Science.gov

Sample records for non-ionic water-soluble contrast

  1. Myelography in achondroplasia: value of a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium

    SciTech Connect

    Suss, R.A.; Udvarhelyi, G.B.; Wang, H.; Kumar, A.J.; Zinreich, S.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.

    1983-10-01

    Because of technical difficulties and diagnostic limitations encountered with other myelographic techniques in patients with achondroplasia, the authors employed a lateral C1-2 puncture and non-ionic, water-soluble contrast medium in 18 achondroplastic patients with spinal compression (21 procedures). This technique proved most appropriate for identifying the upper limit of degenerative osteophytes causing exacerbation of congenital spinal stenosis, which is crucial in planning decompressive surgery. A potentially important additional finding was the presence of degenerative lower cervical spine disease in the majority of patients. There were no serious complications. The authors recommend this technique as safe and effective in achondroplastic patients with severe congenital spinal stenosis.

  2. Torsten Almén (1931-2016): the father of non-ionic iodine contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Ulf; Ekberg, Olle; Aspelin, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The Swedish radiologist Torsten Almén is the first clinical radiologist ever to have made a fundamental contribution to intravascular contrast medium design, the development of non-ionic contrast media. He became emotionally triggered by the patients' severe pain each time he injected the ionic "high-osmolar" contrast media when performing peripheral arteriographies in the early 1960s. One day he got a flash of genius that combined the observation of pain, a pathophysiological theory and how to eliminate it with suitable contrast media chemistry. After self-studies in chemistry he developed the concept of iodine contrast media not dissociating into ions in solution to reduce their osmolality and even reach plasma isotonicity. He offered several pharmaceutical companies his concept of mono- and polymeric non-ionic agents but without response, since it was considered against the chemical laws of that time. Contrast media constructed as salts and dissociating into ions in solution was regarded an absolute necessity to achieve high enough water solubility and concentration for diagnostic purposes. Finally a small Norwegian company, Nyegaard & Co., took up his idea 1968 and together they developed the essentially painless "low-osmolar" monomeric non-ionic metrizamide (Amipaque) released in 1974 and iohexol (Omipaque) in 1982 followed by the "iso-osmolar" dimeric non-ionic iodixanol (Visipaque) released in 1993. This has implied a profound paradigm shift with regard to reduction of both hypertonic and chemotoxic side effects, which have been a prerequisite for the today's widespread use of contrast medium-enhanced CT and advanced endovascular interventional techniques even in fragile patients. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.

  3. Direct cardiac effects of an ionic and a non-ionic contrast medium in dogs.

    PubMed

    Palik, I; Szente, A; Köszeghy, G A; Koltai, M Z; Kiss, V; Pogátsa, G

    1986-11-01

    Direct cardiac effects of ionic diatrizoate (Uromiro) and non-ionic iopamidol (Iopamiro) were investigated in "in situ" heart-lung preparation of 19 vagotomized dogs. Diatrizoate was found to induce considerably greater alteration in plasma osmolality and subsequent dehydration of the myocardium compared with iopamidol. Myocardial dehydration resulted in a decrease of left ventricular compliance and in that of cardiac performance. Diatrizoate was shown to influence the myocardium not only by its hyperosmolarity but also by a direct action. Heart rate was reduced by both contrast media.

  4. Extensive exfoliative dermatitis induced by non-ionic contrast medium Iodixanol (Visipaque) used during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheol Ung; Rha, Seung-Woon; Suh, Soon Yong; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo

    2008-02-29

    We report a case of extensive exfoliative dermatitis in a patient appearing 3 days after intracoronary administration of non-ionic contrast medium Iodixanol (Visipaque) during the primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The patient presented with acute myocardial infarction and has never exposed to any X-ray contrast medium. The patient was successfully treated with corticosteroid, antihistamines and antibiotics for the prevention of secondary bacterial infection. The patient was recovered 8 days after the anti-allergic medical management. This case can be a rare example of late-onset allergic reaction to a non-ionic contrast medium Iodixanol presented with extensive exfoliative dermatitis.

  5. Elimination of non-ionic contrast medium by hemodialysis in patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, K; Yoshida, K; Tsuboi, N; Akimoto, M; Tajima, H; Kumazaki, T

    1999-10-01

    The elimination rate of iohexol, a non-ionic contrast medium, from the blood by hemodialysis, and the elimination rate of iohexol by a dialyzer were studied in 15 patients with chronic renal dysfunction who required angiography or enhanced CT. The elimination rate of iohexol was 19.8% at 15 min after the start of hemodialysis, 30.6% after 30 min, 44.2% after 1 hour, 62.1% after 2 hours and 72.9% after 3 hours. The dialyzer elimination rate was maintained at about 75% from 1 to 3 hours after the start of hemodialysis. If only about 70% of iohexol in the blood needs to be eliminated, hemodialysis for 3 hours with a blood flow rate of 120 ml/min and a dialysate flow of 500 ml/min using a 0.7 m2 cellulose triacetate membrane is sufficient.

  6. Ex vivo micro-CT imaging of murine brain models using non-ionic iodinated contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Bautista, N.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Murrieta-Rodríguez, T.; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, J.; Franco-Pérez, J.; Calvillo-Velasco, M. E.

    2014-11-01

    Preclinical investigation of brain tumors is frequently carried out by means of intracranial implantation of brain tumor xenografts or allografts, with subsequent analysis of tumor growth using conventional histopathology. However, very little has been reported on the use contrast-enhanced techniques in micro-CT imaging for the study of malignant brain tumors in small animal models. The aim of this study has been to test a protocol for ex vivo imaging of murine brain models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) after treatment with non-ionic iodinated solution, using an in-house developed laboratory micro-CT. We have found that the best compromise between acquisition time and image quality is obtained using a 50 kVp, 0.5 mAs, 1° angular step on a 360 degree orbit acquisition protocol, with 70 μm reconstructed voxel size using the Feldkamp algorithm. With this parameters up to 4 murine brains can be scanned in tandem in less than 15 minutes. Image segmentation and analysis of three sample brains allowed identifying tumor volumes as small as 0.4 mm3.

  7. Are there any differences in acute adverse reactions among five low-osmolar non-ionic iodinated contrast media?

    PubMed

    Gomi, Tatsuya; Nagamoto, Masashi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Katoh, Asako; Sugiyama, Miki; Murata, Nozomu; Kunihiro, Toshiyuki; Kohda, Ehiichi

    2010-07-01

    The differences regarding adverse reactions in different low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media had not been investigated previously. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify differences in the incidence of adverse reactions in five different low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media. We prospectively recorded all adverse events associated with five different low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media used in 8,931 consecutive patients for CT. Patients were randomly assigned to five groups: iomeprol 300 mgI/ml, iopamidol 300 mgI/ml, iohexol 300 mgI/ml, iopromide 300 mgI/ml and ioversol 320 mgI/ml. Adverse events were observed in 241 patients (2.7%). The incidence of acute adverse reactions was significantly higher in the following groups: (1) iomeprol (3.9%) and iopromide (3.5%) groups, (2) patients aged 59 years or less (4.5%) compared with those aged 60 years or over (1.9%), (3) the first period (3.5%) compared with the late period (2.3%), (4) those with a past history of adverse reactions to contrast media (11.2%), and (5) patients receiving contrast media for the first time (3.3%) compared with those had received it previously (2.0%). The incidence of acute adverse reactions may be reduced in younger patients by using iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol.

  8. The effect of oil and water-soluble contrast medium in hysterosalpingography on thyroid function.

    PubMed

    So, Shuhei; Yamaguchi, Wakasa; Tajima, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeshi; Tamura, Naoaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tawara, Fumiko

    2017-09-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) using iodinated contrast medium is X-ray diagnostic test that examines the inside of the uterus and fallopian tubes in infertile women. In this study, we compared thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone: TSH and free-T4: FT4 levels) after HSG with an oil-soluble contrast medium (OSCM) and a water-soluble contrast medium (WSCM). One hundred and sixty-four and 94 patients with normal thyroid function received HSG with OSCM and WSCM, respectively. Approximately 25% of the women in the OSCM group developed subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), whereas only less than 10% of the patients in the WSCM group developed SCH. Our data clearly indicate that WSCM is safe for thyroid function in women who plan to get pregnant.

  9. [General pharmacological study of iodixanol, a new non-ionic isotonic contrast medium].

    PubMed

    Takasuna, K; Kasai, Y; Kitano, Y; Mori, K; Kobayashi, R; Makino, M; Hagiwara, T; Hirohashi, M; Nomura, M; Algate, D R

    1995-10-01

    The general pharmacological study of iodixanol, a non-ionic isotonic contrast medium, was conducted. 1) Iodixanol administered intravenously over a dose range of 320 to 3,200 mgI/kg had little or no effect on the general behavior, spontaneous locomotor activity, hexobarbital sleeping time, pain response, electroshock- or pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion (mouse), EEG or body temperature (rabbit), gastrointestinal propulsion (mouse) or skeletal muscle contraction (rabbit). Iodixanol had no specific interaction with acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, nicotin, BaCl2 (ileum), methacholine (trachea), isoprenaline (atrium) or oxytocin (pregnant uterus), nor had any effect on spontaneous contractility (atrium and uterus), or transmural electrostimulation-induced contractility (vas deferens) at concentrations of < or = 3.2 x 10(-3) gI/ml in vitro. Iodixanol had no effect on the cardiovascular system of dog, except that it increased femoral blood flow and respiratory rate at doses of > or = 1,000 mgI/kg. Iodixanol at 3,200 mgI/kg i.v. reduced urine output with a decrease in Na+ and Cl- excretion, whereas at 320 mgI/kg i.v., it slightly increased urine output (rat). 2) Injections of iodixanol into the cerebroventricular (0.96, 9.6 mgI/mouse and 3.2, 32 mgI/rat), left ventricular (1,920, 6,400 mgI/dog) or coronary artery (640, 1,920 mgI/dog) had no conspicuous effect on the central nervous system or the cardiovascular system, respectively. There was no marked difference among iodixanol, iohexol and iopamidol in this respect. Vascular pain during injection into the femoral artery (300-320 mgI/guinea pig) appeared to be less intense with iodixanol, compared with the other contrast media iohexol and iopamidol. These results suggest that intravenous injection of iodixanol is relatively free from pharmacological activity, and effects of iodixanol on the central nervous system (intracerebroventricular injection) and cardiovascular system (intra-left ventricular and -coronary

  10. Ventriculography and cisternography with water-soluble contrast media in infants with myelomeningocele

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, M.; Kageyama, N.

    1982-04-01

    Fifty-four newborn infants with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus were studied by ventriculography using water-soluble contrast media; 20 were also studied by metrizamide myeloencephalography and computerized tomographic (CT) cisternography. Ventriculography suggested that the aqueduct was patent in all cases. Outflow of contrast medium from the fourth ventricle was slow in most cases, complete obstruction was seen in 15%, communication was delayed at the outlet in 54%, and rather free communication was observedin 31%. Metrizamide myeloencephalography and CT cisternography suggested a partial block at the level of the ambient cisterns in approximately one-third of infants. These findings support the concept that flow of cerebrospinal fluid is reduced in several areas. Aqueductal stenosis was not considered an important factor in hydrocephalus, while the most important site of obstruction was felt to be the lowest portion of the fourth ventricle.

  11. The use of low-osmolar water-soluble contrast in videofluoroscopic swallowing exams.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julie A; Bartelt, Detlef; Campion, Molly; Gayler, Bob W; Jones, Bronwyn; Hayes, Andrea; Haynos, Judith; Herbick, Seanne; Kling, Therese; Lingaraj, Arpana; Singer, Michele; Starmer, Heather; Smith, Christine; Webster, Kim

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the contrast agent used during fluoroscopic exams is an important clinical decision. The purpose of this article is to document the usage of a nonionic, water-soluble contrast (iohexol) and barium contrast in adult patients undergoing fluoroscopic exams of the pharynx and/or esophagus and provide clinical indications for the use of each. For 1 year, data were collected on the use of iohexol and barium during fluoroscopic exams. The contrast agent used was selected by the speech language pathologist (SLP) or the radiologist based on the exam's indications. A total of 1,978 fluoroscopic exams were completed in the 12-month period of documentation. Of these exams, 60.6 % were completed for medical reasons and 39.4 % for surgical reasons. Fifty-five percent of the exams were performed jointly by a SLP and a radiologist and 45 % were performed by a radiologist alone. Aspiration was present in 22 % of the exams, vestibular penetration occurred in 38 %, extraluminal leakage of contrast was observed in 4.6 %, and both aspiration and leakage were seen in 1 % of the exams. In cases with aspiration, iohexol was used alone in 8 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 45 %, and barium was used alone in 47 %. In cases with extraluminal leakage, iohexol was used alone in 58 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 31 %, and barium was used alone in 11 %. No adverse effects were seen with the use of iohexol. When barium was used in cases of aspiration and extraluminal leakage, the amount of aspirated barium was small and the extraluminal barium in the instances of leakage was small. Iohexol is a useful screening contrast agent and can safely provide information, and its use reduces the risk of aspiration and the chance of leakage of large amounts of barium.

  12. Water-Soluble Spinel Ferrites by a Modified Polyol Process as Contrast Agents in MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Basina, Georgia; Tzitzios, Vasilis; Niarchos, Dimitris; Li Wanfeng; Khurshid, Hafsa; Hadjipanayis, George; Mao Hui; Hadjipanayis, Costas

    2010-12-02

    Magnetic nanoparticles have recently been very attractive for biomedical applications. In this study, we have synthesized ferrite nanoparticles for application as contrast agents in MRI experiments. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel ferrites with a mean size of 11-12 nm, were prepared by a modified polyol route in commercially available polyethylene glycol with molecular weight 600 (PEG-600). The reaction takes place in the presence of water soluble and non-toxic tri-block copolymer known as Pluronic registered F-127 (PEO{sub 100}-PPO{sub 65}-PEO{sub 100}). The nanoparticles have saturation magnetization values of 52 and 68 emu/g for MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively. Both the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles make stable solutions in water known as ferrofluids. Preliminary data demonstrated the capability of these nanoparticles to induce imaging contrast in T{sub 2} weighted MRI experiments, making these materials suitable for biomedical applications such as medical MRI.

  13. [Me-too pharmaceuticals -- marketing-strategies of drug producers and drug purchasers. Example: non-ionic contrast media].

    PubMed

    Wild, C; Puig, S

    2004-11-01

    In the context of increasing economic pressure upon on hospital budgets, it is inevitable that central and standardized purchasing of pharmaceuticals must be considered. It was the aim of this assessment to analyse the many different non-ionic contrast media/CM products on the actual "clinical relevance of the differences" in order to give advice for a more concerted purchasing of CM. The assessment was commissioned by a large scale Austrian hospital cooperation; it can be regarded as the beginning of a broad strategy against the many new, only rarely innovative, but nevertheless patent-protected pharmaceuticals. Eight different non-ionic contrast media - used in routine care - were compared for their physico-chemical characteristics: osmolality, nephrotoxicity, viscosity, hydrophilicity and electric charge. In a systematic review 193 publications were analysed. The examined CM show similar pharmacokinetic and -dynamic attributes, and no differences of clinical relevance. An optimisation of purchasing pharmaceuticals by standardisation of the range of products takes place in the context of common strategies of producers and buying agents in marketing-economies. The strategies of the pharmaceutical industry (patent protection of me-too drugs, high-price-policy, extensive marketing of up to 40 % of revenue) and the counter-strategies of the central hospital purchasers (market concentration, drug commissions, institutional measures to disentangle interests) are presented - exemplified by contrast media - in this article.

  14. A possible role for cysteinyl-leukotrienes in non-ionic contrast media induced adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid; Speck, Ulrich; Schild, Hans

    2005-09-01

    To test whether mono- or dimeric X-ray contrast media (CM) may induce the de novo production of cysteinyl-leukotriens (cys-LT), that could contribute to allergic/allergy-like side effects. Leukocytes from 39 patients receiving iopromide or iotrolan for routine CT-examination were analyzed for the production of cys-LT. Histamine levels were analyzed in plasma specimens. One patient with a positive history of a previous CM-reaction did not receive CM-injection. Three patients of the iopromide and five of the iotrolan group showed adverse reactions. Reactors had increased cys-LT values in samples obtained before CM-injection induced by the positive control (anti-FcepsilonRI antibodies) (6763.7 pg/ml+/-1367.3 versus 2299.8 pg/ml+/-399.2; p<0.007). Patients with versus without CM-reaction did not differ significantly with respect to their histamine values before CM-administration. In vitro iopromide (p<0.0002) and iotrolan (p<0.0008) induced significant cys-LT production as compared to IL-3 stimulation. In vivo both CM induced a significant increase 6h after CM administration (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that both CM seem to induce cys-LT production. As to whether the observed increased values in pre-dose samples of patients with as compared to those without reactions could contribute to identify high risk patients should be investigated in larger patient groups in future.

  15. Non-ionic Gd-based MRI contrast agents are optimal for encapsulation into phosphatidyldiglycerol-based thermosensitive liposomes.

    PubMed

    Hossann, Martin; Wang, Tungte; Syunyaeva, Zulfiya; Wiggenhorn, Michael; Zengerle, Anja; Issels, Rolf D; Reiser, Maximilian; Lindner, Lars H; Peller, Michael

    2013-02-28

    Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) with encapsulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) contrast agents (CAs) have been proposed for MRI assisted interventional thermotherapy in solid tumors. Here the feasibility of 6 clinically approved CAs (Gd-DTPA, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DOTA, Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-HP-DO3A) for formulation into TSL was investigated. CAs were passively encapsulated with 323 mOs kg(-1) into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphodiglycerol 50/20/30 (mol/mol) TSL (DPPG(2)-TSL) to obtain stable formulations. T(1) relaxivity (r(1)) and diffusive permeability to water (P(d)) across the membrane were determined. Shelf life at 4°C was investigated by determining lysolipid content up to 10 weeks after preparation. All preparations were monodispersed with comparable small vesicle sizes (~135 nm). Neither zeta potential nor phase transition temperature (T(m)) was affected by the CA. The formulations showed an increase in r(1) in the temperature range between 38 and 44°C. This correlated with the phase transition. Change in r(1) (Δr(1)=r(1)(45.3°C)-r(1)(37.6°C)) and r(1) (Tnon-ionic Gd-BT-DO3A, Gd-DTPA-BMA, and Gd-HP-DO3A. All CAs except Gd-DTPA-BMA induced phospholipid hydrolysis, which resulted in unwanted CA leakage. The serum proteins HSA and IgG both contributed to the increase of MRI signal at 30°C by increasing P(d). A high concentration of encapsulated CA is a prerequisite to achieve a sufficiently high Δr(1) during heat triggered CA release combined with a low r(1) at 37°C. Hence, the optimal CA is characterized by a non-ionic structure and a low contribution to osmolality.

  16. Efficient labeling in vitro with non-ionic gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and fluorescent transfection agent in bone marrow stromal cells of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    LI, YING-QIN; TANG, YING; FU, RAO; MENG, QIU-HUA; ZHOU, XUE; LING, ZE-MIN; CHENG, XIAO; TIAN, SU-WEI; WANG, GUO-JIE; LIU, XUE-GUO; ZHOU, LI-HUA

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have been undertaken on gadolinium labeling-based molecular imaging in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the use of non-ionic gadolinium in the tracking of stem cells remains uncommon. To investigate the efficiency in tracking of stem cells with non-ionic gadolinium as an MRI contrast agent, a rhodamine-conjugated fluorescent reagent was used to label bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of neonatal rats in vitro, and MRI scanning was undertaken. The fluorescent-conjugated cell uptake reagents were able to deliver gadodiamide into BMSCs, and cell uptake was verified using flow cytometry. In addition, the labeled stem cells with paramagnetic contrast medium remained detectable by an MRI monitor for a minimum of 28 days. The present study suggested that this method can be applied efficiently and safely for the labeling and tracking of bone marrow stromal cells in neonatal rats. PMID:25816076

  17. Water-Soluble Lipophilic MR Contrast Agents for Cell Membrane Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Christiane E.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term cell tracking with MR imaging necessitates the development of contrast agents that both label and are retained by cells. One promising strategy for long-term cell labeling is the development of lipophilic Gd(III)-based contrast agents that anchor into the cell membrane. We have previously reported the efficacy of monomeric and multimeric lipophilic agents and showed that the monomeric agents have improved labeling and contrast enhancement of cell populations. Here, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro testing of a series of monomeric lipophilic contrast agents with varied alkyl chain compositions. We show that these agents disperse in water, localize to the cell membrane, and label HeLa and MCF7 cells effectively. Additionally, these agents have up to 10-fold improved retention in cells compared to clinically available ProHance®. PMID:26215869

  18. Ultrasmall water-soluble metal-iron oxide nanoparticles as T1-weighted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Leyong; Ren, Wenzhi; Zheng, Jianjun; Cui, Ping; Wu, Aiguo

    2012-02-28

    Using an improved hydrolysis method of inorganic salts assisted with water-bath incubation, ultrasmall water-soluble metal-iron oxide nanoparticles (including Fe(3)O(4), ZnFe(2)O(4) and NiFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles) were synthesized in aqueous solutions, which were used as T(1)-weighted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The morphology, structure, MRI relaxation properties and cytotoxicity of the as-prepared metal-iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized, respectively. The results showed that the average sizes of nanoparticles were about 4 nm, 4 nm and 5 nm for Fe(3)O(4), ZnFe(2)O(4) and NiFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles, respectively. Moreover, the nanoparticles have good water dispersibility and low cytotoxicity. The MRI test showed the strong T(1)-weighted, but the weak T(2)-weighted MRI performance of metal-iron oxide nanoparticles. The high T(1)-weighted MRI performance can be attributed to the ultrasmall size of metal-iron oxide nanoparticles. Therefore, the as-prepared metal-iron oxide nanoparticles with good water dispersibility and ultrasmall size can have potential applications as T(1)-weighted contrast agent materials for MRI.

  19. One-year results of the ICON (Ionic versus non-ionic Contrast to Obviate worsening Nephropathy after angioplasty in chronic renal failure patients) Study.

    PubMed

    Giustino, Gennaro; Baber, Usman; Mastoris, Ioannis; Vlachojannis, Georgios J; Yu, Jennifer; Teirstein, Paul S; Downey, William E; Batchelor, Wayne B; Casterella, Peter J; Nikolsky, Eugenia; Wong, S Chiu; Theodoropoulos, Kleanthis N; Dangas, George D; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-03-01

    Long-term clinical outcomes after exposure to non-ionic iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM) or ionic low-osmolar CM (LOCM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing coronary angiography are unclear. The ICON trial was a prospective, double-blinded, multicentre study that randomly assigned 146 patients with CKD undergoing coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention to the non-ionic IOCM Iodixanol or the ionic LOCM Ioxaglate. We report the 1-year clinical outcomes. After randomization, baseline and procedural characteristics were well-matched between the two groups. At 1 year, three deaths (4.1%) occurred in the ioxaglate and nine deaths in the iodixanol group (13.6%, P = 0.07). The cardiac death rate at 1 year was 2.7% in the ioxaglate group and 9.1% in the iodixanol group (P = 0.07). There were no significant differences in the rates of myocardial infarction (1.4% vs. 1.5%; P = 1.00) and repeated revascularization (6.8% vs. 9.1%; P = 0.75). The use of ionic LOCM ioxaglate was associated with a numerically lower mortality at 1 year as compared to iodixanol in patients who underwent cardiac catheterization. Future studies evaluating long-term safety following exposure to different types of CM are warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Assessment of non-ionic contrast agents in reducing the risk of side effects: analysis on the basis of voluntary willingness-to-pay measured by the contingent valuation method].

    PubMed

    Sugimura, K

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of replacing ionic contrast agents with non-ionic ones was assessed by employing cost-benefit analysis, a method of medical economic analysis. The benefit derived from replacing ionic with non-ionic contrast agents was assessed by a questionnaire survey of patients using the willingness-to-pay method based on the contingent valuation method. This questionnaire survey was conducted on 204 patients in Shimane Medical University Hospital during the period from October to December 1998. The result of analysis showed that when ionic contrast agents are replaced with non-ionic ones, patients' willingness-to-pay stands at a median value of 12,500 yen and a mean value of 17,082 +/- 1,049 yen. These figures are identical with or larger than the NHI-price differences (12,266-14,234 yen; average 13,287 yen), suggesting that patients think the benefit of reduced side effects from non-ionic contrast agents has a value that is equal to or higher than the actual NHI-prices of these agents. Further, analysis of patient profiles indicated that patients' willingness-to-pay went up with age and income but decreased when age exceeded 60 years, a finding which also suggests that the willingness-to-pay amount is closely related to the economic strength of patients.

  1. Structural signatures of water-soluble organic aerosols in contrasting environments in South America and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Pereira, Guilherme; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Gioda, Adriana; Carreira, Renato; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Armando C; Smichowski, Patricia; Rojas, Nestor; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon

    2017-08-01

    This study describes and compares the key structural units present in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction of atmospheric aerosols collected in different South American (Colombia - Medellín and Bogotá, Peru - Lima, Argentina - Buenos Aires, and Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Porto Velho, during moderate (MBB) and intense (IBB) biomass burning) and Western European (Portugal - Aveiro and Lisbon) locations. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the relative distribution of non-exchangeable proton functional groups in aerosol WSOC of diverse origin, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in South America. The relative contribution of the proton functional groups was in the order H-C > H-C-C= > H-C-O > Ar-H, except in Porto Velho during MBB, Medellín, Bogotá, and Buenos Aires, for which the relative contribution of H-C-O was higher than that of H-C-C=. The (1)H NMR source attribution confirmed differences in aging processes or regional sources between the two geographic regions, allowing the differentiation between urban combustion-related aerosol and biological particles. The aerosol WSOC in Aveiro, Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro during summer are more oxidized than those from the remaining locations, indicating the predominance of secondary organic aerosols. Fresh emissions, namely of smoke particles, becomes important during winter in Aveiro and São Paulo, and in Porto Velho during IBB. The biosphere is an important source altering the chemical composition of aerosol WSOC in South America locations. The source attribution in Medellín, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, and Lima confirmed the mixed contributions of biological material, secondary formation, as well as urban and biomass burning emissions. Overall, the information and knowledge acquired in this study provide important diagnostic tools for future studies aiming at understanding the water-soluble organic aerosol problem, their sources and

  2. Clinical observation of adverse drug reactions to non-ionic iodinated contrast media in population with underlying diseases and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liu, Heng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Junling; Cai, Li; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-02-01

    To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of non-ionic iodinated contrast media in populations with underlying diseases and risk factors and to provide guidance for more safe and rational use of iodinated contrast media (ICMs) in the clinic. Data from 120,822 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in our hospital from January 2014 to March 2016 were collected. A standardized case report form was used for data collection and analysis. The incidence of ADRs was 0.4% and 0.44% in patients with and without underlying diseases, respectively (p = 0.378). Risk factor analysis revealed that patients with asthma had the highest incidence of ADRs, followed by patients with cardiac insufficiency and patients who were aged had the lowest incidence. There was a low incidence of ADRs in patients under metformin (0.36%) and β-adrenaline receptor antagonist (0.20%) medication. The incidence was the highest in patients with previous ADRs to ICMs (7.17%) and the lowest in those with a history of ICM usage but no previous reactions (0.32%). ADRs were more common in patients at high risk at a higher injection dose (≥100 ml; p < 0.01) and speed (≥5 ml s(-1); p < 0.01). The incidence of ADRs was extremely low in patients regardless of underlying diseases. Some high-risk factors have certain correlations with the occurrence of ADRs. Particular attention should be given to patients at high risk when performing enhanced CT examination. Advances in knowledge: The correlation between various risk factors and underlying diseases and ADRs was comprehensively analyzed in a large-scale population.

  3. One-pot synthesis of water-soluble superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their MRI contrast effects in the mouse brains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Baolin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ming; Gao, Fabao

    2015-03-01

    Water-soluble superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate (Fe(acac)3) in the mixture of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI). The average sizes of the SPIONs are in the range of 6-12nm, which could be tuned by adjusting the synthesis temperature and molecular weight of PEI. Benefiting from the coating of hydrophilic PEG and PEI, the resulted SPIONs showed excellent colloidal stability in deionized water and other physiological buffers. The XRD patterns indicate that the obtained SPIONs are magnetite. The PEG/PEI-SPIONs exhibited high r2/r1 ratio. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the mouse brains after intravenous injection of the SPIONs showed their good contrast effect. Considering the facile fabrication process and excellent imaging performance of the water soluble PEG-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs, it is believed that the SPIONs will find great potential in advanced MRI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A monomeric water-soluble NIR-absorbing porphyrin derivative as in vivo photoacoustic tomography contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Luciano, Michael; Zhou, Feifei; Brückner, Christian; Zhu, Quing

    2017-03-01

    A PEGylated quinoline-annulated porphyrin derivative was synthesized as in vivo photoacoustic tomography contrast agent. It possesses high solubility and stability in water and phosphate-buffered saline. No toxicity sign was observed in BALB/c mice. The dye demonstrates a 4-fold higher photoacoustic signal generation efficiency compared to fresh rat blood. Injection of the dye results in a significant enhancement of in vivo PAT images of murine tumors. Analysis of the mouse urine after injection revealed an unaltered renal filtration of the contrast agent.

  5. On the gas-particle partitioning of soluble organic aerosol in two urban atmospheres with contrasting emissions: 1. Bulk water-soluble organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Liu, Jiumeng; Parker, Eric T.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Flynn, James H.; Grossberg, Nicole; Lefer, Barry L.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2012-09-01

    The partitioning of semi-volatile compounds between the gas and particle phase influences the mass, size and chemical composition of the secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed. Here we investigate the partitioning of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and the formation of SOA in Los Angeles (LA), California and Atlanta, Georgia; urban regions where anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are dominated by vehicles, but are contrasted by an additional large source of biogenic VOCs exclusive to Atlanta. In Atlanta, evidence for WSOC partitioning to aerosol water is observed throughout the day, but is most prevalent in the morning. During drier periods (RH < 70%), the WSOC partitioning coefficient (Fp) was in proportion to the organic mass, suggesting that both particle water and organic aerosol (OA) can serve as an absorbing phase. In contrast, despite the higher average RH, in LA the aerosol water was not an important absorbing phase, instead, Fp was correlated with OA mass. Particle water concentrations from thermodynamic predictions based on measured inorganic aerosol components do not indicate significant differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. The observed different WSOC partitioning behaviors may be attributed to the contrasting VOC mixture between the two cities. In addition, different OA composition may also play a role, as Atlanta OA is expected to have a substantially more aged regional character. These results are consistent with our companion studies that find similar partitioning differences for formic acid and additional contrasts in SOA optical properties. The findings provide direct evidence for SOA formation through an equilibrium partitioning process.

  6. On the gas-particle partitioning of soluble organic aerosol in two urban atmospheres with contrasting emissions: 1. Bulk water-soluble organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Liu, Jiumeng; Parker, Eric T.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Gouw, Joost A.; Flynn, James H.; Grossberg, Nicole; Lefer, Barry L.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2011-11-01

    The partitioning of semi-volatile compounds between the gas and particle phase influences the mass, size and chemical composition of the secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed. Here we investigate the partitioning of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and the formation of SOA in Los Angeles (LA), California and Atlanta, Georgia; urban regions where anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are dominated by vehicles, but are contrasted by an additional large source of biogenic VOCs exclusive to Atlanta. In Atlanta, evidence for WSOC partitioning to aerosol water is observed throughout the day, but is most prevalent in the morning. During drier periods (RH < 70%), the WSOC partitioning coefficient (Fp) was in proportion to the organic mass, suggesting that both particle water and organic aerosol (OA) can serve as an absorbing phase. In contrast, despite the higher average RH, in LA the aerosol water was not an important absorbing phase, instead, Fp was correlated with OA mass. Particle water concentrations from thermodynamic predictions based on measured inorganic aerosol components do not indicate significant differences in aerosol hygroscopicity. The observed different WSOC partitioning behaviors may be attributed to the contrasting VOC mixture between the two cities. In addition, different OA composition may also play a role, as Atlanta OA is expected to have a substantially more aged regional character. These results are consistent with our companion studies that find similar partitioning differences for formic acid and additional contrasts in SOA optical properties. The findings provide direct evidence for SOA formation through an equilibrium partitioning process.

  7. Clinical analysis of contributors to the delayed gallbladder opacification following the use of water-soluble contrast medium

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming-Chang; Kok, Victor C; Lee, Ming-Yung; Hsu, Soa-Min; Lee, Pei-Yu; Chang, Che-Wei; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gallbladder opacification (GBO) on computed tomography (CT) imaging may obscure certain pathological or emergent conditions in the gallbladder, such as neoplasms, stones, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical contributing factors that could predict the presence of delayed GBO determined by CT. Methods This study retrospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who received enhanced CT or intravenous pyelography imaging and then underwent abdominal CT imaging within 5 days. According to the interval between imaging, the patients were divided into group A (1 day), group B (2 or 3 days), and group C (4 or 5 days). Three radiologists evaluated CT images to determine GBO. Fisher’s exact test and multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression were performed. Results Positive GBO was significantly associated with the interval between imaging studies, contrast type, contrast volume, renal function, and hypertransaminasemia (P<0.05). Multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression analysis of the three groups identified contrast type and hypertransaminasemia as independent predictors of GBO in group B patients (odds ratio [OR], 13.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–106.38 and OR, 3.43, 95% CI, 1.31–8.98, respectively; P<0.05). Hypertransaminasemia was the only independent predictor of GBO in group C patients with an OR of 7.2 (95% CI, 1.62–31.73). Hypertransaminasemia was noted in three patients (100%) who initially underwent imaging 5 days prior to GBO. Conclusion Delayed GBO on CT imaging may be associated with laboratory hypertransaminasemia, particularly in patients receiving contrast medium over a period of ≥4 days. A detailed clinical history, physical examination, and further workup are of paramount importance for investigating the underlying cause behind the hypertransaminasemia. PMID:27660453

  8. Clinical observation of the adverse drug reactions caused by non-ionic iodinated contrast media: results from 109,255 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Chen, J; Zhang, L; Liu, H; Wang, S; Chen, X; Fang, J; Wang, S; Zhang, W

    2015-03-01

    To analyse the pattern and factors that influence the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by non-ionic iodinated contrast media and to evaluate their safety profiles. Data from 109,255 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination from 1 January 2008 to 31 August 2013 were analysed. ADRs were classified according to the criteria issued by the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology. A total of 375 (0.34%) patients had ADRs, including 281 mild (0.26%); 80 moderate (0.07%); and 14 severe (0.01%) ADRs; no death was found. 302 (80.53%) of the ADRs occurred within 15 min after examination. Patients aged 40-49 years (204 cases, 0.43%; p < 0.01) or who underwent coronary CT angiography (93 cases, 0.61%; p < 0.01) were at a higher risk of ADRs. Female patients (180 cases, 0.40%; p < 0.01) or outpatients had significantly higher incidence rates of ADRs. The symptoms and signs of most of the ADRs were resolved spontaneously within 24 h after appropriate treatment without sequelae. The occurrence of ADRs is caused by the combined effects of multiple factors. The ADRs induced by non-ionic iodinated contrast media are mainly mild ones, while moderate or severe ADRs are relatively rare, suggesting that enhanced CT examination with non-ionic iodinated contrast media is highly safe, and severe adverse events will seldom occur under appropriate care. The study included 109,255 patients enrolled in various types of enhanced CT examinations, which could reflect ADR conditions and regulations in Chinese population accurately and reliably.

  9. Clinical observation of the adverse drug reactions caused by non-ionic iodinated contrast media: results from 109,255 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Chen, J; Zhang, L; Liu, H; Wang, S; Chen, X; Fang, J; Wang, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the pattern and factors that influence the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by non-ionic iodinated contrast media and to evaluate their safety profiles. Methods: Data from 109,255 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination from 1 January 2008 to 31 August 2013 were analysed. ADRs were classified according to the criteria issued by the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology. Results: A total of 375 (0.34%) patients had ADRs, including 281 mild (0.26%); 80 moderate (0.07%); and 14 severe (0.01%) ADRs; no death was found. 302 (80.53%) of the ADRs occurred within 15 min after examination. Patients aged 40–49 years (204 cases, 0.43%; p < 0.01) or who underwent coronary CT angiography (93 cases, 0.61%; p < 0.01) were at a higher risk of ADRs. Female patients (180 cases, 0.40%; p < 0.01) or outpatients had significantly higher incidence rates of ADRs. The symptoms and signs of most of the ADRs were resolved spontaneously within 24 h after appropriate treatment without sequelae. Conclusion: The occurrence of ADRs is caused by the combined effects of multiple factors. The ADRs induced by non-ionic iodinated contrast media are mainly mild ones, while moderate or severe ADRs are relatively rare, suggesting that enhanced CT examination with non-ionic iodinated contrast media is highly safe, and severe adverse events will seldom occur under appropriate care. Advances in knowledge: The study included 109,255 patients enrolled in various types of enhanced CT examinations, which could reflect ADR conditions and regulations in Chinese population accurately and reliably. PMID:25582519

  10. Induction of Upregulation and Downregulation of the T-Cell Activation Marker CD98 in Patients Undergoing Contrast-Enhanced CT with Iodinated Non-Ionic Dimeric Contrast Medium

    PubMed Central

    Schild, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to determine prospectively the expression of the multifunctional CD98 protein in peripheral white blood cells in patients receiving iodinated contrast media (CM) for a computed tomography (CT) examination. Materials and Methods In 12 adult patients that received non-ionic dimeric CM (iosimenol or iodixanol), the expression of CD98 was analyzed from samples of peripheral white blood cells obtained prior to, one hour, and 24 hours after CM injection by the use of flow cytometry analysis and the use of the direct immunofluorescence technique. Results Overall, expression of CD98 was significantly downregulated 24 hours after CM injection (51.9%±10.8% vs. 38.8%±16.9%; p < 0.04). Patients that received iosimenol exhibited a more pronounced but not significant decrease of CD98 expression both one hour and 24 hours after CM injection. In an analysis of specific patient responses, CD98 downregulation occurred in eight patients. In two patients, CD98 was upregulated, and in the remaining two patients, expression remained unchanged. No patient acquired an adverse CM reaction. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that CM may be a regulator of CD98 expression. To determine if upregulation is associated with an increased risk for the acquisition of an adverse CM-induced hypersensitivity reaction and if downregulation is associated without a risk for the acquisition of an adverse CM-induced hypersensitivity reaction, further studies with a larger population of patients are required. PMID:19182504

  11. Developmental and growth controls of tillering and water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes: can we dissect them?

    PubMed Central

    Dreccer, M. Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    In wheat, tillering and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) in the stem are potential traits for adaptation to different environments and are of interest as targets for selective breeding. This study investigated the observation that a high stem WSC concentration (WSCc) is often related to low tillering. The proposition tested was that stem WSC accumulation is plant density dependent and could be an emergent property of tillering, whether driven by genotype or by environment. A small subset of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) contrasting for tillering was grown at different plant densities or on different sowing dates in multiple field experiments. Both tillering and WSCc were highly influenced by the environment, with a smaller, distinct genotypic component; the genotype×environment range covered 350–750 stems m–2 and 25–210mg g–1 WSCc. Stem WSCc was inversely related to stem number m–2, but genotypic rankings for stem WSCc persisted when RILs were compared at similar stem density. Low tillering–high WSCc RILs had similar leaf area index, larger individual leaves, and stems with larger internode cross-section and wall area when compared with high tillering–low WSCc RILs. The maximum number of stems per plant was positively associated with growth and relative growth rate per plant, tillering rate and duration, and also, in some treatments, with leaf appearance rate and final leaf number. A common threshold of the red:far red ratio (0.39–0.44; standard error of the difference=0.055) coincided with the maximum stem number per plant across genotypes and plant densities, and could be effectively used in crop simulation modelling as a ‘cut-off’ rule for tillering. The relationship between tillering, WSCc, and their component traits, as well as the possible implications for crop simulation and breeding, is discussed. PMID:23213136

  12. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  13. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  14. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  15. Intra-arterial and intravenous applications of Iosimenol 340 injection, a new non-ionic, dimeric, iso-osmolar radiographic contrast medium: phase 2 experience

    PubMed Central

    Laniado, Michael; Hosten, Norbert; Kelsch, Bettina; Hogstrom, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background Iosimenol 340 injection is a new, dimeric, iso-osmolar, iodinated contrast medium for X-ray angiography. Purpose To compare the safety and efficacy of iosimenol injection to iodixanol injection in two randomized, controlled phase 2 trials. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-four adult patients were enrolled in the two trials, one for evaluation during arteriography and the other for evaluation during computed tomography. Safety was compared by assessing adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, and laboratory parameters. Efficacy was assessed as X-ray attenuation in the computed tomography (CT) trial and as the quality of contrast enhancement in the arteriography trial. Results There were no statistically significant differences in terms of safety or efficacy between the two contrast media. Both were well tolerated upon intravenous as well as intra-arterial injection. The most common adverse event was a feeling of warmth (observed in 35.1% of the patients with Iosimenol injection and 44.3% with iodixanol injection). Conclusion Iosimenol upon intravenous as well as upon intra-arterial injection exhibits a safety profile and shows an efficacy similar to that of iodixanol. PMID:24938661

  16. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 measured by Dithiothreitol (DTT) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) assays in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Bates, J. T.; Abrams, J.; Klein, M.; Strickland, M. J.; Sarnat, S. E.; Chang, H. H.; Mulholland, J. A.; Tolbert, P. E.; Russell, A. G.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through catalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and have recently developed a similar semi-automated system using the ascorbic acid (AA) assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed using both assays. We found that water-soluble DTT activity on a per air volume basis was more spatially uniform than water-soluble AA activity. DTT activity was higher in winter than in summer/fall, whereas AA activity was higher in summer/fall compared to winter, with highest levels near highly trafficked highways. DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species, whereas AA activity was correlated with water-soluble metals (especially water-soluble Cu, r=0.70-0.91 at most sites). Source apportionment models, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and a Chemical Mass Balance Method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E), suggest a strong contribution from secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metal mobilization by formation of an aqueous particle with secondary acids) and traffic emissions to both DTT and AA activities in urban Atlanta. Biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. DTT activity was well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r=0.49-0.86 across sites/seasons), while AA activity did not co-vary strongly with mass. A linear model was developed to estimate DTT and AA activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources that are statistically significant with positive

  17. Non-ionic PAG behavior under high energy exposure sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Noga, David E.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2009-03-01

    A series of non-ionic PAGs were synthesized and their acid generation efficiency measured under deep ultraviolet and electron beam exposures. The acid generation efficiency was determined with an on-wafer method that uses spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the absorbance of an acid sensitive dye (Coumarin 6). Under DUV exposures, common ionic onium salt PAGs showed excellent photoacid generation efficiency, superior to most non-ionic PAGS tested in this work. In contrast, under 100 keV high energy e-beam exposures, almost all of the non-ionic PAGs showed significantly better acid generation performance than the ionic onium salt PAGs tested. In particular, one non-ionic PAG showed almost an order of magnitude improvement in the Dill C acid generation rate constant as compared to a triarylsulfonium PAG. The high energy acid generation efficiency was found to correlate well with the electron affinity of the PAGs, suggesting that improvements in PAG design can be predicted. Non-ionic PAGs merit further investigation as a means for producing higher sensitivity resists under high energy exposure sources.

  18. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  19. Water-soluble dopamine-based polymers for photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Repenko, Tatjana; Fokong, Stanley; De Laporte, Laura; Go, Dennis; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2015-04-11

    Here we present a facile synthetic method yielding a linear form of polydopamine via Kumada-coupling, which can be converted into water-soluble melanin, generating high contrast in photoacoustic imaging.

  20. Lectin conjugates as biospecific contrast agents for MRI. Coupling of Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin to linear water-soluble DTPA-loaded oligomers.

    PubMed

    Pashkunova-Martic, Irena; Kremser, Christian; Galanski, Markus; Schluga, Petra; Arion, Vladimir; Debbage, Paul; Jaschke, Werner; Keppler, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires synthesis of contrast media bearing targeting groups and numerous gadolinium chelating groups generating high relaxivity. This paper explores the results of linking the gadolinium chelates to the targeting group, a protein molecule, via various types of linkers. Polycondensates of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) with either diols or diamines were synthesised and coupled to the targeting group, a lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin, tomato lectin) which binds with high affinity to specific oligosaccharide configurations in the endothelial glycocalyx. The polycondensates bear up to four carboxylic groups per constitutive unit. Gd-chelate bonds are created through dative interactions with the unshared pair of electrons on each oxygen and nitrogen atom on DTPA. This is mandatory for complexation of Gd(III) and avoidance of the severe toxicity of free gadolinium ions. The polymer-DTPA compounds were characterised by (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. The final lectin-DTPA-polycondensate conjugates were purified by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The capacity for specific binding was assessed, and the MRI properties were examined in order to evaluate the use of these oligomers as components of selective perfusional contrast agents.

  1. Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations between ascorbic acid (AA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ting; Verma, Vishal; Bates, Josephine T.; Abrams, Joseph; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J.; Sarnat, Stefanie E.; Chang, Howard H.; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Russell, Armistead G.; Weber, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    The ability of certain components of particulate matter to induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may be one mechanism accounting for observed linkages between ambient aerosols and adverse health outcomes. A variety of assays have been used to measure this so-called aerosol oxidative potential. We developed a semi-automated system to quantify oxidative potential of filter aqueous extracts utilizing the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and report here the development of a similar semi-automated system for the ascorbic acid (AA) assay. Approximately 500 PM2.5 filter samples collected in contrasting locations in the southeastern US were analyzed for a host of aerosol species, along with AA and DTT activities. We present a detailed contrast in findings from these two assays. Water-soluble AA activity was higher in summer and fall than in winter, with highest levels near heavily trafficked highways, whereas DTT activity was higher in winter compared to summer and fall and more spatially homogeneous. AA activity was nearly exclusively correlated with water-soluble Cu (r = 0.70-0.94 at most sites), whereas DTT activity was correlated with organic and metal species. Source apportionment models, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and a chemical mass balance method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles (CMB-E), suggest a strong contribution from traffic emissions and secondary processes (e.g., organic aerosol oxidation or metals mobilization by secondary acids) to both AA and DTT activities in urban Atlanta. In contrast, biomass burning was a large source for DTT activity, but insignificant for AA. AA activity was not correlated with PM2.5 mass, while DTT activity co-varied strongly with mass (r = 0.49-0.86 across sites and seasons). Various linear models were developed to estimate AA and DTT activities for the central Atlanta Jefferson Street site, based on the CMB-E sources. The models were then used to estimate daily

  2. Synthesis of water soluble graphene.

    PubMed

    Si, Yongchao; Samulski, Edward T

    2008-06-01

    A facile and scalable preparation of aqueous solutions of isolated, sparingly sulfonated graphene is reported. (13)C NMR and FTIR spectra indicate that the bulk of the oxygen-containing functional groups was removed from graphene oxide. The electrical conductivity of thin evaporated films of graphene (1250 S/m) relative to similarly prepared graphite (6120 S/m) implies that an extended conjugated sp (2) network is restored in the water soluble graphene.

  3. The water soluble axially disubstituted silicon phthalocyanines: photophysicochemical properties and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Göksel, Meltem; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2017-08-01

    Two novel silicon(IV) phthalocyanines bearing 1,3-bis[3(dimethylamino)phenoxy]propan-2-ol or 1,3-bis[3(diethylamino)phenoxy]propan-2-ol groups at their axial positions were synthesized. These phthalocyanines were converted into their water soluble derivatives by the quaternization reaction with methyl iodide. The quaternized phthalocyanines show excellent solubility aqueous solutions without any aggregation which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). For this reason, the photophysical and photochemical properties such as fluorescence quantum yields, lifetimes, singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation of both non-ionic (3 and 5) and quaternized cationic silicon(IV) phthalocyanines were investigated. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of PDT was determined by colorimetric proliferation assay against to hepatocellular carcinoma (HuH-7) cancer cells. In this study, the cells were incubated with a novel water soluble silicon(IV) phthalocyanine derivatives and thereafter the cells were illuminated using broad-band incoherent light source.

  4. Nanoprecipitation for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao

    2017-10-04

    Approximately 60% of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in today's pharmaceutical industry are poorly water soluble drugs, and they are classified as BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class II compounds. Within the scope of this review, nanoprecipitation methods for poorly water soluble drugs as well as solvent removal techniques will be discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Water-Soluble Metallocene-Containing Polymers.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Arda; Wurm, Frederik R

    2016-09-01

    Metallocenes are organometallic compounds with reversible redox profiles and tunable oxidation and reduction potentials, depending on the metal and substituents at the cyclopentadienyl rings. Metallocenes have been introduced in macromolecules to combine the redox-activity with polymer properties. There are many examples of such hydrophobic polymer materials, but much fewer water-soluble examples are found scattered across the polymer literature. However, in terms of drug delivery and other biological applications, water solubility is essential. For this very reason, all the synthetic routes to water-soluble metallocene containing polymers are collected and discussed here. The focus is on neutral ferrocene- and ruthenocene-containing and charged cobaltocenium-containing macromolecules (i.e., symmetrical sandwich complexes). The synthetic protocols, self-assembly behavior, and other benefits of the obtained materials are discussed.

  6. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  7. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  8. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  9. Water-soluble constituents of dill.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kudo, Masato; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-04-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of dill (fruit of Anethum graveolens L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine, thirty-three compounds, including a new monoterpenoid, six new monoterpenoid glycosides, a new aromatic compound glucoside and a new alkyl glucoside were obtained. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation.

  10. Non-ionic micelles and encapsulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2007-03-01

    The development of self-assembly as a useful approach to the synthesis and manufacturing of complex systems and materials is a central theme in our research. Amphiphilic block copolymers of the poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) family (commercially available as Poloxamers) are well-known for self-assembling into (core-shell spherical) micelles and (cubic, hexagonal, and lamellar) lyotropic liquid crystals in water. We are interested on how the aqueous phase behavior and structure of these non-ionic polymeric amphiphiles can be modulated by the addition of organic solvents or solutes. Our studies (i) probe the amphiphile organization in both micellar solutions and lyotropic liquid crystals, (ii) combine macroscopic observations (e.g., concentration-temperature micellization phase boundaries, ternary isothermal amphiphile-water-cosolvent phase diagrams) with microscopic measurements (from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering), and (iii) aim to relate the type of structure formed and its properties to the relative swelling of the polymer blocks and to the location of the solvent/solute in the amphiphile assembly. These studies address the following practical questions: What are the ``right'' components and conditions for self-assembly? What if the conditions are no longer ``right''? How can we ``help'' self-assembly? Modulation of structure-property relationships in amphiphile-containing media is central to formulation of pharmaceutics and personal care products.

  11. Ultrafiltration modeling of non-ionic microgels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Rafael; Zholkovskiy, Emiliy K.; Nägele, Gerhard

    Membrane ultrafiltration (UF) is a pressure driven process allowing for the separation and enrichment of protein solutions and dispersions of nanosized microgel particles. The permeate flux and the near-membrane concentration-polarization (CP) layer in this process is determined by advective-diffusive dispersion transport and the interplay of applied and osmotic transmembrane pressure contributions. The UF performance is thus strongly dependent on the membrane properties, the hydrodynamic structure of the Brownian particles, their direct and hydrodynamic interactions, and the boundary conditions. We present a macroscopic description of cross-flow UF of non-ionic microgels modeled as solvent-permeable spheres. Our filtration model involves recently derived semi-analytic expressions for the concentration-dependent collective diffusion coefficient and viscosity of permeable particle dispersions [Riest et al., Soft Matter, 2015, 11, 2821]. These expressions have been well tested against computer simulation and experimental results. We analyze the CP layer properties and the permeate flux at different operating conditions and discuss various filtration process efficiency and cost indicators. Our results show that the proper specification of the concentration-dependent transport coefficients is important for reliable filtration process predictions. We also show that the solvent permeability of microgels is an essential ingredient to the UF modeling. The particle permeability lowers the particle concentration at the membrane surface, thus increasing the permeate flux.

  12. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  13. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  14. Water-soluble titanium alkoxide material

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2010-06-22

    A water soluble, water stable, titanium alkoxide composition represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.6N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.2(CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.2).sub- .3-2,4,6).sub.2 with a theoretical molecular weight of 792.8 and an elemental composition of 63.6% C, 8.1% H, 14.1% N, 8.1% O and 6.0% Ti.

  15. A Water-Soluble Polythiophene for Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Ming; He, Youjun; Hong, Kunlun; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of a non-ionic, water-soluble poly(thiophene) (PT) derivative, poly(3-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy)ethoxy) methylthiophene) (P3TEGT) with a hydrophilic tri-ethylene glycol side group, is reported and thin films of the polymer suitable for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are characterized by combining analysis techniques that include UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. After thermal annealing, P3TEGT films exhibit a well-organized nanofibrillar lamellar nanostructure that originates from the strong - stacking of the thiophene backbones. P-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with hole mobilities of 10-5 cm2V-1s-1 were fabricated from this water-soluble poly(thiophene) derivative, demonstrating the possibility that environmentally-friendly solvents may be promising alternatives for the low-cost, green solution-based organic electronic device manufacturing of OFETs, organic photovoltaics (OPVs), and biosensors.

  16. The effect of post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) using water-soluble, iodine-based radiographic contrast on histological analysis of the liver, kidneys and left ventricle of the heart.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Samantha; Parsons, Sarah; Woodford, Noel; Lynch, Matthew; Briggs, Christopher; O'Donnell, Chris

    2017-05-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of post-mortem computed-tomography angiography (PMCTA) on the histology of the liver, kidneys and heart. Multiple tissue cores were collected from the liver, left and right kidneys and left ventricle utilizing CT-guided biopsy. Subsequent whole body PMCTA was performed using a solution of polyethylene glycol and iodinated radiographic contrast, and an embalming pump. Corresponding biopsy cores were collected at autopsy, and blinded histology analysis assessing for PMCTA-induced histology artefact was performed. The blinded analysis of pre-PMCTA and post-PMCTA biopsy samples demonstrated that whole body PMCTA had no effect on the histological analyses of the liver (0%, CI = 0-13.7%), left ventricle of the heart (0%, CI = 0-36.9%) and right kidney (0%, CI = 13.2%), however likely caused increased Bowman's capsule spaces in the left kidney of one case (4%, CI = 0.01-20.4%). Other artefactual histological changes identified included eosinophilic material in the liver, whiter interstitium and dilated tubules in kidney samples, and autolysis-related changes, however these could not be categorically attributed to the PMCTA procedure. PMCTA causes zero or minimal effect to the histological examination of the liver, left kidney, right kidney and left ventricle, and as such performing PMCTA prior to autopsy is unlikely to impact autopsy histological results in these organs.

  17. Water solubility in pyrope at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Karato, S.-

    2006-12-01

    To address how much water is stored within the Earth's mantle, we need to understand the water solubility in the nominally anhydrous minerals. Much is known about olivine and pyroxene. Garnet is another important component, approaching 40% by volume in the transition zone. Only two studies on water solubility in pyrope at high-pressures exist which contradict each other. Lu and Keppler (1997) observed increase in water solubility in a natural pyrope up to 200 ppm wt of water, till 10 GPa. They concluded that the proton is located in the interstitial site. Withers et al. (1998) on the contrary, observed increasing water content in Mg-rich pyrope till 6 GPa, then sudden decrease of water, beyond detection, at 7 GPa. Based on infrared spectra, Withers et al. (1998), concluded hydrogarnet (Si^{4+} replaced by 4H+ to form O4H4) substitution in synthetic magnesium rich pyrope. They argued that at high pressure owing to larger volume, hydrogarnet substitution is unstable and water is expelled out of garnet. In transition zone conditions, however, majorite garnet seems to contain around 600-700 ppm wt of water (Bolfan-Casanova et al. 2000; Katayama et al. 2003). The cause for such discrepancy is not clear and whether garnet could store a significant amount of water at mantle condition is unconstrained. In order to understand the solubility mechanism of water in pyrope at high-pressure, we have conducted high- pressure experiments on naturally occurring single crystals of pyrope garnet (from Arizona, Aines and Rossman, 1984). To ascertain water-saturated conditions, we use olivine single-crystal as an internal standard. Preliminary results indicate that natural pyrope is capable of dissolving water at high-pressures, however, water preferentially enters olivine than in pyrope. We are undertaking systematic study to estimate the solubility of water in pyrope as a function of pressure. This will enable us to develop solubility models to understand the defect mechanisms

  18. Ice nucleation by water-soluble macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Budke, C.; Augustin-Bauditz, S.; Niedermeier, D.; Felgitsch, L.; Kampf, C. J.; Huber, R. G.; Liedl, K. R.; Loerting, T.; Moschen, T.; Schauperl, M.; Tollinger, M.; Morris, C. E.; Wex, H.; Grothe, H.; Pöschl, U.; Koop, T.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud glaciation is critically important for the global radiation budget (albedo) and for initiation of precipitation. But the freezing of pure water droplets requires cooling to temperatures as low as 235 K. Freezing at higher temperatures requires the presence of an ice nucleator, which serves as a template for arranging water molecules in an ice-like manner. It is often assumed that these ice nucleators have to be insoluble particles. We point out that also free macromolecules which are dissolved in water can efficiently induce ice nucleation: the size of such ice nucleating macromolecules (INMs) is in the range of nanometers, corresponding to the size of the critical ice embryo. As the latter is temperature-dependent, we see a correlation between the size of INMs and the ice nucleation temperature as predicted by classical nucleation theory. Different types of INMs have been found in a wide range of biological species and comprise a variety of chemical structures including proteins, saccharides, and lipids. Our investigation of the fungal species Acremonium implicatum, Isaria farinosa, and Mortierella alpina shows that their ice nucleation activity is caused by proteinaceous water-soluble INMs. We combine these new results and literature data on INMs from fungi, bacteria, and pollen with theoretical calculations to develop a chemical interpretation of ice nucleation and water-soluble INMs. This has atmospheric implications since many of these INMs can be released by fragmentation of the carrier cell and subsequently may be distributed independently. Up to now, this process has not been accounted for in atmospheric models.

  19. Crosslinking of water-soluble polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Cuiyue

    The crosslinking of water-soluble polymers is important in many industrial processes. In the oil industry, minimizing the concentration of polymers is desirable for technical and economic reasons. This dissertation provides a link between measurable polymer properties and the minimum concentration necessary for crosslinking. The influences of polymer type and concentration, crosslinker type, salt and additives on the crosslinking process were studied by steady shear test, creep test, oscillatory test, Atomic Force Microscopy and other techniques. Solution properties, crosslinked gel properties and the relationship between them were investigated. Test results indicate that the rheological properties of guar solutions and its derivatives are quite different. The critical overlap concentrations increase in the order GW-3, CMG, CMHPG, guar and HPG. And, the intrinsic viscosity increases in the order of HPG, guar, CMHPG, GW-3 and CMG. At low concentrations, steady shear viscosity decreases in the order of CMG, CMHPG, GW-3, guar and HPG, while at high concentrations, the steady shear viscosities decrease in the order of GW-3, guar, CMG, CMHPG and HPG. Addition of urea and sugar reduces the viscosity of guar solutions. The influence of salts on the viscosity of CMG solutions varies with salt types and polymer concentrations. The strength of crosslinked gels increases with polymer concentration. At low polymer concentrations, gel strength of guar derivatives increases in the order of HPG, guar, GW-3, CMG and CMHPG, while at high concentrations, gel strength increases in the order of CMG, CMHPG, HPG, guar and GW-3. The critical crosslinking concentration increases in the order of GW-3, CMG, CMHPG, guar and HPG. A mathematical model is developed to relate critical crosslinking concentration and critical crosslinking concentration. The relationship between them is scaled as a power law. Models of the plateau modulus dependence on concentration are also developed. The modulus

  20. Poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles via solvent evaporation in water-soluble porous polymers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aled D; Zhang, Haifei

    2013-04-15

    A generic method is described to form poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles within water-soluble porous polymer by solvent evaporation. The simple dissolution of porous polymer with drug nanoparticles results in stable aqueous drug nanoparticle suspension under the optimized conditions. The porous polymers were prepared by freeze-drying aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, and a surfactant. They were then used as scaffolds for the formation of nanoparticles by initially soaking them in an organic drug solution, followed with removing the solvent via evaporation under ambient conditions. This process was optimized for an antifungal drug griseofulvin, before being translated to anticonvulsant carbamazepine and antineoplastic paclitaxel via a similar procedure, with an aim to improve the loading of drug nanoparticles. By varying certain process parameters a degree of control over the particle size and surface charge could be attained, as well as the drug to stabilizer ratio (drug payload). Noticeably, aqueous paclitaxel nanoparticles (500 nm) were prepared which used the equivalent of 46% less stabilizer than the formulation Taxol.

  1. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  2. Water-soluble pyrrolopyrrole cyanine (PPCy) NIR fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Wiktorowski, Simon; Rosazza, Christelle; Winterhalder, Martin J; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-05-11

    Water-soluble derivatives of pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) have been synthesized by a post-synthetic modification route. In highly polar media, these dyes are excellent NIR fluorophores. Labeling experiments show how these novel dyes are internalized into mammalian cells.

  3. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  4. Water soluble polyhydroxyalkanoates: future materials for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibiao; Loh, Xian Jun

    2015-05-21

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are excellent candidate biomaterials due to their exceptional biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, PHAs need to have tunable hydrophilicity, chemical functionalities, and appropriate hydrolytic stability to expand their therapeutic applications towards more advanced areas. In this Tutorial Review, we present the most recent progress in the synthetic strategies of PHA-based water soluble polymers, including the functionalisation of PHAs with polar functional groups and the block/graft copolymerization of PHAs with hydrophilic components in various polymeric architectures. These chemically modified water soluble PHAs have significant impact on materials engineering and show great value in the fulfilment of smart biomaterials in emerging areas. The applications of water soluble PHAs in controlled drug release, cancer therapy, DNA/siRNA delivery and tissue engineering in new aspects are discussed. In addition, water soluble PHA monomer production will be briefly introduced, with emphasis on its bio-significance in medical physiology and the therapeutic effect in the treatment of diseases.

  5. Identification of water-soluble heavy crude oil organic-acids, bases, and neutrals by electrospray ionization and field desorption ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Lateefah A; Kim, Sunghwan; Klein, Geoffrey C; Smith, Donald F; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2007-04-15

    We identify water-soluble (23 degrees C) crude oil NSO nonvolatile acidic, basic, and neutral crude oil hydrocarbons by negative-ion ESI and continuous flow FD FT-ICR MS at an average mass resolving power, m/deltam50% = 550,000. Of the 7000+ singly charged acidic species identified in South American crude oil, surprisingly, many are water-soluble, and much more so in pure water than in seawater. The truncated m/z distributions for water-soluble components exhibit preferential molecular weight, size, and heteroatom class influences on hydrocarbon solubility. Acidic water-soluble heteroatomic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include O, O2, O3, O4, OS, O2S, O3S, O4S, NO2, NO3, and NO4. Parent oil class abundance does not directly relate to abundance in the water-soluble fraction. Acidic oxygen-containing classes are most prevalent in the water-solubles, whereas acidic nitrogen-containing species are least soluble. In contrast to acidic nitrogen-containing heteroatomic classes, basic nitrogen classes are water-soluble. Water-soluble heteroatomic basic classes detected at >1% relative abundance include N, NO, NO2, NS, NS2, NOS, NO2S, N2, N2O, N2O2, OS, O2S, and O2S2.

  6. Novel aspects of wet milling for the production of microsuspensions and nanosuspensions of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Bhakay, Anagha; Merwade, Maneesh; Bilgili, Ecevit; Dave, Rajesh N

    2011-08-01

    Micronization and nanoparticle production of poorly water-soluble drugs was investigated using single wet milling equipment operating in the attritor and stirred media modes. The drug particles in the median size range of 0.2?2??m were prepared by changing the milling mode and operating conditions of a Micros mill with a purpose of elucidating the dynamics of the wet milling process. It was determined that particle breakage due to mechanical stresses and aggregation due to insufficient stabilization are two competing mechanisms which together control the wet milling dynamics of the poorly water-soluble drugs. The study in the attritor mode using four different classes of stabilizers with six drugs indicated that steric stabilization worked better than electrostatic stabilization for the drugs studied. In addition, the existence of different minimum polymer concentrations for the stabilization of microsuspensions and nanosuspensions was indicated. The major role of a non-ionic polymer during the production of fine particles is its stabilization action through steric effects, and no experimental evidence was found to support the so-called Rehbinder effect. Periodic addition of the polymer as opposed to the addition of the polymer at the start of milling process was introduced as a novel processing method. This novel method of polymer addition provided effective stabilization and breakage of drug particles leading to a narrower and finer particle size distribution. Alternatively, it may allow shorter processing time and lower overall power consumption of the milling process for a desired particle size.

  7. Ecotoxicological characterization of polyoxyethylene glycerol ester non-ionic surfactants and their mixtures with anionic and non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Lechuga, Manuela; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the aquatic toxicity of new non-ionic surfactants derived from renewable raw materials, polyoxyethylene glycerol ester (PGE), and their binary mixtures with anionic and non-ionic surfactants. Toxicity of pure PGEs was determined using representative organisms from different trophic levels: luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna). Relationships between toxicity and the structural parameters such as unit of ethylene oxide (EO) and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) were evaluated. Critical micellar concentration (CMC) in the conditions of the toxicity test was also determined. It was found that the toxicity of the aqueous solutions of PGE decreased when the number of EO units in the molecule, HLB, and CMC increased. PGEs showed lower CMC in marine medium, and the toxicity to V. ficheri is lower when the CMC was higher. Given their non-polar nature, narcosis was expected to be the primary mode of toxic action of PGEs. For the mixture of surfactants, we observed that the mixtures with PGE that had the higher numbers of EO units were more toxic than the aqueous solutions of pure surfactants. Moreover, we found that concentration addition was the type of action more likely to occur for mixtures of PGE with lower numbers of EO units with non-ionic surfactants (alkylpolyglucoside and fatty alcohol ethoxylate), whereas for the mixture of PGE with lower EO units and anionic surfactant (ether carboxylic derivative), the most common response type was response addition. In case of mixtures involving amphoteric surfactants and PGEs with the higher numbers of EO units, no clear pattern with regard to the mixture toxicity response type could be observed.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of novel water-soluble cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Martin, Billy R; Wiley, Jenny L; Beletskaya, Irina; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Smith, Forrest L; Dewey, William L; Cottney, Jean; Adams, Julia; Baker, James; Hill, David; Saha, Bijali; Zerkowski, John; Mahadevan, Anu; Razdan, Raj K

    2006-09-01

    Presently, there are numerous structural classes of cannabinoid receptor agonists, all of which require solubilization for experimental purposes. One strategy for solubilizing water-insoluble tetrahydrocannabinols is conversion of the phenolic hydroxyl to a morpholinobutyryloxy substituent. The hydrochloride salts of these analogs are water-soluble and active in vivo when administered in saline. The present investigation demonstrated that hydrochloride salts of numerous substituted butyryloxy esters are water-soluble and highly potent. The substitutions include piperidine, piperazine, and alkyl-substituted amino moieties. It was also discovered that incorporation of a nitrogenous moiety in the alkyl side chain increased the pharmacological potency of tetrahydrocannabinol. For example, an analog containing a pyrazole in the side chain (O-2545) was found to have high affinity and efficacy at cannabinoid 1 (CB(1)) and CB(2) receptors, and when dissolved in saline, it was highly efficacious when administered either intravenously or intracerebroventricularly to mice. A series of carboxamido and carboxylic acid amide analogs exhibited high pharmacological potency, but their hydrochloride salts were not water-soluble. On the other hand, incorporation of imidazoles into the terminus of the side chain led to water-soluble hydrochloride salts that were highly potent when administered in saline to laboratory animals. It is now possible to conduct cannabinoid research with agonists that are water-soluble and thus obviating the need of solubilizing agents.

  9. Water soluble cations and the fluvial history of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, M. P.; Munoz, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and water soluble Na, K, Ca, and Mg of aqueous solutions of terrestrial soils and finely divided igneous and metamorphic rocks were determined. Soils from dry terrestrial basins with a history of water accumulation as well as soils from the topographic lows of valleys accumulated water soluble cations, particularly Na and Ca. These soils as a group can be distinguished from the rocks or a second group of soils (leached upland soils and soils from sites other than the topographic lows of valleys) by significant differences in their mean electrical conductivity and water-soluble Na + Ca content. Similar measurements on multiple samples from the surface of Mars, collected by an automated long-range roving vehicle along a highlands-to-basin transect at sites with morphological features resembling dry riverlike channels, are suggested to determine the fluvial history of the planet.

  10. Water soluble cations and the fluvial history of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, M. P.; Munoz, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and water soluble Na, K, Ca, and Mg of aqueous solutions of terrestrial soils and finely divided igneous and metamorphic rocks were determined. Soils from dry terrestrial basins with a history of water accumulation as well as soils from the topographic lows of valleys accumulated water soluble cations, particularly Na and Ca. These soils as a group can be distinguished from the rocks or a second group of soils (leached upland soils and soils from sites other than the topographic lows of valleys) by significant differences in their mean electrical conductivity and water-soluble Na + Ca content. Similar measurements on multiple samples from the surface of Mars, collected by an automated long-range roving vehicle along a highlands-to-basin transect at sites with morphological features resembling dry riverlike channels, are suggested to determine the fluvial history of the planet.

  11. Water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes for OLED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Min-Sik; Yoon, Heekoo; Kim, Tae Hyung

    2012-09-01

    Newly prepared water-soluble iridium phosphorescent complexes, trans-[Ir(ppy)(PAr3)2(H)L]0,+ (ppy = bidentate 2-phenylpyridinato anionic ligand; L= Cl (1), CO (2), CN- (3); H being trans to the nitrogen of ppy ligand; PAr3 (TPPTS) = P(m-C6H4SO3Na)3), have been synthesized and characterized. Those complexes containing water-soluble phosphine ligands can emit any color region as altering cyclometalated ligands in aqueous media with high quantum efficiencies. Even though these water-soluble phosphorescent iridium complexes can be the sensing probe for toxic CO gas and CN anion, they will be capable of promising materials in the solution processible OLED applications.

  12. Potentiometric analysis of water soluble cutting fluid-metal combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, E.E.

    1991-12-01

    The results of corrosion studies conducted by the University of Kansas under Contract G257763 for Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), are given. These potentiometric studies evaluate the corrosivity of two water soluble cutting fluids at varying concentrations on samples of 304 stainless steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and beryllium copper. This testing serves two purposes: (1) to develop effective test procedures adaptable to existing KCD corrosion measurement equipment for corrosion analysis of cutting fluid-metals combinations, and (2) to understand the relative corrosiveness of the varying water soluble cutting fluids on different metals. The tests used were adapted from the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). Future testing will identify polarization techniques for establishing corrosion rates which will be used in evaluating both water soluble cutting fluids and other aqueous solutions used at KCD.

  13. Aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by water-soluble polymers.

    PubMed Central

    Meyuhas, D; Nir, S; Lichtenberg, D

    1996-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers such as dextran and polyethylene glycol are known to induce aggregation and size growth of phospholipid vesicles. The present study addresses the dependence of these processes on vesicle size and concentration, polymer molecular weight, temperature, and compartmentalization of the vesicles and polymers, using static and dynamic light scattering. Increasing the molecular weight of the polymers resulted in a reduction of the concentration of polymer needed for induction of aggregation of small unilamellar vesicles. The aggregation was fully reversible (by dilution), within a few seconds, up to a polymer concentration of at least 20 wt %. At relatively low phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentrations (up to approximately 1 mM), increasing the PC concentration resulted in faster kinetics of aggregation and reduced the threshold concentration of polymer required for rapid aggregation (CA). At higher PC concentrations, CA was only slightly dependent on the concentration of PC and was approximately equal to the overlapping concentration of the polymer (C*). The extent of aggregation was similar at 37 and 4 degrees C. Aggregation of large unilamellar vesicles required a lower polymer concentration, probably because aggregation occurs in a secondary minimum (without surface contact). In contrast to experiments in which the polymers were added directly to the vesicles, dialysis of the vesicles against polymer-containing solutions did not induce aggregation. Based on this result, it appears that exclusion of polymer from the hydration sphere of vesicles and the consequent depletion of polymer molecules from clusters of aggregated vesicles play the central role in the induction of reversible vesicle aggregation. The results of all the other experiments are consistent with this conclusion. PMID:8913598

  14. [Lead compound optimization strategy (3)--Structure modification strategies for improving water solubility].

    PubMed

    Li, Zeng; Wang, Jiang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Water solubility is an essential physical chemistry property of organic small molecule drug and is also a very important issue in drug discovery. Good water solubility often leads to a good drug potency and pleasant pharmacokinetic profiles. To improve water solubility, structure modification is a straight and effective way based on the theory of water solubility. This review summarized valid structure modification strategies for improving water solubility including salt formation, polar group introduction, liposolubility reduction, conformation optimization and prodrug.

  15. Solubilization of flurbiprofen within non-ionic Tween 20 surfactant micelles: a 19F and 1H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Saveyn, Pieter; Cocquyt, Ellen; Zhu, Wuxin; Sinnaeve, Davy; Haustraete, Katrien; Martins, José C; Van der Meeren, Paul

    2009-07-14

    The solubilization of the poorly water soluble anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen in non-ionic Tween 20 surfactant micellar solutions was studied by both (19)F and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in an acidic environment. These non-destructive techniques allowed us to investigate the effect of temperature cycling in situ. Using (19)F NMR, an increased solubilisation capacity was observed as the temperature increased. This effect became more pronounced above the cloud point, which was reduced by more than 30 degrees C in the presence of an excess of flurbiprofen. Upon clouding, peak splitting was observed in the (19)F spectrum, which indicates that two pools of solubilised flurbiprofen exist that are in slow exchange on the NMR frequency timescale. The clouding and solubilization processes were found to be reversible, albeit with slow kinetics. Based on chemical shift differences of both Tween 20 and flurbiprofen, as well as NOESY experiments, the flurbiprofen was found to be accumulated within the palisade layer of the Tween 20 micelles.

  16. Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Water-Soluble Fullerenol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fullerenol, a hydroxylated form of C60-fullerene, is of potential environmental and biological significance due to its buckyball structure, hydroxyl groups and high water solubility. Although fullerenol is known to be an efficient triplet photosensitizer, little is known about it...

  17. Photoreductive synthesis of water-soluble fluorescent metal nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Li, Luo; Zhang, Gaowen; Hussain, Irshad; Li, Zhen; Tan, Bien

    2012-01-14

    Water-soluble fluorescent copper, silver and gold nanoclusters with quantum yields of 2.2, 6.8 and 5.3%, respectively, are prepared by a robust photoreduction of their inorganic precursors in the presence of poly (methacrylic acid) functionalized with pentaerythritol tetrakis 3-mercaptopropionate. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  19. Spectroscopic and Photochemical Properties of Water-Soluble Fullerenol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fullerenol, a hydroxylated form of C60-fullerene, is of potential environmental and biological significance due to its buckyball structure, hydroxyl groups and high water solubility. Although fullerenol is known to be an efficient triplet photosensitizer, little is known about it...

  20. Water-soluble constituents of cumin: monoterpenoid glucosides.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of cumin (fruit of Cuminum cyminum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, sixteen monoterpenoid glucosides, including twelve new compounds, were isolated. Their structures were clarified by spectral investigation.

  1. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation.

  2. Antinociceptive activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol non-ionic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, P; Fadda, P; Marchese, G; Casu, G L; Pani, L

    2010-06-30

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., has been widely studied for its potential pharmaceutical application in the treatment of various diseases and disturbs. This sparingly soluble terpeno-phenolic compound is not easy to handle and to be formulated in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to develop a stable aqueous Delta(9)-THC formulation acceptable for different ways of administration, and to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the new Delta(9)-THC based preparation for pain treatment. Due to the thermodynamic stability and advantages of microemulsion based systems, the study was focused on the identification of aqueous microemulsion based systems containing Delta(9)-THC. Oil in water Delta(9)-THC microemulsions were individuated through phase diagrams construction, using the non-ionic surfactant Solutol HS15, being this surfactant acceptable for parenteral administration in human. A selected microemulsion samples containing 0.2 wt% of Delta(9)-THC, stable up to 52 degrees C, was successfully assayed on animal models of pain. Significant antinociceptive activity has been detected by both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the new Delta(9)-THC pharmaceutical preparation. The effect has been highlighted in shorter time if compared to a preparation of the same active principle based on previously reported conventional preparation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Three bisphosphonate ligands improve the water solubility of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Abdul Ghani, Siti Fatimah; Wright, Michael; Paramo, Juan Gallo; Bottrill, Melanie; Green, Mark; Long, Nicholas; Thanou, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Synthesised Quantum Dots (QDs) require surface modification in order to improve their aqueous dispersion and biocompatibility. Here, we suggest bisphosphonate molecules as agents to modify the surface of QDs for improved water solubility and biocompatibility. QDs_TOPO (CdSe/ZnS-trioctylphosphine oxide) were synthesised following modification of the method of Bawendi et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101, 9463-9475). QDs surface modification is performed using a ligand exchange reaction with structurally different bisphosphonates (BIPs). The BIPs used were ethylene diphosphonate (EDP), methylenediphosphonate (MDP) and imidodiphosphonate (IDP). After ligand exchange, the QDs were extensively purified using centrifugation, PD-10 desalting columns and mini dialysis filters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescent spectroscopy have been used to characterise the size and optical properties of the QDs. Cell toxicity was investigated using MTT (tetrazolium salt) and glutathione assays and intracellular uptake was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and assessed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). QDs_TOPO and QDs-capped with BIPs (QDs_BIPs) were successfully synthesised. TEM showed the size and morphology of the QDs to be 5-7 nm with spherical shape. The stabilised QDs_BIPs showed significantly improved dispersion in aqueous solutions compared to QDs_TOPO. The cytotoxicity studies showed very rapid cell death for cells treated by QDs_TOPO and a minor effect on cell viability when QDs_BIPs were applied to the cells. Both EDP- and MDP-modified QDs did not significantly increase the intracellular levels of glutathione. In contrast, IDP-modified QDs substantially increased the intracellular glutathione levels, indicating potential cadmium leakage and inability of IDP to adequately cap and stabilise the QDs. EDP- and MDP-modified QDs were taken up by IGROV-1 (ovarian cancer) cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy, however, the

  4. Minimalist design of water-soluble cross-[beta] architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2010-08-13

    Demonstrated successes of protein design and engineering suggest significant potential to produce diverse protein architectures and assemblies beyond those found in nature. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic protein architecture through the successful design and atomic structures of water-soluble cross-{beta} proteins. The cross-{beta} motif is formed from the lamination of successive {beta}-sheet layers, and it is abundantly observed in the core of insoluble amyloid fibrils associated with protein-misfolding diseases. Despite its prominence, cross-{beta} has been designed only in the context of insoluble aggregates of peptides or proteins. Cross-{beta}'s recalcitrance to protein engineering and conspicuous absence among the known atomic structures of natural proteins thus makes it a challenging target for design in a water-soluble form. Through comparative analysis of the cross-{beta} structures of fibril-forming peptides, we identified rows of hydrophobic residues ('ladders') running across {beta}-strands of each {beta}-sheet layer as a minimal component of the cross-{beta} motif. Grafting a single ladder of hydrophobic residues designed from the Alzheimer's amyloid-{beta} peptide onto a large {beta}-sheet protein formed a dimeric protein with a cross-{beta} architecture that remained water-soluble, as revealed by solution analysis and x-ray crystal structures. These results demonstrate that the cross-{beta} motif is a stable architecture in water-soluble polypeptides and can be readily designed. Our results provide a new route for accessing the cross-{beta} structure and expanding the scope of protein design.

  5. Efficient synthesis of readily water-soluble sulfonic Acid carbamates.

    PubMed

    Idzik, Krzysztof R; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias

    2015-04-16

    A series of various readily water-soluble carbamates were synthesized with good yields. These compounds are useful chemical tracers for assessing the cooling progress in a georeservoir during geothermal power plant operation. Acylation of primary amines was carried out as well as using a solution of sodium bicarbonate and without the presence of salt. Products were characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Purity was confirmed through elemental analysis.

  6. Hydrocarbon molar water solubility predicts NMDA vs. GABAA receptor modulation.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pham, Trung L

    2014-11-19

    Many anesthetics modulate 3-transmembrane (such as NMDA) and 4-transmembrane (such as GABAA) receptors. Clinical and experimental anesthetics exhibiting receptor family specificity often have low water solubility. We hypothesized that the molar water solubility of a hydrocarbon could be used to predict receptor modulation in vitro. GABAA (α1β2γ2s) or NMDA (NR1/NR2A) receptors were expressed in oocytes and studied using standard two-electrode voltage clamp techniques. Hydrocarbons from 14 different organic functional groups were studied at saturated concentrations, and compounds within each group differed only by the carbon number at the ω-position or within a saturated ring. An effect on GABAA or NMDA receptors was defined as a 10% or greater reversible current change from baseline that was statistically different from zero. Hydrocarbon moieties potentiated GABAA and inhibited NMDA receptor currents with at least some members from each functional group modulating both receptor types. A water solubility cut-off for NMDA receptors occurred at 1.1 mM with a 95% CI = 0.45 to 2.8 mM. NMDA receptor cut-off effects were not well correlated with hydrocarbon chain length or molecular volume. No cut-off was observed for GABAA receptors within the solubility range of hydrocarbons studied. Hydrocarbon modulation of NMDA receptor function exhibits a molar water solubility cut-off. Differences between unrelated receptor cut-off values suggest that the number, affinity, or efficacy of protein-hydrocarbon interactions at these sites likely differ.

  7. Chemoenzymatic syntheses of water-soluble lipid I fluorescent probes

    PubMed Central

    Mitachi, Katsuhiko; Siricilla, Shajila; Klaic, Lada; Clemons, William M.; Kurosu, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is unique to bacteria, and thus, the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis are promising antibacterial drug targets. The membrane-embedded enzymes in PG remain significant challenges in studying their mechanisms due to the fact that preparations of suitable enzymatic substrates require time-consuming biological transformations or chemical synthesis. Lipid I (prenyl diphosphoryl-MurNAc-pentapeptide) is an important PG biosynthesis intermediate to study the central enzymes, translocase I (MraY/MurX) and MurG. Lipid I isolated from nature contains the C50-or C55-prenyl unit that shows extremely poor water-solubility that renders studies of translocase I and MurG enzymes difficult. We have studied biological transformation of water soluble lipid I fluorescent probes using bacterial membrane fractions and purified MraY enzymes. In our investigation of the minimum structural requirements of the prenyl phosphates in MraY-catalyzed lipid I synthesis, we found that (2Z,6E)-farnesyl phosphate (C15-phosphate) can be recognized by E. coli MraY to generate the water-soluble lipid I fluorescent probes in high-yield. Under the optimized conditions, the same reaction was performed by using the purified MraY from Hydrogenivirga spp. to afford the lipid I analog with high-yield in a short reaction time. PMID:26190869

  8. Chemoenzymatic syntheses of water-soluble lipid I fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Mitachi, Katsuhiko; Siricilla, Shajila; Klaic, Lada; Clemons, William M; Kurosu, Michio

    2015-06-03

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is unique to bacteria, and thus, the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis are promising antibacterial drug targets. The membrane-embedded enzymes in PG remain significant challenges in studying their mechanisms due to the fact that preparations of suitable enzymatic substrates require time-consuming biological transformations or chemical synthesis. Lipid I (prenyl diphosphoryl-MurNAc-pentapeptide) is an important PG biosynthesis intermediate to study the central enzymes, translocase I (MraY/MurX) and MurG. Lipid I isolated from nature contains the C50-or C55-prenyl unit that shows extremely poor water-solubility that renders studies of translocase I and MurG enzymes difficult. We have studied biological transformation of water soluble lipid I fluorescent probes using bacterial membrane fractions and purified MraY enzymes. In our investigation of the minimum structural requirements of the prenyl phosphates in MraY-catalyzed lipid I synthesis, we found that (2Z,6E)-farnesyl phosphate (C15-phosphate) can be recognized by E. coli MraY to generate the water-soluble lipid I fluorescent probes in high-yield. Under the optimized conditions, the same reaction was performed by using the purified MraY from Hydrogenivirga spp. to afford the lipid I analog with high-yield in a short reaction time.

  9. Synthesis of novel associating water-soluble copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hogen-Esch, T.E.; Amis, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (4 samples) and Poly(N-acryl-N- methylpiperazine) (10 samples) were prepared by anionic polymerization in THF at {minus}78{degrees} in the presence of Cs or coordinated Li counter cations. Molecular weights (SEC) range from 3800--250,000. The polymers are soluble in methanol, H{sub 2}O and chloroform and to a lesser extent, in THF and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Molecular weight distributions were found to be fairly monodisperse (1.11 < D < 2.69). (See Proposed Research''). Static and dynamic light scattering experiments performed on solutions of hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide copolymers illuminate the underlying molecular basis for the previous observations. Aggregation effects for these polymers are observed at polymer concentrations as low as 10 ppm. These effects are manifest by large radii of multichain aggregates as well as radii attributed to collapsed chains. Fluorine-10 NMR studies were undertaken in order to determine the content of fluorine-containing comonomer in a series of acrylamide copolymers. These results indicated that comonomer conversion is essentially quantitative. Addition of water-soluble (HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH) and water-insoluble (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SH) radical scavengers indicates that the water-soluble scavenger is effective in reducing molecular weight. The water-soluble scavenger essentially has no effect. This appears to indicate that the polymerization occurs exclusively in the aqueous phase.

  10. Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2007-01-01

    Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

  11. Water-soluble sacrificial layers for surface micromachining.

    PubMed

    Linder, Vincent; Gates, Byron D; Ryan, Declan; Parviz, Babak A; Whitesides, George M

    2005-07-01

    This manuscript describes the use of water-soluble polymers for use as sacrificial layers in surface micromachining. Water-soluble polymers have two attractive characteristics for this application: 1) They can be deposited conveniently by spin-coating, and the solvent removed at a low temperature (95-150 degrees C), and 2) the resulting layer can be dissolved in water; no corrosive reagents or organic solvents are required. This technique is therefore compatible with a number of fragile materials, such as organic polymers, metal oxides and metals-materials that might be damaged during typical surface micromachining processes. The carboxylic acid groups of one polymer-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-can be transformed by reversible ion-exchange from water-soluble (Na+ counterion) to water-insoluble (Ca2+ counterion) forms. The use of PAA and dextran polymers as sacrificial materials is a useful technique for the fabrication of microstructures: Examples include metallic structures formed by the electrodeposition of nickel, and freestanding, polymeric structures formed by photolithography.

  12. Cloud point extraction of lanthanide(III) ions via use of Triton X-100 without and with water-soluble calixarenes as added chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Mustafina, Asiya; Elistratova, Julia; Burilov, Alexander; Knyazeva, Irina; Zairov, Rustem; Amirov, Rustem; Solovieva, Svetlana; Konovalov, Alexander

    2006-01-15

    The use of water-soluble calixarenes: p-sulfonato thiacalixarene (ST), tetra-sulfonatomethylated calix[4]resorcinarene (SR), calix[4]resorcinarene phosphonic acid (PhR) as chelating agents in cloud point extraction (CPE) of La(III), Gd(III) and Yb(III) ions using Triton X-100 as non-ionic surfactant is introduced. The data obtained indicate that both complexation ability and structure of calixarenes govern the extraction efficiency of lanthanides. In particular ST and SR, forming 1:1 lanthanide complexes with similar stability in aqueous media, exhibit different extractability when used as chelating agents in CPE. First synthesized PhR was found to be the most efficient chelating agent exhibiting pH-dependent selectivity within La(III), Gd(III) and Yb(III) in CPE.

  13. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of new non ionic surfactants from unprotected carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Boyat, C; Rolland-Fulcrand, V; Roumestant M-L; Viallefont, P H; Martinez, J

    2000-11-01

    The synthesis of new non ionic surfactants is reported. They were prepared from unprotected carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty alcohols. These modules were linked by enzymatic esterification and transesterification reactions catalysed by lipases and proteases in organic media.

  14. New water-soluble prodrugs of HIV protease inhibitors based on O-->N intramolecular acyl migration.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshio; Ohtake, Jun; Sohma, Youhei; Kimura, Tooru; Hayashi, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2002-12-01

    To improve the low water-solubility of HIV protease inhibitors, we synthesized water-soluble prodrugs of KNI-272 and KNI-279 which are potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors consisting of an Apns-Thz core structure (Apns; allophenylnorstatine, Thz; thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) as an inhibitory machinery. The prodrugs, which contained an O-acyl peptidomimetic structure with an ionized amino group leading to the increase of water-solubility, were designed to regenerate the corresponding parent drugs based on the O-->N intramolecular acyl migration reaction at the alpha-hydroxy-beta-amino acid residue, that is allophenylnorstatine. The synthetic prodrugs 3, 4, 6, and 7 improved the water-solubility (>300mg/mL) more than 4000-fold in comparison with the parent compounds, which is the practically acceptable value as water-soluble drugs. These prodrugs were stable as an HCl salt and in a strongly acidic solution corresponding to gastric juice (pH 2.0), and could be converted to the parent compounds promptly in the aqueous condition from slightly acidic to basic pH at 37 degrees C, with the suitable migration rate, via a five-membered ring intermediate. Using a similar method, we synthesized a prodrug (12) of ritonavir, a clinically useful HIV-1 protease inhibitor as an anti-AIDS drug. In contrast to the prodrugs 3, 4, 6, and 7, the prodrug 12 was very slowly converted to ritonavir probably through a six-membered ring intermediate, with the t(1/2) value of 32h that may not be suitable for practical use.

  15. Water-soluble constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, M-A; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    Three new water-soluble constituents [ficuscarpanoside B (1), (7E,9Z)-dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and ficuscarpanic acid (6)] and the natural product 2,2'-dihydroxyl ether (7) have been isolated, together with three known compounds [(7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol (2), (7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside D2 (5)] from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Identification of their structures was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC methods and FAB mass spectral data.

  16. Picosecond dynamics in water-soluble azobenzene-peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satzger, H.; Root, C.; Renner, C.; Behrendt, R.; Moroder, L.; Wachtveitl, J.; Zinth, W.

    2004-09-01

    Ultrafast absorption changes are recorded for water-soluble cyclic azobenzene peptides containing the photoswitch (4-aminomethyl)-phenyl-azobenzoic acid (AMPB) and a bioactive peptide motif. They can be separated into the fast reactions in the AMPB chromophore and the slower response of the peptide moiety. While the fastest reactions display similar time constants as observed for AMPB peptides dissolved in DMSO the slower reaction dynamics assigned to vibrational cooling and motions of the peptide moiety are faster in water by a factor of up to two. The changes in the reaction times are explained by solvent heat capacity and viscosity.

  17. Water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles with biologically active stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zablotskaya, Alla; Segal, Izolda; Lukevics, Edmunds; Maiorov, Mikhail; Zablotsky, Dmitry; Blums, Elmars; Shestakova, Irina; Domracheva, Ilona

    2009-05-01

    We present the results of the interaction of iron oxide nanoparticles with some biologically active surfactants, namely, oleic acid and cytotoxic alkanolamine derivatives. Physico-chemical properties, as magnetization, magnetite concentration and particle diameter, of the prepared magnetic samples were studied. The nanoparticle size of 11 nm for toluene magnetic fluid determined by TEM is in good agreement with the data obtained by the method of magnetogranulometry. In vitro cytotoxic effect of water-soluble nanoparticles with different iron oxide:oleic acid molar ratio were revealed against human fibrosarcoma and mouse hepatoma cells. In vivo results using a sarcoma mouse model showed observable antitumor action.

  18. [Study on water-soluble chemical constituents of Taraxacum mongolicum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-qing; Wang, Tian-lin

    2014-06-01

    To study the water-soluble chemical constituents of Taraxacum mongolicum. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by means of several chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as trans-p-coumaryl alcohol(1), trans-p-coumaryl aldehyde(2),p- hydroxybenzoate (3) , p-hydroxyphenyl-propionic acid (4) , 4-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethoxyphenol-1 -O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) , protocate- chuic aldehyde(6) ,rutin(7) ,quercetin(8) ,kaempferal-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1-6) -β-D-glucopyranoside(9). Com pounds 1-6 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. Correlation of octanol/water solubility ratios and partition coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsuwan, S.; Li, A.; Yalkowsky, S.H.

    1995-05-01

    The partition coefficient between octanol and water in an important physicochemical parameter for characterizing the lipophilicity or hydrophobicity of a compound and it is used in many fields, especially in the environmental and pharmaceutical sciences. The octanol/water solubility ratio (S{sub o}/S{sub W}) was found to be highly correlated with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) of 82 pharmaceutically and environmentally relevant compounds. The solubility ratio gives comparable estimates to that of the group contribution (log P(calcd)) method for estimating the partition coefficient of the compounds used in this study.

  20. Permeability assessment of poorly water-soluble compounds under solubilizing conditions: the reciprocal permeability approach.

    PubMed

    Katneni, Kasiram; Charman, Susan A; Porter, Christopher J H

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a general method to assess the intestinal permeability of poorly water-soluble drugs where low-aqueous drug solubility requires conduct of experiments under solubilizing experimental conditions. The permeability (Papp) of diazepam (DIA) was assessed across excised rat jejunum in the absence (Pappcontrol) and presence (Pappuncorr) of polysorbate-80 (PS-80). The micellar association constant (Ka) of DIA, estimated via equilibrium solubility studies, was used to correct Pappuncorr data and obtain an estimate of the true permeability coefficient (Pappcorr). An alternate approach was also developed (the reciprocal permeability approach) to allow direct estimation of Pappcorr without the need for independent estimation of Ka. The approach was further examined experimentally using a range of model drugs. DIA Pappcorr values obtained using the Ka from equilibrium solubility studies deviated from Papp(control) values, especially at PS-80 concentrations above 0.1% w/v. In contrast, data obtained using the reciprocal permeability method were consistent with Pappcontrol across the PS-80 concentration range. Similar trends were observed with propranolol (PRO), antipyrine (ANT), naproxen (NAP), and cinnarizine (CIN). The reciprocal permeability approach therefore provides a simple and accurate method by which the permeability of poorly water-soluble compounds may be estimated under solubilizing conditions.

  1. Synthesis and anticancer properties of water-soluble zinc ionophores.

    PubMed

    Magda, Darren; Lecane, Philip; Wang, Zhong; Hu, Weilin; Thiemann, Patricia; Ma, Xuan; Dranchak, Patricia K; Wang, Xiaoming; Lynch, Vincent; Wei, Wenhao; Csokai, Viktor; Hacia, Joseph G; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2008-07-01

    Several water-solubilized versions of the zinc ionophore 1-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (ZnHPT), synthesized as part of the present study, have been found both to increase the intracellular concentrations of free zinc and to produce an antiproliferative activity in exponential phase A549 human lung cancer cultures. Gene expression profiles of A549 cultures treated with one of these water-soluble zinc ionophores, PCI-5002, reveal the activation of stress response pathways under the control of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1), and heat shock transcription factors. Additional oxidative stress response and apoptotic pathways were activated in cultures grown in zinc-supplemented media. We also show that these water-soluble zinc ionophores can be given to mice at 100 micromol/kg (300 micromol/m(2)) with no observable toxicity and inhibit the growth of A549 lung and PC3 prostate cancer cells grown in xenograft models. Gene expression profiles of tumor specimens harvested from mice 4 h after treatment confirmed the in vivo activation of MTF-1-responsive genes. Overall, we propose that water-solubilized zinc ionophores represent a potential new class of anticancer agents.

  2. Water soluble organic constituents in Arctic aerosols and snow pack

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaomeng ); Winchester, J.W. )

    1993-01-08

    Eight water-soluble organic anions were measured in 70 aerosol samples and 10 snow samples at Barrow, Alaska in March-April, 1989. The ranking of the ions in aerosols according to total (coarse + fine aerosol) median concentrations was acetate (44 ng m[sup [minus]3]), oxalate (27), benzoate (23), formate (22), propionate (6), methanesulfonate (5), lactate (4), and pyruvate (4). When added up, the median organic anion mass was 156 ng m[sup [minus]3]. The organic anions/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio had a median of 0.18 and 0.07 in the coarse (>1 [mu]m) and fine (<1 [mu]m) size fractions, respectively, but can be very high on occasions. On average, the organic anions made up more than 10% of the water-soluble aerosol mass. A similar ranking in concentration was also found for the organic ions in the snow pack samples. The organic anion/nssSO[sub 4][sup =] mass ratio in these samples was >0.5, substantially higher than in aerosols. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Nanosizing: a formulation approach for poorly-water-soluble compounds.

    PubMed

    Merisko-Liversidge, Elaine; Liversidge, Gary G; Cooper, Eugene R

    2003-02-01

    Poorly-water-soluble compounds are difficult to develop as drug products using conventional formulation techniques and are frequently abandoned early in discovery. The use of media milling technology to formulate poorly-water-soluble drugs as nanocrystalline particles offers the opportunity to address many of the deficiencies associated with this class of molecules. NanoCrystal Technology is an attrition process wherein large micron size drug crystals are media milled in a water-based stabilizer solution. The process generates physically stable dispersions consisting of nanometer-sized drug crystals. Nanocrystalline particles are a suitable delivery system for all commonly used routes of administration, i.e. oral, injectable (IV, SC, and IM) and topical applications. In addition, aqueous dispersions of nanoparticles can be post-processed into tablets, capsules, fast-melts and lyophilized for sterile product applications. The technology has been successfully incorporated into all phases of the drug development cycle from identification of new chemical entities to refurbishing marketed products for improving their performance and value.

  4. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  5. Water-soluble vitamin levels in extended hours hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Natalie; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Linehan, Leanne; Corradini, AnnMarie; Kerr, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Patients on extended hours (>15 h/week) hemodialysis may be at a higher risk of deficiency of water-soluble vitamins than conventional (≤15 h/week) hemodialysis patients due to their increased weekly hours of dialysis. We compared serum levels of the water-soluble vitamins in a group of extended and conventional hours hemodialysis patients. Predialysis serum levels of vitamin C, vitamin B12, thiamine, pyridoxine, and folate were measured in 52 patients: 26 extended group and 26 conventional group. Information on patient's intake of vitamin supplements and dialysis regimen was obtained. Data were log transformed due to the skewed distribution of the results. Median vitamin C levels were significantly lower in the extended group (0.30 vs. 1.14 mg/dL, P<0.001), with 7 patients having a level <0.18 mg/dL. Thiamine levels were also lower in the extended group (median 211 vs. 438.5 nmol/L, P=0.0005). However, extended patients had higher levels of pyridoxine (23.2 vs. 11.1 ng/mL, P=0.03). Vitamin B12 and folate levels were not significantly different between the groups. There was significant variability in vitamin supplement prescription in both groups, and dietary data were not obtained. This study showed a high incidence of vitamin C deficiency in extended hours hemodialysis patients, suggesting that supplementation is warranted. It also supports an ongoing role for multivitamin supplementation in conventional hemodialysis patients.

  6. Novel water soluble NIR dyes: does charge matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Henary, Maged; Beckford, Garfield; Daube, Alison

    2012-03-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are used as reporters, probes or markers in the biological and medical field. NIR dyes can be useful for investigating and characterizing biomolecular interactions or imaging which is possible because biological mammalian tissue has a low absorption window in the NIR region. Biomolecules such as proteins are known to bind to NIR dyes. Upon binding NIR dyes often exhibit spectral changes that can be used for characterizing the binding event. Serum albumins may be responsible for in vivo transport of NIR dyes. Studying this binding event can be useful when correlated to in vivo behavior of the NIR dye. The studies presented here use spectroscopic methods to investigate how NIR dyes that may be used in imaging, biological or bioanalytical applications bind to proteins, such as serum albumins. Our research group systematically synthesized several NIR dyes that have varying hydrophobicity, chromophore size and charge. During these investigations we developed novel NIR cyanine fluorophores having varying aqueous solubility and a variety of net charges. The binding properties of the carbocyanines change when charged or hydrophobic moieties are systematically varied. One of the properties we put a special emphasis on is what we call residual hydrophobicity of the NIR dye molecule which is defined as the unmasked (by the charged moieties) hydrophobicity of the molecule. Residual hydrophobicity may be responsible for binding the otherwise highly water soluble NIR dye to hydrophobic pockets of biomolecules. High residual hydrophobicity of a highly water soluble dye can be disadvantageous during biological, medical or similar applications.

  7. Development of QCM Trimethylamine Sensor Based on Water Soluble Polyaniline

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang; Zheng, Junbao; Ma, Xingfa; Sun, Yu; Fu, Jun; Wu, Gang

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, low-cost device to detect trimethylamine was presented in this paper. The preparation of water soluble polyaniline was firstly studied. Then the polyaniline was characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the water soluble polyaniline film, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for trimethylamine detection was fabricated and its characteristics were examined. The sensor consisted of one quartz crystal oscillator coated with the polyaniline film for sensing and the other one for reference. Pretreated with trimethylamine, the QCM sensor had an excellent linear sensitivity to trimethylamine. Easily recovered by N2 purgation, the response of the sensor exhibited a good repeatability. Responses of the sensor to trimethylamine, ethanol and ethyl acetate were compared, and the results showed that the response was related to the polarity of the analyte vapor. Experimental result also showed that the sensitivity of the sensor was relatively stable within one month. The simple and feasible method to prepare and coat the polyaniline sensing film makes it promising for mass production. PMID:28903232

  8. EPR and Structural Characterization of Water-Soluble Mn2+-Doped Si Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble poly(allylamine) Mn2+-doped Si (SiMn) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and show promise for biologically related applications. The nanoparticles show both strong photoluminescence and good magnetic resonance contrast imaging. The morphology and average diameter were obtained through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM); spherical crystalline Si NPs with an average diameter of 4.2 ± 0.7 nm were observed. The doping maximum obtained through this process was an average concentration of 0.4 ± 0.3% Mn per mole of Si. The water-soluble SiMn NPs showed a strong photoluminescence with a quantum yield up to 13%. The SiMn NPs had significant T1 contrast with an r1 relaxivity of 11.1 ± 1.5 mM–1 s–1 and r2 relaxivity of 32.7 ± 4.7 mM–1 s–1 where the concentration is in mM of Mn2+. Dextran-coated poly(allylamine) SiMn NPs produced NPs with T1 and T2 contrast with a r1 relaxivity of 27.1 ± 2.8 mM–1 s–1 and r2 relaxivity of 1078.5 ± 1.9 mM–1 s–1. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra are fit with a two-site model demonstrating that there are two types of Mn2+ in these NP’s. The fits yield hyperfine splittings (A) of 265 and 238 MHz with significant zero field splitting (D and E terms). This is consistent with Mn in sites of symmetry lower than tetrahedral due to the small size of the NP’s. PMID:28154618

  9. Non-ionic surfactants as novel intranasal absorption enhancers: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Jiaojiao; Mao, Shirui

    2016-09-01

    To explore the potential of non-ionic surfactants as novel intranasal absorption enhancers. Taking sumatriptan succinate (SMS) as a model drug, influence of different non-ionic surfactants, including laurate sucrose ester (SE), cremophor EL and poloxamer 188, on the intranasal absorption of SMS was investigated using an in situ nasal perfusion technique in rats. Ciliotoxicity of the non-ionic surfactants was evaluated using an in situ toad palate model. In vivo behavior of the selected formulations was studied in rats. All the non-ionic surfactants investigated increased the intranasal absorption of SMS remarkably but with varied extent and trend. Moreover, it was revealed that at the same concentration, laurate SE had better permeation-enhancing effect than that of cremophor EL and poloxamer 188. The ciliotoxicity results showed that all the non-ionic surfactants were regarded as safe at selected concentrations. Based on the in situ absorption data and ciliotoxicity results, the following three samples, 0.5% laurate SE, 0.1% cremophor EL and 0.5% poloxamer 188 were selected for in vivo absorption studies in rats. Among them, 0.5% laurate SE group presented the highest enhancing effect, followed by 0.1% cremophor EL and 0.5% poloxamer 188 group, with absolute bioavailability 29.99%, 22.64% and 20.90%, respectively. Laurate SE is a promising intranasal absorption enhancer.

  10. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  11. Self-assembly of water-soluble nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou [Albuquerque, NM; Brinker, C Jeffrey [Albuquerque, NM; Lopez, Gabriel P [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-10

    A method for forming an ordered array of nanocrystals where a hydrophobic precursor solution with a hydrophobic core material in an organic solvent is added to a solution of a surfactant in water, followed by removal of a least a portion of the organic solvent to form a micellar solution of nanocrystals. A precursor co-assembling material, generally water-soluble, that can co-assemble with individual micelles formed in the micellar solution of nanocrystals can be added to this micellar solution under specified reaction conditions (for example, pH conditions) to form an ordered-array mesophase material. For example, basic conditions are used to precipitate an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material in bulk form and acidic conditions are used to form an ordered nanocrystal/silica array material as a thin film.

  12. Reactivity of Metal Ions Bound to Water-Soluble Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkins, J.G.; Lin, M.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Robison, T.W.; Smith, B.F.; Gohdes, J.W.; McDonald, J.G.

    1999-06-29

    The intent of this work is to determine the effectiveness of catalysts covalently bound to polymers and to understand the consequences of supporting the catalysts on catalyst efficiency and selectivity. Rhodium phosphine complexes with functional groups for coupling to polymers were prepared. These catalyst precursors were characterized using standard techniques including IR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Studies on the modified catalysts showed that they were still active hydrogenation catalysts. However, tethering of the catalysts to polyamines gave systems with low hydrogenation activity. Analogous biphasic systems were also explored. Phosphine ligands with a surfactant-like structure have been synthesized and used to prepare catalytically active complexes of palladium. The palladium complexes were utilized in Heck-type coupling reactions (e.g. coupling of iodobenzene and ethyl acrylate to produce ethyl cinnamate) under vigorously stirred biphasic reaction conditions, and were found to offer superior performance over a standard water-soluble palladium catalyst under analogous conditions.

  13. Water-soluble fullerene derivatives for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeo; Mashino, Tadahiko

    2012-01-01

    Fullerenes (represented by buckminsterfullerene, C(60)) are a new kind of organic compound with a cage-like structure. A great deal of attention has been focused on their unique properties. From the viewpoint of drug discovery, fullerenes could be novel lead compounds for drug discovery. However, fullerenes are poorly soluble in aqueous media. Incorporation of water-soluble groups into the fullerene core enables investigation of its biological activities. Certain fullerene derivatives show inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase. Hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase is also inhibited by fullerene derivatives. Therefore, fullerene derivatives are candidate antiviral agents. In addition, fullerene derivatives exhibit antiproliferative activity by inducing apoptosis related to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Fullerene derivatives also have the potential to be anticancer drugs.

  14. Molecularly designed water soluble, intelligent, nanosize polymeric carriers.

    PubMed

    Pişkin, Erhan

    2004-06-11

    Intelligent polymers, also referred as "stimuli-responsive polymers" undergo strong property changes (in shape, surface characteristics, solubility, etc.) when only small changes in their environment (changes in temperature, pH, ionic strength light, electrical and magnetic field, etc.). They have been used in several novel applications, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, bioseparation, biomimetic actuators, etc. The most popular member of these type of polymers is poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPA)) which exhibits temperature-sensitive character, in which the polymer chains change from water-soluble coils to water-insoluble globules in aqueous solution as temperature increases above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymer. Copolymerization of NIPA with acrylic acid (AAc) allows the synthesis of both pH and temperature-responsive copolymers. This paper summarizes some of our related studies in which NIPA and its copolymers were synthesized and used as intelligent carriers in diverse applications.

  15. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Fahr, Alfred; Liu, Xiangli

    2007-07-01

    The drug candidates coming from combinatorial chemistry research and/or the drugs selected from biologically based high-throughput screening are quite often very lipophilic, as these drug candidates exert their pharmacological action at or in biological membranes or membrane-associated proteins. This challenges drug delivery institutions in industry or academia to develop carrier systems for the optimal oral and parenteral administration of these drugs. To mention only a few of the challenges for this class of drugs: their oral bioavailability is poor and highly variable, and carrier development for parenteral administration is faced with problems, including the massive use of surface-active excipients for solubilisation. Formulation specialists are confronted with an even higher level of difficulties when these drugs have to be delivered site specifically. This article addresses the emerging formulation designs for delivering of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  16. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  17. Biological activities of water-soluble fullerene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; Mashino, T.

    2009-04-01

    Three types of water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their biological activities were investigated. C60-dimalonic acid, an anionic fullerene derivative, showed antioxidant activity such as quenching of superoxide and relief from growth inhibition of E. coli by paraquat. C60-bis(7V,7V-dimethylpyrrolidinium iodide), a cationic fullerene derivative, has antibacterial activity and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines. The mechanism is suggested to be respiratory chain inhibition by reactive oxygen species produced by the cationic fullerene derivative. Proline-type fullerene derivatives showed strong inhibition activities on HIV-reverse transcriptase. The IC50 values were remarkably lower than nevirapine, a clinically used anti-HIV drug. Fullerene derivatives have a big potential for a new type of lead compound to be used as medicine.

  18. Wood-plastic composite using water soluble monomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Ali, K. M. Idriss

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) has been prepared with simul using acrylamide (AM), a water soluble monomer, in place of styrene (ST) and butylmethacrylate (BA). The highest polymer loading (PL) is achieved with AM along with the highest tensile strengths (TS) among the three bulk monomers studied. Effect of urea, NVP and TMPTA has been investigated in these systems. Co-additive (urea) has played a significant role in presence of NVP and TMPTA with AM compared to ST and BA systems. Methanol, water and water/methanol mixtures have been used as swelling agents in order to study their effect on PL and T f values. TS loss due to the weathering effect is minimum with the WPC, particularly if prepared with swelling agent methanol.

  19. Synthesis of water soluble PEGylated magnetic complexes using mPEG-fatty acid for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Mee-ye; Park, Joseph; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2008-06-15

    We report the successful fabrication of the various types of water soluble PEGylated magnetic complexes (PMCs) for magnetism-related biomedical applications. Various types of PMCs were synthesized and tested to accomplish phase transfer from organic to aqueous phase using monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG)-fatty acid amphiphilic block copolymers (PFs) through conjugation of the hydroxyl group of mPEG with the carboxyl group of fatty acids. We also carefully investigate their colloidal stabilities in aqueous phase according to the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic lengths relying on different types of fatty acids. Synthesized PMCs clearly demonstrated high magnetic sensitivity under magnetic field as magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. Furthermore, PMCs exhibited sufficient cell viabilities and excellent cell affinities in an in vitro model. Our results demonstrated that our PMCs possessed the potential for highly efficient magnetism-related biomedical applications such as MR image agents, drug delivery and tracking of cells.

  20. Protein-induced fluorescence enhancement of two-photon excitable water-soluble diketopyrrolopyrroles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Simon; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H; Kim, Bosung; Toomey, Nikia T; Bondar, Mykhailo V; Belfield, Kevin D

    2017-08-09

    Fluorescent contrast agents are important tools in cell biology and medical imaging due to their high sensitivity and relative availability. Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) derivatives have been recently studied for applications in bioimaging, but certain drawbacks due to their inherent structure have stifled progress towards their widespread implementation. Aggregation caused quenching (ACQ) associated with π-π stacking in relatively rigid extended conjugation systems as well as hydrophobicity of previously reported DPPs make most unsuitable for biological imaging applications. Addressing these deficiencies, we report the synthesis and photophysical characterization of two new water-soluble diketopyrrolopyrole (DPP) probes that exhibit pronounced protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) upon binding serum albumin protein. In vitro studies were also performed showing low cytotoxicity for the new DPP probes. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) images were obtained via excitation at 810 nm and emission in the NIR window of biological transparency, illustrating the potential of these compounds as nonlinear optical bioimaging probes.

  1. Spectrofluorimetric determination of some water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdel-Maaboud I; Mohamed, Horria A; Abdel-Latif, Niveen M; Mohamed, Marwa R

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) in mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. The first one was for thiamine determination, which depends on the oxidation of thiamine HCl to thiochrome by iodine in an alkaline medium. The method was applied accurately to determine thiamine in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures with pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, and cyanocobalamin without interference. In the second method, riboflavin and pyridoxine HCl were determined fluorimetrically in acetate buffer, pH 6. The three water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, and B6) were determined spectrofluorimetrically in binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures in the presence of cyanocobalamin. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. Linear relationship was obeyed for all studied vitamins by the proposed methods at their corresponding lambda(exc) or lambda(em). The linear calibration curves were obtained from 10 to 500 ng/mL; the correlation ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9999. The suggested procedures were applied to the analysis of the investigated vitamins in their laboratory-prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage forms from different manufacturers. The RSD range was 0.46-1.02%, which indicates good precision. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives. Good recoveries (97.6 +/- 0.7-101.2 +/- 0.8%) were obtained. Statistical comparison of the results with reported methods shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  2. Studies on the electrocapillary curves of anionic surfactants in presence of non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bembi, R; Goyal, R N; Malik, W U

    1976-09-01

    Polyoxyethylated non-ionic surfactants such as Tween 20, Tween 40, Nonidet P40 and Nonex 501 have been supposed to be associated with cationic characteristics. Studies on the effect of these surfactants on the electrocapillary curves of the anionic surfactants Aerosol IB, Manaxol OT and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), show that the electrocapillary maxima shift towards positive potentials. The order of adsorption of the anionic surfactants is SLS > Manaxol OT > Aerosol IB while the shift in maxima is in the order Aerosol IB ~ Manaxol OT > SLS which confirms association of cationic characteristics with the micelles of these non-ionic surfactants. The magnitude of the shift in electrocapillary maxima is Nonex 501 > Nonidet P40 > Tween 20 > Tween 40 which may be the order of magnitude of the positive charge carried by these non-ionic surfactants.

  3. Water-soluble polymers for recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A process of selectively separating a target metal contained in an aqueous solution by contacting the aqueous solution containing a target metal with an aqueous solution including a water-soluble polymer capable of binding with the target metal for sufficient time whereby a water-soluble polymer-target metal complex is formed, and, separating the solution including the water-soluble polymer-target metal complex from the solution is disclosed.

  4. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  5. Adsorption of non-ionic ABC triblock copolymers: Surface modification of TiO2 suspensions in aqueous and non-aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Jean-Philippe; Atanase, Leonard Ionut; Riess, Gérard

    2017-10-01

    A series of non-ionic ABC triblock copolymers, such as poly(butadiene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyrridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-P2VP-PEO) were synthesized by sequential anionic polymerizations. For these copolymers comprising an organo-soluble PB and a water-soluble PEO block, their P2VP middle block has been selected for its anchoring capacity on solid surfaces. The adsorption isotherms on TiO2 were obtained in heptane and in aqueous medium, as selective solvents. In both of these cases, the P2VP middle block provides the surface anchoring, whereas PB and PEO sequences are acting as stabilizing moieties in heptane and water respectively. By extension to ABC triblock copolymers of the scaling theory developed for diblock copolymers, the density of adsorbed chains could be correlated with the molecular characteristics of the PB-P2VP-PEO triblock copolymers. From a practical point a view, it could be demonstrated that these copolymers are efficient dispersing agents for the TiO2 pigments in both aqueous and non-aqueous medium.

  6. Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuxi; Bai, Hua; Lu, Gewu; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2008-05-07

    Flexible graphene films were prepared by the filtration of water-soluble noncovalently functionalized graphene sheets with pyrenebutyrate. The work presented here will not only open a new way for preparing water-soluble graphene dispersions but also provide a general route for fabricating conducting films based on graphene.

  7. Water-soluble fullerene materials for bioapplications: photoinduced reactive oxygen species generation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The photoinduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from several water-soluble fullerenes was examined. Macromolecular or small molecular water-soluble fullerene complexes/derivatives were prepared and their 1O2 and O2•- generation abilities were evaluated by EPR spin-trapping methods. As a r...

  8. Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

  9. Analyzing water soluble soil organics as Trifluoroacetyl derivatives by liquid state proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Treesearch

    Felipe Garza Sanchez; Zakiya Holmes Leggett; Sabapathy Sankar

    2005-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, water soluble organics play an important role in soil processes including carbon and nutrient turnover, microbial activity and pedogenesis. The quantity and quality (i.e., chemistry) of these materials is sensitive to land management practices. Monitoring alterations in the chemistry of water soluble organics resulting from land management...

  10. OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS AND WATER SOLUBILITIES OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the octanol/water partition coefficients (K-ow) and water solubilities of di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) by the slow-stirring method are reported. The water solubility was also measured for di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP). The log K-ow val...

  11. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    PubMed

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  12. Nanocomposite formation between alpha-glucosyl stevia and surfactant improves the dissolution profile of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hiromasa; Tozuka, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2012-05-30

    The formation of a hybrid-nanocomposite using α-glucosyl stevia (Stevia-G) and surfactant was explored to improve the dissolution of flurbiprofen (FP). As reported previously, the dissolution amount of FP was enhanced in the presence of Stevia-G, induced by the formation of an FP and Stevia-G-associated nanostructure. When a small amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was present with Stevia-G, the amount of dissolved FP was extremely enhanced. This dissolution-enhancement effect was also observed with the cationic surfactant of dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, but not with the non-ionic surfactant of n-octyl-β-D-maltopyranoside. To investigate the dissolution-enhancement effect of Stevia-G/SDS mixture, the pyrene I(1)/I(3) ratio was plotted versus the Stevia-G concentration. The pyrene I(1)/I(3) ratio of Stevia-G/SDS mixture had a sigmoidal curve at lower Stevia-G concentrations compared to the Stevia-G solution alone. These results indicate that the Stevia-G/SDS mixture provides a hydrophobic core around pyrene molecules at lower Stevia-G concentrations, leading to nanocomposite formation between Stevia-G and SDS. The nanocomposite of Stevia-G/SDS showed no cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells at a mixture of 0.1% SDS and 1% Stevia-G solution, whereas 0.1% SDS solution showed high toxicity. These results suggest that the nanocomposite formation of Stevia-G/SDS may be useful way to enhance the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs without special treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Water-soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.H. III; Akin, D.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Ozone has been used to pretreat agricultural byproducts with the aim of increasing nutritive value for ruminants. However, not all treatments with ozone result in enhanced digestibility, suggesting reaction products from ozone treatment of plants might inhibit rumen microbial activity. Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) (CBG) and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (K-31) were treated with ozone and the water-soluble products determined. The following acids were identified: caproic, levulinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vinillic, azelaic, and malonic. In addition, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde were also identified. Ozone treatment of the cell walls of CBG produced mainly p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin. Ozone treatment of K-31 cell walls produced levulinic acid in addition to those products found from CBG cell walls. The production of vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which have been shown to be especially toxic to rumen microorganisms, offers an explanation for the negative affects of ozone treatment on forage.

  14. Water-soluble adjuvant obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii.

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, T; Okumura, S; Tanabe, M J; Nakano, M

    1978-01-01

    The adjuvant effect of a butanol-extracted water-soluble adjuvant (bu-WSA) obtained from Bacterionemia matruchotii, a gram-positive oral bacteria, was studied on the antibody response at the plaque-forming cell (PFC) level in murine spleens. Intraperitoneal injection of Bu-WSA caused significant increase in direct PFC numbers in spleens 1 to 3 days after the antigenic stimulation with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Injection of 100 to 800 microgram of Bu-WSA was effective, and 400 microgram of Bu-WSA seemed to be the optimum for induction of the adjuvant effect. The adjuvant effect was strongest when Bu-WSA was injected at the same time as the SRBC, but some effect was still observed when Bu-WSA was injected 7 days before or 1 day after the immunization. The adjuvant effect of Bu-WSA was greatest at high dose of antigen. The mice injected with Bu-WSA at the time of priming SRBC and then immunized with trinitrophenylated SRBC showed greater anti-trinitrophenyl PFC response than controls without the injection of Bu-WSA. These findings suggest that a part of the adjuvant effect of Bu-WSA depends on thymic cell function and another part does not. PMID:352955

  15. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  16. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of a Water Soluble Drug, Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Shah, M.; Agrawal, Y. K.; Garala, K.; Ramkishan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand and investigate the relationship between experimental factors and their responses in the preparation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride based solid lipid nanoparticles. A quadratic relationship was studied by developing central composite rotatable design. Amount of lipid and drug, stirring speed and stirring time were selected as experimental factors while particle size, zeta potential and drug entrapment were used as responses. Prior to the experimental design, a qualitative prescreening study was performed to check the effect of various solid lipids and their combinations. Results showed that changing the amount of lipid, stirring speed and stirring time had a noticeable influence on the entrapment efficiencies and particle size of the prepared solid lipid nanoparticles. The particle size of a solid lipid nanoparticle was in the range of 159-246 nm and drug encapsulation efficiencies were marginally improved by choosing a binary mixture of physically incompatible solid lipids. Release of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride from solid lipid nanoparticle was considerably slow, and it shows Higuchi matrix model as the best fitted model. Study of solid lipid nanoparticle suggested that the lipid based carrier system could potentially be exploited as a delivery system with improved drug entrapment efficiency and controlled drug release for water soluble actives. PMID:23716872

  17. Design of a positive-tone water-soluble resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havard, Jennifer M.; Frechet, Jean M. J.; Pasini, Dario; Mar, Brenda; Yamada, Shintaro; Medeiros, David R.; Willson, C. Grant

    1997-07-01

    We report the study of a novel class of resists designed to be coated from and developed in pure water, avoiding both the need for the traditional organic solvents and the developers containing organic bases in aqueous solution. We have previously reported on the design of several negative tone resists that operate on the basis of radiation-induced crosslinking. The performance of these negative tone systems meets our fundamental objective of coating from and development in pure water, but their design involving the crosslinking of a matrix polymer limits the resolution that may be achieved because of the swelling that occurs during development. We have now explored novel designs involving positive tone water developable resists that may help alleviate this limitation. For example, water-soluble polymers containing pendant oxazoline units may be insolubilized in situ through their heat-activated reaction with additives containing carboxylic acid groups. Exposure to UV radiation is then used to cleave these solubility modifiers hence restoring solubility to the exposed areas. Analogous materials that involve the addition of divinyl ethers to poly(acrylic acid), followed by photogenerated acid cleavage of the crosslinks have been used generate water-developed positive tone images.

  18. Non-ionic diffusion and carrier-mediated transport drive extracellullar pH regulation of mouse colonic crypts.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, S; Montrose, M H

    1996-01-01

    1. Extracellular pH (pHo) regulation within mouse colonic crypt lumens is stimulated by transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Current work assesses underlying mechanisms contributing to pHo regulation. 2. Crypt luminal alkalinization was saturable by apical SCFA (substrate concentration activating half-maximal transport (KT) of isobutyrate = 45 mM). However, saturation was consistent with either carrier-mediated SCFA flux or non-ionic diffusion, because the non-ionized form was titrated by luminal alkalinization. Direct acidification of apical perfusates increased the magnitude of SCFA-induced luminal alkalinization, roughly in the same proportion to the increased concentration of non-ionized SCFA in the crypt lumen. 3. Transepithelial gradients of an alternative weak acid (CO2) produce pHo changes similar to SCFA. In contrast, a weak base (NH3) changes pHo with reverse dependence on the orientation of the transepithelial gradient compared with SCFA. Results implicate non-ionic diffusion in pHo regulation, and suggest that pHo changes may underly SCFA-stimulated bicarbonate secretion and ammonium absorption. 4. SCFA metabolism plays a minor role in extracellular pH regulation. An avidly metabolized SCFA (N-butyrate) augments crypt luminal alkalinization only slightly (0.08 pH units) versus a poorly metabolized SCFA (isobutyrate). 5. Apical addition of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) partially inhibits luminal alkalinization caused by apical SCFA. DIDS has no effect on luminal alkalinization caused by transepithelial CO2 gradients. Probenecid (1 mM), alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4 mM) or basolateral DIDS (1 mM) do not affect pHo regulation. Results suggest that DIDS-sensitive, SCFA-dependent transport in the colonocyte apical membrane contributes to pHo regulation. Images Figure 7 PMID:8865074

  19. Photochemistry within a water-soluble organic capsule.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Vaidhyanathan

    2015-11-17

    Photochemistry along with life as we know it originated on earth billions of years ago. Supramolecular Photochemistry had its beginning when plants that sustain life began transforming water into oxygen by carrying out light initiated reactions within highly organized assemblies. Prompted by the efforts of J. Priestly (photosynthesis), F. Sestini, S. Cannizaro, and C. Liebermann (solid-state photochemistry of santonin, quinones, and cinnamic acid), orderly scientific investigations of the link between light absorption by matter and molecules and the chemical and physical consequences began in the mid-1700s. By 1970 when Molecular Photochemistry had matured, it was clear that controlling photochemical reactions by conventional methods of varying reaction parameters like temperature and pressure would be futile due to the photoreactions' very low activation energies and enthalpies. During the last 50 years, the excited state behavior of molecules has been successfully manipulated with the use of confining media and weak interactions between the medium and the reactant molecule. In this context, with our knowledge from experimentation with micelles, cyclodextrins (CD), cucurbitruils (CB), calixarenes (CA), Pd nanocage, crystals, and zeolites as media, we began about a decade ago to explore the use of a new water-soluble synthetic organic cavitand, octa acid (OA) as a reaction container. The uniqueness of OA as an organic cavitand lies in that two OA molecules form a closed hydrophobic capsule to encapsulate water-insoluble guest molecule(s). The ability to include a large number of guest molecules in OA has provided an opportunity to examine the excited state chemistry of organic molecules in a hydrophobic, confined environment. OA distinguishes itself from the well-known cavitands CD and CB by its active reaction cavity absorbing UV-radiation between 200 and 300 nm and serving as energy, electron, and hydrogen donor. The freedom of guest molecules in OA, between that

  20. Water soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in Antarctic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; SeméRé, Richard; Imai, Yoshie; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Masahiko

    1996-08-01

    Antarctic aerosols collected at Syowa Station were studied for water soluble organic compounds by employing a water extraction and dibutyl ester derivatization and using a capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Total carbon and nitrogen were also determined. A homologous series of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11), ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected, as well as pyruvic acid and aromatic (phthalic) diacid. Succinic (C4) or oxalic (C2) acid was found to be the dominant diacid species, followed by azelaic (C9), adipic (C6), or malonic (C3) acid. Concentration range of the total diacids was 5.9-88 ng m-3, with an average of 29 ng m-3. Highest concentrations were observed in the summer sample with a predominance of succinic acid (61.5 ng m-3), which comprised approximately 70% of the total diacids and accounted for 3.5% of total aerosol carbon (1020 ng m-3). The succinic acid (C4) is likely produced by photooxidation of 4-oxocarboxylic acids, which are present in the atmosphere as intermediates of the photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. These results indicate that the Antarctic organic aerosols originate from marine-derived lipids and are transformed largely by photochemical oxidations. ω-Oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 0.36-3.0 ng m-3) also showed the highest concentration in the summer sample, again suggesting a secondary production in the atmosphere of the Antarctic and in the Southern Ocean.

  1. Antimalarial activity of new water-soluble dihydroartemisinin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lin, A J; Klayman, D L; Milhous, W K

    1987-11-01

    The usefulness of sodium artesunate (3), a water-soluble derivative of artemisinin (1), is impaired by its poor stability in aqueous solution. To overcome the ease of hydrolysis of the ester group in 3, a new series of derivatives of dihydroartemisinin (2) was prepared in which the solubilizing moiety, which contains a carboxylate group, is joined to dihydroartemisinin by an ether rather than an ester linkage. The new derivatives were prepared in good yield by treatment of dihydroartemisinin with an appropriate alcohol under boron trifluoride etherate catalysis at room temperature. All major condensation products are the beta isomer. Hydrolysis of the esters with 2.5% KOH/MeOH gave the corresponding potassium salts, which were converted to free acids (8b-d) by acidification. The derivatives were tested in vitro against two clones of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum D-6 (Sierra Leone clone) and W-2 (Indochina clone). No cross-resistance to the antimalarial agents mefloquine, chloroquine, pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, and quinine was observed. In general, the new compounds are more effective against the W-2 than the D-6 strain. Esters (5a-d) possess activity comparable to that of the parent compounds 1 and 2; however, conversion of the esters to their corresponding carboxylates (7a-d) or acids (8b-d), with the exception of artelinic acid (8d), drastically decreases the antimalarial activities in both cell lines. Artelinic acid, which is both soluble and stable in 2.5% K2CO3 solution, possesses superior in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei than artemisinin or artesunic acid.

  2. Water soluble vitamin E (TMG) as a radioprotector.

    PubMed

    Nair, Cherupally Krishnan K; Devi, Pathirissery Uma; Shimanskaya, R; Kunugita, N; Murase, Hironobu; Gu, Yeun-Hwa; Kagiya, Tsutomu V

    2003-12-01

    Tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water soluble derivative of vitamin E offers protection against deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, both under in vivo and in vitro conditions, to biological systems. TMG was found to be a potent antioxidant and an effective free radical scavenger. It forms a phenoxyl radical similar to trolox upon reaction with various one-electron oxidants. TMG protected DNA from radiation-induced strand breaks. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by gamma-radiation. Gamma-radiation-induced loss of viability of EL-tumor cells and peroxidation of lipids in microsomal and mitochondrial membranes were prevented by TMG. TMG was nontoxic to mice when administered orally up to 7.0 g/kg body weight. The LD50 dose of TMG for ip administration in mice was 1.15 g/kg body wt. In rats, following oral and ip administration of TMG, the absorption (distribution) half lives were 5.8 and 3.0 min respectively and elimination half lives were 6.7 and 3.1 min respectively. Embryonic mortality resulting from exposure of pregnant mice to ionizing radiation (2 Gy) was reduced by 75% by ip administration of TMG (0.6 g/kg, body wt) prior to irradiation. TMG offered protection to mice against whole body gamma-radiation-induced lethality and weight loss. The LD50(30) of mice increased from 6 to 6.72 Gy upon post irradiation administration of a single dose of TMG (0.6 g/kg, body wt) by ip.

  3. Visualizing monolayers with a water-soluble fluorophore to quantify adsorption, desorption, and the double layer

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Ian C.; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrast in confocal microscopy of phase-separated monolayers at the air–water interface can be generated by the selective adsorption of water-soluble fluorescent dyes to disordered monolayer phases. Optical sectioning minimizes the fluorescence signal from the subphase, whereas convolution of the measured point spread function with a simple box model of the interface provides quantitative assessment of the excess dye concentration associated with the monolayer. Coexisting liquid-expanded, liquid-condensed, and gas phases could be visualized due to differential dye adsorption in the liquid-expanded and gas phases. Dye preferentially adsorbed to the liquid-disordered phase during immiscible liquid–liquid phase coexistence, and the contrast persisted through the critical point as shown by characteristic circle-to-stripe shape transitions. The measured dye concentration in the disordered phase depended on the phase composition and surface pressure, and the dye was expelled from the film at the end of coexistence. The excess concentration of a cationic dye within the double layer adjacent to an anionic phospholipid monolayer was quantified as a function of subphase ionic strength, and the changes in measured excess agreed with those predicted by the mean-field Gouy–Chapman equations. This provided a rapid and noninvasive optical method of measuring the fractional dissociation of lipid headgroups and the monolayer surface potential. PMID:25675499

  4. Non-ionic surfactants do not consistently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Qi, Feng; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2015-04-01

    Non-ionic surfactants have been frequently reported to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and pure cellulose. However, how the hydrolysis condition, substrate structure and cellulase formulation affect the beneficial action of surfactants has not been well elucidated. In this work, it was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose was not consistently improved by surfactants. Contrarily, high surfactant concentration, e.g. 5 g/L, which greatly improved the hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated substrates, actually showed notable inhibition to pure cellulose conversion in the late phase of hydrolysis. Under an optimal hydrolysis condition, the improvement by surfactant was limited, but under harsh conditions surfactant indeed could enhance cellulose conversion. It was proposed that non-ionic surfactants could interact with substrates and cellulases to impact the adsorption behaviors of cellulases. Therefore, the beneficial action of surfactants on pure cellulose hydrolysis is influenced by hydrolysis condition, cellulose structural features and cellulase formulation.

  5. The effects of non-ionic polymeric surfactants on the cleaning of biofouled hydrogel materials.

    PubMed

    Guan, Allan; Li, Zhenyu; Phillips, K Scott

    2015-01-01

    Block co-polymer surfactants have been used for cleaning hydrogel medical devices that contact the body (e.g., contact lenses) because of their biocompatibility. This work examined the relationship between concentration and detergency of two non-ionic polymeric surfactants (Pluronic F127 and Triton X-100) for cleaning protein soil, with anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate) as positive controls. Surface plasmon resonance was used to quantify removal of simulated tear soil from self-assembled monolayer surfaces, and a microplate format was used to study the removal of fluorescently labeled soil proteins from contact lenses. While detergency increased as a function of concentration for anionic surfactants, it decreased with concentration for the two polymeric surfactants. The fact that the protein detergency of some non-ionic polymeric surfactants did not increase with concentration above the critical micelle concentration could have implications for optimizing the tradeoff between detergency and biocompatibility.

  6. Weak interactive forces govern the interaction between a non-ionic surfactant with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Narayani; Mondal, Ramakanta; Deshmukh, Arundhati; Dutta, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the non-ionic surfactant Tween 40 (TW40) on Human Serum Albumin (HSA) has been studied by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) methods. Our steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic results reveal the perturbation of the native protein conformation upon interaction with TW40. The interaction of TW40 with HSA does not occur in a sequential manner unlike another anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Our major conclusion is that the HSA-TW40 interaction is mainly driven by weak forces like van der Waal/hydrogen bonding interactions. This is also generalized from the results of interaction of HSA with another non-ionic surfactant TW80.

  7. Separation and recycling of nanoparticles using cloud point extraction with non-ionic surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Shah, Syed Sakhawat; Eastoe, Julian; Khan, Asad Muhammad; Shah, Afzal

    2011-11-15

    A viable cost-effective approach employing mixtures of non-ionic surfactants Triton X-114/Triton X-100 (TX-114/TX-100), and subsequent cloud point extraction (CPE), has been utilized to concentrate and recycle inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media. Gold Au- and palladium Pd-NPs have been pre-synthesized in aqueous phases and stabilized by sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES) ligands, then dispersed in aqueous non-ionic surfactant mixtures. Heating the NP-micellar systems induced cloud point phase separations, resulting in concentration of the NPs in lower phases after the transition. For the Au-NPs UV/vis absorption has been used to quantify the recovery and recycle efficiency after five repeated CPE cycles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate NP size, shape, and stability. The results showed that NPs are preserved after the recovery processes, but highlight a potential limitation, in that further particle growth can occur in the condensed phases.

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides (BPL-1 and BPL-2), one of the most important functional constituents in Brasenia schreberi was isolated from the external mucilage of B. schreberi (BPL-1) and the plant in vivo (BPL-2). This paper examines the relationship between the content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL and the antioxidant activity of BPL. Materials and Methods: The free radicals, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) and 1,1-diphnyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH-), were used to determine the antioxidant activity of BPL. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of BPL-1 and BPL-2 revealed typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Results: The two sample types had different contents. This was proved by their different adsorption peak intensities. The IC50 values of BPL-1 (31.189 mg/ml) and BPL-2 (1.863 mg/ml) showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Based on the quantification of ABTS radical scavenging, the IC50 value of BPL-1 (5.460 mg/ml) was higher than that of BPL-2 (0.239 mg/ml). Therefore, in terms of the reducing power, the IC50 value of BPL-1 was too high to determine, and the IC50 value of BPL-2 was found to be 50.557 mg/ml. Hence, the antioxidant activity and total reducing power were high, and they were greater in BPL-2 than in BPL-1. In addition, BPL-2 was found to have more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid than BPL-1. Conclusion: The contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid are significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity and reducing power of BPL; the more sulfuric radicals and uronic acid, the more antioxidant activity and reducing power BPL has. SUMMARY The water-soluble crude polysaccharides obtained from the external mucilage and the Brasenia schreberi plant in vivo were confirmed to have high contents of sulfuric radicals and uronic acidBoth BPL-1 and BPL-2 exhibited antioxidative activity and reducing power, and their antioxidative

  9. Water-soluble cooling lubricants induce airway hyperresponsiveness in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Marek, W; Mensing, T; Fricke, H; Baur, X

    1998-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to water-soluble cooling lubricants (CL) induced by aerosol administered by tracheal tube was studied in a rabbit model of occupational lung disease. Two commercial CL were examined: the first was of the boric acid amine ester type without biozide (CL-BAE), the second was of the sulfonate type with biozide (CL-SB). 50, 5.0 or 0.5 mg/m3 CL was administered over a period of twice 2 h to six different groups of rabbits. Airway responsiveness (AR) to aerosols of 0.2% and 2.0% acetylcholine solution (ACH) was measured before and after each exposure to CL. A control group A of nine animals not exposed to CL showed no significant respiratory responses following inhalation of 0.2% ACH for 1 min. Conversely, inhalation of 2.0% ACH almost doubled the dynamic elastance (Edyn) in the ACH challenge test in this animal group. Airway resistance (RI), Edyn, slope of inspiratory pressure generation (delta Pes/tI), arterial pressure (Pa) and arterial blood gas tensions (PaO2, PaCO2) were not significantly altered during and after exposures to CL. However, after CL-BAE inhalation of 50 and 5 mg/m3 over 4 h, the amplitude of the ACH-induced airway obstruction indicated by the changes in Edyn rose significantly to almost five times the control response before exposure (group C, D, p < 0.005). Similar changes in RI and delta Pes/tI were obtained. After inhalation of 0.5 mg/m3 CL-BAE (group D), no significant changes in AR were observed. Similar to CL-BAE inhalation of 50 mg/m3, CL-SB caused enlarged AR in the ACH challenge test (group E), whereas no significant changes were found after exposure to 5.0 and 0.5 mg/m3 in groups F and G. In summary, CL aerosols with and without biozide in the range of 50 and 5 mg/m3 applied via tracheal tubes increased AR to ACH within 4 h of exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. It has to be assumed that this augmented AR indicates an increased risk of developing lubricant-induced obstructive lung diseases.

  10. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays. PMID:18671388

  11. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-20

    A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

  12. Stabilization of human papillomavirus virus-like particles by non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Sanyal, Gautam; Ni, Alex; Luo, Zheng; Doshna, Sarah; Wang, Bei; Graham, Tammy L; Wang, Ning; Volkin, David B

    2005-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like-particles (VLPs) produced by recombinant expression systems are promising vaccine candidates for prevention of cervical cancers as well as genital warts. At high protein concentrations, HPV VLPs, comprised of the viral capsid protein L1 and expressed and purified from yeast, are protected against detectable aggregation during preparation and storage by high concentrations of NaCl. At low protein concentrations, however, high salt concentration alone does not fully protect HPV VLPs from aggregation. Moreover, the analytical analysis of HPV VLPs proved to be a challenge due to surface adsorption of HPV VLPs to storage containers and cuvettes. The introduction of non-ionic surfactants into HPV VLP aqueous solutions provides significantly enhanced stabilization of HPV VLPs against aggregation upon exposure to low salt and protein concentration, as well as protection against surface adsorption and aggregation due to heat stress and physical agitation. The mechanism of non-ionic surfactant stabilization of HPV VLPs was extensively studied using polysorbate 80 (PS80) as a representative non-ionic surfactant. The results suggest that PS80 stabilizes HPV VLPs mainly by competing with the VLPs for various container surfaces and air/water interfaces. No appreciable binding of PS80 to intact HPV VLPs was observed although PS80 does bind to the denatured HPV L1 protein. Even in the presence of stabilizing level of PS80, however, an ionic strength dependence of HPV VLP stabilization against aggregation is observed indicating optimization of both salt and non-ionic surfactant levels is required for effective stabilization of HPV VLPs in solution. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Non-Ionic Highly Permeable Polymer Shells for Encapsulation of Living Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Rights License 14. ABSTRACT We introduce novel, truly non-ionic hydrogen -bonded layer-by-layer (LbL) coatings for cell surface engineering capable of...Encapsulation 1 Methods of Cell Encapsulation 2 Electrostatic vs. Hydrogen -bonded Shell Performance 10 2 Goals & Objectives 13 3 Methods 14 Layer by...PEI(TA/PVPON)4 hollow shells dried on a silicon wafer 12 Figure 10: Schematic illustrating LbL assembly of hydrogen bonded layers 14

  14. Exploring the location and orientation of 4-( N, N-dimethylamino) cinnamaldehyde in anionic, cationic and non-ionic micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Subhasis; Chowdhury, Papia; Chakravorti, Sankar

    2003-01-01

    This Letter reports probing of non-ionic, anionic and cationic micelles utilizing different dual emission properties of 4-( N, N-dimethylamino) cinnamaldehyde. Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) band is more enhanced and blue shifted in non-ionic micelle than those are in ionic micelles. In non-ionic micelle, the molecule enters in the core region whereas, in ionic micelles, it is anchored in the interfacial region with different orientations. Micellar-water interface electric field in ionic micelles was found to have profound effect on TICT decay time. Interestingly, inorganic salt-counterion binding helps the acceptor moiety to enter into the core region in anionic micelle.

  15. Immobilization of enzymes using non-ionic colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs): Surface and enzyme effects.

    PubMed

    Ward, Keeran; Xi, Jingshu; Stuckey, David C

    2015-12-01

    The use of non-ionic colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs) as a support for enzyme immobilisation was investigated. Formulation required the mixing of an aqueous-surfactant solution with a relatively non-polar solvent-surfactant solution, forming a solvent droplet surrounded by a thin stabilised aqueous film (soapy shell). Studies utilising anionic surfactants have showed increased retention, however, very little have been understood about the forces governing immobilisation. This study seeks to determine the effects of enzyme properties on CLA immobilisation by examining a non-ionic/non-polar solvent system comprised of two non-ionic surfactants, Tween 20 and 80, mineral oil and the enzymes lipase, aprotinin and α-chymotrypsin. From these results it was deduced that hydrophobic interactions strongly governed immobilisation. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM) revealed that immobilisation was predominantly achieved by surface adsorption attributed to hydrophobic interactions between the enzyme and the CLA surface. Enzyme surface affinity was found to increase when added directly to the formulation (pre-manufacture addition), as opposed to the bulk continuous phase (post-manufacture addition), with α-chymotrypsin and aprotinin being the most perturbed, while lipase was relatively unaffected. The effect of zeta potential on immobilisation showed that enzymes adsorbed better closer to their pI, indicating that charge minimisation was necessary for immobilisation. Finally, the effect of increasing enzyme concentration in the aqueous phase resulted in an increase in adsorption for all enzymes due to cooperativity between protein molecules, with saturation occurring faster at higher adsorption rates.

  16. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  17. Water-soluble and fluorescent dendritic perylene bisimides for live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Baoxiang; Li, Hongxia; Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Licui; Bai, Qianqian; Ba, Xinwu

    2011-04-07

    We prepared dendritic perylene bisimide probes with triblock structures: perylene bisimides fluorescence cores, branched oligo(glutamic acid)s and polyethylene glycol chains. These probes showed good water solubility, low cytotoxicity and strong fluorescence in live cells.

  18. Moisture sorption kinetics for water-soluble substances. IV: Studies with mixtures of solids.

    PubMed

    Kontny, M J; Zografi, G

    1985-02-01

    This paper extends earlier work from this laboratory concerning the sorption kinetics of water vapor on deliquescent water-soluble substances to mixtures of these solids. A theoretical model, based on heat transport control, excellently predicted a priori the rate of water uptake by a variety of binary mixtures of alkali halides and sugars. The rates for mixtures containing highly water-soluble quaternary ammonium salts, as either one or both of the components, were less successfully predicted as the combined water solubilities of the two components increased. It is concluded that water-soluble deliquescent substances, normally encountered in pharmaceutical dosage forms, rapidly form saturated aqueous solutions in the aqueous film formed as water vapor uptake proceeds, and that the water uptake rate can be predicted a priori from known and experimentally determinable parameters using the heat transport model.

  19. 40 CFR 799.6784 - TSCA water solubility: Column elution method; shake flask method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development (OECD) Laboratory Intercomparison Testing, Part I, 1979, appeared to be dependent on the chemicals..., Guidelines for The Testing of Chemicals, OECD 105, Water Solubility (Column Elution Method—Shake Flask Method), OECD, Paris, France (1981). ...

  20. Antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl egg: comparison with White Leghorn egg.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, T; Koketsu, M

    2007-08-01

    1. The antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and White Leghorn eggs were studied. The mechanism of the antioxidant effect was also investigated. 2. The antioxidant effect on the oxidation of linoleic acid increased in the water-soluble fraction of cake made with silky eggs. In contrast, Leghorn eggs significantly decreased the rate of antioxidant activity. The browning index of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl eggs changed from 0.052 to 1.240 after 20 min at 180 degrees C, while that made with Leghorn eggs changed from 0.037 to 0.710. 3. There are correlations between the rate of browning index and antioxidant activity. Superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in water-soluble fractions of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and hen's eggs were formed during light exposure for 20 min at 10,000 lux, and their formation could be significantly inhibited by the addition of tryptophan or mannitol, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). These results were strong evidence of direct participation of *OH, formed by the Haber-Weiss reaction, in the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes. The rate of decrease in active oxygen by scavengers decreased in Leghorn eggs more efficiently than in silky eggs. 4. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl eggs could improve the quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.

  1. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  2. Application of dry-polishing techniques to water-soluble glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.T.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1981-04-01

    A dry polishing technique is presented for the preparation of glass ceramics for microstructural characterization. The technique is shown to be applicable to water soluble phosphate based glass ceramics and also to a non-water soluble zinc silicate glass ceramic. Microstructural characterization is performed primarily with composition backscattered electron imaging in the scanning electron microscopy. Some relief is observed on the polished surface utilizing topographical backscattered electron imaging.

  3. Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Protein (WSCP) Stably Binds Two or Four Chlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Palm, Daniel M; Agostini, Alessandro; Tenzer, Stefan; Gloeckle, Barbara M; Werwie, Mara; Carbonera, Donatella; Paulsen, Harald

    2017-03-28

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) of class IIa from Brassicaceae form tetrameric complexes containing one chlorophyll (Chl) per apoprotein but no carotenoids. The complexes are remarkably stable toward dissociation and protein denaturation even at 100 °C and extreme pH values, and the Chls are partially protected against photooxidation. There are several hypotheses that explain the biological role of WSCPs, one of them proposing that they function as a scavenger of Chls set free upon plant senescence or pathogen attack. The biochemical properties of WSCP described in this paper are consistent with the protein acting as an efficient and flexible Chl scavenger. At limiting Chl concentrations, the recombinant WSCP apoprotein binds substoichiometric amounts of Chl (two Chls per tetramer) to form complexes that are as stable toward thermal dissociation, denaturation, and photodamage as the fully pigmented ones. If more Chl is added, these two-Chl complexes can bind another two Chls to reach the fully pigmented state. The protection of WSCP Chls against photodamage has been attributed to the apoprotein serving as a diffusion barrier for oxygen, preventing its access to triplet excited Chls and, thus, the formation of singlet oxygen. By contrast, the sequential binding of Chls by WSCP suggests a partially open or at least flexible structure, raising the question of how WSCP photoprotects its Chls without the help of carotenoids.

  4. Selective Organic and Organometallic Reactions in Water-Soluble Host-Guest Supramolecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pluth, Michael D.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-02-16

    Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of enzymes, synthetic chemists have designed and prepared a wide range of host molecules that can bind smaller molecules with their cavities; this area has become known as 'supramolecular' or 'host-guest' chemistry. Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, and followed up by a large number of more recent investigators, it has been found that the chemical environment in each assembly - defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability - greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics of these compounds. In contrast to the large number of binding studies that have been carried out in this area, the exploration of chemistry - especially catalytic chemistry - that can take place inside supramolecular host cavities is still in its infancy. For example, until the work described here was carried out, very few examples of organometallic reactivity inside supramolecular hosts were known, especially in water solution. For that reason, our group and the group directed by Kenneth Raymond decided to take advantage of our complementary expertise and attempt to carry out metal-mediated C-H bond activation reactions in water-soluble supramolecular systems. This article begins by providing background from the Raymond group in supramolecular coordination chemistry and the Bergman group in C-H bond activation. It goes on to report the results of our combined efforts in supramolecular C-H activation reactions, followed by extensions of this work into a wider range of intracavity transformations.

  5. Effect of some petroleum sulfonate surfactants on the apparent water solubility of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kile, D.E.; Chiou, C.T. ); Helburn, R.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Water solubility enhancements of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (TCB) by some commercial petroleum sulfonates (Petronate L, Petronate HL, and Pyronate 40) were studied at room temperature. Unlike conventional surfactants, the petroleum sulfonate surfactants are mixtures of sulfonated hydrocarbons and free mineral oils, which form stable emulsions in water and thus behave much like a bulk organic phase in concentrating organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement is linearly proportional to the concentration of the petroleum sulfonate-oil (PSO) emulsion, in contrast with the effect of a conventional surfactant in which a sharp inflection occurs in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The enhancement effect of the PSO surfactant is 1.5-3 orders of magnitude greater than that of ordinary surfactant monomers below the CMC. The partition coefficient of the solute between the emulsified PSO phase and water (K{sub em}) is closely related to the nonpolar content of the PSO surfactant; the normalized K{sub em} values are about the same order of magnitude as the solvent (octanol)-water partition coefficients of the solutes.

  6. Versatile particles from water-soluble chitosan and sodium alginate for loading toxic or bioactive substance.

    PubMed

    You, Rongrui; Xiao, Congming; Zhang, Li; Dong, Yanrui

    2015-08-01

    Versatile hydrogel particles were obtained by cross-linking of water-soluble chitosan (WSC) with sodium alginate (SA) in an acid-free medium. The structure of the particles was investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization results confirmed that the product was physically cross-linked hydrogel consisted of WSC and SA. It was found that the swelling ratio of the particles depended on the formation time, which indicated that their cross-linking degrees were easily modulated. The particles showed high capability to bind heavy metal ions, acidic gas and basic gas. The adsorption capacities of the particles could reach 88.2 and 66.0 mg/g for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+), 33.8 and 30.3 mg/g for NH3 and H2S, respectively. Especially, the existence of water significantly enhanced the adsorption capacities for NH3 and H2S. In addition, the mild formation condition made the particles suitable for encapsulating bioactive substance. The loading efficiency of the beads for hemoglobin (HB) reached close to 100%. Moreover, the release behavior of the HB-loaded particles was pH-sensitive. In contrast, HB was deactivated during encapsulating it with chitosan and sodium alginate. Obviously, such a kind of particles was an attractive adsorbent or carrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, aggregation and spectroscopic studies of novel water soluble metal free, zinc, copper and magnesium phthalocyanines and investigation of their anti-bacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Rıza; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Sahin, Ertan; Bayrak, Hacer; Demirbaş, Ümit

    2014-12-10

    In this study, novel phthalonitrile derivative (3) was synthesized by the reaction between 4-nitrophthalonitrile (2) and a triazole derivative (1) containing pyridine moiety. Crystal structure of compound (3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction. New metal free and metallo-phthalocyanine complexes (Zn, Cu, and Mg) were synthesized using the phthalonitrile derivative (3). Cationic derivatives of these phthalocyanines (5, 7, 9, and 11) were prepared from the non-ionic phthalocyanines (4, 6, 8, and 10). All proposed structures were supported by instrumental methods. The aggregation behaviors of the phthalocyanines (4-11) were investigated in different solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water. Water soluble cationic Pcs (5, 7, 9, and 11) aggregated in water and sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to prevent the aggregation. The second derivatives of the UV-Vis spectra of aggregated Pcs were used for analyzing the Q and B bands of aggregated species. Thermal behaviors of the phthalocyanines were also studied. In addition, anti-bacterial properties of the phthalocyanines were investigated. We used four gram negative and two gram positive bacteria to determine antibacterial activity of these compounds. Compound 7 has the best activity against the all bacteria with 125μg/mL of MIC value. Compounds 4, 6, and 10 have the similar effect on the bacteria with 250μg/mL of MIC value.

  8. Structural, functional and pH sensitive release characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Albizia lebbeck L.

    PubMed

    Kumar Varma, Chekuri Ashok; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2017-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10(2)kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4.06%), rhamnose (22.79%), glucose (38.9%), galactose (17.84%) and xylose (16.42%). Micromeritic properties revealed that the polysaccharide possess potential for pharmaceutical applications. From the surface charge analysis, ALPS was found to be non-ionic polysaccharide. Morphological study reveals the polysaccharide with irregular particle shape and rough surface. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the carbohydrate nature of polysaccharide. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, the second mass loss (243-340°C) attributed to polysaccharide degradation. The drug release profile reveals the use of polysaccharide for the preparation of pH sensitive pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis, aggregation and spectroscopic studies of novel water soluble metal free, zinc, copper and magnesium phthalocyanines and investigation of their anti-bacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, Rıza; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Şahin, Ertan; Bayrak, Hacer; Demirbaş, Ümit

    2014-12-01

    In this study, novel phthalonitrile derivative (3) was synthesized by the reaction between 4-nitrophthalonitrile (2) and a triazole derivative (1) containing pyridine moiety. Crystal structure of compound (3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction. New metal free and metallo-phthalocyanine complexes (Zn, Cu, and Mg) were synthesized using the phthalonitrile derivative (3). Cationic derivatives of these phthalocyanines (5, 7, 9, and 11) were prepared from the non-ionic phthalocyanines (4, 6, 8, and 10). All proposed structures were supported by instrumental methods. The aggregation behaviors of the phthalocyanines (4-11) were investigated in different solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water. Water soluble cationic Pcs (5, 7, 9, and 11) aggregated in water and sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to prevent the aggregation. The second derivatives of the UV-Vis spectra of aggregated Pcs were used for analyzing the Q and B bands of aggregated species. Thermal behaviors of the phthalocyanines were also studied. In addition, anti-bacterial properties of the phthalocyanines were investigated. We used four gram negative and two gram positive bacteria to determine antibacterial activity of these compounds. Compound 7 has the best activity against the all bacteria with 125 μg/mL of MIC value. Compounds 4, 6, and 10 have the similar effect on the bacteria with 250 μg/mL of MIC value.

  10. Impact of biochar amendment on soil water soluble carbon in the context of extreme hydrological events.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoyuan; Griffin, Deirdre E; Parikh, Sanjai J; Scow, Kate M

    2016-10-01

    Biochar amendments to soil have been promoted as a low cost carbon (C) sequestration strategy as well as a way to increase nutrient retention and remediate contaminants. If biochar is to become part of a long-term management strategy, it is important to consider its positive and negative impacts, and their trade-offs, on soil organic matter (SOM) and soluble C under different hydrological conditions such as prolonged drought or frequent wet-dry cycles. A 52-week incubation experiment measuring the influence of biochar on soil water soluble C under different soil moisture conditions (wet, dry, or wet-dry cycles) indicated that, in general, dry and wet-dry cycles increased water soluble C, and biochar addition further increased release of water soluble C from native SOM. Biochar amendment appeared to increase transformation of native SOM to water soluble C, based on specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA) and C stable isotope composition; however, the increased amount of water soluble C from native SOM is less than 1% of total biochar C. The impacts of biochar on water soluble C need to be carefully considered when applying biochar to agricultural soil.

  11. Water-soluble organic carbon, dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, and α-dicarbonyls in the tropical Indian aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavuluri, Chandra Mouli; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Swaminathan, T.

    2010-06-01

    Tropical aerosol (PM10) samples (n = 49) collected from southeast coast of India were studied for water-soluble dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12), ketocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal), together with analyses of total carbon (TC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Their distributions were characterized by a predominance of oxalic acid followed by terephthalic (t-Ph), malonic, and succinic acids. Total concentrations of diacids (227-1030 ng m-3), ketoacids (16-105 ng m-3), and dicarbonyls (4-23 ng m-3) are comparative to those from other Asian megacities such as Tokyo and Hong Kong. t-Ph acid was found as the second most abundant diacid in the Chennai aerosols. This feature has not been reported previously in atmospheric aerosols. t-Ph acid is most likely derived from the field burning of plastics. Water-soluble diacids were found to contribute 0.4%-3% of TC and 4%-11% of WSOC. Based on molecular distributions and backward air mass trajectories, we found that diacids and related compounds in coastal South Indian aerosols are influenced by South Asian and Indian Ocean monsoons. Organic aerosols are also suggested to be significantly transported long distances from North India and the Middle East in early winter and from Southeast Asia in late winter, but some originate from photochemical reactions over the Bay of Bengal. In contrast, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and South Indian continent are suggested as major source regions in summer. We also found daytime maxima of most diacids, except for C9 and t-Ph acids, which showed nighttime maxima in summer. Emissions from marine and terrestrial plants, combined with land/sea breezes and in situ photochemical oxidation, are suggested especially in summer as an important factor that controls the composition of water-soluble organic aerosols over the southeast coast of India. Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources are also important in megacity Chennai, but their influence is

  12. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Chih-YU; CHUNG, Ying-CHIEN

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. Objectives The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. Material and Methods The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan). The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC) and pH values (pH 5-8), and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. Results The effect of the pH variation (5-8) on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containin g mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91%) in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, the alcohol

  13. Local circulation and aerosol water-soluble ions--a case study in Taiwan during Mei-yu season

    PubMed

    Lee; Lin; Hsu; Chang; Chang

    1999-01-01

    The Mei-yu (plum rain) season is a short but important period when the weather changes from spring to summer in Taiwan. In this study, size-segregated aerosols were collected alternately at 5 sampling sites in northwestern Taiwan from June 16 to 24, 1994. For the first time in Taiwan, this study revealed the aerosol mass spectra and water-soluble ions in the Mei-yu season. For all samples, a bi-modal aerosol mass spectra was found with modal diameters at 3.2 and 0.32 microm, respectively. The aerosol samples were able to be divided into different groups to show their mass and ion spectra according to the calculated 5-hr backward air trajectory. The utilization of enrichment factors showed that aerosol Cl-, Na+, and Mg2+ for all sizes, and super-micron SO4(2-) were related to the sea. Both the scheme of "chlorine loss" (Ohta and Okita, 1990) and a multivariate analysis (Thurston and Spengler, 1985) for categorizing water-soluble ions showed that sea-salts were major contributors in the prevalence of a sea breeze. In contrast, the secondary salts were significant for land breeze and a mix of land-sea breeze. In conclusion, the influence of local circulation on the distribution of aerosol mass and ionic species was found to be prominent.

  14. Enhanced bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate by using liposomes containing a bile salt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jianming; Lai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei

    2009-07-06

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug fenofibrate when liposomes containing a bile salt were used as oral drug delivery systems. Liposomes composed of soybean phosphotidylcholine (SPC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were prepared by a dry-film dispersing method coupled with sonication and homogenization. Several properties of the liposomes, including particle size, entrapment efficiency and membrane fluidity, were extensively characterized. In vitro release experiments indicated that no more than 20% of total fenofibrate was released from SPC/cholesterol (CL) and SPC/SDC liposomes at 2 h, in contrast with near complete release for micronized fenofibrate capsules. Strikingly, in vivo measurements of pharmacokinetics and bioavailability demonstrated higher rates of fenofibrate absorption from both SPC/SDC and SPC/CL liposomes than micronized fenofibrate. The bioavailability of SPC/SDC and SPC/CL liposomes was 5.13- and 3.28-fold higher, respectively, than that of the micronized fenofibrate. The disparity between oral bioavailability and in vitro release for liposomes strongly suggests alternative absorption mechanisms rather than enhanced release. Importantly, SPC/SDC liposomes exhibited a 1.57-fold increase in bioavailability relative to SPC/CL liposomes, indicating that liposomes containing bile salts may be used to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  15. Non-ionic emulsifying release agent for bituminous sands conveyor belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, E.; Shaw, R.

    1980-04-15

    An aqueous solution suspension or emulsion containing a water-soluble or oil-soluble nonionic emulsifying agent is useful, when spread over the load-bearing surface of a conveyor carrying bituminous sands, to act as a release agent to promote the clean separation of the tacky sands from the belt when the latter rounds the end roller of the conveyor system and unloads the sands. 2 claims.

  16. Size-resolved particulate water-soluble organic compounds in the urban, mountain and marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Kawamura, K.; Xie, M.; Hu, S.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.; Cao, J.; An, Z.

    2010-07-01

    Primary (i.e., sugars and sugar alcohols) and secondary water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) (i.e., dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids) were characterised on a molecular level in size-segregated aerosols from the urban and mountain atmosphere of China and from the marine atmosphere in the outflow region of East Asia. Levoglucosan is the most abundant WSOCs in the urban and mountain atmosphere, whose accumulated concentrations in all stages are 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of marine aerosols. In contrast, malic, succinic and phthalic acids are dominant in the marine aerosols, which are 3-6 times more abundant than levoglucosan. This suggests that a continuous formation of secondary organic aerosols is occurring in the marine atmosphere during the long-range transport of air mass from inland China to the North Pacific. Sugars and sugar-alcohols, except for levoglucosan, gave a bimodal size distribution in the urban and mountain areas, peaking at 0.7-1.1 μm and >3.3 μm, and a unimodal distribution in the marine region, peaking at >3.3 μm. In contrast, levoglucosan and all the secondary WSOCs, except for benzoic and azelaic acids, showed a unimodal size distribution with a peak at 0.7-1.1 μm. Geometric mean diameters (GMDs) of the WSOCs in fine particles (<2.1 μm) at the urban site are larger in winter than in spring, due to an enhanced coagulation effect under the development of an inversion layer. However, GMDs of levoglucosan and most of the secondary WSOCs in the coarse mode are larger in the mountain and marine air and smaller in the urban air. This is most likely caused by an enhanced hygroscopic growth due to the high humidity of the mountain and marine atmosphere.

  17. Preparation and properties of polyurea microcapsules with non-ionic surfactant as emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Yan, N; Ni, P; Zhang, M

    1993-01-01

    Polyurea microcapsules containing oily substances were prepared by using cyanate and polyamine as the monomers with non-ionic surfactant as the emulsifiers. Results showed that TDI-DETA microcapsules had the best stability. The mean diameter decreased and the size distribution curves became narrower and sharper as the stirring speed and the emulsifier concentration during emulsification increased. Addition of Tween 80 to aqueous solution containing OP led to an increase in microcapsule diameter and wider distribution of microcapsules due to the changes in interfacial tension. The isoelectric point of the polyurea microcapsules was found to be pH 5.8.

  18. Separation of 24 dansylamino acids by capillary electrophoresis with a non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, N; Terabe, S

    1994-09-30

    The separation of 24 dansylamino acids was investigated by capillary electrophoresis with an additive of micelles of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween 20. Although two pairs of peaks, norvaline and methionine derivatives, and didansyltyrosine and solvent (methanol), did not show good resolution, other dansylamino acids were well separated within 70 min using 100 mM Tween 20 and pH 2.40. The theoretical plate numbers calculated for dansylamino acids were 28,000-111,000 with a 19-cm capillary column.

  19. Modulation of photophysics of 2-hydroxy 1-naphthaldehyde in non-ionic micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, Tirtha Pratim; Chowdhury, Papia; Chakravorti, Sankar

    2007-07-01

    Interesting structural influence of different types of non-ionic micelles (Tween-40, Tween-80, Brij-30 and Brij-78) on the excited state proton transfer photophysics of 2-hydroxy 1-naphthaldehyde has been investigated. Anion band formation in the excited state is favored in Brij micelles, similar to aqueous environment due to hydrogen bonding ability of OH group in Brij but the same is hindered in Tween micelles. Quantum chemical calculations predicted, with free energy and enthalpy values, two possible anionic conformers ( cis and trans). One of the two anionic conformers is favored in Brij 30 and addition of base seems to lower the barrier for other conformer to appear.

  20. Comparison of the performance of non-ionic and anionic surfactants as mobile phase additives in the RPLC analysis of basic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ángel, María J; García-Álvarez-Coque, María C

    2011-03-01

    Surfactants added to the mobile phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) give rise to a modified stationary phase, due to the adsorption of surfactant monomers. Depending on the surfactant nature (ionic or non-ionic), the coated stationary phase can exhibit a positive net charge, or just change its polarity remaining neutral. Also, micelles in the mobile phase introduce new sites for solute interaction. This affects the chromatographic behavior, especially in the case of basic compounds. Two surfactants of different nature, the non-ionic Brij-35 and the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) added to water or aqueous-organic mixtures, are here compared in the separation of basic compounds (β-blockers and tricyclic antidepressants). The reversible/irreversible adsorption of the monomers of both surfactants on the stationary phase was examined. The changes in the nature of the chromatographic system using different columns and chromatographic conditions were followed based on the changes in retention and peak shape. The study revealed that Brij-35 is suitable for analyzing basic compounds of intermediate polarity, using "green chemistry", since the addition of an organic solvent is not needed and Brij-35 is a biodegradable surfactant. In contrast, RPLC with hydro-organic mixtures or mobile phases containing SDS required high concentrations of organic solvents.

  1. Water-soluble aminocurdlan derivatives by chemoselective azide reduction using NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruoran; Edgar, Kevin J

    2015-05-20

    Water-solubility can often enhance the utility of polysaccharide derivatives, for example in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Synthesis of water-soluble aminopolysaccharides, particularly those bearing other sensitive functional groups, can be a challenging endeavor. Curdlan is a bioactive β-1,3-glucan with considerable promise for biomedical applications. Aminocurdlans are intriguing target molecules for study of, for example, their interactions with the proteins that form tight junctions between enterocytes. Herein we report the preparation of two water-soluble 6-aminocurdlans starting from 6-bromo-6-deoxycurdlan. The 6-bromide was first displaced by nucleophilic substitution with sodium azide in dimethyl sulfoxide. The O-2 groups were acylated with hydrophilic oligo (ethylene oxide) esters, so as to enhance aqueous solubility. The resultant 6-azido-6-deoxy-2,4-di-O-trioxadecanoylcurdlan was then treated with excess sodium borohydride to reduce the azide; unexpectedly, the water-soluble product proved to be the amide, 6-trioxadecanamido-6-deoxycurdlan. Regioselectivity and degree of substitution (DS) of those derivatives were characterized by means of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FTIR-spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and titration. Alternatively, direct borohydride reduction of the parent 6-azido-6-deoxycurdlan afforded 6-amino-6-deoxycurdlan that was also water-soluble.

  2. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Water-Soluble Resin-Coated Natural Fiber Green Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Ken-Ichi; Hayakawa, Tomoyuki

    In this study, water-soluble biodegradable resin was introduced as a coating agent to improve the interfacial strength and then to fabricate a high-performance green composite with polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp yarn. Dip coating was carried out for hemp yarn and the green composites were fabricated by hot processing. The coated green composite achieves a high tensile strength of 117 MPa even though the fiber volume fraction is less than 30%. Interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was measured by a single fiber pull-out test, and the effect of water-soluble resin on the tensile properties of the composites was evaluated. As a result, when using coated natural bundles, the IFSS value is smaller than when using noncoated natural bundles. On the basis of observations of the fractured surface of composites and initial yarns using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of the impregnation of water-soluble resin into the natural bundles on the tensile strength is discussed in detail. It is found that water-soluble resin is effective in improving the mechanical properties of the composite, although the interfacial strength between PLA and water-soluble resin was decreased, and as a result, the tensile strength of green composites increases by almost 20%.

  3. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble compounds using amphiphilic phospholipid polymers with different molecular architectures.

    PubMed

    Mu, Mingwei; Konno, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-29

    To achieve stable and effective solubilization of poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds, water-soluble and amphiphilic polymers composed of hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) units and hydrophobic n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) units were prepared. MPC polymers having different molecular architectures, such as random-type monomer unit sequences and block-type sequences, formed polymer aggregates when they were dissolved in aqueous media. The structure of the random-type polymer aggregate was loose and flexible. On the other hand, the block-type polymer formed polymeric micelles, which were composed of very stable hydrophobic poly(BMA) cores and hydrophilic poly(MPC) shells. The solubilization of a poorly water-soluble bioactive compound, paclitaxel (PTX), in the polymer aggregates was observed, however, solubilizing efficiency and stability were strongly depended on the polymer architecture; in other words, PTX stayed in the poly(BMA) core of the polymer micelle formed by the block-type polymer even when plasma protein was present in the aqueous medium. On the other hand, when the random-type polymer was used, PTX was transferred from the polymer aggregate to the protein. We conclude that water-soluble and amphiphilic MPC polymers are good candidates as solubilizers for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. PMID:27501943

  5. Membrane Proteins Are Dramatically Less Conserved than Water-Soluble Proteins across the Tree of Life.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Dessimoz, Christophe; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Membrane proteins are crucial in transport, signaling, bioenergetics, catalysis, and as drug targets. Here, we show that membrane proteins have dramatically fewer detectable orthologs than water-soluble proteins, less than half in most species analyzed. This sparse distribution could reflect rapid divergence or gene loss. We find that both mechanisms operate. First, membrane proteins evolve faster than water-soluble proteins, particularly in their exterior-facing portions. Second, we demonstrate that predicted ancestral membrane proteins are preferentially lost compared with water-soluble proteins in closely related species of archaea and bacteria. These patterns are consistent across the whole tree of life, and in each of the three domains of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. Our findings point to a fundamental evolutionary principle: membrane proteins evolve faster due to stronger adaptive selection in changing environments, whereas cytosolic proteins are under more stringent purifying selection in the homeostatic interior of the cell. This effect should be strongest in prokaryotes, weaker in unicellular eukaryotes (with intracellular membranes), and weakest in multicellular eukaryotes (with extracellular homeostasis). We demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Similarly, we show that extracellular water-soluble proteins exhibit an even stronger pattern of low homology than membrane proteins. These striking differences in conservation of membrane proteins versus water-soluble proteins have important implications for evolution and medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Anticoccidial efficacy of drinking water soluble diclazuril on experimental and field coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H A; El-Bahy, M M; El-Zorba, H Y; El-Hady, M

    2005-08-01

    Prophylactic and curative capacity of water soluble formulation of Diclazuril (Diclosol 1%) and feed additive form (Clinacox, 0.5%) were tested against Eimeria infection in broiler chickens. Such testing was performed both experimentally and in the field. Toltrazuril (Baycox, 2.5%) was used as reference control drug. Water soluble formulation of Diclazuril induced a marked inhibitory effect on the different stages of the parasite life cycle in experimentally infected treated birds especially when applied on the day when blood first appeared in the faeces [fifth day post-infection (d.p.i.)] as well as on the second day of blood dropping (6 d.p.i.). Both tested dosage levels of Diclazuril water soluble formulation in drinking water (5 and 10 ppm) showed the same effect in controlling coccidial infection and reducing the total oocyst numbers, lesion and faecal scores. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of water soluble form of Diclazuril and the reference control drug (Toltrazuril, 25 ppm). In addition, testing the water soluble formulation (5 ppm) in naturally infected poultry farm (20,000 birds), showed the same anticoccidial effect observed when using Toltrazuril, as a treatment for coccidiosis. In conclusion, addition of Diclazuril at the dose of 5 ppm in the drinking water of naturally coccidia infected bird induced the same effect as 25 ppm of Toltrazuril as a treatment for coccidiosis in chickens.

  7. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  8. Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions in the presence of non-ionic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareche, M.; Azri, N.; Allal, A.; Zeraibi, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we characterized at first, the rheological behavior of the bentonite suspensions and the aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO), then we were investigated the influence of this polymer in a water-based drilling fluid model (6% of bentonite suspension). The objective is to exhibit how the non ionic polymer with molecular weight 6×103 g/mol. of varying concentration mass (0.7%, 1%, 2% et 3%) significantly alter the rheological properties (yield stress, viscosity, loss and elastic modulus) of the bentonite suspensions. The rheological measurements made in simple shear and in dynamic on the mixture (water-bentonite-PEO), showed rheological properties of bentonite suspensions both in the presence and absence of non-ionic polymer. The PEO presents an affinity for the bentonite particles slowing down their kinetic aggregation. The analysis by X-rays diffraction also allowed understanding the structure of this mixture. It had revealed the intercalation between of the clay platelets on one hand, and the links bridges assured by the chains of polymer between bentonite particles beyond a critical concentration in PEO on the other hand. The Herschel- Bulkley rheological model is used for the correlation of our experimental results.

  9. Transdermal delivery of haloperidol by proniosomal formulations with non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Azarbayjani, Anahita Fathi; Tan, En Hui; Chan, Yew Weng; Chan, Sui Yung

    2009-08-01

    Proniosomal formulations with non-ionic surfactant were studied. The effect of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of one or two surfactants on drug solubility, proniosome surface structure and stability and skin permeation of haloperidol from different formulations were investigated. Haloperidol (HP) was entrapped in proniosomes with very high efficiency for all formulations. Stability studies performed at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C for a period of 6 weeks did not reveal any significant drug leakage (p>0.05). Formulations with single surfactants were found to increase the skin permeation of HP more than formulations containing two surfactants. The number of carbons in the alkyl chain of the non-ionic surfactant influenced the in vitro permeation of HP though the epidermis and the skin permeation was increased with increase in hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. Interfacial tension and surfactant hydrophobicity appeared to be useful for elucidating mechanism of skin permeation and for comparing drug fluxes from different proniosomal formulations.

  10. Effect of photochemical pre-treatment on COD fractionation of a non-ionic textile surfactant.

    PubMed

    Cokgor, E U; Arsian-Alaton, I; Erdinc, E; Insel, G; Orhon, D

    2007-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is focused on the effect of photochemical (H2O2/UV-C) pretreatment on COD fractionation and degradation kinetics of a non-ionic textile surfactant. In the first part of the study, the COD of non-ionic surfactant was adjusted to 1000 mg/L in order to simulate real effluent originating from the textile preparation stage featuring desizing, scouring, washing and rinsing operations. The surfactant was subjected to H2O2/UV-C pretreatment for up to 120 min at a dose of 30 mM (980 mg/L) H2O2. The biodegradability studies for untreated and photochemically treated samples were evaluated on the basis of modeling of oxygen uptake rate (OUR) profiles. Modelling of OUR profiles conducted for untreated sample showed that single complex substrate was subjected to enzymatic breakdown and disintegrated into one readily and two types of slowly biodegradable substrates. After modelling the biodegradation of photochemically pretreated sample, the readily biodegradable COD fraction was reduced, on the other hand, more slowly biodegradable organics were generated. A higher disintegration rate was obtained for chemically pretreated samples. However, other kinetic constants of growth and hydrolysis processes were not affected considerably.

  11. Organo/layered double hydroxide nanohybrids used to remove non ionic pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chaara, D; Bruna, F; Ulibarri, M A; Draoui, K; Barriga, C; Pavlovic, I

    2011-11-30

    The preparation and characterization of organo/layered double hydroxide nanohybrids with dodecylsulfate and sebacate as interlayer anion were studied in detail. The aim of the modification of the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was to change the hydrophilic character of the interlayer to hydrophobic to improve the ability of the nanohybrids to adsorb non-ionic pesticides such as alachlor and metolachlor from water. Adsorption tests were conducted on organo/LDHs using variable pH values, contact times and initial pesticide concentrations (adsorption isotherms) in order to identify the optimum conditions for the intended purpose. Adsorbents and adsorption products were characterized several physicochemical techniques. The adsorption test showed that a noticeable increase of the adsorption of the non-ionic herbicides was produced. Based on the results, the organo/LDHs could be good adsorbents to remove alachlor and metolachlor from water. Different organo/LDHs complexes were prepared by a mechanical mixture and by adsorption. The results show that HTSEB-based complex displays controlled release properties that reduce metolachlor leaching in soil columns compared to a technical product and the other formulations. The release was dependent on the nature of the adsorbent used to prepare the complexes. Thus, it can be concluded that organo/LDHs might act as suitable supports for the design of pesticide slow release formulations with the aim of reducing the adverse effects derived from rapid transport losses of the chemical once applied to soils.

  12. Non-ionic detergents facilitate non-specific binding of M13 bacteriophage to polystyrene surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Abdulrahim R; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarr, Alexander W

    2015-09-01

    Phage-displayed random peptide libraries are widely used for identifying peptide interactions with proteins and other substrates. Selection of peptide ligands involves iterative rounds of affinity enrichment. The binding properties of the selected phage clones are routinely tested using immunoassay after propagation to high titre in a bacterial host and precipitation using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and high salt concentration. These immunoassays can suffer from low sensitivity and high background signals. Polysorbate 20 (Tween(®) 20) is a non-ionic detergent commonly used in immunoassay washing buffers to reduce non-specific binding, and is also used as a blocking reagent. We have observed that Tween 20 enhances non-specific M13 library phage binding in a peptide-independent manner. Other non-ionic detergents were also found to promote significant, dose-dependent non-specific phage binding in ELISA. This effect was not observed for assays using phage concentrated by ultracentrifugation, suggesting that interactions occur between detergents and the PEG-precipitated phage, irrespective of the displayed peptide motif. This artefact may impact on successful affinity selection of peptides from phage-display libraries. We propose alternative methods for screening phage libraries for identifying binding interactions with target ligands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of ionic and non-ionic solutions on intradental nerve activity in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bilotto, G; Markowitz, K; Kim, S

    1988-02-01

    Intradental nerve activity (INA) was recorded from cat canine teeth to determine whether solutions altering intradental nerve sensitivity were strongly correlated to the osmotic concentration of the solution or via a more direct action on intradental nerve excitability. The effects of various ionic and non-ionic solutions were tested in both deep and shallow dentinal cavities. With saline in the deep dentinal cavity a very low firing rate or resting nerve spike (action potentials) activity was recorded. When 3 M NaCl was placed in the same or similar cavity a high discharge rate of nerve spike activity was obtained. This 3 M NaCl elicited activity was utilized to determine the inhibitory or excitatory effects of various test agents on the intradental nerves. The following agents: MgCl2, MgSO4, and CaCl2 were inhibitory to the INA response elicited by 3 M NaCl. Non-ionic solutions of urea or sucrose failed to evoke INA and they were also minimally effective in altering 3 M NaCl elicited activity. Shallow cavities were utilized to maintain the tubular structure of dentin relatively intact. In the shallow cavity preparations hypertonic sucrose or urea failed to evoke INA, even when dentin was etched with 50% citric acid for 2 min. The results suggest that the osmolarity of these solutions is a poor indicator of the INA.

  14. Comparative extraction of erythrocyte EDTA-membrane proteins by some ionic and non-ionic detergents.

    PubMed

    Ballestrin, G; Covaz, L; Scutari, G

    1980-06-15

    In order to examine whether it would be possible to obtain, by a simple extraction procedure from EDTA-erythrocyte-membranes, a partially purified preparation of the "band 3 zone" proteins, we have tested four solubilizing agents of common use. Detergents, both ionic (DOC and SDS) and non ionic (Tween 80 and Triton X-100), were not able, in our experimental conditions, to completely solubilize erythrocyte fragmented membranes which had previously been washed in EDTA-buffers. However, they were able to solubilize some of the membrane proteins, which could then be separated by SDS-PGE. The PGE densitometric profiles reported in this communication indicate that the protein mixture extracted by the ionic detergents DOC and SDS qualitatively reflects the protein composition of the membranes. Among the non ionic detergents, on the other hand, Triton X-100 appeared to be able to extract mainly one band (most probably the band 3 zone), while Tween 80 did not apparently extract any of the membrane proteins. Detergent concentrations, medium composition and experimental procedures are described in detail.

  15. Ternary phase diagrams of a thermoreversible chelating non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Nave, S; Testard, F; Coulombeau, H; Baczko, K; Larpent, C; Zemb, Th

    2009-04-21

    The behaviour of a di-block molecule associating a diamide group and a non-ionic surfactant (C(i)E(j)) is determined in a ternary surfactant/water/oil/system. Its properties are compared to the ones of a parent non-ionic surfactant C(i)E(j) through the limits of boundaries in the phase prisms. The existence of a stable microemulsion single phase in a defined temperature and concentration range is demonstrated. The extension of the microemulsion domain is limited by the presence of a gel, containing lyotropic liquid crystals as gelling agents. Temperature dependence is observed for the curvature below the temperature of zero spontaneous curvature, but the ternary system cannot produce reverse microemulsion as observed with classical C(i)E(j). The decrease of the mean curvature with temperature is inhibited by the presence of the diamide as a grafted complexing group. Liquid-liquid extraction processes with this type of surfactant are possible, but will require the presence of at least a fourth component to enlarge the water in an oil microemulsion domain.

  16. [Relationship of resistance to diseases and water-soluble amino acids in Konjac leaves].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongbo; Jiang, Qiaolong

    2008-05-01

    Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze water-soluble amino acids in the normal Amorphophallus Konjac, Amorphophallus albus, Amorphophallus bulbifer, and the soft rot Amorphophallus Konjac, to determine the relationship of the different soft-rot resistant Konjac varieties and the proportion and content of the multiple water-soluble amino acids. The results showed that there are remarkable differences in the content and proportion of water-soluble amino acids in different resistant varieties and the same variety of normal and diseased leaves of Amorphophallus. In this study, the bank of fingerprint 15 chromatogram was established and can be used to analyze the related characteristic peaks and the resistance of Amorphophallus.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescent properties of water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haisong; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Hailei; Bai, Libin; Wu, Yonggang; Wang, Sujuan; Ba, Xinwu

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin is a potential natural anticancer drug with low oral bioavailability because of poor water solubility. The aqueous solubility of curcumin is enhanced by means of modification with the carbohydrate units. Polymerization of the curcumin-containing monomer with carbohydrate-containing monomer gives the water-soluble glycopolymer bearing curcumin pendant residues. The obtained copolymers (P1 and P2) having desirable water solubility were well-characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The copolymer P2 with a molar ratio of 1:6 (curcumin/carbohydrate) calculated from the proton NMR results exhibits a similar anticancer activity compared to original curcumin, which may serve as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the field of anticancer medicine.

  18. Chromophoric and dendritic phosphoramidites enable construction of functional dendrimers with exceptional brightness and water solubility.

    PubMed

    Shaller, Andrew D; Wan, Wei; Zhao, Baoming; Li, Alexander D Q

    2014-09-15

    The fluorescence brightness of a molecular probe determines whether it can be effectively measured and its water solubility dictates if it can be applied in real-world biological systems. However, molecules brighter than the most efficient fluorescent dyes or particles brighter than quantum dots are hard to come by, especially when they must also be soluble in water. In this report, chromophoric phosphoramidites are used in a solid-state synthesis to construct functional dendrimers. When highly twisted chromophores are chosen and the proper spacers and dendrons are introduced, the resultant dendrimers emit exceptionally bright fluorescence. Chromophores, spacers, and dendrons are stitched together by efficient phosphoramidite reagents, which afford high-yield water-soluble phosphodiester linkages after deprotection. The resulting water-soluble dendrimers are exceptionally bright. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of addition of water-soluble chitin on amylose film.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Shimahashi, Katsumasa; Takahara, Junichi; Sunako, Michihiro; Takaha, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kozo; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Amylose films blended with chitosan, which were free from additives such as acid, salt, and plasticizer, were prepared by casting mixtures of an aqueous solution of an enzymatically synthesized amylose and that of water-soluble chitin (44.1% deacetylated). The presence of a small amount of chitin (less than 10%) increased significantly the permeability of gases (N2, O2, CO2, C2H4) and improved the mechanical parameters of amylose film; particularly, the elastic modulus and elongation of the blend films were larger than those of amylose or chitin films. No antibacterial activity was observed with either amylose or water-soluble chitin films. But amylose films having a small amount of chitin showed strong antibacterial action, suggesting a morphological change in water-soluble chitin on the film surface by blending with amylose molecule. These facts suggested the presence of a molecular complex of amylose and chitosan.

  20. Effect of supplementation of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Talikoti, Prashanth; Bobby, Zachariah; Hamide, Abdoul

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of water-soluble vitamins on oxidative stress and blood pressure in prehypertensives. Sixty prehypertensives were recruited and randomized into 2 groups of 30 each. One group received water-soluble vitamins and the other placebo for 4 months. Further increase in blood pressure was not observed in the vitamin group which increased significantly in the placebo group at the end of 4 months. Malonedialdehyde and protein carbonylation were reduced during the course of treatment with vitamins whereas in the placebo group there was an increase in the level of malondialdehyde. In conclusion, supplementation of water-soluble vitamins in prehypertension reduces oxidative stress and its progression to hypertension.

  1. Water-soluble chitosan-derived sustainable materials: towards filaments, aerogels, microspheres, and plastics.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nhan Thi Thanh; Chau, Trang The Lieu; Duong, Hau Van; Le, Hoa Thi; Tran, Thi Thi Van; Le, Thang Quoc; Vu, Tuyen Phi; Nguyen, Cuong Duc; Nguyen, Long Viet; Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2017-09-27

    Bioinspired materials have aroused great interest as their inherent biocompatible and structural characteristics have given rise to sustainable applications. In this work, we have reported the phase and morphology transformation of chitosan from crystalline nanofibrils into amorphous sheets for fabricating sustainable materials. Acetylation-induced aqueous dissolution of native chitosan nanofibrils affords water-soluble chitosan as a biopolymeric liquid. Water-soluble chitosan macromolecules self-aggregate into amorphous sheets on solidification, presenting an interesting way to inspire new structures of chitosan assemblies. Through control over gelation, lyophilization, and self-assembled confinement of water-soluble chitosan, we have fabricated novel chitosan materials including filaments, aerogels, microspheres, and plastics that are promising for sustainable use.

  2. Synthesis and application of water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin crosslinking agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Gao, Shanshan; You, Jing; Yu, Jiliang; Jiang, Tao; He, Dehai; Gong, Hui; Zhang, Tiantian; Wei, Junjie; Guo, Suzhen

    2017-04-01

    Polyacrylamide and water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin can produce crosslinking reaction to generate the movable gel, which can be used in deep profile control to enhance oil recovery. In this paper, the preparation process of water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin crosslinking agent (polyhydroxymethyl phenolic) was presented, including the raw material mixture ratio and synthesis process. The water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin was synthesized by the technology of two-step base catalysis with NaOH and Ba(OH)2•8H2O composite catalyst. The movable gel prepared with this crosslinking agent and polyacrylamide has good stability and long shelf life through the performance evaluation experiment. The above movable gel was applied to deep profile control and obtained better flooding efficiency.

  3. Synthesis of scutellarein derivatives to increase biological activity and water solubility.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Hao; Li, Nian-Guang; Shi, Qian-Ping; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Ze-Xi; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Peng-Xuan; Gu, Ting; Wu, Wen-Yu; Fang, Fang; Xin-Xue; Li, He-Min; Yang, Jian-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-11-01

    In order to improve the biological activity and water solubility of scutellarin (1), some derivatives of its main metabolite (scutellarein) were designed and synthesized. All the compounds were tested for their thrombin inhibition activity through the analyzation of thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FIB). Their antioxidant activities were assessed by measuring their scavenging capacities toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and the ability to protect PC12 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, their water solubility were also assessed by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. The results showed that compound 8b demonstrated stronger anticoagulant and antioxidant activity, better water solubility compared with scutellarein (2), which warrants it as a promising agent for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coaxial electrospinning for encapsulation and controlled release of fragile water-soluble bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongliang; Wang, Liqun; Zhu, Kangjie

    2014-11-10

    Coaxial electrospinning is a robust technique for one-step encapsulation of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents, including growth factors, DNA and even living organisms, into core-shell nanofibers. The coaxial electrospinning process eliminates the damaging effects due to direct contact of the agents with organic solvents or harsh conditions during emulsification. The shell layer serves as a barrier to prevent the premature release of the water-soluble core contents. By varying the structure and composition of the nanofibers, it is possible to precisely modulate the release of the encapsulated agents. Promising work has been done with coaxially electrospun non-woven mats integrated with bioactive agents for use in tissue engineering, in local delivery and in wound healing, etc. This paper reviews the origins of the coaxial electrospinning method, its updated status and potential future developments for controlled release of the class of fragile, water-soluble bioactive agents.

  5. Improving the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of silymarin by nanoencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soo; Hong, Da Young; Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2017-03-08

    The aims of this study were to improve the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of milk thistle silymarin by nanoencapsulation and to assess the functions of silymarin nanoparticle-containing film as an antimicrobial food-packaging agent. Silymarin nanoparticles were prepared using water-soluble chitosan (WCS) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). As the WCS and silymarin concentrations increased, particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) significantly increased. Nanoencapsulation significantly improved the water solubility of silymarin 7.7-fold. Antimicrobial activity of silymarin was effectively improved when silymarin was entrapped within the nanocapsule compared to when it was not entrapped. Films incorporating silymarin nanoparticles had better antimicrobial activity than films incorporating free silymarin. The results suggest that silymarin nanoparticles have applications in antimicrobial food additives and food packing.

  6. Separation of three water-soluble vitamins by poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Zhang, Qian-Li; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A method for rapid separation and sensitive determination of three water-soluble vitamins, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid (VC), and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) has been developed by PDMS microchannel electrophoresis integrated with amperometric detection. After treatment of the microchip with oxygen plasma, the peak shapes of the three analytes were essentially improved. Pyridoxine, VC, and PABA were well separated within only 80 s in a running buffer of 20 mM borate solution (pH 8.5). Good linearity was obtained within the concentration range of 2-200 microM for the three water-soluble vitamins. The detection limits were 1.0 microM for pyridoxine and VC, and 1.5 microM for PABA. The proposed method has been successfully applied to real human urine sample, without solid phase extraction, with recoveries of 80-122% for the three water-soluble vitamins.

  7. Synthesis of water-soluble silicon-porphyrin: protolytic behaviour of axially coordinated hydroxy groups.

    PubMed

    Remello, Sebastian Nybin; Kuttassery, Fazalurahman; Hirano, Takehiro; Nabetani, Yu; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Onuki, Satomi; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Inoue, Haruo

    2015-12-14

    A new water-soluble silicon(IV)-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (SiTCPP) with silicon(iv), the second most abundant element on Earth, in the center of porphyrin was synthesized. Fundamental properties including protolytic behaviour of axially coordinating hydroxy groups, and electrochemical behaviour were characterized. The properties were compared with those of silicon(IV)-tetra(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)porphyrin (SiTMP) and silicon(IV)-tetra(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)porphyrin (SiTFMPP) and discussed in respect to the electron donating/withdrawing effect of the substituents. Two axially coordinating hydroxy groups of SiTCPP exhibit a four-step protolytic behaviour under the acidic conditions along with a single step protolysis of peripheral carboxyl groups. Though SiTCPP and SiTFMPP did not show any reactivity in the photochemical oxygenation of a substrate with K2PtCl6 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, the first oxidation wave in the electrochemical process of SiTCPP and SiTFMPP showed catalytic behaviour in aqueous acetonitrile solution at any pH condition, in contrast to SiTMP which has only a reversible oxidation wave under neutral and weakly acidic conditions. The criteria for the electrochemical oxidative activation of water and the photooxygenation of the substrate were obtained. The higher oxidation wave of Si-porphyrins than ∼0.86 volt vs. SHE is required for the electrochemical oxidation of water, while suitable protecting groups such as a methyl substituent is a requisite for the photochemical oxygenation with K2PtCl6 as a sacrificial electron acceptor.

  8. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  9. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hamid M.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the mechanisms and regulation of intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins under normal physiological conditions, and of the factors/conditions that affect and interfere with theses processes has been significantly expanded in recent years as a result of the availability of a host of valuable molecular/cellular tools. Although structurally and functionally unrelated, the water-soluble vitamins share the feature of being essential for normal cellular functions, growth and development, and that their deficiency leads to a variety of clinical abnormalities that range from anaemia to growth retardation and neurological disorders. Humans cannot synthesize water-soluble vitamins (with the exception of some endogenous synthesis of niacin) and must obtain these micronutrients from exogenous sources. Thus body homoeostasis of these micronutrients depends on their normal absorption in the intestine. Interference with absorption, which occurs in a variety of conditions (e.g. congenital defects in the digestive or absorptive system, intestinal disease/resection, drug interaction and chronic alcohol use), leads to the development of deficiency (and sub-optimal status) and results in clinical abnormalities. It is well established now that intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins ascorbate, biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamin is via specific carrier-mediated processes. These processes are regulated by a variety of factors and conditions, and the regulation involves transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional mechanisms. Also well recognized now is the fact that the large intestine possesses specific and efficient uptake systems to absorb a number of water-soluble vitamins that are synthesized by the normal microflora. This source may contribute to total body vitamin nutrition, and especially towards the cellular nutrition and health of the local colonocytes. The present review aims to outline our current

  10. Nanostructured liquid crystalline particles provide long duration sustained-release effect for a poorly water soluble drug after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Hanley, Tracey; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2011-07-30

    This study is the first to demonstrate the ability of nanostructured liquid crystal particles to sustain the absorption of a poorly water soluble drug after oral administration. Cubic (V(2)) liquid crystalline nanostructured particles (cubosomes) formed from phytantriol (PHY) were shown to sustain the absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) beyond 48h after oral administration to rats. Plasma concentrations were sustained within the range of 21.5±1.5ng/mL from 12 to 48h. In stark contrast, cubosomes prepared using glyceryl monooleate (GMO) did not sustain the absorption of CZ and drug concentrations fell below quantifiable levels after 24h. Sustained absorption of CZ from PHY cubosomes lead to a significant enhancement (p<0.05) in oral bioavailability (F%=21%) compared to a CZ suspension (9%) and oleic acid emulsion (12%). Analysis of the nanostructured particles in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the V(2)Pn3m nanostructure of PHY cubosomes was maintained for extended periods of time, in contrast to GMO cubosomes where the V(2)Im3m nanostructure was lost within 18h after exposure, suggesting that degradation of the LC nanostructure may limit sustained drug release. In addition, PHY cubosomes were shown to be extensively retained in the stomach (>24h) leading to the conclusion that in the case of non-digestible PHY cubosomes, the stomach may act as a non-sink reservoir that facilitates the slow release of poorly water soluble drugs, highlighting the potential use of non-digestible LC nanostructured particles as novel sustained oral drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers for improved oil recovery: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.; Nasr-El-Din, H.A.

    1995-11-01

    Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers are reviewed with particular emphasis on their application in improved oil recovery (IOR). These polymers are very similar to conventional water-soluble polymers used in IOR, except that they have a small number of hydrophobic groups incorporated into the polymer backbone. At levels of incorporation of less than 1 mol%, these hydrophobic groups can significantly change polymer performance. These polymers have potential for use in mobility control, drilling fluids and profile modification. This review includes synthesis, characterization, stability, rheology and flow in porous media of associating polymers in IOR are also examined. 100 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans of water-soluble nickel salts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased risks of nasal cancer and lung cancer in nickel refiners have been investigated scientifically and discussed since they were detected in the 1930s. Nickel compounds are considered to be the main cause of the cancer excess. Parts of the nickel producing industry and their consultants oppose the classification of water-soluble nickel salts as human carcinogens, and argue that the risk in exposed workers should be ascribed to other occupational exposures and smoking. Discussion Respiratory cancer risks in Welsh, Finnish, and Norwegian nickel refiners add to the evidence of carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel. In Norwegian refiners, the first epidemiological study in 1973 identified high risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer among long-term electrolysis workers. Risk analyses based on exposure estimates developed in the 1980s supported the view that water-soluble nickel compounds were central in the development of cancer. Recently, new exposure estimates were worked out for the same cohort based on personal monitoring of total nickel and chemical determination of four forms of nickel. Additional data have been collected on life-time smoking habits, and on exposure to arsenic, asbestos, sulphuric acid mists, cobalt, and occupational lung carcinogens outside the refinery. After adjustment for these potential confounding exposures in case-control analyses, the risk pattern added to the evidence of an important role of water-soluble nickel compounds as causes of lung cancer. These Norwegian cancer studies rely on national Cancer Registry data, considered close to complete from 1953 onwards; and on National Population Register data continuously updated with mortality and emigration. Canadian mortality studies--perceived to offer the strongest support to the industry position not to recognise carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel--appear to suffer from limitations in follow-up time, loss to follow-up, absence of risk analysis with individual

  13. Determination of water-soluble ions in soils from the dry valleys of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, R.

    1981-01-01

    The soil chemistry of the dry valleys of Antarctica was studied. These valleys furnish a terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. The abundance of the water-soluble ions magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium chloride, and nitrate in soil samples was determined. All samples examined contained water-soluble salts reflecting the aridity of the area. Movement of salts to low-lying areas was verified. Upward ionic migration was evident in all core samples. Of all cations observed, sodium showed the greatest degree of migration.

  14. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Bunge, Scott D.; Gabaldon, John; Fan, Hongyou; Scullin, Chessa; Leve, Erik W.; Wilson, Michael C.; Tallant, David Robert; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid approach to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD) micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs within surfactant/lipid micelles. Analyses of UV-vis and photo luminescence spectra, along with transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  15. Pharmaceutical solid dispersion technology: a strategy to improve dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish K

    2013-08-01

    Oral bioavailability is the major problem when a poorly water-soluble active agent is delivered via oral route. To overcome such problems, solid dispersion systems have been demonstrated in literature to enhance the dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drugs. In the present review, the important aspects to be considered during preparation of solid dispersion systems viz., properties of polymer and preparation techniques of solid dispersion which affect the dissolution rate are discussed. Formulation and evaluation techniques for solid dispersions have been described. The final section of article highlights the recent patents and studies related to solid dispersion systems.

  16. Water Soluble Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit Stimulated Endocytosis in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, Erik B.; Reyes, Reno C.; Zhao, Bin; Haddon, Robert C.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of chemically-functionalized water soluble single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) graft copolymers to inhibit endocytosis. The graft copolymers were prepared by the functionalization of SWNTs with poly-ethylene glycol. When added to the culturing medium, these functionalized water soluble SWNTs were able to increase the length of various neuronal processes, neurites, as previously reported. Here we have determined that SWNTs are able to block stimulated membrane endocytosis in neurons, which could then explain the previously noted extended neurite length. PMID:18759491

  17. Determination of water-soluble ions in soils from the dry valleys of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustin, R.

    1981-08-01

    The soil chemistry of the dry valleys of Antarctica was studied. These valleys furnish a terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. The abundance of the water-soluble ions magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium chloride, and nitrate in soil samples was determined. All samples examined contained water-soluble salts reflecting the aridity of the area. Movement of salts to low-lying areas was verified. Upward ionic migration was evident in all core samples. Of all cations observed, sodium showed the greatest degree of migration.

  18. Determination of water-soluble ions in soils from the dry valleys of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, R.

    1981-01-01

    The soil chemistry of the dry valleys of Antarctica was studied. These valleys furnish a terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. The abundance of the water-soluble ions magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium chloride, and nitrate in soil samples was determined. All samples examined contained water-soluble salts reflecting the aridity of the area. Movement of salts to low-lying areas was verified. Upward ionic migration was evident in all core samples. Of all cations observed, sodium showed the greatest degree of migration.

  19. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOEpatents

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  20. A Water-Soluble Inclusion Complex of Pedunculoside with the Polymer β-Cyclodextrin: A Novel Anti-Inflammation Agent with Low Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao; Sun, Weidong; Gong, Xiangdong; Zhao, Junxian; Sun, Yun; Diao, Guowang

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of new drug candidates in drug discovery are lipophilic and exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which results in poor bioavailability and a lack of dose proportionality. Here, we improved the solubility of pedunculoside (PE) by generating a water-soluble inclusion complex composed of PE and the polymer β-cyclodextrin (CDP). We characterized this novel complex by 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetric analysis. The ratio of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) units in CDP to PE was determined to be 2∶1. The KD value of the inclusion complex was determined to be 4.29×10−3 mol•L−1. In contrast to the low solubility of PE, the water-solubility of the PE–CDP complex was greatly enhanced. A preclinical toxicological study indicated that PE–CDP was well tolerated for a single administration. Importantly, the anti-inflammation potency of the PE–CDP complex was higher than that of PE. As a result, the formation of inclusion complexes by water-soluble CDP opens up possible aqueous applications of insoluble drug candidates in drug delivery. PMID:25013908

  1. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Water Soluble Vitamins in Dietary Supplements and Fortified Foods by LC-MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent work in our laboratory has focused on development of LC methods with diode array and/or mass spectrometry (ms) detection for the simultaneous determination in supplement tablets and fortified foods of several water-soluble vitamins (WSV) including: thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic ac...

  3. Comparison of predictive ability of water solubility QSPR models generated by MLR, PLS and ANN methods.

    PubMed

    Erös, Dániel; Kéri, György; Kövesdi, István; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Mészáros, György; Orfi, László

    2004-02-01

    ADME/Tox computational screening is one of the most hot topics of modern drug research. About one half of the potential drug candidates fail because of poor ADME/Tox properties. Since the experimental determination of water solubility is time-consuming also, reliable computational predictions are needed for the pre-selection of acceptable "drug-like" compounds from diverse combinatorial libraries. Recently many successful attempts were made for predicting water solubility of compounds. A comprehensive review of previously developed water solubility calculation methods is presented here, followed by the description of the solubility prediction method designed and used in our laboratory. We have selected carefully 1381 compounds from scientific publications in a unified database and used this dataset in the calculations. The externally validated models were based on calculated descriptors only. The aim of model optimization was to improve repeated evaluations statistics of the predictions and effective descriptor scoring functions were used to facilitate quick generation of multiple linear regression analysis (MLR), partial least squares method (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN) models with optimal predicting ability. Standard error of prediction of the best model generated with ANN (with 39-7-1 network structure) was 0.72 in logS units while the cross validated squared correlation coefficient (Q(2)) was better than 0.85. These values give a good chance for successful pre-selection of screening compounds from virtual libraries, based on the predicted water solubility.

  4. CORAL: QSPR model of water solubility based on local and global SMILES attributes.

    PubMed

    Toropov, Andrey A; Toropova, Alla P; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Water solubility is an important characteristic of a chemical in many aspects. However experimental definition of the endpoint for all substances is impossible. In this study quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) for negative logarithm of water solubility-logS (mol L(-1)) are built up for five random splits into the sub-training set (≈55%), the calibration set (≈25%), and the test set (≈20%). Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) is used as the representation of the molecular structure. Optimal SMILES-based descriptors are calculated by means of the Monte Carlo method using the CORAL software (http://www.insilico.eu/coral). These one-variable models for water solubility are characterized by the following average values of the statistical characteristics: n(sub_train)=725-763; n(calib)=312-343; n(test)=231-261; r(sub_train)(2)=0.9211±0.0028; r(calib)(2)=0.9555±0.0045; r(test)(2)=0.9365±0.0073; s(sub_train)=0.561±0.0086; s(calib)=0.453±0.0209; s(test)=0.520±0.0205. Thus, the reproducibility of statistical quality of suggested models for water solubility confirmed for five various splits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Polyoxometalate-directed assembly of water-soluble AgCl nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Alevtina; Wang, Yifeng; Sharet, Shelly; Varsano, Neta; Botar, Bogdan; Kögerler, Paul; Meshi, Louisa; Weinstock, Ira A

    2012-02-21

    "Out-of-pocket" association of Ag(+) to the tetradentate defect site of mono-vacant Keggin and Wells-Dawson polyoxometalate (POM) cluster-anions is used to direct the formation of water-soluble AgCl nanocubes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  7. One-Step Synthesis of Highly Water-Soluble Magnetite ColloidalNanosrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, J.P.; Hu, Y.X.; Biasini, M.; Dong, C.L.; Guo, J.-H.; Beyermann, W.P.; Yin, Y.

    2007-03-05

    A high-temperature solution-phase hydrolysis approach has been developed for the synthesis of colloidal magnetite nanocrystals with well-controlled size and size distribution, high crystallinity, and high water solubility. The synthesis was accomplished by the hydrolysis and reduction of iron(III) cations in diethylene glycol with a rapidly injected solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature. The high reaction temperature allows for control over size and size distribution and yields highly crystalline products. The superior water solubility is achieved by using a polyelectrolyte, that is, poly(acrylic acid) as the capping agent, the carboxylate groups of which partially bind to the nanocrystal surface and partially extend into the surrounding water. The direct synthesis of water-soluble nanocrystals eliminates the need for additional surface modification steps which are usually required for treating hydrophobic nanocrystals produced in nonpolar solvents through the widely recognized pyrolysis route. The abundant carboxylate groups on the nanocrystal surface allow further modifications, such as bioconjugation, as demonstrated by linking cysteamine to the particle surface. The monodisperse, highly water-soluble, superparamagnetic, and biocompatible magnetite nanocrystals should find immediate important biomedical applications.

  8. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    PubMed

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  9. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    PubMed

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  10. Characteristics of soil water soluble organic C and N under different land uses in Alaska

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land use conversion induces the quantitative change of soil water soluble organic matter (WSOM). But, knowledge of such change is still limited. In this study, field moist and air dried soils sampled from subarctic Alaska under three land use managements (i. e. forest, agriculture; and grassland c...

  11. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a chromatographic...

  12. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a chromatographic...

  13. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a chromatographic...

  14. 40 CFR 799.6786 - TSCA water solubility: Generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA water solubility: Generator...: Generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended to meet the testing... the saturated solutions produced by the generator column. After extraction onto a chromatographic...

  15. Pulp extrusion at ultra-high consistencies : selection of water soluble polymers for process optimization

    Treesearch

    C. Tim Scott

    2002-01-01

    Pulp extrusion at ultra-high consistencies (20% to 40% solids) is a new process developed at USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) to convert recovered papers, wastepaper, and papermill residuals into solid sheets or profiles for compression molding. This process requires adding a water-soluble polymer (WSP) to alter the rheological properties of the...

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  17. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

  18. Purification of water-soluble bone-inductive protein from bovine demineralized bone matrix.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Y; Hirano, A; Nishida, M; Kawada, J; Horisaka, Y; Okamoto, Y; Matsumoto, N; Yamashita, K; Takagi, T

    1993-05-01

    The water-soluble fraction containing bone-inductive activity was purified from guanidine-hydrochloride extracts of bovine demineralized bone. The purification steps include ultrafiltration, dialysis, affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose and gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. Combination of these steps was proven to be an effective and rapid method for the purification of this protein. Subcutaneous implantation of the water-soluble protein with type I collagen was carried out in the thorax of rats. When alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content in implants were used as indices for purification, the water-soluble bone-inductive protein was purified > 600-fold according to the enzyme activity and 64-fold according to the calcium content. A morphological examination revealed that many chondrocyte and osteoblast cells were seen in the location of the implanted material. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/gel electrophoresis of the protein produced in this way under non-reducing conditions revealed four protein bands of 18, 16, 14 and 11 kDa. None of the separated bands had any biological activity. This result suggests that the water-soluble bone-inductive activity depends on an associated form of various proteins in the range of 18 to 11 kDa.

  19. In vivo absorption comparison of nanotechnology-based silybin tablets with its water-soluble derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Ni, Rui; Sun, Wei; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the in vivo oral absorption of a nanocrystal tablet formulation of a BCS II poorly water-soluble drug was compared with that of its water-soluble salt form. Silybin is used as the model drug, and its nanosuspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Effect of process and formulation parameters on properties of the nansuspensions was investigated. Dried powder of the nanosuspension was prepared by spray drying and used for preparing tablets. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in Beagle dogs to compare the absorption for tablets of silybin nanocrystals and silybin meglumine. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was determined. X-ray powder diffraction results indicated that silybin existed in a crystalline state after homogenization. In vivo absorption study in rats showed that the peroral absorption of silybin was enhanced remarkably by decreasing particle size. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was comparable with that of the commercially available tablet of the water-soluble salt form of silybin. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by preparing its water-soluble derivative.

  20. Water-soluble lead in cathode ray tube funnel glass melted in a reductive atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi

    2016-10-05

    In the reduction-melting process, lead can be recovered from cathode ray tube funnel glass (PbO=25wt%); however, resulting glass residues still contain approximately 1-2wt% of unrecovered lead. For environmental protection in the residue disposal or recycling, it is important to evaluate the quantities of water-soluble species among the unrecovered lead. This study examined water-soluble lead species generated in the reduction-melting process of the funnel glass and factors determining their generation. In the reduction-melting, metallic lead was generated by reducing lead oxides in the glass, and a part of the metallic lead remained in the glass residue. Such unrecovered metallic lead can dissolve in water depending on its pH level and was regarded as water-soluble lead. When 10g Na2CO3 was added to 20g funnel glass during reduction-melting, the resulting glass contained high concentrations of sodium. In a water leaching of the glass, the obtained leachate was alkalized by the sodium-rich glass (pH=12.7-13.0). The unrecovered metallic lead in the glass was extracted in the alkalized leachate. The quantity of the unrecovered metallic lead (water-soluble lead) in the glass decreased when the melting time, melting temperature, and carbon dosage were controlled during reduction-melting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Delivery of HSP90 Inhibitor Using Water Soluble Polymeric Conjugates with High Drug Payload.

    PubMed

    Suárez Del Pino, Jose A; Kolhatkar, Rohit

    2017-09-14

    HSP90 (Heat shock protein 90kD) has been validated as a therapeutic target in Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer. Unfortunately, HSP90 inhibitors suffer from dose-limiting toxicities that hinder their clinical applications. Previously developed polymeric delivery systems for HSP90 inhibitors had either low drug content or low biological activity suggesting the need for better delivery system for HSP90 inhibitors. We developed a simplified synthetic strategy to prepare polyethylene glycol based water-soluble polymeric system for model HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM). We then investigated the effect of cathepsin B degradable linker and drug content in polymeric conjugates on their growth inhibitory property using DU145 (androgen independent) and LNCaP (androgen dependent) cell lines. Water-soluble polymeric conjugates were synthesized with GDM content ranging from 9 to 30% wt/wt. We demonstrated the importance of cathepsin B degradable linker from the context of drug content and different prostate cancer cell lines. The most active conjugate against DU145 cells exhibited IC50 value of 2.9 μM. This was similar to the IC50 (2.1 μM) of small molecular drug aminohexane geldanamycin. Water-soluble polymeric conjugate with high drug content was synthesized that exhibited in-vitro growth inhibitory activity similar to small molecular weight HSP90 inhibitor. Graphical Abstract Water soluble degradable polymeric conjugate for the delivery of Geldanamycin.

  2. Water-soluble vitamin deficiencies in complicated peptic ulcer patients soon after ulcer onset in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kazumasa; Akimoto, Teppei; Kusakabe, Makoto; Sato, Wataru; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Kodaka, Yasuhiro; Shinpuku, Mayumi; Nagoya, Hiroyuki; Shindo, Tomotaka; Ueki, Nobue; Kusunoki, Masafumi; Kawagoe, Tetsuro; Futagami, Seiji; Tsukui, Taku; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated over time whether contemporary Japanese patients with complicated peptic ulcers have any water-soluble vitamin deficiencies soon after the onset of the complicated peptic ulcers. In this prospective cohort study, fasting serum levels of water-soluble vitamins (vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, and folic acid) and homocysteine were measured at 3 time points (at admission, hospital discharge, and 3 mo after hospital discharge). Among the 20 patients who were enrolled in the study, 10 consecutive patients who completed measurements at all 3 time points were analyzed. The proportion of patients in whom any of the serum water-soluble vitamins that we examined were deficient was as high as 80% at admission, and remained at 70% at discharge. The proportion of patients with vitamin B6 deficiency was significantly higher at admission and discharge (50% and 60%, respectively, p<0.05) than at 3 mo after discharge (10%). In conclusion, most patients with complicated peptic ulcers may have a deficiency of one or more water-soluble vitamins in the early phase of the disease after the onset of ulcer complications, even in a contemporary Japanese population.

  3. Isolation, purification and physicochemical characterization of water-soluble Bacillus thuringiensis melanin.

    PubMed

    Aghajanyan, Armen E; Hambardzumyan, Artur A; Hovsepyan, Anichka S; Asaturian, Rafael A; Vardanyan, Andranik A; Saghiyan, Ashot A

    2005-04-01

    Melanins are widely used in medicine, pharmacology, cosmetics and other fields. Although several technologies for the purification of water-insoluble dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA) melanins have been described, a source of water-soluble melanin is highly desirable. Here we describe an effective procedure for the isolation and purification of water-soluble melanin using the culture medium of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae strain K1. Water-soluble melanin from this organism has an isoelectric point (pI=3.0-3.2) and was purified optimally by adsorbtion using the IA-1r resin and elution as a concentrated solution. The purified melanin obtained exhibited a similar infra-red absorbtion spectrum to synthetic melanin and contained quinolic and phenolic structures and an amino acid content of around 20% after acid hydrolysis. The molecular weight of the purified melanin determined by SDS-PAGE was 4 kDa and the electromagnetic spin resonance spectrum of the purified microbial melanin was a slightly asymmetric singlet without hyperfine structure with about 7 Gauss width of the line between points of the maximum incline and g=2.006. The concentration of paramagnetic centers in melanin is 0.21x10(18) spin/g. The results obtained provide a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for the large scale purification of water soluble melanin that may have widespread applications.

  4. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: aromatic compound, aromatic compound glucoside and glucides.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), an aromatic compound, an aromatic compound glucoside and a glucide were isolated together with 16 known compounds. Their structures were clarified as 2-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, junipediol A 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and L-fucitol, respectively.

  5. Water-soluble constituents of caraway: carvone derivatives and their glucosides.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Tetsuko; Ishikawa, Toru; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-01-01

    Nine monoterpenoids related to carvone and seven glucosides were isolated from the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the caraway (fruit of Carum carvi L.), and their structures were clarified by spectral investigation. Among them, eight monoterpenoids and six glucosides were new.

  6. FATE OF WATER SOLUBLE AZO DYES IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the partitioning of water soluble azo dyes in the activated sludge process (ASP). Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precursors , and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurso...

  7. Water-soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in diesel pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2006-12-01

    The effect of water-soluble corrosion inhibitor on the growth of bacteria and its corrosion inhibition efficiency were investigated. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by rotating cage test and flow loop techniques. The nature of biodegradation of corrosion inhibitor was also analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The bacterial isolates (Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus cereus ACE4) have the capacity to degrade the aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon present in the corrosion inhibitor. The degraded products of corrosion inhibitor and bacterial activity determine the electrochemical behaviour of API 5LX steel. The influence of bacterial activity on degradation of corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX have been evaluated by employing weight loss techniques and electrochemical studies. The main finding of this paper is that the water-soluble corrosion inhibitor is consumed by the microbial action, which contributes to the decrease in inhibitor efficiency. The present study also emphasis the importance of evaluation of water-soluble corrosion inhibitor in stagnant model (flow loop test) and discusses the demerits of the water-soluble corrosion inhibitors in petroleum product pipeline.

  8. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol

    Treesearch

    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham; Luisa T. M. Profeta; Timothy J. Johnson; Robert J. Yokelson; Alexander Laskin; Julia Laskin

    2011-01-01

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of...

  9. Binary coalescence of gas bubbles in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Duerr-Auster, N; Gunde, R; Mäder, R; Windhab, Erich J

    2009-05-15

    The coalescence behavior of air bubbles in a dilute aqueous surfactant solution of a polyglycerol fatty acid ester (PGE), a commercial non-ionic surfactant, is investigated in a binary coalescence experiment. The focus is on the influence of the ionic strength of the solution on the rate of coalescence. Results are compared with the adsorption kinetics and surface shear/dilatational rheological properties of the surfactant. Experiments show that the coalescence frequency is significantly lower at low ionic strength, and that bubble stability increases with increasing aging time. Stabilization occurs via surfactant adsorption and a resulting electrostatic and/or steric repulsive force. The electrostatic force presumably originates from small amounts of anionic fatty acid soaps, which are residues from the industrial synthesis. The steric force can be related to the adsorption of visco-elastic layers of PGE at the air-water interface.

  10. Application of liquid chromatography in polymer non-ionic antistatic additives analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, M Victoria; Dopico-García, M Sonia; Noguerol-Cal, Rosalía; Carballeira-Amarelo, Tania; López-Vilariño, José M; Fernández-Martínez, Gerado

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the applicability of HPLC-UV, ultra performance LC-evaporative light-scattering detection (UPLC-ELSD), HPLC-ESI(+)-MS and HPLC-hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap MS for the analysis of different non-ionic antistatic additives, Span 20, Span 60, Span 65, Span 80, Span 85 (sorbitan fatty acid esters), Atmer 129 (glycerol fatty acid ester) and Atmer 163 (ethoxylated alkylamine). Several alkyl chain length or different degrees of esterification of polyol derivatives can be present in commercial mixtures of these polymer additives. Therefore, their identification and quantification is complicated. Qualitative composition of the studied compounds was analysed by MS. HPLC-UV, UPLC-ELSD and HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS methods were applied to the quantitative determination of the different Spans, Atmer 129 and Atmer 163, respectively. Quality parameters of these methods were established and no derivatization was necessary.

  11. Study of Unstirred Ternary Non-Ionic Solutions Transport in a Double-Membrane System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślęzak, A.; Grzegorczyn, S.

    1999-12-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamic model equations describing transport properties of non-ionic and heterogeneous n-component solutions have been studied in a double-membrane system. The system is composed of two complexes: boundary layer/membrane/boundary layer. Definitions of hydraulic permeability ( p), reflection (σ¯ *) and diffusive permeability (Ω¯) coefficients of the double-membrane system and relations between the coefficients of the double-membrane system ( p, σ¯ *, Ω¯) and the respective quantities of the single membranes of the system (L p, σ*, Ω) are given. The validity of the model has been checked in the case of binary and ternary solutions, using a membrane cell with horizontally mounted membranes. The diffusive permeability and reflection coefficients were determined as functions of solution concentration and gravitational configuration.

  12. Kinetics and thermodynamics of sucrose crystal growth in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Rocha, F.

    2010-06-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of Hodag CB6, a non-ionic surfactant, on the growth kinetics of sucrose crystals as a function of supersaturation, impurity concentration and temperature. The growth promoting effect of the added impurity, studied using a recently introduced spiral nucleation model (SNM), was due to the decrease in the surface free energy induced by the added surfactant. The growth process was influenced by both kinetic and thermodynamic effect, the latter being predominant. The coverage of impurity molecules on the sucrose surface followed a Henry type expression according to Langmuir isotherm at studied temperatures. In the case of a pure system, the total active kink density was found to be around 10 16 kinks/m 2. The active growth sites on the crystal surface were found to be two orders of magnitude lower than the total number of sucrose molecules.

  13. Metformin loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles: optimization of formulation, effect of process variables and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metformin an oral hypoglycemic has been widely used as a fist line of treatment of Type II Diabetes but in a very high dose 2–3 times a day and moreover suffers from a number of side effects like lactic acidosis, gastric discomfort, chest pain, allergic reactions being some of them. The present work was conducted with the aim of sustaining the release of metformin so as to decrease its side effects and also reduce its dosing frequency using a novel delivery system niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles). Non-ionic surfactant vesicles of different surfactants were prepared using thin film hydration technique and were investigated for morphology, entrapment, in-vitro release, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and physical stability. Optimized formulation was further studied for the effect of Surfactant concentration, DCP (Dicetyl phosphate), Surfactant: cholesterol ratio and volume of hydration. The release studies data was subjected to release kinetics models. Results The prepared vesicles were uniform and spherical in size. Optimized formulation MN3 entrapped the drug with 84.50±0.184 efficiency in the vesicles of the size 487.60±2.646 and showed the most sustained release of 73.89±0.126. Also it was resulted that 100 molar concentration of cholesterol and surfactant, Presence of DCP, equimolar ratio of span 60: cholesterol and 15 ml of volume of hydration were found to be optimum for miosome preparation. Conclusions The present work concluded metformin loaded niosomes to be effective in sustaining the drug release leading to decreased side effects and increased patient compliance. PMID:23351604

  14. Aqueous cationic, anionic and non-ionic multi-walled carbon nanotubes, functionalised with minimal framework damage, for biomedical application

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Thorley, Andrew J.; Menzel, Robert; Goode, Angela E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Shaffer, Milo S. P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of a thermochemical grafting approach provides a versatile means to functionalise as-synthesised, bulk multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) without altering their inherent structure. The associated retention of properties is desirable for a wide range of commercial applications, including for drug delivery and medical purposes; it is also pertinent to studies of intrinsic toxicology. A systematic series of water-compatible MWNTs, with diameter around 12 nm have been prepared, to provide structurally-equivalent samples predominantly stabilised by anionic, cationic, or non-ionic groups. The surface charge of MWNTs was controlled by varying the grafting reagents and subsequent post-functionalisation modifications. The degree of grafting was established by thermal analysis (TGA). High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Raman measurements confirmed that the structural framework of the MWNTs was unaffected by the thermochemical treatment, in contrast to a conventional acid-oxidised control which was severely damaged. The effectiveness of the surface modification was demonstrated by significantly improved solubility and stability in both water and cell culture medium, and further quantified by zeta-potential analysis. The grafted MWNTs exhibited relatively low bioreactivity on human immortal alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1) following 24h exposure as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) assays. The exposure of TT1 cells to MWNTs suppressed the release of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). TEM cell uptake studies indicated efficient cellular entry of MWNTs into TT1 cells, via a range of mechanisms. Cationic MWNTs showed a more substantial interaction with TT1 cell membranes than anionic MWNTs, demonstrating a surface charge effect on cell uptake. PMID:24631251

  15. Aqueous cationic, anionic and non-ionic multi-walled carbon nanotubes, functionalised with minimal framework damage, for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Hu, Sheng; Smith, Elizabeth F; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Thorley, Andrew J; Menzel, Robert; Goode, Angela E; Ryan, Mary P; Tetley, Teresa D; Porter, Alexandra E; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2014-06-01

    The use of a thermochemical grafting approach provides a versatile means to functionalise as-synthesised, bulk multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) without altering their inherent structure. The associated retention of properties is desirable for a wide range of commercial applications, including for drug delivery and medical purposes; it is also pertinent to studies of intrinsic toxicology. A systematic series of water-compatible MWNTs, with diameter around 12 nm have been prepared, to provide structurally-equivalent samples predominantly stabilised by anionic, cationic, or non-ionic groups. The surface charge of MWNTs was controlled by varying the grafting reagents and subsequent post-functionalisation modifications. The degree of grafting was established by thermal analysis (TGA). High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Raman measurements confirmed that the structural framework of the MWNTs was unaffected by the thermochemical treatment, in contrast to a conventional acid-oxidised control which was severely damaged. The effectiveness of the surface modification was demonstrated by significantly improved solubility and stability in both water and cell culture medium, and further quantified by zeta-potential analysis. The grafted MWNTs exhibited relatively low bioreactivity on transformed human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1) following 24 h exposure as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH) assays. The exposure of TT1 cells to MWNTs suppressed the release of the inflammatory mediators, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). TEM cell uptake studies indicated efficient cellular entry of MWNTs into TT1 cells, via a range of mechanisms. Cationic MWNTs showed a more substantial interaction with TT1 cell membranes than anionic MWNTs, demonstrating a surface charge effect on cell uptake.

  16. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Anu

    2013-11-01

    Geranium sylvaticum is a common herbaceous plant in Fennoscandia, which has a unique phenolic composition. Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, galloylglucoses, gallotannins, galloyl quinic acids and flavonoids possess variable distribution in its different organs. These phenolic compounds are thought to have an important role in plant-herbivore interactions. The aim of this study was to quantify these different water-soluble phenolic compounds and measure the biological activity of the eight organs of G. sylvaticum. Compounds were characterized and quantified using HPLC-DAD/MS, in addition, total proanthocyanidins were determined by BuOH-HCl assay and total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Two in vitro biological activity measurements were used: the prooxidant activity was measured by the browning assay and antioxidant activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Organ extracts were fractionated using column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and the activities of fractions was similarly measured to evaluate which polyphenol groups contributed the most to the biological activity of each organ. The data on the activity of fractions were examined by multivariate data analysis. The water-soluble extracts of leaves and pistils, which contained over 30% of the dry weight as ellagitannins, showed the highest pro-oxidant activity among the organ extracts. Fraction analysis revealed that flavonoids and galloyl quinic acids also exhibited high pro-oxidant activity. In contrast, the most antioxidant active organ extracts were those of the main roots and hairy roots that contained high amounts of proanthocyanidins in addition to ellagitannins. Analysis of the fractions showed that especially ellagitannins and galloyl quinic acids have high antioxidant activity. We conclude that G. sylvaticum allocates a significant amount of tannins in those plant parts that are important to the fitness of the plant and susceptible to natural enemies, i

  17. Nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches for poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W.; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades the nanomedicine sector has emerged as a feasible and effective solution to the problems faced by the high percentage of poorly water-soluble drugs. Decreasing the size of such drug compounds to the nanoscale can significantly change their physical properties, which lays the foundation for the use of nanomedicine for pharmaceutical applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles, mainly to address the poor water-soluble issues but also for the efficient and targeted delivery of such drugs. These techniques can be generally categorized into top-down, bottom-up and encapsulation approaches. Among them, the top-down approaches have been the main choice for industrial preparation of drug nanoparticles while other methods are actively investigated by researchers. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview and latest progress of the top-down, bottom-up, and encapsulation methods for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles and how solvents and additives can be selected for these methods. In addition to the more industrially applied top-down approaches, the review is focused more on bottom-up and encapsulation methods, particularly covering supercritical fluid-related methods, cryogenic techniques, and encapsulation with dendrimers and responsive block copolymers. Some of the approved and mostly used nanodrug formulations on the market are also covered to demonstrate the applications of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. This review is complete with perspectives on the development and challenges of fabrication techniques for more effective nanomedicine.

  18. [Water-soluble eumelanin as a PCR-inhibitor and a simple method for its removal].

    PubMed

    Yoshii, T; Tamura, K; Taniguchi, T; Akiyama, K; Ishiyama, I

    1993-08-01

    It has been confirmed that water-soluble eumelanins often extracted together with DNAs from natural black hairs act as an inhibitor of Taq DNA polymerase in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the present investigation, an attempt to amplify the non-coding 333-bp region of mitochondrial DNA (mt333DNA) produced the following results: 1) Water-soluble preparations made from chemically synthesized melanin (Sigma products), as well as natural black eumelanins, inhibited the PCR amplification of mt333DNA at concentrations of more than 2 micrograms/ml. 2) Quantitative measurement of Taq DNA polymerase-catalyzed DNA synthesis in terms of the amount of [alpha-32P] dCMP incorporated into activated calf thymus DNA showed that both of the water-soluble melanins had the same inhibition activity as represented by the sigmoidal curve derived from a quadratic equation of melanin concentration. This observation suggested that Taq DNA polymerase combined with two molecules of melanin to form an inactivated complex. 3) Melanins did not appear to affect either the thermostability of Taq DNA polymerase at 94 degrees C, or the step of primer-annealing to template DNAs. On the other hand, we established a simple and useful method for removal of water-soluble eumelanins contaminating DNA preparations from hairs. The method was based on the adsorption of melanins to Bio-Gel. When a Bio-Gel P-60 minicolumn was equilibrated with 10 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.2, water-soluble melanins were completely adsorpted to it whereas DNAs passed through, although the melanins showed incomplete adsorption to the gel when it was equilibrated with TE (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 0.1 mM EDTA).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Nanoformulation and encapsulation approaches for poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-28

    During the last few decades the nanomedicine sector has emerged as a feasible and effective solution to the problems faced by the high percentage of poorly water-soluble drugs. Decreasing the size of such drug compounds to the nanoscale can significantly change their physical properties, which lays the foundation for the use of nanomedicine for pharmaceutical applications. Various techniques have been developed to produce poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles, mainly to address the poor water-soluble issues but also for the efficient and targeted delivery of such drugs. These techniques can be generally categorized into top-down, bottom-up and encapsulation approaches. Among them, the top-down approaches have been the main choice for industrial preparation of drug nanoparticles while other methods are actively investigated by researchers. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive overview and latest progress of the top-down, bottom-up, and encapsulation methods for the preparation of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles and how solvents and additives can be selected for these methods. In addition to the more industrially applied top-down approaches, the review is focused more on bottom-up and encapsulation methods, particularly covering supercritical fluid-related methods, cryogenic techniques, and encapsulation with dendrimers and responsive block copolymers. Some of the approved and mostly used nanodrug formulations on the market are also covered to demonstrate the applications of poorly water-soluble drug nanoparticles. This review is complete with perspectives on the development and challenges of fabrication techniques for more effective nanomedicine.

  20. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS CONTENT IN THE FOOD RATION OF ADOLESCENTS].

    PubMed

    Kozubenko, O V; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Glagoleva, O N; Pogodin, I S; Luksha, E A

    2015-01-01

    Adequate, balanced nutrition is a precondition for the formation of health of the younger generation. The study of the dietary intake and peculiarities of the chemical composition offood is needed to substantiate measures aimed at the correction of the ration of adolescents. Hygienic evaluation of the content of water soluble vitamins in foods and the ration of teenage population of the Omsk region. TASKS OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine levels of water-soluble vitamins content in foods forming the basis of the ration of the population the Omsk region. 2. On the base of a study of the actual nutrition of adolescents to determine the levels of water-soluble vitamins consumption. 3. To give a hygienic assessment of adolescent nutrition in the Omsk region in terms of provision with water-soluble vitamins, and to identify priority directions of the alimentary correction of the revealed disorders. The analysis of 389 food samples for the content of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, PP C, folic acid) was performed with the use of reversed-phase HPLC high pressure on the Shimadzu LC-20 Prominence detector. The hygienic assessment of the actual nutrition of adolescents aged 13-17 years (sample survey; n = 250; 2012-2014) in the Omsk region was performed by the method of the analysis of food consumption frequency. There were noted significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B1 and B2 in the studied samples of cereals, bread and vegetables in comparison with reference data. Consumption levels of vitamins B1, B2, PP folic acid in the diet of adolescents in the Omsk region are lower than recommended values. In the structure of nutrition there is not enough milk dairy products--in 82.4 ± 2.4%, fish and sea products in 90.8 ± 1.8% of adolescents. The actual nutrition of the adolescent population of the Omsk region is irrational, unbalanced in quantitative and qualitative terms, and does not provide the necessary level of consumption of most important water-soluble vitamins

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer

    PubMed Central

    Caldera, Fabrizio; Cavalli, Roberta; Mele, Andrea; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Castiglione, Franca; Rossi, Barbara; Ferro, Monica; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Summary A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material. PMID:25550720

  2. Compositional studies on succinoglycan-like extracellular water-soluble Rhizobium polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ghai, S K

    1981-01-01

    This study reports structural information on extracellular, water-soluble polysaccharides from 5 different strains of Rhizobium, viz. R. trifolii J60, R. meliloti J1017, 202, 204 and 207. All the 5 polysaccharides had glucose and galactose in approximate molar ratio of 7:1. Methylation analysis revealed that the polysaccharides contained (1 leads to 3), (1 leads to 6), (1 leads to 4), (1 leads to 4, 1 leads to 6)-linked D-glucose residues, (1 leads to 3)-linked D-galactose and non-reducing terminal D-glucose attached to pyruvate. This structure was found to be exactly the same as that of succinoglycan, a succinic acid containing water-soluble polysaccharide elaborated by Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes 10C3. The similarity of the structure of polysaccharides of two different Rhizobium species and also to the polysaccharide produced by Alcaligenes are discussed in terms of host specificity.

  3. New water-soluble metal working fluids additives from phosphonic acid derivatives for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Ichitaro; Tomoda, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Water-soluble metal working fluids are used for processing of aluminum alloy materials. This short paper describes properties of new additives for water-soluble cutting fluids for aluminum alloy materials. Some alkyldiphosphonic acids were prepared with known method. Amine salts of these phosphonic acids showed anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials. However, they have no hard water tolerance. Monoesters of octylphosphonic acid were prepared by the reaction of octylphosphonic acid dichloride with various alcohols in the presence of triethylamine. Amine salts of monoester of octylphosphonic acid with diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether, ethyleneglycol monomethyl ether and triethyleneglycol monomethyl ether showed both of a good anti-corrosion property for aluminum alloy materials and hard water tolerance.

  4. Formation of water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles derived from iron storage protein.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Masato; Han, Li; Wang, Lingyan; Maye, Mathew M; Luo, Jin; Kariuki, Nancy; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2004-09-01

    This paper reports novel findings of an investigation of the formation of water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles from iron-storage protein ferritin. The strategy couples thermal removal of the protein shell on a planar substrate and subsequent sonication in aqueous solution under controlled temperature. Advantages of using ferritin as a precursor include well-defined core size, core composition, water-solubility and processibility. The formation of the nanoparticles was characterized using TEM, UV-Vis and FTIR techniques. Iron oxide nanoparticles in the size range of 5-20 nm diameters were produced. In addition to thermal treatment conditions, the sonication temperature of the nanoparticles in water was found to play an important role in determining the resulting particle size. This simple and effective route has important implications to the design of composite nanoparticles for potential magnetic, catalytic, biomedical sensing and other nanotechnological applications.

  5. Design of Chitosan and Its Water Soluble Derivatives-Based Drug Carriers with Polyelectrolyte Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, the cationic polysaccharide derived from the natural polysaccharide chitin, has been studied as a biomaterial for more than two decades. As a polycationic polymer with favorable properties, it has been widely used to form polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions for various applications in drug delivery fields. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been focused on the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes based on chitosan and its water soluble derivatives. They have been considered well-suited as biomaterials for a number of vital drug carriers with targeted/controlled release profiles, e.g., films, capsules, microcapsules. In this work, an overview highlights not only the favorable properties of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives but also the good performance of the polyelectrolyte complexes produced based on chitosan. Their various types of applications as drug carriers are reviewed in detail. PMID:25532565

  6. Copper ions interfere with the reduction of the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-8.

    PubMed

    Semisch, Annetta; Hartwig, Andrea

    2014-02-17

    Metabolic activity as a measure of cell viability is frequently determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-8), commercially available as CCK-8 reagent. In this study, CCK-8 was investigated with respect to its suitability for investigating nano- and microscale copper oxide (CuO NP and CuO MP) as well as water-soluble copper chloride (CuCl2). The results were compared to cell number and colony forming ability. Our data demonstrate that the CCK-8 assay overestimates the loss of metabolic activity by CuCl2 and CuO NP, because of interference by copper ions with the reduction of the dye.

  7. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Water-Soluble Organic Peroxides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenqiu; Liu, Xuejun; Knaebel, David; Luck, Linda; Li, Yuzhou

    1998-01-01

    A set of new water-soluble organic peroxides has been synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity as part of an effort to develop new antibacterial agents for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The water solubility of these new dialkyl peroxides and peroxyesters was achieved by incorporating either a quaternary ammonium group or a polyethylene glycol moiety. These peroxides are effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and have a prolonged activity compared to that of benzoyl peroxide and other peroxide-type antiseptic agents. Among them 4-[[(tert-butylperoxy)carbonyl]benzyl]triethylammonium chloride and [10-(tert-butylperoxy)decyl]trimethylammonium bromide have the broadest antimicrobial spectrums. We have shown that the oxidizing properties of the dioxy group of these compounds are responsible for their antibacterial activities. PMID:9559807

  8. Bioavailability of water-soluble CoQ10 in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Prosek, Mirko; Butinar, Janos; Lukanc, Barbara; Fir, Maja Milivojevic; Milivojevic, Luka; Krizman, Mitja; Smidovnik, Andrej

    2008-08-05

    The bioavailability of a novel water-soluble inclusion complex of CoQ10, prepared in our laboratory was determined and compared with the bioavailability of commercially available oil-based form of CoQ10. Experimental work consisted of single dose comparative bioavailability study on seven beagle dogs, with a 14-day washout period between treatments. Identification and quantification of CoQ10 was done with HPLC-MS method using positive APCI ionization and SIM mode, M+ m/z 863.4. The bioavailability results confirm that the water-soluble formulation has nearly three times higher AUC(0-48 h), two times higher Cmax, and Tmax is shortened from 6 to 4 h.

  9. Chemical synthesis of water-soluble, chiral conducting-polymer complexes

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; McCarthy, Patrick A.; Yang, Sze Cheng

    2003-01-01

    The template-guided synthesis of water-soluble, chiral conducting polymer complexes is described. Synthesis of water-soluble polyaniline complexes is achieved by carefully controlling the experimental parameters such as; acid concentration, ionic strength, monomer/template ratio, total reagent concentration, and order of reagent addition. Chiral (helical) polyaniline complexes can be synthesized by addition of a chiral inducing agent (chiral acid) prior to polymerization, and the polyaniline helix can be controlled by the addition of the (+) or (-) form of the chiral acid. Moreover the quantity of chiral acid and the salt content has a significant impact on the degree of chirality in the final polymer complexes. The polyaniline and the template have been found to be mixed at the molecular level which results in chiral complexes that are robust through repeated doping and dedoping cycles.

  10. Physico-chemical qualification of a universal portable sampler for aerosols and water-soluble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Jean-Maxime; Sarda-Estève, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Developing a universal portable air sampler based on electrostatic precipitation. The challenge is to collect micro and nanoparticles, microorganisms as well as toxic molecules with a portable device. Electrostatic precipitation is an efficient and gentle method to collect airborne microorganisms and preserve their cultivability. But the collection of toxic gases required is not possible in such a device. The collection of such gases requires a liquid into which they have to be solubilized. Two concepts are being evaluated. The first one is based on electrospray. The goal is to investigate the collection efficiency of water-soluble gases. The second concept is based on the semi-humid electrostatic precipitator. Their high collection efficiencies for particles were already demonstrated. In the present study they are both tested with water-soluble gases. Concentrations are measured in the liquid solution by Ion Chromatography and in the gas phase by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry.

  11. Characteristics of the behavior of the water-soluble fraction of oil in model experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the characteristics of the behavior of petroleum products in water, when conducting toxicological investigations, the highly sensitive radiotracer technique is used which permits judging the concentration of hydrocarbons based on radioactivity (RA) in a small volume of water. A method of labeling water-soluble components of oil with radioactive iodine-131 is discussed. The authors extracted the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSFO) with chloroform and labeled it with radioactive iodine-131, obtaining (/sup 131/I)WSFO, which was then introduced into a vessel with water and into the bottom sediments for conducting model experiments. The RA was determined sixfold. The dynamics of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water-WSFO system are discussed, as well as in the water-sediment-WSFO system and in the water-sediment-animals-WSFO system.

  12. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  13. Rapid screening of water soluble arsenic species in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    López-García, Ignacio; Briceño, Marisol; Vicente-Martínez, Yesica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    A methodology for the non-chromatographic screening of the main arsenic species present in edible oils is discussed. Reverse dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used to extract water soluble arsenic compounds (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate, dimethylarsinate and arsenobetaine) from the edible oils into a slightly acidic aqueous medium. The total arsenic content was measured in the extracts by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using palladium as the chemical modifier. By repeating the measurement using cerium instead of palladium, the sum of inorganic arsenic and methylarsonate was obtained. The detection limit was 0.03 ng As per gram of oil. Data for the total and water-soluble arsenic levels of 29 samples of different origin are presented. Inorganic arsenic was not found in any of the samples marketed as edible oils.

  14. Lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Mu, Huiling; Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette

    2013-08-30

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems have shown great potentials in oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, primarily for lipophilic drugs, with several successfully marketed products. Pre-dissolving drugs in lipids, surfactants, or mixtures of lipids and surfactants omits the dissolving/dissolution step, which is a potential rate limiting factor for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipids not only vary in structures and physiochemical properties, but also in their digestibility and absorption pathway; therefore selection of lipid excipients and dosage form has a pronounced effect on the biopharmaceutical aspects of drug absorption and distribution both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different lipid-based dosage forms from a biopharmaceutical point of view and to describe effects of lipid dosage forms and lipid excipients on drug solubility, absorption and distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  16. Water soluble nanocurcumin extracted from turmeric challenging the microflora from human oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Chun, Se-Chul

    2016-11-15

    Water soluble nanocurcumin prepared from commercial turmeric powders was compared against ethanol extracted curcumin particles. The oral microflora from five different human volunteers was collected and the efficacy of solvent extracted curcumin versus water extracted nanocurcumin was demonstrated. Nanocurcumin activity against oral microflora confirms its antimicrobial potency. Confocal laser scanning microscopic results revealed the enhanced entry of nanocurcumin particles into microbial cells. The nanosized nature of nanocurcumin appears to have led to increased cellular interaction and thereby efficient destruction of microbial cells in the mouth. In addition, solubility of nanocurcumin is also believed to be a crucial factor behind its successful antimicrobial activity. This study proves that the bioactivity of a compound is greatly influenced by its solubility in water. This work recommends the use of water soluble nanocurcumin (extracted from turmeric) as potent substitute for curcumin in dental formulations.

  17. Invisible Security Ink Based on Water-Soluble Graphitic Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiping; Lin, Tianran; Lin, Lihua; Lin, Sen; Fu, Fengfu; Wang, Xinchen; Guo, Liangqia

    2016-02-18

    Stimuli-responsive photoluminescent (PL) materials have been widely used as fluorescent ink for data security applications. However, traditional fluorescent inks are limited in maintaining the secrecy of information because the inks are usually visible by naked eyes either under ambient light or UV-light illumination. Here, we introduced metal-free water-soluble graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots (g-CNQDs) as invisible security ink for information coding, encryption, and decryption. The information written by the g-CNQDs is invisible in ambient light and UV light, but it can be readable by a fluorescence microplate reader. Moreover, the information can be encrypted and decrypted by using oxalic acid and sodium bicarbonate as encryption reagent and decryption reagent, respectively. Our findings provide new opportunities for high-level information coding and protection by using water-soluble g-CNQDs as invisible security ink.

  18. Characterization of water-soluble dark-brown pigment from Antarctic bacterium, Lysobacter oligotrophicus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi; Fukuda, Wakao; Sanada, Tomoe; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2015-07-01

    Lysobacter oligotrophicus strain 107-E2(T) isolated from Antarctica produces dark-brown colored water-soluble pigment, in addition to hydrolases and lytic enzymes. The production of pigment is a common characteristic among members of the genus Lysobacter, but the identity of the pigments has been unknown. In this study, we identified the pigment from L. oligotrophicus as melanin pigment (Lo-melanin) by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Although melanin is generally insoluble in both aqueous and organic solvents, the results in this study revealed that Lo-melanin shows water-solubility by means of the added polysaccharide chain. Lo-melanin production of L. oligotrophicus was increased by ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and survival rate of Escherichia coli under UV-irradiated condition was increased by the addition of Lo-melanin to the medium.

  19. [A new water-soluble lubricant of tablets-L-leucine combined with PEG6000].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Kai; Rao, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Shasha; Luo, Xiaojian

    2011-08-01

    To prepare an effective and water-soluble lubricant. Co-sprayed lubricant (L-leucine and polyethylene glycol 6000 co-sprayed according to a certain proportion) and mixed lubricant (the physical mixture of spayed L-leucine and crushed polyethylene glycol 6000) were prepared and polyethylene glycol 6000, L-leucine, magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate and sodium chloride are crushed and sieved, respectively. Residual force, appearance of solution and disintegration time were considered as response variables of the lubrication effect to evaluate different lubricants. The changes of the co-sprayed lubricant were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, fourier infrared, electronic scanning microscope and X-ray diffraction. The efficacy of co-sprayed lubricant is better than other lubricants. Efficacy is improved by external form change without inner components and crystal changes. Co-sprayed lubricant is a good water soluble tablet lubricant which has good efficacy.

  20. Afterglow Study of ZnS:Cu,Co Water-soluble Nanoparticles and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2011-03-01

    ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow particles with average size of 4 nm have been prepared by using simple wet chemistry method. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the nanoparticles shows a cubic zinc blende structure as the synthesis temperature is low comparing with solid state reactions. The nanoparticles have two photoluminescence emission peaks. The blue emission is from sulfur defects (vacancies), while the green emission is from Cu 2+ luminescent center which also contributes to the particle's afterglow. The presence of co-dopant Co 2+ is critical to perform the afterglow of these nanoparticles. The afterglow intensity and decay vary on different Cu 2+ and Co 2+ doping levels. Further conjugation of ZnS:Cu,Co nanoparticles and photosensitizers presents a new method for deep cancer treatment in photodynamic therapy. The successful afterglow observation from water-soluble nanoparticles may find many new applications in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Water-soluble Gold and Silver Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh

    The term `nanotechnology' has emerged as a buzzword since the last few decades. It has found widespread applications across disciplines, from medicine to energy. The synthesis of gold and silver nanoclusters has found much excitement, due to their novel material properties. Seminal work by various groups, including ours, has shown that the size of these clusters can be controlled with atomic precision. This control gives access to tuning the optical and electronic properties. The majority of nanoclusters reported thus far are not water soluble, which limit their applications in biology that requires water-solubility. Going from organic to aqueous phase is by no means a simple task, as it is associated with many challenges. Their stability in the presence of oxygen, difficulty in characterization, and separation of pure nanoclusters are some of the major bottlenecks associated with the synthesis of water-soluble gold nanoclusters. Water-soluble gold nanoclusters hold great potential in biological labeling, bio-catalysis and nano-bioconjugates. To overcome this problem, a new ligand with structural rigidity is needed. After considering various possibilities, we chose Captopril as a candidate ligand. In my thesis research, the synthesis of Au25 nanocluster capped with captopril has been reported. Captopril-protected Au25 nanocluster showed significantly higher thermal stability and enhanced chiroptical properties than the Glutathione-capped cluster, which confirms our initial rationale, that the ligand is critical in protecting the nanocluster. The optical absorption properties of these Au25 nanoclusters are studied and compared to the plasmonic nanoparticles. The high thermal stability and solubility of Au25 cluster capped with Captopril motivated us to explore this ligand for the synthesis of other gold clusters. Captopril is a chiral molecule with two chiral centers. The chiral ligand can induce chirality to the overall cluster, even if the core is achiral

  2. Phosphated cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Puentes, Cira Mollings

    2017-01-01

    The utility of phosphated α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins as water-soluble chiral NMR solvating agents for cationic substrates is described. Two sets of phosphated cyclodextrins, one with degrees of substitution in the 2–6 range, the other with degrees of substitution in the 6–10 range, are examined. Results with 33 water-soluble cationic substrates are reported. We also explored the possibility that the addition of paramagnetic lanthanide ions such as praseodymium(III) and ytterbium(III) further enhances the enantiomeric differentiation in the NMR spectra. The chiral differentiation with the phosphated cyclodextrins is compared to prior results obtained with anionic carboxymethylated cyclodextrins. There are a number of examples where a larger differentiation is observed with the phosphated cyclodextrins. PMID:28179947

  3. Consequences of chirality on the dynamics of a water-soluble supramolecular polymer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew B.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Voets, Ilja K.; Leenders, Christianus M.A.; Palmans, Anja R.A.; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Meijer, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    The rational design of supramolecular polymers in water is imperative for their widespread use, but the design principles for these systems are not well understood. Herein, we employ a multi-scale (spatial and temporal) approach to differentiate two analogous water-soluble supramolecular polymers: one with and one without a stereogenic methyl. Initially aiming simply to understand the molecular behaviour of these systems in water, we find that while the fibres may look identical, the introduction of homochirality imparts a higher level of internal order to the supramolecular polymer. Although this increased order does not seem to affect the basic dimensions of the supramolecular fibres, the equilibrium dynamics of the polymers differ by almost an order of magnitude. This report represents the first observation of a structure/property relationship with regard to equilibrium dynamics in water-soluble supramolecular polymers. PMID:25698667

  4. Water-soluble polymer exfoliated graphene: as catalyst support and sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Xia, Baoyu; Yan, Ya; Li, Nan; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Xin

    2013-05-09

    In this paper, we obtained various water-soluble polymer functionalized graphene in dimethyl sulfoxide under ultrasonication. The atomic force microscope analysis and control experiment shows the water-soluble polymer is the crucial part to help solvent molecules separate interlayer. Such polymer/graphene exhibits high conductivity and tunable surface property, as confirmed by the selected area electron diffraction and Raman and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. As a result, a catalyst based on polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/graphene shows better methanol oxidation performance than that based on PVP/reduced graphene oxide. By changing to another polymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine)/graphene shows a stable and reversible response to pH, and demonstrates its potential for sensor application.

  5. Enhanced water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility upon introducing sulfobetaine and quaternary ammonium to chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuxiang; Li, Jianna; Li, Qingqing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Ge, Zaochuan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-06-05

    Chitosan (CS) has attracted much attention due to its good antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. However, CS is insoluble in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution, limiting its biomedical application to some extent. To circumvent this drawback, we have synthesized a novel N-quaternary ammonium-O-sulfobetaine-chitosan (Q3BCS) by introducing quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and sulfobetaine, and its water-solubility, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility were evaluated compare to N-quaternary ammonium chitosan and native CS. The results showed that by introducing QAC, antibacterial activities and water-solubilities increase with degrees of substitution. The largest diameter zone of inhibition (DIZ) was improved from 0 (CS) to 15mm (N-Q3CS). And the water solution became completely transparent from pH 6.5 to pH 11; the maximal waters-solubility was improved from almost 0% (CS) to 113% at pH 7 (N-Q3CS). More importantly, by further introducing sulfobetaine, cell survival rate of Q3BCS increased from 30% (N-Q3CS) to 85% at 2000μg/ml, which is even greater than that of native CS. Furthermore, hemolysis of Q3BCS was dropped sharply from 4.07% (N-Q3CS) to 0.06%, while the water-solution and antibacterial activity were further improved significantly. This work proposes an efficient strategy to prepare CS derivatives with enhanced antibacterial activity, biocompatibility and water-solubility. Additionally, these properties can be finely tailored by changing the feed ratio of CS, glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride and NCO-sulfobetaine.

  6. Circumvention of Taxol-Resistance in Human Breast Cancers by Improved Water Soluble Taxanes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    possible roles of interferon alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta in Mn-SOD induction by polysaccharide K. Cancer ...chemoembolization in combination with local hyperthermia. Japanese Journal of Cancer & Chemotherapy. 16:2957-2960 61. Kidd P. (2000) The use of mushroom glucans ...Circumvention of Taxol-Resistance in Human Breast Cancers by Improved Water Soluble Taxanes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Li-Xi Yang, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING

  7. Water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ming-An; Chen, Pei-Qing; Wang, Si-Bing

    2007-07-20

    New water-soluble phenylpropanoid constituents, ficuscarpanoside A, guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and erythro-guaiacylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, along with known guaiacylglycerol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol, 4-methoxy guaiacylglycerol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) propan-1,2-diol, have been isolated from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  8. Synthesis and Size Dependent Reflectance Study of Water Soluble SnS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Al-Salim, Najeh; Tilley, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Near-monodispersed water soluble SnS nanoparticles in the diameter range of 3–6 nm are synthesized by a facile, solution based one-step approach using ethanolamine ligands. The optimal amount of triethanolamine is investigated. The effect of further heat treatment on the size of these SnS nanoparticles is discussed. Diffuse reflectance study of SnS nanoparticles agrees with predictions from quantum confinement model.

  9. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent).

  10. Nanocrystals for the parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Yeo, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystals have drawn increasing interest in pharmaceutical industry because of the ability to improve dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals can be produced by top-down and bottom-up technologies and have been explored for a variety of therapeutic applications. Here we review the methods of nanocrystal production and parenteral applications of nanocrystals. We also discuss remaining challenges in the development of nanocrystal products. PMID:23645994

  11. NASA Workmanship Hot Topics: Water Soluble Flux and ESD Charge Device Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews two topics of interest to NASA Workmanship: (1) Water Soluble Flux (WSF) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) safety. In the first topic, WSF, the presentation reviews voiding and the importance of cleanliness in using WSF for welding and soldering operations. The second topic reviews the NASA-HDBK-8739.21 for Human Body Model, and Machine Model safety methods, and challenges associated with the Charged Device Model (CDM)

  12. Filterable water-soluble organic nitrogen in fine particles over the southeastern USA during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Neeraj; Zhang, Xiaolu; Edgerton, Eric S.; Ingall, Ellery; Weber, Rodney J.

    2011-10-01

    Time integrated high-volume PM 2.5 samples were collected separately during day and night from 1 August to 10 September 2008 at a paired urban (Atlanta)-rural (Yorkville) sites as part of the August Mini-Intensive Gas and Aerosol Study (AMIGAS). Selected filters ( n = 96, 48 for each site) were analyzed for a suite of water-soluble chemical species, including major inorganic ions, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble total and inorganic nitrogen (WSTN and WSIN), and levoglucosan. Semi-continuous analyses of PM 2.5 mass, soluble ions, WSOC, and gaseous O 3, SO 2, NO, NO 2, NO y, CO, and meteorological parameters were also carried out in parallel. This study focuses on the characteristics of filterable water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), estimated by the difference in the measured concentrations of WSTN and WSIN, determined from aqueous filter extracts. At both sites, WSON varied from below the limit of detection (25 ng-N m -3) to ˜600 ng-N m -3 and on average contributed ˜10% to WSTN mass, with the majority of soluble nitrogen being ammonium (˜82%). WSON:WSOC (or N:C) mass ratios ranged between 0 and 27% at both the sites with a median value of ˜5%, similar to what has been reported in another study in the southeastern USA. At both the urban and rural sites median nighttime levels of WSON and N:C were observed to be consistently higher than daytime values. Based on correlation analyses, daytime WSON sources appeared different than nighttime sources, especially at the urban site. Overall, the data suggest the importance of coal-combustion (e.g., link to SO 2), vehicle emissions, soil dust and biomass burning as WSON sources, and that nitrogenous organic compounds are likely a fairly small fraction of the secondary organic aerosol for this location during summer.

  13. New water-soluble Mn-porphyrin with catalytic activity for superoxide dismutation and peroxynitrite decomposition.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Shoichiro; Nakajima, Takumi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2011-07-01

    We have synthesized a new water-soluble cationic Mn-porphyrin with catalytic activity for both superoxide dismutation and peroxynitrite decomposition. The resulting Mn-porphyrin also showed higher stability for reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and lower cytotoxicity, when compared with a control normal Mn-porphyrin. Furthermore, the new porphyrin recovered the viability of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells but the control Mn-porphyrin did not.

  14. Drug delivery strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs: the industrial perspective.

    PubMed

    van Hoogevest, Peter; Liu, Xiangli; Fahr, Alfred

    2011-11-01

    For poorly soluble compounds, a good bioavailability is typically needed to assess the therapeutic index and the suitability of the compound for technical development. In industry, the selection of the delivery technology is not only driven by technical targets, but also by constraints, such as production costs, time required for development and the intellectual property situation. This review covers current developments in parenteral and oral delivery technologies and products for poorly water-soluble compounds, such as nano-suspensions, solid dispersions and liposomes. In addition, the use of biorelevant dissolution media to assess dissolution and solubility properties is described. Suggestions are also included to systematically address development hurdles typical of poorly water-soluble compounds intended for parenteral or oral administration. A holistic assessment is recommended to select the appropriate delivery technology by taking into account technical as well as intellectual property considerations. Therefore, first and foremost, a comprehensive physico-chemical characterization of poorly water-soluble compounds can provide the key for a successful selection and development outcome. In this context, the identified physical form of the compound in the formulation is used as a guide for a risk-benefit assessment of the selected oral delivery technology. The potential of nano-suspensions for intravenous administration is unclear. In the case of oral administration, nano-suspensions are mainly used to improve the oral absorption characteristics of micronized formulations. The development of an in situ instantaneous solubilization method, based on stable, standardized liposomes with low toxicity, opens new avenues to solubilize poorly water-soluble compounds.

  15. Structural features of a water soluble gum polysaccharide from Murraya paniculata fruits.

    PubMed

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Ghosal, P K; Teleman, A; Vuorinen, T

    2001-10-22

    A water soluble gum polysaccharide was isolated from Murraya paniculata fruits. Hydrolytic experiments, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation studies and NMR data revealed that the polysaccharide was extensively branched and it consisted of 1,3-, and 1,3,6-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units, terminal beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and terminal alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1,4-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units. Small amounts of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues were also present.

  16. Water Solubility Studies in Lower Mantle Perovskite by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amulele, G.; Otsuka, K.; Sanchez, C.; Lee, K. K.; Karato, S.; Liu, Z.; Chen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Although the water solubility in lower mantle minerals is critical for understanding of global water circulation, the water solubility in lower mantle minerals is poorly constrained. The water solubility in MgSiO3-perovskite as well as Al-bearing MgSiO3-perovskite synthesized at 1500 - 1600 K and 24 - 25 GPa under SiO2 or MgO saturated conditions have been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy both at ambient as well as modest pressures of up to 10 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell using KBr as a pressure medium. The FTIR spectra show one dominant band at 3440 cm-1 in MgSiO3-perovskite corresponding to about 50 - 70 ppm wt water in the perovskite. This is consistent with the results by Litasov et al. (2003) who obtained solubility of about 100 ppm wt water in MgSiO3-perovskite, but much larger than the values reported by Bolfan-Casanova et al. (2000). Based on the in-situ FTIR in a diamond-anvil cell using KCl as a pressure medium, Reid et al. (2006) reported infrared absorption peaks at 3160 and 3066 cm-1 at high pressures that broaden and weaken at low (<3 GPa) pressures. They interpreted that these peak are caused by unquenchable hydroxyl-related species. However, we did not find these peaks but instead we found these peaks from the FTIR spectroscopy of KCl. We conclude that 3160 and 3060 cm-1 peaks are due to KCl, and MgSiO3 perovskite has small but finite water solubility (~50-70 ppm wt) that is expected to increase with Al content. We also present corresponding high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements on the nominally hydrous MgSiO3-perovskite carried out up to 30 GPa.

  17. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with water-soluble proteins: effect of sidewall carboxylation.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tomoya; Kurosaki, Rei; Konno, Yuji; Abe, Shigeaki

    2014-04-01

    Effect of sidewall carboxylation on protein adsorption behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied. Two water-soluble proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and egg white lysozyme (LYS), were employed in this work. Carboxylation of MWCNTs suppressed adsorption of BSA, whereas adsorption of LYS was enhanced by the carboxylation. These behaviors are explained by the difference in the dominance of hydrophobic interaction and ionic interaction between MWCNTs and the proteins.

  18. Quinlobelane: a water-soluble lobelane analogue and inhibitor of VMAT2.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Ashish P; Gabriela Deaciuc, A; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2010-06-15

    Replacing the phenyl groups in the structure of the VMAT2 inhibitor, lobelane with either pyridyl, quinolyl or indolyl groups affords novel analogues with improved water solubility. The synthetic methodologies reported herein also underscore the paucity of hydrogenation methods that offer selectivity in the synthesis of the different classes of heteroaromatic lobelane analogues. The quinolyl group was the only replacement for the phenyl group in lobelane that retained VMAT2 inhibition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The removal of kaolinite suspensions by acid-soluble and water-soluble chitosans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Wu, Li-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This research compared the coagulant performance of acid-soluble chitosan with water-soluble chitosan and with coagulant mixtures of chitosan and aluminium sulfate (alum). We also assessed the coagulant performance of chitosan and poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) to remove kaolinite from turbid water. In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies under different coagulant concentrations, degrees of turbidity (NTU) and pH levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants in order to illustrate major factors affecting kaolinite coagulation. The optimal concentrations of acid- versus water- soluble chitosan required to remove kaolinite from a 300 NTU suspension were 4.0 and 10.0 mg/l, respectively-with individual efficiencies of 79.3 and 92.4%, in that order. Optimum concentrations ofwater-soluble chitosan demonstrated a broader range than that of acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it is of note that chitosan/alum and chitosan/PAC water-soluble coagulant mixtures demonstrated much wider ranges of optimal concentrations for turbidity reduction than either alum or PAC alone. Moreover, our water-soluble chitosan coagulant mixtures produced denser floc with elevated settling velocities that favour cost savings relevant to both installation and operational expenses. Based on our observations of these noteworthy performances, we confidently propose that a coagulant mixture with a 1:1 mass ratio of chitosan and alum presents a remarkably more cost-effective alternative to the use of chitosan alone in water treatment systems.

  20. High Throughput Identification, Purification and Structural Characterization of Water Soluble Protein Complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Dong,, Ming; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Liu, Hui-Hai; Malik, J.; Geller, Jil; Yang, Li; Choi, M.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Arbelaez, Pablo; Sterling, H. J.; Typke, Dieter; Shatsky, Max; Brenner, Steve; Fisher, Susan; Williams, Evan; Szakal, Evelin; Allen, S.; Hall, S. C.; Hazen, Terry; Witkowska, H. E.; Jin, Jiming; Glaeser, Robert; Biggin, Mark

    2010-05-17

    Our scheme for the tagless purification of water soluble complexes. 10 g of protein from a crude bacterial extract is first fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and then by a series of chromatographic steps: anion exchange (IEX), hydrophobic interaction (HIC), and finally size exclusion (Gel Filtration). Fractions from the last chromatography step are trypsin digested and peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagents to allow multiplexing and quantitation during mass spectrometric analysis. Elution profiles of identified proteins are then subjected to clustering analysis.

  1. Supercritical fluid particle design for poorly water-soluble drugs (review).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongda

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluid particle design (SCF PD) offers a number of routes to improve solubility and dissolution rate for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, which can be adopted through an in-depth knowledge of SCF PD processes and the molecular properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug delivery system (DDS). Combining with research experiences in our laboratory, this review focuses on the most recent development of different routes (nano-micron particles, polymorphic particles, composite particles and bio-drug particles) to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs, covering the fundamental concept of SCF and the principle of SCF PD processes which are typically used to control particle size, shape, morphology and particle form and hence enable notable improvement in the dissolution rate of the poorly water-soluble drugs. The progress of the industrialization of SCF PD processes in pharmaceutical manufacturing environment with scaled-up plant under current good manufacturing process (GMP) specification is also considered in this review.

  2. Polymer-surfactant nanoparticles for sustained release of water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Chavanpatil, Mahesh D; Khdair, Ayman; Patil, Yogesh; Handa, Hitesh; Mao, Guangzhao; Panyam, Jayanth

    2007-12-01

    Poor drug encapsulation efficiency and rapid release of the encapsulated drug limit the use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications involving water-soluble drugs. We have developed a novel polymer-surfactant nanoparticle formulation, using the anionic surfactant Aerosol OT (AOT) and polysaccharide polymer alginate, for sustained release of water-soluble drugs. Particle size of nanoparticles, as determined by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, was in the range of 40-70 nm. Weakly basic molecules like methylene blue, doxorubicin, rhodamine, verapamil, and clonidine could be encapsulated efficiently in AOT-alginate nanoparticles. In vitro release studies with basic drug molecules indicate that nanoparticles released 60-70% of the encapsulated drug over 4 weeks, with near zero-order release during the first 15 days. Studies with anionic drug molecules demonstrate poorer drug encapsulation efficiency and more rapid drug release than those observed with basic drugs. Further studies investigating the effect of sodium concentration in the release medium and the charge of the drug suggest that calcium-sodium exchange between nanoparticle matrix and release medium and electrostatic interaction between drug and nanoparticle matrix are important determinants of drug release. In conclusion, we have formulated a novel surfactant-polymer drug delivery carrier demonstrating sustained release of water-soluble drugs.

  3. Enhanced water-solubility and antibacterial activity of novel chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salt.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Cheng, Honghao; Li, Jianna; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Ge, Zaochuan; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has been widely recognized as an important biomaterial due to its good antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, CS is insoluble in water in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution due to the linear aggregation of chain molecules and the formation of crystallinity. This is one of the key factors that limit its practical applications. Therefore, improving the solubility of CS in neutral and alkaline aqueous solution is a primary research direction for biomedical applications. In this paper, a reactive antibacterial compound (4-(2,5-Dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yloxycarbonyl)-benzyl)-triphenyl-phosphonium bromide (NHS-QPS) was synthesized for chemical modification of CS, and a series of novel polymeric antimicrobial agents, N-quaternary phosphonium chitosan derivatives (N-QPCSxy, x=1-2,y=1-4) were obtained. The water solubilities and antibacterial activities of N-QPCSxy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated compare to CS. The water solubility of N-QPCSxy was all better than that of CS at neutral pH aqueous solution, particularly, N-QPCS14 can be soluble in water over the pH range of 3 to 12. The antibacterial activities of CS derivatives were improved by introducing quaternary phosphonium salt, and antibacterial activity of N-QPCSxy increases with degree of substitution. Overall, N-QPCS14 represents a novel antibacterial polymer material with good antibacterial activity, waters solubility and low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlorin p6-Based Water-Soluble Amino Acid Derivatives as Potent Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhi; Yu, Bin; Han, Guiyan; Liu, Minghui; Shan, Bin; Dong, Guoqiang; Miao, Zhenyuan; Jia, Ningyang; Tan, Zou; Li, Buhong; Zhang, Wannian; Zhu, Haiying; Sheng, Chunquan; Yao, Jianzhong

    2016-05-26

    The development of novel photosensitizer with high phototoxicity, low dark toxicity, and good water solubility is a challenging task for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A series of chlorin p6-based water-soluble amino acid conjugates were synthesized and investigated for antitumor activity. Among them, aspartylchlorin p6 dimethylester (7b) showed highest phototoxicity against melanoma cells with weakest dark toxicity, which was more phototoxic than verteporfin while with less dark toxicity. It also exhibited better in vivo PDT antitumor efficacy on mice bearing B16-F10 tumor than verteporfin. The biological assays revealed that 7b was localized in multiple subcellular organelles and could cause both cell necrosis and apoptosis after PDT in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in more effective cell destruction. As a result, 7b represents a promising photosensitizer for PDT applications because of its strong absorption in the phototherapeutic window, relatively high singlet oxygen quantum yield, highest dark toxicity/phototoxicity ratio, good water solubility, and excellent in vivo PDT antitumor efficacy.

  5. A Novel Injectable Water-Soluble Amphotericin B-Arabinogalactan Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Rama; Domb, Abraham J.; Polacheck, Itzhack

    1999-01-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs, 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml). The reduced AmB conjugate, which was synthesized at pH 11 for 48 h at 37°C, was nonhemolytic and was much safer than conventional micellar AmB-deoxycholate. It was the least toxic AmB-AG conjugate among those tested with mice (maximal tolerated dose, 50 mg/kg of body weight), and histopathology indicated no damage to the liver or kidneys. This conjugate, similarly to the liposomal formulation (AmBisome), was more effective than AmB-deoxycholate in prolonging survival. It was more effective than both the liposomal and the deoxycholate formulations in eradicating yeast cells from target organs. The overall results suggest that after further development of the AmB-AG conjugate, it may be a potent agent in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:10428922

  6. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Rotenone-Induced Mitochondrial Fission.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zimmerman, Mary; Milledge, Gaolin Z; Hou, Xiao-Lin; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Zhen-Hai; Li, P Andy

    2017-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. It is usually accompanied by an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics and changes in mitochondrial morphology that are associated with impaired function. The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of rotenone, a drug known to mimic the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, on mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, this study explored the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrate that rotenone elevates protein expression of mitochondrial fission markers, Drp1 and Fis1, and causes an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation as evidenced through mitochondrial staining and morphological analysis. Water-soluble CoQ10 prevented mitochondrial dynamic imbalance by reducing Drp1 and Fis1 protein expression to pre-rotenone levels, as well as reducing rotenone treatment-associated mitochondrial fragmentation. Hence, water-soluble CoQ10 may have therapeutic potential in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.

  7. Non-toxic O-quaternized chitosan materials with better water solubility and antimicrobial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Wen-Shuai; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Chen, Qin; Cong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Five water-soluble O-quaternary ammonium salt-chitosans (QAS-CS) bearing N-methyl-N-R-N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R=-benzyl (chloride, BNQAS-CS), -dodecyl (C12QAS-CS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS-CS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS-CS), -octadecyl (C18QAS-CS)) were prepared, respectively. They were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. Through chemical modification of O-quaternized chitosans, the water solubility of all QAS-CS was improved distinctly. Their antibacterial properties indicate good antibacterial abilities against gram-positive bacteria and bad against gram-negative bacteria, therein, C12QAS-CS and C14QAS-CS are the best. More importantly, their cytotoxicity was markedly lower than the corresponding QAS monomers by evaluating for AT2 cell line using CCK-8 assay. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial chitosan materials with better water solubility, better antimicrobial ability and lower cytotoxicity for primary additive agent of self-owned intellectual band-aids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  9. Encapsulation of poorly water-soluble drugs into organic nanotubes for improving drug dissolution.

    PubMed

    Moribe, Kunikazu; Makishima, Takashi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Liu, Nan; Limwikrant, Waree; Ding, Wuxiao; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2014-07-20

    Hydrocortisone (HC), a poorly water-soluble drug, was encapsulated within organic nanotubes (ONTs), which were formed via the self-assembly of N-{12-[(2-α,β-d-glucopyranosyl) carbamoyl]dodecanyl}-glycylglycylglycine acid. The stability of the ONTs was evaluated in ten organic solvents, of differing polarities, by field emission transmission electron microscopy. The ONTs maintained their stable tubular structure in the highly polar solvents, such as ethanol and acetone. Furthermore, solution-state (1)H-NMR spectroscopy confirmed that they were practically insoluble in acetone at 25°C (0.015 mg/mL). HC-loaded ONTs were prepared by solvent evaporation using acetone. A sample with a 3/7 weight ratio of HC/ONT was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, which confirmed the presence of a halo pattern and the absence of any crystalline HC peak. HC peak broadening, observed by solid-state (13)C-NMR measurements of the evaporated sample, indicated the absence of HC crystals. These results indicated that HC was successfully encapsulated in ONT as an amorphous state. Improvements of the HC dissolution rate were clearly observed in aqueous media at both pH 1.2 and 6.8, probably due to HC amorphization in the ONTs. Phenytoin, another poorly water-soluble drug, also showed significant dissolution improvement upon ONT encapsulation. Therefore, ONTs can serve as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  10. Synthesis of water soluble glycosides of pentacyclic dihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acids as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiancong; Nie, Xuliang; Hong, Yanping; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Guoqiang; Yin, Xiaoli; Wang, Chunrong; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-07

    A series of compounds were synthesized by glycosylation of maslinic acid (MA) and corosolic acid (CA) with monosaccharides and disaccharides, and the structures of the derivatives were elucidated by standard spectroscopic methods including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all the novel compounds were evaluated in vitro. The solubility and inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase assays showed that the bis-disaccharide glycosides of triterpene acids possessed higher water solubility and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the bis-monosaccharide glycosides. Among these compounds, maslinic acid bis-lactoside (8e, IC50 = 684 µM) and corosolic acid bis-lactoside (9e, IC50 = 428 µM) had the best water solubility, and 9e exhibited a better inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 478 µM). However, most of glycosylated derivatives possessed lower inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, although their water solubility was enhanced obviously. Moreover, the kinetic inhibition studies indicated that 9e was a non-competitive inhibitor, and structure-activity relationships of the derivatives are also discussed.

  11. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of water-soluble muscadine seed extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Kim, T J; Weng, W L; Stojanovic, J; Lu, Y; Jung, Y S; Silva, J L

    2008-07-01

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157: H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43), total phenolics (2.21 to 3.49 mg/ml), tartaric acid (5.6 to 10.7 mg/ml), tannic acid (5.7 to 8.1 mg/ml), and gallic acid (0.33 to 0.59 mg/ml) than did the Carlos extracts. Heat treatment on both extracts increased antimicrobial activity, possibly because of increased acidity, tartaric acid, total phenolics, and individual phenolics. Heating of Ison extracts increased ellagic acid up to 83%. Up to 10.7 mg/ml tartaric acid alone was not as effective against E. coli O157:H7 as were water-soluble seed extracts. This finding suggests the involvement of other factors, such as tannic and gallic acids, in inactivation of this pathogen. Water-soluble muscadine seed extracts may be useful for incorporation into juice and other beverage products as natural preservatives.

  13. Biodesulfurization of water-soluble coal-derived material by Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Jackowski, K.

    1991-12-31

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 was previously isolated because of its ability to use coal as its sole source of sulfur for growth. Subsequent growth studies have revealed that IGTS8 is capable of using a variety of organosulfur compounds as sources of sulfur but not carbon. In this paper, the ability of IGTS8 to selectively remove organic sulfur from water-soluble coal-derived material is investigated. The microbial removal of organic sulfur from coal requires microorganisms capable of cleaving carbonsulfur bonds and the accessibility of these bonds to microorganisms. The use of water-soluble coal-derived material effectively overcomes the problem of accessibility and allows the ability of microorganisms to cleave carbonsulfur bonds present in coal-derived material to be assessed directly. Three coals, two coal solubilization procedures, and two methods of biodesulfurization were examined. The results of these experiments reveal that the microbial removal of significant amounts of organic sulfur from watersoluble coal-derived material with treatment times as brief as 24 hours is possible. Moreover, the carbon content and calorific value of biotreated products are largely unaffected. Biotreatment does, however, result in increases in the hydrogen and nitrogen content and a decreased oxygen content of the coal-derived material. The aqueous supernatant obtained from biodesulfurization experiments does not contain sulfate, sulfite, or other forms of soluble sulfur at increased concentrations in comparison with control samples. Sulfur removed from water-soluble coal-derived material appears to be incorporated into biomass.

  14. Inhibition of Ostwald ripening in model beverage emulsions by addition of poorly water soluble triglyceride oils.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian; Henson, Lulu; Popplewell, L Michael; Decker, Eric Andrew; Choi, Seung Jun

    2012-01-01

    Beverage emulsions containing flavor oils that have a relatively high water-solubility are unstable to droplet growth due to Ostwald ripening. The aim of this study was to improve the stability of model beverage emulsions to this kind of droplet growth by incorporating poorly water-soluble triglyceride oils. High pressure homogenization was used to prepare a series of 5 wt% oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by modified starch that had different lipid phase compositions (orange oil : corn oil). Emulsions prepared using only orange oil as the lipid phase were highly unstable to droplet growth during storage, which was attributed to Ostwald ripening resulting from the relatively high water-solubility of orange oil. Droplet growth could be effectively inhibited by incorporating ≥ 10% corn oil into the lipid phase prior to homogenization. In addition, creaming was also retarded because the lipid phase density was closer to that of the aqueous phase density. These results illustrate a simple method of improving the physical stability of orange oil emulsions for utilization in the food, beverage, and fragrance industries.

  15. A novel injectable water-soluble amphotericin B-arabinogalactan conjugate.

    PubMed

    Falk, R; Domb, A J; Polacheck, I

    1999-08-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs, 0.1 to 0.2 microg/ml). The reduced AmB conjugate, which was synthesized at pH 11 for 48 h at 37 degrees C, was nonhemolytic and was much safer than conventional micellar AmB-deoxycholate. It was the least toxic AmB-AG conjugate among those tested with mice (maximal tolerated dose, 50 mg/kg of body weight), and histopathology indicated no damage to the liver or kidneys. This conjugate, similarly to the liposomal formulation (AmBisome), was more effective than AmB-deoxycholate in prolonging survival. It was more effective than both the liposomal and the deoxycholate formulations in eradicating yeast cells from target organs. The overall results suggest that after further development of the AmB-AG conjugate, it may be a potent agent in the treatment of fungal infections.

  16. Nanosizing of poorly water soluble compounds using rotation/revolution mixer.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, Takayuki; Endo, Tomoko; Jianguo, Yao; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2009-10-01

    In this study, nanoparticles of various poorly water soluble compounds were prepared by wet milling that was carried out using a rotation/revolution mixer and zirconia balls. To be compared with Beads mill, rotation/revolution mixer has superior in very quick process (5 min) and needs very few amounts of zirconia balls (2.4 g) for pulverizing drugs to nanometer range. Phenytoin, indomethacin, nifedipine, danazol, and naproxen were selected as the standard poorly water soluble compounds. Various parameters of the rotation/revolution mixer were studied to decide the optimal pulverization conditions for the production of nanoparticles of the abovementioned compounds. The rotation/revolution speed, shape of the mixing vessel, amount of zirconia balls, and volume of the vehicle (methylcellulose solution) mainly affected the pulverization of the compounds. Using the mixer, phenytoin could be pulverized to nanoparticles within a few minutes. The particle size was confirmed by using a scanning electron microscope and a particle size analyzer. The crystallinity of the pulverized phenytoin particles was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the pulverized phenytoin particles retained their crystallinity, and amorphous phenytoin was not detected. Particles of other poorly water soluble compounds were also reduced to the nanometer range by using this method.

  17. Synthesis of water-soluble camptothecin-polyoxetane conjugates via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zolotarskaya, Olga Yu; Wagner, Alison F; Beckta, Jason M; Valerie, Kristoffer; Wynne, Kenneth J; Yang, Hu

    2012-11-05

    Water-soluble camptothecin (CPT)-polyoxetane conjugates were synthesized using a clickable polymeric platform P(EAMO) that was made by polymerization of acetylene-functionalized 3-ethyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)oxetane (i.e., EAMO). CPT was first modified with a linker 6-azidohexanoic acid via an ester linkage to yield CPT-azide. CPT-azide was then click coupled to P(EAMO) in dichloromethane using bromotris(triphenylphosphine)copper(I)/N,N-diisopropylethylamine. For water solubility and cytocompatibility improvement, methoxypolyethylene glycol azide (mPEG-azide) was synthesized from mPEG 750 g mol(-1) and click grafted using copper(II) sulfate and sodium ascorbate to P(EAMO)-g-CPT. (1)H NMR spectroscopy confirmed synthesis of all intermediates and the final product P(EAMO)-g-CPT/PEG. CPT was found to retain its therapeutically active lactone form. The resulting P(EAMO)-g-CPT/PEG conjugates were water-soluble and produced dose-dependent cytotoxicity to human glioma cells and increased γ-H2AX foci formation, indicating extensive cell cycle-dependent DNA damage. Altogether, we have synthesized CPT-polymer conjugates able to induce controlled toxicity to human cancer cells.

  18. THIAZOLIDINONE CFTR INHIBITORS WITH IMPROVED WATER SOLUBILITY IDENTIFIED BY STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, N.D.; Verkman, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The thiazolidinone 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (CFTRinh-172) inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel conductance with submicromolar affinity and blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. Fifty-eight CFTRinh-172 analogs were synthesized to identify CFTR inhibitors with improved water solubility, exploring modifications in its two phenyl rings, thiazolidinone core, and core-phenyl connectors. Greatest CFTR inhibition potency was found for 3-CF3 and polar group-substituted-phenyl rings, and a thiazolidinone core. Two compounds with ~1 μM CFTR inhibition potency and solubility >180 μM (>10-fold more than CFTRinh-172) were identified: Tetrazolo-172, containing 4-tetrazolophenyl in place of 4-carboxyphenyl, and Oxo-172, containing thiazolidinedione in place of the thiazolidinone core. These water soluble thiazolidinone analogs had low cellular toxicity. The improved water solubility of Tetrazolo- and Oxo-172 make them potential lead candidates for therapy of secretory diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:18691893

  19. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  20. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Absorption, utilization and clinical effectiveness of allithiamines compared to water-soluble thiamines.

    PubMed

    Baker, H; Frank, O

    1976-08-01

    Oral administration of lipid-soluble allithiamines [thiamine propyl disulfide (TPD) and thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTHF)] rapidly increased thiamine activity in whole blood, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine in normal and thiamine-deficient subjects. These thiamine congeners also restored red blood cell transketolase to normal in alcoholics with thiamine deficiency. Such repletion equaled that produced by parenteral, water-soluble thiamine hydrochloride (THCl) or thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Oral administration of water-soluble thiamines (THCl, TPP) neither elevated thiamine activity in biological fluids nor restored transketolase activity to normal in alcoholics with thiamine deficiency presumably due to their rate-limited intestinal transport. Oral administration of TPD eliminated lateral rectus palsy in patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy. Orally administered allithiamine vitamers are therefore recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of thiamine deficits because while having essentially the same biological properties as parenterally administered water-soluble thiamines they have not produced any untoward effects after long-term administration and are far more efficiently utilized.

  2. [Simultaneous determination of 9 water-soluble colorants in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Li, Ying; Liu, Li; Zhang, Chen; Li, Bin; Liang, Tongwen

    2009-11-01

    An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been established for the simultaneous determination of 9 water-soluble colorants (Solvent Green 7, Food Yellow 3, Food Red 17, Acid Yellow 1, Acid Red 33, Food Red 4, Food Red 1, Orange I, Acid Orange 7) in cosmetics. The different kinds of samples were treated with different preparation methods. The obtained liquid samples were analyzed by HPLC using a Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). Acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) buffer solution (pH 6) was used as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The 9 water-soluble colorants were well separated within 15 min. The average recoveries (n = 9) were from 85.33% to 100.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.68% and 8.20%. The limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.01-0.1 mg/L. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the determination of 9 water-soluble colorants in cosmetics.

  3. Characterization of human monocyte activation by a water soluble preparation of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

    PubMed

    Pugh, N; Pasco, D S

    2001-11-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh-water microalgae that is consumed as a nutrient-dense food source and for its health-enhancing properties. The current research characterizes the effect of a water soluble preparation from AFA on human monocyte/macrophage function and compares the effect of AFA with responses from known agents that modulate the immune system. At 0.5 pg/ml the AFA extract robustly activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels at 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/ml) of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the AFA extract substantially increased mRNA levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and enhanced the DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B. The effects of AFA water soluble preparation were similar to the responses displayed by LPS, but clearly different from responses exhibited by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma). Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with factors known to induce hyporesponsiveness suppressed both AFA-dependent and LPS-dependent activation. These results suggest that the macrophage-activating properties of the AFA water soluble preparation are mediated through pathways that are similar to LPS-dependent activation.

  4. Oxireductases in the Enzymatic Synthesis of Water-Soluble Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoteco, Estibalitz; Mecerreyes, David

    This chapter reviews recent advances in the field of biocatalytic synthesis of water-soluble conducting polymers. Biocatalysis is proposed as a versatile tool for synthesis of conducting polymers. First, the enzymatic synthesis of conducting polymers and its mechanism is discussed as well as the use of different type of enzymes. Next, we describe the use of a new bifunctional template (sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate) in the synthesis of polyaniline as a strategy to improve the water solubility and electrical conductivity in the obtained polymer. The recent development of enzyme-catalyzed polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate is discussed. This method results in PEDOT materials that show an electrical conductivity of 2 × 1{0}^{-3} {S cm}^{-1} and posses excellent film formation ability, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy images. Finally, a simple method for immobilizing horseradish peroxidases in the biocatalytic synthesis of water-soluble conducting polymers is presented. This method is based on a biphasic catalytic system in which the enzyme is encapsulated inside the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while other components remain in the aqueous phase. The enzyme is easily recovered after reaction and can be reused several times.

  5. Cationic sulfonium functionalization renders Znsalens with high fluorescence, good water solubility and tunable cell-permeability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Xie, Da; Yin, Hao-Yan; Jing, Jing; Zhang, Jun-Long

    2016-04-07

    In this study, we report for the first time that incorporation of cationic sulfonium to the Znsalens skeleton achieves water soluble fluorescent metal complex probes for living cell imaging. To circumvent Znsalen aggregation arising from intermolecular ZnO interactions (found between Zn and the phenoxyl group of another Znsalen molecule), we synthesized a series of sulfonium Znsalens based on alkylation of the 3-thioether or 3,5-dithioether moieties of salicylaldehydes. Such functionalization not only provides positive charge(s) to enhance electrostatic repulsion, but also increases steric hindrance, which renders the Znsalen complex water soluble as a monomeric species in aqueous media as revealed by diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY). More interestingly, these sulfonium Znsalens display "switched on" fluorescence when compared to thioether analogues, which was attributed to the electron-withdrawing sulfonium moiety that perturbs the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process as suggested by computational calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Most interestingly, live cell imaging experiments showed that modulation of the sulfonium moieties, such as the number or alkyl substituents, significantly tunes the cell-permeability of the fluorescent Znsalens. Thus, this study has demonstrated the importance of sulfonium functionalization on dissociating the intermolecular metal-ligand interactions and thus, modulating water solubility, photophysical properties and even cell-permeability of the fluorophores, which provides a new approach to the design of functional metal complexes for biological studies.

  6. Effect of Non-ionic Surfactants and Its Role in K Intercalation in Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Avijit; Tripathy, B. C.; Subbaiah, T.; Meyrick, D.; Ionescu, Mihail; Minakshi, Manickam

    2014-09-01

    The effect of non-ionic surface active agents (surfactants) Triton X-100 (TX-100) and Tween-20 (Tw-20) and their role in potassium intercalation in electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) produced from manganese cake has been investigated. Electrosynthesis of MnO2 in the absence or presence of surfactant was carried out from acidic MnSO4 solution obtained from manganese cake under optimized conditions. A range of characterization techniques, including field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and BET surface area/porosity studies, was carried out to determine the structural and chemical characteristics of the EMD. Galvanostatic (discharge) and potentiostatic (cyclic voltammetric) studies were employed to evaluate the suitability of EMD in combination with KOH electrolyte for alkaline battery applications. The presence of surfactant played an important role in modifying the physicochemical properties of the EMD by increasing the surface area of the material and hence, enhancing its electrochemical performance. The TEM and RBS analyses of the discharged EMD (γ-MnO2) material showed clear evidence of potassium intercalation or at least the formation of a film on the MnO2 surface. The extent of intercalation was greater for EMD deposited in the presence of TX-100. Discharged MnO2 showed products of Mn2+ intermediates such as MnOOH and Mn3O4.

  7. Simulation of non-ionic surfactant micelle formation across a range of temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, Gregory; Das, Payel; Matysiak, Silvina

    Non-ionic surfactants can, at certain concentrations and thermodynamic conditions, aggregate into micelles due to their amphiphilic nature. Our work looks at the formation and behavior of micelles at extremes of temperature and pressure. Due to the large system size and simulation time required to study micelle formation, we have developed a coarse-grained (CG) model of our system. This CG model represents each heavy atom with a single CG bead. We use the multibody Stillinger-Weber potential, which adds a three-body angular penalty to a two-body potential, to emulate hydrogen bonds in the system. We simulate the linear surfactant C12E5 , which has a nonpolar domain of 12 carbons and a polar domain of 5 ethers. Our CG model has been parameterized to match structural properties from all-atom simulations of single and dimer surfactant systems. Simulations were performed using a concentration above the experimental critical micelle concentration at 300K and 1atm. We observe an expected region of stable micelle formation at intermediate temperature, with a breakdown at high and low temperature, as well as at high pressure. The driving forces behind the destabilization of micelles and the mechanism of micelle formation at different thermodynamic conditions will be discussed.

  8. Immobilization of enzymes using non-ionic colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs): Activity kinetics, conformation, and energetics.

    PubMed

    Ward, Keeran; Xi, Jingshu; Stuckey, David C

    2016-05-01

    This study seeks to examine the ability of non-ionic/non-polar Colloidial Liquid Aphrons (CLAs) to preserve enzyme functionality upon immobilization and release. CLAs consisting of micron-sized oil droplets surrounded by a thin aqueous layer stabilized by a mixture of surfactants, were formulated by direct addition (pre-manufacture addition) using 1% Tween 80/mineral oil and 1% Tween 20 and the enzymes lipase, aprotinin and α-chymotrypsin. The results of activity assays for both lipase and α-chymotrypsin showed that kinetic activity increased upon immobilization by factors of 7 and 5.5, respectively, while aprotinin retained approximately 85% of its native activity. The conformation of the enzymes released through desorption showed no significant alterations compared to their native state. Changes in pH and temperature showed that optimum conditions did not change after immobilization, while analysis of activation energy for the immobilized enzyme showed an increase in activity at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of bound water within the aphron structure allowed for some degree of enzyme hydration, and this hydration was needed for an active conformation with results showing a decrease in ΔH* for the immobilized system compared to its native counterpart.

  9. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. PMID:23807847

  10. Dynamics of water nanodroplets and aqueous protons in non-ionic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J; Laria, D; Guàrdia, E; Martí, J

    2009-03-14

    We present a study of the microscopic dynamics of water trapped in reverse non-ionic micelles by means of a series of molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of the effects of micellar confinement on spectroscopical properties of an excess proton has also been considered. Our micelles were microemulsions made with the neutral surfactant diethylene glycol monodecyl ether [CH(3)(CH(2))(11)(OC(2)H(4))(2)OH]. Simulation experiments including the proton species were performed using a multistate empirical valence bond Hamiltonian model. Diffusion of water in the micelle is markedly slower than that in the bulk liquid, in the same fashion as happens with reorientational dynamics. Spectral densities of hydrogens revealed a blue-shift of the OH-stretching vibration together with a split of the main band into two components. Absorption lineshapes of the solvated proton in the vicinity of the internal surface of the micelle indicate the coexistence of Eigen-like and Zundel-like structures and a tendency to red-shifting (compared to the aqueous unconstrained excess proton case) of the two relevant spectral bands (around 2000 and 2500 wavenumbers) mainly due to the slower dynamics of proton vibrations in water near interfaces.

  11. Simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and non-ionic surfactant oxidation by peroxymonosulphate and iron powder.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Angela; Pagano, Michele; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Lopez, Antonio; Ciannarella, Ruggiero; Locaputo, Vito

    2013-05-01

    Some industrial wastewaters contain both hexavalent chromium and surfactants. In this work, their removal from aqueous solution by zero-valent iron (ZVI) and peroxymonosulphate (PMS) was studied using Brij 35 as a representative non-ionic surfactant. The performance of the ZVI/PMS system in the simultaneous removal of both pollutants was compared to that achieved with control solutions containing either Cr(VI) or Brij 35 separately. Reactions were carried out over 24h at initial pH=2.3 with variable initial amounts of Cr(VI) and Brij 35. The results showed that surfactant removal was enhanced in the system also containing Cr(VI). Surfactant degradation followed zero-order kinetics and produced formic acid as the main by-product, together with hydroxylated aldehydes, formates and alcohols that were identified by LC/MS. The presence of surfactant similarly enhanced Cr(VI) reduction, which also followed zero-order kinetics. Chromium removal was quantitative only when the initial chromium concentration was lower than 140 mg L(-1). Reduced chromium was mainly in the solution phase together with dissolved iron. Precipitation with NaOH was therefore required to definitively remove dissolved metals from the investigated system.

  12. Non-ionic surfactant flushing of pentachlorophenol from NAPL-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Kil; Bielefeldt, Angela R

    2005-04-01

    Column studies were conducted to assess the suitability of a non-ionic surfactant Tergitol NP-10 (TNP10) for washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil and non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). Flushing of 50 and 200 pore volumes of 5 g/L TNP10 was required to exhaust the surfactant sorption capacity of the soil and soil plus NAPL, respectively. The sorption of surfactant to the soil in the columns was four times greater than the quantity previously observed in batch tests. Flushing with 5 g/L TNP10 removed 71-79% of the 200mg/kg soil-sorbed PCP after 160 pore volumes compared to 0.7-2% PCP removal without surfactant. In columns additionally containing 0.2% and 0.4% PCP-contaminated heavy oil NAPL, the PCP removal efficiency after flushing 200 pore volumes of 5g/L TNP10 was nearly 100%. Therefore, removal of the PCP was more efficient in the NAPL-containing columns, potentially due to competition of the NAPL for PCP sorption sites. Rate-limited desorption of PCP and TNP10 likely occurred.

  13. Hofmeister series salts enhance purification of plasmid DNA by non-ionic detergents.

    PubMed

    Lezin, George; Kuehn, Michael R; Brunelli, Luca

    2011-08-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the standard technique used for plasmid DNA purification, an essential molecular biology procedure. Non-ionic detergents (NIDs) have been used for plasmid DNA purification, but it is unclear whether Hofmeister series salts (HSS) change the solubility and phase separation properties of specific NIDs, enhancing plasmid DNA purification. After scaling-up NID-mediated plasmid DNA isolation, we established that NIDs in HSS solutions minimize plasmid DNA contamination with protein. In addition, large-scale NID/HSS solutions eliminated lipopolysaccharides (LPS) contamination of plasmid DNA more effectively than Qiagen ion-exchange columns. Large-scale NID isolation/NID purification generated increased yields of high-quality DNA compared to alkali isolation/column purification. This work characterizes how HSS enhance NID-mediated plasmid DNA purification, and demonstrates that NID phase transition is not necessary for LPS removal from plasmid DNA. Specific NIDs such as IGEPAL CA-520 can be utilized for rapid, inexpensive, and efficient laboratory-based large-scale plasmid DNA purification, outperforming Qiagen-based column procedures.

  14. [PAH removal from black sludge from aluminium industry by flotation using non-ionic surfactants].

    PubMed

    Dhenain, A; Mercier, G; Blais, J F; Bergeron, M

    2006-09-01

    The valorization of black sludge is an environmental problem of the aluminium industry because of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), fluoride and alumina contents. A soil washing operated in a cell flotation with non-ionic surfactants (Brij 35, Igepal CA-720, Triton X-100, Tween 80) at different concentrations has been tested in order to remove the PAH (benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, fluoranthene) detected in black sludge. The Tween 80 at 0.5% gave the best results with PAH removal rates between 35 and 50%. These percentages remain low due to the presence in large quantity of fine solid particles (45%) in the PAH concentrate produced by the flotation process. The substitution of the cell flotation by a column flotation allowed the reduction of this problem. Thus, the PAH removal rates reached 60%. This removal yield has been obtained with the lowest wash water flow-rate (150 ml min(-1)) and pulp total solids (10% p p(-1)) tested.

  15. Hofmeister series salts enhance purification of plasmid DNA by non-ionic detergents

    PubMed Central

    Lezin, George; Kuehn, Michael R.; Brunelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the standard technique used for plasmid DNA purification, an essential molecular biology procedure. Non-ionic detergents (NIDs) have been used for plasmid DNA purification, but it is unclear whether Hofmeister series salts (HSS) change the solubility and phase separation properties of specific NIDs, enhancing plasmid DNA purification. After scaling-up NID-mediated plasmid DNA isolation, we established that NIDs in HSS solutions minimize plasmid DNA contamination with protein. In addition, large-scale NID/HSS solutions eliminated LPS contamination of plasmid DNA more effectively than Qiagen ion-exchange columns. Large-scale NID isolation/NID purification generated increased yields of high quality DNA compared to alkali isolation/column purification. This work characterizes how HSS enhance NID-mediated plasmid DNA purification, and demonstrates that NID phase transition is not necessary for LPS removal from plasmid DNA. Specific NIDs such as IGEPAL CA-520 can be utilized for rapid, inexpensive and efficient laboratory-based large-scale plasmid DNA purification, outperforming Qiagen-based column procedures. PMID:21351074

  16. Comparative tolerability of contrast media used for coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Esplugas, Enrique; Cequier, Angel; Gomez-Hospital, Joan A; Del Blanco, Bruno García; Jara, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Radiographic contrast media (CM) are necessary to provide x-ray absorption of the bloodstream; all other observed effects need to be regarded as adverse. Four types of CM are currently used in diagnostic and interventional cardiology: ionic high-osmolar CM (HOCM), either ionic or non-ionic low-osmolar CM (LOCM), and non-ionic iso-osmolar CM (IOCM). Focusing on the potential cardiovascular effects caused by the CM, there is a clear difference between HOCM and the LOCM or IOCM. HOCM have a poorer profile due to a higher incidence of hypotension and electrophysiological effects. To prevent contrast-induced nephropathy, HOCM should be avoided and patients should receive the minimal dose of LOCM or IOCM with intravenous hydration before and after the procedure. Clinical hyperthyroidism has been detected after CM use, but the condition appears, ultimately, to be self-limited and to occur mainly in elderly patients. When assessing the need for a CM in terms of improved patient safety, preventing serious complications should be the major factor determining the choice. CM should not be selected on the basis of minor adverse effects since these are, ultimately, of low clinical relevance. Thrombotic events, in contrast, carry a high clinical relevance and we consider that these should be the main issue governing current choice. Ionic LOCM appear to have better profile than other CM with respect to interaction with platelet function and coagulation. In relation to thrombotic events in randomised clinical studies, ionic CM have been associated, mainly, with favourable and some neutral results compared with non-ionic agents. Only one trial indicated a more pronounced antithrombotic effect of the non-ionic IOCM relative to the ionic LOCM. The antithrombotic advantages of ionic over non-ionic LOCM are, in part, balanced by a greater frequency of minor adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting or cutaneous rashes. A matter of concern is the delayed adverse effects observed with non-ionic

  17. Study to evaluate the impact of heat treatment on water soluble vitamins in milk.

    PubMed

    Asadullah; Khair-un-nisa; Tarar, Omer Mukhtar; Ali, Syed Abdul; Jamil, Khalid; Begum, Askari

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of domestic boiling practice on the contents of water soluble vitamins of loose milk and quantitative comparison of these vitamins in Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk with that of boiled loose milk. Loose milk samples were collected from various localities of Karachi city (Pakistan). These samples were boiled in simulated household conditions for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated packaged milk samples of various brands were obtained from the local market. The aliquots were analyzed for water-soluble vitamins using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique. The mean values and standard deviations for data were computed and compared as well as level of variations were also determined. Conventional boiling caused destruction of water soluble vitamins in milk i.e. vitamin 81 content in fresh milk decreased from 0.037 mg/100 g to 0.027 mg/100 g after 15 min boiling, whereas vitamin B2 from 0.115 to 0.084 mg/100 g, vitamin B3 0.062 to 0.044 mg/100 g, vitamin B6 0.025 to 0.019 mg/100 g and folic acid 3.38 to 2.40 microg/100 g. This accounted for a post-boiling decrease of about 27, 27, 29, 24 and 36% in vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid respectively. The values for vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and folic acid determined in boiled milk were significantly lower than UHT treated packaged milk samples by 25.9, 75.0, 54.5, 63.16 and 38.1% respectively. Conventional boiling caused drastic reduction in vitamin levels of loose milk samples. In comparison to this, UHT milk retained high levels of water soluble B-vitamins. Thus it could be envisaged that UHT treated milk provides better water soluble vitamins' nourishment than conventionally boiled milk (JPMA 60:909; 2010).

  18. Effect Of Pressure On The Temperature Dependence Of Water Solubility In Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, E.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Koga, K.

    2005-12-01

    Water storage capacity of the upper mantle largely depends on water solubility in mantle olivine. Realistic models must take into account the simultaneous effects of variables such as pressure, temperature, iron content and silica activity. Previous experimental studies have shown that the water solubility in olivine increases with increasing water fugacity up to 12 GPa at 1100°C. Water incorporation in olivine was also observed to increase with increasing temperature and increasing iron content at 0.3 GPa, however the temperature dependence was not studied at higher pressures. Interestingly, the only high-pressure data available, that is for wadsleyite and ringwoodite, show that their water solubility decreases with increasing temperature. The goal of this study is to determine the dependence of water maximum concentration on temperature at pressures higher than 0.3 GPa. We performed experiments at 3 and 6 GPa, and temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1400°C in the MgO-SiO2-H2O system using a multi-anvil apparatus. The olivine and orthopyroxene molar ratio was 1 to 1 in the starting material with 5 wt% H2O. The samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mineralogical assemblage consisted of olivine+orthopyroxene+fluid at temperatures below 1250°C both at 3 and 6 GPa and olivine+melt+/-orthopyroxene at higher temperatures. At 3 GPa, above 1325°C orthopyroxene was missing from the assemblage, whereas in case of the 6 GPa experiments it was present even at higher temperatures. This indicates a change in fluid composition from 3 to 6 GPa. Preliminary data using unpolarized FTIR measurements, but comparing same orientations, indicate that water solubility in olivine at 6 GPa decreases with increasing temperature. This observation agrees with the results on wadsleyite and ringwoodite, but contradict the results of the existing low-pressure data. The explaination we propose for the change in temperature

  19. Immunomodulatory effect of water soluble extract separated from mycelium of Phellinus linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming a popular treatment for modulating diverse immune disorders. Phellinus linteus (P. linteus) as one of the CAMs has been used to modulate cancers, inflammation and allergic activities. However, little evidence has been shown about its underlying mechanism of action by which it exerts a beneficial role in dermatological disease in vivo. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of P. linteus on experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) and elucidated its action mechanism. Methods The immunomodulatory effect of total extract of P. linteus on IgE production by human myeloma U266B1 cells was measured by ELISA. To further identify the effective components, P. linteus was fractionated into methanol soluble, water soluble and boiling water soluble extracts. Each extract was treated to U266B1 cells and primary B cells to compare their inhibitory effects on IgE secretion. To test the in vivo efficacy, experimental atopic dermatitis (AD) was established by alternative treatment of DNCB and house dust mite extract into BALB/c mice. Water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) or ceramide as a positive control were topically applied to ears of atopic mouse every day for 2 weeks and progression of the disease was estimated by the following criteria: (a) ear thickness, clinical score, (b) serum total IgE, IgG and mite specific IgE level by ELSIA, (c) histological examination of ear tissue by H&E staining and (d) cytokine profile of total ear cells and CD4+ T cells by real time PCR and ELSIA. Results Treatment of total extracts of P. linteus to U266B1 inhibited IgE secretion. Among the diverse extracts of P. linteus, water soluble extract of P. linteus (WA) significantly reduced the IgE production in primary B cells and B cell line U266B1. Moreover, treatment of WA reduced AD symptoms such as ear swelling, erythema, and dryness and decreased recruitment of lymphocyte into the inflamed site. Interestingly WA

  20. Characteristics of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in Aerosol Particles in Jingjinji-Mega Typical Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li

    2013-06-01

    Aerosol has important effects on climate, environment and human health and water-soluble ions are important chemical composition in aerosol. It is important to study concentration levels, sources and size distributions of water-soluble ions in aerosol. In recent years, with the increasing of energy consumption and the amount of automobile, regional pollution has become more serious in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. Especially since the haze happened frequently in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, it is an imminent study about water-soluble ions in aerosol.To investigate the concentration levels, sources and size distributions of water soluble inorganic ions (WSI), size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using Andersen cascade sampler from Aug2010to Aug2011in Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baoding. The WSI were analyzed by ion chromatography(IC).The results indicated that the order of total WSI (TWSI) concentration of TSP in the region was Tianjin-Baoding-Beijing-Tangshan. The order of TWSI of the fine particles in the region was Baoding-Tianjin-Beijing-Tangshan. The annual mean concentrations of TWSI in the coarse mode were 41.36±15.76,48.04±15.79,39.40±11.03,40.49±13.32μg m-3in Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baoding, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of TWSI in the fine mode were 66.54±47.95,69.12±34.85, 61.80±44.63,71.73±45.12μg m-3in Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baoding, respectively. All the annual mean concentrations of TWSIin the fine mode in the four sites had exceeded averaged concentration of PM2.5in the environmental quality standards (35μg m-3), which indicated that the pollution of TWSI was serious. Secondary water-soluble ions (SWSI)(SO42-, NO3-and NH4+) and Cl-were the main components, and were mainly found in the fine particles in the four sites of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. In the coarse particles, NO3-Ca2+ and SO42-were the dominant contributions to WSI. Almost all water-soluble ions in fine particles are similar

  1. Montmorillonite-lipid hybrid carriers for ionizable and neutral poorly water-soluble drugs: Formulation, characterization and in vitro lipolysis studies.

    PubMed

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2017-06-30

    Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) are a popular strategy for enhancing the gastrointestinal solubilization and absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. In light of this, montmorillonite-lipid hybrid (MLH) particles, composed of medium-chain triglycerides, lecithin and montmorillonite clay platelets, have been developed as a novel solid-state LBF. Owing to the unique charge properties of montmorillonite, whereby the clay platelet surfaces carry a permanent negative charge and the platelet edges carry a pH-dependent charge, three model poorly water-soluble drugs with different charge properties; blonanserin (weak base, pKa 7.7), ibuprofen (weak acid, pKa 4.5) and fenofibrate (neutral), were formulated as MLH particles and their performance during biorelevant in vitro lipolysis at pH 7.5 was investigated. For blonanserin, drug solubilization during in vitro lipolysis was significantly reduced 3.4-fold and 3.2-fold for MLH particles in comparison to a control lipid solution and silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) particles, respectively. It was hypothesized that strong electrostatic interactions between the anionic montmorillonite platelet surfaces and cationic blonanserin molecules were responsible for the inferior performance of MLH particles. In contrast, no significant influence on drug solubilization was observed for ibuprofen- and fenofibrate-loaded MLH particles. The results of the current study indicate that whilst MLH particles are a promising novel formulation strategy for poorly water-soluble drugs, drug ionization tendency and the potential for drug-clay interactions must be taken into consideration to ensure an appropriate performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloud point extraction of aloe anthraquinones based on non-ionic surfactant aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi-Jian; Li, Fen-Fang; Xing, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Non-ionic surfactant-based aqueous two-phase system had been investigated to extract aloe anthraquinones. It had the advantage of using a single auxiliary chemical to induce phase separation above cloud point at a low concentration. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen for its excellent phase-separating ability and low cloud point. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction were discussed such as equilibrium temperature and time, concentrations of surfactant and inorganic electrolytes, pH, etc. Under the optimised conditions, the highest extraction yield 96.93% was obtained. The reverse extraction of anthraquinones from surfactant-rich phase was achieved with a recovery of 70.35% by adjusting pH. Compared with conventional purification methods, this CPE technique can be completed in one operation; besides, it is a low-cost method and an environment friendly one.

  3. A new member of the oxygen-photosensitizers family: a water-soluble polymer binding a platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Loredana; Puoci, Francesco; Cirillo, Giuseppe; La Deda, Massimo

    2012-08-28

    The grafting of a 2-picolylamine Pt(II) complex into polymethacrylic acid has been successfully performed. The obtained polymer is water soluble, and it represents the first example of a platinum-containing polymer able to photogenerate singlet oxygen.

  4. Microautoradiography of Water-Soluble Compounds in Plant Tissue after Freeze-Drying and Pressure Infiltration with Epoxy Resin

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Dickson, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    It is difficult to retain and localize radioactive, water-soluble compounds within plant cells. Existing techniques retain water-soluble compounds with varying rates of efficiency and are limited to processing only a few samples at one time. We developed a modified pressure infiltration technique for the preparation of microautoradiographs of 14C-labeled, water-soluble compounds in plant tissue. Samples from cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) labeled with 14C were excised, quick frozen in liquid N2, freeze-dried at −50°C, and pressure-infiltrated with epoxy resin without intermediate solvents or prolonged incubation times. The technique facilitates the mass processing of samples for microautoradiography, gives good cellular retention of labeled water-soluble compounds, and is highly reproducible. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662542

  5. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains. PMID:9716490

  6. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-09-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains.

  7. Redistribution of elements of metals in plant tissues under treatment by non-ionic colloidal solution of biogenic metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Ludmila; Konotop, Yevheniya; Okanenko, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The content of metal elements in plant tissues of 10-day wheat seedlings after seed pre-treatment and foliar treatment with non-ionic colloidal solution of metal nanoparticles (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn) was determined by an atomic absorption spectrometer. It was shown that metal nanoparticles due to their physical properties (nanoscale and uncharged state) were capable of penetrating rapidly into plant cells and optimizing plant metabolic processes at the early stages of growth and development.

  8. Intravenous contrast media in uroradiology: evaluation of safety and tolerability in almost 50,000 patients.

    PubMed

    Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Rotert, Harald; Trojan, Lutz; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Peters, Candida R; Alken, Peter; Knoll, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of adverse events and possible risk factors after the administration of an intravenous contrast medium (CM), iobitridol, in a large multicentre postmarketing surveillance study. A total of 49,975 patients undergoing intravenous urography were included in this study. A water-soluble, non-ionic CM (iobitridol, 1 ml/kg body weight) was administered. Age, sex, indication for the actual examination and adverse events were documented. Also, high-risk patients were identified. Of the 49,975 patients, 28,336 (56.7%) were males and 21,639 (43.3%) females. Indications for urography were mainly urolithiasis (39.1%), inflammatory diseases (25.6%) and tumours (13.9%). Additionally, 7.4% were risk patients: 1.9% with creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (0.1% were on haemodialysis); 0.8% had a history of previous allergic reactions to CM, 3.7% pre-existing asthma or allergies and 2% other risk factors against CM examination. Only 0.9% of the patients experienced acute adverse events that were non-serious and transient. Less than 0.1% of the patients experienced vomiting, dizziness or cardiovascular problems. Only 1 patient developed an anaphylactic shock but recovered fully under treatment. A chi(2) analysis revealed that adverse reactions occurred in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency or allergies. Significantly more females had contrast-agent-related symptoms compared to men. Patients undergoing urography for urolithiasis had significantly fewer symptoms compared to patients with other indications. Iobitridol is clinically safe and well tolerated in urography as demonstrated in this study of a large patient population, producing mainly minor symptoms as adverse events. However, caution is advised when administering iobitridol to high-risk patients.

  9. Electrochemical sensing of concanavalin A using a non-ionic surfactant with a maltose moiety.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2014-03-03

    To electrochemically detect concanavalin A (ConA), a new method was developed using mixed micelles between a non-ionic surfactant with a maltose moiety and electroactive daunomycin. The surfactants, in which the length of the alkyl chain was different, were n-decyl-β-D-maltoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, and n-tetradecyl-β-D-maltoside. The measurement principle was due to the micelle breakdown caused by the binding between the ConA and maltose moieties. When ConA was combined with maltose moieties at a concentration of surfactant that was near the critical micelle concentration, the daunomycin that formed the micelles was moved to a solution from the micelles. As a result, the peak current of daunomycin increased as the concentration of ConA was increased. The mechanism was proposed using voltammetry, spectrometry, and gel filtration. The linear range using n-tetradecyl-β-D-maltoside was 2.0×10(-9) to 8.0×10(-8) M of ConA, and it was the most sensitive in the presence of the three surfactants. To examine whether selective binding took place, measurements with several proteins were carried out. The electrode responses of daunomycin were not influenced by the presence of 5.0×10(-6) M protein. Furthermore, this method could be applied to the determination of ConA in a serum, and to the measurement of sugar chains that can be combined with ConA on the cell surface.

  10. Preparations and properties of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    This short review describes various types of anti-corrosion additives of water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials. It is concerned with synthetic additives classified according to their functional groups; silicone compounds, carboxylic acids and dibasic acids, esters, Diels-Alder adducts, various polymers, nitrogen compounds, phosphoric esters, phosphonic acids, and others. Testing methods for water-soluble metal working fluids for aluminum alloy materials are described for a practical application in a laboratory.

  11. Kinetic behaviour of Duolite ES 468 in the cosorption of non-ionic surfactant and copper(II).

    PubMed

    Kauspediene, D; Snukiskis, J; Gefeniene, A

    2003-05-30

    Kinetic behaviour of the hydrogen form of Duolite ES 468 polyacrylic acid-functionalised cation exchanger with respect to the sorption of non-ionic surfactant alkylmonoethers (ALM-10) and copper(II) has been investigated; kinetic curves have been obtained, using spectrophotometric determination for ALM-10 and complexometric one for copper(II). Kinetic coefficient (B), intraparticle diffusion coefficient (D; m(2)s(-1)) and overall rate constant (k(o); s(-1)) for non-ionic surfactant and copper(II) depend on the solution composition, pH and the maximum sorption at the equilibrium. On increasing the solution acidity from pH 5 to pH 3 a decrease in both D and the equilibrium sorption for copper(II) although an increase in D for ALM-10 is observed. The action of copper(II) results in an increase in both D for ALM-10 and the maximum sorption at the equilibrium, whereas the action of ALM-10 leads to a decrease in the corresponding parameters for copper(II). Hydrogen form of Duolite ES 468 polyacrylic acid-functionalised cation exchanger is suitable for the simultaneous removal of non-ionic surfactant and copper(II) from waste water.

  12. Contracture Coupling of Slow Striated Muscle in Non-Ionic Solutions and Replacement of Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Richard L.; Hein, Manfred M.

    1964-01-01

    The development of contracture related to changes of ionic environment (ionic contracture coupling) has been studied in the slowly responding fibers of frog skeletal muscle. When deprived of external ions for 30 minutes by use of solutions of sucrose, mannitol, or glucose, the slow skeletal muscle fibers, but not the fast, develop pronounced and easily reversible contractures. Partial replacement of the non-ionic substance with calcium or sodium reduces the development of the contractures but replacement by potassium does not. The concentration of calcium necessary to prevent contracture induced by a non-ionic solution is greater than that needed to maintain relaxation in ionic solutions. To suppress the non-ionic-induced contractures to the same extent as does calcium requires several fold higher concentrations of sodium. Two types of ionic contracture coupling occur in slow type striated muscle fibers: (a) a calcium deprivation type which develops maximally at full physiological concentration of external sodium, shows a flow rate dependency for the calcium-depriving fluid, and is lessened when the sodium concentration is decreased by replacement with sucrose; (b) a sodium deprivation type which occurs maximally without external sodium, is lessened by increasing the sodium concentration, and has no flow rate dependency for ion deprivation. Both types of contracture are largely prevented by the presence of sufficient calcium. There thus seem to be calcium- and sodium-linked processes at work in the ionic contracture coupling of slow striated muscle. PMID:14127603

  13. Impact of tree cutting on water-soluble organic compounds in podzolic soils of the European North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapteva, Elena; Bondarenko, Natalia; Shamrikova, Elena; Kubik, Olesya; Punegov, Vasili

    2016-04-01

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WOCs) and their single components, i.e. low-molecular organic acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates, attain a great deal of attention among soil scientists. WOCs are an important component of soil organic matter (SOM) and form as a results of different biological and chemical processes in soils. These processes are mainly responsible for formation and development of soils in aboveground ecosystems. The purpose of the work was identifying qualitative and quantitative composition of low-molecular organic substances which form in podzolic loamy soils against natural reforestation after spruce forest cutting. The studies were conducted on the territory of the European North-East of Russia, in the middle taiga subzone (Komi Republic, Ust-Kulom region). The study materials were soil of undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 (SP1)) and soils of different-aged tree stands where cutting activities took place in winter 2001/2002 (SP2) and 1969/1970 (SP3). Description of soils and vegetation cover on the plots is given in [1]. Low-molecular organic compounds in soil water extracts were identified by the method of gas chromatography mass-spectrometry [2, 3]. Finally, reforestationafterspruceforestcutting was found to be accompanied by different changes in soil chemical composition. In contrast with soils under undisturbed spruce forest, organic soil horizons under different-aged cuts decreased in organic carbon reserves and production of low-molecular organic compounds, changed in soil acidity. Within the soil series of SP1→SP2→SP3, the highest content of WOCs was identified for undisturbed spruce forest (738 mg kg-1 soil). In soils of coniferous-deciduous forests on SP1 and SP3, WOC content was 294 and 441 mg kg-1 soil, correspondingly. Soils at cuts decreased in concentration of any water-soluble low-molecular SOM components as low-molecular acids, alcohols, and carbohydrates. Structure of low-molecular WOCs in the study podzolic

  14. Development of an enteric coating formulation and process for tablets primarily composed of a highly water-soluble, organic acid.

    PubMed

    Crotts, G; Sheth, A; Twist, J; Ghebre-Sellassie, I

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define coating conditions for the enteric coating of a highly water soluble, acidic tablet core. Acidic tablet cores containing a marker drug were separated into three groups and seal coated to coverage levels of 0% (uncoated, white), 1% (yellow), and 3% (tan) weight gains. By employing a 'color coding' scheme, the different seal coated tablets could be coated simultaneously to reduce the number of experiments and eliminate potential differences that may exist during separate coating processes. In addition, an allotment of each coded tablet type was sequentially numbered with a marker pen, weighed, and recorded in order to identify the precise level of enteric coating as well as to monitor the variability of a given coating operation. The tablets were coated with five Eudragit((R)) L30D-based enteric formulations containing different amounts of plasticizer (10-20 parts) and talc (10-50 parts). During each enteric coating process, a predetermined amount of labeled tablets were removed after attaining 6, 8, and 10% weight gains. The labeled tablets were re-weighed, sorted, and then tested using USP disintegration and dissolution methods. Weight gain measurements of individual tablets indicated low coating variability (6.2% RSD) during the enteric coating processes. Dissolution results revealed that all enteric coat formulations inhibited drug release for 2 h in 0.1 N HCl. In contrast, it was found that tablets without a seal coat failed the USP disintegration test. In addition, seal coated tablets exhibited ca. 1.5-5 fold greater drug release at most intermediate sampling time points in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, than tablets without a seal coat, suggesting that the dissolution of the latter was delayed by the generation of an acidic microenvironment at the interface of the enteric coat/acidic tablet core. Prior to enteric coating an acidic, highly water soluble substrate, a seal coat barrier should be applied to prevent retardation in

  15. Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Buldakova, Svetlana L; Kasheverov, Igor E; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Reshetnikov, Roman V; Filkin, Sergey Y; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bregestovski, Piotr D; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2013-05-31

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618-10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its "non-classical" binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and similar

  16. Water-soluble LYNX1 Residues Important for Interaction with Muscle-type and/or Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Buldakova, Svetlana L.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Filkin, Sergey Y.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Ojomoko, Lucy O.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Bregestovski, Piotr D.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2013-01-01

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618–10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its “non-classical” binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and

  17. Photoluminescence of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles in complexes with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strekal', N.; Kulakovich, O.; Belyaev, A.; Stsiapura, V.; Maskevich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The data on the influence of polyelectrolytes on the photon emission probability of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles are obtained. The decrease in the photoluminescence quantum yield of nanoparticles occurring upon their transfer to aqueous solutions from toluene (in the course of solubilization) depends on the ionic nature of an agent applied for the replacement of trioctylphosphine oxide residues on the surface of nanoparticles. It turns out that such a cationic modifying agent as cysteamine leads to an insignificant (˜10%) decrease in the photoluminescence quantum yield of nanoparticles. The use of such an anionic agent as mercaptoacetic acid causes a significant (˜80%) decrease in the quantum yield and the average decay time of photoluminescence. For nanoparticles modified by mercaptoacetic acid (anionic nanoparticles), this decrease is partially compensated if these particles interact with polyelectrolytes whose backbone is oppositely charged (cationic polyelectrolytes), such as polyallylamine and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. In this case, the photoluminescence quantum yield shows a reverse increase by 40%, remaining the same within a matter of months or longer. In contrast to this, cationic nanoparticles, only slightly quenched by cysteamine at the stage of solubilization, are appreciably degraded in complexes with anionic polyelectrolytes in solutions and upon immobilization of complexes on a substrate, so that their photoluminescence quantum yield irreversible decreases to zero within a few days. Possible mechanisms of the effects observed are discussed and their consideration in polyelectrolyte-based molecular lithography.

  18. Comparative cytoprotection of cultured corneal endothelial cells by water-soluble antioxidants against free-radical damage.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L H; Rootman, D S; Fung, K P; Wu, T W

    1995-09-01

    We reported previously that purpurogallin (PPG) markedly protects the cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells (RCEC) against oxyradical damage generated with hypoxanthine (HX) and xanthine oxidase (XO)(1). In this study, we further compared the cytoprotective activities of PPG versus Trolox (TX, alpha-tocopherol, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E) and ascorbate (Asc) in confluent cultured RCEC with phase contrast microscopy and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. PPG prolonged survival of the oxyradical damaged cells longer than those without PPG present (18.6 +/- 1.4 min at 1.0 mM and 11.2 +/- 1.0 at 0.25 mM respectively vs. 7.3 +/- 0.8 min in control). At levels equimolar to PPG, TX, and Asc were less effective in delaying cell necrosis caused by HX and XO (p < 0.01). When exposed to superoxide radicals generated by menadione, RCEC necrosed at 29.8 +/- 1.5 min compared to PPG 47.2 +/- 1.0 min at 1.0 mM and 38.9 +/- 1.0 min at 0.25 mM. This was significantly different from TX and Asc at corresponding concentrations (p < 0.01). PPG scavenges not only HX-XO-generated oxyradicals, but also nonenzymatically produced superoxide radicals, more actively than two well known antioxidants--TX and Asc.

  19. Novel water-soluble prodrugs of acyclovir cleavable by the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26) enzyme.

    PubMed

    Diez-Torrubia, Alberto; Cabrera, Silvia; de Castro, Sonia; García-Aparicio, Carlos; Mulder, Gwenn; De Meester, Ingrid; Camarasa, María-José; Balzarini, Jan; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2013-01-01

    We herein report for the first time the successful use of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) prodrug approach to guanine derivatives such as the antiviral acyclovir (ACV). The solution- and solid-phase synthesis of the tetrapeptide amide prodrug 3 and the tripeptide ester conjugate 4 of acyclovir are reported. The synthesis of the demanding tetrapeptide amide prodrug of ACV 3 was first established in solution and successfully transferred onto solid support by using Ellman's dihydropyran (DHP) resin. In contrast with the valyl ester prodrug (valacyclovir, VACV), the tetrapeptide amide prodrug 3 and the tripeptide ester conjugate 4 of ACV proved fully stable in PBS. Both prodrugs converted to VACV (for 4) or ACV (for 3) upon exposure to purified DPPIV/CD26 or human or bovine serum. Vildagliptin, a potent inhibitor of DPPIV/CD26 efficiently inhibited the DPPIV/CD26-catalysed hydrolysis reaction. Both amide and ester prodrugs of ACV showed pronounced anti-herpetic activity in cell culture and significantly improved the water solubility in comparison with the parent drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-soluble phosphines for direct labeling of peptides with technetium and rhenium: insights from electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Greenland, William E P; Blower, Philip J

    2005-01-01

    Direct labeling of salmon calcitonin (sCT) is possible in one step using water-soluble phosphines (sulfonated triphenylphosphines) as the reducing agent both for disulfide and for pertechnetate. Phosphines were the most efficient reducing agent for disulfide bonds among those examined. The phosphines both reduced the pertechnetate to Tc(III), and contributed to the technetium coordination sphere in the labeled product. In contrast, the phosphines did not reduce rhenium below oxidation state V, nor did they participate in the rhenium coordination sphere in the labeled peptide. Instead, the expected oxorhenium(V) moiety was incorporated. Both Tc and Re labeling processes gave rise to dimers with two peptides linked by the metal center, as well as simple monomeric species. Positive mode electrospray mass spectrometry not only revealed the presence of phosphine bound to technetium and oxygen bound to rhenium in the metallopeptides but also revealed the oxidation states of the metals. Electrospray mass spectrometry is proving to be an exceptionally valuable technique for characterizing radiopharmaceuticals. Although the one-step direct labeling method described gives mixed products and poor receptor affinity when applied to the small peptide sCT, it might be readily adapted to monoclonal antibodies.

  1. Urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available to estimate water-soluble vitamin intakes from urinary vitamins and their metabolite contents as possible nutritional markers. Determination of the relationships between the oral dose and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in human subjects contributes to finding valid nutrition markers of water-soluble vitamin intakes. Six female Japanese college students were given a standard Japanese diet in the first week, the same diet with a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture as a diet with approximately onefold vitamin mixture based on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese in the second week, with a threefold vitamin mixture in the third week, and a sixfold mixture in the fourth week. Water-soluble vitamins and their metabolites were measured in the 24-h urine collected each week. All urinary vitamins and their metabolite levels except vitamin B(12) increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner, and highly correlated with vitamin intake (r=0.959 for vitamin B(1), r=0.927 for vitamin B(2), r=0.965 for vitamin B(6), r=0.957 for niacin, r=0.934 for pantothenic acid, r=0.907 for folic acid, r=0.962 for biotin, and r=0.952 for vitamin C). These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins and their metabolite levels can be used as good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes.

  2. Water in Oil Emulsions: A New System for Assembling Water-soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins with Hydrophobic Pigments.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Dominika; Noy, Dror

    2016-03-21

    Chlorophylls (Chls) and bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) are the primary cofactors that carry out photosynthetic light harvesting and electron transport. Their functionality critically depends on their specific organization within large and elaborate multisubunit transmembrane protein complexes. In order to understand at the molecular level how these complexes facilitate solar energy conversion, it is essential to understand protein-pigment, and pigment-pigment interactions, and their effect on excited dynamics. One way of gaining such understanding is by constructing and studying complexes of Chls with simple water-soluble recombinant proteins. However, incorporating the lipophilic Chls and BChls into water-soluble proteins is difficult. Moreover, there is no general method, which could be used for assembly of water-soluble proteins with hydrophobic pigments. Here, we demonstrate a simple and high throughput system based on water-in-oil emulsions, which enables assembly of water-soluble proteins with hydrophobic Chls. The new method was validated by assembling recombinant versions of the water-soluble chlorophyll binding protein of Brassicaceae plants (WSCP) with Chl a. We demonstrate the successful assembly of Chl a using crude lysates of WSCP expressing E. coli cell, which may be used for developing a genetic screen system for novel water-soluble Chl-binding proteins, and for studies of Chl-protein interactions and assembly processes.

  3. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    PubMed

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modification of cardiac sodium channels by carboxyl reagents. Trimethyloxonium and water-soluble carbodiimide

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In TTX-sensitive nerve and skeletal muscle Na+ channels, selective modification of external carboxyl groups with trimethyloxonium (TMO) or water-soluble carbodiimide (WSC) prevents voltage-dependent Ca2+ block, reduces unitary conductance, and decreases guanidinium toxin affinity. In the case of TMO, it has been suggested that all three effects result from modification of a single carboxyl group, which causes a positive shift in the channel's surface potential. We studied the effect of these reagents on Ca2+ block of adult rabbit ventricular Na+ channels in cell-attached patches. In unmodified channels, unitary conductance (gamma Na) was 18.6 +/- 0.9 pS with 280 mM Na+ and 2 mM Ca2+ in the pipette and was reduced to 5.2 +/- 0.8 pS by 10 mM Ca2+. In contrast to TTX-sensitive Na+ channels, Ca2+ block of cardiac Na+ channels was not prevented by TMO; after TMO pretreatment, gamma Na was 6.1 +/- 1.0 pS in 10 mM Ca2+. Nevertheless, TMO altered cardiac Na+ channel properties. In 2 mM Ca2+, TMO-treated patches exhibited up to three discrete gamma Na levels: 15.3 +/- 1.7, 11.3 +/- 1.5, and 9.8 +/- 1.8 pS. Patch-to-patch variation in which levels were present and the absence of transitions between levels suggests that at least two sites were modified by TMO. An abbreviation of mean open time (MOT) accompanied each decrease in gamma Na. The effects on channel gating of elevating external Ca2+ differed from those of TMO pretreatment. Increasing pipette Ca2+ from 2 to 10 mM prolonged the MOT at potentials positive to approximately -35 mV by decreasing the open to inactivated (O-->I) transition rate constant. On the other hand, even in 10 mM Ca2+ TMO accelerated the O-->I transition rate constant without a change in its voltage dependence. Ensemble averages after TMO showed a shortening of the time to peak current and an acceleration of the rate of current decay. Channel modification with WSC resulted in analogous effects to those of TMO in failing to show relief from block by

  5. Modeling phase distribution of water-soluble organics in aqueous solutions using surface tension data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, B.; Hiatt, J.; Aumann, E.; Cabrera, J.; Tabazadeh, A.

    2006-12-01

    A good fraction (greater than 30 percent) of submicron particle mass in the atmosphere is often composed of water-soluble organic carbon. Identifiable, water-miscible organics, such as, known sugars, small alcohols, small diacids, etc. comprise only a small fraction of the water-soluble mass (about 1-2 percent). Most of the water-soluble mass is often composed of unidentifiable, humic-like materials, which are commonly refereed to as HULIS. Humic substances are known to form colloids in aqueous solutions at very low aqueous concentrations. Thus, it is likely for HULIS to also be colloid-forming in aqueous solutions. Here, we present surface tension measurements of water-miscible and colloid-forming organics, using methanol and sodium laurate as analogs, respectively. By relating the change in surface tension to chemical potential of the solution, we determine a relationship between surface tension and the surface excess of solute; that is, the number of molecules of solute adsorbed at the surface. Assuming surface acts as a monolayer, we model the adsorption with a Langmuir isotherm to extract the surface excess as a function of solute mole fraction. This relationship allows us to calculate the solute's distribution between bulk and surface phases for methanol, and in bulk, surface and colloid phases for sodium laurate. A colloid of sodium laurate contains approximately 100 laurate anions in a spherical cluster. We present adsorption constants for methanol and sodium laurate (derived from our surface tension data), critical micelle concentration for sodium laurate (derived from our surface tension data), and all the other thermocehmical constants (obtained from the literature) required to constrain a model for determining phase partitioning of organics in aqueous solutions.

  6. Dependence of in-cloud scavenging of polar organic aerosol compounds on the water solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    2000-08-01

    In spring 1997 at the Sonnblick Observatory, located at 3106m elevation in the Austrian Alps, interstitial aerosol and cloud water samples were simultaneously collected in supercooled convective clouds. These samples were analyzed for their polar organic composition using a newly developed analytical method that allows the simultaneous determination of dicarboxylic acids, monocarboxylic acids, and other polar organic constituents. Using the obtained data set, in-cloud scavenging efficiencies (ɛ) for individual polar organic compounds were calculated. For the different organic substances, scavenging efficiencies ranged from 0.16 to 0.98, compared with sulfate, which exhibited an average scavenging efficiency of 0.94. For dicarboxylic acids, scavenging efficiencies (average of about 0.8) were of the same order as for sulfate. Distinctly lower values (average of about 0.6) were achieved for polar aromatic compounds like phthalic acid or diisobutylphenol. The lowest scavenging efficiencies (average about 0.4) were found for alcohols and monocarboxylic acids. Thus we found in the Sonnblick cloud experiment that more polar organic aerosol constituents are more efficiently scavenged into cloud droplets than less polar compounds. In addition, the scavenging efficiencies exhibited a dependence on the solubilities of the examined compounds. For highly water soluble compounds (1-1000 g L-1) a decrease of the water solubility for an individual compound leads to a decrease in the scavenging efficiency for this compound. For "poorly soluble" substances with water solubilities below l g L-1, a near-constant value for the scavenging efficiency was found, indicating that their scavenging behavior is then dominated by the scavenging of the bulk noncarbonate carbon independent of the physical and chemical properties of the individual substances.

  7. Water-soluble and solid-state speciation of phosphorus in stabilized sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Shenker, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    Three chemicals, ferrous sulfate (Fe-sul), calcium oxide (CaO), and aluminum sulfate (alum), were used to stabilize phosphorus (P) in fresh, anaerobically digested sewage sludge (FSS). The chemically stabilized sludge materials and biosolids compost (BSC) were compared with the FSS with respect to water-soluble phosphorus (WSP) content in its inorganic (WSP(i)) and organic (WSP(o)) forms as well as water-soluble organic carbon (DOC). Solid-state P speciation was further probed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray elemental spectrometry (EDXS). Water-soluble P was effectively controlled by a wide range of Fe-sul or CaO additions to the sludge (Ca to P ratio = 3.47-17.72, Fe to P ratio = 1.01-16.53), but by only a narrow range (Al to P ratio = 1.04-2.87) of alum addition. The WSP content in the BSC was also depressed, but to a lesser extent. The pH in the treated sludge ranged from 3.0 to 12.5 and served as a key factor to control P chemistry. No correlation was observed between DOC and WSP(o). No crystallized Ca-P minerals were detected in the CaO-stabilized sludge, but brushite crystallization seemed to be obtained by low addition of Fe-sul and alum. Variscite and strengite crystallization was obtained following high addition of Fe-sul or alum, as detected by XRD and SEM-EDXS. Adsorption of P by newly formed Fe-hydroxide seems to play an important role in the Fe-sul-stabilized sludge. We concluded that administration of the tested chemicals at the proper rate can effectively reduce the hazard of P release and leaching from sludge.

  8. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  9. Water-soluble germanium(0) nanocrystals: cell recognition and near-infrared photothermal conversion properties.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy N; Andrews, Nicholas L; Gerung, Henry; Boyle, Timothy J; Oliver, Janet M; Wilson, Bridget S; Han, Sang M

    2007-04-01

    Surfactant-passivated germanium nanocrystals (Ge(0) NCs) 3-5 nm in diameter were synthesized and encapsulated with functionalized phospholipids to yield water-soluble Ge(0) NCs. Upon encapsulation, the NCs retained their cubic crystalline phase and displayed good resistance to oxidation, as determined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a test of their cell compatibility, the ability of carboxyfluorescein (CF)-labeled dinitrophenyl (DNP)-functionalized Ge(0) NCs to crosslink dinitrophenol-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies on the surface of mast cells (RBL-2H3) was examined in vitro. Treatment with a multivalent DNP antigen (i.e., DNP-Ge(0) NCs or CF-DNP-Ge(0) NCs) caused crosslinking of FcepsilonRI receptors and cellular responses, which were evaluated with morphological and colorimetric assays and live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Incubation of RBL-2H3 cells with Ge(0) NCs for approximately 24 h gave less than a 2 % increase in cell death as compared to DNP-functionalized bovine serum albumin. When irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) radiation (lambda(exc)=770 nm, 1.1 W cm(-2)) from a continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser, the bulk-solution temperature of a toluene solution containing 20 mg mL(-1) Ge(0) NCs increased by approximately 35 degrees C within 5 min. Phospholipid-encapsulated water-soluble Ge(0) NCs at concentrations of 1.0 mg mL(-1) also displayed stable photothermal behavior under repetitive and prolonged NIR laser exposures in water, to yield a temperature increase of approximately 20 degrees C within 5 min (lambda(exc)=770 nm, 0.9 W cm(-2)). The photothermal efficiency of water-soluble Ge(0) NCs compares favorably with a recent report for Au nanoshells.

  10. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of some atmospheric water-soluble organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Cammenga, Heiko K.

    The surface tensions of aqueous solutions of levoglucosan, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, azelaic acid, pinonic acid, and humic acid have been measured. These compounds are suggested as model substances for the water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosols and droplets which may play an important role in the aerosol cycle because of their surface-active potentials. The reductions in surface tension induced by single and mixed WSOC in aqueous solution of pure water is remarkable. However, the results of this investigation cannot explain the strong reduction in surface tension in real cloud and fog water samples at concentrations of WSOC below 1 mg/mL.

  11. Water-Soluble Quantum Dots for Multiphoton Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Daniel R.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Clark, Stephen W.; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Wise, Frank W.; Webb, Watt W.

    2003-05-01

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales.

  12. Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Larson, Daniel R; Zipfel, Warren R; Williams, Rebecca M; Clark, Stephen W; Bruchez, Marcel P; Wise, Frank W; Webb, Watt W

    2003-05-30

    The use of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots) as fluorescent labels for multiphoton microscopy enables multicolor imaging in demanding biological environments such as living tissue. We characterized water-soluble cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide quantum dots for multiphoton imaging in live animals. These fluorescent probes have two-photon action cross sections as high as 47,000 Goeppert-Mayer units, by far the largest of any label used in multiphoton microscopy. We visualized quantum dots dynamically through the skin of living mice, in capillaries hundreds of micrometers deep. We found no evidence of blinking (fluorescence intermittency) in solution on nanosecond to millisecond time scales.

  13. Water-soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds ( Fuego, Pacaya, Santiaguito, Guatamala).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Zielinski, R.A.; Rose, W.I.; Huebert, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    In Feb. and March of 1978, filter samplers mounted on an aircraft were used to collect the aerosol fraction of the eruption clouds from three active Guatemalan volcanoes (Fuego, Pacaya, and Santiaguito). The elements dissolved in the aqueous extracts represent components of water-soluble material either formed directly in the eruption cloud or derived from interaction of ash particles and aerosol components of the plume. Calculations of enrichment factors, based upon concentration ratios, showed the elements most enriched in the extracts relative to bulk ash composition were Cd, Cu, V, F, Cl, Zn, and Pb.-from Authors

  14. Water-soluble constituents of anise: new glucosides of anethole glycol and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Fujimatu, Eiko; Kitajima, Junichi

    2002-11-01

    From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the fruit of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), which has been used as a spice and medicine since antiquity, twelve new and five known glucosides of phenylpropanoids, including four stereoisomers of anethole glycol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and four stereoisomers of 1'-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane-1',2'-diol 2'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated together with anethole glycols and guaiacyl glycerol. The structures of the new compounds were clarified by spectral investigation.

  15. A water-soluble and highly phosphorescent cyclometallated iridium complex with versatile sensing capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Chan; Song, Qijun; Pang, Qingfeng

    2017-05-01

    A water-soluble and highly phosphorescent cyclometallated iridium complex [(pq)2Ir(bpy-COOK)](+)Cl(-) (where pq=2-phenylquinoline, bpy-COOK= potassium 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylate) (Ir) has been synthesized and characterized. Its phosphorescence can be sensitively and selectively quenched by tryptophan through a photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) process. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of Ir is drastically increased upon binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the enhanced signal is effectively quenched in the presence of Cu(2+). Thus, Ir can be used as a multifunctional chemosensor for tryptophan, BSA, and Cu(2+) determination as well as for cell imaging.

  16. In vitro antibacterial activity of water-soluble extract of aghalokpe.

    PubMed

    Williams, B; Popoola, B

    1983-06-01

    Water-soluble extracts of the bark of aghalokpe, a big tropical tree which grows in the rainforest of Bendel State of Nigeria, showed in vitro antibacterial activity against several of the Enterobacteriaceae. The activity was more pronounced with gram-positive than the gram-negative species. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which is in the range of 3.125-50 micrograms/ml, compares well with some broad-spectrum antibiotics on the market. The extract was remarkably effective against Neisseria gonorrhoea.

  17. [Nutrition and bone health. The bone and the foods containing many water-soluble vitamins].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2009-08-01

    On the Dietary Reference Intakes in Japan, nine kinds of water-soluble vitamins are taken up. Those vitamins are supplied from various food. Food from animal sources and vegetable sources are those vitamins source of supply. Vitamin C participates in generation of collagen. Vitamin C is supplied from vegetables or fruits. Since vitamin C is lost by cooking processing, the content of a raw state is not expectable after cooking. Moreover, the vitamin B group of food origin has combined with protein etc., and free types, such as supplement, differ in the bioavailability.

  18. Singlet oxygen generation from water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lixin; Hernandez, Billy; Selke, Matthias

    2006-05-17

    Water-soluble quantum dot-organic dye nanocomposites have been prepared via electrostatic interaction. We used CdTe quantum dots with diameters up to 3.4 nm, 2-aminoethanethiol as a stabilizer, and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine dihydrochloride (TSPP) as an organic dye. The photophysical properties of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The fluorescence of the parent CdTe quantum dot is largely suppressed. Instead, indirect excitation of the TSPP moiety leads to production of singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of 0.43. The nanocomposite is sufficiently photostable for biological applications.

  19. Efficient Route to Highly Water-Soluble Aromatic Cyclic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-06

    2-Hydroxyisoquinolin-1-one (1,2-HOIQO) is a new member of the important class of aromatic cyclic hydroxamic acid ligands which are widely used in metal sequestering applications and metal chelating therapy. The first general approach for the introduction of substituents at the aromatic ring of the chelating moiety is presented. As a useful derivative, the highly water-soluble sulfonic acid has been synthesized by an efficient route that allows general access to 1,2-HOQIO 3-carboxlic acid amides, which are the most relevant for applications.

  20. Water-soluble triscyclometalated organoiridium complex: phosphorescent nanoparticle formation, nonlinear optics, and application for cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanpeng; Zhao, Jingyi; Yan, Qifan; Chen, Peng R; Zhao, Dahui

    2014-03-12

    Two water-soluble triscyclometalated organoiridium complexes, 1 and 2, with polar side chains that form nanoparticles emitting bright-red phosphorescence in water were synthesized. The optimal emitting properties are related to both the triscyclometalated structure and nanoparticle-forming ability in aqueous solution. Nonlinear optical properties are also observed with the nanoparticles. Because of their proper cellular uptake in addition to high emission brightness and effective two-photon absorbing ability, cell imaging can be achieved with nanoparticles of 2 bearing quaternary ammonium side chains at ultra-low effective concentrations using NIR incident light via the multiphoton excitation phosphorescence process.

  1. Water-soluble chelating polymers for removal of actinides from watewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.

    1996-10-01

    Polymer filtration is a technology being developed to recover valuable or regulated metal ions selectively from process or wastewaters. Water-soluble chelating polymers are specially designed to bind selectively with metal ions in aqueous solutions. The polymers molecular weight is large enough so they can be separated and concentrated using available ultrafiltration technology. Water and smaller unbound components of the solution pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions, which are recovered in concentrated form, for recycle or disposal.

  2. Capacity for Absorption of Water-Soluble Secondary Metabolites Greater in Birds than in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, William H.; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (Mr = 150.1 Da) and lactulose (Mr = 342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; Mr = 194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on

  3. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish.

  4. Water soluble reduced graphene oxide as an efficient photoluminescence quencher for semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haiping; Sun, Luwei; He, Haiping

    2017-02-01

    Chemically derived water soluble reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized via a two-step reduction approach assisted with sulfonation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the removal of oxygen-related groups from GO. The obtained rGO can effectively quench the photoluminescence (PL) of CdTe quantum dots. Concentration- and volume-dependent quenching behaviors are investigated to reveal the quenching mechanism. The Stern-Volmer plot shows exponential dependence on the rGO concentration, indicating that "sphere of action" model works when the extent of quenching is large.

  5. Biodegradability of soil water soluble organic carbon extracted from seven different soils.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is considered the most mobile and reactive soil carbon source and its characterization is an important issue for soil ecology study. A biodegradability test was set up to study WSOC extracted from 7 soils differently managed. WSOC was extracted from soil with water (soil/water ratio of 1:2, W/V) for 30 min, and then tested for biodegradability by a liquid state respirometric test. Result obtained confirmed the finding that WSOC biodegradability depended on the both land use and management practice. These results suggested the biodegradability test as suitable method to characterize WSOC, and provided useful information to soil fertility.

  6. Synthesis of a novel water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine and its CT DNA-damaging studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianhui; Wang, Ao; Zhou, Lin; Lu, Shan; Jiang, Weiwei; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Jiahong; Wei, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    A novel 3-(4-methoxybenzylamino) propanoic acid substituted water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine (CNPcZn) was synthesized. The interaction between CNPcZn with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) was studied using spectroscopic methods. The studies indicated that CNPcZn has strong affinity to CT DNA, and furthermore, CNZnPc showed excellent photodamaging activity to CT DNA. Above results indicated that such CNPcZn has great potential to be used as an effective photosensitizer in the field of photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanometer-Scale Water-Soluble Macrocycles from Nanometer-Sized Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gothard, Chris M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the unnatural amino acids m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K as nanometersized building blocks for the creation of water-soluble macrocycles with well-defined shapes. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are homologues of the nanometer-sized amino acid Abc2K, which we recently introduced for the synthesis of water-soluble molecular rods of precise length. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 7272]. Abc2K is linear (180°), m-Abc2K creates a 120° angle, and o-Abc2K creates a 60° angle. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are derivatives of 3’-amino-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid and 2’-amino-[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid, with two propyloxyammonium side chains for water solubility. m-Abc2K and o-Abc2K are prepared as Fmoc-protected derivatives Fmoc-m-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1a) and Fmoc-o-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1b). These derivatives can be used alone or in conjunction with Fmoc-Abc2K(Boc)-OH (1c) as ordinary amino acids in Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis. Building blocks 1a–c were used to synthesize macrocyclic “triangles” 9a–c, “parallelograms” 10a,b, and hexagonal “rings” 11a–d. The macrocycles range from a trimer to a dodecamer, with ring sizes from 24 to 114 atoms, and are 1–4 nm in size. Molecular modeling studies suggest that all the macrocycles except 10b should have well-defined triangle, parallelogram, and ring shapes if all of the amide linkages are trans and the ortho-alkoxy substituents are intramolecularly hydrogen bonded to the amide NH groups. The macrocycles have good water solubility and are readily characterized by standard analytical techniques, such as RP-HPLC, ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR studies suggest that the macrocycles adopt conformations with all trans-amide linkages in CD3OD, that the “triangles” and “parallelograms” maintain these conformations in D2O, and that the “rings” collapse to form conformations with cis-amide linkages in D2O. PMID:20020731

  8. Amorphous solid dispersions and nano-crystal technologies for poorly water-soluble drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Brough, Chris; Williams, R O

    2013-08-30

    Poor water-solubility is a common characteristic of drug candidates in pharmaceutical development pipelines today. Various processes have been developed to increase the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of these active ingredients belonging to BCS II and IV classifications. Over the last decade, nano-crystal delivery forms and amorphous solid dispersions have become well established in commercially available products and industry literature. This article is a comparative analysis of these two methodologies primarily for orally delivered medicaments. The thermodynamic and kinetic theories relative to these technologies are presented along with marketed product evaluations and a survey of commercial relevant scientific literature.

  9. Fluorescence quenching of water-soluble conjugated polymer by metal cations and its application in sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Guo; Zhao, Dan; He, Zhi-Ke; Ai, Xin-Ping

    2007-02-01

    The effects of different metal cations on the fluorescence of water-soluble conjugated polymer (CP) and their quenching mechanism have been explored. Most transition metal cations, especially noble metal cations, such as Pd2+, Ru3+, and Pt2+ possessed higher quenching efficiency to CP fluorescence than that of the main group metal cations and other transition metal cations, which have filled or half-full outmost electron layer configurations. Base on this, rapid, sensitive detection of noble metal cations can be realized and a novel quencher-tether-ligand (QTL) probe was developed to detect avidin and streptavidin.

  10. Harnessing medically relevant metals onto water-soluble subphthalocyanines: towards bimodal imaging and theranostics.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Yann; Winckler, Pascale; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Decréau, Richard A

    2015-02-21

    Subphthalocyanine (SubPc), a putative fluorophore for optical imaging (OI), was conjugated to chelating ligands (DOTA, DTPA) affording water-soluble conjugates complexed with (non-radioactive) metals relevant to the following medical imaging techniques/therapies: MRI (Gd), PET (Cu, Ga), SPECT (In, Ga, Lu), RIT (Cu, Lu, Y), and NCT (Gd). Magneto-optical properties of ditopic gadolinium species (and optical properties of other metal containing species) were examined (brightness (ε × ΦF) and relaxivity R1) and fluorescence confocal/biphoton microscopy studies were conducted.

  11. Relationship between water solubility of chlorobenzenes and their effects on a freshwater green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.T.S.; Chau, Y.K.; Rhamey, J.S.; Docker, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effective concentrations of benzene and 12 chlorobenzenes that reduced 50% of the primary productivity (EC/sub 50/) of a freshwater green alga, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, were determined. Benzene was the least toxic chemical and the toxicity increased as the degree of chlorine substitution in the aromatic ring increased. No EC/sub 50/ value could be obtained for HCB. A quantitative relationship was found to exist between water solubility, lipophilicity and the EC/sub 50/. A good correlation was also observed between the EC/sub 50/ for this alga and other toxicity data for various aquatic biota.

  12. Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.

    PubMed

    Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r) = 150.1 Da) and lactulose (M(r) = 342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r) = 194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species) (P<0.001). Surprisingly, the apparent rates of absorption in birds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands

  13. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of highly stable dispersions of water-soluble copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jing; Wu, Xue-dong; Xue, Qun-ji

    2013-01-15

    Water-soluble and highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles were obtained using a biomolecule-assisted synthetic method. Dopamine was utilized as both reducing and capping agent in aqueous medium. The successful formation of DA-stabilized copper particles was demonstrated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mechanism of dopamine on the effective reduction and excellent stability of copper nanoparticles was also discussed. This facile biomolecule-assisted technique may provide a useful tool to synthesize other nanoparticles that have potential application in biotechnology.

  14. Water-soluble mitochondria-specific ytterbium complex with impressive NIR emission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Cheng, Chopen C W; Kwok, Wai-Ming; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Hao, Jianhua; Kwong, Daniel W J; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2011-12-21

    A water-soluble porphyrinato ytterbium complex linked with rhodamine B (Yb-2) showed mitochondria-specific subcellular localization and strong two-photon-induced NIR emissions (λ(em) = 650 nm, porphyrinate ligand π → π* transition; λ(em) = 1060 nm, Yb(III) (5)F(5/2) → (5)F(7/2) transitions; σ(2) = 375 GM in DMSO) with an impressive Yb(III) NIR emission quantum yield (1% at λ(ex) = 340 nm; 2.5% at λ(ex) = 430 nm) in aqueous solution.

  15. Mechanistic studies of metal ion binding to water-soluble polymers using potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, N V; Wagener, J M

    1995-02-01

    A method for elucidating metal ion binding mechanisms with water-soluble polymers has been developed in which the polymer is treated as a collection of monomeric units. Data obtained from potentiometric titrations are analysed by the ESTA library of programs and apparent formation constants may be calculated. From this information, predictions may be made as to metal ion separation using complexation-ultrafiltration techniques. The polymer used in this study was Polymin Water-Free and its complexation with Hg(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) was successfully modelled.

  16. Efficient synthesis and reaction kinetics of readily water soluble esters containing sulfonic groups.

    PubMed

    Idzik, Krzysztof R; Nödler, Karsten; Maier, Friedrich; Licha, Tobias

    2014-12-15

    A series of various readily water soluble esters were synthesized by a very efficient procedure. These compounds can be useful as thermosensitive tracers for studying the cooling progress in a low enthalpy georeservoir exploitable by double flash geothermal power plant systems. The kinetics of their hydrolysis was investigated. Acylation of primary alcohols or phenols was carried out by a method based on a single-phase solvent system consisting of ethyl acetate acting as an organic solvent and triethylamine acting as a catalyst. Products were characterized by 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR.

  17. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from dendrobium denneanum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, A.; Ge, Z.; Fan, Y.; Chun, Z.; Jin, He X.

    2011-01-01

    The water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DDP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium denneanum through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 484.7 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DDP was composed of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:2.66:8.92:34.20:10.16. The investigation of antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo showed that DDP is a potential antioxidant. ?? 2011.

  18. Direct Solvent-Derived Polymer-Coated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots with High Water Solubility for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Meng, Ying; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Chengyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-08-05

    Cancer imaging requires biocompatible and bright contrast-agents with selective and high accumulation in the tumor region but low uptake in normal tissues. Herein, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)-derived polymer-coated nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (pN-CNDs) with a particle size in the range of 5-15 nm are prepared by a facile direct solvothermal reaction. The as-prepared pN-CNDs exhibit stable and adjustable fluorescence and excellent water solubility. Results of a cell viability test (CCK-8) and histology analysis both demonstrate that the pN-CNDs have no obvious cytotoxicity. Most importantly, the pN-CNDs can expediently enter glioma cells in vitro and also mediate glioma fluorescence imaging in vivo with good contrast via elevated passive targeting. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Reverse aqueous emulsions and microemulsions in HFA227 propellant stabilized by non-ionic ethoxylated amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Udayan; Selvam, Parthiban; Porcar, Lionel; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2009-03-18

    In this work we use in situ high-pressure tensiometry to screen non-ionic ethoxylated surfactants at the 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFA227) propellant|Water (HFA227|W) interface. The EO(n)PO( approximately )(30)EO(n) series, where EO stands for ethylene oxide and PO for propylene oxide, and n the number of repeat EO units, was selected for this study based on the favorable interactions reported between HFA propellants and the PO moiety. The surfactants used in FDA-approved pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulations were also investigated. Tension measurements provide not only information on the relative activity of the different surfactants in the series, but they also serve as a guide for selecting an appropriate candidate for the formation of reverse aggregates based on the surfactant natural curvature. Moreover, the effect of ethanol and the chemistry of the surfactant tail group on the surfactant activity were also investigated. Surfactants with hydrogenated tails are not capable of forming stable water-in-HFA227 microemulsions. This is true even at very low tensions observed when in the presence of ethanol, indicating the lack of affinity between HFA227 and hydrogenated moieties-the surfactant does not tend to curve about water. On the other hand, PO-based amphiphiles can significantly reduce the tension of the HFA227|W interface. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and UV-vis spectroscopy results also reveal that a selected ethoxylated amphiphile (EO(13)PO(30)EO(13) at 1mM concentration), when in the presence of ethanol, is capable of forming stable cylindrical reverse aqueous microemulsions. EO(13)PO(30)EO(13) is also capable of forming emulsions of water-in-HFA227 that are fairly stable against coalescence. Such dispersions are potential candidates for the delivery of small polar solutes and larger therapeutic biomolecules to and through the lungs in the form of pMDI formulations, and in other medical sprays.

  20. Direct encapsulation of water-soluble drug into silica microcapsules for sustained release applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiexin; Wang Zhihui; Chen Jianfeng Yun, Jimmy

    2008-12-01

    Direct encapsulation of water-soluble drug into silica microcapsules was facilely achieved by a sol-gel process of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in W/O emulsion with hydrochloric acid (HCl) aqueous solution containing Tween 80 and drug as well as cyclohexane solution containing Span 80. Two water-soluble drugs of gentamicin sulphate (GS) and salbutamol sulphate (SS) were chosen as model drugs. The characterization of drug encapsulated silica microcapsules by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), FTIR, thermogravimetry (TG) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analyses indicated that drug was successfully entrapped into silica microcapsules. The as-prepared silica microcapsules were uniform spherical particles with hollow structure, good dispersion and a size of 5-10 {mu}m, and had a specific surface area of about 306 m{sup 2}/g. UV-vis and thermogravimetry (TG) analyses were performed to determine the amount of drug encapsulated in the microcapsules. The BJH pore size distribution (PSD) of silica microcapsules before and after removing drug was examined. In vitro release behavior of drug in simulated body fluid (SBF) revealed that such system exhibited excellent sustained release properties.

  1. Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunpeng; Xiao, Yunjie; Wang, Yanyan; Feng, Yaqing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Shuxian; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao

    2016-03-15

    Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 μg/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10-30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications.

  2. Water-Soluble, Biocompatible Polyphosphazenes with Controllable and pH-Promoted Degradation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wilfert, Sandra; Iturmendi, Aitziber; Schoefberger, Wolfgang; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of novel, water-soluble poly(organophosphazenes) prepared via living cationic polymerization is presented. The degradation profiles of the polyphosphazenes prepared are analyzed by GPC, 31P NMR spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectroscopy in aqueous media and show tunable degradation rates ranging from days to months, adjusted by subtle changes to the chemical structure of the polyphosphazene. Furthermore, it is observed that these polymers demonstrate a pH-promoted hydrolytic degradation behavior, with a remarkably faster rate of degradation at lower pH values. These degradable, water soluble polymers with controlled molecular weights and structures could be of significant interest for use in aqueous biomedical applications, such as polymer therapeutics, in which biological clearance is a requirement and in this context cell viability tests are described which show the non-toxic nature of the polymers as well as their degradation intermediates and products. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2014, 52, 287–294 PMID:24729657

  3. [Water-soluble anions of atmosphere on Tianwan nuclear power station].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng-Qiang; He, Ying; Zheng, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Fa-Rong; Pang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2010-11-01

    Three major water-soluble anions (Cl-, SO4(2-) and NO3-) in the atmosphere of the Tianwan nuclear power station in Lianyungang were determined by ion chromatography from June 2005 to May 2006. The results showed that the annual average concentration of Cl-, SO4(2-) and NO3- in the atmosphere of Tianwan nuclear power station was (33.12 +/- 53.63) microg x m(-3), (53.34 +/- 30.34) microg x m(-3) and (8.34 +/- 4.47) microg x m(-3), respectively. The concentrations of the three water-soluble anions showed evident trend of seasonal variation. The concentrations of Cl-, SO4(2-) reached the highest level in summer and the lowest level in winter, while the concentration of NO3- in autumn and winter was higher than those in summer and spring. Meteorological parameters such as wind direction, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity were studied and showed definite influence to the anions concentration of the atmosphere. This is the first simultaneous monitoring of corrosive anions in the atmosphere of Chinese coastal nuclear power plant, and it will provide basis for the prevention of marine atmospheric corrosion, which will ensure the safely operating of our nuclear power industry.

  4. Water-soluble carbohydrates and fructan structure patterns from Agave and Dasylirion species.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Margalli, N Alejandra; López, Mercedes G

    2006-10-04

    Fructans, storage carbohydrates with beta-fructofuranosyl linkages, are found in approximately 15% of higher plants. The metabolic flexibility of those molecules allows them easily to polymerize and depolymerize to soluble carbohydrates according to plant development stage and environmental conditions. In this work, water-soluble carbohydrates, including fructan structure patterns, were compared among Agave and Dasylirion species grown in different environmental regions in Mexico. Fructans were the main storage carbohydrate present in Agave stems, in addition to other carbohydrates related to its metabolism, whereas Dasylirion spp. presented a different carbohydrate distribution. A good correlation of water-soluble carbohydrate content with climatic conditions was observed. Fructans in Agave and Dasylirion genera were found in the form of polydisperse molecules, where structural heterogeneity in the same plant was evidenced by methylation linkage analysis and chromatographic methods. Fructans from the studied species were classified into three groups depending on DP and linkage-type abundance. These storage carbohydrates share structural characteristics with fructans in plants that belong to the Asparagales members. Agave and Dasylirion fructans can be categorized as graminans and branched neo-fructans, which we have termed agavins.

  5. Confined Pool-Buried Water-Soluble Nanoparticles from Reverse Micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Chen, Ying; Yao, Yongchao; Luo, Kui; Zhang, Shiyong; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-05-30

    With the special nature of confined water pools, reverse micelles (RMs) have shown potential for a wide range of applications. However, the inherent water insolubility of RMs hinders their further application prospect especially for applications related to biology. We present herein the first successful transformation of water-insoluble RMs into water-soluble nanoparticles without changing the confined aqueous interiors by hydrolysis/aminolysis of arm-cleavable interfacial cross-linked reverse micelles formed from diester surfactant 1. The unique properties exhibited by the aqueous interiors of the resulting pool-buried water-soluble nanoparticles (PWNPs) were demonstrated both by the template synthesis of gold nanoparticles in the absence of external reductants and by the fluorescence enhancement of encapsulated thioflavin T (ThT). Importantly, the unique potential for PWNPs in biological applications was exemplified by the use of ThT@PWNPs and "cell targeted" ThT@PWNPs as effective optical imaging agents of living cells. This work conceptually overcomes the application bottleneck of RMs and opens an entry to a new class of functional materials.

  6. In vitro release of a water-soluble agent from low viscosity biodegradable, injectable oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sharifpoor, Soroor; Amsden, Brian

    2007-03-01

    Low-molecular-weight poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-1,3-trimethylene carbonate) and poly(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) are potential vehicles for the regio-specific delivery of water-soluble agents. In this paper, the characteristics and the mechanism governing the in vitro release of a model water-soluble drug, vitamin B12, from these polymer vehicles were determined. The loading of vitamin B12 was kept to 1 w/w%. The oligomers examined ranged from amorphous, high viscosity to crystalline but low viscosity. The oligomers did not degrade appreciably in vitro. The total fraction of vitamin B12 released increased as the crystallinity of the oligomers decreased, reaching nearly total release only for the completely amorphous oligomers. The rate of release was fastest for the amorphous oligomers and dependent on their viscosity. Inclusion of a more osmotically active agent, trehalose, into the vitamin B12 particles through co-lyophilization resulted in enhanced total fraction released and a faster release rate. The results are consistent with an osmotically driven release mechanism.

  7. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparative scale and convenient synthesis of a water-soluble, deep cavitand.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Simone; Yu, Yang; Rebek, Julius

    2016-08-01

    Cavitands are established tools of supramolecular chemistry and molecular recognition, and they are finding increasing application in sensing and sequestration of physiologically relevant molecules in aqueous solution. The synthesis of a water-soluble, deep cavitand is described. The route comprises six (linear) steps from commercially available precursors, and it relies on the fourfold oligomeric cyclization reaction of resorcinol with 2,3-dihydrofuran that leads to the formation of a shallow resorcinarene framework; condensation with aromatic panels, which deepens the hydrophobic binding cavity; construction of rigid urea functionalities on the upper rim; and the introduction of the water-solubilizing methylimidazolium groups on the lower rim. Late intermediates of the synthesis can be used in the preparation of congener cavitands with different properties and applications, and a sample of such a synthetic procedure is included in this protocol. Emphasis is placed on scaled-up reactions and on purification procedures that afford materials in high yield and avoid chromatographic purification. This protocol provides improvements over previously described procedures, and it enables the preparation of sizable amounts of deep cavitands: 7 g of a water-soluble cavitand can be prepared from resorcinol in 13 working days.

  9. Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-07-15

    A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min μg mL⁻¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biosynthesis of a water-soluble lipid I analogue and a convenient assay for translocase I.

    PubMed

    Siricilla, Shajila; Mitachi, Katsuhiko; Skorupinska-Tudek, Karolina; Swiezewska, Ewa; Kurosu, Michio

    2014-09-15

    Translocase I (MraY/MurX) is an essential enzyme in growth of the vast majority of bacteria that catalyzes the transformation from UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide (Park's nucleotide) to prenyl-MurNAc-pentapeptide (lipid I), the first membrane-anchored peptidoglycan precursor. MurX has received considerable attention in the development of new tuberculosis (TB) drugs due to the fact that the MurX inhibitors kill exponentially growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) much faster than clinically used TB drugs. Lipid I isolated from Mtb contains the C50-prenyl unit that shows very poor water solubility; thus, this chemical characteristic of lipid I renders MurX enzyme assays impractical for screening and lacks reproducibility of the enzyme assays. We have established a scalable chemical synthesis of Park's nucleotide-N(ε)-dansylthiourea 2 that can be used as a MurX enzymatic substrate to form lipid I analogues. In our investigation of the minimum structure requirement of the prenyl phosphate in the MraY/MurX-catalyzed lipid I analogue synthesis with 2, we found that neryl phosphate (C10 phosphate) can be recognized by MraY/MurX to generate the water-soluble lipid I analogue in quantitative yield under the optimized conditions. Here, we report a rapid and robust analytical method for quantifying MraY/MurX inhibitory activity of library molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis of A Water-Soluble Lipid I Analogue and A Convenient Assay for Translocase I

    PubMed Central

    Skorupinska-Tudek, Karolina; Swiezewska, Ewa; Kurosu, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Translocase I (MraY/MurX) is an essential enzyme in growth of the vast majority of bacteria that catalyzes the transformation from UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide (Park’s nucleotide) to prenyl-MurNAc-pentapeptide (lipid I), the first membrane-anchored peptidoglycan precursor. MurX has been received considerable attentions to the development of new TB drugs due to the fact that the MurX inhibitors kill exponentially growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) much faster than clinically used TB drugs. Lipid I isolated from Mtb contains the C50-prenyl unit that shows very poor water-solubility, and thus, this chemical characteristic of lipid I renders MurX enzyme assays impractical for screening and lacks reproducibility of the enzyme assays. We have established a scalable chemical synthesis of Park’s nucleotide-Nε-dansylthiourea 2 that can be used as a MurX enzymatic substrate to form lipid I analogues. In our investigation of minimum structure requirement of the prenyl phosphate in the MraY/MurX-catalyzed lipid I analogue synthesis with 2, we found that neryl phosphate (C10-phosphate) can be recognized by MraY/MurX to generate the water-soluble lipid I analogue in quantitative yield under the optimized conditions. Herein, we report a rapid and robust analytical method for quantifying MraY/MurX inhibitory activity of library molecules. PMID:24939461

  12. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by water-soluble muscadine seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, T J; Silva, J L; Weng, W L; Chen, W W; Corbitt, M; Jung, Y S; Chen, Y S

    2009-02-28

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars ('Ison', purple and 'Carlos', bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only increased total phenolics and tannic acid but also enhanced antimicrobial activity against two strains of E. sakazakii. Within 1 h, all seed extracts reduced an initial population (approximately 6 log CFU/mL) of E. sakazakii to a non-detectable level (minimum detection limit, 10 CFU/mL). Regardless of extraction method and cultivar, only the polar fractions which contained malic, tartaric and tannic acids showed antimicrobial activity against two strains of E. sakazakii. The polyphenol fractions which contained gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and pigments showed slight inhibition against E. sakazakii. Results showed that water-soluble muscadine seed extracts (pH 3.3-3.78) contained strong antimicrobial inhibitors against E. sakazakii while acidified peptone water (pH 3.3) did not show any antimicrobial activity.

  13. The ultrafast reactions in the photochromic cycle of water-soluble fulgimide photoswitches.

    PubMed

    Slavov, C; Boumrifak, C; Hammer, C A; Trojanowski, P; Chen, X; Lees, W J; Wachtveitl, J; Braun, M

    2016-04-21

    Photochromic switches are essential for the control and manipulation of nanoscale reactions and processes. The expansion of their application to aqueous environments depends strongly on the development of optimized water-soluble photoswitches. Here we present a femtosecond time-resolved investigation of the photochromic reactions (transition between the open and the closed form) of a water-soluble indolylfulgimide. We observe a pronounced effect of the protic nature of water as a solvent on the ultrafast ring-opening reaction. Typically, the excited state of the closed form has a larger dipole moment than the ground state, which leads to stabilization of the excited state in polar solvents and hence a lifetime (3 ps) longer than in non-polar solvents (2 ps). However, in water, despite the increased solvent polarity and the increased excited state dipole moment, the opposite trend for the excited state lifetime is observed (1.8 ps). This effect is caused by the opening of a new excited state deactivation pathway involving proton transfer reactions.

  14. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts.

  15. Water soluble organic aerosols in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA: composition, sources and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingjie; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W; Neff, Jason C; Wasswa, Joseph; Hannigan, Michael P

    2016-12-19

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to be an important input of organic carbon and nutrients to alpine watersheds and influence biogeochemical processes in these remote settings. For many remote, high elevation watersheds, direct evidence of the sources of water soluble organic aerosols and their chemical and optical characteristics is lacking. Here, we show that the concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) load at a high elevation site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was strongly correlated with UV absorbance at 254 nm (Abs254, r = 0.88 p < 0.01) and organic carbon (OC, r = 0.95 p < 0.01), accounting for >90% of OC on average. According to source apportionment analysis, biomass burning had the highest contribution (50.3%) to average WSOC concentration; SOA formation and motor vehicle emissions dominated the contribution to WSOC in the summer. The source apportionment and backward trajectory analysis results supported the notion that both wildfire and Colorado Front Range pollution sources contribute to the summertime OC peaks observed in wet deposition at high elevation sites in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. These findings have important implications for water quality in remote, high-elevation, mountain catchments considered to be our pristine reference sites.

  16. Mineralization of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a water table fluctuation zone

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, H.Y.N.; Tsang, Y.W.; Holman, W.R.

    1999-06-01

    The mineralization potential of sparsely water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within a highly diesel-contaminated water table fluctuation zone (WTFZ) was investigated using core-scale column microcosms. Experimental conditions mimicked overall seasonal changes in water and oxygen content at the site. During the first aerobic winter, PAH mineralization rates in the freshly contaminated soil were fastest for contaminant [{sup 14}C]-naphthalene which was the least hydrophobic and most water-soluble. Lowering the water table nearly doubled the mineralization rates of all [{sup 14}C]PAHs studied. During the oxygen-poor summer, all mineralization rates were insignificant and failed to respond to water table changes. Neither a return to water-saturated aerobic (winter) conditions nor lowering the water table under aerobic conditions induced detectable mineralization of [{sup 14}C]-naphthalene, but lowering the water table did markedly hasten the still slow mineralization of [{sup 14}C]phenanthrene and [{sup 14}C]anthracene. The time-dependent mineralization behavior and its response to water table fluctuations were explicable in terms of microbial responses to the changing oxygen content and depleting mineral nutrients.

  17. Chemical composition of water-soluble fraction in soils on glaciolacustrine deposits of the Russian Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, E. G.; Oleinikova, G. A.; Matinyan, N. N.; Bakhmatova, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of some chemical elements was studied in soils and their liquid phase. Two reference soil profiles on glaciolacustrine clays (soddy-eluvial-metamorphic soil) and sands (soddy podzol) were investigated on the Russian Plain. A colloidal fraction (particles <1 μm) was isolated with deionized hot water from a soil sample of 30 g at the soil: water ratio of 1: 10. The suspension was mixed for 6 h, settled for 24 h, and filtrated using a membrane filter (<1 μm). The soil sample and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) were analyzed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The chemical characteristics of the extracted liquid phase of the soil reflect its water-soluble component properties. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of the analysis for the whole soil allows assessment of a share of easily mobile and difficultly mobile forms of chemical compounds. This is the necessary basis for the development of a model describing the transport of metals in soil.

  18. Water-soluble polymers bearing phosphorylcholine group and other zwitterionic groups for carrying DNA derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojie; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers with equal positive and negative charges in the same monomer unit, such as the phosphorylcholine group and other zwitterionic groups, exhibit promising potential in gene delivery with appreciable transfection efficiency, compared with the traditional poly(ethylene glycol)-based polycation-gene complexes. These zwitterionic polymers with various architectural structures and properties have been synthesized by various polymerization methods, such as conventional radical polymerization, atom-transfer radical-polymerization, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, and nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization. These techniques have been used to efficiently facilitate gene therapy by fabrication of non-viral vectors with high cytocompatibility, large gene-carrying capacity, effective cell-membrane permeability, and in vivo gene-loading/releasing functionality. Zwitterionic polymer-based gene delivery vectors systems can be categorized into soluble-polymer/gene mixing, molecular self-assembly, and polymer-gene conjugation systems. This review describes the preparation and characterization of various zwitterionic polymer-based gene delivery vectors, specifically water-soluble phospholipid polymers for carrying gene derivatives.

  19. Detergents as probes of hydrophobic binding cavities in serum albumin and other water-soluble proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kragh-Hansen, U; Hellec, F; de Foresta, B; le Maire, M; Møller, J V

    2001-01-01

    As an extension of our studies on the interaction of detergents with membranes and membrane proteins, we have investigated their binding to water-soluble proteins. Anionic aliphatic compounds (dodecanoate and dodecylsulfate) were bound to serum albumin with high affinity at nine sites; related nonionic detergents (C12E8 and dodecylmaltoside) were bound at seven to eight sites, many in common with those of dodecanoate. The compounds were also bound in the hydrophobic cavity of beta-lactoglobulin, but not to ovalbumin. In addition to the generally recognized role of the Sudlow binding region II of serum albumin (localized at the IIIA subdomain) in fatty acid binding, quenching of the fluorescence intensity of tryptophan-214 by 7,8-dibromododecylmaltoside and 12-bromododecanoate also implicate the Sudlow binding region I (subdomain IIA) as a locus for binding of aliphatic compounds. Our data document the usefulness of dodecyl amphipathic compounds as probes of hydrophobic cavities in water-soluble proteins. In conjunction with recent x-ray diffraction analyses of fatty acid binding as the starting point we propose a new symmetrical binding model for the location of nine high-affinity sites on serum albumin for aliphatic compounds. PMID:11371462

  20. Water-soluble polysaccharides from agro-industrial by-products: functional and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assaâd; Bayar, Nadia; Ghazala, Imen; Bougatef, Ali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2014-08-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from almond (AWSP) and pistachio (PWSP) juice processing by-products. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using NMR and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. The complexities of the spectra reflected the heterogeneity of these polysaccharides. The ACE inhibitory activities (IC50 AWSP=2.81mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=2.59mgmL(-1)) and antioxidant properties of AWSP and PWSP were investigated based on the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay (IC50 AWSP=2.87mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=1.61mgmL(-1)). Reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50AWSP=4.46mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=3.39mgmL(-1)), and ferrous chelating assays (IC50 AWSP=0.22mgmL(-1) and IC50 PWSP=0.19mgmL(-1)) were also performed. The findings revealed that water-soluble polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. AWSP and PWSP showed excellent interfacial concentration-dependent properties. Overall, the results suggested that both AWSP and PWSP are promising sources of natural antioxidants and ACE inhibitory agents and could, therefore, be used as alternative additives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  1. Water soluble, multifunctional antibody-porphyrin gold nanoparticles for targeted photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Penon, Oriol; Marín, María J; Russell, David A; Pérez-García, Lluïsa

    2017-06-15

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment of cancer by which tumour cells are destroyed using reactive oxygen species produced by photosensitizers following activation with visible or near infrared light. Successful PDT depends on the solubility and the targeting ability of the photosensitizers. In this work, the synthesis of a porphyrin-based water soluble nanoparticle conjugate containing a targeting agent that recognizes the erbB2 receptor overexpressed on the surface of particular cancer cells is reported. The nanoparticle conjugates were synthesized following two different protocols, viz. a biphasic and a monophasic method, with the aim to determine which method yielded the optimal nanosystem for potential PDT applications. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies together with transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements; and their ability to produce singlet oxygen following irradiation was investigated following the decay in absorption of a singlet oxygen probe. The nanoparticles synthesized using the monophasic method were shown to produce the highest amount of singlet oxygen and were further functionalized with anti-erbB2 antibody to target the erbB2 receptors expressed on the surface of SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells. The water soluble, antibody-porphyrin nanoparticle conjugates were shown to elicit targeted PDT of the breast cancer cells.

  2. Water soluble organic aerosols in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA: composition, sources and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mingjie; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Neff, Jason C.; Wasswa, Joseph; Hannigan, Michael P.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to be an important input of organic carbon and nutrients to alpine watersheds and influence biogeochemical processes in these remote settings. For many remote, high elevation watersheds, direct evidence of the sources of water soluble organic aerosols and their chemical and optical characteristics is lacking. Here, we show that the concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) load at a high elevation site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was strongly correlated with UV absorbance at 254 nm (Abs254, r = 0.88 p < 0.01) and organic carbon (OC, r = 0.95 p < 0.01), accounting for >90% of OC on average. According to source apportionment analysis, biomass burning had the highest contribution (50.3%) to average WSOC concentration; SOA formation and motor vehicle emissions dominated the contribution to WSOC in the summer. The source apportionment and backward trajectory analysis results supported the notion that both wildfire and Colorado Front Range pollution sources contribute to the summertime OC peaks observed in wet deposition at high elevation sites in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. These findings have important implications for water quality in remote, high-elevation, mountain catchments considered to be our pristine reference sites.

  3. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-05

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins.

  4. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  5. Water-soluble derivatives of 25-OCH3-PPD and their anti-proliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Wei-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-03-18

    (20R)-25-Methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD, AD-1) is a dammarane-type sapogenin showing anti-tumor potential. In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 25-OCH3-PPD, 11 novel sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 25-OCH3-PPD, compounds 1, 4, and 5 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on almost all cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 1 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays. The water solubility of 25-OCH3-PPD and its derivatives was tested and the results showed that the solubility of 25-OCH3-PPD sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives were better than that of 25-OCH3-PPD in water, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents.

  6. Water soluble bioactives of nacre mediate antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Singha, Prajjal Kanti; Dey, Satyahari

    2013-01-01

    The water soluble matrix of nacre is a proven osteoinductive material. In spite of the differences in the biomolecular compositions of nacre obtained from multiple species of oysters, the common biochemical properties of those principles substantiate their biological activity. However, the mechanism by which nacre stimulates bone differentiation remains largely unknown. Since the positive impact of antioxidants on bone metabolism is well acknowledged, in this study we investigated the antioxidant potential of a water soluble matrix (WSM) obtained from the nacre of the marine oyster Pinctada fucata, which could regulate its osteoblast differentiation activity. Enhanced levels of ALP activity observed in pre-osteoblast cells upon treatment with WSM, suggested the induction of bone differentiation events. Furthermore, bone nodule formation and up-regulation of bone differentiation marker transcripts, i.e. collagen type-1 and osteocalcin by WSM confirmed its ability to induce differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts into mature osteoblasts. Remarkably, same WSM fraction upon pre-treatment lowered the H2O2 and UV-B induced oxidative damages in keratinocytes, thus indicating the antioxidant potential of WSM. This was further confirmed from the in vitro scavenging of ABTS and DPPH free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by WSM. Together, these results indicate that WSM poses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation property. Thus, bioactivities associated with nacre holds potential in the development of therapeutics for bone regeneration and against oxidative stress induced damages in cells.

  7. Water-Soluble Polymeric Interfacial Material for Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingling; Ma, Yingzhuang; Xiao, Lixin; Zhang, Fengyan; Wang, Yuanhao; Yang, Hongxing

    2017-04-11

    Interfacial materials play a critical role in photoelectric conversion properties as well as the anomalous hysteresis phenomenon of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this article, a water-soluble polythiophene PTEBS was employed as a cathode interfacial material for PSCs. Efficient energy level aligning and improved film morphology were obtained due to an ultrathin coating of PTEBS. Better ohmic contact between the perovskite layer and the cathode also benefits the charge transport and extraction of the device. Moreover, less charge accumulation at the interface weakens the polarization of the perovskite resulting in a relatively quick response of the modified device. The ITO/PTEBS/CH3NH3PbI3/spiro-MeOTAD/Au cells by an all low-temperature process achieved power conversion efficiencies of up to 15.4% without apparent hysteresis effect. Consequently, the utilization of this water-soluble polythiophene is a practical approach for the fabrication of highly efficient, large-area, and low-cost PSCs and compatible with low-temperature solution process, roll-to-roll manufacture, and flexible application.

  8. P2O5 assisted green synthesis of multicolor fluorescent water soluble carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Tripathi, Kumud Malika; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2014-03-01

    A low cost synthesis of multicolor fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from edible sugars is described here. Common sugars like dextrose, lactose or maltose in aqueous medium gets dehydrated using phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). The reaction is facile and completed within few minutes to form insoluble carbon (C-dots) mostly having the graphitic (G-band, Raman) sp2 hybridized carbon atoms (C-atoms). This insoluble carbon on oxidative treatment with nitric acid produced disordered sp3 (D-band retaining G-band, Raman) hybridized C-atoms, originated from the graphitic pool with sp2 hybridized C-atoms. This high density assimilation of self passivated "surfacial defects" become emissive during electronic transitions. Surfacial defects due to high degree of electrophilic carboxylation create the water soluble version of multicolor fluorescent C-dots as "water soluble fluorescent carbon dots" (wsFCDs). wsFCDs being itself self-passivated imposes the tunable multicolor emission throughout the visible spectrum without having any external coating and surface passivation and could be used as multicolor fluorescent probe especially in the emerging field of optical bio-imaging.

  9. Increasing the oral bioavailability of the poorly water soluble drug itraconazole with ordered mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Mellaerts, Randy; Mols, Raf; Jammaer, Jasper A G; Aerts, Caroline A; Annaert, Pieter; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick; Martens, Johan A

    2008-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vivo performance of ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) as a carrier for poorly water soluble drugs. Itraconazole was selected as model compound. Physicochemical characterization was carried out by SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption, DSC, TGA and in vitro dissolution. After loading itraconazole into OMS, its oral bioavailability was compared with the crystalline drug and the marketed product Sporanox in rabbits and dogs. Plasma concentrations of itraconazole and OH-itraconazole were determined by HPLC-UV. After administration of crystalline itraconazole in dogs (20mg), no systemic itraconazole could be detected. Using OMS as a carrier, the AUC0-8 was boosted to 681+/-566 nM h. In rabbits, the AUC0-24 increased significantly from 521+/-159 nM h after oral administration of crystalline itraconazole (8 mg) to 1069+/-278 nM h when this dose was loaded into OMS. Tmax decreased from 9.8+/-1.8 to 4.2+/-1.8h. No significant differences (AUC, Cmax, and Tmax) could be determined when comparing OMS with Sporanox in both species. The oral bioavailability of itraconazole formulated with OMS as a carrier compares well with the marketed product Sporanox, in rabbits as well as in dogs. OMS can therefore be considered as a promising carrier to achieve enhanced oral bioavailability for drugs with extremely low water solubility.

  10. New water-soluble ruthenium(II) cytotoxic complex: biological activity and cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Morais, Tânia S; Santos, Filipa C; Jorge, Tiago F; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Marques, Fernanda; Robalo, M Paula; Matos, António; Santos, Isabel; Garcia, M Helena

    2014-01-01

    A novel water soluble organometallic compound, [RuCp(mTPPMSNa)(2,2'-bipy)][CF3SO3] (TM85, where Cp=η(5)-cyclopentadienyl, mTPPMS=diphenylphosphane-benzene-3-sulfonate and 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) is presented herein. Studies of interactions with relevant proteins were performed to understand the behavior and mode of action of this complex in the biological environment. Electrochemical and fluorescence studies showed that TM85 strongly binds to albumin. Studies carried out to study the formation of TM85 which adducts with ubiquitin and cytochrome c were performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antitumor activity was evaluated against a variety of human cancer cell lines, namely A2780, A2780cisR, MCF7, MDAMB231, HT29, PC3 and V79 non-tumorigenic cells and compared with the reference drug cisplatin. TM85 cytotoxic effect was reduced in the presence of endocytosis modulators at low temperatures, suggesting an energy-dependent mechanism consistent with endocytosis. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that TM85 targets the endomembranar system disrupting the Golgi and also affects the mitochondria. Disruption of plasma membrane observed by flow cytometry could lead to cellular damage and cell death. On the whole, the biological activity evaluated herein combined with the water solubility property suggests that complex TM85 could be a promising anticancer agent. © 2013.

  11. Uncertainties in the measurements of water-soluble organic nitrogen in the aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Yamato, Koki

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the positive and negative artifacts in the measurements of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) in the aerosols by filter sampling, comparative experiments between the filter sampling and denuder-filter sampling were conducted during both the warm and cold seasons. The results suggest that the traditional filter sampling underestimates the concentrations of the particulate WSON due to its volatilization loss, but this effect on the ratio of the WSON to the water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) was small probably because inorganic nitrogen species were also lost during the filter sampling. Approximately 32.5% of the WSON in the PM2.5 was estimated to be lost during the filter sampling. The denuder-filter sampling also demonstrated the existence of the WSON in the gas phase with approximately quarter concentrations of the WSON in the PM2.5. On the other hand, the filter sampling would overestimate the gaseous WSON concentration due to the loss of the WSON from the aerosol collection filter.

  12. Effect of Chemical Grafting Parameters on the Manufacture of Functionalized PVOH Films Having Controlled Water Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas; Schlemmer, Daniel; Grupa, Uwe; Schmid, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical grafting of a single-layer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) film. The effect of the grafting parameters (grafting time, grafting temperature, and concentration of fatty acid chloride) on the hydrophobicity of the film surface and the film solubility were evaluated. The PVOH substrate film (cold-water soluble at 20°C) was manufactured by flat extrusion and had a thickness of 50 μm (±5 μm). The chemical grafting was performed using the transfer method with palmitoyl chloride (C16). The solubility, surface energy, and water vapor transmission rate of the grafted films were measured. The process parameters which produced the most hydrophobic PVOH film were found to be a fatty acid concentration of 3%, a grafting time of 14 min, and a grafting temperature of 130°C. These studies involved systematic adjustment of the hydrophobicity of one side of PVOH films. The results open up opportunities for packing fluids in water soluble packaging. PMID:28674687

  13. Phytoglycogen improves the water solubility and Caco-2 monolayer permeation of quercetin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Yao, Yuan

    2017-04-15

    The study examined the capability of phytoglycogen (PG) to improve the water solubility of quercetin (QC). PG-QC formulations were prepared by mixing a QC ethanol solution with a PG aqueous solution followed with vacuum drying of the supernatant. PG-QC formulations with various PG to QC ratios were prepared; the solubility of QC reached 241.76μg/mL at PG/QC ratio of 30/1 compared with approximately 4.32μg/mL of QC alone. The X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR analyses showed a significant reduction of QC crystallinity upon formulating with PG that was associated with the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of QC and PG. The Caco-2 cell monolayer permeation tests showed that PG-QC formulations resulted in substantially enhanced cellular uptake and transepithelial permeation of QC, which was related to the much-enhanced QC solubility. This study showed the potential of using PG to formulate poorly water-soluble ingredients such as QC.

  14. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel water-soluble prodrugs of buparvaquone.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Antti; Rautio, Jarkko; Nevalainen, Tapio; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Vepsälainen, Jouko; Järvinen, Tomi

    2004-10-01

    Novel water-soluble phosphate prodrugs (2b-5b) of buparvaquone-oxime (1a) and buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as potential oral prodrugs against leishmaniasis. Buparvaquone-oxime (1a), and most probably also buparvaquone-O-methyloxime (1b), released the parent buparvaquone via a cytochrome P450-catalysed reaction. The prodrugs 2b-5b showed significantly higher aqueous solubilities (>4 mg/ml) than buparvaquone (< or = 0.03 microg/ml) over a pH range of 3.0-7.4. The prodrugs 2b, 3b and 5b rapidly released (t1/2 = 7 min) the corresponding oximes of buparvaquone (1a and 1b), and prodrug 4b at a moderate rate (t1/2 = 22.5 min) in alkaline phosphatase solution in vitro. Prodrug 3b was the most chemically stable in the aqueous solutions over a pH range of 3.0-7.4 (t1/2 > 8 days). Although buparvaquone-oxime (1a) has been shown to undergo a cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidation in liver microsomes to the parent buparvaquone and behave as a novel bioreversible prodrug, its usefulness is limited in oral drug delivery due to its poor aqueous solubility, like buparvaquone itself. Further phosphorylation of an oxime form of buparvaquone significantly increased water solubility, and this novel approach is therefore useful to improve physicochemical properties of drugs containing a ketone functional group.

  15. Incorporation of titanate nanosheets to enhance mechanical properties of water-soluble polyamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harito, C.; Bavykin, Dmitry V.; Walsh, Frank C.

    2017-07-01

    Pyromeliticdianhydride (PMDA) and 4’,4’-oxydianiline (ODA) were used as monomers of polyimide. To synthesise a water soluble polyimide precursor (polyamic acid salt), triethylamine (TEA) was added to polyamic acid with a TEA/COOH mole ratio of 1:1. Titanate nanosheets were synthesised by solid-state reaction, ion-exchanged with acid, and exfoliated by TEA. Exfoliated titanate nanosheets were mixed with water soluble polyamic acid salt as reinforcing filler. Drop casting was deployed to synthesise polyamic acid/titanate nanosheet nanocomposite films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to study the morphology and dispersion of nanosheets in the colloidal dispersion and the solid film composite. Modulus and hardness of nanocomposites was provided by nanoindentation. Hardness increased by 90% with addition of 2% TiNS while modulus increased by 103% compared to pure polymer. This behaviour agrees well with Halpin-Tsai theoretical predictions up to 2 wt% filler loading; agglomeration occurs at higher concentrations.

  16. Preparation of water-soluble nanographite and its application in water-based cutting fluid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble nanographite was prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization using methacrylate as polymeric monomer. The dispersion stability and dispersion state of graphite particles were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The water-soluble nanographite was then added into the water-based cutting fluid as lubricant additive. The lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid with the nanographite additive was studied on four-ball friction tester and surface tensiometer. Results indicate that the modification method of in situ emulsion polymerization realizes the uniform and stabilized dispersion of nanographite in aqueous environment. The optimal polymerization condition is 70°C (polymerization temperature) and 5 h (polymerization time). The addition of nanographite decreases the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 44% and 49%. Meanwhile, the maximum non-seizure load (PB) increases from 784 to 883 N, and the value of surface tension (32.76 × 10−3 N/m) is at low level. Nanographite additive improves apparently the lubrication performance of water-based cutting fluid. PMID:23351483

  17. ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles: synthesis, luminescence and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2010-09-24

    Cu(2+) and Co(2+) co-doped zinc sulfide water-soluble nanoparticles (ZnS:Cu,Co) were prepared and their afterglow luminescence was observed and reported for the first time. The nanoparticles have a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of about 4 nm as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In the photoluminescence, two emission peaks are observed at 470 and 510 nm. However, in the afterglow, only one peak is observed at around 525 nm. The blue emission at 470 nm is from surface states and the green emission at 525 nm is from Cu(2+). This means that Cu(2+) is responsible for the afterglow from the nanoparticles, while the co-doping of Co(2+) is critical for the afterglow because no afterglow could be seen without co-doping with Co(2+). The successful observation of the afterglow from water-soluble nanoparticles may open up new applications of afterglow phosphors in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  18. ZnS:Cu,Co water-soluble afterglow nanoparticles: synthesis, luminescence and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Cu2 + and Co2 + co-doped zinc sulfide water-soluble nanoparticles (ZnS:Cu,Co) were prepared and their afterglow luminescence was observed and reported for the first time. The nanoparticles have a cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of about 4 nm as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In the photoluminescence, two emission peaks are observed at 470 and 510 nm. However, in the afterglow, only one peak is observed at around 525 nm. The blue emission at 470 nm is from surface states and the green emission at 525 nm is from Cu2 + . This means that Cu2 + is responsible for the afterglow from the nanoparticles, while the co-doping of Co2 + is critical for the afterglow because no afterglow could be seen without co-doping with Co2 + . The successful observation of the afterglow from water-soluble nanoparticles may open up new applications of afterglow phosphors in biological imaging, detection and treatment.

  19. Improvement of dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drug by supercritical freeze granulation.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Ryoichi; Hara, Yuko; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2009-10-01

    The dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble drug, flurbiprofen (FP) was improved by a novel supercritical freeze granulation using supercritical carbon dioxide. Supercritical freeze granulation was defined as a production method of the granulated substances by using the dry ice to generate intentionally for the rapid atomization of the supercritical carbon dioxide to the atmospheric pressure. This process utilized a rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS) process with the mixture of the drug and lactose. In the supercritical freeze granulation, needle-like FP fine particles were obtained which adhered to the surface of lactose particles, which did not dissolve in supercritical carbon dioxide. The number of FP particles that adhered to the surface of particles decreased with an increase in the ratio of lactose added, leading to markedly improve the dissolution rate. This improvement was caused not only by the increase in the specific surface area but also the improvement of the dispersibility of FP in water. It is thus concluded that the supercritical freeze granulation is a useful technique to improve the dissolution property of the poorly water-soluble flurbiprofen.

  20. Water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarenes with hydroxyproline groups as chiral NMR solvating agents.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Courtney M; Chudomel, J Matthew; Collins, Jan M; Dignam, Catherine F; Wenzel, Thomas J

    2008-04-04

    Water-soluble calix[4]resorcinarenes containing 3- and 4-hydroxyproline, d-nipecotic acid, (S)-2-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidine, (S)-2-pyrrolidine methanol, and (S,S)-(+)-2,4-bis(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidine substituents are synthesized and evaluated as chiral NMR solvating agents. The derivatives with the hydroxyproline groups are especially effective at causing enantiomeric discrimination in the spectra of water-soluble cationic and anionic compounds with pyridyl, phenyl, and bicyclic aromatic rings. Binding studies show that mono- and ortho-substituted phenyl rings associate within the cavity of the calix[4]resorcinarenes, as do naphthyl rings with mono-, 2,3-, and 1,8-substitution patterns. Anthracene derivatives with an amino or sulfonyl group at the 1-position bind within the cavity, as well. Aromatic resonances of the substrates exhibit substantial upfield shifts because of shielding from the aromatic rings of the calix[4]resorcinarene. The effectiveness of the reagents at producing chiral recognition in 1H NMR spectra is demonstrated with sodium mandelate, the sodium salt of tryptophan, and doxylamine succinate. While no one reagent is consistently the most effective, the calix[4]resorcinarenes with trans-4-hydroxyproline and trans-3-hydroxyproline moieties generally produce the largest nonequivalence in the 1H NMR spectra of the substrates.

  1. Homogeneous synthesis of Ag nanoparticles-doped water-soluble cellulose acetate for versatile applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Sun, Xunwen; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2016-11-01

    We report a facile and efficient approach for synthesis of well-dispersed and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using water-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) as both reductant and stabilizer. Partially substituted CA with highly active hydroxyl groups and excellent water-solubility is able to reduce silver ions in homogeneous aqueous medium effectively. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis. The as-prepared Ag NPs were well-dispersed, showing a surface plasmon resonance peak at 426nm. The resulted Ag NPs@CA nanohybrids exhibit high catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4. Meanwhile, the nanohybrids are also effective in inhibiting the growth of bacterial. This environmentally friendly method promotes the use of renewable natural resources to prepare a variety of inorganic-organic materials for catalysis, antibacterial, sensors and other applications.

  2. Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN.

  3. Water-soluble acacetin prodrug confers significant cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Lei; Wu, Hui-Jun; Chen, Kui-Hao; Lin, Feng; Li, Gang; Sun, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy resulted from ischemia/reperfusion injury are very high. The present study investigates whether our previously synthesized water-soluble phosphate prodrug of acacetin was cardioprotective against ischemia/reperfusion injury in an in vivo rat model. We found that intravenous administration of acacetin prodrug (10 mg/kg) decreased the ventricular arrhythmia score and duration, reduced ventricular fibrillation and infarct size, and improved the impaired heart function induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in anesthetized rats. The cardioprotective effects were further confirmed with the parent compound acacetin in an ex vivo rat regional ischemia/reperfusion heart model. Molecular mechanism analysis revealed that acacetin prevented the ischemia/reperfusion-induced reduction of the anti-oxidative proteins SOD-2 and thioredoxin, suppressed the release of inflammation cytokines TLR4, IL-6 and TNFα, and decreased myocyte apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion. Our results demonstrate the novel evidence that acacetin prodrug confer significant in vivo cardioprotective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury by preventing the reduction of endogenous anti-oxidants and the release of inflammatory cytokines, thereby inhibiting cardiomyocytes apoptosis, which suggests that the water-soluble acacetin prodrug is likely useful in the future as a new drug candidate for treating patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:27819271

  4. A predictive model for the release of slightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices.

    PubMed

    Fu, X C; Wang, G P; Wang, Y H; Liang, W Q

    2004-08-01

    A model to predict the fraction of slightly water-soluble drug released as a function of release time (t, h), HPMC concentration (C(H), w/w), drug solubility in distilled water at 37 degrees C (C(s), g/100 mL), and volume of drug molecule (V, nm3) was derived when theophyline, tinidazole, and propylthiouracil were selected as model drugs. The model is log (M(t)/M(infinity)) = 0.8683 logt-0.1930C(s) logt + 0.5406V logt-1.227C(H) + 0.1594C(s) + 0.4423C(H)C(s) - 0.8655 (n = 130, r = 0.9969), where Mt is the amount of drug released at time t, Minfinity is the amount of drug released over a very long time, which corresponds in principle to the initial loading, n is the number of samples, and r is the correlation coefficient. The model was validated using sulfamethoxazole and satisfactory results were obtained. The model can be used to predict the release fraction of variousslightly water-soluble drugs from HPMC matrices having different polymer levels.

  5. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    PubMed

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.

  6. Water soluble organic aerosols in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA: composition, sources and optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingjie; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Neff, Jason C.; Wasswa, Joseph; Hannigan, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to be an important input of organic carbon and nutrients to alpine watersheds and influence biogeochemical processes in these remote settings. For many remote, high elevation watersheds, direct evidence of the sources of water soluble organic aerosols and their chemical and optical characteristics is lacking. Here, we show that the concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the total suspended particulate (TSP) load at a high elevation site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was strongly correlated with UV absorbance at 254 nm (Abs254, r = 0.88 p < 0.01) and organic carbon (OC, r = 0.95 p < 0.01), accounting for >90% of OC on average. According to source apportionment analysis, biomass burning had the highest contribution (50.3%) to average WSOC concentration; SOA formation and motor vehicle emissions dominated the contribution to WSOC in the summer. The source apportionment and backward trajectory analysis results supported the notion that both wildfire and Colorado Front Range pollution sources contribute to the summertime OC peaks observed in wet deposition at high elevation sites in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. These findings have important implications for water quality in remote, high-elevation, mountain catchments considered to be our pristine reference sites. PMID:27991554

  7. Physicochemical characterization of water-soluble chitosan derivatives with singlet oxygen quenching and antibacterial capabilities.

    PubMed

    Vanden Braber, Noelia L; Díaz Vergara, Ladislao I; Morán Vieyra, Faustino E; Borsarelli, Claudio D; Yossen, Mariana M; Vega, Jorge R; Correa, Silvia G; Montenegro, Mariana A

    2017-09-01

    New water-soluble chitosan derivatives (WSCh) were obtained by Maillard reaction (MR) between glucosamine (GA) with both low and medium molecular weight chitosans (Ch). The WSCh showed larger solubility than the respective Ch, while their deacetylation degree (DD) decreased by approximately 12%. Infrared spectroscopy experiments of WSCh confirmed the formation of imine bonds after MR with intensified pyranose structure, and sugar molecules as polymer branches. However, a 6-times reduction of the molecular weight of WSCh was measured, indicating the breakdown of the polysaccharide chain during the MR. The polysaccharides quenched singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O2), with rate quenching constants correlating with the DD value of the samples, suggesting the important role of amino groups (-NH2) in the deactivation of (1)O2. Additionally, all polysaccharides presented antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria ivanovii, as tested by their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). This way we obtained new water-soluble polysaccharides, with similar functional properties to those presented by native Ch, enhancing its potential application as carrier material for bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Release of small water-soluble drugs from multiblock copolymer microspheres: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sohier, J; van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, R; de Groot, K; Bezemer, J M

    2003-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT/PBT) multiblock copolymer was investigated as a possible matrix for controlled delivery of small water-soluble drugs. Two molecules were selected as sustained release candidates from microspheres: leuprorelin acetate (peptide of Mw = 1270 D) and vitamin B(12) (Mw = 1355 D). First, vitamin B(12)-loaded microspheres were prepared using a double emulsion method and preparation parameters were varied (surfactant in the first emulsion and copolymer composition). The resulting microsphere structure, entrapment efficiency and release rate were evaluated. Vitamin B(12)-loaded microsphere parameters could easily be tailored to achieve specific requirements. The addition of surfactant in the first preparation process led to a significant increase of the microsphere entrapment efficiency, whereas the decrease of the PEGT copolymer content allowed the release rates from microspheres to be precisely decreased. However, leuprorelin acetate-loaded microspheres did not show the same characteristics when prepared with the same parameters, possibly because of a high water solubility discrepancy between the vitamin B(12) and the peptide. This study shows the suitability of PEGT/PBT microspheres as a controlled release system for vitamin B(12), but not for leuprorelin acetate. It also underlines the necessity of tailored development for each individual drug and emphasizes the risk of using model molecules. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. [Characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in fine particles emitted from coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Zi-Zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-Kun; Ye, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Currently, China suffers from serious pollution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Coal-fired power plant is one of the most important sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere. To achieve the national goals of total emission reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) during the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan, most of coal-fired power plants in China have installed or will install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and flue gas denitrification (DNO(x)) systems. As a result, the secondary PM2.5, generated from gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere, would be decreased. However, the physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in flue gas would be affected, and the emission of primary PM2.5 might be increased. This paper summarized the size distributions of PM2.5 and its water soluble ions emitted from coal-fired power plants, and highlighted the effects of FGD and DNO(x) on PM2.5 emission, especially on water soluble ions (such as SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NH4+) in PM2.5. Under the current condition of serious PM2.5 pollution and wide application of FGD and DNO(x), quantitative study on the effects of FGD and DNO(x) installation on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants is of great necessity.

  10. Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kunpeng; Xiao, Yunjie; Wang, Yanyan; Feng, Yaqing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Shuxian; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 μg/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10–30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications. PMID:26976627

  11. Antioxidant and immunological activities of water-soluble polysaccharides from Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Ma, Shuai; Song, Jiayin; Bi, Hongtao; Tao, Yanduo

    2011-11-01

    Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb., one of the earliest recorded toxic species of genus Aconitum, has been used as traditional Chinese medicine and medicinal diet over the last 2500 years to treat heart failure congestion, neuralgia, rheumatism and gout, etc. In the present paper, four water-soluble polysaccharide fractions isolated from the tubers of A. kusnezoffii Reichb. were studied the antioxidant and immunological activities for the first time. In vitro antioxidant assays indicated that fraction WKCP-A had noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, H(2)O(2) and self-oxidation of 1,2,3-phentriol, ferrous ion-chelating ability and reducing power. Moreover, the in vivo immunological assay exhibited that fractions WKCP-A and WKHP could more significantly enhance splenic lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis than other fractions. Therefore, the water-soluble polysaccharides from A. kusnezoffii Reichb., especially WKCP-A, have the potential to be explored as novel natural antioxidants and immunostimulating agents for using in functional foods or medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of snow cover on water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ya; Yang, Wan-Qin; Li, Han; Ni, Xiang-Yin; He, Jie; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal snow cover may change the characteristics of freezing, leaching and freeze-thaw cycles in the scenario of climate change, and then play important roles in the dynamics of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during foliar litter decomposition in the alpine forest. Therefore, a field litterbag experiment was conducted in an alpine forest in western Sichuan, China. The foliar litterbags of typical tree species (birch, cypress, larch and fir) and shrub species (willow and azalea) were placed on the forest floor under different snow cover thickness (deep snow, medium snow, thin snow and no snow). The litterbags were sampled at snow formation stage, snow cover stage and snow melting stage in winter. The results showed that the content of water soluble components from six foliar litters decreased at snow formation stage and snow melting stage, but increased at snow cover stage as litter decomposition proceeded in the winter. Besides the content of organic solvent soluble components from azalea foliar litter increased at snow cover stage, the content of organic solvent soluble components from the other five foliar litters kept a continue decreasing tendency in the winter. Compared with the content of organic solvent soluble components, the content of water soluble components was affected more strongly by snow cover thickness, especially at snow formation stage and snow cover stage. Compared with the thicker snow covers, the thin snow cover promoted the decrease of water soluble component contents from willow and azalea foliar litter and restrain the decrease of water soluble component content from cypress foliar litter. Few changes in the content of water soluble components from birch, fir and larch foliar litter were observed under the different thicknesses of snow cover. The results suggested that the effects of snow cover on the contents of water soluble and organic solvent soluble components during litter decomposition would be controlled by

  13. Enhanced in vitro and in vivo cellular imaging with green tea coated water-soluble iron oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lisong; Mertens, Marianne; Wortmann, Laura; Kremer, Silke; Valldor, Martin; Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Mathur, Sanjay

    2015-04-01

    Fully green and facile redox chemistry involving reduction of colloidal iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) through green tea (GT) polyphenols produced water-soluble Fe3O4 nanocrystals coated with GT extracts namely epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin (EC). Electron donating polyphenols stoichiometrically reduced Fe(3+) ions into Fe(2+) ions resulting in the formation of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and corresponding oxidized products (semiquinones and quinones) that simultaneously served as efficient surface chelators for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles making them dispersible and stable in water, PBS, and cell culture medium for extended time periods. As-formed iron oxide nanoparticles (2.5-6 nm) displayed high crystallinity and saturation magnetization as well as high relaxivity ratios manifested in strong contrast enhancement observed in T2-weighted images. Potential of green tea-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIONs) as superior negative contrast agents was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Primary human macrophages (J774A.1) and colon cancer cells (CT26) were chosen to assess cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of GT-, EGCGq-, and ECq-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which showed high uptake efficiencies by J774A.1 and CT26 cells without any additional transfection agent. Furthermore, the in vivo accumulation characteristics of GT-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were similar to those observed in clinical studies of SPIONs with comparable accumulation in epidermoid cancer-xenograft bearing mice. Given their promising transport and uptake characteristics and new surface chemistry, GT-SPIONs conjugates can be applied for multimodal imaging and therapeutic applications by anchoring further functionalities.

  14. Relationship Between Urinary Concentrations of Nine Water-soluble Vitamins and their Vitamin Intakes in Japanese Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Hirose, Junko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Excess water-soluble vitamins are thought to be eliminated in the urine. We have reported a strong relationship between water-soluble vitamin intake and urinary excretion in females. The relationship, however, is not well understood in males. In the present experiment, 10 Japanese male subjects were given a standard Japanese diet for the first week. The subjects remained on the same diet, and a synthesized water-soluble vitamin mixture containing one time the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Japanese was given for the second week, three times the DRIs for the third week, and six times the DRIs for the fourth week. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected each week. Urinary excretion levels for seven of the nine water-soluble vitamin levels, excluding vitamin B12 and folate, increased linearly and sharply in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that measuring urinary water-soluble vitamins can be good nutritional markers for assessing vitamin intakes in humans. PMID:25210461

  15. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water.

  16. One-step synthesis and antibacterial property of water-soluble silver nanoparticles by CGJ bio-template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zi-Chun; Wu, Qing-Sheng; Chen, Ping; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2011-10-01

    In this article, a new synthetic method of nanoparticles with fresh Chinese gooseberry juice (CGJ) as bio-template was developed. One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble silver nanoparticles at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents and special capping agent was fulfilled with this method. In the process, the products were obtained by adding AgNO3 to CGJ, which was used as reducing agent, capping agent, and the bio-template. The products of silver nanoparticles with diameter of 10-30 nm have strong water solubility and excellent antibiotic function. With the same concentration 0.047 μg mL-1, the antibacterial effect of water-soluble silver particles by fresh CGJ was 53%, whereas only 27% for silver nanoparticles synthesized using the template method of fresh onion inner squama coat (OISC). The excellent water solubility of the products would enable them have better applications in the bio-medical field. The synthetic method would also have potential application in preparing other highly water-soluble particles, because of its simple apparatus, high yield, mild conditions, and facile operation.

  17. Fixed drug eruption associated with intravenous contrast media: report in a woman receiving iohexol.

    PubMed

    Wright, Natalie A; Cohen, Philip R

    2011-07-01

    Fixed drug eruption, a medication-associated mucocutaneous reaction, rarely presents as a delayed adverse reaction to intravenous non-ionic contrast media. We describe a 57-year-old woman with a history of metastatic renal cell carcinoma who repeatedly developed a sharply demarcated, erythematous patch on her left breast after receiving the iodinated non-ionic contrast media iohexol for staging computed tomography scans. Recurrent fixed drug eruption may be avoided by using another contrast medium. Prophylactic treatment with systemic corticosteroids may prevent repeated fixed drug eruption if an alternative contrast agent cannot be used.

  18. Formation mechanisms of water-soluble organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaofeng

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) are abundant in atmospheric aerosols, typically accounting for 20˜80% of particulate organic matter mass. Due to their affinity for water, WSOCs play an active role in aerosol-water interaction, and thus influence hygroscopic properties of aerosols, which in turn affect cloud formation processes and earth's radiation balance. Despite their abundance and significance, the sources of WSOCs are not well understood. Some primary sources (e.g., biomass burning) are known to emit WSOCs. It is also known from smog chamber experiments that photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds lead to less volatile oxygenated compounds that reside in the aerosol phase and are water-soluble because of the presence of polar functional groups. More recent work points to in-cloud/fog processes as a potentially important source for WSOCs. Work in this thesis aims to improve our understanding of the sources and formation mechanisms of WSOCs in atmospheric aerosols. Multiple approaches have been taken, including field measurements and controlled laboratory experiments. The thesis consists of the following four parts: (1) The formation mechanism of the most abundant WSOC species, oxalate, was investigated by synthesizing field measurement data obtained by our group and those available in the literature. Our measurements of aerosol sulfate and oxalate across a wide geographical span in the East Asia region, up to Beijing in the north and down to Hong Kong in the south, indicated that the two species were highly correlated. This good correlation was also found in measurements made elsewhere in the world by other researchers. Through a detailed analysis of factors influencing ambient oxalate, it can be argued that a common dominant formation pathway, likely in-cloud processing, explains the close tracking of the two chemically distinct species. This result also highlights the potential importance of in-cloud processing as a pathway leading to

  19. Determination of the design space of the HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Wagdy, Hebatallah A; Hanafi, Rasha S; El-Nashar, Rasha M; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-06-01

    Analysis of water-soluble vitamins has been tremendously approached through the last decades. A multitude of HPLC methods have been reported with a variety of advantages/shortcomings, yet, the design space of HPLC analysis of these vitamins was not defined in any of these reports. As per the food and drug administration (FDA), implementing the quality by design approach for the analysis of commercially available mixtures is hypothesized to enhance the pharmaceutical industry via facilitating the process of analytical method development and approval. This work illustrates a multifactorial optimization of three measured plus seven calculated influential HPLC parameters on the analysis of a mixture containing seven common water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, C, PABA, and PP). These three measured parameters are gradient time, temperature, and ternary eluent composition (B1/B2) and the seven calculated parameters are flow rate, column length, column internal diameter, dwell volume, extracolumn volume, %B (start), and %B (end). The design is based on 12 experiments in which, examining of the multifactorial effects of these 3 + 7 parameters on the critical resolution and selectivity, was carried out by systematical variation of all these parameters simultaneously. The 12 basic runs were based on two different gradient time each at two different temperatures, repeated at three different ternary eluent compositions (methanol or acetonitrile or a mixture of both). Multidimensional robust regions of high critical R(s) were defined and graphically verified. The optimum method was selected based on the best resolution separation in the shortest run time for a synthetic mixture, followed by application on two pharmaceutical preparations available in the market. The predicted retention times of all peaks were found to be in good match with the virtual ones. In conclusion, the presented report offers an accurate determination of the design space for critical resolution in the

  20. Electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers as a potential oromucosal delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Potrč, Tanja; Baumgartner, Saša; Roškar, Robert; Planinšek, Odon; Lavrič, Zoran; Kristl, Julijana; Kocbek, Petra

    2015-07-30

    The number of poorly water-soluble drug candidates is rapidly increasing; this represents a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. As a consequence, novel formulation approaches are required. Furthermore, if such a drug candidate is intended for the therapy of a specific group of the population, such as geriatric or pediatric, the formulation challenge is even greater, with the need to produce a dosage form that is acceptable for specific patients. Therefore, the goal of our study was to explore electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers as a novel nanodelivery system adopted for the oromucosal administration of poorly water-soluble drugs. The nanofibers were evaluated in comparison with polymer films loaded with ibuprofen or carvedilol as the model drugs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the amount of incorporated drug affects the diameter and the morphology of the nanofibers. The average fiber diameter increased with a higher drug loading, whereas the morphology of the nanofibers was noticeably changed in the case of nanofibers with 50% and 60% ibuprofen. The incorporation of drugs into the electrospun PCL nanofibers was observed to reduce their crystallinity. Based on the morphology of the nanofibers and the films, and the differential scanning calorimetry results obtained in this study, it can be assumed that the drugs incorporated into the nanofibers were partially molecularly dispersed in the PCL matrix and partially in the form of dispersed nanocrystals. The incorporation of both model drugs into the PCL nanofibers significantly improved their dissolution rates. The PCL nanofibers released almost 100% of the incorporated ibuprofen in 4h, whereas only up to 77% of the incorporated carvedilol was released during the same time period, indicating the influence of the drug's properties, such as molecular weight and solubility, on its release from the PCL matrix. The obtained results clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new

  1. [Composition of organic carbon/elemental carbon and water-soluble ions in rice straw burning].

    PubMed

    Hong, Lei; Liu, Gang; Yang, Meng; Xu, Hui; Li, Jiu-hai; Chen, Hui-yu; Huang, Ke; Yang, Wei-zong; Wu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Six types of rice straw were selected in China in this paper, the homemade biomass combustion devices were used to simulate the outdoor burning. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (C) and water-soluble ions in particular matter produced by the flaming and smoldering were analyzed using Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer (Model 2001A) and Ion Chromatography(ISC 2000/ISC 3000). The results showed that the mean value of OC (EFoc) and EC (EFEC) emission factors were (6.37 +/- 1.86) g x kg(-1) and (1.07 +/- 0.30) g x kg(-1) under the flaming conditions, respectively, while under the smoldering conditions the two mean values were (37.63 +/- 6.26) g x kg(-1) and (4.98 x 1.42) g x kg(-1). PM, OC and EC emitted from the same kind of rice straw had similar change trends. The average values of OC/EC under flaming and smoldering were 5.96 and 7.80, and the value of OC/PM was almost unchanged along with the combustion state. Nevertheless, the values of EC/PM under flaming and smoldering were 0.06-0.08 and 0.08-0.11, respectively. The trend of combustion state could be determined using the ratio of EC/PM and the RZ of emitted OC and EC through those two types of combustion reached 0. 97, which was significantly correlated at the 0. 01 level. Among the anions, Cl- showed the highest concentration, the results indicated that the average value of of Cl- emission factor was (0.246 +/- 0.150) g x kg(-1) under flaming, while it was (0.301 +/- 0.274) g x kg(-1) under smoldering. However, A big difference between flaming and smoldering was found in the average value of K+ emission factor, where (0.118 +/- 0.051) g x kg(-1) of the former was significantly higher than the latter (0.053 +/- 0.031) g x kg(-1). When it came to Na, the result of smoldering was significantly higher than that of flaming. The correlation between water-soluble ions in flaming was more significant than smoldering. Rice straw burning could be distinguished from fossil fuels and some other

  2. Novel branched poly(ethylenimine)-cholesterol water-soluble lipopolymers for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-an; Narang, Ajit S; Kotb, Malak; Gaber, A Osama; Miller, Duane D; Kim, Sung Wan; Mahato, Ram I

    2002-01-01

    A novel water-soluble lipopolymer was synthesized by linking cholesteryl chloroformate to the secondary amino groups of branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) of 1,800 and 10,000 Da. Conjugation through PEI secondary amines gives this newly synthesized lipopolymer (abbreviated as PEI-Chol) special advantage over our previously synthesized lipopolymers, which utilized the primary amino groups for conjugation, as the primary amino groups have a significant role in DNA condensation. Also, significantly, only one cholesterol molecule was grafted onto each PEI molecule (confirmed by (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry), leaving enough space for the steric interactions of the PEI's primary amines with the DNA. The PEI-Chol lipopolymer was characterized for the critical micellar concentration (cmc), buffer capacity, DNA condensation (by band retardation and circular dichroism), in vitro transfection efficiency, and cell viability. The cmcs of PEI-Chol 1,800 and PEI-Chol 10,000 were 496.6 and 1,330.5 microg/mL, respectively. The acid-base titration indicated high buffering capacity of the polymers around the pH range of 5-7, which indicated their potential for buffering in the acidic pH environment of the endosomes. The band retardation studies indicated that efficient condensation of the plasmid DNA could be achieved using these lipopolymers. The circular dichroism spectra indicated a change in DNA conformation and adoption of lower energy state upon condensation with these lipopolymers when an N/P ratio of 2.5/1 or above was formulated. The mean particle size of these complexes was in the range 110-205 nm, except for the complexes prepared using PEI of 1,800 Da, which had a mean particle size of 384 +/- 300 nm. The zeta potential of DNA complexes prepared using PEI-Chol 1,800, PEI-Chol 10,000 and PEI of 1,800, 10,000, and 25,000 Da at an N/P ratio of 15/1 was in the range 23-30 mV and was dependent on the N/P ratios. The in vitro transfection of PEI

  3. Phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs for water-soluble and biocompatible nature through silanization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Guangjun

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm) via silanization. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of ligand exchange plays an important role to retain high fluorescence quantum yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs. -- Abstract: A novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). The silanization of the QDs was carried out by using partially hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to replace organic ammine or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide on the surface of the QDs. The partially hydrolyzed 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane attached to the hydrolyzed TEOS layer on the QDs prevented the QDs from agglomeration when the QDs were transferred into water. The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs exhibited the same absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as those of initial QDs in organic solvents. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs preserved PL intensities, is colloidally stable over a wide pH range (pH 6-11). Because the mean diameter of amphiphilic polymer-coated QDs was almost 2 times of that of functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs, the QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs.

  4. Characteristics of the water-soluble components of aerosol particles in Hefei, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xue-Liang; Shi, Chun-E; Wu, Bi-Wen; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Jin, Qi; Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhu, Song; Yu, Caixia

    2016-04-01

    Size-classified daily aerosol mass concentrations and concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were measured in Hefei, China, in four representative months between September 2012 and August 2013. An annual average mass concentration of 169.09 μg/m(3) for total suspended particulate (TSP) was measured using an Andersen Mark-II cascade impactor. The seasonal average mass concentration was highest in winter (234.73 μg/m(3)) and lowest in summer (91.71 μg/m(3)). Water-soluble ions accounted for 59.49%, 32.90%, 48.62% and 37.08% of the aerosol mass concentration in winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively, which indicated that ionic species were the primary constituents of the atmospheric aerosols. The four most abundant ions were NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+) and NH4(+). With the exception of Ca(2+), the mass concentrations of water-soluble ions were in an intermediate range compared with the levels for other Chinese cities. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant fine-particle species, which were bimodally distributed in spring, summer and fall; however, the size distribution became unimodal in winter, with a peak at 1.1-2.1 μm. The Ca(2+) peak occurred at approximately 4.7-5.8 μm in all seasons. The cation to anion ratio was close to 1.4, which suggested that the aerosol particles were alkalescent in Hefei. The average NO3(-)/SO4(2-) mass ratio was 1.10 in Hefei, which indicated that mobile source emissions were predominant. Significant positive correlation coefficients between the concentrations of NH4(+) and SO4(2-), NH4(+) and NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NO3(-), and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were also indicated, suggesting that aerosol particles may be present as (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, and NH4NO3. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Speciation and water soluble fraction of iron in aerosols from various sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient and has been identified as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. In the North Pacific, three sources of iron (Fe) transported via. atmosphere can be suggested: (i) mineral dust from East Asia, (ii) anthropogenic Fe, and (iii) aerosols from volcanic origin. Considering these different sources, Fe can be found and transported in a variety of chemical forms, both water-soluble and -insoluble. It is generally believed that only the soluble fraction of Fe can be considered as bioavailable for phytoplankton. To assess the biogeochemical impact of the atmospheric input, attempt was made to determine Fe species by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its water solubility, in particular to compare the three sources. Iron species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentration in aerosol collected at Tsukuba (Japan) through a year were investigated to compare the contributions of mineral dust and anthropogenic components. It was found that the concentration of soluble Fe in aerosol is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate which originate from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. XAS analysis showed that main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba were illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III) sulfate. Moreover, soluble Fe fraction is closely correlated with that of Fe(III) sulfate. In spite of supply of high concentrations of Fe in mineral dust from East Asia, it was found that anthropogenic fraction is important due to its high water solubility by the presence of Fe(III) sulfate. Marine aerosol samples originated from volcanic ash were collected in the western North Pacific during KH-08-2 cruise (August, 2008). XAS analysis suggested that Fe species of volcanic ashes changed during the long-range transport, while dissolution experiment showed that Fe solubility of the marine aerosol is larger than

  6. Microemulsions as drug delivery systems to improve the solubility and the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    He, Cai-Xia; He, Zhong-Gui; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2010-04-01

    Microemulsions have been studied extensively as potential drug delivery vehicles for poorly water-soluble drugs. An understanding of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics of the microemulsions according to administration routes will provide guidance for designing the formulations of microemulsions. In this paper, the use and the characteristics of microemulsions as drug delivery vehicles are reviewed. As the formulations of the microemulsion always include a great amount of surfactant and co-surfactant, which may cause hemolysis or histopathological alterations of the tissue, the potential toxicity or the irritancy of microemulsions is also discussed in this paper. Developments of microemulsions for poorly water-soluble drugs in recent years are included in this review. Several factors limiting the commercial or clinical use of microemulsions are also discussed. Considering the potential in enhanced drug uptake/permeation and facing the limitations, their unique properties make microemulsions a promising vehicle for poorly water-soluble drugs.

  7. A novel simple technique for en face endothelial observations using water-soluble media –‘thinned-wall’ preparations

    PubMed Central

    Jelev, L; Surchev, L

    2008-01-01

    A new, easily applicable technique providing en face preparations for light microscopy observations of the rat aorta and human thin wall arteries is described here. The major steps of the technique include attachment of the fixed and flattened vessel with the endothelium face down on a glass slide, covered with a water-soluble adhesive medium; drying and softening the vessel wall with another water-soluble medium; removal of the adventitia and most of the media; detaching the layer by placing the glass slide in water; and final attachment of the layer with the endothelium upwards. On such ‘thinned-wall’ preparations, 40–50 µm in thickness, the stained endothelial cells are clearly visible. Because of the preparation thickness and the use of water-soluble media during the preparation, some subendothelial lipid accumulations, characteristic of the early stages of atherosclerosis process, are well preserved. PMID:18086131

  8. Chemical Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Particulate Matter in Three Metropolitan Areas in the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Yibing; Teng, Enjiang; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected simultaneously in each season in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang to identify the characteristics of water-soluble ion compositions in the North China Plain. The water-soluble ions displayed significant seasonal variation. The dominant ions were NO3−, SO42−, NH4+ and Cl−, accounting for more than 90% and 86% to the mass of total water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The anion/cation ratio indicated that the ion acidity of each city varied both between sites and seasonally. Over 50% of the ion species were enriched in small particles ≤1 µm in diameter. The [NO3−]/[SO42−] ratio indicated that vehicles accounted for the majority of the particulate pollution in Beijing. Shijiazhuang, a city highly reliant on coal combustion, had a higher SO42− concentration. PMID:25437210

  9. Chemical characteristics of water-soluble ions in particulate matter in three metropolitan areas in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Dao, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Yibing; Teng, Enjiang; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected simultaneously in each season in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang to identify the characteristics of water-soluble ion compositions in the North China Plain. The water-soluble ions displayed significant seasonal variation. The dominant ions were NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+) and Cl(-), accounting for more than 90% and 86% to the mass of total water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The anion/cation ratio indicated that the ion acidity of each city varied both between sites and seasonally. Over 50% of the ion species were enriched in small particles ≤1 µm in diameter. The [NO3(-)]/[SO4(2-)] ratio indicated that vehicles accounted for the majority of the particulate pollution in Beijing. Shijiazhuang, a city highly reliant on coal combustion, had a higher SO4(2-) concentration.

  10. Application of mineral bed materials during fast pyrolysis of rice husk to improve water-soluble organics production.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Zhong, Z P; Jin, B S; Zheng, A J

    2012-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed in a spout-fluid bed to produce water-soluble organics. The effects of mineral bed materials (red brick, calcite, limestone, and dolomite) on yield and quality of organics were evaluated with the help of principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to quartz sand, red brick, limestone, and dolomite increased the yield of the water-soluble organics by 6-55% and the heating value by 16-19%. The relative content of acetic acid was reduced by 23-43% with calcite, limestone and dolomite when compared with quartz sand. The results from PCA showed all minerals enhanced the ring-opening reactions of cellulose into furans and carbonyl compounds rather than into monomeric sugars. Moreover, calcite, limestone, and dolomite displayed the ability to catalyze the degradation of heavy compounds and the demethoxylation reaction of guaiacols into phenols. Minerals, especially limestone and dolomite, were beneficial to the production of water-soluble organics.

  11. Removal of chromium from aqueous solution by complexation-ultrafiltration using a water-soluble macroligand.

    PubMed

    Aliane, A; Bounatiro, N; Cherif, A T; Akretche, D E

    2001-06-01

    A process for purifying waste waters containing heavy and toxic metal such as chromium has been studied. A batch complexation-ultrafiltration process was used to concentrate and recover chromium from sulphate solution. As the chromium ions are too small to be retained by the filter, they are first complexed with a water-soluble macroligand (polyethylene-imine). Factors affecting the rejection rate and permeate flux such as pH, concentration ligand, chloride and sulphate concentration, membrane pore size, applied pressure and extraction factor were investigated. Best operating conditions can be obtained in order to achieve high levels of removal (> 95%). Then, decomplexation is obtained so that metal can be separated from macroligand by a second ultrafiltration plant to reuse the macroligand.

  12. Incorporation of metabolically stable ketones into a small molecule probe to increase potency and water solubility.

    PubMed

    Larraufie, Marie-Helene; Yang, Wan Seok; Jiang, Elise; Thomas, Ajit G; Slusher, Barbara S; Stockwell, Brent R

    2015-11-01

    Introducing a reactive carbonyl to a scaffold that does not otherwise have an electrophilic functionality to create a reversible covalent inhibitor is a potentially useful strategy for enhancing compound potency. However, aldehydes are metabolically unstable, which precludes the use of this strategy for compounds to be tested in animal models or in human clinical studies. To overcome this limitation, we designed ketone-based functionalities capable of forming reversible covalent adducts, while displaying high metabolic stability, and imparting improved water solubility to their pendant scaffold. We tested this strategy on the ferroptosis inducer and experimental therapeutic erastin, and observed substantial increases in compound potency. In particular, a new carbonyl erastin analog, termed IKE, displayed improved potency, solubility and metabolic stability, thus representing an ideal candidate for future in vivo cancer therapeutic applications.

  13. Synthesis, fluorescence-sensing and molecular logic of two water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Nikolai I.; Dimitrova, Margarita D.; Mavrova, Anelia Ts.; Bojinov, Vladimir B.

    2017-08-01

    Two novel highly water-soluble fluorescence sensing 1,8-naphthalimides are synthesized and investigated. The novel compounds are designed on the ;fluorophore-receptor1-spacer-receptor2; model as a molecular fluorescence probe for determination of cations and anions in 100% aqueous media. The novel probes comprising N-imide and N-phenylpiperazine or morpholine substituents are capable to operate simultaneously via ICT and PET signaling mechanism as a function of pH and to recognize selectively Cu2 + and Hg2 + over the other representative metal ions. Due to the remarkable fluorescence changes in the presence of protons, hydroxyl anions, Hg2 + and Cu2 +, INH and doubly disabled INH logic gates are executed and the systems are able to act as a single output combinatorial logic circuit with four chemical inputs.

  14. Water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with high stability and selective surface functionality.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaolin; Qin, Ying; Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Bao, Yuping

    2011-07-19

    The water dispensability and stability of high quality iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized in organic solvents are major issues for biomedical and biological applications. In this paper, a versatile approach for preparing water-soluble iron oxide nanoparticles with great stability and selective surface functionality (-COOH, -NH(2), or -SH) was demonstrated. The hydrophobic nanoparticles were first synthesized by the thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex in organic solvent. Subsequently, the hydrophobic coatings of nanoparticles were replaced with poly(acrylic acid) , polyethylenimine, or glutathione, yielding charged nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Two parameters were found to be critical for obtaining highly stable nanoparticle dispersions: the original coating and the surfactant-to-nanoparticle ratio. These charged nanoparticles exhibited different stabilities in biological buffers, which were directly influenced by the surface coatings. This report will provide significant practical value in exploring the biological or biomedical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Detection of a Water Soluble Component of the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Cody, G.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, K.; Zolensky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a highly carbonaceous meteorite, with a carbon content of approximately 5% by weight [1]. Its composition and mineralogy suggest it lies between a CI1 and CM2 chondrite [2]. Part of the meteorite [the pristine fraction] was collected from the ice on Tagish Lake within one week of its landfall on Jan. 18, 2000 and this sample is considered to be the most pristine meteorite samples collected to date with regard to organic terrestrial contamination. It has been reported that only 100 ppm of the organic matter in the Tagish Lake meteorite is water soluble [3]. greater absorbance in the sigma bonding region between 290-300 eV suggesting that the soluble material contains more CH/CH2/CH3 bonds than the microtomed piece.

  16. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications.

  17. Investigation of Water-Soluble X-ray Luminescence Nanoparticles for Photodynamic Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanfang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shaopeng; Joly, Alan G.

    2008-01-28

    In this letter, we report the synthesis of LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP (meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine) nanoparticle conjugates and investigate the energy transfer as well as singlet oxygen generation following X-ray irradiation. Our observations indicate that LaF3:Tb3+-MTCP nanoparticle conjugates are efficient photodynamic agents that can be initiated by X-rays at a reasonably low dose. The addition of folic acid to facilitate targeting to folate receptors on tumor cells has no effect on the quantum yield of singlet oxygen in the nanoparticle-MTCP conjugates. Our pilot studies indicate that water-soluble scintillation nanoparticles can be potentially used to activate photodynamic therapy as a promising deep cancer treatment.

  18. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2015-06-02

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  19. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2017-08-08

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  20. Tribology and Removal Rate Characteristics of Chemical Mechanical Planarization Pads Containing Water Soluble Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charns, L.; Philipossian, A.

    2006-07-01

    Novel non-porous pads incorporating different amounts of embedded water soluble particles (WSP) have been characterized and compared to a conventional porous pad for interlayer dielectric (ILD) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) applications. Removal rate results indicated that polishing with WSP pads was Prestonian in nature (similar to conventional porous pads). A decrease in removal rate at high combinations of pressure and velocity was observed during in-situ conditioning with WSP pads. This anomalous behavior was most likely due to the alternatively feeding and starving the wafer of slurry during in-situ conditioning since doubling the flow rate resolved the problem. The anomalous behavior, however, was not observed when conditioning was performed ex-situ. Frictional analysis indicated that polishing with WSP pads proceeded via boundary lubrication like the other porous pads with concentrically grooved surface geometries.

  1. [Distribution of biological particles in two-phase systems of water soluble polymers and salts].

    PubMed

    Kononova, O A; Gorovaia, T B; Tiutiunnikov, A V; Prokhorova, N V; Tarasevich, I V; Khramov, E N

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the problems of purification of Provachek's rickettsias used to prepare typhus vaccines and diagnostic kits. The currently available agents contain many admixtures of rickettsias products, more commonly yolk and chick embryo yolk sack cell detritus, which make it impossible to determine the true antigenic properties of rickettsias in the context of protection and diagnosis. By applying the well-known principle of distribution of biological particles in the two-phase systems of water soluble polymers, investigations were made to examine the distribution of rickettsias and their infected biological mass in the system: polyethylene glycol-6600, sodium-500 dextran sulfate, potassium phosphate, sodium chloride in order to prepare agents of pure rickettsias. It has been found that rickettsias are distributed in the polymer-enriched phase, their number and the degree of purity when isolated from the infected biological mass depends on the capacity of an interphase wherein tissue detritus sorption occurs.

  2. [Water-soluble galactomannan from the seeds of Lotus corniculatus L.: structure and properties].

    PubMed

    Egorov, A V; Mestechkina, N M; Plennik, R Ia; Shcherbukhin, V D

    2003-01-01

    Galactomannan, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, was isolated from the seed of Far-Eastern population of ground honeysuckle Lotus corniculatus L. (yield, 1.65%). Analysis of this galactomannan showed that is consists of D-mannose and D-galactose residues (molar ratio, 1.22:1). Its aqueous solutions were characterized by specific rotation [alpha]D = +84.10 and characteristic viscosity [eta] = 559 ml/g. Analysis of this heteropolysaccharide using chemical and enzymatic procedures, as well as IR- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, showed that its main chain comprises 1,4-beta-D-mannopyranose residues, 95.5% of which are substituted at C-6 with single residues of alpha-D-galactopyranose.

  3. Water-soluble Pd nanoparticles capped with glutathione: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sachil; Kim, Bit; Lee, Dongil

    2012-11-13

    The synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties of water-soluble Pd nanoparticles capped with glutathione are described. The glutathione-capped Pd nanoparticles were synthesized under argon and air atmospheres at room temperature. Whereas the former exhibits a bulklike lattice parameter, the lattice parameter of the latter is found to be considerably greater, indicating anomalous lattice expansion. Comparative structural and compositional studies of these nanoparticles suggest the presence of oxygen in the core lattice when Pd nanoparticles are prepared under an air atmosphere. Both Pd nanoparticles prepared under argon and air show ferromagnetism at 5 K, but the latter exhibits significantly greater coercivity (88 Oe) and magnetization (0.09 emu/g at 50 kOe). The enhanced ferromagnetic properties are explained by the electronic effect of the incorporated oxygen that increases the 4d density of holes at the Pd site and localizes magnetic moments.

  4. Influence of water soluble carbon dots on the growth of wheat plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shweta; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of water soluble carbon nano-dots (wsCND) on the growth of root and shoot of wheat plants under light and dark conditions has been studied. The wsCND enhances the growth of root and shoot both in light and dark conditions. The effect of wsCND on the growth of root was relatively more compared to that of shoot. Scanning electron and Fluorescence microscopic analysis show that wsCNDs enter inside the plant. Raman spectroscopy also confirms this. The present study shows that wsCNDs are non-toxic to the wheat plant and can be used to enhance the production of this cereal crop.

  5. Antibacterial activity of water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-Cai; He, Qiang; Sun, Qun; Zhong, Kai; Gao, Hong

    2012-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara (WEC) was evaluated on five food-borne bacteria, and its related mechanism was investigated by transmission electron microscope. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that WEC possesses a remarkable antibacterial activity against tested food-borne bacteria including Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values in the ranges of 0.78-12.5 mg/ml and 1.56-25mg/ml, respectively. In a food system of fresh-squeezed tomato juice, WEC was observed to possess an effective capacity to control the total counts of viable bacteria. Shikimic acid was isolated from WEC and identified as the main antibacterial compound. All results of our study suggested that WEC might be a new potential source of natural antibacterial agents applicable to food.

  6. Field and laboratory studies of reactions between atmospheric water soluble organic acids and inorganic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel; Shilling, John; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  7. Levels of water-soluble vitamins in methanogenic and non-methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The levels of seven water-soluble vitamins in Methanobacterium thermoautotropicum, Methanococcus voltae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtillis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were compared by using a vitamin-requiring Leuconostoc strain. Both methanogens contained levels of folic acid and pantothenic acid which were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum contained levels of thiamine, biotin, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine which were approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. The thiamine level in Methanococcus voltae was approximately one order of magnitude lower than levels in the nonmethanogens. Only the levels of riboflavin (and nicotinic acid and pyridoxine in Methanococcus voltae) were approximately equal in the methanogens and nonmethanogens. Folic acid may have been present in extracts of methanogens merely as a precursor, by-product, or hydrolysis product of methanopterin.

  8. Dynamic light scattering studies on adsorption of water-soluble associative polymers on colloidal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ou-Yang, H.D.; Gao, Z.; Dewalt, L.

    1993-12-31

    Water-soluble associative polymers (AP) are widely used in latex paint as thickeners. Aside from networking, AP has the ability to form bridging between latex particles. The interest here is to understand the bridging phenomena in detail using dynamic light scattering. The authors use PEO chains capped symmetrically on both ends with C{sub 16}H{sub 33} or C{sub 20}H{sub 41} hydrophobes in aqueous polystyrene latex suspensions. Below the onset of bridging flocculation, transient latex pairs can exist during which rapid chain transfer between colloidal surfaces can be observed. This paper will address the kinetics of this chain transfer as a function of temperature. At high AP concentrations, non-equilibrium states of the absorbed chain can occur because chain transfer is prevented by dense polymeric brush formed on the colloidal surface and separation of polydisperse AP can be achieved.

  9. Substituent Effects on Xenon Binding Affinity and Solution Behavior of Water-Soluble Cryptophanes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, P. Aru; Wei, Qian; Troxler, Thomas; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2009-01-01

    A water-soluble triacetic acid cryptophane-A derivative (TAAC) was synthesized and determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence quenching assay to have a xenon association constant of 33,000 M−1 at 293 K, which is the largest value measured for any host molecule to date. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of TAAC in the presence of varying amounts of xenon indicated static quenching by the encapsulated xenon and the presence of a second non-xenon-binding conformer in solution. Acid-base titrations and aqueous NMR spectroscopy of TAAC and a previously synthesized tri-(triazole propionic acid) cryptophane-A derivative (TTPC) showed how solvation of the carboxylate anions can affect the aqueous behavior of the large, nonpolar cryptophane. Specifically, whereas only the crown-crown (CC) conformer of TTPC was observed, a crown-saddle (CS) conformer of TAAC was also detected in aqueous solution. PMID:19239271

  10. Au nanorods modulated NIR fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation of water soluble dendritic zinc phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefei; He, Xiaohong; Wei, Shiliang; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-11-15

    A novel cyano-terminated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-CN) exhibiting visible near infrared (vis-NIR) emitting around 690nm in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent has been synthesized. Furthermore, the peripheral cyano groups of newly synthesized zinc phthalocyanine were hydrolyzed in strong basic solution, leading to water soluble carboxylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-COOH) with completely quenched fluorescence in aqueous solution. Interestingly, we found that the NIR fluorescence of aqueous ZnPc-COOH was dramatically recovered in the presence of gold nanorods (Au NR), which was due to the alternation of ZnPc-COOH molecules self-assembling via electrostatic interaction between cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the surface of Au NR and peripheral carboxyl of ZnPc-COOH. In addition, ZnPc-COOH/Au NR conjugates demonstrated an improved singlet oxygen generation, which could be served as potential bioimaging probe and photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of highly water-soluble graphene towards electrical DNA sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Park, Hoseok; Yang, Min Ho; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Park, Tae Jung

    2010-12-01

    Graphene sheets have the potential for practical applications in electrochemical devices, but their development has been impeded by critical problems with aggregation of graphene sheets. Here, we demonstrated a facile and bottom-up approach for fabrication of DNA sensor device using water-soluble sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) sheets via microwave-assisted sulfonation (MAS), showing enhanced sensitivity, reliability, and low detection limit. Key to achieving these performances is the fabrication of the SRGOs, where the MAS method enabled SRGOs to be highly dispersed in water (10 mg mL-1) due to the acidic sulfonated groups generated within 3 min of the functionalization reaction. The water-soluble SRGO-DNA (SRGOD) hybrids prepared by electrostatic interactions between a flat single layer of graphene sheets and DNAs are suitable for fabrication of electrical DNA sensor devices because of the unique electrical characteristics of SRGODs. The high sensing performance of SRGOD sensors was demonstrated with detection ofDNA hybridization using complementary DNAs, single base mismatched DNAs, and noncomplementary DNAs, with results showing higher sensitivity and lower detection limit than those of reduced graphene oxide-based DNA sensors. Simple and easy fabrication of DNA sensor devices using SRGODs is expected to provide an effective way for electrical detection ofDNA hybridization using miniature sensors without the labor-intensive labeling of the sensor and complex measurement equipment.Graphene sheets have the potential for practical applications in electrochemical devices, but their development has been impeded by critical problems with aggregation of graphene sheets. Here, we demonstrated a facile and bottom-up approach for fabrication of DNA sensor device using water-soluble sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) sheets via microwave-assisted sulfonation (MAS), showing enhanced sensitivity, reliability, and low detection limit. Key to achieving these

  12. Micromolar colorimetric detection of 2-hydroxy ketones with the water-soluble tetrazolium WST-1.

    PubMed

    Bommer, Martin; Ward, John M

    2016-01-15

    The archetypal triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (tetrazolium red) has been used in spectrophotometric microplate assays for 2-hydroxy ketones and, by extension, for the activity of enzymes including aminotransferase, transketolase, and pyruvate decarboxylase. Better sensitivity, dynamic range, and reproducibility of this method may be achieved by (i) in situ solubilization of the colored formazan with Cremophor EL and (ii) use of the newer-generation tetrazolium salts tetrazolium violet, iodonitrotetrazolium, or WST-1 (water-soluble tetrazolium). Two to 125 μM hydroxy pyruvate, dihydroxy acetone, and indole pyruvate produced by serine:pyruvate, β-alanine (ω-amino acid):pyruvate, and aromatic amino acid aminotransferase, respectively, could be detected with WST-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro interactions of water-soluble garlic components with human cytochromes p450.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, David J; Leigh-Pemberton, Richard A; von Moltke, Lisa L

    2006-03-01

    Eight water-soluble components of aged garlic extract were evaluated to assess their potential to inhibit the activity of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes. The in vitro model consisted of human liver microsomes with index reactions chosen to profile the activity of the following six CYP isoforms: CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. With only 2 exceptions, none of the 8 garlic components produced >50% inhibition even at high concentrations (100 micromol/L). S-methyl-L-cysteine and S-allyl-L-cysteine at 100 micromol/L produced modest inhibition of CYP3A, reducing activity to 20-40% of control. However available clinical evidence does not indicate CYP3A inhibition in vivo. The findings suggest that drug interactions involving inhibition of CYP3A enzymes by aged garlic extract are very unlikely.

  14. Development and characterization of nanoparticulate formulation of a water soluble prodrug of dexamethasone by HIP complexation

    PubMed Central

    Gaudana, Ripal; Parenky, Ashwin; Vaishya, Ravi; Samanta, Swapan K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a nanoparticulate-based sustained release formulation of a water soluble dipeptide prodrug of dexamethasone, valine–valine-dexamethasone (VVD). Being hydrophilic in nature, it readily leaches out in the external aqueous medium and hence partitions poorly into the polymeric matrix resulting in minimal entrapment in nanoparticles. Hence, hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) complexation of the prodrug was employed with dextran sulphate as a complexing polymer. A novel, solid in oil in water emulsion method was employed to encapsulate the prodrug in HIP complex form in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) matrix. Nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, crystallinity of entrapped drug and surface morphology. A significant enhancement in the entrapment of the prodrug in nanoparticles was achieved. Finally, a simple yet novel method was developed which can also be applicable to encapsulate other charged hydrophilic molecules, such as peptides and proteins. PMID:20939702

  15. Water-soluble noncovalently engineered graphene-neutral red nanocomposite with photocurrent generating capacity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaojun; Li, Zhi; Ge, Xueping; Yang, Cunzhong; Fang, Bin; Wei, Jianjun; Xie, Haifen; Zhang, Kunlong; An, Xingcai; Qin, Chuan

    2012-03-01

    We report a graphene-based nanocomposite prepared by noncovalently engineering reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with neutral red (NR). The water-soluble reduced graphene nanocomposite (rGO-NR) was well characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and 1HNMR spectroscopy; the results suggest a strong pi-pi interaction between the rGO and NR molecules. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electrochemistry studies indicate a direct electron transfer interaction among the graphene-NR hybrid, in which NR is electron donor and graphene is electron acceptor. The photocurrent generating property of this nanocomposite was confirmed from the photoelectrochemical measurements. The graphene-NR coated electrodes are capable of generating photocurrent under visible excitation. Such photocurrent generating nanocomposite provides potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  16. A Novel Copper(II) Sensor Based on a Unique Water-soluble Porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Fei, Qiang; Shan, Hongyan; Huan, Yanfu; Zhang, Zhiquan; Mi, Hongyu; Xu, Hui; Li, Guanghua; Chen, Fei; Feng, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    A unique water-soluble porphyrin [5,10,15,20-tetra(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-5-sulfonate)phenyl porphyrin, H2TEHPPS] was designed and synthesized, which could be used as a potential sensor for the determination of Cu(2+). Studies were performed in the solution. The concentration of H2TEHPPS was 5 μmol L(-1). The optical properties of H2TEHPPS were investigated based on the absorption spectra. The results show that the absorbance of H2TEHPPS at 417 nm is directly proportional to the concentration of Cu(2+) in the range of 0 - 2.5 μmol L(-1). H2TEHPPS can thus be used as a novel class of Cu(2+) sensors.

  17. Selectivity of water-soluble proteins in single-walled carbon nanotube dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Koji; Saito, Takeshi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ohshima, Satoshi; Yumura, Motoo; Iijima, Sumio

    2006-10-01

    Proteins were screened by preparing dispersions of SWNTs to investigate the driving force of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) of mean diameter 1 nm and water-soluble proteins. Egg white lysozyme (LYS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) dispersed SWNTs, whereas papain and pepsin could not. Far-UV circular dichroism spectra indicated that the LYS and BSA molecules that coat SWNT surfaces were partially denatured. From the amino acid composition, we ascribed the main driving force to the hydrophobic interactions between the side-wall of the SWNT and the inner hydrophobic domain exposed to the solvent during the three-dimensional change of the protein induced by sonication.

  18. Structure analysis of water-soluble polysaccharide CPPS3 isolated from Codonopsis pilosula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-jun; Zhang, Li-xia; Yang, Jing-feng; Liang, Zhong-yan

    2010-04-01

    Codonopsis pilosula is a perennial species of flowering plants propagated in Northeast Asia. A water-soluble polysaccharide, CPPS(3), was extracted from the root of Codonopsis pilosula by boiled water extraction and ethanol precipitation. The molecular weight was estimated to be 7.4 x 10(4) Da determined by using Gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide composition and the structure of the polysaccharide were determined by gas spectroscopy, Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy and some chemical method analysis was made. The components were galactose, arabinose and rhamnose in the molar ratio of 1.13:1.12:1. The main chain of CPPS(3) is illustrated to be (1-->3)-linked-beta-GalpNAc, (1-->3)-linked-alpha-Rhap and (1-->2,3)-beta-Galp.

  19. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug☆

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Results Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Conclusions Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. PMID:25172764

  20. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.