial outbreaks of HBV infections have been reported. Prevention of indirect HBV transmission by contaminated objects is only possible through the use of infection-control principles, including the use of chemical biocides, which are proven to render the virus non-infectious. The virucidal activity of biocides against HBV cannot be predicted; therefore, validation of the virucidal action of disinfectants against HBV is essential. However, feasible HBV infectivity assays have not yet been established. Thus, surrogate models have been proposed for testing the efficacy of biocides against HBV. Most of these assays do not correlate with HBV infectivity. Currently, the most promising and feasible assay is the use of the taxonomically related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), which belongs to the same Hepadnaviridae virus family. This paper reviews the application of DHBV, which can be propagated in vitro in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes, for the testing of biocides and describes why this model can be used as reliable method to evaluate disinfectants for efficacy against HBV. The susceptibility levels of important biocides, which are often used as ingredients for commercially available disinfectants, are also described. PMID:24574712

  18. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, D. L.; Walsh, J. L.; Shama, G.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  19. Rapid detection of Newcastle disease virus replication in embryonated chicken eggs using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, V P; Raj, Gopal Dhinakar; Raja, A; Kumanan, K; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2011-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is an economically important disease of poultry globally. Rapid methods to detect and differentiate the virus are important to curtail the spread of this virus. Nucleic acid based detection methods are routinely employed for diagnosis that suffer from the disadvantage of failure to discriminate viable virus and non-infectious genome. However, virus isolation remains the gold standard for diagnosis of field outbreaks. The sensitivity of virus isolation was combined with nucleic acid based detection methods so that the time taken for confirmatory diagnosis could be considerably reduced while increasing sensitivity. Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR techniques were compared for the detection of NDV genome replication in 9-11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) using the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the virus as a target. The results suggest that at least two to fourfold increase in cycle threshold (C(t)) values over the baseline C(t) value of samples lacking infectious virus, would indicate live NDV replication. The limit of detection of NDV replication using qRT-PCR was 1×10(4.0) mean embryo infective doses (EID(50)). The earliest time point when live virus replication was detectable by qRT-PCR or RT-PCR was 30h post-inoculation in ECE. PMID:20951166

  20. Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William; Ollerton, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Industrialized society currently faces a wide range of non-infectious, immune-related pandemics. These pandemics include a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases that are often associated with common environmental triggers and with genetic predisposition, but that do not occur in developing societies. In this review, we briefly present the idea that these pandemics are due to a limited number of evolutionary mismatches, the most damaging being ‘biome depletion’. This particular mismatch involves the loss of species from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome, many of which have traditionally been classified as parasites, although some may actually be commensal or even mutualistic. This view, evolved from the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, encompasses a broad ecological and evolutionary perspective that considers host-symbiont relations as plastic, changing through ecological space and evolutionary time. Fortunately, this perspective provides a blueprint, termed ‘biome reconstitution’, for disease treatment and especially for disease prevention. Biome reconstitution includes the controlled and population-wide reintroduction (i.e. domestication) of selected species that have been all but eradicated from the human biome in industrialized society and holds great promise for the elimination of pandemics of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24481190

  1. Chemical conversations in the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jessica A.; Oliveira, Rita A.; Xavier, Karina B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gut microbiota is a complex, densely populated community, home to many different species that collectively provide huge benefits for host health. Disruptions to this community, as can result from recurrent antibiotic exposure, alter the existing network of interactions between bacteria and can render this community susceptible to invading pathogens. Recent findings show that direct antagonistic and metabolic interactions play a critical role in shaping the microbiota. However, the part played by quorum sensing, a means of regulating bacterial behavior through secreted chemical signals, remains largely unknown. We have recently shown that the interspecies signal, autoinducer-2 (AI-2), can modulate the structure of the gut microbiota by using Escherichia coli to manipulate signal levels. Here, we discuss how AI-2 could influence bacterial behaviors to restore the balance between the 2 major bacteria phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, following antibiotic treatment. We explore how this may impact on host physiology, community susceptibility or resistance to pathogens, and the broader potential of AI-2 as a means to redress the imbalances in microbiota composition that feature in many infectious and non-infectious diseases. PMID:26901101

  2. A cell-free enzymatic activity assay for the evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance to protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Satoko; Masaoka, Takashi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Morishita, Ryo; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Tatsumi, Masashi; Endo, Yaeta; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sugiura, Wataru; Ryo, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high frequency of genomic mutations, human retroviruses often develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a significant obstacle to the effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The development of a rapid and versatile drug-susceptibility assay would enable acquisition of phenotypic information and facilitate determination of the appropriate choice of antiretroviral agents. In this study, we developed a novel in vitro method, termed the Cell-free drug susceptibility assay (CFDSA), for monitoring phenotypic information regarding the drug resistance of HIV-1 protease (PR). The CFDSA utilizes a wheat germ cell-free protein production system to synthesize enzymatically active HIV-1 PRs directly from PCR products amplified from HIV-1 molecular clones or clinical isolates in a rapid one-step procedure. Enzymatic activity of PRs can be readily measured by AlphaScreen (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen) in the presence or absence of clinically used protease inhibitors (PIs). CFDSA measurement of drug resistance was based on the fold resistance to the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of various PIs. The CFDSA could serve as a non-infectious, rapid, accessible, and reliable alternative to infectious cell-based phenotypic assays for evaluation of PI-resistant HIV-1. PMID:26583013

  3. Th17 Cell Pathway in Human Immunity: Lessons from Genetics and Therapeutic Interventions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhavalkumar D; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2015-12-15

    The T helper 17 (Th17) cell pathway has been linked by genome-wide association studies to multiple autoimmune diseases. Identification of the genetic causes of primary immunodeficiency diseases revealed that Th17 cells are also critical in host immunity to mucocutaneous candida infections and Staphylococcus aureus. Therapeutic interventions with inhibitors of the different components of the pathway such as interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-23, IL-17A, and IL-17RA have variably beneficial effects in psoriasis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, non-infectious uveitis, and multiple sclerosis. Thus, whereas Th17 cells are protective against Candida albicans and to a lesser degree Staphylococcus aureus, they are pathogenic in many autoimmune diseases. Here, we compare and contrast the effects of human genetic mutations of and therapeutic interventions targeted at Th17 cell molecules. We discuss that although there are similarities when Th17 cell pathway molecules are modulated, each molecule has unique non-Th17 cell features that lead to different functional outcomes. PMID:26682981

  4. Clinical significance of de Garengeot's hernia: A case of acute appendicitis and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Piperos, Theodoros; Kalles, Vasileios; Al Ahwal, Yousef; Konstantinou, Evangelos; Skarpas, George; Mariolis-Sapsakos, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The presence of the appendix in a femoral hernia sac is known as de Garengeot's hernia. We report a rare case of an elderly woman with femoral hernia appendicitis and discuss the surgical pitfalls and considerations through a literature review. Presentation of case An 83-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed a femoral hernia. Ultrasonography confirmed bowel was present in the hernia sac. In the operation room, an acutely inflamed appendix was recognized within the sac. The patient underwent appendectomy and hernia repair with sutures. Discussion Acute appendicitis within a femoral hernia is rare and multiple dilemmas exist regarding its treatment. An incision below the inguinal ligament is a reasonable choice in order to access the hernia sac. A mesh should be placed in non-infectious appendectomy while herniorrhaphy is preferred in cases of appendicitis. Conclusion The presence of the vermiform appendix in a femoral hernia sac is rare but the surgeon should be aware of this clinical entity. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment is the key to avoid complications. PMID:22288062

  5. Low temperature-dependent salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein processing and recombinant virus-like particle formation.

    PubMed

    Metz, Stefan W; Feenstra, Femke; Villoing, Stephane; van Hulten, Marielle C; van Lent, Jan W; Koumans, Joseph; Vlak, Just M; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV), an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus). SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Outbreaks of SAV are associated with large economic losses of ~17 to 50 million $/year. Current control strategies rely on vaccination with inactivated virus formulations that are cumbersome to obtain and have intrinsic safety risks. In this research we were able to obtain non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) of SAV via expression of recombinant baculoviruses encoding SAV capsid protein and two major immunodominant viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. However, this was only achieved when a temperature shift from 27°C to lower temperatures was applied. At 27°C, precursor E2 (PE2) was misfolded and not processed by host furin into mature E2. Hence, E2 was detected neither on the surface of infected cells nor as VLPs in the culture fluid. However, when temperatures during protein expression were lowered, PE2 was processed into mature E2 in a temperature-dependent manner and VLPs were abundantly produced. So, temperature shift-down during synthesis is a prerequisite for correct SAV glycoprotein processing and recombinant VLP production. PMID:21991361

  6. Low Temperature-Dependent Salmonid Alphavirus Glycoprotein Processing and Recombinant Virus-Like Particle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Villoing, Stephane; van Hulten, Marielle C.; van Lent, Jan W.; Koumans, Joseph; Vlak, Just M.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV), an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus). SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Outbreaks of SAV are associated with large economic losses of ∼17 to 50 million $/year. Current control strategies rely on vaccination with inactivated virus formulations that are cumbersome to obtain and have intrinsic safety risks. In this research we were able to obtain non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) of SAV via expression of recombinant baculoviruses encoding SAV capsid protein and two major immunodominant viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. However, this was only achieved when a temperature shift from 27°C to lower temperatures was applied. At 27°C, precursor E2 (PE2) was misfolded and not processed by host furin into mature E2. Hence, E2 was detected neither on the surface of infected cells nor as VLPs in the culture fluid. However, when temperatures during protein expression were lowered, PE2 was processed into mature E2 in a temperature-dependent manner and VLPs were abundantly produced. So, temperature shift-down during synthesis is a prerequisite for correct SAV glycoprotein processing and recombinant VLP production. PMID:21991361

  7. 3D rotating wall vessel and 2D cell culture of four veterinary virus pathogens: A comparison of virus yields, portions of infectious particles and virus growth curves.

    PubMed

    Malenovská, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Only very few comparative studies have been performed that evaluate general trends of virus growth under 3D in comparison with 2D cell culture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences when four animal viruses are cultured in 2D and 3D. Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSIV), Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) and Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) were cultivated in 3D rotating wall vessels (RWVs) and conventional 2D cultures. The production of virus particles, the portion of infectious particles, and the infectious growth curves were compared. For all viruses, the production of virus particles (related to cell density), including the non-infectious ones, was lower in 3D than in 2D culture. The production of only infectious particles was significantly lower in BAdV and BPIV-3 in 3D cultures in relation to cell density. The two cultivation approaches resulted in significantly different virus particle-to-TCID50 ratios in three of the four viruses: lower in SuHV-1 and BPIV-3 and higher in BAdV in 3D culture. The infectious virus growth rates were not significantly different in all viruses. Although 3D RWV culture resulted in lower production of virus particles compared to 2D systems, the portion of infectious particles was higher for some viruses. PMID:26562056

  8. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  9. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  10. "Orbiting around" the orbital myositis: clinical features, differential diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, F; Wenninger, S; Schoser, B

    2016-04-01

    Orbital myositis (OM) is a rare disease whose clinical heterogeneity and different treatment options represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We aim to review the state of knowledge on OM, also describing a cohort of patients diagnosed in our centre, to highlight some remarkable clinical features. A literature review was conducted in PubMed and Medline databases. The herein described cohort is composed of seven OM patients, diagnosed according to clinical, laboratory and neuroradiological features, whose clinical data were retrospectively analysed. OM is a non-infectious, inflammatory process primarily involving extraocular eye-muscles. It typically presents as an acute to sub-acute, painful ophthalmoplegia with signs of ocular inflammation, but atypical cases without pain or with a chronic progression have been described. The wide range of OM mimicking diseases make a prompt diagnosis challenging but orbit MRI provides valuable clues for differential diagnosis. Timely treatment is greatly important as OM promptly responds to steroids; nevertheless, partial recovery or relapses often occur. In refractory, recurrent or steroid-intolerant cases other therapeutic options (radiotherapy, immunosuppressants, immunoglobulins) can be adopted, but the most effective therapeutic management is yet to be established. In this review, we provide a detailed clinical description of OM, considering the main differential diagnoses and suggesting the most useful investigations. In light of the currently available data on therapy efficacy, we propose a therapeutic algorithm that may guide neurologists in OM patients' management. PMID:26477021

  11. Virus Characterization by FFF-MALS Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razinkov, Vladimer

    2009-03-01

    Adequate biophysical characterization of influenza virions is important for vaccine development. The influenza virus vaccines are produced from the allantoic fluid of developing chicken embryos. The process of viral replication produces a heterogeneous mixture of infectious and non-infectious viral particles with varying states of aggregation. The study of the relative distribution and behavior of different subpopulations and their inter-correlation can assist in the development of a robust process for a live virus vaccine. This report describes a field flow fractionation and multiangle light scattering (FFF-MALS) method optimized for the analysis of size distribution and total particle counts. A method using a combination of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AFFFF) and multiangle light scattering (MALS) techniques has been shown to improve the estimation of virus particle counts and the amount of aggregated virus in laboratory samples. The FFF-MALS method was compared with several other methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), size exclusion chromatography followed by MALS (SEC-MALS), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT Q-PCR), median tissue culture dose (TCID(50)), and the fluorescent focus assay (FFA). The correlation between the various methods for determining total particle counts, infectivity and size distribution is reported. The pros and cons of each of the analytical methods are discussed.

  12. 16S rRNA survey revealed complex bacterial communities and evidence of bacterial interference on human adenoids.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tiantian; Glatt, Dominique Ulrike; Nguyen, Tam Nhu; Allen, Emma Kaitlynn; Early, Stephen V; Sale, Michele; Winther, Birgit; Wu, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Adenoid microbiota plays an important role in the development of various infectious and non-infectious diseases of the upper airways, such as otitis media, adenotonsillitis, rhinosinusitis and adenoid hypertrophy. Studies have suggested that adenoids could act as a potential reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. However, previous bacterial surveys of adenoids were mainly culture based and therefore might only provide an incomplete and potentially biased assessment of the microbial diversity. To develop an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the adenoid microbial communities and test the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis', we carried out a 16S rRNA based, culture-independent survey of bacterial communities on 67 human adenoids removed by surgery. Our survey revealed highly diverse adenoid bacterial communities distinct from those of other body habitats. Despite large interpersonal variations, adenoid microbiota shared a core set of taxa and can be classified into at least five major types based on its bacterial species composition. Our results support the 'pathogen reservoir hypothesis' as we found common pathogens of otitis media to be both prevalent and abundant. Co-occurrence analyses revealed evidence consistent with the bacterial interference theory in that multiple common pathogens showed 'non-coexistence' relationships with non-pathogenic members of the commensal microflora. PMID:23113966

  13. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Gando, Satoshi; Levi, Marcel; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular activation of coagulation that can be caused by infectious insults (such as sepsis) and non-infectious insults (such as trauma). The main pathophysiological mechanisms of DIC are inflammatory cytokine-initiated activation of tissue factor-dependent coagulation, insufficient control of anticoagulant pathways and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-mediated suppression of fibrinolysis. Together, these changes give rise to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular thrombosis, which can cause organ dysfunction and seriously affect patient prognosis. Recent observations have pointed to an important role for extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, in the pathogenesis of DIC. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) established a DIC diagnostic scoring system consisting of global haemostatic test parameters. This scoring system has now been well validated in diverse clinical settings. The theoretical cornerstone of DIC management is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying conditions, and DIC should be simultaneously managed to improve patient outcomes. The ISTH guidance for the treatment of DIC recommends treatment strategies that are based on current evidence. In this Primer, we provide an updated overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of DIC and discuss the future directions of basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:27250996

  14. [Revision of therapeutic index for targeted treatment in kidney cancer: What if toxicity could predict efficacy?].

    PubMed

    Grellety, Thomas; Brugères-Chakiba, Camille; Chaminade, Axel; Roubaud, Guilhem; Ravaud, Alain; Gross-Goupil, Marine

    2014-06-01

    Since 2006, new treatments as targeted therapies (anti angiogenic and mTOR inhibitors) are prescribed in renal cell cancer. Toxicity of these treatments is well known by clinicians. Occurrence of these side effects has been associated with anti tumoral efficacy. High blood pressure, hypothyroïdie and hand foot syndrome were reported to be predictive of anti tumoral response. Fatigue and hyponatremia are still largely discussed. Moreover, non infectious pneumonia, which frequently occurs with mTOR inhibitors, is associated with clinical benefit. The main objective of treatment of advanced kidney cancer, specially renal cell cancer, is obtaining clinical benefit (stabilization and response) with a chronic evolution of the disease. This prolong exposure to drugs, according to their toxicity profile, often contributes to dose reduction, moreover interruption of treatment, potentially associated with a loss of control of disease. Thus, the adverse effects, described hereby, may be considered as « positive events », predicting efficacy, and thus looked for… Moreover, the sequential approach, with new drugs, emphasizes the need of defining the optimal sequence. Thus, because of the lack of molecular biomarkers to date, this predictives secondary effects may help for selecting the therapeutic strategy. PMID:24977449

  15. Regulation of the Host Antiviral State by Intercellular Communications.

    PubMed

    Assil, Sonia; Webster, Brian; Dreux, Marlène

    2015-08-01

    Viruses usually induce a profound remodeling of host cells, including the usurpation of host machinery to support their replication and production of virions to invade new cells. Nonetheless, recognition of viruses by the host often triggers innate immune signaling, preventing viral spread and modulating the function of immune cells. It conventionally occurs through production of antiviral factors and cytokines by infected cells. Virtually all viruses have evolved mechanisms to blunt such responses. Importantly, it is becoming increasingly recognized that infected cells also transmit signals to regulate innate immunity in uninfected neighboring cells. These alternative pathways are notably mediated by vesicular secretion of various virus- and host-derived products (miRNAs, RNAs, and proteins) and non-infectious viral particles. In this review, we focus on these newly-described modes of cell-to-cell communications and their impact on neighboring cell functions. The reception of these signals can have anti- and pro-viral impacts, as well as more complex effects in the host such as oncogenesis and inflammation. Therefore, these "broadcasting" functions, which might be tuned by an arms race involving selective evolution driven by either the host or the virus, constitute novel and original regulations of viral infection, either highly localized or systemic. PMID:26295405

  16. Seroprevalence study of the main causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Laura; Benkirane, Abdelali; Hakimi, Imane; El Idrissi, Ahmed; Natale, Alda

    2016-03-31

    Sera from 221 cattle were collected in 25 farms in Morocco to investigate the evidence and circulation of some of the main bovine abortive agents in the dairy cattle farming, where abortions are often reported. All sera were examined for brucellosis, 176 for neosporosis, 88 for leptospirosis, and 42 for Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD/MD), Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) (Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, IBR/IPV), and Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) infections (at least 1 sample per herd). Abortions were reported in 23 (10.4%) of the 221 tested cattle. Antibodies against the investigated pathogens were detected in all samples tested, with an overall seroprevalence of 33.48% for Brucella, 9.09% for Leptospira, 8.52% for Neospora, 37.71% for BVDV, 50% for BHV-1, 9.52% for BHV-4. As for Leptospira antibodies against serovars Hardjo, Pomona, and Tarassovi were identi ed. Mixed infections were common. The lack of evidence of non-infectious factors epidemiologically related to abortions suggested that the investigated agents are to be considered important risk factors in the dynamic of the abortion syndrome, even if further investigations are necessary to identify the abortion cause. Particular attention should be paid on brucellosis, considering the high seroprevalence and its zoonotic relevance. PMID:27033527

  17. Effective immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis with the FML-vaccine.

    PubMed

    Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara Patricia; Cruz Mendes, Amanda; Paraguai de Souza, Edilma; Hashimoto Okada, Lilian Y; de A Trivellato, Fernando Antonio; Kawasaki, Jarbas Kiyoshi A; Costa, Andreia Cerqueira; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Genaro, Odair; Batista, Leopoldina Maria Melo; Palatnik, Marcos; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz

    2004-06-01

    The potential effect of the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine on immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis was assayed on five mongrel dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani and on 21 Leishmania chagasi naturally infected dogs when seropositive to FML but completely asymptomatic. The clinical signs of the experimentally infected, symptomatic dogs only disappeared after the complete vaccination. Protection was obtained in 3/5 animals that remained asymptomatic, IDR positive and parasite free, 1 year after infection. Furthermore, the asymptomatic, FML-vaccine treated dogs showed stable anti-FML IgG1 levels, increasing IgG2 levels and 79-95% of positive DTH response, during the whole experiment. Twenty-two months after complete vaccination, no obits due to visceral leishmaniasis were recorded and 90% of these dogs were still asymptomatic, healthy and parasite free. On the other hand, 37% (17/46 dogs) kala-azar obits were recorded in a control group that received no treatment during the same period, and that was FML-seropositive and asymtpomatic at the beginning of the assay. Our results indicate that the FML-vaccine was effective in the immunotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis of asymptomatic infected dogs. Normal proportions of CD4 and CD21 lymphocytes were detected in PBMC by FACS analysis, in dogs submitted to immunotherapy, suggesting their non-infectious condition. All animals showed as well significantly increased percents of CD8 lymphocytes as expected for Quillaja saponin (QuilA) vaccine treatments. PMID:15149782

  18. HERV-K(HML-2), the Best Preserved Family of HERVs: Endogenization, Expression, and Implications in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hohn, Oliver; Hanke, Kirsten; Bannert, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses that have the ability to infect germ line cells can become an integral and inherited part of the host genome. About 8% of the human chromosomal DNA consists of sequences derived from infections by retroviruses that presumably circulated 2–40 millions of years ago, and some elements are actually much older. Post-insertional recombinations, deletions, and mutations have rendered all known human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) non-infectious. However some, particularly the most recently acquired proviruses of the HERV-K(HML-2) family, can expresses viral proteins and produce viral particles. In this review we will first discuss the major aspects of the endogenization process and peculiarities of the different HERV-K families. We will then focus on the genes and proteins encoded by HERV-K(HML-2) as well as inactivation of these proviruses by postinsertional mutations and their inhibition by antiretroviral factors. After describing the evolutionary interplay between host and endogenous retrovirus we will delve deeper into the currently limited understanding of HERV-K and its possible association with disease, particularly tumorigenesis. PMID:24066280

  19. The impact of a 24-h ultra-marathon on salivary antimicrobial protein responses.

    PubMed

    Gill, S K; Teixeira, A M; Rosado, F; Hankey, J; Wright, A; Marczak, S; Murray, A; Costa, R J S

    2014-10-01

    Depressed oral respiratory mucosal immunity and increased incidence of upper respiratory symptoms are commonly reported after bouts of prolonged exercise. The current study observed the impact of a 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon competition (distance range: 122-208 km; ambient temperature range: 0-20 °C) on salivary antimicrobial protein responses and incidence of upper respiratory symptoms. Body mass, unstimulated saliva and venous blood samples were taken from ultra-endurance runners (n=25) and controls (n=17), before and immediately after competition. Upper respiratory symptoms were assessed during and until 4-weeks after event completion. Samples were analyzed for salivary IgA, lysozyme, α-amylase and cortisol in addition to plasma osmolality. Decreased saliva flow rate (p<0.001), salivary IgA (p<0.001) and lysozyme (p=0.015) secretion rates, and increased salivary α-amylase secretion rate (p<0.001) and cortisol responses (p<0.001) were observed post-competition in runners, with no changes being observed in controls. No incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were reported by participants. A 24-h continuous overnight ultra-marathon resulted in the depression of some salivary antimicrobial protein responses, but no incidences of upper respiratory symptoms were evident during or following competition. Salivary antimicrobial protein synergism, effective management of non-infectious episodes, maintaining euhydration, and (or) favourable environmental influences could have accounted for the low prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms. PMID:24886918

  20. Infection of the Beard area. Kerion: a review of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wall, D; Fraher, M; O'Connell, B; Watson, R; Timon, C; Stassen, L F A; Barnes, L

    2014-01-01

    Folliculitis barbae is a common condition of both infective and non-infectious aetiology. It most frequently presents as a superficial folliculitis, with fine pustules appearing at the opening of hair follicles in the beard area, often associated with shaving; known as Bockhart impetigo and usually due to infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. If untreated, the infection and inflammation can progress, leading to a more deeply seated infection known as sycosis barbae. Perifollicular nodules, termed furuncles, may appear and when these are multiple and coalesce, a deep-seated, communicating, pustulating plaque called a carbuncle develops, often with associated systemic upset. Such an appearance, which can prompt incision and drainage, should not, however, be assumed to be solely due to staphylococcal infection. Particularly in the context of a history of close animal contact or a lack of response to antibiotic treatment, a diagnosis of tinea barbae should be considered and investigated. Prompt treatment with antifungal agents and often systemic steroids is required once the diagnosis is made. This will help reduce an exacerbation of the pronounced destruction that results from the immune response to the fungal infection, known as a kerion, which would be compounded by surgical intervention. In this article, we review two such cases and review the investigation and management of the disease. PMID:25226722

  1. Multiple invasions of an infectious retrovirus in cat genomes.

    PubMed

    Shimode, Sayumi; Nakagawa, So; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancient retroviral infections of host germ-line cells. While most ERVs are defective, some are active and express viral proteins. The RD-114 virus is a replication-competent feline ERV, and several feline cell lines produce infectious RD-114 viral particles. All domestic cats are considered to have an ERV locus encoding a replication-competent RD-114 virus in their genomes; however, the locus has not been identified. In this study, we investigated RD-114 virus-related proviral loci in genomes of domestic cats, and found that none were capable of producing infectious viruses. We also found that all domestic cats have an RD-114 virus-related sequence on chromosome C2, termed RDRS C2a, but populations of the other RDRSs are different depending on the regions where cats live or breed. Our results indicate that RDRS C2a, the oldest RD-114-related provirus, entered the host genome before an ancestor of domestic cats started diverging and the other new RDRSs might have integrated into migrating cats in Europe. We also show that infectious RD-114 virus can be resurrected by the recombination between two non-infectious RDRSs. From these data, we conclude that cats do not harbor infectious RD-114 viral loci in their genomes and RD-114-related viruses invaded cat genomes multiple times. PMID:25641657

  2. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M.; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A.; Berger, Steffen M.; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  3. Long amplicon (LA)-qPCR for the discrimination of infectious and noninfectious phix174 bacteriophages after UV inactivation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Johannes; Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Eggers, Jutta; Tiehm, Andreas

    2016-10-15

    Waterborne viruses are increasingly being considered in risk assessment schemes. In general, virus detection by culture methods is time consuming. In contrast, detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is more rapid and therefore, more suitable for monitoring. At present, qPCR lacks the essential ability for discriminating between infectious and non-infectious viruses, thus limiting its applicability for monitoring disinfection processes. In this study, a method was developed to quantify UV inactivation by long amplicon (LA)-qPCR. Bacteriophage phiX174 was used as a surrogate for human pathogenic viruses. A qPCR protocol was developed with new sets of primers, resulting in amplicon lengths of 108, 250, 456, 568, 955, 1063, 1544, and 1764 nucleotides. The log reduction of gene copies increased with increasing amplicon length. Additional treatment with the intercalating dye, PMA, had no effect, indicating that the bacteriophage capsids were not damaged by low pressure UV irradiation. A qPCR of nearly the complete genome (approx. 5000 nucleotides) showed similar results to the plaque assay. The log reduction in qPCR correlates with [specific amplicon length x UV dose]. The normalized DNA effect constant can be applied to calculate phiX174 inactivation based on qPCR detection. PMID:27450352

  4. Influence of Internal DNA Pressure on Stability and Infectivity of Phage λ.

    PubMed

    Bauer, D W; Evilevitch, A

    2015-10-01

    Viruses must remain infectious while in harsh extracellular environments. An important aspect of viral particle stability for double-stranded DNA viruses is the energetically unfavorable state of the tightly confined DNA chain within the virus capsid creating pressures of tens of atmospheres. Here, we study the influence of internal genome pressure on the thermal stability of viral particles. Using differential scanning calorimetry to monitor genome loss upon heating, we find that internal pressure destabilizes the virion, resulting in a smaller activation energy barrier to trigger DNA release. These experiments are complemented by plaque assay and electron microscopy measurements to determine the influence of intra-capsid DNA pressure on the rates of viral infectivity loss. At higher temperatures (65-75°C), failure to retain the packaged genome is the dominant mechanism of viral inactivation. Conversely, at lower temperatures (40-55°C), a separate inactivation mechanism dominates, which results in non-infectious particles that still retain their packaged DNA. Most significantly, both mechanisms of infectivity loss are directly influenced by internal DNA pressure, with higher pressure resulting in a more rapid rate of inactivation at all temperatures. PMID:26254570

  5. A novel coding-region RNA element modulates infectious dengue virus particle production in both mammalian and mosquito cells and regulates viral replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Groat-Carmona, Anna Maria; Orozco, Susana; Friebe, Peter; Payne, Anne; Kramer, Laura; Harris, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an enveloped flavivirus with a positive-sense RNA genome transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causing the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans. Relatively few cis-acting RNA regulatory elements have been described in the DENV coding-region. Here, by introducing silent mutations into a DENV-2 infectious clone, we identify the conserved capsid-coding region 1 (CCR1), an RNA sequence element that regulates viral replication in mammalian cells and to a greater extent in Ae. albopictus mosquito cells. These defects were confirmed in vivo, resulting in decreased replication in Ae. aegypti mosquito bodies and dissemination to the salivary glands. Furthermore, CCR1 does not regulate translation, RNA synthesis or virion retention but likely modulates assembly, as mutations resulted in the release of non-infectious viral particles from both cell types. Understanding the role of CCR1 could help characterize the poorly-defined stage of assembly in the DENV life cycle and uncover novel anti-viral targets. PMID:22840606

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of neutrophilic inflammation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Olga; Brullo, Chiara; Arduino, Nicoletta; Schenone, Silvia; Ranise, Angelo; Bondavalli, Francesco; Ottonello, Luciano; Dapino, Patrizia; Dallegri, Franco

    2004-03-01

    In several non-infectious human diseases, such as ulcerous colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the extravasal recruitment of neutrophils plays a crucial role in the development of tissue damage, which, when persistent, can lead to the irreversible organ dysfunction. The neutrophil activation is controlled by a number of intracellular pathways, particularly by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) which also acts on phosphodiesterase IV (PDE4) gene stimulating the synthesis of this enzyme, able to transform cAMP to inactive AMP. PDE4 inhibitors enhance intracellular cAMP and decrease inflammatory cell activation. Several 3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde and 3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and studied by us to evaluate their ability to inhibit the superoxide anion production in human neutrophils. These compounds were found able to inhibit the neutrophil activation and some of them increased the cAMP level on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated neutrophils. Moreover, they also inhibited selectively the human PDE4 enzyme, although they are less potent than the reference compound Rolipram. We report here synthesis, biological studies and some SAR considerations concerning the above mentioned compounds. PMID:14987986

  7. Tunnelled Central Venous Catheter-Related Problems in the Early Phase of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Effects on Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yeral, Mahmut; Boğa, Can; Oğuzkurt, Levent; Alışkan, Hikmet Eda; Özdoğu, Hakan; Demiroğlu, Yusuf Ziya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Haematopoietic stem cell recipients need central venous catheters (CVCs) for easy administration of intravenous fluid, medications, apheresis, or dialysis procedures. However, CVCs may lead to infectious or non-infectious complications such as thrombosis. The effect of these complications on transplantation outcome is not clear. This manuscript presents the complication rates of double-lumen tunnelled CVCs and their effect on transplantation outcome. Materials and Methods: Data from 111 consecutive patients, of whom 75 received autologous and 36 received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantations, were collected retrospectively. The data were validated by the Record Inspection Group of the related JACIE-accredited transplantation centre. Results: Thrombosis developed in 2.7% of recipients (0.9 per 1000 catheter days). Catheter-related infection was identified in 14 (12.6%) patients (3.6 per 1000 catheter days). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common causative agent. Engraftment time, rate of 100-day mortality, and development of grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease were not found to be associated with catheter-related complications. Conclusion: These results indicate that adverse events related with tunnelled CVCs are manageable and have no negative effects on transplant outcome. PMID:25805675

  8. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred. PMID:27488196

  9. MHC class I-related molecule, MR1, and mucosal-associated invariant T cells.

    PubMed

    Franciszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Salou, Marion; Legoux, Francois; Zhou, Qian; Cui, Yue; Bessoles, Stéphanie; Lantz, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    The MHC-related 1, MR1, molecule presents a new class of microbial antigens (derivatives of the riboflavin [Vitamin B2] biosynthesis pathway) to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. This raises many questions regarding antigens loading and intracellular trafficking of the MR1/ligand complexes. The MR1/MAIT field is also important because MAIT cells are very abundant in humans and their frequency is modified in many infectious and non-infectious diseases. Both MR1 and the invariant TCRα chain expressed by MAIT cells are strikingly conserved among species, indicating important functions. Riboflavin is synthesized by plants and most bacteria and yeasts but not animals, and its precursor derivatives activating MAIT cells are short-lived unless bound to MR1. The recognition of MR1 loaded with these compounds is therefore an exquisite manner to detect invasive bacteria. Herein, we provide an historical perspective of the field before describing the main characteristics of MR1, its ligands, and the few available data regarding its cellular biology. We then summarize the current knowledge of MAIT cell differentiation and discuss the definition of MAIT cells in comparison to related subsets. Finally, we describe the phenotype and effector activities of MAIT cells. PMID:27319347

  10. High-Dose Intravenous Corticosteroids for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Charkoudian, Leon D.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Pujari, Siddharth S.; Gangaputra, Sapna; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Kempen, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness and risk of complications of high-dose intravenous pulsed corticosteroids for non-infectious ocular inflammatory diseases. Methods Retrospective cohort study. One hundred four eyes of seventy patients who received high-dose intravenous corticosteroids for treatment of active ocular inflammation were identified from five centers. The main outcome measures were control of inflammation and occurrence of ocular or systemic complications within one month after treatment. Results Within ≤1 month of starting treatment, 57% of eyes achieved complete control of inflammation (95% confidence interval (CI): 33-83%), improving to 82% when near-complete control was included (95% CI: 61-96%). Most eyes (85%; 95% CI: 70-95%) gained clinically significant improvement in anterior chamber inflammation. One patient developed a colon perforation during treatment. No other major complications were recorded. Conclusions Treatment of ocular inflammation with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids resulted in substantial clinical improvement for most cases within one month. Complications of therapy were infrequent. PMID:22409561

  11. External phenome analysis enables a rational federated query strategy to detect changing rates of treatment-related complications associated with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jeremy L; Alterovitz, Gil; Bodio, Kelly; Joyce, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are increasingly useful for health services research. For relatively uncommon conditions, such as multiple myeloma (MM) and its treatment-related complications, a combination of multiple EHR sources is essential for such research. The Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) enables queries for aggregate results across participating institutions. Development of a rational search strategy in SHRINE may be augmented through analysis of pre-existing databases. We developed a SHRINE query for likely non-infectious treatment-related complications of MM, based upon an analysis of the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC II) database. Using this query strategy, we found that the rate of likely treatment-related complications significantly increased from 2001 to 2007, by an average of 6% a year (p=0.01), across the participating SHRINE institutions. This finding is in keeping with increasingly aggressive strategies in the treatment of MM. This proof of concept demonstrates that a staged approach to federated queries, using external EHR data, can yield potentially clinically meaningful results. PMID:23515788

  12. Behavioural medicine in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Kopp, M

    1999-01-01

    Behavioural medicine is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary field that integrates the physiological and psychosocial aspects of human behaviour and applies them to prevention. In the early stage of chronic non-infectious illnesses of great epidemiological significance the most important risk factors are the reversible psychophysiological regulation disturbances. According to the behavioural medicine model depressive symptomatology, hopelessness, anxiety, non-adaptive ways of coping, dysfunctional attitudes are common risk factors in the background of self-destructive behavioural disturbances, such as smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and suicidal behaviour. The basic link between physiological and psychological phenomena is the decision making process, the cognitive appraisal, evaluation of the given situation, which is very subjective and depends on the socialization process. The modern civilised way of life continuously creates situations in which we experience loss of control, and therefore the psychological and physiological balance can only be obtained with great difficulty. Especially under conditions of sudden cultural and socioeconomic transition strengthening adaptive ways of coping and preventing emotional disturbances are fundamental in health promotion. PMID:10943647

  13. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  14. Neutrophil migration into the placenta: Good, bad or deadly?

    PubMed Central

    Giaglis, Stavros; Stoikou, Maria; Grimolizzi, Franco; Subramanian, Bibin Y.; van Breda, Shane V.; Hoesli, Irene; Lapaire, Olav; Hasler, Paul; Than, Nandor Gabor; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Almost 2 decades have passed since the discovery that pregnancy is associated with a basal inflammatory state involving neutrophil activation, and that this is more overt in cases with preeclampsia, than in instances with sepsis. This pivotal observation paved the way for our report, made almost a decade ago, describing the first involvement of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a non-infectious human pathology, namely preeclampsia, where an abundance of these structures were detected directly in the placental intervillous space. Despite these remarkable findings, there remains a paucity of interest among reproductive biologists in further exploring the role or involvement of neutrophils in pregnancy and related pathologies. In this review we attempt to redress this deficit by highlighting novel recent findings including the discovery of a novel neutrophil subset in the decidua, the interaction of placental protein 13 (PP13) and neutrophils in modulating spiral artery modification, as well as the use of animal model systems to elucidate neutrophil function in implantation, gestation and parturition. These model systems have been particularly useful in identifying key components implicated in recurrent fetal loss, preeclampsia or new signaling molecules such as sphingolipids. Finally, the recent discovery that anti-phospolipid antibodies can trigger NETosis, supports our hypothesis that these structures may contribute to placental dysfunction in pertinent cases with recurrent fetal loss. PMID:26933824

  15. The Challenges in Managing HIV in People Who Use Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review HIV management in PWUD is typically complex and challenging due to the presence of multiple medical and psychiatric comorbidities as well as social, physical, economic and legal factors that often disrupt the HIV continuum of care. In this review we describe the individual, health systems and societal barriers to HIV treatment access and care retention for people who use drugs. Additionally the clinical management of HIV infected PWUD is often complicated by the presence of multiple infectious and non-infectious comorbidities. Recent findings Improved ART adherence can be achieved through the provision of opiate substitution therapy (OST), directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) and integration of ART with OST services. Recent advances with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for HCV have shown superior outcomes compared to interferon based regimes in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Newer diagnostic technologies for tuberculosis hold promise for earlier diagnosis for PWUD co-infected with TB Summary HIV-infected PWUDs are a key population who frequently experience suboptimal outcomes along the HIV continuum of care. A comprehensive strategy that encompasses evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions that target the individual, family, healthcare system, legal and societal structure is required to ensure greater participation and success in HIV treatment and care. PMID:25490106

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus gag and protease: partners in resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) maturation plays an essential role in the viral life cycle by enabling the generation of mature infectious virus particles through proteolytic processing of the viral Gag and GagPol precursor proteins. An impaired polyprotein processing results in the production of non-infectious virus particles. Consequently, particle maturation is an excellent drug target as exemplified by inhibitors specifically targeting the viral protease (protease inhibitors; PIs) and the experimental class of maturation inhibitors that target the precursor Gag and GagPol polyproteins. Considering the different target sites of the two drug classes, direct cross-resistance may seem unlikely. However, coevolution of protease and its substrate Gag during PI exposure has been observed both in vivo and in vitro. This review addresses in detail all mutations in Gag that are selected under PI pressure. We evaluate how polymorphisms and mutations in Gag affect PI therapy, an aspect of PI resistance that is currently not included in standard genotypic PI resistance testing. In addition, we consider the consequences of Gag mutations for the development and positioning of future maturation inhibitors. PMID:22867298

  17. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Bernhard F; Gonçalves Silva, Isabel; Prokhorov, Alexandr; Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A; Berger, Steffen M; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V

    2015-10-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  18. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan E.; Patino, Cristina; Plana, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2007-11-25

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-{delta}E) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E{sup +} cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-{delta}E infected BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-{delta}E virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-{delta}E subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E{sup -} cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation.

  19. Relevance of liver fat to the impact of dietary extrinsic sugars on lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Griffin, B A

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to the decline in mortality from many non-infectious, chronic diseases in the UK, death from liver disease has increased exponentially in men and women over the past 40 years. This is primarily because of the over consumption of alcohol, but also the increased prevalence of obesity, which is linked to early pathology through the accumulation of liver fat. Supra-physiological intakes of fructose-containing sugar can produce acute, adverse effects on lipid metabolism, and deliver excess energy that increases bodyweight and the deposition of fat in sites other than adipose tissue, including the liver. This review addresses the variable metabolic origins of liver fat, and the key importance of postprandial lipid metabolism in this respect. The effects of supra-physiological intakes of sugar are also considered in context of the real world and established threshold for the adverse effects of sugar on cardio-metabolic risk factors. The review concludes that while the average intake of sugar in the UK falls well below this critical threshold, intakes in subgroups of adults, and especially adolescents, may be cause for concern. There is also evidence to suggest that raised liver fat, acquired, in part, through an impaired removal of postprandial lipaemia, can increase sensitivity to the adverse effects of sugar at all ages. PMID:25992705

  20. Plug-and-Display: decoration of Virus-Like Particles via isopeptide bonds for modular immunization

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Karl D.; Leneghan, Darren B.; Brian, Iona J.; Ishizuka, Andrew S.; Bachmann, Martin F.; Draper, Simon J.; Biswas, Sumi; Howarth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are non-infectious self-assembling nanoparticles, useful in medicine and nanotechnology. Their repetitive molecularly-defined architecture is attractive for engineering multivalency, notably for vaccination. However, decorating VLPs with target-antigens by genetic fusion or chemical modification is time-consuming and often leads to capsid misassembly or antigen misfolding, hindering generation of protective immunity. Here we establish a platform for irreversibly decorating VLPs simply by mixing with protein antigen. SpyCatcher is a genetically-encoded protein designed to spontaneously form a covalent bond to its peptide-partner SpyTag. We expressed in E. coli VLPs from the bacteriophage AP205 genetically fused to SpyCatcher. We demonstrated quantitative covalent coupling to SpyCatcher-VLPs after mixing with SpyTag-linked to malaria antigens, including CIDR and Pfs25. In addition, we showed coupling to the VLPs for peptides relevant to cancer from epidermal growth factor receptor and telomerase. Injecting SpyCatcher-VLPs decorated with a malarial antigen efficiently induced antibody responses after only a single immunization. This simple, efficient and modular decoration of nanoparticles should accelerate vaccine development, as well as other applications of nanoparticle devices. PMID:26781591

  1. Clustering and aggregation of exposures in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Grufferman, S

    1977-04-01

    The epidemiologic evidence regarding case clustering and aggregation of etiologic exposures among patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) is reviewed. In contrast to the literature on leukemia, there are few reported HD clusters. Statistical studies searching for time-space clustering in HD have been negative or inconclusive. The innovative Long Island school study of Vianna and Polan suggests that there is aggregation of etiologic exposures in HD. However, this study has been criticized and further confirmation is required. Additional support for the aggregation of exposures hypothesis is found in studies of familial aggregation of HD. On the other hand, teachers and physicians, groups suggested as having high exposure to HD patients, have been shown to be at no increased risk for HD. Available evidence would suggest that if HD is communicable, it is probably so only prior to manifestation of the disease and exposure must occur in childhood or adolescence. Although most studies have focused on the compatibility of their findings with interpersonal transmission of an etiologic agent, these data are equally compatible with an hypothesis of common source exposure to non-infectious etiologic agents. PMID:322846

  2. Evaluation and Validation of the Detection of soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 1 by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hasibeder, Astrid; Stein, Pamela; Brandwijk, Ricardo; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P.

    2015-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays an important role in innate immune responses and is upregulated under infectious as well as non-infectious conditions. In addition, a soluble TREM-1 variant (sTREM-1) is detectable in sera or bronchoalveolar-lavage fluids from patients. Currently, various studies are difficult to compare, since the methods of detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) vary among different research groups. In this study, we compared three different s-TREM-1 specific ELISAs and identified individual assay characteristics finding notable differences in sTREM-1 concentrations in part depending on the employed buffers. Investigating potential confounding factors for sTREM-1 detection, serum heat-inactivation (HI) showed improved recovery compared to non-HI (NHI) serum, reproducible by addition of complement and re-heat-inactivation. Hence we identified complement as a heat-sensitive confounder in some sTREM-1 ELISAs. We conclude that it is difficult to directly compare data of several studies, in particular if different ELISAs are engaged. Immunoassays for research use only are in general hampered by lack of standardization. Further standardization is needed until sTREM-1 ELISA is capable for better reproducibility of studies and clinical application. PMID:26480887

  3. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction panel for detecting neurologic pathogens in dogs with meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Ik; Chang, Dong-Woo; Na, Ki-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Meningoencephalitis (ME) is a common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system in dogs. Clinically, ME has both infectious and non-infectious causes. In the present study, a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) panel was optimized for the detection of eight canine neurologic pathogens (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus spp., Neospora caninum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Ehrlichia canis, and canine distemper virus [CDV]). The mqPCR panel was subsequently applied to 53 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from dogs with ME. The analytic sensitivity (i.e., limit of detection, expressed as molecules per 1 mL of recombinant vector) was 3.8 for CDV, 3.7 for Ehrlichia canis, 3.7 for Bartonella spp., 3.8 for Borrelia burgdorferi, 3.7 for Blastomyces dermatitidis, 3.7 for Cryptococcus spp., 38 for Neospora caninum, and 3.7 for Toxoplasma gondii. Among the tested CSF samples, seven (15%) were positive for the following pathogens in decreasing order of frequency: Cryptococcus spp. (3/7), Blastomyces dermatitidis (2/7), and Borrelia burgdorferi (2/7). In summary, use of an mqPCR panel with high analytic sensitivity as an initial screen for infectious agents in dogs with ME could facilitate the selection of early treatment strategies and improve outcomes. PMID:26040611

  4. Production and evaluation of virus-like particles displaying immunogenic epitopes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Ni, Yanyan; Meng, Xiangjin; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS. PMID:25874763

  5. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  6. Endogenous lipid pneumonia in an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Costa, T; Grífols, J; Perpiñán, D

    2013-01-01

    Lipid pneumonia is an unusual, non-infectious, inflammatory lung disease characterized by patchy pneumonic consolidation secondary to accumulation of lipid in macrophages. It can be classified as exogenous or endogenous, depending on whether it is associated with the aspiration of foreign material. Endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP) has been reported in many mammal species. In pet birds, EnLP is an incidental and uncommon lesion of unknown pathogenesis. A 35-year-old African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus) was presented for depression lasting several months, with marked worsening over the 2 days prior to presentation. The animal died shortly after admission. Necropsy examination showed that the lungs were firm with diffuse grey discolouration. Microscopically, there was EnLP, anthracosis, severe atherosclerosis and hepatic amyloidosis. Although the pathogenesis of EnLP in birds is not clear, it has been associated with concurrent atherosclerosis, hepatic diseases and other lesions of the respiratory tract. This is the first description of EnLP in a bird associated with severe respiratory distress. PMID:23582929

  7. The transposon-driven evolutionary origin and basis of histone deacetylase functions and limitations in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Peek, Gregory W; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-08-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are homologous to prokaryotic enzymes that removed acetyl groups from non-histone proteins before the evolution of eukaryotic histones. Enzymes inherited from prokaryotes or from a common ancestor were adapted for histone deacetylation, while useful deacetylation of non-histone proteins was selectively retained. Histone deacetylation served to prevent transcriptions with pathological consequences, including the expression of viral DNA and the deletion or dysregulation of vital genes by random transposon insertions. Viruses are believed to have evolved from transposons, with transposons providing the earliest impetus of HDAC evolution. Because of the wide range of genes potentially affected by transposon insertions, the range of diseases that can be prevented by HDACs is vast and inclusive. Repressive chromatin modifications that may prevent transcription also include methylation of selective lysine residues of histones H3 and H4 and the methylation of selective DNA cytosines following specific histone lysine methylation. Methylation and acetylation of individual histone residues are mutually exclusive. While transposons were sources of disease to be prevented by HDAC evolution, they were also the source of numerous and valuable coding and regulatory sequences recruited by "molecular domestication." Those sequences contribute to evolved complex transcription regulation in which components with contradictory effects, such as HDACs and HATs, may be coordinated and complementary. Within complex transcription regulation, however, HDACs remain ineffective as defense against some critical infectious and non-infectious diseases because evolutionary compromises have rendered their activity transient. PMID:22704332

  8. Public health problems and global warming faced by developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Climatic change potentially causes direct and indirect impacts on human health, resulting in a net increase in morbidity and associated mortality. Impacts would be greater in communities with higher exposure and with fewer technical and social resources. Age, skin pigmentation, hygiene level, socio-economic and health status, are determinants of the net effects. Climatic change will have indirect health effects by changing natural ecosystems, affecting such aspects as food production, patterns of vector-borne diseases, a number of non-infectious diseases, and unknown infections. The health effects, occurring largely as a result of increases in biologically effective UVR, are expected to consist of: increase in malignant and nonmalignant skin cancer; several eye diseases (primarily cataract); and possible alterations in the immune response. Some of the largest public health issues will be respiratory diseases brought about by increased air pollution, exacerbation of allergic disorders, and deaths and injuries from extreme weather events. Additionally, vaccination programs may be ineffective and nutritional requirements may be different in heavily sun-exposed populations.

  9. Secretion of interferon-gamma by human macrophages demonstrated at the single-cell level after costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Laila; Coma, Gemma; Peña, Ruth; Bellido, Rocio; Blanco, Ester J J; Este, José A; Borras, Francesc E; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ruiz, Lidia; Rosell, Antoni; Andreo, Felipe; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Bofill, Margarita

    2009-03-01

    The interferon (IFN)-gamma component of the immune response plays an essential role in combating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Induction of IFN-gamma secretion by human T and natural killer (NK) cells through synergistic costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 in the adaptive immune responses against pathogens is well established, but induction of similar activity in macrophages is still controversial, with doubts largely focusing on contamination of macrophages with NK or T cells in the relevant experiments. The possible contribution of macrophages to the IFN response is, however, an important factor relevant to the pathogenesis of many diseases. To resolve this issue, we analysed the production of IFN-gamma at the single-cell level by immunohistochemistry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) analysis and unequivocally demonstrated that human macrophages derived from monocytes in vitro through stimulation with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18 or with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were able to produce IFN-gamma when further stimulated with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. In addition, naturally activated alveolar macrophages immediately secreted IFN-gamma upon treatment with IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, human macrophages in addition to lymphoid cells contribute to the IFN-gamma response, providing another link between the innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:18759749

  10. Secretion of interferon-γ by human macrophages demonstrated at the single-cell level after costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 plus IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Darwich, Laila; Coma, Gemma; Peña, Ruth; Bellido, Rocio; Blanco, Ester J J; Este, José A; Borras, Francesc E; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ruiz, Lidia; Rosell, Antoni; Andreo, Felipe; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Bofill, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-γ component of the immune response plays an essential role in combating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Induction of IFN-γ secretion by human T and natural killer (NK) cells through synergistic costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 in the adaptive immune responses against pathogens is well established, but induction of similar activity in macrophages is still controversial, with doubts largely focusing on contamination of macrophages with NK or T cells in the relevant experiments. The possible contribution of macrophages to the IFN response is, however, an important factor relevant to the pathogenesis of many diseases. To resolve this issue, we analysed the production of IFN-γ at the single-cell level by immunohistochemistry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) analysis and unequivocally demonstrated that human macrophages derived from monocytes in vitro through stimulation with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18 or with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were able to produce IFN-γ when further stimulated with a combination of IL-12 and IL-18. In addition, naturally activated alveolar macrophages immediately secreted IFN-γ upon treatment with IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, human macrophages in addition to lymphoid cells contribute to the IFN-γ response, providing another link between the innate and acquired immune responses. PMID:18759749

  11. HSV-1 Glycoproteins Are Delivered to Virus Assembly Sites Through Dynamin-Dependent Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Albecka, Anna; Laine, Romain F; Janssen, Anne F J; Kaminski, Clemens F; Crump, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the family of Herpesviridae. It has been recently shown that the cytoplasmic membranes that wrap the newly assembled capsids are endocytic compartments derived from the plasma membrane. Here, we show that dynamin-dependent endocytosis plays a major role in this process. Dominant-negative dynamin and clathrin adaptor AP180 significantly decrease virus production. Moreover, inhibitors targeting dynamin and clathrin lead to a decreased transport of glycoproteins to cytoplasmic capsids, confirming that glycoproteins are delivered to assembly sites via endocytosis. We also show that certain combinations of glycoproteins colocalize with each other and with the components of clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that the uptake of neutralizing antibodies that bind to glycoproteins when they become exposed on the cell surface during virus particle assembly leads to the production of non-infectious HSV-1. Our results demonstrate that transport of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane prior to endocytosis is the major route by which these proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly compartments. This highlights the importance of endocytosis as a major protein-sorting event during HSV-1 envelopment. PMID:26459807

  12. Treatment of Osteitis Pubis in Non-Athlete Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kavroudakis, E; Karampinas, P.K; Evangelopoulos, D.S; Vlamis, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Osteitis pubis represents a non-infectious inflammation of the pubic symphysis causing varying degrees of lower abdominal and pelvic pain. Although, the disease is believed to affect mainly young athletic patients, it is also encountered in other specific patient groups. Both conservative and surgical treatment options are available. While for elite athletes surgical treatment is indicated, leading to fast pain relief and mobilization, for non-athletic patients no clear indication can be established. Methods: Eight non-athletic women with osteitis pubis, referred to our Department for treatment, were evaluated. All were initially treated conservatively with bed rest, per os non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. Results: Seven patients improved significantly with conservative treatment while one displayed no improvement and was treated surgically with arthrodesis. Conclusion: We conclude that, for non-athletic female patients suffering from osteitis pubis, surgery is rarely required and that conservative treatment by means of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs and physical modalities represents a fair option regarding pain and limitation of everyday activity. PMID:21966337

  13. Should we treat fever in critically ill patients? A summary of the current evidence from three randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Serpa, Ary; Pereira, Victor Galvão Moura; Colombo, Giancarlo; Scarin, Farah Christina de la Cruz; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Rocha, Leonardo Lima

    2014-01-01

    Fever is a nonspecific response to various types of infectious or non-infectious insult and its significance in disease remains an enigma. Our aim was to summarize the current evidence for the use of antipyretic therapy in critically ill patients. We performed systematic review and meta-analysis of publications from 1966 to 2013. The MEDLINE and CENTRAL databases were searched for studies on antipyresis in critically ill patients. The meta-analysis was limited to: randomized controlled trials; adult human critically ill patients; treatment with antipyretics in one arm versus placebo or non-treatment in another arm; and report of mortality data. The outcomes assessed were overall intensive care unit mortality, changes in temperature, intensive care unit length of stay, and hospital length of stay. Three randomized controlled trials, covering 320 participants, were included. Patients treated with antipyretic agents showed similar intensive care unit mortality (risk ratio 0.91, with 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.28) when compared with controls. The only difference observed was a greater decrease in temperature after 24 hours in patients treated with antipyretics (-1.70±0.40 versus - 0.56±0.25ºC; p=0.014). There is no difference in treating or not the fever in critically ill patients. PMID:25628209

  14. Efficient In Vitro Gene Delivery by Hybrid Biopolymer/Virus Nanobiovectors

    PubMed Central

    Keswani, Rahul; Su, Kai; Pack, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant retroviruses provide highly efficient gene delivery and the potential for sustained gene expression, but suffer from significant disadvantages including low titer, expensive production, poor stability and limited flexibility for modification of tropism. In contrast, polymer-based vectors are more robust and allow cell- and tissue-specific delivery via conjugation of ligands, but are comparatively inefficient. The design of hybrid gene delivery agents comprising both virally derived and synthetic materials (nanobiovectors) represents a promising approach to development of safe and efficient gene therapy vectors. Non-infectious murine leukemia virus-like particles (M-VLP) were electrostatically complexed with chitosan (χ) to replace the function of the viral envelope protein. At optimal fabrication conditions and compositions, ranging from 6–9 µg chitosan/109 M-VLP at 10 × 109 M-VLP/ml to 40 µg chitosan /109 M-VLP at 2.5 × 109 M-VLP/ml, χ/M-VLP were ~300–350 nm diameter and exhibited efficient transfection similar to amphotropic MLV vectors. In addition, these nanobiovectors were non-cytotoxic and provided sustained transgene expression for at least three weeks in vitro. This combination of biocompatible synthetic agents with inactive viral particles to form a highly efficient hybrid vector is a significant extension in the development of novel gene delivery platforms. PMID:25009978

  15. IMGT/HLA Database—a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James; Waller, Matthew J.; Parham, Peter; Bodmer, Julia G.; Marsh, Steven G. E.

    2001-01-01

    The IMGT/HLA Database (www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/) specialises in sequences of polymorphic genes of the HLA system, the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The HLA complex is located within the 6p21.3 region on the short arm of human chromosome 6 and contains more than 220 genes of diverse function. Many of the genes encode proteins of the immune system and these include the 21 highly polymorphic HLA genes, which influence the outcome of clinical transplantation and confer susceptibility to a wide range of non-infectious diseases. The database contains sequences for all HLA alleles officially recognised by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System and provides users with online tools and facilities for their retrieval and analysis. These include allele reports, alignment tools and detailed descriptions of the source cells. The online IMGT/HLA submission tool allows both new and confirmatory sequences to be submitted directly to the WHO Nomenclature Committee. The latest version (release 1.7.0 July 2000) contains 1220 HLA alleles derived from over 2700 component sequences from the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. The HLA database provides a model which will be extended to provide specialist databases for polymorphic MHC genes of other species. PMID:11125094

  16. The IMGT/HLA sequence database.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J; Marsh, S G

    2000-01-01

    The IMGT/HLA database (wwwebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/) specialises in sequences of the polymorphic genes of the HLA system, the humanmajor histocompatibility complex (MHC). This complex is located within the 6p213 region on the short arm of human chromosome 6 and contains more than 220 genes of diverse function. Many of the genes encode proteins of the immune system and these include the 21 highly polymorphic HLA genes, which influence the outcome of clinical transplantation and confer susceptibility to a wide range of non-infectious diseases. The database contains sequences for all HLA alleles officially recognised by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System and provides users with online tools and facilities for their retrieval and analysis. These include allele reports, alignment tools, and detailed descriptions of the source cells. The online submission tool allows both new and confirmatory sequences to be submitted directly to the WHO Nomenclature Committee. The latest version (release 1.10.0 April 2001) contains 1329 HLA alleles, 61 HLA related sequences, derived from around 3350 component sequences from the EMBL/ GenBank/DDBJ databases. The IMGT/HLA database provides a model that will be extended to provide specialist databases for polymorphic MHC genes of other species. PMID:12361093

  17. IMGT/HLA Database--a sequence database for the human major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J; Waller, M J; Parham, P; Bodmer, J G; Marsh, S G

    2001-01-01

    The IMGT/HLA Database (www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/) specialises in sequences of polymorphic genes of the HLA system, the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The HLA complex is located within the 6p21.3 region on the short arm of human chromosome 6 and contains more than 220 genes of diverse function. Many of the genes encode proteins of the immune system and these include the 21 highly polymorphic HLA genes, which influence the outcome of clinical transplantation and confer susceptibility to a wide range of non-infectious diseases. The database contains sequences for all HLA alleles officially recognised by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System and provides users with online tools and facilities for their retrieval and analysis. These include allele reports, alignment tools and detailed descriptions of the source cells. The online IMGT/HLA submission tool allows both new and confirmatory sequences to be submitted directly to the WHO Nomenclature Committee. The latest version (release 1.7.0 July 2000) contains 1220 HLA alleles derived from over 2700 component sequences from the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. The HLA database provides a model which will be extended to provide specialist databases for polymorphic MHC genes of other species. PMID:11125094

  18. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak-Kujda, Donata; Kapelko-Słowik, Katarzyna; Biernat, Monika; Dybko, Jarosław; Laszkowska, Magdalena; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a diffuse inflammation of the bladder of an infectious or non-infectious etiology, causing bleeding of the bladder mucosa. There are no explicit guidelines defining the appropriate treatment of HC. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is a non-invasive method involving the use of 100 % oxygen under increased pressure, which penetrates to poorly perfused areas. The most appropriate group for treatment with HBO is patients with BK virus-associated HC after allogenic human stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). In this report, we present five patients after alloHSCT from a matched unrelated donor with symptoms of HC successfully treated with HBO. All patients received therapy with 100 % oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber at 2.5 atmospheres for 60 min, delivered 5 days per week. Complete response with resolution of pain and hematuria, as well as eradication of viral load, was achieved by all the patients after a mean of 13 sessions (range 11-30) of HBO. These data indicate that HBO therapy is sufficient and effective in the treatment of HC, and represents a well-tolerated procedure with good clinical and laboratory results after ineffective primary treatment. PMID:26121955

  19. ‘Manipulation’ without the parasite: altered feeding behaviour of mosquitoes is not dependent on infection with malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Cator, Lauren J.; George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C.; Baker, Thomas C.; Read, Andrew F.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium parasites can manipulate mosquito feeding behaviours such as probing, persistence and engorgement rate in order to enhance transmission success. Here, we broaden analysis of this ‘manipulation phenotype’ to consider proximate foraging behaviours, including responsiveness to host odours and host location. Using Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium yoelii as a model system, we demonstrate that mosquitoes with early stage infections (i.e. non-infectious oocysts) exhibit reduced attraction to a human host, whereas those with late-stage infections (i.e. infectious sporozoites) exhibit increased attraction. These stage-specific changes in behaviour were paralleled by changes in the responsiveness of mosquito odourant receptors, providing a possible neurophysiological mechanism for the responses. However, we also found that both the behavioural and neurophysiological changes could be generated by immune challenge with heat-killed Escherichia coli and were thus not tied explicitly to the presence of malaria parasites. Our results support the hypothesis that the feeding behaviour of female mosquitoes is altered by Plasmodium, but question the extent to which this is owing to active manipulation by malaria parasites of host behaviour. PMID:23698008

  20. After 2015: infectious diseases in a new era of health and development

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Running over timescales that span decades or centuries, the epidemiological transition provides the central narrative of global health. In this transition, a reduction in mortality is followed by a reduction in fertility, creating larger, older populations in which the main causes of illness and death are no longer acute infections of children but chronic diseases of adults. Since the year 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided a framework for accelerating the decline of infectious diseases, backed by a massive injection of foreign investment to low-income countries. Despite the successes of the MDGs era, the inhabitants of low-income countries still suffer an enormous burden of disease owing to diarrhoea, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other pathogens. Adding to the predictable burden of endemic disease, the threat of pandemics is ever-present and global. With a view to the future, this review spotlights five aspects of the fight against infection beyond 2015, when the MDGs will be replaced by a new set of goals for poverty reduction and sustainable development. These aspects are: exploiting the biological links between infectious and non-infectious diseases; controlling infections among the new urban majority; enhancing the response to international health threats; expanding childhood immunization programmes to prevent acute and chronic diseases in adults; and working towards universal health coverage. By scanning the wider horizon now, infectious disease specialists have the chance to shape the post-2015 era of health and development. PMID:24821913